Science.gov

Sample records for france uraniferous basin

  1. Zinc and Its Isotopes in the Loire River Basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millot, R.; Desaulty, A. M.; Bourrain, X.

    2014-12-01

    The contribution of human activities such as industries, agriculture and domestic inputs, becomes more and more significant in the chemical composition of the dissolved load of rivers. Human factors act as a supplementary key process. Therefore the mass-balance for the budget of catchments and river basins include anthropogenic disturbances. The Loire River in central France is approximately 1010 km long and drains an area of 117,800 km2. In the upper basin, the bedrock is old plutonic rock overlain by much younger volcanic rocks. The intermediate basin includes three major tributaries flowing into the Loire River from the left bank: the Cher, the Indre and the Vienne rivers; the main stream flows westward and its valley stretches toward the Atlantic Ocean. Here, the Loire River drains the sedimentary series of the Paris Basin, mainly carbonate deposits. The lower Loire basin drains pre-Mesozoic basement of the Armorican Massif and its overlying Mesozoic to Cenozoic sedimentary deposits. The Loire River is one of the main European riverine inputs to the Atlantic ocean. Here we are reporting concentration and isotope data for Zn in river waters and suspended sediments from the Loire River Basin. In addition, we also report concentration and isotope data for the different industrial sources within the Loire Basin, as well as data for biota samples such as mussels and oysters from the Bay of Biscay and North Brittany. These organisms are known to be natural accumulators of metal pollutants. Zinc isotopic compositions are rather homogeneous in river waters with δ66Zn values ranging from 0.21 to 0.39‰. This range of variation is very different from anthropogenic signature (industrial and/or agriculture release) that displays δ66Zn values between 0.02 to 0.14‰. This result is in agreement with a geogenic origin and the low Zn concentrations in the Loire River Basin (from 0.8 to 6 µg/L).

  2. Coalbed methane exploration in the Lorraine Basin, France

    SciTech Connect

    Michaud, B.; Briens, F.; Girdler, D.

    1995-08-01

    DuPont Conoco Hydrocarbures has been involved in a Coalbed Methane (CBM) project in France since 1991. Coalbed methane exploration differs noticeably in several aspects from conventional oil and gas exploration. This paper is divided in three parts and discusses some geological, reservoir and drilling considerations relevant to the exploration and appraisal of a coalbed methane prospect. The first part presents geological issues such as data collection and evaluation of its associated value, building expertise to create a geological and geophysical model integrating the work of a multidisciplinary team, and assessing uncertainties of the data interpretation. A short review of the basin activity, geological and tectonic setting, and environment aspects is presented in order to illustrate some CBM exploration issues. The second part describes a comprehensive coalbed methane reservoir data acquisition program incorporating coal sample optical and chemical analyses, gas sample chromatography, canister desorption, fracture density of coal cores, and measurement of in-situ coal permeability and bounding-strata stress. Field practical concerns are then discussed such as on-site and off-site canister desorption, gas sample collection, rapid estimation of gas content, ash content, total bed moisture, and finally well testing alternatives for permeability and rock stress determination. The third part reviews drilling issues such as drilling and coring options for core hole size and casing size, rig site equipment requirements for continuous coring operations, including mud treatment equipment, core handling material and core work stations, alliance of national and foreign drilling contractors to optimize equipment and experience, and finally overview of coring procedures to identify best practices for pending operations. The paper is derived from Conoco`s experience in CBM exploration in the Lorraine Basin, North East of France.

  3. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Paris Basin, France, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phoung A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers, Heidi M.

    2015-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 222 million barrels of unconventional oil; 2,092 billion cubic feet of unconventional gas; 18 million barrels of conventional oil; and 47 billion cubic feet of conventional gas resources in the Paris Basin of France.

  4. The North Pyrenean Aquitaine Basin, France: Evolution and hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Bourrouilh, R.; Richert, J.P.; Zolnaie, G.

    1995-06-01

    The Mesozoic-Tertiary Aquitaine basin overlaps the Aquitaine block and the northern edge of the Iberian margin. Both units are situated in the southwesternmost part of the European Continent. The Aquitaine shelf is a stable platform overlying a relatively thin crustal segment; it underwent extensional block faulting and many of its folded structures are related to salt tectonism. The Iberian block is a thicker lithospheric unit that acted as a buttress. At the junction of these two structural domains the South Aquitaine or North Pyrenean area developed, where crustal stretching, rifting, wrenching, and orogenic compression were maximal from the Mesozoic to the Tertiary. The history of the basin has been a suite of rifting attempts, in the context of the progressive opening of the Bay of Biscay, which never completely succeeded. The relative plate motions and the later convergence led, nevertheless, to the formation of the Aquitaine basin and to the emergence of the Pyrenean fold belt. The Mesozoic-Tertiary sedimentary infill of the basin is mostly marine, with thick evaporates, stable platform carbonates, subsiding platform shaly-calcareous deposits, and a characteristic, diachronous turbiditic (flysch) and molasse complex. Events during the basin-forming, extensional, and translational periods contributed more to the generation of the hydrocarbon accumulations than did the effects of the subsequent compressive structural regime. The latter, however, may have enhanced thermal flow and, thus, maturation of hydrocarbon source rocks.

  5. Structural geology investigation on Massif Central and Parisian Basin (France)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weecksteen, G. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Band 5 gives the most information concerning the fracturing in the Massif Central and Parisian Basins. Band 6 and 7 show the fractures emphasized by forest boundaries and by the linear trace of water courses. The most remarkable information drawn from the preliminary investigation of two ERTS-1 images covering two different landscapes, a regular relief of shelving plateau bounded by cuestas having a sedimentary origin and a mountainous region built in crystalline and volcanic rocks, is that the deep structural elements under a thick sedimentary cover can be translated on the surface by indirect criteria. MSS imagery has permitted the Metz fault to be extended towards the west and shows clearly, through land use on the Rhone Valley fluvial deposit, the continuation towards the east of the carboniferous basin of St. Etienne.

  6. Gas Geochemistry of the Dogger Geothermal Aquifer (Paris Basin, France)

    SciTech Connect

    Criaud, A.; Fouillac, C.; Marty, B.; Brach, M.; Wei, H.F.

    1987-01-20

    The low enthalpy program developed in the Paris Basin provides the opportunity for studying the gas geochemistry of the calcareous aquifer of the Dogger. Hydrocarbons and CO{sub 2} are mainly biogenic, He displays high concentrations. He, Ar and N{sub 2} have multiple origins (radioactive decay, atmospheric migration, biochemical processes). The distribution of the gases in the zones of the basin varies in relation to the general chemistry, sedimentology and hydrodynamics. The gas geothermometers do not apply to this environment but useful estimations of the redox potential of the fluid can be derived from CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}/NH{sub 4}{sup +} ratios. H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S are involved in corrosion processes and scaling in the pipes. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Role of Permo-Carboniferous and Mesozoic fault reactivation in the basin evolution of southeastern France

    SciTech Connect

    Enfield, M.A.

    1988-08-01

    The Sud-Est basin of France consists of a structural mosaic of Permo-Carboniferous, Mesozoic, and Tertiary subbasins. The complex tectonic evolution of these basins has involved alternating strike-slip, contractional, and extensional episodes. By and large, the prospective late Paleozoic-Mesozoic subbasins and the structures that have influenced their development are buried beneath nonpropsective Tertiary basin fill. The architecture of the younger basins, which is strongly controlled by reactivation of the structures bounding the older basins, provides clues to the structure and evolution of the pre-Tertiary subbasins. In particular, localized basins associated with Eocene (Pyrenean) contraction and Oligocene extension delineate reactivated structures bounding the older subbasins. Regionally significant middle Cretaceous left-lateral strike-slip movement along Mesozoic growth faults resulted in reactivation of Permian-Carboniferous faults having an antithetic trend, right-lateral sense of movement, and associated anticlines. This method of analysis has been used to determine the location, structure, and dynamic evolution of the buried late Paleozoic and Mesozoic subbasins of southeastern France external to the Alps.

  8. Operators renewing exploration in offshore basins of France

    SciTech Connect

    Lamiraux, C.; Mascle, A.

    1995-07-03

    Forty nine wells were drilled without success from the latter 1960s to the first half of the 1980s in French offshore areas. About 10 years of reduced activity followed this first phase of exploration. For a couple of years, these areas have been closely reassessed, taking into account the experience and data previously acquired. More particularly, a better understanding of tectonic processes at the origin of complex structural traps, a better taking into account of the distribution, quality, and maturation history of source rocks, together with significant improvements in seismic data acquisition-processing and basin modeling techniques, have led a few oil companies to apply for licenses in three offshore areas. The paper discusses prospects in the Bay of Biscay, the Iroise Sea and English Channel, and the Gulf of Lions.

  9. France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Every July, the world's best cyclists race more than 3500 km around France, and sometimes the surrounding countries, in the Tour de France. This image from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows the varied terrain which challenges the riders. The race started in western France at Futuroscope, and headed toward Brittany. In these mostly flat 'stages' (as each day's race is called) sprinting specialists usually dash for the finish out of the main pack of riders. The race then moved to the Pyrenees mountains, in southern France along the border with Spain. Climbers and the overall favorites shine in the mountains, often gaining 10 minutes or more on their rivals. Only a few days after the Pyrenees climbs the race was again in the mountains. First Mont Ventoux, an extinct volcano in Provence, and then the massive Alps, with altitudes as high as 2,645 meters, challenged the racers. Finally the race headed toward Paris and a July 23rd finish in Paris. Go Lance! To learn more about MODIS, visit the MODIS web. Image by Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land group, NASA GSFC

  10. Role of river bank erosion in sediment budgets of catchments within the Loire river basin (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, Aurore; Cerdan, Olivier; Poisvert, Cecile; Landemaine, Valentin

    2014-05-01

    Quantifying volumes of sediments produced on hillslopes or in channels and transported or stored within river systems is necessary to establish sediment budgets. If research efforts on hillslope erosion processes have led to a relatively good understanding and quantification of local sources, in-channel processes remain poorly understood and quasi inexistent in global budgets. However, profound landuse changes and agricultural practices have altered river functioning, caused river bank instability and stream incision. During the past decades in France, river channelization has been perfomed extensively to allow for new agricultural practices to take place. Starting from a recent study on the quantification of sediment fluxes for catchments within the Loire river basin (Gay et al. 2013), our aim is to complete sediment budgets by taking into account various sources and sinks both on hillslope and within channel. The emphasis of this study is on river bank erosion and how bank erosion contributes to global budgets. A model of bank retreat is developed for the entire Loire river basin. In general, our results show that bank retreat is on average quite low with approximately 1 cm.yr-1. However, a strong variability exists within the study area with channels displaying values of bank retreat up to ~10 cm.yr-1. Our results corroborate those found by Landemaine et al. in 2013 on a small agricultural catchment. From this first step, quantification of volumes of sediment eroded from banks and available for transport should be calculated and integrated in sediment budgets to allow for a better understanding of basin functioning. Gay A., Cerdan O., Delmas M., Desmet M., Variability of sediment yields in the Loire river basin (France): the role of small scale catchments (under review). Landemaine V., Gay A., Cerdan O., Salvador-Blanes S., Rodriguez S. Recent morphological evolution of a headwater stream in agricultural context after channelization in the Ligoire river (France

  11. France.

    PubMed

    1987-09-01

    In 1986, France had a population of 55,493,000, with an annual growth rate of 0.4%. The infant mortality rate stood at 8.2/1000. Of the work force of 23.8 million, 8.3% were engaged in agriculture, 45.2% were in the industry and commerce sector, and 46.5% were engaged in services. The unemployment rate stood at 10.7%. The country's gross domestic product (GDP) was US$724 billion in 1986, with an average annual growth rate of 2.0%, and per capita income averaged $13,046. France has substantial agricultural resources, a diversified modern industrial system, and a highly skilled labor force. Following the return of a socialist majority in government in 1981, several large manufacturing firms were nationalized along with much of the commercial banking sector. Initial socialist policies were stimulative, relying partly on income redistribution and partly on increased government spending. However, the resultant increase in import demand was not offset by an increased demand French exports. In 1983, an economic stabilization plan of reductions in the budget deficit, involving spending cuts, increased taxes, and tighter monetary and credit policies, was successfully implemented. Although current economic policies should promote stronger growth over the medium to long term, trade competitiveness remains weak and high unemployment is a major social problem. PMID:12177959

  12. France.

    PubMed

    1987-09-01

    In 1986, France had a population of 55,493,000, with an annual growth rate of 0.4%. The infant mortality rate stood at 8.2/1000. Of the work force of 23.8 million, 8.3% were engaged in agriculture, 45.2% were in the industry and commerce sector, and 46.5% were engaged in services. The unemployment rate stood at 10.7%. The country's gross domestic product (GDP) was US$724 billion in 1986, with an average annual growth rate of 2.0%, and per capita income averaged $13,046. France has substantial agricultural resources, a diversified modern industrial system, and a highly skilled labor force. Following the return of a socialist majority in government in 1981, several large manufacturing firms were nationalized along with much of the commercial banking sector. Initial socialist policies were stimulative, relying partly on income redistribution and partly on increased government spending. However, the resultant increase in import demand was not offset by an increased demand French exports. In 1983, an economic stabilization plan of reductions in the budget deficit, involving spending cuts, increased taxes, and tighter monetary and credit policies, was successfully implemented. Although current economic policies should promote stronger growth over the medium to long term, trade competitiveness remains weak and high unemployment is a major social problem.

  13. Response of douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) to uraniferous groundwater in a small glaciated drainage, Northeastern Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, R.A.; Schumann, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    Douglas fir trees and associated soils were sampled from the slopes of a small (???4 km2) drainage basin in northeastern Washington to investigate the biogeochemical response to locally uraniferous groundwater. Uranium is preferentially incorporated in needles and twigs compared to larger branches or the trunk. The U concentration in needle ash ranges from 0.2 to 5.8??g g-1 (ppm) and shows no correlation with the U concentration in associated soils. Rather, the distribution of anomalously uraniferous douglas fir (> 1.0??g g-1 U in needle ash) appears to be controlled by observed or readily inferred pathways of near-surface groundwater movement in the drainage. These pathways include: (1) general downslope movement of subsurface runoff; (2) increased flux of near-surface groundwater near the toe of an alluvial fan; and (3) emergence of uraniferous (100-150 ng ml-1 [ppb] groundwater in the vicinity of a slope spring. The data also indicate the presence of near-surface uraniferous groundwater along a structurally controlled zone that parallels the north-south strike of the valley, and that includes the slope spring. The results suggest that biogeochemical sampling may be used to supplement more direct, but more limited, measurements of groundwater quality and flow regime in areas of near-surface contaminated groundwater. ?? 1987.

  14. Response of douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) to uraniferous groundwater in a small glaciated drainage, Northeastern Washington State

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, R.A.; Schumann, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    Douglas fir trees and associated soils were sampled from the slopes of a small (??? 4 km2) drainage basin in northeastern Washington to investigate the biogeochemical response to locally uraniferous groundwater. Uranium is preferentially incorporated in needles and twigs compared to larger branches or the trunk. The U concentration in needle ash ranges from 0.2 to 5.8 ??g g-1 (ppm) and shows no correlation with the U concentration in associated soils. Rather, the distribution of anomalously uraniferous douglas fir (>1.0??g g-1 U in needle ash) appears to be controlled by observed or readily inferred pathways of near-surface groundwater movement in the drainage. These pathways include: (1) general downslope movement of subsurface runoff; (2) increased flux of near-surface groundwater near the toe of an alluvial fan; and (3) emergence of uraniferous (100-150 ng ml-1 [ppb] groundwater in the vicinity of a slope spring. The data also indicate the presence of near-surface uraniferous groundwater along a structurally controlled zone that parallels the north-south strike of the valley, and that includes the slope spring. The results suggest that biogeochemical sampling may be used to supplement more direct, but more limited, measurements of groundwater quality and flow regime in areas of near-surface contaminated groundwater. ?? 1987.

  15. Li-Zn-Pb multi isotopic characterization of the Loire River Basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millot, R.; Desaulty, A.; Widory, D.; Bourrain, X.

    2013-12-01

    The Loire River in France is approximately 1010 km long and drains an area of 117 800 km2. Upstream, the Loire River flows following a south to north direction from the Massif Central down to the city of Orléans, 650 km from its source. The Loire River is one of the main European riverine inputs to the Atlantic Ocean. Over time, its basin has been exposed to numerous sources of anthropogenic metal pollutions, such as metal mining, industry, agriculture and domestic inputs. The Loire River basin is thus an excellent study site to develop new isotope systematics for tracking anthropogenic sources of metal pollutions (Zn and Pb) and also to investigate Li isotope tracing that can provide key information on the nature of weathering processes at the Loire River Basin scale. Preliminary data show that Li-Zn-Pb concentrations and isotopic compositions span a wide range in river waters of the Loire River main stream and the main tributaries. There is a clear contrast between the headwaters upstream and rivers located downstream in the lowlands. In addition, one of the major tributaries within the Massif Central (the Allier River) is clearly influenced by inputs resulting from mineralizations and thermomineral waters. The results showed that, on their own, each of these isotope systematics reveals important information about the geogenic or anthropogenic origin Li-Zn-Pb. Considered together, they are however providing a more integrated understanding of the overall budgets of these elements at the scale of the Loire River Basin.

  16. Low flows and reservoir management for the Durance River basin (Southern France) in the 2050s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauquet, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The Durance River is one of the major rivers located in the Southern part of France. Water resources are under high pressure due to significant water abstractions for human uses within and out of the natural boundaries of the river basin through an extended open channel network. Water demands are related to irrigation, hydropower, drinking water, industries and more recently water management has included water needs for recreational uses as well as for preserving ecological services. Water is crucial for all these activities and for the socio-economic development of South Eastern France. Both socio-economic development and population evolution will probably modify needs for water supply, irrigation, energy consumption, tourism, industry, etc. In addition the Durance river basin will have to face climate change and its impact on water availability that may question the sustainability of the current rules for water allocation. The research project R²D²-2050 "Risk, water Resources and sustainable Development within the Durance river basin in 2050" aims at assessing future water availability and risks of water shortage in the 2050s by taking into account changes in both climate and water management. R²D²-2050 is partially funded by the French Ministry in charge of Ecology and the Rhône-Méditerranée Water Agency. This multidisciplinary project (2010-2014) involves Irstea, Electricité de France (EDF), the University Pierre et Marie Curie (Paris), LTHE (CNRS), the Société du Canal de Provence (SCP) and the research and consultancy company ACTeon. A set of models have been developed to simulate climate at regional scale (given by 330 projections obtained by applying three downscaling methods), water resources (provided by seven rainfall-runoff models forced by a subset of 330 climate projections), water demand for agriculture and drinking water, for different sub basins of the Durance River basin upstream of Mallemort under present day and under future conditions

  17. Pb-Zn-Cd-Hg multi isotopic characterization of the Loire River Basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millot, R.; Widory, D.; Innocent, C.; Guerrot, C.; Bourrain, X.; Johnson, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    The contribution of human activities such as industries, agriculture and domestic inputs, becomes more and more significant in the chemical composition (major ions and pollutants such as metals) of the dissolved load of rivers. Furthermore, this influence can also be evidenced in the suspended solid matter known to play an important role in the transport of heavy metals through river systems. Human factors act as a supplementary key process. Therefore the mass-balance for the budget of catchments and river basins include anthropogenic disturbances. The Loire River in central France is approximately 1010 km long and drains an area of 117,800 km2. Initially, the Loire upstream flows in a south to north direction originating in the Massif Central, and continues up to the city of Orléans, 650 km from the source. In the upper basin, the bedrock is old plutonic rock overlain by much younger volcanic rocks. The Loire River then follows a general east to west direction to the Atlantic Ocean. The intermediate basin includes three major tributaries flowing into the Loire River from the left bank: the Cher, the Indre and the Vienne rivers; the main stream flows westward and its valley stretches toward the Atlantic Ocean. Here, the Loire River drains the sedimentary series of the Paris Basin, mainly carbonate deposits. The lower Loire basin drains pre-Mesozoic basement of the Armorican Massif and its overlying Mesozoic to Cenozoic sedimentary deposits. The Loire River is one of the main European riverine inputs to the Atlantic ocean. Here we are reporting concentration and isotope data for heavy metals Zn-Cd-Pb-Hg in river waters and suspended sediments from the Loire River Basin. In addition, we also report concentration and isotope data for these metals for the different industrial sources within the Loire Basin, as well as data for biota samples such as mussels and oysters from the Bay of Biscay and North Brittany. These organisms are known to be natural accumulators of

  18. Climate change impact on the management of water resources in the Seine River basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorchies, David; Thirel, Guillaume; Chauveau, Mathilde; Jay-Allemand, Maxime; Perrin, Charles; Dehay, Florine

    2013-04-01

    It is today commonly accepted that adaptation strategies will be needed to cope with the hydrological consequences of projected climate change. The main objective of the IWRM-Net Climaware project is to design adaptation strategies for various socio-economic sectors and evaluate their relevance at the European scale. Within the project, the Seine case study focuses on dam management. The Seine River basin at Paris (43800km²) shows major socio-economic stakes in France. Due to its important and growing demography, the number of industries depending on water resources or located on the river sides, and the developed agricultural sector, the consequences of droughts and floods may be dramatic. To mitigate the extreme hydrological events, a system of four large multi-purpose reservoirs was built in the upstream part of the basin between 1949 and 1990. The IPCC reports indicate modifications of the climate conditions in northern France in the future. An increase of mean temperature is very likely, and the rainfall patterns could be modified: the uncertainty on future trends is still high, but summer periods could experience lower quantities of rainfall. Anticipating these changes are crucial: will the present reservoirs system be adapted to these conditions? Here we propose to evaluate the capacity of the Seine River reservoirs to withstand future projected climate conditions using the current management rules. For this study a modeling chain was designed. We used two hydrological models: GR4J, a lumped model used as a benchmark, and TGR, a semi-distributed model. TGR was tuned to explicitly account for reservoir management rules. Seven climatic models forced by the moderate A1B IPCC scenario and downscaled using a weather-type method (DSCLIM, Pagé et al., 2009), were used. A quantile-quantile type method was applied to correct bias in climate simulations. A model to mimic the way reservoirs are managed was also developed. The evolution of low flows, high flows and

  19. New characterization aspects of carbonate accumulation horizons in Chalky Champagne (NE of the Paris Basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linoir, Damien; Thomachot-Schneider, Céline; Gommeaux, Maxime; Fronteau, Gilles; Barbin, Vincent

    2016-05-01

    The soil profiles of the Champagne area (NE of Paris Basin, France) occasionally show carbonate accumulation horizons (CAHs). From the top to the bottom, these soil profiles include a rendic leptosol horizon, a Quaternary cryoturbated paleosol (QCP), and a chalky substratum. The CAHs are located in the top part of the QCP. This study is aimed at highlighting the specific characteristics of CAHs compared to other soil profile horizons using geophysics, geochemistry, micromorphology, and mercury injection porosimetry. It is the first essential step for understanding the impact of CAHs on water transfers into the Champagne soil profiles. Our analyses show that Champagne CAHs are not systematically characterized by a typical induration unlike generally put forward in the regional literature. They are more porous and heterogeneous than their parent material (QCP). Carbonate accumulation horizons are also characterized by singular colorimetric parameters that are linked to their geochemical specific content, even if they bear a signature of the initial QCP before the pedogenic modification.

  20. Fossil echinoid (Echinoidea, Echinodermata) diversity of the Early Cretaceous (Hauterivian) in the Paris Basin (France).

    PubMed

    Benetti, Sophie; Saucède, Thomas; David, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    This dataset inventories occurrence records of fossil echinoid specimens collected in the Calcaires à Spatangues Formation (CSF) that crops out in the southeast of the Paris Basin (France), and is dated from the Acanthodiscus radiatus chronozone (ca. 132 Ma, early Hauterivian, Early Cretaceous). Fossil richness and abundance of the CSF has attracted the attention of palaeontologists since the middle of the nineteenth century. This dataset compiles occurrence data (referenced by locality names and geographic coordinates with decimal numbers) of fossil echinoids both collated from the literature published over a century and a half, and completed by data from collection specimens. The dataset also gives information on taxonomy (from species to order and higher taxonomic levels), which has been checked for reliability and consistency. It compiles a total of 628 georeferenced occurrence data of 26 echinoid species represented by 22 genera, 14 families, and 9 orders. PMID:24003321

  1. Fossil echinoid (Echinoidea, Echinodermata) diversity of the Early Cretaceous (Hauterivian) in the Paris Basin (France)

    PubMed Central

    Benetti, Sophie; Saucède, Thomas; David, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This dataset inventories occurrence records of fossil echinoid specimens collected in the Calcaires à Spatangues Formation (CSF) that crops out in the southeast of the Paris Basin (France), and is dated from the Acanthodiscus radiatus chronozone (ca. 132 Ma, early Hauterivian, Early Cretaceous). Fossil richness and abundance of the CSF has attracted the attention of palaeontologists since the middle of the nineteenth century. This dataset compiles occurrence data (referenced by locality names and geographic coordinates with decimal numbers) of fossil echinoids both collated from the literature published over a century and a half, and completed by data from collection specimens. The dataset also gives information on taxonomy (from species to order and higher taxonomic levels), which has been checked for reliability and consistency. It compiles a total of 628 georeferenced occurrence data of 26 echinoid species represented by 22 genera, 14 families, and 9 orders. PMID:24003321

  2. An experimental peri-urban basin in North-western France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chancibault, K.; Rodriguez, F.; Mosini, M.-L.; Furusho, C.; Bocher, E.; Palaccio, M.; Palma-Lopes, S.; Letellier, L.; Benot, R.; Andrieu, H.

    2009-04-01

    Basins located in the suburbs, known as peri-urban basins, face a quick land-use change, increasing pollution and flood risks. Being neither urban nor rural basins, they have been left apart by hydrologists. Improving hydrological models taking into account both natural and anthropogenic surfaces and pathways is the objective of the French project AVuPUR. One of the two peri-urban basins chosen for this project is the Chézine basin, located in northwestern France, in the suburbs of Nantes. The Chézine basin is subject to an oceanic climate and has a quite flat topography. Whereas the upstream part of the catchment remains essentially rural, the urbanization is dense in the downstream part and under development in the medium part. The mean urbanization over the basin is about 18%. A first part of the project consists of collecting geographical and hydrological data, followed by a first hydrological data analysis. Then different spatial segmentation methods are tested based on a geomorphological analysis and ultimately hydrological models well adapted for these particular basins will be developed. Nantes Metropole supplies geographical data as roads, buildings, land-use, sewer networks, Digital Elevation Model, etc. They also have monitored Chézine basin since 2001, with a water level recorder and a rain gauge. The outlet, at the water level recorder, defines a 29 km² basin with a 15km long river. During summer 2008, additional recorders were installed, in the medium part of the basin, at the outlet of the rural subcatchment : a rain gauge and a flow meter. This will help to analyse the hydrological behaviour of the catchment, by characterizing the rainfall spatial variability over the basin and by pointing out the rural surface contribution. In autumn 2008, a geophysical experimental study was carried out, using different geophysical methods: ground penetrating radar, DC-electrical resistivity tomography and EM31 electromagnetic profiling method. The aim of this

  3. Seismic velocities to characterize the soil-aquifer continuum on the Orgeval experimental basin (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasquet, S.; Ludovic, B.; Dhemaied, A.; Flipo, N.; Guérin, R.; Mouhri, A.; Faycal, R.; Vitale, Q.

    2013-12-01

    Among geophysical methods applied to hydrogeology, seismic prospecting is frequently confined to the characterization of aquifers geometry. The combined study of pressure- (P) and shear- (SH) wave velocities (respectively Vp and Vs) can however provide information about the aquifer parameters, as it is commonly done for most fluids in hydrocarbon exploration. This approach has recently been proposed in sandy aquifers with the estimation of Vp/Vs ratio. In order to address such issues in more complex aquifer systems (e.g. unconsolidated, heterogeneous or low-permeability media) we carried out P- and SH-wave seismic surveys on the Orgeval experimental basin (70 km east from Paris, France). This basin drains a multi-layer aquifer system monitored by a network of piezometers. The upper part of the aquifer system is characterized by tabular layers well delineated all over the basin thanks to Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Time Domain ElectroMagnetic (TDEM) soundings and wells. But the lateral variability of the intrinsic properties in each layer raises questions regarding the hydrodynamics of the upper aquifer and the validity of interpolations between piezometers. A simple interpretation of P- and SH-wave first arrivals for tabular models provides 1D velocity structures in very good agreement with the stratification anticipated from ERT and nearby geological logs. Vp/Vs ratios show a strong contrast at a depth consistent with the observed water table level, reinforcing the assumption of a free upper aquifer in the area. Similar experiments have to be conducted under different hydrological conditions to validate these observations. Anticipating the need to propose lateral applications of the method, we additionally performed tomographic inversions of the recorded data to retrieve 2D Vp and Vs models. If interpreted independently, both models fail to depict the stratification of the medium and the water table level cannot be straightforwardly identified

  4. Operational Mapping of Soil Moisture Using Synthetic Aperture Radar Data: Application to the Touch Basin (France)

    PubMed Central

    Baghdadi, Nicolas; Aubert, Maelle; Cerdan, Olivier; Franchistéguy, Laurent; Viel, Christian; Martin, Eric; Zribi, Mehrez; Desprats, Jean François

    2007-01-01

    Soil moisture is a key parameter in different environmental applications, such as hydrology and natural risk assessment. In this paper, surface soil moisture mapping was carried out over a basin in France using satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images acquired in 2006 and 2007 by C-band (5.3 GHz) sensors. The comparison between soil moisture estimated from SAR data and in situ measurements shows good agreement, with a mapping accuracy better than 3%. This result shows that the monitoring of soil moisture from SAR images is possible in operational phase. Moreover, moistures simulated by the operational Météo-France ISBA soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer model in the SIM-Safran-ISBA-Modcou chain were compared to radar moisture estimates to validate its pertinence. The difference between ISBA simulations and radar estimates fluctuates between 0.4 and 10% (RMSE). The comparison between ISBA and gravimetric measurements of the 12 March 2007 shows a RMSE of about 6%. Generally, these results are very encouraging. Results show also that the soil moisture estimated from SAR images is not correlated with the textural units defined in the European Soil Geographical Database (SGDBE) at 1:1000000 scale. However, dependence was observed between texture maps and ISBA moisture. This dependence is induced by the use of the texture map as an input parameter in the ISBA model. Even if this parameter is very important for soil moisture estimations, radar results shown that the textural map scale at 1:1000000 is not appropriate to differentiate moistures zones.

  5. Variability of suspended sediment yields within the Loire river basin (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, A.; Cerdan, O.; Delmas, M.; Desmet, M.

    2014-11-01

    Suspended sediment fluxes and their variability in time and space have received much attention over the past decades. Large databases compiling suspended sediment load (SL) data are often used to serve these purposes. Analyses of these databases have highlighted the following two major limitations: (i) the role of lowland areas in sediment production and transfer has been minimised, and studies on small-scale catchments (with a drainage area of ⩽102 km2) are practically non-existent in the literature; and (ii) inhomogeneous data and calculation methods are used to estimate and compare the SL values. In this context, the present study aims to complete the existing studies by providing a reliable comparison of SL values for various catchments within lowland river basins. Therefore, we focused on the Loire and Brittany river basins (France). 111 small to large catchments covering 78% of this area and representative of the basins landscape diversity were chosen. We first present a large database of area-specific suspended sediment yields (SY) calculated from the suspended sediment concentration and flow discharge data over 7-40 yr of measurements at gauging stations. Two calculation methods are used, and the calculated loads are confined within a factor of 0.60-1.65 of the real values. Second, we analyse the temporal and spatial variability of the calculated SY values. Finally, using a nested catchment approach, we provide insight into sediment transport from upstream to downstream gauging stations and into the role of small- and medium- scale catchments in sediment production and transfers. The SL values at the outlet of the catchments range from 2.5 * 102 to 8.6 * 105 t yr-1, and the SY values range from 2.9 to 32.4 t km-2 yr-1. A comparison with the limited values available in the literature for this region corroborates our estimations. Sediment exports from the Loire and Brittany river basins are very low compared with mountainous regions and European exports

  6. Declining Dioxin Concentrations in the Rhone River Basin, France, Attest to the Effectiveness of Emissions Controls.

    PubMed

    Van Metre, Peter C; Babut, Marc; Mourier, Brice; Mahler, Barbara J; Roux, Gwenaelle; Desmet, Marc

    2015-11-01

    Emission-control policies have been implemented in Europe and North America since the 1990s for polychlorodibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and furans (PCDFs). To assess the effect of these policies on temporal trends and spatial patterns for these compounds in a large European river system, sediment cores were collected in seven depositional areas along the Rhone River in France, dated, and analyzed for PCDDs and PCDFs. Results show concentrations increase in the downstream direction and have decreased temporally at all sites during the last two decades, with an average decrease of 83% from 1992 to 2010. The time for a 50% decrease in concentrations (t1/2) averaged 6.9±2.6 and 9.1±2.9 years for the sum of measured PCDDs and PCDFs, respectively. Congener patterns are similar among cores and indicate dominance of regional atmospheric deposition and possibly weathered local sources. Local sources are clearly indicated at the most downstream site, where concentrations of the most toxic dioxin, TCDD, are about 2 orders of magnitude higher than at the other six sites. The relatively steep downward trends attest to the effects of the dioxin emissions reduction policy in Europe and suggest that risks posed to aquatic life in the Rhone River basin from dioxins and furans have been greatly reduced.

  7. Structural modelling of thrust zones utilizing photogrammetry: Western Champsaur basin, SE France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Totake, Yukitsugu; Butler, Rob; Bond, Clare

    2016-04-01

    Recent advances in photogrammetric technologies allow geoscientists to easily obtain a high-resolution 3D geospatial data across multiple scales, from rock specimen to landscape. Although resolution and accuracy of photogrammetry models are dependent on various factors (a quality of photography, number of overlapping photo images, distance to targets, etc), modern photogrammetry techniques can even provide a comparable data resolution to laser scanning technologies (< ~1cm resolution) if conditions are complete. Such high-resolution datasets enable to perform accurate and detailed mapping or modelling of various geological objects. Another advantages of photogrammetry techniques, high portability and low costs for infrastructures, ease to incorporate these techniques with conventional geological surveys. Photogrammetry techniques have a great potential to enhance performances of geological surveys. We present a workflow for building basin-scale 3D structural models utilizing the ground-based photogrammetry along with field observations. The workflow is applied to model thrust zones in Eocene-Oligocene turbidite sequences called Champsaur Sandstone (Gres du Champsaur) filling an Alpine fore-deep basin, Western Champsaur basin, in southeastern France. The study area is located ca. 20km northeast from Gap, and approximately extends 10 km from east to west and 6 km from north to south. During a 2-week fieldwork, over 9400 photographs were taken at 133 locations by a handheld digital camera from ground, and were georeferenced with a handheld GPS. Photo images were processed within software PhotoScan to build a 3D photogrammetric model. The constructed photogrammetry model was then imported into software Move to map faults and geological layers along with georeferenced field data so that geological cross sections and 3D surfaces are produced. The workflow succeeded to produce a detailed topography and textures of landscape at ~1m resolution, and enabled to characterize

  8. Connectivity from source to sink in a lowland area: the Loire river basin (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, Aurore; Cerdan, Olivier; Degan, Francesca; Salvador, Sebastien

    2014-05-01

    Sediment connectivity relates to the transfer of sediments from sources to sinks via runoff and in channel transport. It is highly dependent on spatial variability of landscape properties such as differences in morphology, land use and infiltration/runoff characteristics but may also vary in time due to differences in rainfall amount/intensity and changes in vegetation cover throughout the year. In the Loire river basin, we found that sediment fluxes displayed strong variations in space but also at the interannual and seasonnal time scales (Gay et al. 2013). In this context, our goal is to better understand and quantify hillslope sediment redistributions within this lowland area thanks to the use of semi distributed connectivity approach. To this aim, Borselli's index of connectivity (IC, Borselli et al., 2008) is selected to assess hillslope connectivity at annual and seasonal time scales. Several improvements are proposed to take into account the coupling of the structural landscape connectivity and its hydrosedimentary response. Parameters such as rainfall intensity and differences in seasonal land cover are integrated into the model to account for landscape variations through time. Infiltration and runoff indices were also tested. Preliminary results confirm the variability of landscape connectivity throughout the year. The integration of the index of infiltration and runoff properties of landscape (IDPR) as defined by Mardhel et al. 2004 seems to improve the IC model outputs. From this first step, in-stream sediment connectivity index should be developed for a better understanding and assessment of sediment redistributions at the entire catchment scale. L. Borselli L., Cassi P., Torri D. Prolegomena to sediment and flow connectivity in the landscape: a GIS and field numerical assessment. Catena, 75 (2008), pp. 268-277 Gay A., Cerdan O., Delmas M., Desmet M., Variability of sediment yields in the Loire river basin (France): the role of small scale catchments

  9. Hydrogeomorphic adjustments of stream channels disturbed by urban runoff (Yzeron River basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navratil, O.; Breil, P.; Schmitt, L.; Grosprêtre, L.; Albert, M. B.

    2013-04-01

    SummaryThis paper presents a field investigation on hydrogeomorphic adjustments of small streams in a 147 km2 periurban catchment, the Yzeron River catchment located in France. The rapid development of periurban areas in the world is now considered as one of the main factor impacting river systems. Urban disturbances are most of the time associated with irreversible alterations of the hydrological regime, the sediment yields, with major ecological impacts and additional socio-economical costs. Nineteen stream reaches have been considered in this study, with drainage areas ranging from 0.2 to 33.9 km2 and total impervious areas ranging from 1% to 52% of the basin surface. A regional analysis was led in order (i) to quantify the hydrogeomorphic adjustments of stream channels in this periurban context, i.e. the ratios between observed values and reference/rural values; and (ii) to identify the main anthropogenic controlling factors of these adjustments. Results show that urban river channels experience a global enlargement, with a mean bankfull discharge ratio of 1.8, bankfull width and depth ratios of 1.3 and a bankfull area ratio of 1.8. This study also outlines the global increase of hydrogeomorphic adjustments with the increase of the fraction of impervious area and the level of disturbance of the flood regime. However, local anthropogenic factors seem to be much more relevant to explain the highest adjustment ratios at several river reaches (enlargement ratio up to 55). The vicinity of a river reach with road sewers and/or the urban areas is identified to be a very important factor that affects significantly the smallest streams (drainage area less than 5 km2). On the contrary, at several reaches no significant deepening or widening was observed although roads/urban sewers and urban areas were identified in their catchment. Several hypotheses are proposed, but additional works with new data (river monitoring) would be needed to propose management and

  10. Effects of the Pays de Bray'' fault on fluid paleocirculations in the Paris Basin Dogger reservoir, France

    SciTech Connect

    Bril, H. . Lab. d'Analyse Structurale et Hydrothermalisme); Velde, B.; Iqdari, A. . Dept. Geologie); Meunier, A. . Lab. Petrologie des Alterations Hydrothermales)

    1994-06-01

    Clay fractions and fluid inclusions were studied in the Aulnay sous Bois and Cerneaux (CER-1 and CER-P6) wells located 10 km, 1.3 and 0.6 km, respectively, from the Pays de Bray'' fault (Paris Basin, France). It was shown that a connection was probably established between the Dogger and Triassic reservoirs during the active period of the fault. Chemical and heat transfers have locally modified the diagenesis conditions in the Dogger formation, inducing an overmaturation of clay minerals. These effects, although attenuated, are still identifiable in the Aulnay and CER-1 wells. A maximum temperature of about 90 C was maintained in CER-P6 site even during the uplift stage of the basin.

  11. Development and Exploitation of Low Enthalpy Geothermal Systems, Example of "The Dogger" in the Paris Basin, France

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas, J.; Menjoz, A.; Martin, J.C.; Criaud, A.; Fouillac, C.

    1987-01-20

    A feature of French geothermal engineering is the development of industrial projects in normal gradient, non-convective areas. The economic feasibility of exploiting wells producing between 150 and 350 m{sup 3}/h at temperatures from 55° to 85° from depths of 1,500 to 2,000 meters, in sedimentary basins with normal gradient, for direct heat production has been proved by 50 plants providing heating for over 500,000 people during the last few years. This opens new possibilities for geothermal energy development the world over, in particular for areas where heat consumption is higher than 2,500 Tons oil equivalent (Toe)/year over several square kilometers. The recent and rapid development of geothermal projects in France, in particular in the Paris Basin has provided much more information on the characteristics of the Jurassic Dogger, which is the unit tapped by geothermal doublets (one production and one injection well). Detailed study of the Dogger reservoir in the Paris Basin is one of the main objectives of the IMRG research and development program drawn up in 1983. The preliminary results presented here are oriented towards (1) improved knowledge of the potential geothermal resources, and (2) analysis of optimum development conditions. 1 tab., 7 refs., 9 figs.

  12. On the Use of Hydrological Models and Satellite Data to Study the Water Budget of River Basins Affected by Human Activities: Examples from the Garonne Basin of France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Eric; Gascoin, Simon; Grusson, Youen; Murgue, Clément; Bardeau, Mélanie; Anctil, François; Ferrant, Sylvain; Lardy, Romain; Le Moigne, Patrick; Leenhardt, Delphine; Rivalland, Vincent; Sánchez Pérez, José-Miguel; Sauvage, Sabine; Therond, Olivier

    2016-03-01

    Natural and anthropogenic forcing factors and their changes significantly impact water resources in many river basins around the world. Information on such changes can be derived from fine scale in situ and satellite observations, used in combination with hydrological models. The latter need to account for hydrological changes caused by human activities to correctly estimate the actual water resource. In this study, we consider the catchment area of the Garonne river (in France) to investigate the capabilities of space-based observations and up-to-date hydrological modeling in estimating water resources of a river basin modified by human activities and a changing climate. Using the ISBA-MODCOU and SWAT hydrological models, we find that the water resources of the Garonne basin display a negative climate trend since 1960. The snow component of the two models is validated using the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer snow cover extent climatology. Crop sowing dates based on remote sensing studies are also considered in the validation procedure. Use of this dataset improves the simulated evapotranspiration and river discharge amounts when compared to conventional data. Finally, we investigate the benefit of using the MAELIA multi-agent model that accounts for a realistic agricultural and management scenario. Among other results, we find that changes in crop systems have significant impacts on water uptake for agriculture. This work constitutes a basis for the construction of a future modeling framework of the sociological and hydrological system of the Garonne river region.

  13. Seismic valve as the main mechanism for sedimentary fluid entrapment within extensional basin: example of the Lodève Permian Basin (Hérault, South of France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurent, D.; Lopez, M.; Chauvet, A.; Imbert, P.; Sauvage, A. C.; Martine, B.; Thomas, M.

    2014-12-01

    During syn-sedimentary burial in basin, interstitial fluids initially trapped within the sedimentary pile are easily moving under overpressure gradient. Indeed, they have a significant role on deformation during basin evolution, particularly on fault reactivation. The Lodève Permian Basin (Hérault, France) is an exhumed half graben with exceptional outcrop conditions providing access to barite-sulfides mineralized systems and hydrocarbon trapped into rollover faults of the basin. Architectural studies shows a cyclic infilling of fault zone and associated S0-parallel veins according to three main fluid events during dextral/normal faulting. Contrasting fluid entrapment conditions are deduced from textural analysis, fluid inclusion microthermometry and sulfide isotope geothermometer: (i) the first stage is characterized by an implosion breccia cemented by silicifications and barite during abrupt pressure drop within fault zone; (ii) the second stage consists in succession of barite ribbons precipitated under overpressure fluctuations, derived from fault-valve action, with reactivation planes formed by sulphide-rich micro-shearing structures showing normal movement; and (iii) the third stage is associated to the formation of dextral strike-slip pull-apart infilling by large barite crystals and contemporary hydrocarbons under suprahydrostatic pressure values. Microthermometry, sulfide and strontium isotopic compositions of the barite-sulfides veins indicate that all stages were formed by mixing between deep basinal fluids at 230°C, derived from cinerite dewatering, and formation water from overlying sedimentary cover channelized trough fault planes. We conclude to a polyphase history of fluid trapping during Permian synrift formation of the basin: (i) a first event, associated with the dextral strike-slip motion on faults, leads to a first sealing of the fault zone; (ii) periodic reactivations of fault planes and bedding-controlled shearing form the main mineralized

  14. Stress inversion and basement-cover stress transmission across weak layers in the Paris basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunzburger, Yann; Magnenet, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the source of non-purely gravitational horizontal stresses in the Paris basin, a nowadays tectonically quiet intracratonic basin, in its eastern border of which outstandingly dense stress measurements are available. Based on a synthesis of published data, the stress state in the basin is first shown to be very close to the one that may be extrapolated for the underlying basement, in terms of principal stress orientations and horizontal to vertical stress ratios. This is in favour of a mechanical coupling between the basement and its sedimentary cover, which may seem contradictory to the presence of several weak rock layers in the basin fill, e.g. an argillite layer that was shown to bear low deviatoric stresses, and salt layers that are implicated in a major décollement elsewhere. To unravel this apparent contradiction, a 3D-numerical modelling is performed, following a rigorous inverse problem approach, to determine the long-term elastic properties of both the basement and the basin rocks. The objective is to find the set of elastic constants that provides the best fit between the calculated stress state in the basin and the in situ data, by assuming that the stress state in the basement is known. This methodology provides a realistic set of mechanical parameters, in agreement with previous studies, which leads to the conclusion that the horizontal stresses in the basin constitute its mechanical response to the stresses that developed in the underlying basement during and since the last tectonic event (Alpine phase). The fact that horizontal stresses could be transmitted across the weak horizons, contrary to what may be expected at first glance, is explained both by the geometry of the basin and the fact that, over the long term, the stiffnesses of the various sedimentary rocks are only slightly different from each other.

  15. The Miocene Sommières basin, SE France: Bioclastic carbonates in a tide-dominated depositional system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynaud, Jean-Yves; James, Noël P.

    2012-12-01

    The Miocene Sommières Basin in SE France is a semi-enclosed depression that was connected to the Mediterranean Sea by a flooded paleo-incised valley and then filled by a suite of sediments comprising carbonate grains coming from temperate factories that were largely deposited in tidal-dominated paleoenvironments. The strata are partitioned into two sequences that reflect repeated flooding of the incised valley system, one of several similar situations in this region of France. The carbonate grains are mostly bioclasts, namely from barnacles, bryozoans, coralline algae (encrusting, branching, and rhodoliths), echinoids, and benthic foraminifers (large and small) with ostracods, sponge spicules and planktic foraminifers prominent in muddy facies. Particles were produced by shallow water carbonate factories on hard substrates (valley walls in particular), associated with subaqueous dunes, and in deeper water basinal settings. Each depositional sequence is underlain by an eroded and bored hard surface that is progressively overlain by TST subaqueous tidal dunes or storm deposits that grade up, in one case, into HST marls (the HST of the upper sequence has been removed by erosion). The lower sequence is ebb tide dominated whereas the upper sequence is flood tide dominated. The succession is interpreted to represent a TST whose tidal currents were focused by the narrow valley and a HST that reflected flooding of the overbanks. This stratigraphic and depositional motif is comparable to that in other spatially separated Neogene paleovalleys that are filled with tide-dominated clastic carbonates in the region. Together with other recently documented similar systems, these limestones constitute an important new group of carbonate sand bodies in the carbonate depositional realm.

  16. Budget of N2O emissions at the watershed scale: role of land cover and topography (the Orgeval basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilain, G.; Garnier, J.; Passy, P.; Silvestre, M.; Billen, G.

    2011-11-01

    Agricultural basins are the major source of N2O emissions, with arable land accounting for half of the biogenic emissions worldwide. Moreover, N2O emission strongly depends on the position of agricultural land in relation with topographical gradients, as footslope soils are often more prone to denitrification. The estimation of land surface area occupied by agricultural soils depends on the available spatial input information and resolution. Surface areas of grassland, forest and arable lands were estimated for the Orgeval sub-basin using two cover representations: the pan European CORINE Land Cover 2006 database (CLC 2006) and a combination of two databases produced by the Institut d'Aménagement et d'Urbanisme de la Région d'Île-de-France (IAU IDF), the MOS (Mode d'Occupation des Sols) combined with the Ecomos 2000, a land-use classification. In this study we have analyzed how different land-cover representations influence and introduce errors into the results of regional N2O emissions inventories. A further introduction of the topography concept was used to better identify the critical zones for N2O emissions, a crucial issue to better adapt the strategies of N2O emissions mitigation. Overall, we observed that a refinement of the land-cover database led to a 5% decrease in the estimation of N2O emissions, while the integration of the topography decreased the estimation of N2O emissions up to 25%.

  17. Budget of N2O emissions at the watershed scale: role of land cover and topography (the Orgeval basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilain, G.; Garnier, J.; Passy, P.; Silvestre, M.; Billen, G.

    2012-03-01

    Agricultural basins are the major source of N2O emissions, with arable land accounting for half of the biogenic emissions worldwide. Moreover, N2O emission strongly depends on the position of agricultural land in relation with topographical gradients, as footslope soils are often more prone to denitrification. The estimation of land surface area occupied by agricultural soils depends on the available spatial input information and resolution. Surface areas of grassland, forest and arable lands were estimated for the Orgeval sub-basin using two cover representations: the pan European CORINE Land Cover 2006 database (CLC 2006) and a combination of two databases produced by the IAU IDF (Institut d'Aménagement et d'Urbanisme de la Région d'Île-de-France), the MOS (Mode d'Occupation des Sols) combined with the ECOMOS 2000 (a land-use classification). In this study, we have analyzed how different land-cover representations influence and introduce errors into the results of regional N2O emissions inventories. A further introduction of the topography concept was used to better identify the critical zones for N2O emissions, a crucial issue to better adapt the strategies of N2O emissions mitigation. Overall, we observed that a refinement of the land-cover database led to a 5 % decrease in the estimation of N2O emissions, while the integration of the topography decreased the estimation of N2O emissions up to 25 %.

  18. Analysis of medieval limestone sculpture from southwestern France and the Paris Basin by NAA

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, L.; Harbottle, G.

    1994-12-31

    Compositional characterization of limestone from sources known to medieval craftsmen and from the monuments they built can be used in conjunction with stylistic and iconographic criteria to infer geographic origin of sculptures that have lost their histories. Limestone from 47 quarrying locations in France and from numerous medieval monuments have been subjected to neutron activation analysis (NAA) to form the nucleus of the Brookhaven Limestone Database. Even though the method and techniques of NAA are well established, this paper briefly summarizes the parameters and experimental conditions useful for determining those concentration variables for which limestone from different sources exhibits significant and reproducible differences.

  19. Diagenesis and pore water evolution in the Keuper reservoir, Paris Basin (France)

    SciTech Connect

    Spotl, C.; Matter, A. . Geologisches Inst.); Brevart, O. . Centre Scientifique et Technique Jean Feger)

    1993-09-01

    Keuper (Upper Triassic) fluvial sandstones and nonmarine carbonate rocks form a major oil reservoir in the western Paris Basin at burial depths of [approximately] 2km. Early-diagenetic processes comprise red-bed-type diagenesis and extensive dolocrete formation both in fluvial channels and in fine-grained over-bank sediments. Locally significant paleokarst created vuggy dissolution porosity in the carbonate units and probably also caused leaching of detrital alkali feldspar grains. Oxygen, carbon, and strontium isotope analyses of various eogenetic cements indicate a nonmarine pore-water composition. Ferroan carbonates, authigenic albite and potassium feldspar, quartz, sulfates, sulfides, and clay minerals formed subsequent to major mechanical compaction. Their isotopic compositions record significant changes in the chemistry of the parent pore water. Cl-Br relationships of the present-day pore water reveal that fluids saturated with respect to halite flushed the reservoir during burial. Based on radiogenic dating of illite cements, influx of warm brines into the reservoir most likely occurred during the earliest Cretaceous. The authors suggest that uplift of the Vosges crustal block created a hydraulic head in the eastern part of the basin and established a gravity-driven fluid flow system, displacing interstitial brines from the Keuper evaporites from the eastern part towards the western part of the basin. A second gravity-driven fluid flow system was established during the Oligocene by major uplift, and freshwater flushed the Keuper reservoir, causing brine dilution. The present-day pore water in the study area is still saline and mass-balance calculations indicate that the ratio of basinal brines to Tertiary meteoric water is about 1:2.

  20. Pore-scale to basin-scale characterization of a carbonate reservoir : application to the danian plat-form in aquitaine basin (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerepi, A.; La Bat, N.; Barde, J. P.

    2003-04-01

    This paper aims to give an example of multi-scalar high-resolution analysis of a carbonate reservoir, integrated from pore-scale to reservoir scale. The Danien Lower R2 carbonate reservoir is located in the South of the Aquitaine basin (France) and stands for a potential underground gas storage site for Gaz de France. The Danian Lower R2 reservoir were deposited as a prograding carbonate platform in a near-reef environment. The effects of the sedimentary and diagenetic events on the reservoir properties were evaluated, particularly fracturing and dolomitization Reservoir quality is assessed by log-analysis at the reservoir scale, by petrographic methods and petrophysical tools at the pore-core scale and lastly by seismic analyses at the basin scale. Two phases of dolomitization are identified and distinguished by a compaction event represented by fracturing and styloliths. These diagenetic events improved significantly the Danian Lower R2 carbonate reservoir properties. It is demonstrated that reservoir quality is controlled by the pore-geometry, which is determined by various diagenetic process. Permeability values of Danian Lower R2 reservoir range between over 4 orders of magnitude, from 0.1 to 5600 mD and the porosity values range between 2 and exceptional of 42 %. Indeed, the reservoir unit 4 (karstic dolomite) shows the best reservoir properties with average porosity values ranging between 11.1 % and 19.3 % and an average permeability ranging between 379 mD and 766 mD. On the opposite, reservoir unit 2 (fine-grained chalky limestone) shows the worst reservoir properties. The cementation factor m ranges from 1.68 to 2.48. The dolomitic crystal carbonate texture (mainly units 3 and 4) shows the highest value of m (1.98 to 2.48) and F (9.54 to 36.97), which is due to its high cementation degree. The saturation exponent n ranges between 1.23 to 3.4. Using these electrical experimental parameters we predicted the water-gas saturation in different reservoir units

  1. Thermal and compaction processes in a young rifted basin containing evaporites: Gulf of Lions, France

    SciTech Connect

    Burrus, J.; Audebert, F. )

    1990-09-01

    The Gulf of Lions (northwestern Mediterranean) is a young Oligocene-Miocene rifted basin characterized by the presence of a thick evaporitic sequence. Observed data (surface heat flow, well temperatures, geopressures below the evaporites, crustal thinning) are used to model (1) the basin-forming mechanisms, and (2) the intrasedimentary processes that influence the temperature history, and thus, the maturation of source rocks. A two-dimensional finite-difference basin model, Temispack, simulates the sedimentation, compaction, and overpressures related to the low permeability of the post-rift sequence, the heat transfer from the rifted lithosphere into the sediments, and the level or maturation by using a kinetic approach. The classic passive margin model, which relates the history of heat flow and the rate of subsidence to a uniform thinning factor, yields subsidence and heat flow predictions that agree with observations. The recently accelerated subsidence observed in the deep margin is probably an effect of recent regional compression rather than the consequence of alternative rifting mechanisms. The history of maturation of organic matter was influenced by the variation of the regional heat flow due to the rifting, the effect of sedimentation (or blanketing), and the variability of the lithologies and porosities. The undercompaction of sediments underlying the evaporites is accounted for by the model, which suggests that hydraulic fracturing is taking place at present in the overpressured sediments. Fluid flow associated with the compaction disequilibrium has negligible thermal effect. Undercompacted shales below the evaporites have lower thermal diffusivity and thus higher temperatures, which has a significant effect on maturation. 15 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Evidence for long term deep CO2 confinement below thick Jurassic shales at Montmiral site (SE Basin of France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubert, Y.; Ramboz, C.; Le Nindre, Y. M.; Lerouge, C.; Lescanne, M.

    2009-04-01

    Studies of natural CO2 analogues bring key information on the factors governing the long term (>1My) stability/instability of future anthropogenic CO2 storages. The main objective of this work is to trace the deep-origin CO2 migrations in fractures in the Montmiral CO2 deep natural occurrence (Valence Basin, SE France). The final objective is to document the reservoir feeding and the possible leakages through overlying series. The CO2 reservoir is hosted within a horst controlled by a N-S fault network. From the Triassic to Eocene, the Montmiral area was part of the South-East Basin of France. This period is marked by the Tethysian extension phase (Triassic-Cretaceous) followed by the closure of the basin which culminated during the Pyrenean compressive phase (Eocene). Then, from the late Eocene, the Valence Basin was individualised in particular during the Oligocene E-W rifting affecting the West of Europe. Finally the eastern border of the Basin was overthrusted by Mesozoic formations during the Alpine orogenesis (Miocene). The Montmiral CO2 reservoir is intersected by the currently productive V.Mo.2 well, drilled through Miocene to Triassic sedimentary formations, and reaching the Palaeozoic substratum at a depth of 2771 meters. The CO2 is trapped below a depth of 2340 meters, at the base of sandy, evaporitic and calcareous formations (2340-2771m), Triassic to Sinemurian in age. These units are overlain by a 575 m-thick Domerian to Oxfordian marly sequence which seals the CO2 reservoir. Above these marls, calcareous strata (1792-1095 m), Oxfordian to Cretaceous in age, and sandy clayey formations (1095-0 m), Oligocene and Miocene in age, are deposited. The various stratigraphic levels from the Miocene to the basement were cored over a total length of ~100m. From bottom to top, three lithological units, which exhibit well characterised contrasted diagenetic evolution, record various stages and effects of the CO2 migration: - Lower unit: Palaeozoic metamorphic

  3. Natural flow and vertical heterogeneities in a sedimentary geothermal reservoir (Paris Basin, France): Geochemical investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Criaud, Annie, Fouassier, Philippe; Fouillac, Christian; Brach, Michel

    1988-01-01

    Three geothermal wells tapping the Dogger aquifer were studied in detail for their variations in chemical composition with time or conditions of exploitation. Analytical improvements for the determination of Cl, SO{sub 4}, Ca, Mg, Na and K make it possible to detect variations respectively of 0.15, 0.8, 0.6, 1.8, 1.8 and 1.4 %. Despite the fact that the natural flow may be important in some parts of the basin aquifer, we conclude that this factor is not responsible for the small variations noticed in mineralization within the one year survey period. The results concerning reactive and nonreactive species are best explained if a vertical heterogeneity of the chemistry of the fluid is assumed. A number of calcareous sub-layers, already demonstrated by geological studies, contribute to varying degrees to the production of the hot water. The changes in pumping rates, which are fixed according to external requirements, play a major role in the hydrodynamic and chemical disequilibrium of the wells. The consequences for the geothermal exploitations are emphasized.

  4. A molecular and isotopic study of the organic matter from the Paris Basin, France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichtfouse, E.; Albrecht, P.; Behar, F.; Hayes, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Thirteen Liassic sedimentary rocks of increasing depth and three petroleums from the Paris Basin were studied for 13C/12C isotopic compositions and biological markers, including steranes, sterenes, methylphenanthrenes, methylanthracenes, and triaromatic steroids. The isotopic compositions of n-alkanes from mature sedimentary rocks and petroleums fall in a narrow range (2%), except for the deepest Hettangian rock and the Trias petroleum, for which the short-chain n-alkanes are enriched and depleted in 13C, respectively. Most of the molecular parameters increase over the 2000-2500 m depth range, reflecting the transformation of the organic matter at the onset of petroleum generation. In this zone, carbonate content and carbon isotopic composition of carbonates, as well as molecular parameters, are distinct for the Toarcian and Hettangian source rocks and suggest a migration of organic matter from these two formations. Two novel molecular parameters were defined for this task: one using methyltriaromatic steroids from organic extracts; the other using 1-methylphenanthrene and 2-methylanthracene from kerogen pyrolysates. The anomalous high maturity of the Dogger petroleum relative to the maturity-depth trend of the source rocks is used to estimate the minimal vertical distance of migration of the organic matter from the source rock to the reservoir.

  5. A molecular and isotopic study of the organic matter from the Paris Basin, France.

    PubMed

    Lichtfouse, E; Albrecht, P; Behar, F; Hayes, J M

    1994-01-01

    Thirteen Liassic sedimentary rocks of increasing depth and three petroleums from the Paris Basin were studied for 13C/12C isotopic compositions and biological markers, including steranes, sterenes, methylphenanthrenes, methylanthracenes, and triaromatic steroids. The isotopic compositions of n-alkanes from mature sedimentary rocks and petroleums fall in a narrow range (2%), except for the deepest Hettangian rock and the Trias petroleum, for which the short-chain n-alkanes are enriched and depleted in 13C, respectively. Most of the molecular parameters increase over the 2000-2500 m depth range, reflecting the transformation of the organic matter at the onset of petroleum generation. In this zone, carbonate content and carbon isotopic composition of carbonates, as well as molecular parameters, are distinct for the Toarcian and Hettangian source rocks and suggest a migration of organic matter from these two formations. Two novel molecular parameters were defined for this task: one using methyltriaromatic steroids from organic extracts; the other using 1-methylphenanthrene and 2-methylanthracene from kerogen pyrolysates. The anomalous high maturity of the Dogger petroleum relative to the maturity-depth trend of the source rocks is used to estimate the minimal vertical distance of migration of the organic matter from the source rock to the reservoir.

  6. Cu-Zn-Pb multi isotopic characterization of a small watershed (Loire river basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desaulty, A. M.; Millot, R.; Perret, S.; Bourrain, X.

    2015-12-01

    Combating metal pollution in surface water is a major environmental, public health and economic issue. Knowledge of the behavior of metals, such as copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and lead (Pb) in sediments and dissolved load, is a key factor to improve the management of rivers. Recent advances in mass spectrometry related to the development of MC-ICPMS allow to analyze the isotopic composition of these elements, and previous studies show the effectiveness of isotopic analyses to determine the anthropogenic sources of pollution in environment. The goal of this study is to use the Cu-Zn-Pb multi-isotopic signature to track the pollutions in surface water, and to understand the complex processes causing the metals mobilization and transport in environment. More particularly we investigate the mechanisms of distribution between the dissolved load and particulate load, known to play an important role in the transport of metals through river systems. As case study, we chose a small watershed, poorly urbanized in the Loire river basin. Its spring is in a pristine area, while it is only impacted some kilometers further by the releases rich in metals coming from a hospital water treatment plant. First a sampling of these liquid effluents as well as dissolved load and sediment from upstream to downstream was realized and their concentrations and isotopic data were determined. Then to simulate a lot of potential natural and anthropogenic modifications of environmental conditions, we made sequential extraction protocol using various reagents on the sediments. Isotopic analyzes were performed also on the various extracting solutions. Isotopic ratios were measured using a Neptune MC-ICPMS at the BRGM, after a protocol of purification for Zn and Cu. The results showed that, these isotopic systematics reveal important informations about the mechanists of mobilization and transport of metals through river systems. However experiments performed under laboratory conditions will be necessary

  7. Variability of mineral dust deposition in the western Mediterranean basin and south-east of France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Julie; Laurent, Benoit; Losno, Rémi; Bon Nguyen, Elisabeth; Roullet, Pierre; Sauvage, Stéphane; Chevaillier, Servanne; Coddeville, Patrice; Ouboulmane, Noura; di Sarra, Alcide Giorgio; Tovar-Sánchez, Antonio; Sferlazzo, Damiano; Massanet, Ana; Triquet, Sylvain; Morales Baquero, Rafael; Fornier, Michel; Coursier, Cyril; Desboeufs, Karine; Dulac, François; Bergametti, Gilles

    2016-07-01

    provenance, transport and deposition processes (i.e. wet vs. dry) of dust are different and specific for the different deposition sites in the Mediterranean studied area. The results tend to indicate that wet deposition is the main form of deposition for mineral dust in the western Mediterranean basin, but the contribution of dry deposition (in the sense that no precipitation was detected at the surface) is far from being negligible, and contributes 10 to 46 % to the major dust deposition events, depending on the sampling site.

  8. Barite concretions as evidence of pauses in sedimentation in the Marnes Bleues Formation of the Vocontian Basin (SE France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bréhéret, Jean-G.; Brumsack, Hans-J.

    2000-02-01

    Several intervals rich in barite nodules occur in the mid-Cretaceous marls of the Vocontian Trough (SE France). These concretions, which grew on heterogeneities in the sediment, are arranged as horizons parallel to the bedding, and are often associated with carbonate and phosphate nodules. Detailed sedimentological and stratigraphical observations suggest that they represent the consequence of short-term pauses in sedimentation during early diagenesis, but the most important occurrences of barite are below prominent discontinuities. This may be explained by the frequency of pauses in sedimentation caused by a progressive starvation, or an increase in the energy of bottom-water currents. The high number of barite occurrences on the basin margins is directly linked to the recurrence of sedimentary breaks. The geochemical data show that the host sediment corresponds to a pelagic setting, far from hydrothermal influences, but generally in a restricted, dysoxic to suboxic, depositional environment. The sulphur isotopic composition of the barite sulphate (+16 to +76‰ rel. CDT) supports the hypothesis of an early diagenetic origin of the barite nodules. Their genesis may be explained by the fixation of a diagenetic front corresponding to the penetration of a sulphate reduction zone from the seawater-sediment interface down in the sediment which is in contact with barium-rich porewaters expelled upwards as a consequence of compaction. The barium of biogenic origin, initially stored in the underlying black shale, was mobilized under strongly reducing conditions. Such fixation is normally induced by a pause or a stop in sedimentation due to starvation or renewed bottom-water circulation. Together with other concretions, the barite nodules mark condensed stratigraphic intervals and often represent major breaks. As such they shed light on variations in sedimentary activity and their importance in the sedimentology and stratigraphy of pelagic marly sequences cannot be ignored.

  9. Chlorine transfer out of a very low permeability clay sequence (Paris Basin, France): 35Cl and 37Cl evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavastre, Véronique; Jendrzejewski, Nathalie; Agrinier, Pierre; Javoy, Marc; Evrard, Marc

    2005-11-01

    The marine Callovo-Oxfordian clay formation is found at a depth around 410m in the eastern part of the Paris Basin (France). It is a very low permeability formation investigated by the French agency for nuclear waste management (ANDRA) to study the feasibility of a radioactive waste disposal. Examining hydrogeological and geochemical characteristics of the clay sequence may test confinement properties of this formation. This study uses chlorine isotopes to investigate long-term transport processes which may carry chemical elements out of the clay layer to the surrounding rocks. Detailed chlorine concentration and δ 37Cl depth profiles are examined using pore waters and aquifer waters sampled in the clay formation and its surrounding aquifers (the Dogger at the bottom and the Oxfordian/Kimmeridgian/Tithonian unit at the top). They are discussed in terms of chlorine budget and hydrogeological processes. Clay pore waters and aquifer waters show strong chlorine concentration depletion (<3000 mg/L) relative to the original marine interstitial water (˜19000 mg/L). This probably results from an early dilution by meteoric water in limestones (as also indicated by oxygen and hydrogen isotopes). A steep Cl-concentration gradient from the Dogger at ˜500m in depth (˜2500 mg/L) to the Oxfordian/Kimmeridgian/Tithonian aquifer near the surface (≈ 10 mg/L) is associated to a 'v-shaped' profile of the δ 37Cl values. Modelling Cl transport shows that a hydrodynamic dispersion process explains Cl concentration and δ 37Cl profiles in Oxfordian Limestone. This process implies a mean upward flux of chloride in the 2.6 10 -8-8.2 10 -8 mole/m 2/yr range from the clay formation towards upper limestones where a westward advective flow disperses the chloride. The modelling and knowledge of underground water transfer suggest a maximum effective Cl-hydrodynamic vertical dispersion coefficient (= vertical Cl-transport coefficient) of ˜7.6 10 -10 m 2/s. Chlorine transfer through the

  10. Organic-geochemical characterization of sedimentary organic matter deposited during the Valanginian carbon isotope excursion (Vocontian Basin, SE France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujau, Ariane; Heimhofer, Ulrich; Ostertag-Henning, Christian; Mutterlose, Jörg; Gréselle, Benjamin

    2010-05-01

    Terrestrial and marine sedimentary archives covering the Valanginian interval (136.8-133.9 Ma, Ogg et al., 2004) display a distinct positive delta13C-isotope excursion (CIE) of ~2.5 permil (Lini et al., 1992; Gröcke et al., 2005). The carbon isotope shift spans ~2.0 Ma and has been interpreted to reflect severe perturbations of the Early Cretaceous carbon cycle and paleoenvironmental conditions. According to different authors, the Valanginian CIE was accompanied by enhanced volcanic activity of the Paranà-Etendeka large igneous flood basalts, enhanced pCO2 (Lini et al., 1992; Weissert et al., 1998), widespread biocalcification crisis (Erba et al., 2004) and a distinct climatic cooling as evidenced by ice-rafted debris and glendonites from high-latitude sites. In addition, the positive CIE was assigned to be the result of an anoxic event, named the Weissert OAE (Erba et al., 2004). In this study, we investigate the composition and distribution of sedimentary organic matter (OM) deposited in a hemipelagic setting before, during, and after the Valanginian CIE. The aim of this study is to provide a detailed view on possible changes in OM deposition during a time of major paleoenvironmental and climatic stress. The chosen approach combines sedimentological and chemostratigraphical information (delta13Ccarb) with geochemical analysis of the bulk OM (incl. TOC, C/N, delta13Corg, Rock-Eval) and biomarker data. For this study, hemipelagic deposits located in the basinal part of the Vocontian Trough (SE France) covering the late Valanginian to early Hauterivian (Campylotoxus Zone to Radiatus Zone) (Gréselle 2007) have been sampled on a high resolution (sampling spacing of ~2/m). A total of three sections has been logged (La Charce, Vergol, Morenas), which consist of hemipelagic marl-limestone alternations and which allow for the construction of a composite succession. The delta13Ccarb values range between ~0.1 and 2.7 permil and show a characteristic stratigraphic trend

  11. Pre- and syn-ore zonation in Precambrian uraniferous sodic metasomatities

    SciTech Connect

    Omel'yanenko, B.I.; Mineyeva, I.G.

    1982-04-01

    Uraniferous-sodic metasomatites in Precambrian basement faults, in which a regular change in the mineral composition in vertical section has been established are described. The authors attempt to show that this pattern is controlled by the evolution of the solutions in time and space, and that it is an expression of a verticle metasomatic zonation. (JMT)

  12. The Robinson and Weatherly uraniferous pyrobitumen deposits near Placerville, San Miguel County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilmarth, V.R.; Vickers, R.C.

    1952-01-01

    Uranium deposits that contain uraniferous pyrobitumen of possible hydrothermal origin occur at the Weatherly and Robinson properties near Placerville, San Miguel County, Colo. These deposits were mined for copper, silver, and gold more than 50 years ago and were developed for uranium in 1950.

  13. Geology and recognition criteria for uraniferous humate deposits, Grants Uranium Region, New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.S.; Saucier, A.E.

    1981-01-01

    The geology of the uraniferous humate uranium deposits of the Grants Uranium Region, northwestern New Mexico, is summarized. The most important conclusions of this study are enumerated. Although the geologic characteristics of the uraniferous humate deposits of the Grants Uranium Region are obviously not common in the world, neither are they bizarre or coincidental. The source of the uranium in the deposits of the Grants Uranium Region is not known with certainty. The depositional environment of the host sediments was apparently the mid and distal portions of a wet alluvial fan system. The influence of structural control on the location and accumulation of the host sediments is now supported by considerable data. The host sediments possess numerous important characteristics which influenced the formation of uraniferous humate deposits. Ilmenite-magnetite distribution within potential host sandstones is believed to be the simplest and most useful regional alteration pattern related to this type of uranium deposit. A method is presented for organizing geologic observations into what is referred to as recognition criteria. The potential of the United States for new districts similar to the Grants Uranium Region is judged to be low based upon presently available geologic information. Continuing studies on uraniferous humate deposits are desirable in three particular areas.

  14. New sedimentological, structural and paleo-thermicity data in the Boucheville Basin (eastern North Pyrenean Zone, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chelalou, Roman; Nalpas, Thierry; Bousquet, Romain; Prevost, Maxime; Lahfid, Abdeltif; Poujol, Marc; Ringenbach, Jean-Claude; Ballard, Jean-François

    2016-03-01

    The Boucheville Basin is one of the easternmost Mesozoic basins of the North Pyrenean Zone (NPZ) that was opened during the Albian extension between the Iberian and European plates. During the extension, a HT/LP metamorphism event affected the Albian basins near the North Pyrenean Fault (NPF). Our aim is to better understand the evolution of the Boucheville Basin during the Albian-Cenomanian lithospheric thinning, which occurred under high thermal conditions. Sedimentological and structural data were collected in the basin and are used to produce synthetic stratigraphic columns of different portions of the basin and to restore selected cross-sections. North-south cross-sections show that the Boucheville Basin is a large and asymmetrical deformed syncline with inverted borders. Synthetic stratigraphic columns show that the sedimentation of the Boucheville Basin starts with carbonate platforms deposited under low bathymetric conditions showing slope deposits and evolves to deep bathymetric conditions of marls deposited without evidence of slopes. Raman spectroscopy on carbonaceous material (RSCM) was made on samples used to construct the sedimentological stratigraphic columns in order to obtain a temperature map of the Albian metamorphism. They reveal homogeneity in the temperatures between 500 and 600 °C. In situ LA-ICP-MS U-Pb dating of titanite grains found in a syn-deformation located in the Albian calcschists provided an age of ca. 97 Ma that gives a time constraint for both the deformation and metamorphism. These data are used collectively to propose a model for the tectono-sedimentary and metamorphic evolution of the Boucheville Basin during the Albian extension.

  15. Evaluation of a landscape evolution model to simulate stream piracies: Insights from multivariable numerical tests using the example of the Meuse basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaïchouche, Abed; Stab, Olivier; Tessier, Bruno; Cojan, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    In landscapes dominated by fluvial erosion, the landscape morphology is closely related to the hydrographic network system. In this paper, we investigate the hydrographic network reorganization caused by a headward piracy mechanism between two drainage basins in France, the Meuse and the Moselle. Several piracies occurred in the Meuse basin during the past one million years, and the basin's current characteristics are favorable to new piracies by the Moselle river network. This study evaluates the consequences over the next several million years of a relative lowering of the Moselle River (and thus of its basin) with respect to the Meuse River. The problem is addressed with a numerical modeling approach (landscape evolution model, hereafter LEM) that requires empirical determinations of parameters and threshold values. Classically, fitting of the parameters is based on analysis of the relationship between the slope and the drainage area and is conducted under the hypothesis of equilibrium. Application of this conventional approach to the capture issue yields incomplete results that have been consolidated by a parametric sensitivity analysis. The LEM equations give a six-dimensional parameter space that was explored with over 15,000 simulations using the landscape evolution model GOLEM. The results demonstrate that stream piracies occur in only four locations in the studied reach near the city of Toul. The locations are mainly controlled by the local topography and are model-independent. Nevertheless, the chronology of the captures depends on two parameters: the river concavity (given by the fluvial advection equation) and the hillslope erosion factor. Thus, the simulations lead to three different scenarios that are explained by a phenomenon of exclusion or a string of events.

  16. The Cenozoic history of the Armorican Massif: New insights from the deep CDB1 borehole (Rennes Basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Hugues; Bessin, Paul; Saint-Marc, Pierre; Châteauneuf, Jean-Jacques; Bourdillon, Chantal; Wyns, Robert; Guillocheau, François

    2016-05-01

    Borehole CDB1 (675.05 m) crosses the deepest Cenozoic sedimentary basin of the Armorican Massif, the Rennes Basin, to reach the underlying basement at a depth of 404.92 m, made up of the Late Neoproterozoic to Early Cambrian Brioverian Group, weathered down to 520 m depth. The basin's Cenozoic deposits are divided into seven formations, ranging from Early-Middle Bartonian to Late Pliocene in age. Coastal sediments at the very base, along with a thick Priabonian lacustrine episode, imply a major revision of the regional palaeogeography, whilst a very steady and low-energy lacustrine-palustrine environment throughout the Priabonian and Early Rupelian argue for an aggradational system associated with uniform subsidence. Palynological assemblages attest to environmental and climatic changes through the Eocene and Early Oligocene, in accordance with regional and global trends (Eocene-Oligocene Transition).

  17. Mapping of a buried basement combining aeromagnetic, gravity and petrophysical data: The substratum of southwest Paris Basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptiste, Julien; Martelet, Guillaume; Faure, Michel; Beccaletto, Laurent; Reninger, Pierre-Alexandre; Perrin, José; Chen, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Aeromagnetic and gravity data have proven to be among the most effective methods for mapping deeply buried basin/basement interfaces. However, the data interpretation generally suffers from ambiguities, due to the non-uniqueness of the gravity and magnetic signatures. Here, we tie the gravity and magnetic signatures with a petrophysical characterization of the lithologies outcropping around the French Paris Basin. Our methodology investigates the lithology and structure of its hidden Variscan substratum at the junction between the Armorican Massif and Massif Central. Our approach is based on the combination of potential field data, magnetic susceptibilities measured in the field, density values of sample rocks and information documented in boreholes, in order to propose a new interpretative geological map of the buried substratum of the Paris Basin. The petrophysical description is combined with geophysical patterns of the substratum, mapped through statistical unsupervised classification of suitably selected magnetic and gravity maps. The first step of interpretation consists in extending the outcropping major structures below the Meso-Cenozoic sedimentary cover of the Paris Basin. The litho-structural units, in between these major structures, are then interpreted separately. The second step consists in assigning lithologies within each unit, with respect to its magnetization and density (as derived from the petrophysical compilation), and mapping its extension under cover, integrating punctual borehole information. Overall, with a special emphasis on relating geophysical signatures and petrophysical characteristics of litho-structural units, this methodology permits a precise structural and lithological cartography of a segment of the buried Variscan substratum. In the southwestern part of the Paris Basin, this approach reveals: i) the limited eastward extension of Central Brittany, ii) the eastward extension of the major Cholet fault, iii) the emphasis on N150E

  18. Identification of spatial and temporal contributions of rainfalls to flash floods using neural network modelling: case study on the Lez basin (southern France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darras, T.; Borrell Estupina, V.; Kong-A-Siou, L.; Vayssade, B.; Johannet, A.; Pistre, S.

    2015-10-01

    Flash floods pose significant hazards in urbanised zones and have important implications financially and for humans alike in both the present and future due to the likelihood that global climate change will exacerbate their consequences. It is thus of crucial importance to improve the models of these phenomena especially when they occur in heterogeneous and karst basins where they are difficult to describe physically. Toward this goal, this paper applies a recent methodology (Knowledge eXtraction (KnoX) methodology) dedicated to extracting knowledge from a neural network model to better determine the contributions and time responses of several well-identified geographic zones of an aquifer. To assess the interest of this methodology, a case study was conducted in southern France: the Lez hydrosystem whose river crosses the conurbation of Montpellier (400 000 inhabitants). Rainfall contributions and time transfers were estimated and analysed in four geologically delimited zones to estimate the sensitivity of flash floods to water coming from the surface or karst. The Causse de Viols-le-Fort is shown to be the main contributor to flash floods and the delay between surface and underground flooding is estimated to be 3 h. This study will thus help operational flood warning services to better characterise critical rainfall and develop measurements to design efficient flood forecasting models. This generic method can be applied to any basin with sufficient rainfall-run-off measurements.

  19. Identification of spatial and temporal contributions of rainfalls to flash floods using neural network modelling: case study on the Lez Basin (Southern France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darras, T.; Borrell Estupina, V.; Kong-A-Siou, L.; Vayssade, B.; Johannet, A.; Pistre, S.

    2015-04-01

    Flash floods pose significant hazards in urbanised zones and have important human and financial implications in both the present and future due to the likelihood that global climate change will exacerbate their consequences. It is thus of crucial importance to better model these phenomena especially when they occur in heterogeneous and karst basins where they are difficult to describe physically. Toward this goal, this paper applies a recent methodology (KnoX methodology) dedicated to extracting knowledge from a neural network model to better determine the contributions and time responses of several well-identified geographic zones of an aquifer. To assess the interest of this methodology, a case study was conducted in Southern France: the Lez hydrosystem whose river crosses the conurbation of Montpellier (400 000 inhabitants). Rainfall contributions and time transfers were estimated and analysed in four geologically-delimited zones to estimate the sensitivity of flash floods to water coming from the surface or karst. The Causse de Viol-le-Fort is shown to be the main contributor to flash floods and the delay between surface and underground flooding is estimated to be three hours. This study will thus help operational flood warning services to better characterise critical rainfall and develop measurements to design efficient flood forecasting models. This generic method can be applied to any basin with sufficient rainfall-runoff measurements.

  20. Climatic precession is the main driver of Early Cretaceous sedimentation in the Vocontian Basin (France): Evidence from the Valanginian Orpierre succession

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulila, Slah; Charbonnier, Guillaume; Galbrun, Bruno; Gardin, Silvia

    2015-07-01

    The Valanginian sediments outcropping in the Vocontian Basin (SE France) exhibit striking marl-limestone alternations, which were formed under the influence of orbital forcing and which have served for geochronological and paleoenvironmental studies. Previous studies have suggested an obliquity forcing during the Late Valanginian interval, reflecting specific environmental conditions such as polar ice. Using a cyclostratigraphic correlation of previously studied sections and performing time-series analysis on the most complete Late Valanginian interval we argue that the climatic precession cycle is the primary driver of these marl-limestone alternations. In addition, we highlight the modulation of the precession by the ~ 100 and 405 kyr eccentricity cycles. We suggest that the cyclostratigraphic misinterpretation (i.e., obliquity-forcing hypothesis) results mainly from poorly preserved 405 kyr eccentricity cycles, due to local hiatuses and/or "missed beats". This study shows the potential of cyclostratigraphic correlations for the detection and quantification of differential hiatuses and/or "missed beats" within intrabasinal sequences, hence providing constraints on cyclostratigraphic interpretations. The recorded 405 kyr eccentricity cycle is of prominent amplitude, and controlled the fourth-order sea-level sequences. These latter are faithfully detected through cyclostratigraphically inferred sedimentation rate. Finally, we show that the well-known, pronounced lithostratigraphic markers/intervals in the basin were orbitally paced by the 405 kyr eccentricity extrema. This is a good argument for the strong impact of this cyclicity on the sedimentary processes, especially during greenhouse periods.

  1. Long-term hydrodynamic response induced by past climatic and geomorphologic forcing: The case of the Paris basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jost, A.; Violette, S.; Gonçalvès, J.; Ledoux, E.; Guyomard, Y.; Guillocheau, F.; Kageyama, M.; Ramstein, G.; Suc, J.-P.

    In the framework of safe underground storage of radioactive waste in low-permeability layers, it is essential to evaluate the mobility of deep groundwaters over timescales of several million years. On these timescales, the environmental evolution of a repository should depend upon a range of natural processes that are primarily driven by climate and geomorphologic variations. In this paper, the response of the Paris basin groundwater system to variations in its hydrodynamic boundary conditions induced by past climate and geodynamic changes over the last five million years is investigated. A three-dimensional transient modelling of the Paris basin aquifer/aquitard system was developed using the code NEWSAM (Ecole des Mines de Paris, ENSMP). The geometry and hydrodynamic parameters of the model originate from a basin model, NEWBAS (ENSMP), built to simulate the geological history of the basin. Geomorphologic evolution is deduced from digital elevation model analysis, which allows to estimate river-valley incision and alpine surrection. Climate forcing results from palaeoclimate modelling experiments using the LMDz atmospheric general circulation model (Institut Pierre Simon Laplace) with a refined spatial resolution, for the present, the Last Glacial Maximum (21 ka) and the Middle Pliocene Warmth (∼3 Ma). The water balance is computed by the distributed hydrological model MODSUR (ENSMP). Results about the simulated evolution of piezometric heads in the system in response to the altered boundary conditions are presented, in particular in the vicinity of ANDRA’s Bure potential repository site within the Callovo-Oxfordian argillaceous layer. For the present, the comparison of head patterns between steady state and time dependent simulation shows little differences for aquifer layers close to the surface but suggests a transient state of the current system in the main aquitards of the basin and in the deep aquifers, characterized by abnormally low fluid potentials

  2. Reconstruction of pre-rift Pyrenean relief in the Oligo-Quitanian Camargue Basin (Gulf of Lion passive margin, SE France): Implications on thermal history of basins

    SciTech Connect

    Benedicto, A.; Labaume, P.; Seranne, M.

    1995-08-01

    Fault reconstruction techniques commonly assume horizontal pre-rift level datum to calculate fault geometry from hanging-wall geometry or viceversa. Example from Camargue basin shows that neglecting pre-rift relief may lead to important errors in calculating the fault and hanging-wall geometries, and the total extension. These errors have direct implications on reconstruction of the thermal history of basins. The Camargue basin results front NW-SE extension and rifting of the Gulf of Lion passive margin. More than 4000m of Oligo-Aquitanian syn-rift series unconformably overlie a crust previously thickened during Pyrenean orogeny. The half-graben basin is controlled by the SE-dipping listric Nimes basement fault which generated a typical roll-over. As both fault and hanging-wall geometries are constrained, the pre-rift surface topography can be restored, using three reconstruction techniques. Either the constant-bed-length and constant-heave techniques produce a depression in the axis of the basin and a relief (1500m and 12(X)m respectively) atop the roll-over. The simple-shear (a=60{degrees}) technique generates a 1500m topography atop the roll-over, more coherent with regional data. Testing the hypothesis of a pre-rift horizontal datum leads to a roll-over 1400m too deep. Pre-rift surface elevation corresponds to the residual topography herited from the Pyrenean orogeny. Consequently, there has been some 1000m subsidence more than predicted by the syn-rift sedimentary record.

  3. Extension of the Mid- to Lower Crust with Orogenic Inheritance: Examples from the Death Valley Region (Western US), and the Mauleon Basin (Southwestern France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, R. D.; Hayman, N. W.; Kelly, E. D.; Lavier, L. L.

    2015-12-01

    Continental margins exhibit a range of widths and symmetries defined by the strain patterns that arise during extension and rifting. An important pattern in this respect is the early localization of extension into necking zones. The rheology of the lower crust plays a large role in this localization, and can be affected by inherited orogenic structures, fabrics, and mineral assemblages. Here, we further evaluate the role of orogenic fabrics in continental extension using microstructural observations and thermodynamic modeling of geological sections exposed in the Funeral and Black Mountains of the Death Valley region, California, and from the Mauleon Basin, France. The Death Valley region sits within the Basin-and-Range region of broadly distributed Cenozoic extension, over a relatively flat and deep moho. In contrast, in the Mauleon basin, Cretaceous extension accommodated mantle exhumation, and was strongly localized in older Hercynian orogenic crust. In both areas, mid- to lower crustal rocks are characterized by inherited migmatitic fabrics overprinted by zones of localized, extensional fabrics. Mineral assemblages that formed over a P-T cooling path define the fabrics in each field area. The high-temperature fabrics record decompression-melting due to late- to post-orogenic collapse. Yet, the two field areas show contrasting retrograde assemblages, which are hypothesized to have resulted from changes in the local effective bulk composition produced by differences in melt segregation. At subsequent extensional stages, mid- to lower crustal deformation resulted in the transposition of the inherited post-orogenic fabrics, documented with quartz fabric analysis (including EBSD). The two contrasting regions show how the rheology of inherited orogenic lower crust responds to differences in melt-segregation and metamorphic histories, potentially controlling margin structural evolution.

  4. Remanence of lead pollution in an urban river system: a multi-scale temporal and spatial study in the Seine River basin, France.

    PubMed

    Ayrault, S; Le Pape, P; Evrard, O; Priadi, C R; Quantin, C; Bonté, P; Roy-Barman, M

    2014-03-01

    Total lead (Pb) concentration and Pb isotopic ratio ((206)Pb/(20)7Pb) were determined in 140 samples from the Seine River basin (France), covering a period of time from 1945 to 2011 and including bed sediments (bulk and size fractionated samples), suspended particulate matter (SPM), sediment cores, and combined sewer overflow (CSO) particulate matter to constrain the spatial and temporal variability of the lead sources at the scale of the contaminated Seine River basin. A focus on the Orge River subcatchment, which exhibits a contrasted land-use pattern, allows documenting the relation between hydrodynamics, urbanization, and contamination sources. The study reveals that the Pb contamination due to leaded gasoline that peaked in the 1980s has a very limited impact in the river nowadays. In the upstream Seine River, the isotopic ratio analysis suggests a pervasive contamination which origin (coal combustion and/or gasoline lead) should be clarified. The current SPM contamination trend follows the urbanization/industrialization spatial trend. Downstream of Paris, the lead from historical use originating from the Rio Tinto mine, Spain ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.1634 ± 0.0001) is the major Pb source. The analysis of the bed sediments (bulk and grain size fractionated) highlights the diversity of the anthropogenic lead sources in relation with the diversity of the human activities that occurred in this basin over the years. The "urban" source, defined by waste waters including the CSO samples ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.157 ± 0.003), results of a thorough mixing of leaded gasoline with "historical" lead over the years. Finally, a contamination mixing scheme related to hydrodynamics is proposed. PMID:24234814

  5. Uraniferous opal, Virgin Valley, Nevada: conditions of formation and implications for uranium exploration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    Uraniferous, fluorescent opal, which occurs in tuffaceous sedimentary rocks at Virgin Valley, Nevada, records the temperature and composition of uranium-rich solutions as well as the time of uranium-silica coprecipitation. Results are integrated with previous geologic and geochronologic data for the area to produce a model for uranium mobility that may be used to explore for uranium deposits in similar geologic settings. Uraniferous opal occurs as replacements of diatomite, or silicic air-fall ash layers in tuffaceous lakebeds of the Virgin Valley Formation (Miocene) of Merriam (1907). Fission-track radiography shows uranium to be homogeneously dispersed throughout the opal structure, suggesting coprecipitation of dissolved uranium and silica gel. Fluid inclusions preserved within opal replacements of diatomite have homogenization temperatures in the epithermal range and are of low salinity. Four samples of opal from one locality all have U-Pb apparent ages which suggest uraniferous opal precipitation in late Pliocene time. These ages correspond to a period of local, normal faulting, and highangle faults may have served as vertical conduits for transport of deep, thermalized ground water to shallower levels. Lateral migration of rising solutions occurred at intersections of faults with permeable strata. Silica and some uranium were dissolved from silica-rich host strata of 5-20 ppm original uranium content and reprecipitated as the solutions cooled. The model predicts that in similar geologic settings, ore-grade concentrations of uranium will occur in permeable strata that intersect high-angle faults and that contain uranium source rocks as well as efficient reductant traps for uranium. In the absence of sufficient quantities of reductant materials, uranium will be flushed from the system or will accumulate in low-grade disseminated hosts such as uraniferous opal. ?? 1982.

  6. Capability of ERTS-1 imagery to investigate geological and structural features in a sedimentary basin (Bassin Parisien, France)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavelier, C.; Scanvic, J. Y.; Weecksteen, G.; Zizerman, A.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary study of the MSS imagery of a sedimentary basin whose structure is regular is reported. Crops and natural vegetation are distributed all over the site located under temperate climate. Ground data available concern plant species geology and tectonic and are correlated with results from ERTS 1 imagery. This comparison shows a good correlation. The main geological units are detected or enhanced by way of agricultural land use and/or natural vegetation. Alluvial deposits are outlined by vegetation grass land and poplar trees. Some spatial relationship of geostructures, suspected until now, are identified or extended in associating results from different spectral bands.

  7. The metallic contamination of the Loire River Basin (France): Spatial and temporal evolution with a multi-scale approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhivert, Elie; Grosbois, Cécile; Desmet, Marc; Curie, Florence; Moatar, Florentina; Meybeck, Michel; Bourrain, Xavier

    2013-04-01

    Since the early 19th century, important agricultural, mining and industrial development has been active in Western Europe. The Loire River Basin (117,800 km2, total population of 8.4 Mp) presents a long history of human pressures, reflecting temporal evolution of technological and urban activities (Grosbois et al, 2012). Hence, sediments of the Loire River and its tributaries have recorded partially and/or totally organic, nutrients and trace element contamination. Nowadays, can we determine history of metallic emissions in sediment records and what is the part of these past inputs relative to the actual contamination? Can we point out historical sources of contamination? To answer these questions, two approaches were used in this study. Firstly, in four coring sites in the Loire River Basin, a temporal re-enacting of metallic contamination trapped in sediments was carried out. Based on age-model and inter-element correlations in each core, trace element signals were deconvoluted and compared to actual and specific chemical signatures of anthropogenic inputs (300 bed sediment samples collected downstream of former and current industrial sites like mines, smelters, planting/coating plants, glassware and car industries, metal recycling plants and waste water treatment plants). The second approach was at a larger basin scale, comparing location of these former and actual contamination sources with explanatory factors such as geology, evolution of population density, of industrial activities and of land use. This was done in the main stream of the Loire River and its major tributaries and locally at a smaller scale (0-500 km²). All these approaches emphasized three temporal periods of metallic contamination: (i) the first period begins with the 20th century until 1950, it corresponds to the first increase of major contaminants like Ag, As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb, Sb, Sn and Zn; some trace elements like Hg and Sn seem to be present in the Loire sediments much earlier as they

  8. Zinc mobility in an infiltration basin (Lyon city, France): constraints from Zn stable isotope ratios in the plant and sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queyron, M.; Aucour, A.-M.; Pichat, S.; Saulais, M.; Bedell, J.-P.

    2012-04-01

    Infiltration basins are stormwater management techniques that are widely used. The settling of stormwater particles leads to a contaminated sediment layer. Wild plants can colonize these basins. They can play a role on the fate of heavy metals either directly by uptake or indirectly by modifying the forms of the metal in the sediment. Plant interactions with metals depend on a large number of factors, including the type of metal, the plant species and plant's growth stage. Moreover, during the dormant period of each year, the shoots die back. The resulting dead matter is returned to the basin substrate where it gradually decomposes through a combination of leaching and biological action that implicates a complete cycle for metal mobility. In order to model the metal cycle in the system, we consider the plant root, aerial part, litter deposits, sediments as the main Zn pools. The aim of this study is to assess the Zn mobility between these pools. The Zn concentration and isotope ratios were analyzed in the different Zn pools for two dominant species of the studied infiltration basin (Phalaris arundinaceae, Typha latifolia) and for a complete biological cycle from spring to winter. Zn stable isotopes are expected to fractionate with plant uptake and translocation and thus can help to assess the effect of the plant biochemical processes on Zn mobility. Whilst the sediments (1100-1400 ppm Zn DW) and litter (600 ppm) are highly concentrated in Zn, the plant aerial parts (100-250 ppm) are less concentrated than the roots (200-400 ppm). The ^66Zn significantly differ between the sediment (0.15 to 0.19‰) and aerial parts of the plants (-0.03 to -0.08‰) hence confirming the occurrence of depletion in heavy isotopes with plant uptake and translocation to shoot. The ^66Zn of roots fall close to the sediment. The roots show a small depletion in heavy isotopes between mid-summer (0.18‰) and winter (0.27‰). This observation and the fact that the litter is enriched in

  9. Impacts of Climate Change and of Anthropisation on Water Resources: from the Risk Assessment to Adaptation, the Case of the Seine Basin (including Paris, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habets, F.; Viennot, P.; Thierion, C.; Vergnes, J. P.; Ait Kaci, A.; Caballero, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Seine river, located in the temperate climate of northern France and flowing over a large sedimentary basins that hosts multilayer aquifers, is characterized by small temporal variations of its discharge. However, the presence of a megacity (Paris) and a wide area of intensive agriculture combined with climate change puts pressure on the water resources both in terms of quality and quantity. Previous research projects have estimated the impact of climate change on the water resource of the Seine basin, with the uncertainties associated to climate projections, hydrological models or downscaling methods. The water resource was projected to decrease by -14 % ± 10 % in 2050 and -28 +/-16% in 2100. This led to new studies that focus on the combined impact of climate change and adaptations. The tested adaptations are: a reduction of the groundwater abstractions, evolution of land use, development of small dams to « harvest water » or artificial recharge of aquifers. The communication of the results of these projects to stakeholders have led to the development on new indicators that better express the risk on the water resource management, especially for the groundwater. For instance maps of the evolution of piezometric head are difficult to interpret. To better express the risk evolution, a new indicator was defined: the evolution of the groundwater crisis duration, ie, the period when the charge of the aquifer is below the crisis piezometric level defined by the stakeholders. Such crisis piezometric levels are used to help defining the period when the groundwater abstraction should be reduced. Such maps are more efficient to communicate with water resources managers. This communication will focus on the results from the MEDDE Explore 2070 and ANR Oracle projects.

  10. Sedimentation and palaeogeography of the eastern part of the Paris Basin (France) at the Middle Upper Jurassic boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collin, Pierre-Yves; Courville, Philippe

    2006-10-01

    The Middle-Upper Jurassic boundary corresponds to a period of far-reaching changes in sedimentation patterns related to alterations in the palaeoclimate and in the global carbon cycle. Marl deposits were laid down in the east of the Paris Basin at this time and ANDRA has selected these lithological units as the site for an underground study laboratory. The build-up of these marls is the result, among other things, of the area long having been a shelf and of more rapid subsidence from the Early Callovian to the Early Oxfordian. Changes are detected between areas on either side of the Vittel Fault from the onset of the mid-Oxfordian onwards. To cite this article: P.-Y. Collin, P. Courville, C. R. Geoscience ••• (••••).

  11. A paleomagnetic study of Permian and Triassic rocks from the Toulon-Cuers Basin, SE France: Evidence for intra-Pangea block rotations in the Permian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubele, K.; Bachtadse, V.; Muttoni, G.; Ronchi, A.; Durand, M.

    2012-06-01

    The identification of a massive shear zone separating Gondwana from Laurasia during late Palaeozoic times is one of the prerequisites for the controversial Pangea B to A transition. Here we present new paleomagnetic data from Permian and Triassic sediments and volcanic rocks from the Toulon-Cuers basin, SE France, likely to be situated within this intra-Pangea shear zone. A total of 150 samples from 14 sites were collected in the field; 108 samples yielded reliable paleomagnetic component directions based on stepwise thermal demagnetization up to maximum temperatures of 690°C. After removal of an initial viscous magnetic component from room temperature up to 200°C, a second component of reverse polarity, oriented to the south-and-up, was identified in almost all samples of Permian age. The Triassic samples behave similarly, with the notable difference that here, two polarities of magnetization are present. Positive field tests suggest the primary character of this characteristic magnetization. The latitudes of the resulting Early to Mid Permian paleopoles agree well with the corresponding segment of the apparent polar wander path (APWP) for Europe, whereas the longitudes are strung out along a small circle segment, indicating relative rotations between the sampled regions and stable Europe. The Triassic poles, instead, plot close to the Triassic segment of the European APWP and provide an upper time limit for the observed rotations. These results suggest a wrench faulting event associated with intra-Pangea crustal instability and transformation during the Permian.

  12. Ground penetrating radar application in a shallow marine Oxfordian limestone sequence located on the eastern flank of the Paris Basin, NE France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagallier, Guy; Laitinen, Ari I.; Malartre, Fabrice; Van Campenhout, Ignace P. A. M.; Veeken, Paul C. H.

    2000-02-01

    A Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey has been carried out in Upper Jurassic limestones located on the eastern flank of the Paris Basin (NE France). The potential of the investigation method is assessed for delineating geologically meaningful stratifications in the shallow subsurface. The fundamentals of the GPR technique are described. Penetration depth and vertical resolution depends on the soil conditions, the characteristics of input signal and the configuration of the transmitter-receiver assembly. In the studied carbonates the penetration level is rather good and the electromagnetic signal reaches up to 1000 nanoseconds maximum (i.e. approximately 55 m). Several depositional units are outlined on the GPR profiles. Six different lithological units are recognised with distinct GPR reflection characteristics. The profiles illustrate the internal 3D organisation of the carbonate platform and its geometry. They provide detailed insight into the nature of an Oxfordian reefal build-up. The high-resolution subsurface model is directly calibrated with geological field observations and it results in a predictive 3D depositional working model. The GPR method is a non-destructive remote sensing technique that is cost effective. The method is considered complementary to other conventional high-resolution reservoir characterisation studies. It represents a powerful investigation tool in earth science studies concerning the imaging of the structure of the shallow subsurface.

  13. Strontium distribution and origins in a natural clayey formation (Callovian-Oxfordian, Paris Basin, France): A new sequential extraction procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerouge, C.; Gaucher, E. C.; Tournassat, C.; Negrel, P.; Crouzet, C.; Guerrot, C.; Gautier, A.; Michel, P.; Vinsot, A.; Buschaert, S.

    2010-05-01

    Strontium is a good monitor of geochemical processes in natural clayey formations. In the Callovian-Oxfordian formation of Bure in France, strontium is sorbed on clay minerals and carried by carbonates, detrital minerals and accessory celestite. In order to determine the strontium distribution among these different phases, four-step sequential extractions (1. cobalt hexamine trichloride, 2. acetic acid, 3. EDTA and 4. tri-acid) were performed on samples from different levels of the clayey formation. The leachates were also analyzed for strontium isotopes, in order to determine the strontium origins. This sequential procedure is well suited to determining strontium distribution in claystones, although it is less efficient in clay-rich limestones and in celestite-rich samples. The carbonates (38-47% of the total strontium) show 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios (0.7070-0.7071) that have recorded the isotopic composition of the Callovian-Oxfordian seawater. Diagenetic carbonates (dolomite, ankerite and siderite) have almost not incorporated any strontium, which has been trapped by celestite during the late diagenesis. The major part of the celestite shows 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios (0.7069-0.7070) quite close to the primary carbonates. However, a second generation of celestite (0.7074) shows a slight 87Sr-enrichment and is isotopically in equilibrium with the exchangeable strontium (27-48% of the total strontium with a mean 87Sr/ 86Sr value of 0.70745) and the present-day porewater (0.7074). This very low 87Sr-enrichment could be explained by the partial destabilisation of detrital minerals (feldspars, micas, clays) which exhibit 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios consistent with their pristine Hercynian origin (0.7229-0.7350). Diffusion of strontium from the subjacent Dogger aquifers (0.7076-0.7082) could also be invoked to explain the slight 87Sr-enrichment.

  14. Impact of erosion and transfer processes in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon contamination of water bodies in the Seine River basin (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gateuille, David; Evrard, Olivier; Moreau-Guigon, Elodie; Chevreuil, Marc; Mouchel, Jean-Marie

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) reach problematic concentrations in water and sediment of numerous streams of the world. In the Seine River (France), they prevent to achieve the good chemical status enforced by European law. However, the provenance and the fate of PAHs found in rivers are still poorly understood. Here, we combined chemical and fallout radionuclide measurements conducted on a large number of suspended sediment (SS) (n = 231) and soil (n = 37) samples collected at 62 sites during an entire hydrological year. A model was developed to estimate mean PAH concentration in sediment from the population density in the drainage area and good relationships were found during both low stage and flood periods. Influence of human population also appeared to be stronger during the latter period. However, some discrepancies between measured and modeled PAH concentrations were observed and the role of the origin of SS was investigated. During the low flow period, the observed differences were explained by the provenance of river sediment (agricultural topsoil vs. eroded channel banks). Time-averaged PAH concentrations measured in suspended sediment collected in the catchments where erosion of agricultural topsoil dominated were systematically higher than the predicted values. On the contrary, in the catchments where erosion mainly occurred in deep soil or river embankment, the supply of particles protected from atmospheric fallout contamination led to measure concentrations below the predicted values. As this relationship between population density and SS contamination was no longer valid during the flood period, the role of transfer times was also investigated. The percentages of freshly eroded sediment in samples were determined by comparing the 7Be/210Pb ratio in rainfall and SS. An annual turn-over cycle of sediment was observed but no relationship was found between PAH contamination and residence times of particles within rivers. This result suggested

  15. Capability of ERTS-1 imagery to investigate geological and structural features in a sedimentary basin (Bassin Parisien, France)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weecksteen, G. (Principal Investigator); Cavelier, C.; Scanvic, J. Y.; Zizerman, A.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The region covered by the MSS images has the benefit of complete geological mapping at scales of 1:80,000, 1:320,000, and 1:1,000,000. Comparison of imagery and exisiting geological maps, particularly the 1:1,000,000 scale, produces important information: (1) Good correspondence is seen between large units distinguished on the images and the concentric strata of the Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Paleocene on the map. (2) Comparison of MSS images with the hydrogeological map of the Parisian basin at 1:500,000 removes all ambiguity with regard to lithological variations. Among the many faults revealed, only three were considered: (1) the Metz; (2)Juranze; and (3) the double fault of the Marne. Imagery shows a conspicuous alignment of the Metz fault unknown until now and ending near Montereau against the group of north-south faults between Montargis and Bourbon l'Archambault. MSS images show that the Juranze fault divides beyond Brienne into two branches of equal importance. The northern one represents the known fault, the southern one was not known until now, but the convergence of the faults constitutes a tectonic trap. The double fault of the Marne is known for a total length of 50 km. ERTS-1 imagery suggest a prolongation toward the southeast which could bring its length to 110 km.

  16. Molecular and bulk isotopic analyses of organic matter in marls of the Mulhouse Basin (Tertiary, Alsace, France)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollander, D. J.; Sinninghe Damste, J. S.; Hayes, J. M.; de Leeuw, J. W.; Huc, A. Y.

    1993-01-01

    Contents of 13C in kerogens and carbonates in 21 samples from a core of the MAX borehole, Mulhouse Evaporite Basin, range from -27.3 to -23.5 and -3.7 to -1.8% vs PDB, respectively. Organic nitrogen in the same samples is enriched in 15N relative to atmospheric N2 by 12.2-15.7%. Hydrogen indices and delta values for kerogens vary systematically with facies, averaging 493 mg HC/g Corg and -25.7% in the most saline facies (dominated by inputs from aquatic sources) and 267 mg HC/g Corg and -23.7% in the least saline facies (50/50 aquatic/terrigenous). Values of delta were measured for individual aliphatic hydrocarbons from three samples representing three different organic facies. For all samples, terrigenous inputs were unusually rich in 13C, the estimated delta value for bulk terrigenous debris, apparently derived partly from CAM plants, being -22.5%. In the most saline facies, isotopic evidence indicates the mixing of 13C-depleted products of photosynthetic bacteria with 13C-enriched products of halotolerant eukaryotic algae. At lower salinities, a change in the producer community is marked by a decrease in the 13C content of algal lipids. The content of 13C in algal lipids increases in the least saline facies, due either to succession of different organisms or to decreased concentrations of dissolved CO2.

  17. Borehole magnetostratigraphy, absolute age dating, and correlation of sedimentary rocks, with examples from the Paris Basin, France

    SciTech Connect

    Bouisset, P.M. ); Augustin, A.M. )

    1993-04-01

    Total and CEA have conceived and developed two new logging tools which allow continuous, precise, and accurate in-situ magnetic measurements within weakly magnetized sedimentary rocks encountered in uncased industry drilled wells. The combination of these magnetic measurements permits for the first time continuous determination of natural remanent magnetization (NRM) polarities occurring in the logged section. The resulting well magnetostratigraphic sequence (WMS) which may be recognized from well to well (magnetostratigraphic correlations), may also be correlative to a geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS) of reference magnetostratigraphic scale (RMS), given adequate dating tie points and lack of noticeable remagnetizations. Application of this method to the Upper Jurrasic formation in four wells of the Paris basin has yielded promising results for both stratigraphic and near absolute age correlations as well as determination of facies diachronisms. The comparison of results obtained from magnetic measurements and from sequence stratigraphy analysis shows that third-order sequence boundaries may be correlative to geomagnetic reversals, but may also be diachronous in wells 80 km or less apart. The potential of borehole magnetic measurements as presented in this paper is still under investigation. However, these encouraging initial results show that this new investigating and dating method could be of great help in the analysis of subsurface stratigraphy by extending the concepts of magnetostratigraphy from the outcrops and laboratory directly into borehole logging. 81 refs., 18 figs.

  18. Application of strontium isotope measurements to trace sediment sources in an upstream agricultural catchment (Loire River basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gall, Marion; Evrard, Olivier; Thil, François; Foucher, Anthony; Salvador-Blanes, Sébastien; Cerdan, Olivier; Ayrault, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion is recognized as one of the main processes of land degradation in agricultural areas. It accelerates the supply of sediment to the rivers and degrades water quality. To limit those impacts and optimize management programs in such areas, sources of sediment need to be identified and sediment transport to be controlled. Here, we determined the sources of suspended sediment in the Louroux (24 km², French Loire River basin), a small catchment representative of lowland cultivated environments of Northwestern Europe. In this catchment, channels have been reshaped and 220 tile drain outlets have been installed over the last several decades. As a result, soil erosion and sediment fluxes have increased drastically. The variation of 87Sr/86Sr ratios, driven by the weathering of rocks with different ages and chemical composition, may reflect the mixing of different sediment sources. Strontium isotopic ratios (87Sr/86Sr) were therefore determined in potential soil sources, suspended particulate matter (SPM) and a sediment core sampled in the Louroux Pond at the catchment outlet. Soil, SPM and core samples displayed significantly different isotopic signatures. 87Sr/86Sr ratios in soil samples varied from 0.712763 to 0.724631 ± 0.000017 (2σ, n=20). Highest values were observed in silicic parts of the catchment whereas the lower values were identified in a calcareous area close to the Louroux Pond. 87Sr/86Sr ratios in SPM (0.713660 to 0.725749 ± 0.000017, 2σ, n=20) plotted between the soil and sediment core (0.712255 to 0.716415 ± 0.000017, 2σ, n=12), suggesting the presence of particles originating from at least two different lithological sources, i.e. silicic rocks and carbonate material. Variations in 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the outlet core sample were used to reconstruct the sedimentary dynamics in the catchment during the last decades. These results will guide the future implementation of appropriate management practices aiming to reduce erosion in upstream

  19. No evidence for anoxia during the Valanginian carbon isotope event—An organic-geochemical study from the Vocontian Basin, SE France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujau, Ariane; Heimhofer, Ulrich; Ostertag-Henning, Christian; Gréselle, Benjamin; Mutterlose, Jörg

    2012-07-01

    The Valanginian time interval (Early Cretaceous) is characterized by a positive carbon isotope excursion (CIE) which represents the first of several prominent Cretaceous δ13C anomalies. A combined chemostratigraphic and organic-geochemical approach has been chosen to investigate the composition and distribution of sedimentary organic matter (OM) deposited before the Valanginian CIE, during its onset and plateau-phase. This was done to test whether this CIE is accompanied by changes in marine primary production and/or OM preservation. Biostratigraphically well-calibrated deposits from two hemipelagic sections located in the Vocontian Basin of SE France are used as sedimentary archives. A newly established high-resolution δ13C record covering the composite succession shows a characteristic Valanginian pattern and enables a detailed correlation with existing carbon isotope curves from the northern Tethyan margin. The analyzed solvent extractable fraction of the sedimentary OM is mainly composed of a marine origin with an admixture of land plant material. Variations in specific biomarkers for cyanobacteria (2α-methyl-hopanes), dinoflagellates (dinosterane or 4-desmethyl-23,24-dimethyl steranes) and terrigenous plant-derived OM (odd-numbered long-chain n-alkanes) as well as the sterane/hopane ratio, the C35 hopane index and the isoprenoids pristane and phytane were investigated. In contrast to the well-studied mid-Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs), neither significant OM enrichment nor prominent fluctuations in the selected biomarker abundances can be observed during the build-up phase of the Valanginian CIE. This points to relatively stable marine paleoenvironmental conditions with well-oxygenated bottom waters. Prior to the CIE, four cm-thick, finely laminated, dark layers (known as Barrande layers) with total organic carbon content reaching up to 4% show an exception from the generally stable biomarker pattern. Sedimentological and biomarker evidence support

  20. Petroleum statistics in France

    SciTech Connect

    De Saint Germain, H.; Lamiraux, C.

    1995-08-01

    33 oil companies, including Elf, Exxon, Agip, Conoco as well as Coparex, Enron, Hadson, Midland, Hunt, Canyon and Union Texas are present in oil and gas exploration and production in France. The production of oil and gas in France amounts to some 60,000 bopd of oil and 350 MMcfpd of marketed natural gas each year, which still accounts for 3.5% and 10% for French domestic needs, respectively. To date, 166 fields have been discovered, representing a total reserve of 3 billion bbl of crude oil and 13 trillion cf of raw gas. These fields are concentrated in two major onshore sedimentary basins of Mesozoic age, which are the Aquitaine basin and the Paris basin. The Aquitaine basin should be subdivided into two distinct domains: The Parentis basin where the largest field Parentis was discovered in 1954 with still production of about 3700 bopd of oil and where Les Arbouslers field, discovered at the end of 1991, is currently producing about 10,000 bopd of oil. The northern Pyrenees and their foreland, where the Lacq field, discovered in 1951, has produced about 7.7 tcf of gas since 1957, and is still producing 138 MMcfpd. In the Paris basin, the two large oil fields are Villeperclue discovered in 1982 by Triton and Total, and Chaunoy, discovered in 1983 by Essorep, which are still producing about 10,000 and 15,000 bopd, respectively. The last significantly sized discovery occurred in 1990 with Itteville by Elf Aquitaine which is currently producing 4,200 bopd. The poster shows statistical data related to the past 20 years of oil and gas exploration and production in France.

  1. Groundwater sustainability of the Fontainebleau Sands Aquifer (Paris Basin, France) : contribution of upward leakage from Eocene sulphate-rich aquifer, evidenced through geochemical and isotopic tracers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, V.; Bergonzini, L.; Barbecot, F.; Gibert, E.; Travi, Y.; Dever, L.

    2003-04-01

    Located in the Paris Basin, the Fontainebleau Sands Aquifer (Oligocene formation, 50 to 70m thick) represents a major resource for drinking water supply. In the study area (in the Southern and Western parts of Paris), this layer is embedded by a low-permeability formation above (the Beauce formation, 10m thick : limestone, millstone and clays), and a permeable formation below (the Brie limestone, 5m thick). The Fontainebleau Sands Aquifer and Brie limestones are hydraulically connected and this continuous water body lies on a thick, impermeable layer made of green clays and marls of lower Oligocene-upper Eocene age. This later aquitard lies on the confined Eocene aquifer (65m thick), mainly made of limestones, gypsum, clays and sands. [1] On the opposite to the Fontainebleau Sands groundwater which globally responds to water drinking guidelines, the Eocene groundwater can reach high sulphate concentrations, in relation with the presence of gypsum, from place to place. Moreover, during the field campaign conducted in October 2002, an increase in electric conductivity (from 560 to 1410 µS.cm-1 at 25°C) with depth was observed in the same borehole. This increase shows the stratification of the aquifer, probably due to an upward leakage from the Eocene aquifer, consequence of an important water uptake in urban areas. Binomials of close boreholes, reaching either the Fontainebleau Sands Aquifer or the Eocene Aquifer, gave 28 water samples on which geochemical analysis, stable isotope composition of water (0-18 / H-2) and of dissolved sulphates (O-18 / S-34) were performed. Those geochemical tools will allow us to discriminate the different origins of the dissolved sulphates, as well as the contribution of Eocene groundwater to the recharge of the Fontainebleau Sands aquifer. ----------------- References [1] Mercier R., 1981. Inventaire des ressources aquiferes et vulnerabilite du departement des Yvelines. B.R.G.M., Service géologique régional Ile de France.

  2. Impact of climate on the evolution of carbonate systems during the Middle and Late Jurassic : (Paris Basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigaud, Benjamin; Vincent, Benoît

    2013-04-01

    Reconstructions of the Middle and Late Jurassic Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) of western tethyan ocean display short-term changes (0.5 m.y. to 1 m.y.). Recent shallow-marine carbonate systems are potentially very sensitive to climatic variations, as shown during quaternary period (Deschamps et al., 2012). In contrast, in ancient sedimentary systems, the impact of palaeoclimatic variations on carbonate factories is not easy to identify because of interplay between different controlling factors such as eustasy, tectonic, the variety of carbonate producers, and sediment supply. The objective of this study is to propose a detailed facies and stratigraphic framework (at the resolution of a million years) for the Middle and Late Jurassic carbonates (about 30My) of the Paris Basin in order to compare the evolution of the carbonate systems with palaeoclimatic variations, recently well documented for the Jurassic of the western European domain (Dera et al., 2011). The microfacies study display 18 lithofacies that can be merged into seven facies associations along a carbonate ramp. Late Bajocian is marked by the appearance of carbonate facies with scleractinian corals forming lens-shaped bodies and dome-shaped bioherms buildups reaching 10 m thick and 10-20 m lateral extent. Associated to a sea-level fall, an increase of SST seems to favor the development of these corallian buildups. Protected lagoonal environments extend during the Bathonian and are characterized by mioliolid-rich micritic facies. A 2nd order sea-level rise, flooding the Middle Jurassic carbonate ramp system, is followed by a brief drop in SST, suggesting a link between the demise of shallow-marine carbonate factories and the cooling event at the Callovian/Oxfordian transition. The recovery of carbonate production and the location of the carbonate platform during the Oxfordian is controlled by three factors: (1) the geometry of the stratigraphic architecture of thick clay-rich prograding wedges, (2) a 2nd

  3. France`s nuclear dilemmas

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    Ignoring worldwide protests, France conducted the first of several scheduled nuclear tests in September. The controversy has overshadowed France`s more important nuclear challenges: maintaining a strong deterrent under a test ban, moving ahead with its proposals for {open_quotes}Europeanization{close_quotes} of that deterrent, and developing a consensus on how nuclear threats should be used in response to those who would brandish other weapons of mass destruction. 1 fig.

  4. Palaeoenvironment and dating of the Early Acheulean localities from the Somme River basin (Northern France): New discoveries from the High Terrace at Abbeville-Carrière Carpentier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoine, Pierre; Moncel, Marie-Hélène; Limondin-Lozouet, Nicole; Locht, Jean-Luc; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Moreno, Davinia; Voinchet, Pierre; Auguste, Patrick; Stoetzel, Emmanuelle; Dabkowski, Julie; Bello, Silvia M.; Parfitt, Simon A.; Tombret, Olivier; Hardy, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    Dating the earliest human occupations in Western Europe and reconstructing links with climatic and environmental constraints is a central issue in Quaternary studies. Amongst the discovery of Palaeolithic artefacts ascribed to the Early Pleistocene in southeast Britain and central France the Somme Basin, where the Acheulean type-site Amiens Saint-Acheul is located, is a key area for addressing this topic. Research undertaken over the past 20 years on both Quaternary fluvial and loess sequences of this area has provided a unique dataset for the study of the relations between human occupations and environmental variations. Studies based on an interdisciplinary approach combining sedimentology, palaeontology and geochronology have highlighted the impact of the 100 kyrs cycles on terrace formation during the last million years. In this terrace system, the earliest in situ Acheulean settlements known in the 1990s were dated to early MIS 12 (±450 ka), but new field discoveries, at Amiens "Rue du Manège", dated to ± 550 ka, significantly increase the age of the oldest human occupation in the area. In this context, new fieldwork has been undertaken in Abbeville at the Carrière Carpentier site, famous for its White Marl deposit attributed to the Cromerian and in the same terrace level where the former discoveries of "Abbevillian bifaces" were made by d'Ault du Mesnil. This research is based on an interdisciplinary approach, combining sedimentology, paleontology, dating (ESR on quartz and ESR/U-series on teeth) and archaeology. According to the various bio-proxies (molluscs, large vertebrates, small mammals), the White Marl was deposited during the early part of an interglacial phase in an aquatic slow-flowing environment, as emphasized by the development of oncoliths and the presence of fish and aquatic molluscs. The landscape was composed of a mosaic of open bush and forest areas, in which wet and grassy vegetation developed on riverbanks. On the basis of terrace

  5. Hydro-economic optimization model for selecting least cost programs of measures at the river basin scale. Application to the implementation of the EU Water Framework Directive on the Orb river basin (France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, C.; Rinaudo, J. D.; Caballero, Y.; Pulido-Velazquez, M.

    2012-04-01

    This article presents a case study which illustrates how an integrated hydro-economic model can be applied to optimize a program of measures (PoM) at the river basin level. By allowing the integration of hydrological, environmental and economic aspects at a local scale, this model is indeed useful to assist water policy decision making processes. The model identifies the least cost PoM to satisfy the predicted 2030 urban and agricultural water demands while meeting the in-stream flow constraints. The PoM mainly consists of water saving and conservation measures at the different demands. It includes as well some measures mobilizing additional water resources coming from groundwater, inter-basin transfers and improvement in reservoir operating rules. The flow constraints are defined to ensure a good status of the surface water bodies, as defined by the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). The case study is conducted in the Orb river basin, a coastal basin in Southern France. It faces a significant population growth, changes in agricultural patterns and limited water resources. It is classified at risk of not meeting the good status by 2015. Urban demand is calculated by type of water users at municipality level in 2006 and projected to 2030 with user specific scenarios. Agricultural water demand is estimated at irrigation district (canton) level in 2000 and projected to 2030 under three agricultural development scenarios. The total annual cost of each measure has been calculated taken into account operation and maintenance costs as well as investment cost. A first optimization model was developed using GAMS, General Algebraic Modeling System, applying Mixed Integer Linear Programming. The optimization is run to select the set of measures that minimizes the objective function, defined as the total cost of the applied measures, while meeting the demands and environmental constraints (minimum in-stream flows) for the 2030 time horizon. The first result is an optimized Po

  6. Coastal groundwater salinization: Focus on the vertical variability in a multi-layered aquifer through a multi-isotope fingerprinting (Roussillon Basin, France).

    PubMed

    Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Négrel, Philippe; Aunay, Bertrand; Ladouche, Bernard; Bailly-Comte, Vincent; Guerrot, Catherine; Flehoc, Christine; Pezard, Philippe; Lofi, Johanna; Dörfliger, Nathalie

    2016-10-01

    The Roussillon sedimentary Basin (South France) is a complex multi-layered aquifer, close to the Mediterranean Sea facing seasonally increases of water abstraction and salinization issues. We report geochemical and isotopic vertical variability in this aquifer using groundwater sampled with a Westbay System® at two coastal monitoring sites: Barcarès and Canet. The Westbay sampling allows pointing out and explaining the variation of water quality along vertical profiles, both in productive layers and in the less permeable ones where most of the chemical processes are susceptible to take place. The aquifer layers are not equally impacted by salinization, with electrical conductivity ranging from 460 to 43,000μS·cm(-1). The δ(2)H-δ(18)O signatures show mixing between seawater and freshwater components with long water residence time as evidenced by the lack of contribution from modern water using (3)H, (14)C and CFCs/SF6. S(SO4) isotopes also evidence seawater contribution but some signatures can be related to oxidation of pyrite and/or organically bounded S. In the upper layers (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios are close to that of seawater and then increase with depth, reflecting water-rock interaction with argillaceous formations while punctual low values reflect interaction with carbonate. Boron isotopes highlight secondary processes such as adsorption/desorption onto clays in addition to mixings. At the Barcarès site (120m deep), the high salinity in some layers appear to be related neither to present day seawater intrusion, nor to Salses-Leucate lagoonwater intrusion. Groundwater chemical composition thus highlights binary mixing between fresh groundwater and inherited salty water together with cation exchange processes, water-rock interactions and, locally, sedimentary organic matter mineralisation probably enhanced by pyrite oxidation. Finally, combining the results of this study and those of Caballero and Ladouche (2015), we discuss the possible future evolution of

  7. Coastal groundwater salinization: Focus on the vertical variability in a multi-layered aquifer through a multi-isotope fingerprinting (Roussillon Basin, France).

    PubMed

    Petelet-Giraud, Emmanuelle; Négrel, Philippe; Aunay, Bertrand; Ladouche, Bernard; Bailly-Comte, Vincent; Guerrot, Catherine; Flehoc, Christine; Pezard, Philippe; Lofi, Johanna; Dörfliger, Nathalie

    2016-10-01

    The Roussillon sedimentary Basin (South France) is a complex multi-layered aquifer, close to the Mediterranean Sea facing seasonally increases of water abstraction and salinization issues. We report geochemical and isotopic vertical variability in this aquifer using groundwater sampled with a Westbay System® at two coastal monitoring sites: Barcarès and Canet. The Westbay sampling allows pointing out and explaining the variation of water quality along vertical profiles, both in productive layers and in the less permeable ones where most of the chemical processes are susceptible to take place. The aquifer layers are not equally impacted by salinization, with electrical conductivity ranging from 460 to 43,000μS·cm(-1). The δ(2)H-δ(18)O signatures show mixing between seawater and freshwater components with long water residence time as evidenced by the lack of contribution from modern water using (3)H, (14)C and CFCs/SF6. S(SO4) isotopes also evidence seawater contribution but some signatures can be related to oxidation of pyrite and/or organically bounded S. In the upper layers (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratios are close to that of seawater and then increase with depth, reflecting water-rock interaction with argillaceous formations while punctual low values reflect interaction with carbonate. Boron isotopes highlight secondary processes such as adsorption/desorption onto clays in addition to mixings. At the Barcarès site (120m deep), the high salinity in some layers appear to be related neither to present day seawater intrusion, nor to Salses-Leucate lagoonwater intrusion. Groundwater chemical composition thus highlights binary mixing between fresh groundwater and inherited salty water together with cation exchange processes, water-rock interactions and, locally, sedimentary organic matter mineralisation probably enhanced by pyrite oxidation. Finally, combining the results of this study and those of Caballero and Ladouche (2015), we discuss the possible future evolution of

  8. Critical multi-level governance issues of integrated modelling: An example of low-water management in the Adour-Garonne basin (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzega, Pierre; Therond, Olivier; Debril, Thomas; March, Hug; Sibertin-Blanc, Christophe; Lardy, Romain; Sant'ana, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the experience gained related to the development of an integrated simulation model of water policy. Within this context, we analyze particular difficulties raised by the inclusion of multi-level governance that assigns the responsibility of individual or collective decision-making to a variety of actors, regarding measures of which the implementation has significant effects toward the sustainability of socio-hydrosystems. Multi-level governance procedures are compared with the potential of model-based impact assessment. Our discussion is illustrated on the basis of the exploitation of the multi-agent platform MAELIA dedicated to the simulation of social, economic and environmental impacts of low-water management in a context of climate and regulatory changes. We focus on three major decision-making processes occurring in the Adour-Garonne basin, France: (i) the participatory development of the Master Scheme for Water Planning and Management (SDAGE) under the auspices of the Water Agency; (ii) the publication of water use restrictions in situations of water scarcity; and (iii) the determination of the abstraction volumes for irrigation and their allocation. The MAELIA platform explicitly takes into account the mode of decision-making when it is framed by a procedure set beforehand, focusing on the actors' participation and on the nature and parameters of the measures to be implemented. It is observed that in some water organizations decision-making follows patterns that can be represented as rule-based actions triggered by thresholds of resource states. When decisions are resulting from individual choice, endowing virtual agents with bounded rationality allows us to reproduce (in silico) their behavior and decisions in a reliable way. However, the negotiation processes taking place during the period of time simulated by the models in arenas of collective choices are not all reproducible. Outcomes of some collective decisions are very little or

  9. Insights on the injection mechanisms inferred from AMS fabrics of sand injectites in a turbiditic system, the exemple of Bevon area of the SE Basin (France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robion, Philippe; Mehl, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    We propose to investigate the set up mechanisms of sands injection in the case of dykes injected in host marls of Aptian-Albian age in the Vocontian basin (SE France). Several models have been proposed for a downward injection of the dyke in the Bevons area and we guess that AMS fabric investigations can be used to infer the flow direction. 144 drill cores distributed on 14 sites were sampled, among which 8 sites in the injectites and 6 sites in the host rocks. The studied dykes are generally of a few decimeters thick and are setting up in both in vertical or oblique position with respect to the subhorizontal bedding of the host rocks. There were sampled from one side to the other in order to track the flow direction by identification of imbricated fabric. Magnetic mineralogy, i.e. unblocking temperature inferred from IRM 3 axes demagnetization, indicates that the ferromagnetics s.l. mineralogy is dominated by an assemblage of magnetite (unblocking temperature Tub=580°C) and pyrrhotite (Tub=325°C). Magnetic susceptibility is low, typical for siliciclastic rocks, ranging from 4x10-5 up to 1.7x10-4 SI. Degree of magnetic anisotropy is likely representative of AMS measurements in sedimentary rocks with weak values, below than 5 %. In marly host rocks magnetic mineralogy is dominated by pyrrhotite associated with magnetite and both the magnetic susceptibility and degree of anisotropy are slightly lower than for injectites. Regarding magnetic fabric axes distribution, despite some dispersion, the results show that minimum axes of AMS (K3) are parallel to the dyke plane, and maximum axes (K1) are roughly in horizontal position. In marly host rocks, the magnetic fabric is related to tectonic shortening. We interpret that the host rocks have recorded the regional tectonic imprint while the magnetic fabric of the injectites are related to early sedimentary processes. The mechanism of set up proposed to explain the magnetic fabric in the Bevon injectites is a step

  10. Mass balance and decontamination times of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in rural nested catchments of an early industrialized region (Seine River basin, France).

    PubMed

    Gateuille, David; Evrard, Olivier; Lefevre, Irène; Moreau-Guigon, Elodie; Alliot, Fabrice; Chevreuil, Marc; Mouchel, Jean-Marie

    2014-02-01

    Accumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils and their subsequent release in rivers constitute a major environmental and public health problem in industrialized countries. In the Seine River basin (France), some PAHs exceed the target concentrations, and the objectives of good chemical status required by the European Water Framework Directive might not be achieved. This investigation was conducted in an upstream subcatchment where atmospheric fallout (n=42), soil (n=33), river water (n=26) and sediment (n=101) samples were collected during one entire hydrological year. PAH concentrations in atmospheric fallout appeared to vary seasonally and to depend on the distance to urban areas. They varied between 60 ng·L(-1) (in a remote site during autumn) and 2,380 ng·L(-1) (in a built-up area during winter). PAH stocks in soils of the catchment were estimated based on land use, as mean PAH concentrations varied between 110 ng·g(-1) under woodland and 2,120 ng·g(-1) in built-up areas. They ranged from 12 to 220 kg·km(-2). PAH contamination in the aqueous phase of rivers remained homogeneous across the catchment (72 ± 38 ng·L(-1)). In contrast, contamination of suspended solid was heterogeneous depending on hydrological conditions and population density in the drainage area. Moreover, PAH concentrations appeared to be higher in sediment (230-9,210 ng·g(-1)) than in the nearby soils. Annual mass balance calculation conducted at the catchment scale showed that current PAH losses were mainly due to dissipation (biodegradation, photo-oxidation and volatilization) within the catchments (about 80%) whereas exports due to soil erosion and riverine transport appeared to be of minor importance. Based on the calculated fluxes, PAHs appeared to have long decontamination times in soils (40 to 1,850 years) thereby compromising the achievement of legislative targets. Overall, the study highlighted the major role of legacy contamination that supplied the bulk of

  11. Demoiselles and Drafts from Italy and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picard, M. Dane

    1988-01-01

    Recounts the adventures of a journey taken through France and Italy. Makes an analogy of this trip to that of the one Charles Dickens took in 1844. Describes silicified horizons of the southern Paris Basin, moraines, outcrops, and "Hoodoos." (RT)

  12. The Robinson and Weatherly uraniferous pyrobitumen deposits near Placerville, San Miguel County, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilmarth, V.R.; Vickers, R.C.

    1953-01-01

    Uranium deposits that contain uraniferous pyrobitumen of possible hydrothermal origin occur at the Weatherly and Robinson properties near Placerville, San Miguel County, Colo. These deposits were mined for copper, silver, and gold more than 50 years ago and were developed for uranium in 1950. The Robinson property, half a mile east of Placerville, consists of the White Spar, New Discovery Lode, and Barbara Jo claims. The rocks in this area are nearly horizontal sandstones, shales, limestones, and conglomerates of the Cutler formation of Permian age and the Dolores formation of Triassic and Jurassic (?) age. These rocks have been faulted extensively and intruded by a Tertiary (?) andesite porphyry dike. Uranium-bearing pyrobitumen associated with tennantite, tetrahedrite, galena, sphalerite, chalcopyrite, bornite, azurite, malachite, calcite, barite, and quartz occurs in a lenticular body as much as 40 feet long and 6 feet wide along a northwest-trending, steeply dipping normal fault. The uranium content of eleven samples from the uranium deposit ranges from 0.001 to 0.045 percent uranium and averages about 0.02 percent uranium. The Weatherly property, about a mile northwest of Placerville, consists of the Black King claims nos. 1, 4, and 5. The rocks in this area include the complexly faulted Cutler formation of Permian age and the Dolores formation of Triassic and Jurassic (?) age. Uranium-bearing pyrobitumen arid uranophane occur, along a northwest-trending, steeply dipping normal fault and in the sedimentary rocks on the hanging wall of the fault. Lens-shaped deposits in the fault zone are as much as 6 feet long and 2 feet wide and contain as much as 9 percent uranium; whereas channel samples across the fault zone contain from 0.001 to 0.014 percent uranium. Tetrahedrite, chalcopyrite, galena, sphalerite, fuchsite, malachite, azurite, erythrite, bornite, and molybdite in a gangue of pyrite, calcite, barite, and quartz are associated with the uraniferous material

  13. Large uraniferous springs and associated uranium minerals, Shirley Mountains, Carbon County, Wyoming -- A preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, J.D.

    1963-01-01

    Ten springs along the southeast flank of the Shirley Mountains, Carbon County, Wyoming, have water containing from 12 to 27 parts per billion uranium, have a total estimated flow of 3 million gallons of clear fresh water per day, and have a combined annual output that may be as much as 166 pounds of uranium. These springs emerge from Pennsylvanian, Permian, and Triassic rocks on the east flank of a faulted anticlinal fold. In the vicinity of several springs, metatyuyamunite occurs locally in crystalline calcite veins averaging 3 feet in width but reaching a maximum of 24 feet. The veins are as much as several hundred feet long-and cut vertically through sandstones of Pennsylvanian age overlying the Madison Limestone (Mississippian). This limestone is believed to be the source of the calcite. A 3-foot channel sample cross one calcite vein contains 0.089 percent uranium. Lesser amounts of uranium were obtained from other channel samples. Selected samples contain from 0.39 to 2.2 percent uranium and from 0.25 to 0.86 percent vanadium. Three possible sources of the uranium are: (1) Precambrian rocks, (2) Paleozoic rocks, (3) Pliocene(?) tuffaceous strata that were deposited unconformably across older .rocks in both the graphically high and low parts of the area, but were subsequently removed by erosion except for a few small remnants, one of which contains carnotite. There is apparently a close genetic relation between the uraniferous springs and uranium mineralization in the calcite veins. Data from this locality illustrate how uraniferous ground water can be used as a guide in the exploration for areas where uranium deposits may occur. Also demonstrated is the fact that significant quantities of uranium are present in water of some large flowing springs.

  14. Effect of mineral constituents in the bioleaching of uranium from uraniferous sedimentary rock samples, Southwestern Sinai, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Amin, Maisa M; Elaassy, Ibrahim E; El-Feky, Mohamed G; Sallam, Abdel Sattar M; Talaat, Mona S; Kawady, Nilly A

    2014-08-01

    Bioleaching, like Biotechnology uses microorganisms to extract metals from their ore materials, whereas microbial activity has an appreciable effect on the dissolution of toxic metals and radionuclides. Bioleaching of uranium was carried out with isolated fungi from uraniferous sedimentary rocks from Southwestern Sinai, Egypt. Eight fungal species were isolated from different grades of uraniferous samples. The bio-dissolution experiments showed that Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus exhibited the highest leaching efficiencies of uranium from the studied samples. Through monitoring the bio-dissolution process, the uranium grade and mineralogic constituents of the ore material proved to play an important role in the bioleaching process. The tested samples asserted that the optimum conditions of uranium leaching are: 7 days incubation time, 3% pulp density, 30 °C incubation temperature and pH 3. Both fungi produced the organic acids, namely; oxalic, acetic, citric, formic, malonic, galic and ascorbic in the culture filtrate, indicating an important role in the bioleaching processes.

  15. Mineralogy and geochemistry of a uraniferous coal from the Red Desert Area, Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breger, Irving A.; Deul, Maurice; Meyrowitz, Robert; Rubinstein, Samuel

    1953-01-01

    A sample of subbituminous uraniferous coal from the Red Desert, Sweetwater County, Wyo., was studied mineralogically. The coal contains gypsum (6 percent), kaolinite (1 percent), quartz (0.3 percent), calcite (trace), and limonite (trace). This suite of minerals and the absence of pyrite show that the coal has been subjected to weathering and oxidation. No uranium minerals have been found; mechanical fractionation has indicated that the uranium is associated with the organic constituents of the coal. The minerals that have been isolated contain 0.0006 percent uranium, a content which is to be expected for nonuraniferous sedimentary rocks. The organic components of the coal contain approximately 0.002 percent uranium. On the basis of material balance calculations, the organic components carry 98 percent of the uranium in the coal. Fischer assays of this weathered coal from the Red Desert indicate a yield of 16.7 gallons of tar per ton on low-temperature retorting. In view of the large reserve of subbituminous coal in the Red Desert, its probable ease of mining, and its tar yield, it may be desirable to carry out further evaluation of the coal as a fuel or raw material for the manufacture of tar or chemicals. If economic factors permit utilization of the coal, the uranium, although present in small percentages, could be recovered as a byproduct.

  16. Results of reconnaissance for uraniferous coal, lignite, and carbonaceous shale in western Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hail, William J.; Gill, James R.

    1952-01-01

    A reconnaissance search for uraniferous lignite and carbonaceous shale was made in western Montana and adjacent parts of Idaho during the summer of 1951. Particular emphasis in the examination was placed on coal and carbonaceous shale associated with volcanic rocks, as volcanic rocks in many area appear to have released uranium to circulating ground water from which it was concentrated in carbonaceous material. Twenty-two area in Montana and one area of Idaho were examine. The coal in five of these area is of Cretaceous age. The coal and carbonaceous shale in the remaining 18 area occur in Tertiary "lake-bed" deposits of Oligocene and younger age. Both the Cretaceous and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale are associated with contemporaneous or younger volcanic rocks and pyroclastic sequences. A sample of carbonaceous shale from the Prickly Pear Valley northeast of Helena, Montana, contained 0.013 percent uranium. A sample of carbonaceous shale from the Flint Creek Valley southwest of Drummond, Montana, contained 0.006 percent uranium. All other samples of both Cretaceous and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale were essentially non-radioactive. No further work is planned on the Cretaceous and Tertiary coal and carbonaceous shale in western Montana. A few localities in Idaho will be visited in the course of other work.

  17. New archaeorthopteran insects from the Late Carboniferous of the Nord and Pas-de-Calais basins in northern France (Insecta: Cnemidolestodea, Panorthoptera).

    PubMed

    Coty, David; Háva, Jiří; Prokop, Jakub; Roques, Patrick; Nel, André

    2014-01-01

    New polyneopteran insects are described from Pennsylvanian (Bashkirian, Moscovian) compressed fossils from the North of France (Insecta: Archaeorthoptera). Discovery of wing apex with distinct venation, e.g., apical fusion of RA with RP, numerous parallel posterior branches of RP with transversal crossveins, can be assigned to cf. Tococladus sp. (Cnemidolestodea: Tococladidae). It represents the second record of Cnemidolestodea from the Avion locality apart from Aviocladus pectinatus Prokop et al., 2014. Bruaylogus magnificus gen. et sp. nov., based on forewing venation, is attributed to Panorthoptera nec Orthoptera having some distinct characters for the placement either close to Oedischiidae or a more basal position possibly with affinities to genus Heterologus. Aviologus duquesnei gen. et sp. nov., based on forewing venation, differs from Oedischiidae by the presence of basal fork of M far from point of separation between M and Cu and fusion of MA with first posterior branch of RP. Aviologus share a long stem of M and simple CuPaβ with Heterologus duyiwuer and H. langfordorum, but both differ in well separated median and radial veins. These new fossils demonstrate that the archaeorthopterid insect fauna from the North of France was rather diverse with links to late Carboniferous and early Permian assemblages in Euramerica such as the Mazon Creek, Carbondale Formation or Elmo, Wellington Formation (Illinois, Kansas, USA) entomofaunas.

  18. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite processing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota. [UMTRA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Beranich, S.; Berger, N.; Bierley, D.; Bond, T.M.; Burt, C.; Caldwell, J.A.; Dery, V.A.; Dutcher, A.; Glover, W.A.; Heydenburg, R.J.; Larson, N.B.; Lindsey, G.; Longley, J.M.; Millard, J.B.; Miller, M.; Peel, R.C.; Persson-Reeves, C.H.; Titus, F.B.; Wagner, L.

    1989-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), to clean up the Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota, uraniferous lignite processing sites to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at these sites. Remedial action at these sites must be performed in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) standards promulgated for the remedial action and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The inactive Belfield uraniferous lignite processing site is one mile southeast of Belfield, North Dakota. The inactive Bowman uraniferous lignite processing site at the former town of Griffin, is seven miles northwest of Bowman, North Dakota and 65 road miles south of Belfield. Lignite ash from the processing operations has contaminated the soils over the entire 10.7-acre designated Belfield site and the entire 12.1-acre designated Bowman site. Dispersion of the ash has contaminated an additional 20.6 acres surrounding the Belfield processing site and an additional 59.2 acres surrounding the Bowman processing site. The proposed remedial action is to relocate the contaminated materials at the Belfield processing site to the Bowman processing/disposal site for codisposal with the Bowman contaminated soils. The environmental impacts assessed in this EA were evaluated for the proposed remedial action and the no action alternative and demonstrate that the proposed action would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment and would be performed in compliance with applicable environmental laws. The no action alternative would not be consistent with the intent of Public Law 95-604 and would not comply with the EPA standards. 48 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. The origin and timing of multiphase cementation in carbonates: Impact of regional scale geodynamic events on the Middle Jurassic Limestones diagenesis (Paris Basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigaud, Benjamin; Durlet, Christophe; Deconinck, Jean-François; Vincent, Benoît; Thierry, Jacques; Trouiller, Alain

    2009-12-01

    The Middle Jurassic carbonates of the eastern part of the Paris Basin display surprisingly low values of porosity and permeability ( Φ < 15‰ and K < 0.5 mD). The main objective of this study is to determine the causes and timing of the cementation that altered the petrophysical properties of these carbonates thereby destroying their potential as oil reservoirs; a fate that did not befall their equivalents in deeper, central parts of the Paris Basin. Using petrographic and geochemical analyses (stable O and C isotopes, Sr isotopes, major elements), we identify six calcitic spar stages, two dolomite stages, and several episodes of fracturing and stylolitization ordered in paragenetic sequence. Cement quantification shows the predominance of two blocky calcite cement stages (75% of total cementation). O and Sr isotopes from these calcite cements suggest that the parent fluids resulted either from a mixing of trapped Jurassic seawater and meteoric water, or from buffered meteoric waters. In the geological history of the Paris Basin, major meteoric water inputs were possible during the Early Cretaceous, when the Middle Jurassic carbonates cropped out at its northern and eastern borders. Lateral meteoric recharge may have occurred as a result of two separate uplift events (Late Cimmerian Unconformity and Late Aptian Unconformity) and the related exposures of carbonates to the north of the study area. This palaeohydrological circulation brought about a significant reduction of porosity (from 40% to 10%) through calcite cement precipitation. The Early Cretaceous events are of great importance in the diagenetic evolution of the sedimentary basins bordering the London-Brabant Massif across all of northwestern Europe. A subsequent dolomite and calcite cementation stage accounts for about 5% of the total cement volumes. This late cementation may have been caused by hydrothermal fluids ascending along permeable fractures during the Late Oligocene extension episode.

  20. Radionuclide release from simulated waste material after biogeochemical leaching of uraniferous mineral samples.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Aimee Lynn; Caron, François; Spiers, Graeme

    2014-12-01

    Biogeochemical mineral dissolution is a promising method for the released of metals in low-grade host mineralization that contain sulphidic minerals. The application of biogeochemical mineral dissolution to engineered leach heap piles in the Elliot Lake region may be considered as a promising passive technology for the economic recovery of low grade Uranium-bearing ores. In the current investigation, the decrease of radiological activity of uraniferous mineral material after biogeochemical mineral dissolution is quantified by gamma spectroscopy and compared to the results from digestion/ICP-MS analysis of the ore materials to determine if gamma spectroscopy is a simple, viable alternative quantification method for heavy nuclides. The potential release of Uranium (U) and Radium-226 ((226)Ra) to the aqueous environment from samples that have been treated to represent various stages of leaching and passive closure processes are assessed. Dissolution of U from the solid phase has occurred during biogeochemical mineral dissolution in the presence of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, with gamma spectroscopy indicating an 84% decrease in Uranium-235 ((235)U) content, a value in accordance with the data obtained by dissolution chemistry. Gamma spectroscopy data indicate that only 30% of the (226)Ra was removed during the biogeochemical mineral dissolution. Chemical inhibition and passivation treatments of waste materials following the biogeochemical mineral dissolution offer greater protection against residual U and (226)Ra leaching. Pacified samples resist the release of (226)Ra contained in the mineral phase and may offer more protection to the aqueous environment for the long term, compared to untreated or inhibited residues, and should be taken into account for future decommissioning. PMID:24726552

  1. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota, evaluates the potential impacts to public health or the environment from contaminated ground water at this site. This contamination is a result of the uraniferous lignite ashing process, when coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. Potential risk is quantified only for constituents introduced by the processing activities and not for the constituents naturally occurring in background ground water in the site vicinity. Background ground water, separate from any site-related contamination, imposes a percentage of the overall risk from ground water ingestion in the Bowman site vicinity. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is developing plans to address soil and ground water contamination at the site. The UMTRA Surface Project involves the determination of the extent of soil contamination and design of an engineered disposal cell for long-term storage of contaminated materials. The UMTRA Ground Water Project evaluates ground water contamination. Based on results from future site monitoring activities as defined in the site observational work plan and results from this risk assessment, the DOE will propose an approach for managing contaminated ground water at the Bowman site.

  2. Effect of mineral constituents in the bioleaching of uranium from uraniferous sedimentary rock samples, Southwestern Sinai, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Amin, Maisa M; Elaassy, Ibrahim E; El-Feky, Mohamed G; Sallam, Abdel Sattar M; Talaat, Mona S; Kawady, Nilly A

    2014-08-01

    Bioleaching, like Biotechnology uses microorganisms to extract metals from their ore materials, whereas microbial activity has an appreciable effect on the dissolution of toxic metals and radionuclides. Bioleaching of uranium was carried out with isolated fungi from uraniferous sedimentary rocks from Southwestern Sinai, Egypt. Eight fungal species were isolated from different grades of uraniferous samples. The bio-dissolution experiments showed that Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus terreus exhibited the highest leaching efficiencies of uranium from the studied samples. Through monitoring the bio-dissolution process, the uranium grade and mineralogic constituents of the ore material proved to play an important role in the bioleaching process. The tested samples asserted that the optimum conditions of uranium leaching are: 7 days incubation time, 3% pulp density, 30 °C incubation temperature and pH 3. Both fungi produced the organic acids, namely; oxalic, acetic, citric, formic, malonic, galic and ascorbic in the culture filtrate, indicating an important role in the bioleaching processes. PMID:24682031

  3. Chronology of fracture sealing under a meteoric fluid environment: Microtectonic and isotopic evidence of major Cainozoic events in the eastern Paris Basin (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andre, Grégoire; Hibsch, Christian; Fourcade, Serge; Cathelineau, Michel; Buschaert, Stéphane

    2010-07-01

    A detailed reappraisal of the sequence of tectonic stages that has affected the eastern part of the Paris Basin from the late Jurassic to the end of Cainozoic is presented in order to improve knowledge of the relationships between tectonics and fluid/mass palaeo-transfers in that basin. This goal was performed in two steps: i) establishing a relative tectonic chronology on the basis of numerous observations and detailed analysis of geometrical relationships between striated planes, vertical and bedding stylolites, and tension gashes, and ii) discussing the geochemical signatures ( δ18O and δ13C) of calcite from fracture infillings well positioned within the relative tectonic chronology. The resulting tectonic sequence agrees with the main events described by previous papers, but the present work details the Pyrenean s.l. (Eocene-Oligocene) and Alpine (Miocene-Pliocene) convergence stages and explains the mechanisms of the Oligocene-Miocene transition between the two previous events. The different tectonic stages are as follows: i) late Jurassic to early Cretaceous extension starting with a WNW-ESE direction but changing to E-W; ii) the Pyrenean convergence (Eocene), changing from NNE-SSW to NE-SW and finally ENE-WSW compression; iii) Oligocene transition from Pyrenean to Alpine convergence, marked by a drastic evolution of main stress which swaps from a horizontal position to a vertical one and radial extension marked by a strong reactivation of bedding stylolitisation; iv) the Alpine convergence (late Miocene to present-day), changing from WNW-ESE to NNW-SSE direction of shortening. δ18O- and δ13C-values of calcite from tension gashes associated to each tectonic stage spread from 18‰ to 27‰ (SMOW) and from 0.8‰ to 3‰ (PDB), respectively. According to the maximum thermal history of this part of the basin ( TMAX = 40 °C or 60 °C according to the available published estimates), the calculated δ18O-values of fluids (- 7‰ to - 4‰) involved in mass

  4. Uranium accumulation in aquatic macrophytes in an uraniferous region: Relevance to natural attenuation.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Cristina; Favas, Paulo J C; Pratas, João; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2016-08-01

    Phytoremediation potential of uranium (U) was investigated by submerged, free-floating and rooted emergent native aquatic macrophytes inhabiting along the streams of Horta da Vilariça, a uraniferous geochemical region of NE Portugal. The work has been undertaken with the following objectives: (i) to relate the U concentrations in water-sediment-plant system; and (ii) to identify the potentialities of aquatic plants to remediate U-contaminated waters based on accumulation pattern. A total of 25 plant species culminating 233 samples was collected from 15 study points along with surface water and contiguous sediments. Concentrations of U showed wide range of variations both in waters (0.61-5.56 μg L(-1), mean value 1.98 μg L(-1)) and sediments (124-23,910 μg kg(-1), mean value 3929 μg kg(-1)) and this is also reflected in plant species examined. The plant species exhibited the ability to accumulate U several orders of magnitude higher than the surrounding water. Maximum U concentrations was recorded in the bryophyte Scorpiurium deflexifolium (49,639 μg kg(-1)) followed by Fontinalis antipyretica (35,771 μg kg(-1)), shoots of Rorippa sylvestris (33,837 μg kg(-1)), roots of Oenanthe crocata (17,807 μg kg(-1)) as well as in Nasturtium officinale (10,995 μg kg(-1)). Scorpiurium deflexifolium displayed a high bioconcentration factor (BF) of ∼2.5 × 10(4) (mean value). The species Fontinalis antipyretica, Nasturtium officinale (roots) and Rorippa sylvestris (shoots) exhibited the mean BFs of 1.7 × 10(4), 5 × 10(3) and 4.8 × 10(3) respectively. Maximum translocation factor (TF) was very much pronounced in the rooted perennial herb Rorippa sylvestris showing extreme ability to transport U for the shoots and seems to be promising candidate to be used as bioindicator species. PMID:27164268

  5. Uranium accumulation in aquatic macrophytes in an uraniferous region: Relevance to natural attenuation.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Cristina; Favas, Paulo J C; Pratas, João; Sarkar, Santosh Kumar; Venkatachalam, Perumal

    2016-08-01

    Phytoremediation potential of uranium (U) was investigated by submerged, free-floating and rooted emergent native aquatic macrophytes inhabiting along the streams of Horta da Vilariça, a uraniferous geochemical region of NE Portugal. The work has been undertaken with the following objectives: (i) to relate the U concentrations in water-sediment-plant system; and (ii) to identify the potentialities of aquatic plants to remediate U-contaminated waters based on accumulation pattern. A total of 25 plant species culminating 233 samples was collected from 15 study points along with surface water and contiguous sediments. Concentrations of U showed wide range of variations both in waters (0.61-5.56 μg L(-1), mean value 1.98 μg L(-1)) and sediments (124-23,910 μg kg(-1), mean value 3929 μg kg(-1)) and this is also reflected in plant species examined. The plant species exhibited the ability to accumulate U several orders of magnitude higher than the surrounding water. Maximum U concentrations was recorded in the bryophyte Scorpiurium deflexifolium (49,639 μg kg(-1)) followed by Fontinalis antipyretica (35,771 μg kg(-1)), shoots of Rorippa sylvestris (33,837 μg kg(-1)), roots of Oenanthe crocata (17,807 μg kg(-1)) as well as in Nasturtium officinale (10,995 μg kg(-1)). Scorpiurium deflexifolium displayed a high bioconcentration factor (BF) of ∼2.5 × 10(4) (mean value). The species Fontinalis antipyretica, Nasturtium officinale (roots) and Rorippa sylvestris (shoots) exhibited the mean BFs of 1.7 × 10(4), 5 × 10(3) and 4.8 × 10(3) respectively. Maximum translocation factor (TF) was very much pronounced in the rooted perennial herb Rorippa sylvestris showing extreme ability to transport U for the shoots and seems to be promising candidate to be used as bioindicator species.

  6. Modeling a complex system of multipurpose reservoirs under prospective scenarios (hydrology, water uses, water management): the case of the Durance River basin (South Eastern France, 12 800 km2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteil, Céline; Hendrickx, Frédéric; Samie, René; Sauquet, Eric

    2015-04-01

    The Durance River and its main tributary, the Verdon River, are two major rivers located in the Southern part of France. Three large dams (Serre-Ponçon, Castillon and Sainte-Croix) were built on their streams during the second half of the 20th century for multiple purposes. Stored water is used for hydropower, recreational, industry, drinking water and irrigation. Flows are partly diverted to feed areas outside the basin. On average 30 plants located in the Durance and Verdon valleys currently produce a total of 600 million kWh per year, equal to the annual residential consumption of a city with over 2.5 million inhabitants. The Southern part of France has been recently affected by severe droughts (2003, 2007 and 2011) and the rules for water allocation and reservoir management are now questioned particularly in the light of global change. The objective of the research project named "R²D²-2050" was to assess water availability and risks of water shortage in the mid-21st century by taking into account changes in both climate and water management. Therefore, a multi-model multi-scenario approach was considered to simulate regional climate, water resources and water demands under present-day (over the 1980-2009 baseline period) and under future conditions (over the 2036-2065 period). In addition, a model of water management was developed to simulate reservoir operating rules of the three dams. This model was calibrated to simulate water released from reservoir under constraints imposed by current day water allocation rules (e.g. downstream water requirements for irrigation, minimum water levels in the reservoirs during summer time for recreational purposes). Four territorial socio-economic scenarios were also elaborated with the help of stake holders to project water needs in the 2050s for the areas supplied with water from the Durance River basin. Results suggest an increase of the average air temperature with consequences on snow accumulation, snowmelt processes

  7. Evaluation of climate change on flood event by using parametric T-test and non-parametric Mann-Kendall test in Barcelonnette basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramesh, Azadeh; Glade, Thomas; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2010-09-01

    The existence of a trend in hydrological and meteorological time series is detected by statistical tests. The trend analysis of hydrological and meteorological series is important to consider, because of the effects of global climate change. Parametric or non-parametric statistical tests can be used to decide whether there is a statistically significant trend. In this paper, first a homogeneity analysis was performed by using the non-parametric Bartlett test. Then, trend detection was estimated by using non-parametric Mann-Kendall test. The null hypothesis in the Mann-Kendall test is that the data are independent and randomly ordered. The result of Mann-Kendall test was compared with the parametric T-Test for finding the existence of trend. To reach this purpose, the significance of trends was analyzed on monthly data of Ubaye river in Barcelonnette watershed in southeast of France at an elevation of 1132 m (3717 ft) during the period from 1928 to 2009 bases with the nonparametric Mann-Kendall test and parametric T-Test for river discharge and for meteorological data. The result shows that a rainfall event does not necessarily have an immediate impact on discharge. Visual inspection suggests that the correlation between observations made at the same time point is not very strong. In the results of the trend tests the p-value of the discharge is slightly smaller than the p-value of the precipitation but it seems that in both there is no statistically significant trend. In statistical hypothesis testing, a test statistic is a numerical summary of a set of data that reduces the data to one or a small number of values that can be used to perform a hypothesis test. Statistical hypothesis testing is determined if there is a significant trend or not. Negative test statistics and MK test in both precipitation and discharge data indicate downward trends. As conclusion we can say extreme flood event during recent years is strongly depending on: 1) location of the city: It is

  8. Massive {open_quotes}turbidite{close_quotes} sandstones in the Vocontian Basin (south-east of France): An analogue for blocky {open_quotes}basin floor fan{close_quotes} reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Imbert, P.; Rubino, J.L.; Olivier, P.; Rubino, J.L.

    1995-08-01

    The concept of {open_quotes}Basin Floor Fan{close_quotes} used to describe deep-marine massive sandstone reservoirs is largely derived from subsurface data, with little sedimentological support from outcrops. This paper discusses outcrop analogues for such types of massive sandstones. The Aptian-Albian sandstones in the intracratonic Vocontian Basin form elongate deposits of massive, channelized deep-marine turbidite sands up to 80 meters thick, interbedded with a predominantly shaley series. These channels, several kilometers wide, extend over a distance of 80 kilometers, with a width/thickness ratio between 20 and 100; an interesting feature of these deposits is the apparent lack of mounded depositional lobes at their extremity. These massive sands are multistory and represent stacked 1-30 meters thick units. The turbidites were sourced by the reworking of well-sorted shelf sand deposits. The massive sands are fine to medium-grained and devoid of visible structures, except for subtle grain size grading and crude parallel lamination. Sand distribution is controlled by the regional palaeotopography which forms elongate trough-like depressions (structurally controlled?). Some sandstones have a strongly irregular, erosional base and fill channel-like features. Deposition of the background shales, erosion of the valley floor and sandy infill occurred as distinct and separate phrases. The main controls on the massive sand distribution are the source of the sand and the palaeotopography. In these examples, the depositional mechanism of the {open_quotes}Basin Floor Fan{close_quotes}-like sands corresponds to the high density turbidity currents rather than slumps or contourites, as suggested from some subsurface data.

  9. A modeling approach of the hydro-thermal and chemical processes for managing the deep geothermal resource of the Val de Marne (Paris Basin, France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, Virginie; Le Brun, Morgane; Lopez, Simon; Castillo, Christelle; Azaroual, Mohamed

    2010-05-01

    The exploitation of the geothermal resource of the Dogger formation in Paris Basin (between 1500 m and 2000 m depth) for district heating started in the early 1970's with 110 geothermal wells drilled between 1970 and 1985. Technically, exploitations are referred as "doublet operation" the pair of wells involved in the geothermal loop. The warm water is pumped from a production well to the district heating plant where fluid heat is extracted through a heat exchanger to a district heating network. Then, the cooled brine is re-injected in a second well. Inside the reservoir, the wells are open-hole and lie around 1 km apart to protect the producer from the cold front growing around the injector. The reinjection allows the stabilization of the reservoir pressure and protects the surface from brines containing high concentrations of dissolved chemical components (Cl-, SO42-, Fe2+, H2S, CO2) allowing salinities between 5 to 35 g/l. With the current geothermal revival of the Paris Basin, the exploitation of the resource of the Dogger aquifer is facing new challenges: • New doublets are implemented and their location must be optimized with regards to the interferences with the existing operations. • Most of the wells still operating are next to 30 years old. They would need to be restored or shut down for scaling and/or corrosion problems, implying the drilling of new ones. • Geochemical modeling highlighted that the scaling risk is increasing with time due to the thermodynamic disequilibrium induced by the temperature variation during the heat production. For instance, Iron sulfide (Mackinawite and Pyrite), carbonate and sulfate (Calcite, Siderite, Anhydrite), silica (Chalcedony) and some clay minerals have tendency to precipitate. Mackinawite, Calcite and Siderite are clearly identified in some well scales. • The resource has been cooled by the 30 years of reinjection. The temperature at the production well is expected to decrease in the coming years as well as

  10. Measuring fallout radionuclides to constrain the origin and the dynamics of suspended sediment in an agricultural drained catchment (Loire River basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Gall, Marion; Evrard, Olivier; Foucher, Anthony; Laceby, J. Patrick; Salvador-Blanes, Sébastien; Lefèvre, Irène; Cerdan, Olivier; Ayrault, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    Soil erosion reaches problematic levels in agricultural areas of Northwestern Europe where tile drains may accelerate sediment transfer to rivers. This supply of large quantities of fine sediment to the river network leads to the degradation of water quality by increasing water turbidity, filling reservoirs and transporting contaminants. Agricultural patterns and landscapes features have been largely modified by human activities during the last century. To investigate erosion and sediment transport in lowland drained areas, a small catchment, the Louroux (24 km²), located in the French Loire River basin was selected. In this catchment, channels have been reshaped and more than 220 tile drains outlets have been installed after World War II. As a result, soil erosion and sediment fluxes strongly increased. Sediment supply needs to be better understood by quantifying the contribution of sources and the residence times of particles within the catchment. To this end, a network of river monitoring stations was installed, and fallout radionuclides (Cs-137, excess Pb-210 and Be-7) were measured in rainwater (n=3), drain tile outlets (n=4), suspended sediment (n=15), soil surface (n=30) and channel bank samples (n=15) between January 2013 and February 2014. Cs-137 concentrations were used to quantify the contribution of surface vs. subsurface sources of sediment. Results show a clear dominance of particles originating from surface sources (99 ± 1%). Be-7 and excess Pb-210 concentrations and calculation of Be-7/excess Pb-210 ratios in rainfall and suspended sediment samples were used to estimate percentages of recently eroded sediment in rivers. The first erosive winter storm mainly exported sediment depleted in Be-7 that likely deposited on the riverbed during the previous months. Then, during the subsequent floods, sediment was directly eroded and exported to the catchment outlet. Our results show the added value of combining spatial and temporal tracers to characterize

  11. Pedo-sedimentary record of human-environment interaction in ditches and waterlogged depressions on tableland (roman and early medieval period) : micromorphological cases studies from Marne-la-Vallée area (Paris Basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammas, C.; Blanchard, J.; Broutin, P.; Berga, A.

    2012-04-01

    On lœss derived soils located on the Stampien plateau from the Paris Basin (France), archaeological anthroposols and ancient cultivated soils are only preserved in very few places. Recent archaeological excavations showed the presence of a pattern of roman ditches and waterlogged depressions (« mares ») under the actual cultivated horizon (Ap). This presence strongly suggests extensive past agricultural practices and water management. An original system of ditches was found Near Marne-la-Vallée (France). It is composed of two parts, one being large ditches characterized by flat bottom and sometimes water layered deposits, called « fossés collecteurs » by the archaeologists, and the orher being smaller ditches with colluvial deposits. Our objectives was to use archaeological and micromorphological studies in order to study i) the agricultural function of these ditches and depressions, ii) their evolution with time. Observations conducted on the infilling of a « fossé collecteur » at Bussy-Saint-Georges suggest that it was not part of a drainage system, but that it was a linear water controlled system, with a ramp in one part, and a basin or a tank in another, and that it was used for others anthropic activities. In the same area, a large waterlogged depression was studied, and micromorphological analysis helped to elucidate its pedo-sedimentary formation processes. At the bottom, massive silty clayey matrix retained water. Thin layers composed of silt and clay (indicating low energy flows and decantation), sometimes impregnated and hardened by iron, alternated with silty deposit (indicating higher ernergy water layered deposits). The thin, non porous and iron impregnated crusts helped to raise the depression level, as well as, most likely the water table during roman period, maintaining waterlogging conditions. At the beginning of the early medival period, a slightly peaty event was discriminated. Higher in the profile, in more redoxic conditions

  12. Sea-level and environmental changes around the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary in the Namur-Dinant Basin (S Belgium, NE France): A multi-proxy stratigraphic analysis of carbonate ramp archives and its use in regional and interregional correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumpan, Tomáš; Bábek, Ondřej; Kalvoda, Jiří; Matys Grygar, Tomáš; Frýda, Jiří

    2014-08-01

    The paper focuses on high-resolution multidisciplinary research on three Devonian-Carboniferous boundary sections in shallow-water carbonate rocks in the Namur-Dinant Basin (Belgium, France). The aim of the study is to provide palaeo-environmental reconstructions and correlations supported by several independent quantitative proxies. We describe several correlative horizons and provide their sequence-stratigraphic interpretation based on facies analysis, spectral gamma-ray data, element concentrations (XRF) and δ13Ccarb, with foraminifer-biostratigraphy age control. The most prominent surface is a basal surface of forced regression, which is indicated by a sharp basinwards facies shift and a drop in clay-gamma-ray values and Al concentrations at the base of the Hastière and Avesnelles formations in more distal settings. In proximal settings, this surface merges with a hiatus at the Devonian-Carboniferous boundary inferred from foraminifer biostratigraphy. This hiatus can be correlated with the global Hangenberg sandstone event, which indicates a glacioeustatic sea-level fall. Increasing values of Zr/Al, K/Al, Sr/Al and Mn/Al coincide with the proximal facies of the falling stage system tract and lowstand system tract in the Hastière and Avesnelles formations as a consequence of the enhanced input of siliciclastics and nutrients during low sea levels. The top of the middle Hastière member is interpreted as the maximum regression surface, which is overlain by transgressive system tract of the upper Hastière member. The patterns of gamma-ray, δ13Ccarb, Th/K, Al and Zr/Al curves are well correlated between the studied sections. The δ13Ccarb excursions are correlated with the unnamed excursion in the Upper expansa conodont zone (Carnic Alps) and with the global Hangenberg event s.l. excursion in the kockeli conodont zone. This sequence-stratigraphic framework is used for correlations with deltaic successions from the Tafilalt Basin, Morocco. The basal surface of

  13. Lead isotope ratios in bone ash of blesbok (Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi): a means of screening for the accumulation of contaminants from uraniferous rocks.

    PubMed

    Nöthling, Johan O; Du Toit, Johannes S; Myburgh, Jan G

    2014-09-19

    This study was done to determine whether blesbok (Damaliscus pygargus phillipsi) from the Krugersdorp Game Reserve (KGR) in Gauteng Province, South Africa have higher concentrations of (238)U and higher (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (207)Pb/(204)Pb ratios in their bone ash than blesbok from a nearby control reserve that is not exposed to mine water and has no outcrops of uraniferous rocks. Eight blesbok females from the KGR and seven from the control site, all killed with a brain shot, were used. A Thermo X-series 2 quadrupole ICPMS was used to measure the concentrations of (238)U and lead and a Nu Instruments NuPlasma HR MC-ICP-MS to measure the lead isotope ratios in the tibial ash from each animal. KGR blesbok had higher mean concentrations of (238)U (P = 0.02) and ratios of (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (207)Pb/(204)Pb (P < 0.00001) than the control blesbok. The probability of rejecting the false null hypothesis of no difference in the (206)Pb/(204)Pb or (207)Pb/(204)Pb ratios between KGR and control reserve animals (the power of the test) was 0.999. The blesbok from the KGR accumulated contaminants from an uraniferous environment. The (206)Pb/(204)Pb and (207)Pb/(204)Pb ratios in tibial ash proved effective in confirming accumulation of contaminants from uraniferous rocks.

  14. The aqueous geochemistry of uranium in a drainage containing uraniferous organic-rich sediments, Lake Tahoe area, Nevada, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zielinski, R.A.; Otton, J.K.; Wanty, R.B.; Pierson, C.T.

    1988-01-01

    Anomalously uraniferous waters occur in a small (4.2 km2) drainage in the west-central Carson Range, Nevada, on the eastern side of Lake Tahoe. The waters transport uranium from local U-rich soils and bedrock to organic-rich valley-fill sediments where it is concentrated, but weakly bound. The dissolved U and the U that is potentially available from coexisting sediments pose a threat to the quality of drinking water that is taken from the drainage. The U concentration in samples of 6 stream, 11 spring and 7 near-surface waters ranged from 0.1 V). Possible precipitation of U(IV) minerals is predicted under the more reducing conditions that are particularly likely in near-surface waters, but the inhibitory effects of sluggish kinetics or organic complexing are not considered. These combined results suggest that a process such as adsorption or ion exchange, rather than mineral saturation, is the most probable mechanism for uranium fixation in the sediments. -Authors

  15. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial actions at Belfield and Bowman inactive lignite ashing sites in southwestern North Dakota to reduce the potential public health impacts from the residual radioactivity remaining at the sites. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards (40 CFR 192) that contain measures to control the residual radioactive materials and other contaminated materials, and proposed standards to protect the groundwater from further degradation. Remedial action at the Belfield and Bowman sites must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The Belfield and Bowman designated sites were used by Union Carbide and Kerr-McGee, respectively, to process uraniferous lignite in the 1960s. Uranium-rich ash from rotary kiln processing of the lignite was loaded into rail cars and transported to uranium mills in Rifle, Colorado, and Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, respectively. As a result of the ashing process, there is a total of 158,400 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) [121,100 cubic meters (m{sup 3})] of radioactive ash-contaminated soils at the two sites. Windblown ash-contaminated soil covers an additional 21 acres (8.5 ha) around the site, which includes grazing land, wetlands, and a wooded habitat.

  16. Environmental assessment of no remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The Belfield and Bowman sites were not included on the original congressional list of processing sites to be designated by the Secretary of Energy. Instead, the sites were nominated for designation by the Dakota Resource Council in a letter to the DOE (September 7, 1979). In a letter to the DOE (September 12, 1979), the state of North Dakota said that it did not believe the sites would qualify as processing sites under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) because the activities at the sites involved only the ashing of uraniferous lignite coal and the ash was shipped out of state for actual processing. Nevertheless, on October 11, 1979, the state of North Dakota agreed to the designation of the sites because they met the spirit of the law (reduce public exposure to radiation resulting from past uranium operations). Therefore, these sites were designated by the Secretary of Energy for remedial action. Because of the relatively low health impacts determined for these sites, they were ranked as low priority and scheduled to be included in the final group of sites to be remediated.

  17. Boron and strontium isotopes to assess water origin and anthropogenic inputs during flood events. The Hérault River, S. France.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petelet-Giraud, E.; Négrel, Ph.; Guerrot, C.

    2012-04-01

    The Hérault River (located in the south of France) is 150 km long and drains a medium-sized basin of 2500 km2 at its outlet in the Mediterranean Sea. The Hérault River has nine tributaries, most of which are located in the alluvial plain. While the head of the basin is covered by oak, beech and fir trees, in the middle part of the watershed typical Mediterranean vegetation prevails, and most of the alluvial plain is covered with vineyards. The watershed is divided into three geological compartments: (1) The upper part is mainly composed by granitic rocks, schist, metalimestone and metadolomite (Palaeozoic basement); (2) In the middle, Triassic clay and sandstone with some evaporitic layers (anhydrite and gypsum) constitute the Mesozoic cover near the Malines Pb-Zn mining district and around the uraniferous Permian pelitic basin of Lodève. The upper layers are formed by Jurassic limestone with some dolomite, clay and calcareous marl. The Jurassic and Cretaceous limestones are folded, faulted and highly karstified; (3) Downstream, down to the Mediterranean sea, the alluvial plain is composed of tertiary and quaternary deposits. The climate is typically Mediterranean and characterized by a highly irregular rainfall regime. Rainfall events are often short but very intense; causing flash floods that can be disastrous. The annual mean discharge at the outlet of the watershed between 1952 and 2006 was 44.3 m3/s, with a maximum measured discharge of 1300 m3/s, identified as the 10-year return flood (Gumbel law - September to October over 49 years; Agde Bassin Rond station). The monitoring site is located at the outlet of the watershed. A water sampler device was automatically activated when the river discharge reaches 35 m3/s. Between October 2001 and December 2002 and then during January 2006, 7 flood events were automatically sampled with a maximum water discharge between 120 m3/s and 1300 m3/s, the latter, corresponding to the 10-year return flood, caused widespread

  18. Reconnaissance for uraniferous rocks in northwestern Colorado, southwestern Wyoming, and northeastern Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beroni, E.P.; McKeown, F.A.

    1952-01-01

    Previous discoveries and studies of radioactive lignites of Tertiary age in North Dakota, South Dakota, Montana, and Wyoming led the Geological Survey in 1950 to do reconnaissance in the Green River and Uinta Basin of Wyoming and Utah, where similar lignites were believed to be present. Because of the common association of uranium with copper deposits and the presence of such deposits in the Uinta Basin, several areas containing copper-uranium minerals were also examined. No deposits commercially exploitable under present conditions were found. Samples of coal from the Bear River formation at Sage, Wyo., assayed 0.004 to 0.013 percent uranium in the ash; in the old Uteland copper mine in Uinta County, Utah, 0.007 to 0.017 percent uranium; in a freshwater limestone, Duchesne County, Utah, as much as 0.019 percent uranium; and in the Mesaverde formation at the Snow and Bonniebell claims near Jensen, Uintah County, Utah, 0.003 to 0.090 percent uranium. Maps were made and samples were taken at the Skull Creek carnotite deposits in Moffat County, Colo. (0.006 to 0.16 percent uranium); at the Fair-U claims in Routt County, Colo. (0.002 to 0.040 percent uranium); and at the Lucky Strike claims near Kremmling in Grand County, Colo. (0.006 to 0.018 percent uranium).

  19. Tertiary Basins of Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friend, Peter F.; Dabrio, Cristino J.

    1996-01-01

    During the Tertiary, Spain suffered compressional collision between France and Africa, and its Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts have been further modified by extensional rifting. Because it includes sectors of two separate foreland basins, and an intervening craton with basins that have been influenced by extensional and strikeSHslip deformation, Spain provides excellent material for the development and testing of theories on the study of sedimentary basin formation and filling. This book is one of the few studies available in English of the important Tertiary geology of Spain.

  20. Les rhinocérotidés (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) de l'Orléanien des bassins de la Garonne et de la Loire (France): intérêt biostratigraphiqueRhinocerotids (Mammalia, Perissodactyla) from the Orleanian of the Garonne and Loire basins (France): biostratigraphical interest.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; Bulot, Christian; Ginsburg, Léonard

    2000-04-01

    Rhinocerotid fauna from the Orleanian (MN3-5) of the Garonne and Loire basins are revised. Twelve taxa, with seven asiatic migrants, are recognized and connected to the biostratigraphical context. New correlations are established between both areas. Three rhinocerotid associations are characterized for the Orleanian of the studied basins.

  1. Hurricanes Frances and Ivan

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Cloud Height Maps for Hurricanes Frances and Ivan     ... predict the intensity and amount of rainfall associated with hurricanes still requires improvement, especially on the 24 to 48 hour ...

  2. France declares energy independence

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, M.P.; Starr, R.

    1983-03-01

    France has adhered to its policy of pursuing nuclear energy, using the same pressurized light-water reactor technology developed in the US, and going beyond to develop an operating breeder reactor, the Phenix. Pride and pragmatism, of which France has a full share, and petroleum, of which she has none, are the combination which has made the French nuclear program successful. The major difference between the French and US nuclear programs is institutional and political. The author concludes from his comparison that the US approach of private development and regulation is not appropriate. (DCK)

  3. Ethics committees in France.

    PubMed

    Isambert, F A

    1989-08-01

    Leading biologists and physicians in France have been considering bioethical problems for several decades. In 1983 an important new forum for bioethical discussion in France was created, with the establishment of the Comité Consultatif National d'Ethique pour les Sciences de la Vie et de la Santé (C.C.N.E.). This committee has produced numerous important opinions and reports on such topics as research involving human subjects, fetal tissue research, and the new reproductive technologies. At the local level the discussion of bioethical questions is carried on by ethics committees, which are charged with the responsibility of reviewing research protocols.

  4. France. [CME Country Reports].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    In France, the 1882 Compulsory Education Act includes both French and foreign children. Since then, the need to go further than this general principle of non-discrimination and to undertake specific action for immigrants, both adults and children, has been recognized. Since 1970, the Ministry of Education has been directly responsible for this…

  5. Urban Sociology in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amiot, Michel

    1986-01-01

    Divides the history of urban sociology in France into three periods: (1) functionalism, which lasted from 1910 until the 1960s, (2) neo-Marxist socioeconomics lasting from 1968 until 1979, and (3) anthropological approach which is still dominant. Reviews theoretical perspectives and research characteristic of each period. (JDH)

  6. Tidal Power in France

    SciTech Connect

    Frau, J.P. )

    1993-03-01

    This presentation discusses the tidal power resource of France and the successes of the La Rance Plant. The topics of the presentation include power generation, adaptation of output to grid requirements, plant installation, environmental factors, La Rance success, and a review of major world wide tidal energy projects in the UK, Canada, South Korea, India, and Argentina.

  7. Country Profiles. France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois-Pichat, Jean

    A profile of France is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: (1) location and description of the country; (2) population--size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, education,…

  8. Chagas disease, France.

    PubMed

    Lescure, François-Xavier; Canestri, Ana; Melliez, Hugues; Jauréguiberry, Stéphane; Develoux, Michel; Dorent, Richard; Guiard-Schmid, Jean-Baptiste; Bonnard, Philippe; Ajana, Faïza; Rolla, Valeria; Carlier, Yves; Gay, Frederick; Elghouzzi, Marie-Hélène; Danis, Martin; Pialoux, Gilles

    2008-04-01

    Chagas disease (CD) is endemic to Latin America; its prevalence is highest in Bolivia. CD is sometimes seen in the United States and Canada among migrants from Latin America, whereas it is rare in Europe. We report 9 cases of imported CD in France from 2004 to 2006.

  9. Traveling in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philyaw, Henry; And Others

    This minicourse guide for teachers of French is intended to help motivate and prepare students for travel in France. Activities are outlined in eleven related areas, including (1) planning for the trip, (2) currency, (3) going through customs, (4) tipping, (5) shopping, (6) guided tours, (7) touring on your own, (8) social life and entertainment,…

  10. U-Pb ages of uraniferous opals and implications for the history of beryllium, fluorine, and uranium mineralization at Spor Mountain, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludwig, K. R.; Lindsey, D.A.; Zielinski, R.A.; Simmons, K.R.

    1980-01-01

    The U-Pb isotope systematics of uraniferous opals from Spor Mountain, Utah, were investigated to determine the suitability of such material for geochronologic purposes, and to estimate the timing of uranium and associated beryllium and fluorine mineralization. The results indicate that uraniferous opals can approximate a closed system for uranium and uranium daughters, so that dating samples as young as ???1 m.y. should be possible. In addition, the expected lack of initial 230Th and 231Pa in opals permits valuable information on the initial 234U/238U to be obtained on suitable samples of ???10 m.y. age. The oldest 207Pb/235U apparent age observed, 20.8 ?? 1 m.y., was that of the opal-fluorite core of a nodule from a beryllium deposit in the Spor Mountain Formation. This age is indistinguishable from that of fission-track and K-Ar ages from the host rhyolite, and links the mineralization to the first episode of alkali rhyolite magmatism and related hydrothermal activity at Spor Mountain. Successively younger ages of 13 m.y. and 8-9 m.y. on concentric outer zones of the same nodule indicate that opal formed either episodically or continuously for over 10 m.y. Several samples of both fracture-filling and massive-nodule opal associated with beryllium deposits gave 207Pb/235U apparent ages of 13-16 m.y., which may reflect a restricted period of mineralization or perhaps an averaging of 21- and <13-m.y. periods of opal growth. Several samples of fracture-filling opal in volcanic rocks as young as 6 m.y. gave 207Pb/235U ages of 3.4-4.8 m.y. These ages may reflect hot-spring activity after the last major eruption of alkali rhyolite. ?? 1980.

  11. Report from France

    PubMed Central

    Régnier, François; Rouzioux, Jean-Marc

    1983-01-01

    The authors consider four aspects of contemporary medical ethics in France: abortion and contraception; artificial insemination; suicide and euthanasia, and drug trials on healthy human volunteers, and then outline the various ethical codes which apply to French doctors. Many in France who accept technological progress are unwilling or unable to acknowledge the impact upon medical ethics of this progress. The conflict is epitomised by the new role being demanded from the doctor. Where formerly he was regarded as the guardian of traditional values today he is urged to adapt, to change, to take account of the technological innovations in medicine. `In such a situation,' the authors ask, `how is it possible to avoid a feeling of uneasiness?' PMID:6352945

  12. [Primary care in France].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2016-01-01

    The poor planning of health care professionals in Spain has led to an exodus of doctors leaving the country. France is one of the chosen countries for Spanish doctors to develop their professional career. The French health care system belongs to the Bismarck model. In this model, health care system is financed jointly by workers and employers through payroll deduction. The right to health care is linked to the job, and provision of services is done by sickness-funds controlled by the Government. Primary care in France is quite different from Spanish primary care. General practitioners are independent workers who have the right to set up a practice anywhere in France. This lack of regulation has generated a great problem of "medical desertification" with problems of health care access and inequalities in health. French doctors do not want to work in rural areas or outside cities because "they are not value for money". Medical salary is linked to professional activity. The role of doctors is to give punctual care. Team work team does not exist, and coordination between primary and secondary care is lacking. Access to diagnostic tests, hospitals and specialists is unlimited. Duplicity of services, adverse events and inefficiencies are the norm. Patients can freely choose their doctor, and they have a co-payment for visits and hospital care settings. Two years training is required to become a general practitioner. After that, continuing medical education is compulsory, but it is not regulated. Although the French medical Health System was named by the WHO in 2000 as the best health care system in the world, is it not that good. While primary care in Spain has room for improvement, there is a long way for France to be like Spain.

  13. [Primary care in France].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2016-01-01

    The poor planning of health care professionals in Spain has led to an exodus of doctors leaving the country. France is one of the chosen countries for Spanish doctors to develop their professional career. The French health care system belongs to the Bismarck model. In this model, health care system is financed jointly by workers and employers through payroll deduction. The right to health care is linked to the job, and provision of services is done by sickness-funds controlled by the Government. Primary care in France is quite different from Spanish primary care. General practitioners are independent workers who have the right to set up a practice anywhere in France. This lack of regulation has generated a great problem of "medical desertification" with problems of health care access and inequalities in health. French doctors do not want to work in rural areas or outside cities because "they are not value for money". Medical salary is linked to professional activity. The role of doctors is to give punctual care. Team work team does not exist, and coordination between primary and secondary care is lacking. Access to diagnostic tests, hospitals and specialists is unlimited. Duplicity of services, adverse events and inefficiencies are the norm. Patients can freely choose their doctor, and they have a co-payment for visits and hospital care settings. Two years training is required to become a general practitioner. After that, continuing medical education is compulsory, but it is not regulated. Although the French medical Health System was named by the WHO in 2000 as the best health care system in the world, is it not that good. While primary care in Spain has room for improvement, there is a long way for France to be like Spain. PMID:26304179

  14. Pharmacy Education in France

    PubMed Central

    Bourdon, Olivier; Ekeland, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    In France, to practice as a pharmacist, one needs a “diplome d'état de Docteur en Pharmacie” This degree is awarded after 6 or 9 years of pharmacy studies, depending on the option chosen by the student. The degree is offered only at universities and is recognized in France as well as throughout the European Union. Each university in France is divided into faculties called Unité de Formation et de Recherche (UFR). There are 24 faculties of pharmacy or UFRs de pharmacie. A national committee develops a pharmacy education program at the national level and each faculty adapts this program according to its specific features and means (eg, faculty, buildings). The number of students accepted in the second year is determined each year by a Government decree (numerus clausus). Successive placements, totalling 62 weeks, progressively familiarize the student with professional practice, and enable him/her to acquire the required competencies, such as drug monitoring and educating and counselling patients. Challenges facing community pharmacies in the next 10 years are patient education, home health care, and orthopaedics; in hospital pharmacies, empowering pharmacists to supervise and validate all prescriptions; and finally, research in pharmacy practice. PMID:19325952

  15. Pharmacy education in France.

    PubMed

    Bourdon, Olivier; Ekeland, Catherine; Brion, Françoise

    2008-12-15

    In France, to practice as a pharmacist, one needs a "diplome d'état de Docteur en Pharmacie" This degree is awarded after 6 or 9 years of pharmacy studies, depending on the option chosen by the student. The degree is offered only at universities and is recognized in France as well as throughout the European Union. Each university in France is divided into faculties called Unité de Formation et de Recherche (UFR). There are 24 faculties of pharmacy or UFRs de pharmacie. A national committee develops a pharmacy education program at the national level and each faculty adapts this program according to its specific features and means (eg, faculty, buildings). The number of students accepted in the second year is determined each year by a Government decree (numerus clausus). Successive placements, totalling 62 weeks, progressively familiarize the student with professional practice, and enable him/her to acquire the required competencies, such as drug monitoring and educating and counselling patients. Challenges facing community pharmacies in the next 10 years are patient education, home health care, and orthopaedics; in hospital pharmacies, empowering pharmacists to supervise and validate all prescriptions; and finally, research in pharmacy practice.

  16. Scale-dependent effects of land cover on water physico-chemistry and diatom-based metrics in a major river system, the Adour-Garonne basin (South Western France).

    PubMed

    Tudesque, Loïc; Tisseuil, Clément; Lek, Sovan

    2014-01-01

    The scale dependence of ecological phenomena remains a central issue in ecology. Particularly in aquatic ecology, the consideration of the accurate spatial scale in assessing the effects of landscape factors on stream condition is critical. In this context, our study aimed at assessing the relationships between multi-spatial scale land cover patterns and a variety of water quality and diatom metrics measured at the stream reach level. This investigation was conducted in a major European river system, the Adour-Garonne river basin, characterized by a wide range of ecological conditions. Redundancy analysis (RDA) and variance partitioning techniques were used to disentangle the different relationships between land cover, water-chemistry and diatom metrics. Our results revealed a top-down "cascade effect" indirectly linking diatom metrics to land cover patterns through water physico-chemistry, which occurred at the largest spatial scales. In general, the strength of the relationships between land cover, physico-chemistry, and diatoms was shown to increase with the spatial scale, from the local to the basin scale, emphasizing the importance of continuous processes of accumulation throughout the river gradient. Unexpectedly, we established that the influence of land cover on the diatom metric was of primary importance both at the basin and local scale, as a result of discontinuous but not necessarily antagonist processes. The most detailed spatial grain of the Corine land cover classification appeared as the most relevant spatial grain to relate land cover to water chemistry and diatoms. Our findings provide suitable information to improve the implementation of effective diatom-based monitoring programs, especially within the scope of the European Water Framework Directive.

  17. Scale-dependent effects of land cover on water physico-chemistry and diatom-based metrics in a major river system, the Adour-Garonne basin (South Western France).

    PubMed

    Tudesque, Loïc; Tisseuil, Clément; Lek, Sovan

    2014-01-01

    The scale dependence of ecological phenomena remains a central issue in ecology. Particularly in aquatic ecology, the consideration of the accurate spatial scale in assessing the effects of landscape factors on stream condition is critical. In this context, our study aimed at assessing the relationships between multi-spatial scale land cover patterns and a variety of water quality and diatom metrics measured at the stream reach level. This investigation was conducted in a major European river system, the Adour-Garonne river basin, characterized by a wide range of ecological conditions. Redundancy analysis (RDA) and variance partitioning techniques were used to disentangle the different relationships between land cover, water-chemistry and diatom metrics. Our results revealed a top-down "cascade effect" indirectly linking diatom metrics to land cover patterns through water physico-chemistry, which occurred at the largest spatial scales. In general, the strength of the relationships between land cover, physico-chemistry, and diatoms was shown to increase with the spatial scale, from the local to the basin scale, emphasizing the importance of continuous processes of accumulation throughout the river gradient. Unexpectedly, we established that the influence of land cover on the diatom metric was of primary importance both at the basin and local scale, as a result of discontinuous but not necessarily antagonist processes. The most detailed spatial grain of the Corine land cover classification appeared as the most relevant spatial grain to relate land cover to water chemistry and diatoms. Our findings provide suitable information to improve the implementation of effective diatom-based monitoring programs, especially within the scope of the European Water Framework Directive. PMID:23892023

  18. Stratigraphic modeling of sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Aigner, T. ); Lawrence, D.T. )

    1990-11-01

    A two-dimensional stratigraphic forward model has been successfully applied and calibrated in clastic, carbonate, and mixed clastic/carbonate regimes. Primary input parameters are subsidence, sea level, volume of clastics, and carbonate growth potential. Program output includes sequence geometries, facies distribution lithology distribution, chronostratigraphic plots, burial history plots, thermal and maturity histories, and crossplots. The program may be used to predict reservoir distribution, to constrain interpretations of well and seismic data, to rapidly test exploration scenarios in frontier basins, and to evaluate the fundamental controls on observed basin stratigraphy. Applications to data sets from Main Pass (US Gulf Coast), Offshore Sarawak (Malaysia), Rub'al Khali basin (Oman), Paris basin (France), and Baltimore Canyon (US East Coast) demonstrate that the program can be used to simulate stratigraphy on a basin-wide scale as well as on the scale of individual prospects.

  19. Medicolegal anthropology in France.

    PubMed

    Işcan, M Y; Quatrehomme, G

    1999-03-15

    Medicolegal anthropology has a very long history in France. Basic studies on human skeletal remains started as early as the 18th century. The 19th century produced many medical theses and research papers on age, sex, as well as stature estimation. The research proliferated in the first 60 years of the 20th century, much of which is still in use in France and abroad. The later half of the 20th century, however, was dormant in research on human skeletal biology at a time when forensic anthropology was becoming an active field worldwide. In the last decade, medicolegal anthropology took a different perspective, independent of its traditional roots. Research and practice have both been in the professional domain of forensic physicians unlike the situation in many other countries. Population based studies requiring large databases or skeletal collections have diminished considerably. Thus, most research has been on factors of individualization such as trauma, time since death, crime scene investigation, and facial reconstruction. It is suggested that there is a need for cooperation between the forensic physician and anthropologist to further research. This also encourages anthropologists to carry out research and practice that can fulfill the needs of the medicolegal system of the country. PMID:10356772

  20. Battle of France WWII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadhath, Arpitha Rao

    The purpose of this thesis is to build an interactive Geographical Information System (GIS) tool, relating to the series of events that occurred during the Battle of France World War II. The tool gives us an insight about the countries involved in the battle, their allies and their strategies. This tool was created to use it as a one stop source of information regarding all the important battles that took place, which lead to the fall of France. The tool brings together the maps of all the countries involved. Integrated with each map is the data relevant to that map. The data for each country includes the place of attack, the strategies used during the attack, and the kind of warfare. The tool also makes use of HTML files to give all the information, along with the images from the time of the war and a footage which explains everything about the particular battle. The tool was build using JAVA, along with the use of MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) to develop Maps of each of the countries. MOJO is developed by ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) which makes it easier to add data to the maps. It also makes highlighting important information easier making use of pop-up windows, charts and infographics. HTML files were designed making use of the open-source template developed by Bootstrap. The tool is built in such a way that the interface is simple and easy for the user to use and understand.

  1. France: late abortion.

    PubMed

    Gaudry, D; Sadan, G

    1989-01-01

    In France, under the terms of a law passed by Parliament in 1975, a woman may have an abortion up to 12 weeks of pregnancy if she is a French resident and, in the event that she is a minor, she has parental consent. The woman must also have 2 medical consultations, a week apart. The woman is reimbursed by the state up to 70% of the cost of the abortion. After 12 weeks, abortion, except for therapeutic abortion, under the terms of Article 317 of the Criminal Code, is a crime, punishable by 6 months to 10 years in prison, a fine of between 1800 and 250,000 Francs, and loss of professional license. Moreover, Article 647 of the Health Code bans any advertising, incitement or propaganda for abortion or abortion-inducing products. Many French women go to Britain or Holland for abortions after 12 weeks, but they face the financial burden of traveling as well as the difficulties of getting help in a strange country and the stigma of having done something illegal. The Mouvement Francais pour le Planning Familial, which won the legalization of contraception in 1967, is now fighting for legal abortion as well as the distribution of information about sexuality, contraception, and abortion in the schools. 2 charges of incitement to abortion have been brought against the organization.

  2. Eccentricity paced monsoon-like system along the northwestern Tethyan margin during the Valanginian (Early Cretaceous): new insights from detrital and nutrient fluxes into the Vocontian Basin (SE France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonnier, Guillaume; Duchamp-Alphonse, Stéphanie; Adatte, Thierry; Föllmi, Karl; Spangenberg, Jorge; Gardin, Silvia; Galbrun, Bruno; Colin, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution studies document significant fluctuations between arid/humid and cool/warm conditions in the Northwestern Tethyan margin at the late early and late Valanginian. Despite numerous investigations carried out on the Valanginian climate, very few works depict high resolution climate conditions and related changes in the weathering pattern for the whole Valanginian beyond the Weissert Episode and no one astronomically calibrates them. In this study, high-resolution changes in terrigenous and nutrient fluxes into the Vocontian Basin were investigated for the Late Berriasian - Late Valanginian time interval, in order to assess the precipitation patterns in the source areas and to evaluate the effect of orbital forcing on the strength of the hydrological cycle. New high-resolution mineralogical (bulk-rock and clay fraction) and geochemical (phosphorus and oxygen isotope) data are used from the astronomically calibrated Orpierre section. For the first time, Kaolinite, Detrital, and Phosphorus Accumulation Rates (KAR, DAR and PAR) are calculated and compared to a set of 547 geochemical, and 260 mineralogical published data from other Vocontian sections. It appears that three regional increases in the KAR document three successive humid episodes during the Valanginian. This is confirmed by contemporaneous increases in DAR and partly also PAR, which highlight higher terrigenous and nutrient fluxes to the Vocontian Basin during these episodes. Concomitant decreases in the δ18Owhole-rock signals may reflect higher sea-surface temperatures during the early Valanginian and the early-late Valanginian transition. The occurrence of the three humid episodes is interpreted to relate to an orbital-paced monsoonal circulation pattern through seasonally reversing movements of air mass heat and precipitation over the northwestern Tethyan margin. In particular, based on the correlation between the 405 kyr eccentricity cycles and the KAR signal obtained at Orpierre, an

  3. Women in physics in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierron-Bohnes, Véronique

    2015-12-01

    We present six associations and entities working in France on issues of women in physics: the Women and Physics Commission, French Physical Society; Women in Nuclear (WiN) France; Women and Science Association; Mission for the Place of Women at CNRS; Parity, Diversity, and Women Network, CEA; and the Network of University Equality-Diversity Representatives.

  4. Old Age Policy in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillemard, Anne-Marie

    Old-age policy in France has evolved historically in three critical dimensions that also correspond generally to post-World War II developments in France: the right to retirement (pensions); improved living conditions (e.g., autonomy, housing); and continued participation in the labor force. The last focus is currently a controversial one, given…

  5. Women in physics in France

    SciTech Connect

    Pierron-Bohnes, Véronique

    2015-12-31

    We present six associations and entities working in France on issues of women in physics: the Women and Physics Commission, French Physical Society; Women in Nuclear (WiN) France; Women and Science Association; Mission for the Place of Women at CNRS; Parity, Diversity, and Women Network, CEA; and the Network of University Equality-Diversity Representatives.

  6. Identification of different groundwater flowpaths within volcanic aquifers using natural tracers for the evaluation of the influence of lava flows morphology (Argnat basin, Chaîne des Puys, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Guillaume; Celle-Jeanton, Hélène; Huneau, Frédéric; Loock, Sébastien; Renac, Christophe

    2010-09-01

    SummaryHydrochemical and stable isotopic ( 2H, 18O) data were used to characterize the groundwater flow and major chemical features within a complex fractured volcanic aquifer system, the Argnat basin, which is located in the Chaîne des Puys (French Massif Central). From 10 sampling points, the study of the transfer into the saturated zone from upstream to downstream, given the geological context and topography, allows to estimate the role of supply from high and low altitudes to the recharge processes. This work shows the existence of different types of supply between pahoehoe and a'a flows. Therefore, the morphology of volcanic flows impacts the chemical and isotopic signatures of groundwater, enhancing or reducing the influence of the unsaturated zone on the pathways of infiltrated water. Pahoehoe flows imply horizontal water flows of low discharge at the top of the lava whereas a'a flows seems to be much more heterogeneous and locally able to promote the existence of perched water bodies and further vertical circulations. Taking into account these two types of behaviour, a conceptual scheme of the functioning of this heterogeneous environment is proposed, which will help towards a sustainable management of volcanic aquifers in relation with the European Union Groundwater Directive (2006/118/CE) (2006).

  7. Frances Mary hodgkins.

    PubMed

    Laurie, A J

    2001-01-01

    SUMMARY Frances Hodgkins was one of a number of expatriate New Zealanders during the early twentieth century who lived in Britain or Europe, where it was easier to find supportive friendship circles for their lives as artists or as people attracted to their own sex. In this article, I explore the primacy of women in Hodgkins' life and read this as lesbian and argue that many of these relationships were sexual, from the evidence of her letters, which suggest that she moved in lesbian worlds of work and friendship. I also discuss the financial and emotional support given by her male homosexual as well as her lesbian friends who made her life as an artist possible.

  8. Groundwater management in France

    SciTech Connect

    Margat, J. )

    1987-01-01

    Groundwater, like other extensive natural and renewable resources, easily accessible and, at the same time, vulnerable, has to be managed so as to reconcile the unique resource with its many users, and its long-term preservation with short-term utilization requirements. Under the natural, legal, and economic conditions prevailing in France, where groundwater constitutes a large part of water production and resources, where there are tens of thousands of economic developers and users of a few hundred natural groundwater management units, such management concerns these users as well as the public and collective authorities that control the users activities for the common present and future good at all. Legislative, financial, and educational means are applied simultaneously to preserve and protect the quality and quantity of the groundwater and at times to encourage its use and stimulate its development.

  9. Isorenieratane record in black shales from the Paris Basin, France: Constraints on recycling of respired CO2 as a mechanism for negative carbon isotope shifts during the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Breugel, Yvonne; Baas, Marianne; Schouten, Stefan; Mattioli, Emanuela; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2006-12-01

    The prominent negative stable carbon isotope excursion in both carbonate and organic carbon recorded in organic-rich sediments deposited during the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event (OAE) has commonly been explained by recycling of 13C-depleted CO2 (the so-called Küspert model). More recently, the massive release of 13C-depleted methane or other forms of 13C-depleted carbon was also proposed to account for the observed negative δ13C excursions in organic carbon of terrigenous as well as of marine origin. The occurrence of diagenetic products of the carotenoid isorenieratene (isorenieratane and other aryl isoprenoids) in Toarcian black shales has been regarded as supporting evidence for the Küspert hypothesis as they point to strong stratification of the epicontinental seas. A section of a drill core straddling the Toarcian of the Paris Basin (Cirfontaine-en-Ornois) contained intact isorenieratane, providing evidence that photosynthetic green sulphur bacteria were present at the time of deposition, even prior to the OAE. However, the isorenieratane abundances are very low in the section where the negative δ13C excursion in organic carbon and phytane, a chemical fossil derived from chlorophyll, occurs. The abundance of the isorenieratene derivatives increases, once the δ13C records have shifted to more positive values. The δ13C of isorenieratane (generally circa -13.1 ± 0.5 ‰) indicates that the respired CO2 contribution at the chemocline was low and is thus not likely to be the main cause of the prominent up to 7‰ negative δ13C shift recorded in Toarcian organic carbon records.

  10. The "Casa" of Sevres, France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waltuch, Margot

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the author's teaching experiences during the 1930s at "La Maison des Enfants," a Montessori school in Sevres, France. Provides photographs and descriptions of the school day, outdoor activities, gardening, cooking and eating, practical activities, and creative activities. (MDM)

  11. Radon-hazard potential the Beaver basin, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, C.E.

    1995-06-01

    Indoor-radon levels in the Beaver basin of southwestern Utah are the highest recorded to date in Utah, ranging from 17.5 to 495 picocuries per liter (pCi/L). Because the U.S. Environment Protection Agency considers indoor-radon levels above 4 pCi/L to represent a risk of lung cancer from long-term exposure, the Utah Geological Survey is preparing a radon-hazard-potential map for the area to help prioritize indoor testing and evaluate the need for radon-resistant construction. Radon is a chemically inert radioactive gas derived from the decay of uranium-238, which is commonly found in rocks and soils. Soil permeability, depth to ground water, and uranium/thorium content of source materials control the mobility and concentration of radon in the soil. Once formed, radon diffuses into the pore space of the soil and then to the atmosphere or into buildings by pressure-driven flow of air or additional diffusion. The Beaver basin has been a topographic and structural depression since late Miocene time. Paleocene to Miocene volcanic and igneous rocks border the basin. Uraniferous alluvial-fan, piedmont-slope, flood-plain, and lacustrine sediments derived from the surrounding volcanic rocks fill the basin. A soil-gas radon and ground radioactivity survey in the Beaver basin shows that soils have high levels of radon gas. In this survey, uranium concentrations range from 3 to 13 parts per million (ppm) and thorium concentrations range from 10 to 48 ppm. Radon concentrations in the soil gas ranged from 85 to 3,500 pCi/L. The highest concentrations of uranium, thorium, and radon gas and the highest radon-hazard-potential are in the well-drained permeable soils in the lower flood- plain deposits that underlie the city of Beaver.

  12. Beginning of viniculture in France

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Luley, Benjamin P.; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen E.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500–475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425–400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport. PMID:23733937

  13. Beginning of Viniculture in France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Luley, Benjamin P.; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen F.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500-475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425-400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport.

  14. Beginning of viniculture in France.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Patrick E; Luley, Benjamin P; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P; Smith, Karen E; Hall, Gretchen R; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M

    2013-06-18

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500-475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425-400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport.

  15. Stream pollution concentration in riffle geomorphic units (Yzeron basin, France).

    PubMed

    Namour, Philippe; Schmitt, Laurent; Eschbach, David; Moulin, Bertrand; Fantino, Guillaume; Bordes, Claire; Breil, Pascal

    2015-11-01

    In urbanized areas, small streams can be greatly damaged by urban inflows and combined sewer overflows. These polluted inputs can be several times higher than the natural stream flow over short time periods. Sound knowledge of the spatial distribution of the discharged pollutants in sediments is therefore crucial for designing monitoring strategies and suitable remediation operations. This field study combines geomorphic characterization, hydraulic conductivity measurement and pollutant assays in sediments of a small suburban river. The study site was divided up into geomorphic units: riffles, pools and runs. The last two were grouped into one class named "pool-runs" owing to their closely similar open channel flow hydraulics. Benthic and hyporheic sediments were sampled at 2m intervals. Conventional particulate pollutants (Cr, Pb, N(org), P(tot) & C(org)) were assayed in samples. The main result was: pollutants were not randomly distributed in the stream sediments, but their location showed clear concentration differences by geomorphic units, with preferential accumulation in the hyporheic zones of riffle units and a lesser one in the hyporheic zones of pools. A decrease in hydraulic conductivity was significantly correlated with an increase in pollutant concentration. This occurred mainly at the transition between riffles and pool units. The down-welling water fluxes in the sediment calculated using Darcy's formula reflect this slowdown. Our findings highlight the need to take into account the geomorphological and hydrological functioning of a stream to accurately locate the biogeochemical hotspots to be treated and thereby develop more relevant monitoring and remediation methodologies.

  16. Structural investigations in the Massif-Central, France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scanvic, J. Y.

    1974-01-01

    This survey covered the French Massif-Central (where crystalline and volcanic rocks outcrop) and its surrounding sedimentaries, Bassin de Paris, Bassin d'Aquitaine and Rhodanian valley. One objective was the mapping of fracturing and the surveying of its relationship with known ore deposits. During this survey it was found that ERTS imagery outlines lithology in some sedimentary basins. On the other hand, in a basement area, under temperature climate conditions, lithology is rarely expressed. These observations can be related to the fact that band 5 gives excellent results above sedimentary basins in France and generally band 7 is the most useful in a basement area. Several examples show clearly the value of ERTS imagery for mapping linear features and circular structures. All the main fractures are identified with the exception of new ones found both in sedimentaries and basement areas. Other interesting findings concern sun elevation which, stereoscopic effect not being possible, simulates relief in a better way under certain conditions.

  17. Pyemotes ventricosus Dermatitis, Southeastern France

    PubMed Central

    Blanc-Amrane, Véronique; Bahadoran, Philippe; Caumes, Eric; Marty, Pierre; Lazar, Mariléna; Boissy, Christian; Desruelles, François; Izri, Arezki; Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Counillon, Evelyne; Chosidow, Olivier; Delaunay, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    We investigated 42 patients who had unusual pruritic dermatitis associated with a specific clinical sign (comet sign) in 23 houses in southeastern France from May through September 2007. Pyemotes ventricosus, a parasite of the furniture beetle Anobium punctatum, was the cause of this condition. PMID:18976564

  18. Education in France: Number 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French Embassy, New York, NY. French Cultural Services.

    The history and modernization of the French nursery and elementary schools are the focal points of this review of educational trends in France. One major section discussed the "Ecole Maternelle", kindergarten, nursery schools, the "Jardin d'Enfants", and new math. Another section treats: (1) "Les Ecoles Primaires", (2) village schools, (3) the…

  19. The Quaternary coversands of southwest France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitzia, Luca; Bertran, Pascal; Bahain, Jean-Jacques; Bateman, Mark D.; Hernandez, Marion; Garon, Henri; de Lafontaine, Guillaume; Mercier, Norbert; Leroyer, Chantal; Queffelec, Alain; Voinchet, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    Detailed stratigraphic analysis and numerical dating (OSL, IRSL, ESR, 14C) of Pleistocene coversands in southwest France enable the construction of a renewed chronostratigraphic framework for sand deposition. The chronological data obtained from sandsheet units testify to the development of transgressive dunefields since at least the Middle Pleistocene (MIS 10). Three main phases of accumulation occurred during the Last Glacial. The oldest one (64-42 ka) is associated with wet sandsheet facies, histic horizons and zibar-type dune fields, which reflect deposition in a context strongly influenced by the groundwater table. The Late Pleniglacial (24-14 ka) corresponds to the main phase of coversand extension in a drier context. Silty gley horizons suggest, however, local interruptions of sand drifting during GS 2.1. Lateglacial stabilization of the coversands may not have occurred before GI-1c (Allerød), which was typified by the development of cumulic arenosols. These were covered by parabolic dunes during the Younger Dryas. The variations in extent of the emerged continental shelf during the glacial-interglacial cycles may explain the uneven geographical distribution of sand deposition through time. Because of coastline retreat up to 100 km north of 45°N during the LGM lowstand, the coversands were unable to reach the northern part of the basin. Comparison with other European regions highlights stronger affinities of the French record with Portugal than with the Netherlands and Great Britain, probably because of reduced influence of permafrost.

  20. [End of life in France].

    PubMed

    Vacheron, André

    2013-01-01

    Two major changes in end-of-life management have occured in recent decades: first, because of the increase in life expectancy and the resulting aging of the population, most deaths now involve old or very old people; second, more than two-thirds of deaths occur in a hospital or an institution. Our fellow citizens are afraid of suffering and death. They wish for a peaceful death, as rapid as possible and, in recent surveys, say they favour euthanasia. Yet euthanasia is illegal in France and in most other Western countries (with the exception of the Benelux nations). Palliative care ensures dignity in death, without anxiety of suffering, and is expanding rapidly in France. Léonetti's law of 22 April 2005 ensures the protection of the weakest, who should never be considered unworthy of life, yet is poorly known to the public and even to physicians. It now needs to be applied in practice. PMID:25518160

  1. "Franklin: Science, Politics and France"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClellan, James E., III

    2003-04-01

    This presentation traces Benjamin Franklin's career as a "civic scientist" in Old-Regime France. It outlines the initial - and not always positive - reception of Franklin's work on electricity by the community of French scientists in the 1750s. It sketches Franklin's subsequent elevation into the pantheon of French Enlightenment heros, and it details his work as a "civic scientist" while American envoy to France in the 1770s and 1780s, notably his service on the government-sponsored commissions that repudiated the scientific and medical claims of Franz Anton Mesmer. This presentation concludes by examining a few features of Franklin's career that are not completely congruent with our notion of what a "civic scientist" might be, a contrast that is intended to illuminate both Franklin and the concept of "civic scientist."

  2. France, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This image of France was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was reduced to 6 arcseconds (about 185 meters north-south and 127 meters east-west), resampled to a Mercator projection, and the French border outlined. Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the country is readily apparent.

    The upper central part of this scene is dominated by the Paris Basin, which consists of a layered sequence of sedimentary rocks. Fertile soils over much of the area make good agricultural land. The Normandie coast to the upper left is characterized by high, chalk cliffs, while the Brittany coast (the peninsula to the left) is highly indented where deep valleys were drowned by the sea, and the Biscay coast to the southwest is marked by flat, sandy beaches.

    To the south, the Pyrenees form a natural border between France and Spain, and the south-central part of the country is dominated by the ancient Massif Central. Subject to volcanism that has only subsided in the last 10,000 years, these central mountains are separated from the Alps by the north-south trending Rhone River Basin.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to

  3. [Health and politics in France].

    PubMed

    Tabuteau, Didier

    2012-06-01

    Health is a dual notion. It is individual, singular and intimate. It is also collective, statistical and political. The modern problematic of health relies upon a balance of complex relations between individual and collective acceptances of the notion. You can try to outline the evolutions and the main concepts through a quadruple approach: health and politics, health and its professionals, health and society and in the end, health and the State. The relationships between health and politics in France are affected by the historical delay of France in public health, namely because of a structural weakness of the administrative organization of public health. Nevertheless France developed a dense and well organized care system and a universal social protection against the disease. The creation of the health professions in France was marked by a historical opposition between the doctors and the state which led to a failure of hygienist medicine and a fundamental misunderstanding on health insurance. Medical domination led to the organization of a system based on professional dichotomy and the delegation of the regulation skills to the health care professionals. The role of health issues in the French society was deeply renewed by the development of the medical and epidemiological knowledge. This resulted in a new political responsibility in the management of health risks but also in the confirmation of the patients' rights and the role of their associations in the health systems operations and the piloting of public policies. In this environment, the state has recently and progressively confirmed its dominating role in the health sector. A public hospital service was created In the 60's and 70's, then in the 80's there were recurrent interventions in order to control health spendings and eventually in the 90's health safety devices were set up. More recently, a process of health policies institutionalization confirmed this evolution. In the future, health issues should

  4. [Dengue fever in mainland France].

    PubMed

    Paty, M-C

    2014-11-01

    Dengue fever is the most widespread distributed vector borne viral disease. It is transmitted through the bites of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. With the expansion of Aedes albopictus and increasing travel exchange, it is no longer limited to the tropical zone and transmission has been documented in temperate areas. In mainland France, where Aedes albopictus has been present and disseminating since 2004, 2 episodes of autochthonous transmission occurred in 2010 and in 2013. Control measures against dengue and chikungunya, which shares the same vector, are implemented every year since 2006, in the areas where the vector is present. They aim at preventing or limiting local transmission of these diseases. They are based on epidemiological and entomological surveillance and vector control measures. The diagnosis of dengue, and chikungunya should be considered in case of suggestive symptoms in patients returning from an area of virus circulation. It should also be considered for patients living or having stayed in areas of mainland France where Aedes albopictus is present, during its activity period from May 1 to November 30. The prevention and control system, including vector control measures and the notification of cases to the local health authority should be known, as the risk of autochthonous transmission increases every year. PMID:25080833

  5. [Dengue fever in mainland France].

    PubMed

    Paty, M-C

    2014-11-01

    Dengue fever is the most widespread distributed vector borne viral disease. It is transmitted through the bites of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. With the expansion of Aedes albopictus and increasing travel exchange, it is no longer limited to the tropical zone and transmission has been documented in temperate areas. In mainland France, where Aedes albopictus has been present and disseminating since 2004, 2 episodes of autochthonous transmission occurred in 2010 and in 2013. Control measures against dengue and chikungunya, which shares the same vector, are implemented every year since 2006, in the areas where the vector is present. They aim at preventing or limiting local transmission of these diseases. They are based on epidemiological and entomological surveillance and vector control measures. The diagnosis of dengue, and chikungunya should be considered in case of suggestive symptoms in patients returning from an area of virus circulation. It should also be considered for patients living or having stayed in areas of mainland France where Aedes albopictus is present, during its activity period from May 1 to November 30. The prevention and control system, including vector control measures and the notification of cases to the local health authority should be known, as the risk of autochthonous transmission increases every year.

  6. Vocational Training of Young Migrants in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raimond, Jean-Marie

    This document reviews the literature on France's approximately 1.5 million young migrants. The introduction states that it is the second generation of migrants that were studied. In the second chapter, the statistical sources analyzed are explained and general descriptive statistics about foreigners in France are reported, including their numbers,…

  7. Apprenticeship in France: Between Tradition and Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon-Zarca, Georgie

    1996-01-01

    A study was made of the state of apprenticeship in France, using data gathered through telephone interviews with apprentices. Of a targeted group of 6,000 young apprentices, 70% participated in the survey. The study found that, until recently, apprenticeships had generally been used in France to train students in manual trades. During the past 10…

  8. Parana basin

    SciTech Connect

    Zalan, P.V.; Wolff, S.; Conceicao, J.C.J.; Vieira, I.S.; Astolfi, M.A.; Appi, V.T.; Zanotto, O.; Neto, E.V.S.; Cerqueira, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    The Parana basin is a large intracratonic basin in South America, developed entirely on continental crust and filled with sedimentary and volcanic rocks ranging in age from Silurian to Cretaceous. It occupies the southern portion of Brazil (1,100,000 km/sup 2/ or 425,000 mi/sup 2/) and the eastern half of Paraguay (100,000 km/sup 2/ or 39,000 mi/sup 2/); its extension into Argentina and Uruguay is known as the Chaco-Parana basin. Five major depositional sequences (Silurian, Devonian, Permo-Carboniferous, Triassic, Juro-Cretaceous) constitute the stratigraphic framework of the basin. The first four are predominantly siliciclastic in nature, and the fifth contains the most voluminous basaltic lava flows of the planet. Maximum thicknesses are in the order of 6000 m (19,646 ft). The sequences are separated by basin wide unconformities related in the Paleozoic to Andean orogenic events and in the Mesozoic to the continental breakup and sea floor spreading between South America and Africa. The structural framework of the Parana basin consists of a remarkable pattern of criss-crossing linear features (faults, fault zones, arches) clustered into three major groups (N45/sup 0/-65/sup 0/W, N50/sup 0/-70/sup 0/E, E-W). The northwest- and northeast-trending faults are long-lived tectonic elements inherited from the Precambrian basement whose recurrent activity throughout the Phanerozoic strongly influenced sedimentation, facies distribution, and development of structures in the basin. Thermomechanical analyses indicate three main phases of subsidence (Silurian-Devonian, late Carboniferous-Permian, Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous) and low geothermal gradients until the beginning of the Late Jurassic Permian oil-prone source rocks attained maturation due to extra heat originated from Juro-Cretaceous igneous intrusions. The third phase of subsidence also coincided with strong tectonic reactivation and creation of a third structural trend (east-west).

  9. Regulation of Biobanks in France.

    PubMed

    Rial-Sebbag, Emmanuelle; Pigeon, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The privacy of biobank research participants in France is protected by a combination of bioethics laws, research laws, and data protection laws. Although the law has attempted to facilitate research by creating an opt-out regime for research with pre-existing samples, other aspects of the law hinder research. The requirement for multiple consents throughout the process of biobank sample collection and use, the lack of acceptance of a broad consent for biobanking, and genetic exceptionalism in the law all complicate biobank research. With IRB approval, opt-out consent may be used for genetic research using human tissue collected for other purposes, but express consent is still required for research with the associated genetic data. Among the important issues remaining to be addressed are harmonizing and simplifying the various informed consent processes.

  10. Late abortion meeting, Paris / France.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, A

    1989-01-01

    On January 27 and 28, 1989 a workshop and a meeting were organized in Paris by Mouvement Francais pour le Planning Familial (MFPF/France) and the IPPF Europe Region. The workshop was held on the first day. 24 staff and volunteers from Planned Parenthood Associations of 15 countries attended, reviewing abortion laws, the definition of therapeutic abortion, and the incidence and problems of second trimester abortion. Second trimester abortion is available in only a few European countries. Second trimester abortions are rare in France (about 2000 per annum), and in 1986 1717 French women travelled to England in order to seek an abortion. All late abortions are performed for serious reasons. Older women may mistake signs of pregnancy for the onset of the menopause; and women fearful of social or familial punishment, especially teenagers, may be reluctant to consult a doctor. The experiences of Denmark and Sweden, where the problem is partially solved, suggest some strategies: optimize accessibility of contraceptive services, particularly for women at higher risk of late abortion; diminish the taboo surrounding abortion, so that women are less frightened to seek help at an early stage of pregnancy; make abortion services available in all regions of the country; avert time-consuming enforced waiting periods or consent for minors; and stimulate public information campaigns on the importance of seeking help early. On January 28 a meeting involving about 200 participants took place at the Universite Paris Dauphine, Salle Raymond Aron. Speakers at the meeting discussed the issue of late abortion in Europe, the difficulties of obtaining late abortions, counseling, medical problems, the woman's point of view, and possible solutions. At the close of the meeting, the MFPF called on the French government to modify some of the articles in the Penal Code that restrict women's access to safe and legal abortion.

  11. [Cannabis in France, new insights].

    PubMed

    Costentin, Jean

    2014-03-01

    France holds the record for cannabis use in Europe, especially among adolescents. This drug of abuse is thus mainly used during a very sensitive period of brain development, education, vehicle driving and development of life projects. In addition, synthetic derivatives of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are more noxious than cannabis itself are now appearing on the market. Traficking and cultivation for personnal use have intensified; products proposed for sale are richer in THC; and some methods of consumption (e-cigarettes, vaporizers, water pipes) increase the supply of THC to the lungs and thence to the body and brain. It is in this context that attempts are being made to legalize this drug of abuse. Other attempts are made to disguise it as a medication. Meanwhile, the list of its psychic as well as physical damages grows longer, with some very severe cases of major injuries. This evolution takes place in spite of numerous warnings expressed by the French Academy of Medicine. Subsequently, it is prompted to carefully and vigorously denounce these events. This will be the aim of this thematic session. PMID:26427294

  12. [Cannabis in France, new insights].

    PubMed

    Costentin, Jean

    2014-03-01

    France holds the record for cannabis use in Europe, especially among adolescents. This drug of abuse is thus mainly used during a very sensitive period of brain development, education, vehicle driving and development of life projects. In addition, synthetic derivatives of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are more noxious than cannabis itself are now appearing on the market. Traficking and cultivation for personnal use have intensified; products proposed for sale are richer in THC; and some methods of consumption (e-cigarettes, vaporizers, water pipes) increase the supply of THC to the lungs and thence to the body and brain. It is in this context that attempts are being made to legalize this drug of abuse. Other attempts are made to disguise it as a medication. Meanwhile, the list of its psychic as well as physical damages grows longer, with some very severe cases of major injuries. This evolution takes place in spite of numerous warnings expressed by the French Academy of Medicine. Subsequently, it is prompted to carefully and vigorously denounce these events. This will be the aim of this thematic session.

  13. 75 FR 16839 - Sorbitol From France

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ..., 2009, the Commission established a schedule for the conduct of the review (74 FR 66992, December 17... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Sorbitol From France AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION:...

  14. Ensemble predictions of runoff using hydrograph transpositions to ungauged basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Lavenne, Alban; Cudennec, Christophe

    2014-05-01

    Regionalisation is one common approach for modelling streamflow in ungauged basins. It is sometimes performed on the basis of ensemble modelling and model averaging through the play of parameters of rainfall-runoff models. We propose an original approach for ensemble modelling by transposing physically based time series rather than model's parameters. We applied the approach on 6 sub-basins of the Blavet river in Brittany (France) with area varying from 5 km² to 316 km². Inside this sample of gauged basins, the water provided by hillslopes to the network at a basin scale, called the net rainfall, is assessed by inverting their simple geomorphology based network transfer function. Those net rainfall time series, estimated at an hourly time step on each gauged basin separately, summarise the hydrological behaviour of their hillslopes without the need of any complex modelling. Moreover, it has the advantage of being relatively scale independent which enables its transposition among basins. Once this net rainfall is transposed to an ungauged basin, it is reconvoluted using its own transfer function in order to estimate the hydrograph therein. We propose to combine several gauged basins to perform ensemble modelling prediction. This ensemble modelling provides an indication of uncertainty. Although it is not a robust estimate of the possible flow range, it informs about the variability of basins behaviour inside the studied region and, as a consequence, the relative confidence in those transpositions of hydrograph. By selecting donor basins according to their similarity to the ungauged one, we aim to improve prediction accuracy, reduce uncertainty and check the best way to define hydrological similarity for the choice of the donor basin. It is demonstrated that spatial proximity provides a relatively robust estimate of the best donor basin, and giving more importance to similar basins does not necessarily lead to higher accuracy in simulations compared to a simple net

  15. Advanced MCT technologies in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Destefanis, Gérard; Tribolet, Philippe

    2007-04-01

    In this paper we present an overview of the very recent developments of the HgCdTe infrared detector technology developed by CEA-LETI and industrialized by Sofradir in France. Today Sofradir uses in production for more than 15years a very mature, reproducible, well mastered and fully understood, planar n on p ion implanted technology. This process that allows very high yields to be achieved in all infrared bands from SWIR to LWIR uses the very conventional approach of LPE growth of MCT on lattice-matched CdZnTe substrates. Progress in this field is continuous from 20years and has recently leaded to the fabrication of high performance VLWIR FPA (320x256 with cut off wavelengths as high as 20μm). Moreover, thanks to the design of the epitaxial structure and to the substrate removal step MCT FPAs present the unique features to have very high quantum efficiency (above 70%) from the cut off wavelength down to the UV. This effect, which opens new application fields, was recently demonstrated in SWIR 320x256 FPAs with cut off wavelength of 2.5μm. Very high quality FPAs (1280x1024) with pitches as small as 15μm have already been demonstrated last year using the MBE growth of MWIR MCT epilayers on 4 inches germanium substrates, n on p ion implanted photodiodes and the hot welding indium bump hybridization technique. At the same time, with the MBE growth, bicolor and dual band FPAs which uses more complex multi hetero-junctions architectures (both 4 layers npn and 'pseudo planar' structures and extrinsically doped MCT layers) were fabricated with formats of 320x256 and pitches as small as 25μm. A very new area of development concerns avalanche photodiodes (APD) made with MCT. This semiconductor presents a unique feature among all the over semiconductors. Extremely high avalanche gains can be obtained on n on p photodiodes without absolutely any noise excess (F(K)=1): MCT APDs act as perfect amplifiers. These results open new interesting fields of investigation for low

  16. [Epidemiology of tuberculosis in France in 2005].

    PubMed

    Antoine, D; Che, D

    2007-05-01

    This article presents results on cases of tuberculosis disease notified in France in 2005 by mandatory notification. In 2005, a total of 5,374 cases were notified in France, representing a rate of 8.9 cases per 100,000. The notification rate per 100,000 was below 10 in all French regions, except the Ile-de-France and French Guyana (with respective rates of 19.7/10(5) and 44.0/10(5)). Notification rates were higher in some population groups such as people born abroad (41.5/10(5)), especially those born in sub-Saharan Africa (160/10(5)), and those recently (<2 years) arrived in France (251/10(5)), in homeless people (214/10(5)), and in persons aged 80 years and over (21.7/10(5)). Pulmonary tuberculosis accounted for 73% of notified cases, 79% of which were contagious (positive direct examination of sputum, positive culture). Results from the notification of tuberculosis disease in 2005 indicate a continuing decrease of incidence in France. However, the high incidence in some population groups requires adapting public health actions to the needs of population groups more exposed to tuberculosis.

  17. [Epidemiology of tuberculosis in France in 2008].

    PubMed

    Che, D; Antoine, D

    2011-07-01

    A total of 5,758 tuberculosis cases were notified in France in 2008, giving a rate of nine cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The median age was 45 years and 59% of cases were male patients. Île-de-France (Paris and greater Paris area) and French Guiana had the highest notification rate in 2008 (17.9/10(5) and 22.6/10(5) respectively). The rate of tuberculosis was higher in individuals born abroad (43.2/10(5) vs. 5.0/10(5) for individuals born in France), especially those recently arrived in France. Pulmonary tuberculosis accounted for 72% of notified cases, 76% of which were potentially contagious (positive sputum smear, or culture). Compared to 2007, the number of notified tuberculosis cases increased by 3.3% in 2008. This increase was not accompanied by a rise of severe cases (meningitis and miliary TB); this seemed to be due partly to improvement in identification and notification of cases. However this trend could require specific monitoring in future years. A national tuberculosis control program was launched in France in 2007, aiming at reducing epidemiological disparities. Clinical and public health expertise needs to be maintained on all the territory to ensure that implemented measures can have the expected impact on the epidemiology of the disease.

  18. The International Heliophysical Year in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, B.

    We are preparing in France the anniversary of IGY 50 We are gathering our efforts around few actions 1 We planned to follow the international campaigns with our solar Telescope THEMIS in Tenerife with the spacecrafts SOHO Cluster and the magnetometers of Superdarn A group is already formed with C Hanuise as responsible to understand some physical processes involved in these phenomena by using former data 2 On the initiative of CAWSES SCOSTEP program we plan to rehabilitate our heliograph in Meudon in order to be able to participate to the international network of flare survey The Japonese are leading this program Shibata and Kurokawa 3 We are developping lectures for students in different places in France We planned to work on the development of a DVD and video games in a IHY European context 4 We have also an outreach program which consists of an exhibition This exibition could be duplicated in France and for French speaking countries

  19. [Utilization of methylphenidate(Ritalin) in France].

    PubMed

    Frances, C; Hoizey, G; Millart, H; Trenque, T

    2002-01-01

    Methylphenidate (Ritalin) is the only psychostimulant approved in France and indicated in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children over 6 years. It is under restricted prescription and distribution conditions. As such, it requires a hospital initiated prescription from either a neurology, psychiatry or pediatric specialist and it is covered by the "narcotics" schedule. The French Pharmacovigilance database spontaneous adverse drug reactions reporting, since it was approved in 1995, were analyzed. 21 adverse drug reactions were reported. In 16 cases, methylphenidate was suspected. They were generally non-serious, mild side effects and in most cases promptly resolved. These results do not suggest methylphenidate misuse in France or an overuse in between 1300 and 4000 treated children, to date. Until more information is available concerning the long-term effects of methylphenidate, and in order to limit misuse, inappropriate or overuse, the current prescription and dispensing regulation should be maintained in France, and could well be developed in other countries.

  20. The Pre-Messinian Total Petroleum System of the Provence Basin, Western Mediterranean Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pawlewicz, Mark

    2004-01-01

    The Provence Basin is in that portion of the western Mediterranean Sea that is deeper than 2 kilometers. The basin lies essentially beyond the outer continental shelf, between the countries of France, Italy, and Algeria, the Balearic Islands, and the islands of Sardinia and Corsica. It encompasses nearly 300,000 square kilometers and includes the Rhone River submarine fan on the continental slope of southern France. It is province 4068 in the World Energy study. A single, hypothetical, total petroleum system (TPS), the Pre-Messinian TPS (406801), was described for the Provence Basin. The designation hypothetical is used because there is no hydrocarbon production from the basin. The Provence Basin is a deep-water Tertiary rift basin in which the geothermal gradients vary regionally. The Red Sea Basin shares a similar geologic and thermal history with the rifted western Mediterranean Sea and was used as an analog to better understand the genesis of the Provence Basin and as a guide to estimating possible undiscovered amounts of hydrocarbons. For this assessment the basin was given a potential, at the mean, for undiscovered resources of 51 trillion cubic feet (1.4 trillion cubic meters) gas, 0.42 billion barrels oil, and 2.23 million barrels natural gas liquids.

  1. Syphilis surveillance in France, 2000-2003.

    PubMed

    Couturier, E; Michel, A; Janier, M; Dupin, N; Semaille, C

    2004-12-01

    This article describes syphilis trends, characteristics of patients from 2000 to 2003 in France and trends of the benzylpenicillin benzathine 2.4 million UI sales from 2001 to 2003. The ongoing surveillance system for syphilis case reporting since 2001 has been set up in volunteer settings, mostly public settings where STI treatment is offered. Clinical case reporting is complemented by sexual behavioural data based on a self-administered questionnaire. From 2000 to 2003, 1089 syphilis cases were reported in France, increasing from 37 cases in 2000 to 428 in 2003. Overall, 96% of syphilis cases were in men with a mean age of 36.5 years and 70% of whom were born in France. The proportion of syphilis cases with HIV co-infection decreased over time from 60% in 2000 to 33% in 2003. The most affected area by the syphilis epidemic is the Ile-de-France region, mainly the city of Paris. The greatest proportion of syphilis cases diagnosed in men who have sex with men (MSM) were in the Ile-de-France region, where they made up 87% of cases, compared with 75% in other regions. Among the patients who completed the self-administered questionnaire on sexual behaviour, 83% reported having casual sex partners in the 3 months prior to their syphilis diagnosis. Trends in the sales of benzylpenicillin benzathine 2.4 million UI in private pharmacies are similar to those observed in the surveillance system, and increased between 2001 and 2003. In conclusion, syphilis transmission is still ongoing in France in 2003 and the role of unprotected oral sex in the transmission of syphilis should be emphasised. PMID:15677855

  2. The water footprint of agricultural products in European river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanham, D.; Bidoglio, G.

    2014-05-01

    This work quantifies the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod, agr) and consumption (WFcons, agr) and the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi, agr) of 365 European river basins for a reference period (REF, 1996-2005) and two diet scenarios (a healthy diet based upon food-based dietary guidelines (HEALTHY) and a vegetarian (VEG) diet). In addition to total (tot) amounts, a differentiation is also made between the green (gn), blue (bl) and grey (gy) components. River basins where the REF WFcons, agr, tot exceeds the WFprod, agr, tot (resulting in positive netVWi, agr, tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. These include the Thames, Scheldt, Meuse, Seine, Rhine and Po basins. River basins where the WFprod, agr, tot exceeds the WFcons, agr, tot are found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. These include the Loire, Ebro and Nemunas basins. Under the HEALTHY diet scenario, the WFcons, agr, tot of most river basins decreases (max -32%), although it was found to increase in some basins in northern and eastern Europe. This results in 22 river basins, including the Danube, shifting from being net VW importers to being net VW exporters. A reduction (max -46%) in WFcons, agr, tot is observed for all but one river basin under the VEG diet scenario. In total, 50 river basins shift from being net VW importers to being net exporters, including the Danube, Seine, Rhone and Elbe basins. Similar observations are made when only the gn + bl and gn components are assessed. When analysing only the bl component, a different river basin pattern is observed.

  3. Reconstruction of the Provence Chain evolution, southeastern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bestani, L.; Espurt, N.; Lamarche, J.; Bellier, O.; Hollender, F.

    2016-06-01

    The Provence fold-and-thrust belt forms the eastern limit of the Pyrenean orogenic system in southeastern France. This belt developed during the Late Cretaceous-Eocene Pyrenean-Provence compression and was then deformed by Oligocene-Miocene Ligurian rifting events and Neogene to present-day Alpine compression. In this study, surface structural data, seismic profiles, and crustal-to-lithospheric-scale sequentially balanced cross sections contribute to the understanding of the dynamics of the Provence Chain and its long-term history of deformation. Balanced cross sections show that the thrust system is characterized by various structural styles, including deep-seated basement faults that affect the entire crust, tectonic inversions of Paleozoic-Mesozoic basins, shallower décollements within the sedimentary cover, accommodation zones, and salt tectonics. This study shows the prime control of the structural inheritance over a long period of time on the tectonic evolution of a geological system. This includes mechanical heterogeneities, such as Variscan shear zones, reactivated during Middle Cretaceous Pyrenean rifting between Eurasia and Sardinia. In domains where Mesozoic rifting is well marked, inherited basement normal faults and the thermally weak crust favored the formation of an inner thick-skinned thrust belt during Late Cretaceous-Eocene contraction. Here 155 km (~35%) of shortening was accommodated by inversion of north verging crustal faults, north directed subduction of the Sardinia mantle lithosphere, and ductile thickening of the Provence mantle lithosphere. During the Oligocene, these domains were still predisposed for the localized faulting of the Ligurian basin rifting and the seafloor spreading.

  4. 75 FR 39277 - Sorbitol From France; Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... The Commission instituted this review on July 1, 2009 (74 FR 31762, July 2, 2009) and determined on... publishing the notice in the Federal Register on December 17, 2009 (74 FR 66992). The hearing was held in... COMMISSION Sorbitol From France; Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject...

  5. Murine Typhus, Reunion, France, 2011–2013

    PubMed Central

    Camuset, Guillaume; Socolovschi, Cristina; Moiton, Marie-Pierre; Kuli, Barbara; Foucher, Aurélie; Poubeau, Patrice; Borgherini, Gianandrea; Wartel, Guillaume; Audin, Héla; Raoult, Didier; Filleul, Laurent; Parola, Philippe; Pagès, Fréderic

    2015-01-01

    Murine typhus case was initially identified in Reunion, France, in 2012 in a tourist. Our investigation confirmed 8 autochthonous cases that occurred during January 2011–January 2013 in Reunion. Murine typhus should be considered in local patients and in travelers returning from Reunion who have fevers of unknown origin. PMID:25625653

  6. Frances Rauscher: Music and Reasoning. Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Neal

    1995-01-01

    Reports on an interview with Frances Rauscher, a research psychologist and musician who has studied the effects of music on the brain. Maintains that students who have studied music have enhanced spatial reasoning. Recommends that music education begin at younger ages. (CFR)

  7. The Occitan Movement in Southern France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Klaus

    The Occitan movement in Southern France should be studied in the light of a world-wide political reality of our days, the surfacing of ethnic minorities which are beginning to voice cultural and political demands in almost all large industrialized or developing countries. The first step for a minority group to come into existence is almost without…

  8. [New conditions for organ donation in France].

    PubMed

    Antoine, Corinne; Maroudy, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    The procurement of organs from donors after circulatory death is a reliable technique which gives satisfactory posttransplant results and also represents a potential source of additional organs. In order to meet the growing need for organ donations, the 'anticipated organ donation approach' procedure is currently receiving renewed interest with new conditions for its implementation in France. PMID:27596496

  9. Shocks and Aftershocks: France Confronts Its Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracher, Nathan; Golsan, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that events in France during and after World War II are still controversial political and social issues. Describes the program and activities of U.S. teachers during a summer seminar on French literature and filmmaking during the German occupation years. (CFR)

  10. Competence: Conceptual Approach and Practice in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Deist, Francoise

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyse the conceptual approaches to competence and practice in competence management in France. Design/methodology/approach: Extensive literature review, discussion with academic experts in the French competence network of AGRH and interviews concerning developments following the 2003 national agreement…

  11. A Paradox in Physics Education in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smigiel, Eddie; Sonntag, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the nature and the level of difficulty of teaching and learning physics in the first year of undergraduate engineering schools in France. Our case study is based on a survey regarding a classic and basic question in applied physics, and which was conducted with a group of second-year students in a post-baccalaureate 1…

  12. Les instituts universitaires de technologie en France. (The university institutes of technology in France)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pineau, Gaston

    1971-01-01

    In 1966 France passed legislation naming three types of technical training: two year postbaccalaureate, short-cycle for those without a bachelor's degree, adult education, for those already employed. (MF)

  13. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  14. Implementing the national AIGA flash flood warning system in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Organde, Didier; Javelle, Pierre; Demargne, Julie; Arnaud, Patrick; Caseri, Angelica; Fine, Jean-Alain; de Saint Aubin, Céline

    2015-04-01

    The French national hydro-meteorological and flood forecasting centre (SCHAPI) aims to implement a national flash flood warning system to improve flood alerts for small-to-medium (up to 1000 km2) ungauged basins. This system is based on the AIGA method, co-developed by IRSTEA these last 10 years. The method, initially set up for the Mediterranean area, is based on a simple event-based hourly hydrologic distributed model run every 15 minutes (Javelle et al. 2014). The hydrologic model ingests operational radar-gauge rainfall grids from Météo-France at a 1-km² resolution to produce discharges for successive outlets along the river network. Discharges are then compared to regionalized flood quantiles of given return periods and warnings (expressed as the range of the return period estimated in real-time) are provided on a river network map. The main interest of the method is to provide forecasters and emergency services with a synthetic view in real time of the ongoing flood situation, information that is especially critical in ungauged flood prone areas. In its enhanced national version, the hourly event-based distributed model is coupled to a continuous daily rainfall-runoff model which provides baseflow and a soil moisture index (for each 1-km² pixel) at the beginning of the hourly simulation. The rainfall-runoff models were calibrated on a selection of 700 French hydrometric stations with Météo-France radar-gauge reanalysis dataset for the 2002-2006 period. To estimate model parameters for ungauged basins, the 2 hydrologic models were regionalised by testing both regressions (using different catchment attributes, such as catchment area, soil type, and climate characteristic) and spatial proximity techniques (transposing parameters from neighbouring donor catchments), as well as different homogeneous hydrological areas. The most valuable regionalisation method was determined for each model through jack-knife cross-validation. The system performance was then

  15. Prediction of streamflow from the set of basins flowing into a coastal bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Lavenne, A.; Cudennec, C.

    2015-03-01

    Many coastal basins of the Brittany peninsula (France) display a high level of nitrate pollution, nine of them highlighted by the European Commission since 2007, as causing algal blooms in several coastal bays. To precisely diagnose and solve this issue the fluxes of every contributing basin have to be considered. However, this faces a strong data-scarce situation as most of the basins are ungauged. In this context, we propose to transpose hydrological information from one gauged basin to neighbouring points of interest. The methodology uses a simple geomorphology-based transfer function on the gauged basin, which allows assessment of the net rainfall time series through the de-convolution of the gauged discharge series. This net rainfall is then transposed and convoluted on the ungauged basin using its own transfer function in order to estimate discharge. This approach enables the quantification of the whole volume of freshwater entering the controversial Saint-Brieuc Bay.

  16. Fire occurrence prediction in the Mediterranean: Application to Southern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papakosta, Panagiota; Öster, Jan; Scherb, Anke; Straub, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The areas that extend in the Mediterranean basin have a long fire history. The climatic conditions of wet winters and long hot drying summers support seasonal fire events, mainly ignited by humans. Extended land fragmentation hinders fire spread, but seasonal winds (e.g. Mistral in South France or Meltemia in Greece) can drive fire events to become uncontrollable fires with severe impacts to humans and the environment [1]. Prediction models in these areas should incorporate both natural and anthropogenic factors. Several indices have been developed worldwide to express fire weather conditions. The Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI) is currently adapted by many countries in Europe due to the easily observable input weather parameters (temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, precipitation) and the easy-to-implement algorithms of the Canadian formulation describing fuel moisture relations [2],[3]. Human influence can be expressed directly by human presence (e.g. population density) or indirectly by proxy indicators (e.g. street density [4], land cover type). The random nature of fire occurrences and the uncertainties associated with the influencing factors motivate probabilistic prediction models. The aim of this study is to develop a prediction model of fire occurrence probability under natural and anthropogenic influence in Southern France and to compare it with earlier developed predictions in other Mediterranean areas [5]. Fire occurrence is modeled as a Poisson process. Two interpolation methods (Kriging and Inverse Distance Weighting) are used to interpolate daily weather observations from weather stations to a 1 km² spatial grid and their results are compared. Poisson regression estimates the parameters of the model and the resulting daily predictions are provided in terms of maps displaying fire occurrence rates. The model is applied to the regions Provence-Alpes-Côtes D'Azur und Languedoc-Roussillon in the South of France. Weather data are obtained from

  17. Heat flow map of the western Mediterranean basins

    SciTech Connect

    Foucher, J.P.; Burrus, J.; Vedova, B.D.

    1988-08-01

    More than 400 terrestrial heat flow determinations have been carried our in the western Mediterranean basins. These include results of detailed surveys in the Ligurian Sea and in the Gulf of Lions and Tyrrhenian basins, as well as sparse measurements in the Gulf of Valencia and the Algerian basin. Most of the measurements are surficial, obtained from the temperatures sensed by outrigged thermistors mounted on weight-driven probes penetrating the sediment to 3 to 10 m. Thermal conductivity was measured either on cores or in situ. The authors present a heat flow map of the western Mediterranean basins based on the available geothermal results. Mean regional heat flow values range from 55 to 105 mW m/sup /minus/2/ in the Lugiran and Gulf of Lions basin and from 50 to 200 m mW m/sup /minus/2/ in the Tyrrhenian Sea. In the latter basin, high heat flow characterizes areas of recent intensive thinning of the continental crust and associated incipient oceanic crust formation. In the former basins, heat flow tends to increase from the Provencal coast of France to the Corsican and Sardinian margins, which may reflect on increasing heat contribution from the mantle.

  18. Young people's heroes in France and Spain.

    PubMed

    Gash, Hugh; Domínguez Rodríguez, Pilar

    2009-05-01

    Heroes play collectivist or individualist roles in imagination and self-development. Representations of heroic figures in questionnaires given to French (n = 241) and Spanish (n = 227) samples of 10 and 15-year-olds were examined to assess the extent that heroes originated in digital media, and whether they were proximal or distal personalities. There is strong evidence that heroes in this sample were largely learned about in digital media (France 45%, Spain 50%): family and community heroes were a minority (France 11%, Spain 9%). Male heroes were more important to Spanish participants compared to their French peers. The acquisition sequence for hero type reported in the pre-television era, proximal (family and community) to distal (beyond the neighbourhood), is reversed in this study. Generally, 10-year-olds preferred heroes with collectivist qualities and 15-year-olds with individualised qualities. Findings are discussed in terms of the emergence of social capital. PMID:19476237

  19. Postglacial dispersal of Phlebotomus perniciosus into France.

    PubMed

    Perrotey, S; Mahamdallie, S S; Pesson, B; Richardson, K J; Gállego, M; Ready, P D

    2005-12-01

    Phlebotomus perniciosus was identified morphologically in samples from France and northeast Spain, and individuals were then characterized at three polymorphic isoenzyme loci (by isoelectrofocusing) and at the mitochondrial DNA locus (by comparative DNA sequence analysis of a fragment of the Cytochrome b gene). The four polymorphic loci gave conflicting patterns of population relationships, which can be explained by hypothesizing different amounts of gene introgression at each locus when two distinctive lineages met in southern France or northeast Spain after isolation in southern Italy and Spain during the Pleistocene Ice Ages. P. perniciosus is an important vector of leishmania infantum and so these population differentiation studies are relevant for predicting the emergence and spread of leishmaniasis in relation to environmental changes, including climate.

  20. Young people's heroes in France and Spain.

    PubMed

    Gash, Hugh; Domínguez Rodríguez, Pilar

    2009-05-01

    Heroes play collectivist or individualist roles in imagination and self-development. Representations of heroic figures in questionnaires given to French (n = 241) and Spanish (n = 227) samples of 10 and 15-year-olds were examined to assess the extent that heroes originated in digital media, and whether they were proximal or distal personalities. There is strong evidence that heroes in this sample were largely learned about in digital media (France 45%, Spain 50%): family and community heroes were a minority (France 11%, Spain 9%). Male heroes were more important to Spanish participants compared to their French peers. The acquisition sequence for hero type reported in the pre-television era, proximal (family and community) to distal (beyond the neighbourhood), is reversed in this study. Generally, 10-year-olds preferred heroes with collectivist qualities and 15-year-olds with individualised qualities. Findings are discussed in terms of the emergence of social capital.

  1. The agricultural water footprint of EU river basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanham, Davy

    2014-05-01

    This work analyses the agricultural water footprint (WF) of production (WFprod,agr) and consumption (WFcons,agr) as well as the resulting net virtual water import (netVWi,agr) for 365 EU river basins with an area larger than 1000 km2. Apart from total amounts, also a differentiation between the green, blue and grey components is made. River basins where the WFcons,agr,tot exceeds WFprod,agr,tot values substantially (resulting in positive netVWi,agr,tot values), are found along the London-Milan axis. River basins where the WFprod,agr,totexceeds WFcons,agr,totare found in Western France, the Iberian Peninsula and the Baltic region. The effect of a healthy (HEALTHY) and vegetarian (VEG) diet on the WFcons,agr is assessed, as well as resulting changes in netVWi,agr. For HEALTHY, the WFcons,agr,tot of most river basins decreases (max 32%), although in the east some basins show an increase. For VEG, in all but one river basins a reduction (max 46%) in WFcons,agr,tot is observed. The effect of diets on the WFcons,agrof a river basin has not been carried out so far. River basins and not administrative borders are the key geographical entity for water management. Such a comprehensive analysis on the river basin scale is the first in its kind. Reduced river basin WFcons,agrcan contribute to sustainable water management both within the EU and outside its borders. They could help to reduce the dependency of EU consumption on domestic and foreign water resources.

  2. Minimally Invasive Forefoot Surgery in France.

    PubMed

    Meusnier, Tristan; Mukish, Prikesht

    2016-06-01

    Study groups have been formed in France to advance the use of minimally invasive surgery. These techniques are becoming more frequently used and the technique nuances are continuing to evolve. The objective of this article was to advance the awareness of the current trends in minimally invasive surgery for common diseases of the forefoot. The percutaneous surgery at the forefoot is less developed at this time, but also will be discussed.

  3. Enterovirus Migration Patterns between France and Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Ines; Mirand, Audrey; Slama, Ichrak; Mastouri, Maha; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène; Aouni, Mahjoub; Bailly, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The enterovirus (EV) types echovirus (E-) 5, E-9, and E-18, and coxsackievirus (CV-) A9 are infrequently reported in human diseases and their epidemiologic features are poorly defined. Virus transmission patterns between countries have been estimated with phylogenetic data derived from the 1D/VP1 and 3CD gene sequences of a sample of 74 strains obtained in France (2000–2012) and Tunisia (2011–2013) and from the publicly available sequences. The EV types (E-5, E-9, and E-18) exhibited a lower worldwide genetic diversity (respective number of genogroups: 4, 5, and 3) in comparison to CV-A9 (n = 10). The phylogenetic trees estimated with both 1D/VP1 and 3CD sequence data showed variations in the number of co-circulating lineages over the last 20 years among the four EV types. Despite the low number of genogroups in E-18, the virus exhibited the highest number of recombinant 3CD lineages (n = 10) versus 4 (E-5) to 8 (E-9). The phylogenies provided evidence of multiple transportation events between France and Tunisia involving E-5, E-9, E-18, and CV-A9 strains. Virus spread events between France and 17 other countries in five continents had high probabilities of occurrence as those between Tunisia and two European countries other than France. All transportation events were supported by BF values > 10. Inferring the source of virus transmission from phylogenetic data may provide insights into the patterns of sporadic and epidemic diseases caused by EVs. PMID:26709514

  4. First case of human gongylonemosis in France.

    PubMed

    Pesson, Bernard; Hersant, Christel; Biehler, Jean-François; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Brunet, Julie; Pfaff, Alexander W; Ferté, Hubert; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2013-01-01

    Gongylonema spp. are cosmopolitan spirurid nematodes that are common parasites of wild and domesticated mammals and birds. Gongylonema pulchrum Molin, 1857 is most common in ruminants, where it invades mucosa and submucosa of the mouth, tongue, oesophagus and forestomachs. It extremely rarely occurs in man, and fewer than 60 cases have been reported worldwide. We report a case from the Alsace region, which appears to be the first case of human gongylonemosis described in France.

  5. First case of human gongylonemosis in France

    PubMed Central

    Pesson, Bernard; Hersant, Christel; Biehler, Jean-François; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Brunet, Julie; Pfaff, Alexander W.; Ferté, Hubert; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2013-01-01

    Gongylonema spp. are cosmopolitan spirurid nematodes that are common parasites of wild and domesticated mammals and birds. Gongylonema pulchrum Molin, 1857 is most common in ruminants, where it invades mucosa and submucosa of the mouth, tongue, oesophagus and forestomachs. It extremely rarely occurs in man, and fewer than 60 cases have been reported worldwide. We report a case from the Alsace region, which appears to be the first case of human gongylonemosis described in France. PMID:23425508

  6. The e-Bug project in France.

    PubMed

    Touboul, Pia; Dunais, Brigitte; Urcun, Jeanne-Marie; Michard, Jean-Louis; Loarer, Christian; Azanowsky, Jean-Michel; Vincent, Isabelle; Jestin, Christine; Housseau, Bruno; de Warren, Anne; Dellamonica, Pierre

    2011-06-01

    The high rates of antibiotic prescriptions and antimicrobial resistance in France motivated its participation in the European e-Bug school project concerning microbes, and infection transmission, prevention and treatment. The prospect of raising awareness among children, helping them to adopt suitable attitudes and behaviour towards infection transmission and treatment starting from childhood, generated enthusiastic support from relevant national educational and health institutions throughout the Project. France was actively involved in every stage: background research showed that the subject matter was best suited to the national science curricula of the fourth and fifth forms in junior schools, and the sixth and ninth forms in senior schools; a focus group study with junior and senior teachers elicited teachers' needs concerning teaching resources; and a qualitative and quantitative evaluation, after translation and pack review, enabled further adaptation of the packs. This evaluation showed an overall enthusiastic reception by teachers and their students in France, and reassured teachers on the ease of use of the Project's resources and students' progress. The e-Bug Project was launched through a national institutional implementation plan in September 2009 and orders for e-Bug tools increased rapidly. By the end of October, 57% of all senior science teachers and 16% of all junior school teachers had ordered the pack. France is one of the most frequent users of the e-Bug web site. The collaboration with both educational and health partners was particularly helpful to implementing the Project, and this was confirmed by the favourable reception and participation of teachers and students in the field.

  7. Enterovirus Migration Patterns between France and Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Othman, Ines; Mirand, Audrey; Slama, Ichrak; Mastouri, Maha; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène; Aouni, Mahjoub; Bailly, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The enterovirus (EV) types echovirus (E-) 5, E-9, and E-18, and coxsackievirus (CV-) A9 are infrequently reported in human diseases and their epidemiologic features are poorly defined. Virus transmission patterns between countries have been estimated with phylogenetic data derived from the 1D/VP1 and 3CD gene sequences of a sample of 74 strains obtained in France (2000-2012) and Tunisia (2011-2013) and from the publicly available sequences. The EV types (E-5, E-9, and E-18) exhibited a lower worldwide genetic diversity (respective number of genogroups: 4, 5, and 3) in comparison to CV-A9 (n = 10). The phylogenetic trees estimated with both 1D/VP1 and 3CD sequence data showed variations in the number of co-circulating lineages over the last 20 years among the four EV types. Despite the low number of genogroups in E-18, the virus exhibited the highest number of recombinant 3CD lineages (n = 10) versus 4 (E-5) to 8 (E-9). The phylogenies provided evidence of multiple transportation events between France and Tunisia involving E-5, E-9, E-18, and CV-A9 strains. Virus spread events between France and 17 other countries in five continents had high probabilities of occurrence as those between Tunisia and two European countries other than France. All transportation events were supported by BF values > 10. Inferring the source of virus transmission from phylogenetic data may provide insights into the patterns of sporadic and epidemic diseases caused by EVs.

  8. Cancer mortality among Polish migrants to France.

    PubMed

    Tyczynski, J; Parkin, D; Zatonski, W; Tarkowski, W

    1992-01-01

    Cancer risk in the Polish-born population of France has been compared to that in Poland and in native French subjects (born in France), using mortality data from the period 1979-1985. The Polish-born community in France is a long-established one--most migration occurred during the 1920s--so that for many cancer sites the cancer pattern is closer to that of French natives than that in Poland (eg oral cavity, oesophagus, large bowel, gall bladder, uterus, leukaemia). Polish migrants, however, retain their characteristically high rates of cancer of the stomach and lung (in men), and low rates of breast and prostate cancer. The Polish-born community has a characteristic pattern of residence (living mainly in the Nord and the Pas-de-Calais) and occupational status (a higher proportion of 'workers' than the French-born); these are important confounding factors which can mask the true differences in risk for several sites (larynx, oesophagus, large bowel) if no adjustment is made during analysis. PMID:1467602

  9. Populations at Risk for Alveolar Echinococcosis, France

    PubMed Central

    Piarroux, Martine; Piarroux, Renaud; Knapp, Jenny; Bardonnet, Karine; Dumortier, Jérôme; Watelet, Jérôme; Gerard, Alain; Beytout, Jean; Abergel, Armand; Bresson-Hadni, Solange

    2013-01-01

    During 1982–2007, alveolar echinococcosis (AE) was diagnosed in 407 patients in France, a country previously known to register half of all European patients. To better define high-risk groups in France, we conducted a national registry-based study to identify areas where persons were at risk and spatial clusters of cases. We interviewed 180 AE patients about their way of life and compared responses to those of 517 controls. We found that almost all AE patients lived in 22 départements in eastern and central France (relative risk 78.63, 95% CI 52.84–117.02). Classification and regression tree analysis showed that the main risk factor was living in AE-endemic areas. There, most at-risk populations lived in rural settings (odds ratio [OR] 66.67, 95% CI 6.21–464.51 for farmers and OR 6.98, 95% CI 2.88–18.25 for other persons) or gardened in nonrural settings (OR 4.30, 95% CI 1.82–10.91). These findings can help sensitization campaigns focus on specific groups. PMID:23647623

  10. A paradox in physics education in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smigiel, Eddie; Sonntag, Michel

    2013-07-01

    This paper deals with the nature and the level of difficulty of teaching and learning physics in the first year of undergraduate engineering schools in France. Our case study is based on a survey regarding a classic and basic question in applied physics, and which was conducted with a group of second-year students in a post-baccalaureateThe French baccalaureate (baccalauréat) is the examination students must pass to graduate from high school. undergraduate engineering school. The responses to the survey indicate that many students fall into a kind of mathematical ‘formalism’, which prevents them from understanding the actual physics behind the question. This leads us to believe that we must reconsider the way that physics is taught. An analysis of a physics teaching sequence in French and English undergraduate textbooks confirms the weight given to mathematical formalism in France. When approached from a purely mathematical angle, physics becomes a long and slow process of assimilation of the specific scientific culture that underlies the teaching model used in classes préparatoires, classes that are usually presented as a model of academic excellence. However, this model appears to be less suitable when teaching more ‘ordinary students’, who respond better when taken through a ‘detour’ of the ‘important roots’ of physics. This paper shows that in France historically rooted pedagogical traditions persist, ignoring the latest advances in research on science teaching.

  11. Recent circulation of West Nile virus and potentially other closely related flaviviruses in Southern France.

    PubMed

    Vittecoq, Marion; Lecollinet, Sylvie; Jourdain, Elsa; Thomas, Frédéric; Blanchon, Thomas; Arnal, Audrey; Lowenski, Steeve; Gauthier-Clerc, Michel

    2013-08-01

    In recent years, the number of West Nile virus (WNV) cases reported in horses and humans has increased dramatically throughout the Mediterranean basin. Furthermore, the emergence of Usutu virus (USUV) in Austria in 2001, and its subsequent expansion to Hungary, Spain, Italy, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and Germany, has given added cause for concern regarding the impact of the spread of flaviviruses on human and animal health in western Europe. Despite frequent detection of WNV and USUV cases in neighboring countries, no case of WNV has been detected in France since 2006 and USUV has never been reported. However, recent investigations focused on detecting the circulation of flaviviruses in France are lacking. We investigated the circulation of WNV and USUV viruses in wild birds in southern France on the basis of a serological survey conducted on a sentinel species, the magpie (Pica pica), in the Camargue area from November, 2009, to December, 2010. We detected WNV-neutralizing antibodies at a high titer (160) in a second-year bird showing recent exposure to WNV, although no WNV case has been detected in humans or in horses since 2004 in the Camargue. In addition, we observed low titers (10 or 20) of USUV-specific antibodies in six magpies, two of which were also seropositive for WNV. Such low titers do not give grounds for concluding that these birds had been exposed to USUV; cross-reactions at low titers may occur between antigenically closely related flaviviruses. But these results urge for further investigations into the circulation of flaviviruses in southern France. They also emphasize the necessity of undertaking epidemiological studies on a long-term basis, rather than over short periods following public health crises, to gain insight into viral dynamics within natural reservoirs. PMID:23930977

  12. Reserves in Western Basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1993-12-31

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of overpressured tight (OPT) gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins. These are the Greater Green River Basin (GGRB), Uinta Basin and Piceance Basin. By documenting productive characteristics in these basins and characterizing the nature of the vast gas resources in place, the reserves potential may be understood and quantified. Through this understanding, it is hoped that the oil and gas industry will be encouraged to pursue exploitation of this resource. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and the final report submitted for publication. Work on the Uinta basin has just commenced and work on the Piceance basin will commence next year. Since the GGRB portion of this project has been completed, further discussion centers upon this Basin.

  13. European Sedimentary Basins: Deciphering Palaeozoic intra-Pangea Wrench Faulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubele, K.; Bachtadse, V.; Muttoni, G.; Ronchi, A.; Durand, M.

    2012-04-01

    Thick sections of sedimentary deposits act as tape recorders of the geomagnetic field over time and allow high resolution paleogeographic reconstructions. Over the past years, we were able to put together a considerable paleomagnetic data set collected from Early Permian and Mesozoic deposits in numerous sedimentary basins throughout Southwest Europe. This data set monitors relative block rotations about vertical axis in this area and thus provides convincing evidence for intra-Pangean wrench faulting in the Early Permian (~ 285-265 Ma). Here, we present previously processed data from Permian sedimentary sections from Southwest France and Sardinia together with data from the Saar-Nahe basin in West Germany. New data from the Permian/Triassic boundary from Sardinian sedimentary basins and data from Permian dyke swarms add further information to draw a more complete picture of the paleogeographic evolution of the Gondwana/Laurasia plate boundary and help to describe controversial intra-Pangean mobility and wrench faulting in the Early Permian.

  14. Evolution of the Basco-Cantabrian basin, northern Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughan, O. )

    1988-08-01

    The Basco-Cantabrian basin (BCB) stretches for 150 km west from the Pyrenean system and displays a complex subsidence pattern through time, involving Triassic faulting, Jurassic quiescence, Cretaceous faulting and subsidence, followed by Tertiary compression. Its southern margin is rimmed by a narrow (40 km wide) Tertiary basin, deeper in places than the coeval Ebro basin in the southern Pyrenees, but lacking any driving load. This Tertiary Cantabrian basin may reflect the interaction between thermal subsidence phases at the southern margin of the BCB and uplift (inversion) of the Mesozoic basin to the north. In addition, the BCB shows a number of interactions between thin-skinned and thick-skinned styles of shortening. In the west, inversion has uplifted a major basement ridge between areas of vastly differing sedimentology and structural style. The southern thrust margin to the basin has no basement outcrops, even though it marks the southern margin of Mesozoic sedimentation. Balanced sections imply the reactivation of basement faults in controlling the geometry, position, and orientation of the thrust front. In the northern part of the BCB, around Bilbao, major monoclines and thrusts follow basement fault trends - trends which earlier strongly affected the distribution of the Mesozoic. The BCB has a stratigraphy and structure in common with eastern basins such as the Aquitaine and Ebro. Though it can be difficult to correlate individual structures, many features of basin dynamics are similar. It is valuable to study the less-deformed BCB in order to understand the basins of northern Spain and southern France.

  15. Spatial distribution of pollution in an urban stormwater infiltration basin.

    PubMed

    Dechesne, Magali; Barraud, Sylvie; Bardin, Jean-Pascal

    2004-08-01

    Infiltration basins are frequently used for stormwater drainage. Because stormwater is polluted in highly toxic compounds, assessment of pollution retention by infiltration basins is necessary. Indeed, if basins are not effective in trapping pollution, deep soil and groundwater may be contaminated. This study's objective is to investigate soil pollution in infiltration basins: spatial distribution of soil pollution, optimisation of the number of soil samples and a contamination indicator are presented. It is part of a global project on long-term impact of stormwater infiltration on groundwater. Soil sampling was done on a basin in suburban Lyon (France). Samples were collected at different depths and analysed for nutrients, heavy metals, hydrocarbons and grain size. Pollutant concentrations decrease rapidly with depth while pH, mineralisation and grain size increase. Sustainable metal concentrations are reached at a 30-cm depth, even after 14 years of operation; hydrocarbon pollution is deeper. Principal component analysis shows how pollutants affect each level. The topsoil is different from other levels. Three specifically located points are enough to estimate the mass of pollution trapped by the basin with a 26% error. The proposed contamination indicator is calculated using either average level concentrations or maximum level concentrations. In both cases, the topsoil layer appears polluted but evaluation of lower levels is dependent on the choice of input concentrations.

  16. Clastic depositional styles and reservoir potential of Mediterranean basins

    SciTech Connect

    Bouma, A.H. )

    1990-05-01

    A variety of tectonic styles and activities throughout the late Mesozoic and younger epochs influenced sediment transport to the Mediterranean basins and, consequently, the approach needed to finding reservoir-type clastics. The style of the present-day basins varies from west to east, with large basinal depressions and continental rises in the western province, more elongate shapes in the central area, and numerous small basins and trenches in the eastern Mediterranean. In general terms, all these basins contain a similar fill: a deep-water sequence older than late Miocene, overlain by upper Miocene evaporites, and topped by Pliocene-Quaternary clastics. The exact type of fill depends on several factors, including proximity to the sediment source, climatic conditions, subsidence and tectonic activity, and tectono-eustatic or glacio-eustatic oscillations. Investigations on many of the clastic reservoirs in Mediterranean basins should emphasize submarine fans. The modern Mediterranean Sea contains several mid-sized fans (Rhone, Ebro, Valencia, and Nile fans) and many small ones (e.g., Crati Fan). There are several well-studied Tertiary subsurface and outcropping turbidite systems. The concept of deep-water marine sands, and many of the initial studies, began with some of the now classic outcrops in Italy, France, and Spain. A well-integrated study of both modern and ancient turbidite series is needed to construct basic exploration models for the Mediterranean region. 9 figs., 1 tab.

  17. [Infant botulism in France, 1991-2009].

    PubMed

    King, L-A; Popoff, M-R; Mazuet, C; Espié, E; Vaillant, V; de Valk, H

    2010-09-01

    Infant botulism is caused by the ingestion of spores of Clostridium botulinum and affects newborns and infants under 12 months of age. Ingested spores multiply and produce botulinum toxin in the digestive tract, which then induces clinical symptoms. A single French case was described in the literature prior to 1991. We describe the cases of infant botulism identified in France between 1991 and 2009. All clinical suspicions of botulism must be declared in France. Biological confirmation of the disease is provided by the National reference laboratory for anaerobic bacteria and botulism at the Pasteur Institute. During this period, 7 cases of infant botulism were identified, 1 per year from 2004 to 2008 and 2 in 2009. The median age of affected infants was 119 days and all were female. All infants presented with constipation and oculomotor symptoms. All were hospitalized and required mechanical ventilation. The infants recovered from their botulism. The diagnosis of infant botulism was biologically confirmed for all patients. One 4-month-old infant was treated with a single dose of the human-derived botulism antitoxin specific for infant botulism types A and B (BabyBIG®). The infants all had different feeding habits ranging from exclusive breast feeding to a mix of formula feeding and solid food consumption. The consumption of honey, the only documented risk food for this disease, was reported for 3 of the infants. The honey had been placed on the pacifier of 2 infants and directly in the mouth of the 3rd by the mother. Infant botulism, a form of botulism that was previously rarely recognized in France, has been reported more frequently during the last 6 years. This disease remains rare but nonetheless severe. In light of recent epidemiological data, efforts to raise awareness among parents of infants and health professionals on the danger of infant botulism and particularly, its association with honey consumption seems necessary.

  18. [Current data on malaria in metropolitan France].

    PubMed

    Danis, M; Legros, F; Thellier, M; Caumes, E

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological data from the French National Reference Center for Imported Diseases showed that the estimated number of cases of imported malaria in France increased from 5,940 in 1998 to 7,127 in 1999 and 8,056 in 2000. This three-year progression ended in 2001 when the number of estimated cases fell back to 7,223. It was due mainly to the concomitant increase in the number of people traveling to endemic zones especially in Africa. In 2000 the median age of patients with imported malaria in France was 29.5 years and the sex ratio was 1.78. Sixty-three percent of cases involved people of African origin and 37% involved "Westerners". The countries in which contamination occurred were located in tropical Africa (95%), Asia (2.2%), and Latin America (2.7%). During the three year period from 1998 to 2000, there were a total of 13 accidental autochtonous cases of malaria involving patients with no history of travel to tropical areas. The distribution of Plasmodium species involved in imported malaria in France was stable with 83% of cases involving Plasmodium falciparum, 6% involving Plasmodium vivax, 6.5% involving Plasmodium ovale and 1.3% involving Plasmodium malariae. Attacks were clinically uncomplicated in 90 to 95% of cases and severe in 2 to 5% including fatal Plasmodium falciparum malaria in 0.49 to 0.37% of cases. Less than 10% of the 45% of patients claiming use of prophylaxis complied properly. Analysis of the drugs used for curative treatment in 2000 showed an increase in the use of quinine and mefloquine and decrease in the use of halofantrine. The main objectives remain reduction of mortality and improvement of prevention.

  19. How Gaz de France optimizes LNG regasification

    SciTech Connect

    Colonna, J.L.; Lecomte, B.; Caudron, S.

    1986-05-05

    A regasification optimization program was implemented at Montoir-de-Bretagne in 1984, and rapidly accepted by the operators. It has been an important tool for decision-making in the optimizing operation of this liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage and regasification terminal. The models used are regularly and easily updated on the basis of equipment behavior: aging or fouling. The Montoir-de-Bretagne LNG terminal is in the port area of Nates-Saint Nazaire on the Atlantic coast. It was commissioned in 1982 by Gaz de France. This terminal is used for receiving, storing, and regasifying the Algerian LNG received under a contract between Gaz de France and Sonatrach, as well as the LNG imported by Belgium and temporarily routed through France. It is designed to receive 25,000 to 200,000 cu m LNG carriers and has three 120,000 cm m LNG storage tanks. The daily sendout ranges between 6.7 million cu m and 36 million cu m. Monitor terminal supplies mainly Brittany and the Paris area. Two identifical berths allow the simultaneous reception of two LNG carriers. LNG is carried to the storage tanks in 32-in. lines at a rate of 12,000 cu m/hr. Each storage tank is equipped with three submerged 450 cu m/hr pumps with which the LNG is sent from the tanks to the secondary pumps at 8 bar. The nine high-pressure (HP) secondary pumps, with a capacity of either 450 cu m/hr or 180 cu m/hr, raise the LNG pressure to a level at least equal to pipeline pressure prior to revaporization.

  20. Palaeontology, taxonomic revision and variability of some species of the genus Gassendiceras Bert et al., 2006 (Ammonitina, Upper Barremian) from southeastern Franc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bert, Didier; Bersac, Stéphane; Delanoy, Gérard; Canut, Léon

    2013-09-01

    Bed-by-bed sampling of twelve Barremian sections in southeastern France from pelagic basin (Vocontian Basin) to neritic platforms (Arc of Castellane, Arc of Nice and Provencal Domain) has enabled the collection of isochronous samples of the ammonite genus Gassendiceras. Three poorly known species of the Toxancyloceras vandenheckei Zone (Upper Barremian) are revised: G. alpinum, G. multicostatum and G. hoheneggeri; two new species are described (G. rebouleti nov. sp. and G. bosellii nov. sp.). The intraspecific variability of particular species was recognised. This variability is between slender peramorphic and robust paedomorphic extreme morphologies, with the presence of all intermediates.

  1. France: Thrust and parry over nuclear risks

    SciTech Connect

    Balter, M.

    1997-01-31

    Claims about the health risks posed by nuclear-power installations are always controversial, but nowhere more so than in France, where some 75% of the nation`s electricity is generated from nuclear energy. So, it was no surprise that publication of a study by two French epidemiologists earlier this month claiming to show a link between cases of childhood leukemia and the nuclear-waste reprocessing plant at La Hague on the Normandy coast sparked fireworks in the French press. Several French epidemiologists sharply criticized the study`s methodology and conclusions. Their attacks have now drawn an unusual response from the British Medical Journal (BMJ), in which the paper appeared.

  2. Puumala and Tula hantaviruses in France.

    PubMed

    Plyusnina, Angelina; Deter, Julie; Charbonnel, Nathalie; Cosson, Jean-François; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2007-10-01

    The first genome sequences of Tula (TULV) and Puumala (PUUV) hantaviruses undoubtedly originated from France were recovered from tissue samples of European common voles and bank voles captured in Jura region. Genetic analysis of S and M segments of French PUUV strain revealed its highest similarity to strains from neighboring Belgium and Germany and also from Slovakia. On phylogenetic trees, French PUUV strain was placed within the central European lineage formed by strains from these three countries. Both of our French TULV strains clustered together and formed a distinct, well-supported genetic lineage. PMID:17532080

  3. [National organization of forensic medicine in France].

    PubMed

    Chariot, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Forensic medicine has long been characterized, in France, by diverse medical practices, which affected its recognition and development. A change was needed, Harmonization procedure includes the development of professional guidelines and allows forensic medicine to look at itself. However, the implementation of the recommendations is still far from complete. A national reform came into effect on 15 January 2011 and has defined a national reform of forensic medicine which includes funding by global budgets instead of fee-for-service. This reform allows easier organization and identification of forensic medicine units. One year later, tangible results are mixed. Forensic medicine is now more clearly identified but properly defined funding criteria are still lacking.

  4. Frances E. Jensen's The Teenage Brain.

    PubMed

    Silveri, Marisa M

    2015-01-01

    The unpredictable and sometimes incomprehensible moods and behaviors of a teenager can be a head-scratching mystery-especially to parents. Hormones, boredom, social media, peer pressure, and drugs and alcohol are just a few of the factors to consider. Frances E. Jensen, M.D., professor and chair of neurology at the University of Pennsylvania and the mother of two sons who are now in their twenties (along with Washington Post health and science reporter and Pulitzer Prize winner Amy Ellis Nutt) look at the emerging science of the adolescent brain and provide advice based on Jensen's own research and experience as a single mother. PMID:27408670

  5. [Cost of multiple sclerosis in France].

    PubMed

    Fromont, A; Lehanneur, M-N; Rollot, F; Weill, A; Clerc, L; Bonithon Kopp, C; Binquet, C; Moreau, T

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the 30 chronic conditions specifically listed by the French healthcare system as a long-term disease (affections de longue durée [ALD]) for which the main health insurance fund (Caisse nationale d'assurance maladie des travailleurs salariés [CNAMTS]) provides full (100%) coverage of healthcare costs. The CNAMTS insures 87% of the French population (52,359,912 of the 60,028,292 inhabitants). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the direct and indirect medical costs of MS among the entire population insured by the CNAMTS in France in 2004. The CNAMTS provided us with access to the ALD database of patients with MS that contains different MS-related expenditures made in 2004. We calculated the overall direct and indirect cost of MS and the cost per patient and per item of expenditure. In 2004, 49,413 patients were registered on the ALD list for MS. Direct cost for MS patients was 469,719,967 €. The direct cost per patient and per year was 9,506 € with variations between regions (French administrative divisions) ranging from 10,800 € in northeastern France (Champagne-Ardenne) to 8,217 € in western France (Pays de la Loire). The different items of expenditure were treatments (44.5%), hospitalization (27.9%), nursing care (5.8%), physiotherapy (5.7%), transport (4%), biology (1.1%), and other (1.5%). During the course of the disease, the overall cost of MS increased slowly during the first 15 years (from 8,000 to 11,000 €), but dramatically the last year of life (23,410 €). The costs of immunomodulator treatments were higher during the first six years after registration on the ALD list. Conversely, physiotherapy costs increased linearly with time during the course of MS. Indirect costs were an estimated 116 million euros in 2004. A disability pension (8,918 € per patient) was perceived by 9,430 patients (19.1%) and a daily allowance (3,317 € per patient) by 9,894 patients (20%). In France, MS has an important

  6. Frances E. Jensen's The Teenage Brain.

    PubMed

    Silveri, Marisa M

    2015-01-01

    The unpredictable and sometimes incomprehensible moods and behaviors of a teenager can be a head-scratching mystery-especially to parents. Hormones, boredom, social media, peer pressure, and drugs and alcohol are just a few of the factors to consider. Frances E. Jensen, M.D., professor and chair of neurology at the University of Pennsylvania and the mother of two sons who are now in their twenties (along with Washington Post health and science reporter and Pulitzer Prize winner Amy Ellis Nutt) look at the emerging science of the adolescent brain and provide advice based on Jensen's own research and experience as a single mother.

  7. Acute anaphylactoid reactions during hemodialysis in France.

    PubMed

    Forêt, M; Kuentz, F; Meftahi, H; Milongo, R; Hachache, T; Elsener, M; Dechelette, E; Cordonnier, D

    1987-04-01

    A retrospective survey of anaphylactoid reactions during dialysis in France was conducted. In 52 of 112 hemodialysis units surveyed 111 patients who had suffered one or more anaphylactoid reactions during dialysis were identified. According to the Hamilton/Adkinson classification, in 31 patients reactions were minor, in 54 patients moderate, and in 26 patients severe. Four patients died of their reactions. A preponderance of reactions (75 and 11%) occurred with cuprammonium cellulose hollow-fiber and plate dialyzers, respectively. Severe dialyzer reactions were found to occur more frequently after the long (weekend) interdialytic interval. In an in vitro study, six brands of cuprammonium cellulose hollow-fiber dialyzers were rinsed with water and the eluates analyzed by size exclusion chromatography for contaminant particles. Substantial variation in the amount of extractable material was found between dialyzers of different brands, despite the fact that all dialyzers used membranes from the same manufacturer. Previous data by others has suggested that this extractable material is a derivative of cellulose. Results of our epidemiologic survey in France are similar to those previously reported in the United States and suggest an increased incidence of dialyzer reactions with ethylene oxide-sterilized cuprammonium cellulose dialyzers. The presence of cellulose-derived particles in the rinsing fluid of such dialyzers and the possible increased incidence of reactions after the long (weekend) interdialytic interval suggest that allergy to cellulose-derived particles eluted from cellulosic dialyzers may contribute to dialyzer hypersensitivity reactions.

  8. [Maternal mortality in France, 2007-2009].

    PubMed

    Saucedo, M; Deneux-Tharaux, C; Bouvier-Colle, M-H

    2013-11-01

    To monitor the maternal mortality which is an indicator of the quality of obstetric and intensive care, France has a specific approach since 1996. Recently linkages have been introduced to improve the inclusion of cases. Here are the results for the 2007 to 2009 period. The identification of the pregnancy associated deaths is lying on different data bases that are medical causes of death, birth register and hospital discharges. To document the cases, confidential enquiries are conducted by two assessors on the field; a committee of medical experts analyses the documents, select the underlying cause and assess the quality of health care. Two hundred and fifty-four obstetric deaths were identified from 2007 to 2009 giving the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of 10.3 per 100,000 births. The maternal age and nationality, the region of deaths are associated to the MMR. The haemorrhages are the leading cause but their ratio is 1.9 versus 2.5 previously; this decrease results from the postpartum haemorrhage by uterine atony going down. The suboptimal care are still frequent (60%) but slightly less than before. The linkage method should be pursued. Maternal mortality is rather stable in France. We may reach more reduction as deaths due to atony decreased as suboptimal care did.

  9. Uraniferous Phosphates: Resource, Security Risk, or Contaminant

    SciTech Connect

    LeMone, D.V.; Goodell, Ph.C.; Gibbs, S.G.; Winston, J.W.

    2008-07-01

    The escalation of the price of uranium (U) yellow cake (summer high = $130/0.454 kg (lb) has called into question the continuing availability of sufficient stockpiles and ores to process. As was developed during the years following World War II, the establishment and maintenance of a strategic inventory is a reasonable consideration for today. Therefore, it becomes critical to look at potential secondary resources beyond the classical ore suites now being utilized. The most economically viable future secondary source seems to be the byproducts of the beneficiation of phosphoric acids derived from phosphate ores. Phosphorous (P) is an essential nutrient for plants; its deficiency can result in highly restrictive limitations in crop productivity. Acidic soils in tropical and subtropical regions of the world are often P deficient with high P-sorption (fixation) capacities. To correct this deficiency, efficient water-soluble P fertilizers are required. The use of raw phosphate rocks not only adds phosphate but also its contained contaminants, including uranium to the treated land. Another immediate difficulty is phosphogypsum, the standard byproduct of simple extraction. It, for practical purposes, has been selectively classified as TENORM by regulators. The imposition of these standards presents major current and future disposal and re-utilization problems. Therefore, establishing an economically viable system that allows for uranium byproduct extraction from phosphoric acids is desirable. Such a system would be dependent on yellow cake base price stability, reserve estimates, political conditions, nation-state commitment, and dependence on nuclear energy. The accumulation of yellow cake from the additional extraction process provides a valuable commodity and allows the end acid to be a more environmentally acceptable product. The phosphogypsum already accumulated, as well as that which is in process, will not make a viable component for a radiation disposal devise (RDD). Concern for weapon proliferation by rogue nation states from the byproduct production of yellowcake is an unlikely scenario. To extract the fissile U-235 (0.07%) isotope from the yellowcake (99.3%) requires the erection of a costly major gaseous diffusion or a cascading centrifuge facility. Such a facility would be extremely difficult to mask. Therefore, from a diminished security risk and positive economic and environmental viewpoints, the utilization of a phosphoric acid beneficiation process extracting uranium is desirable. (authors)

  10. 78 FR 37154 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska to the extent that it... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter)...

  11. 78 FR 47230 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ...'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... authority of France and are approved for operation in the United States. Pursuant to our bilateral...

  12. 78 FR 66668 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... Determination These helicopters have been approved by the aviation authority of France and are approved...

  13. 78 FR 54792 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... France and are approved for operation in the United States. Pursuant to our bilateral agreement...

  14. 77 FR 58973 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for the Eurocopter France...

  15. 78 FR 63853 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); ] 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation...-033-AD; Amendment 39-17625; AD 2013-21-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... These helicopters have been approved by the aviation authority of France and are approved for...

  16. 77 FR 58925 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect...-17204; AD 2012-19-09] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters AGENCY... comments. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France...

  17. 78 FR 33766 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska to the extent that it... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... approved by the aviation authority of France and are approved for operation in the United States....

  18. France: The Move toward Distance Education in the University Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortimer, Peter

    2005-01-01

    France is one of the most modern countries in the world and is a leading force in Europe. A highly literate and well-educated society, France's education statistics for 2003 show 12.1 million French children in primary and secondary education and 2.2 million students in tertiary education. The concept of education as a market commodity--long since…

  19. France: The Challenges of Renewal. Headline Series #282.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePorte, A. W.

    France has responded well to the social, economic, and political challenges which began when that nation was defeated by Germany in 1940. Two major challenges have been to limit internal quarrels which reduce the nation's ability to handle current issues and to accept the fact that France is no longer the greatest power in Europe. Chapter 1…

  20. Social Representation of Gifted Children: A Preliminary Study in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavani, Jean Louis; Zenasni, Franck; Pereira-Fradin, Maria

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing recognition of giftedness in France and the need for identification. Social Representations (SR) of gifted children have never been examined in France with an appropriate methodology, yet it is important to do so as the information obtained may help ensure the insertion and inclusion of these children in school and society. The…

  1. Absence of Pneumocystis dihydropteroate synthase mutants in Brittany, France.

    PubMed

    Le Gal, Solène; Robert-Gangneux, Florence; Perrot, Maëla; Rouillé, Amélie; Virmaux, Michèle; Damiani, Céline; Totet, Anne; Gangneux, Jean-Pierre; Nevez, Gilles

    2013-05-01

    Archival Pneumocystis jirovecii specimens from 84 patients monitored at Rennes University Hospital (Rennes, France) were assayed at the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) locus. No patient was infected with mutants. The results provide additional data showing that P. jirovecii infections involving DHPS mutants do not represent a public health issue in Brittany, western France.

  2. International Reports on Literacy Research: France and Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.

    2006-01-01

    This is a compilation of two separate reports on international literacy research from France and Argentina. In the reports from France, research correspondent Jacques Fijalkow detailed three research projects that included the following: (1) A description of adult literacy skills; (2) An investigation of how study-abroad students were integrated…

  3. 47 CFR 3.46 - Use of gold francs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of gold francs. 3.46 Section 3.46... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.46 Use of gold francs. An accounting authority must accept accounts presented to it from foreign administrations in...

  4. 47 CFR 3.46 - Use of gold francs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of gold francs. 3.46 Section 3.46... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.46 Use of gold francs. An accounting authority must accept accounts presented to it from foreign administrations in...

  5. 47 CFR 3.46 - Use of gold francs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of gold francs. 3.46 Section 3.46... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.46 Use of gold francs. An accounting authority must accept accounts presented to it from foreign administrations in...

  6. La punaise diabolique a la conquete de la France

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Halyomorpha halys is now present in France in Alsace and in several neighboring countries (Switzerland and Italy). The potential risk of invasion of H. halys throughout France is considered to be high. Through its natural dispersal, or with human assistance, this insect will likely colonize the majo...

  7. 47 CFR 3.46 - Use of gold francs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of gold francs. 3.46 Section 3.46... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.46 Use of gold francs. An accounting authority must accept accounts presented to it from foreign administrations in...

  8. 47 CFR 3.46 - Use of gold francs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of gold francs. 3.46 Section 3.46... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.46 Use of gold francs. An accounting authority must accept accounts presented to it from foreign administrations in...

  9. The Definition of Vocational Diplomas in Germany and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mobus, Martine; Verdier, Eric

    1997-01-01

    In both France and Germany, the government, employers' organizations, and unions all participate in defining vocational diplomas based on a national framework of procedures of elaborating and standardizing titles. Important differences between the diploma definition processes in France and Germany may be identified. In Germany, the issue is…

  10. [Training in tropical medicine in France].

    PubMed

    Touze, Jean-Étienne; Laroche, Roland

    2013-10-01

    Tropical medicine was a key element of the medical structures provided by France to our former colonies and, later; to countries within the scope of our international cooperation. hI recent decades, France has drastically reduced its bilateral commitments to countries in the tropics, and especially in sub-Saharan Africa. At the same time, the teaching of tropical medicine, which was highly regarded even beyond our borders, has lost a good deal of its expertise. Initially available in a few large French centers, and ensured by teachers with extensive field experience, training in tropical medicine is now offered in many universities. However; their programs and educational objectives, focusing mainly on infectious and parasitic diseases, no longer meet the healthcare priorities of southern countries, which are facing an epidemiological transition and the rise of non communicable diseases. Few teachers now have recognized expertise in tropical medicine. These changes have had negative consequences for research programs in tropical medicine and for the image of French assistance to developing countries. In this context, the followving perspectives should be considered: 1) training in tropical medicine should be enhanced by the creation of a national diploma recognized by international bodies. 2) The creation of a doctoral course in tropical medicine is a prerequisite for achieving this goal, and the future diploma must include a significant research component. 3) Teaching in tropical medicine must become more practical and be ensured by teachers with extensive field experience. 4) Training in tropical medicine should be part of a bilateral relationship with countries in the tropics, each party contributing its expertise while respecting that of its partners. 5) Training in tropical medicine should be backed uip by high-level scientific research based on enhanced synergy of our current networks (Institute for Research and Development, Network of overseas Pasteur

  11. Is dew water potable? Chemical and biological analyses of dew water in Ajaccio (Corsica Island, France).

    PubMed

    Muselli, Marc; Beysens, Daniel; Soyeux, Emmanuel; Clus, Owen

    2006-01-01

    To determine to what extent dew water is potable without further treatment, a thorough set of chemical and biological analyses were performed on 10 samples of dew water collected on a large scale radiative collector (29.83 m2) in Ajaccio (Corsica Island, France), between 21 May 2002 and 5 Mar. 2003. Samples were collected following four protocols according to the dew volume amount and 48 parameters (ions, minerals, and bacteria) were analyzed and compared to French and European Union legislation and also World Health Organization (WHO) recommendations. Aluminum and Fe were the main pollutants whose concentrations were significantly larger than recommended. Their presence is due to local deposition of aerosols coming from the Sahara (a characteristic of the Mediterranean basin). A large number of biologically cultivable microorganisms were found, together with bacteria typical of fecal contamination. For dew water to be potable with respect to present legislation at the Ajaccio site, it should be disinfected and treated for turbidity.

  12. Sm-Nd dating of fluorite from the worldclass Montroc fluorite deposit, southern Massif Central, France

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munoz, M.; Premo, W.R.; Courjault-Rade, P.

    2005-01-01

    A three-point Sm-Nd isotope isochron on fluorite from the very large Montroc fluorite vein deposit (southern Massif Central, France) defines an age of 111??13 Ma. Initial ??Nd of -8.6 and initial 87Sr/86Sr of ???0.71245 suggest an upper crustal source of the hydrothermal system, in agreement with earlier work on fluid inclusions which indicated a basinal brine origin. The mid-Cretaceous age of ???111 Ma suggests the Albian/Aptian transition as the most likely period for large-scale fluid circulation during a regional extensional tectonic event, related to the opening of the North Atlantic ocean. ?? Springer-Verlag 2004.

  13. Organochlorines in the Vaccarès Lagoon trophic web (Biosphere Reserve of Camargue, France).

    PubMed

    Roche, H; Vollaire, Y; Persic, A; Buet, A; Oliveira-Ribeiro, C; Coulet, E; Banas, D; Ramade, F

    2009-01-01

    During a decade (1996-2006), ecotoxicological studies were carried out in biota of the Vaccarès Lagoon (Biosphere Reserve in Rhone Delta, France). A multicontamination was shown at all levels of the trophic web due to a direct bioconcentration of chemical from the medium combined with a food transfer. Here, the pollutants investigated were organochlorines, among which many compounds banned or in the course of prohibition (or restriction) (PCB, lindane, pp'-DDE, dieldrin, aldrin, heptachlor, endosulfan...) and some substances likely still used in the Rhone River basin (diuron, fipronil). The results confirmed the ubiquity of contamination. It proves to be chronic, variable and tends to regress; however contamination levels depend on the trophic compartment. A biomagnification process was showed. A comparison of investigation methods used in other Mediterranean wetlands provides basis of discussion, and demonstrates the urgent need of modelling to assess the ecotoxicological risk in order to improve the management of such protected areas.

  14. The Tour de France: a physiological review.

    PubMed

    Lucia, Alejandro; Earnest, Conrad; Arribas, Carlos

    2003-10-01

    On 5 July 2003, the Tour de France (TDF) has celebrated 100th running. Instead of a chimney sweep competing during his free time (as in 1903), the recent winner is a highly trained, professional cyclist whose entire life-style has been dedicated to reach his pinnacle during this event. The TDF has been held successfully for 100 years, but the application of the physiologic sciences to the sport is a relatively recent phenomenon. Although some historical reports help to understand the unique physiological characteristics of this race, scientific studies were not available in Sports Science/Applied Physiology journals until the 1990s. The aim of this article is to review the history of the TDF. Special emphasis is placed on the last decade where classic physiology has been integrated into applied scientific cycling data.

  15. The death of Henry II of France.

    PubMed

    Faria, M A

    1992-12-01

    On June 30, 1559, King Henry II of France (1519-1559), against the advice of his court ministers, participated in a fateful joust. The wooden lance of his younger opponent pierced the King's headgear, shattered into fragments, and penetrated his right orbit and temple. The King survived for 11 days following the mortal wound and was treated by two of the most distinguished physicians of the Renaissance: Ambroise Paré (1510-1590), the master surgeon, and Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564), the great anatomist. The unfortunate event, the nature of the injury, and the medical consultation between these eminent physicians should all be of interest to neurosurgeons. The historical consequences of this event are briefly reviewed. PMID:1432144

  16. Atomic vapor laser isotope separation in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camarcat, Noel; Lafon, Alain; Perves, Jean-Pierre; Rosengard, Alex; Sauzay, Guy

    1993-05-01

    France has developed a very complete nuclear industry, from mining to reprocessing and radwastes management, and now has a major electro-nuclear park, with 55 power reactors, supplying 75% of the nation's electricity and representing 32% of its energy requirements. The modern multinational EURODIF enrichment plant in Pierrelatte in the south of the country supplies these reactors with enriched uranium as well as foreign utilities (30% exports). It works smoothly and has continuously been improved to reduce operating costs and to gain flexibility and longevity. Investment costs will be recovered at the turn of the century. The plant will be competitive well ahead of an aging production park, with large overcapacity, in other countries. Meanwhile, world needs will increase only slightly during the next 15 years, apart from the Asian Pacific area, but many world governments are becoming well aware of the necessity to progressively resume nuclear energy development worldwide from the year 2000 on.

  17. The LUNEX5 project in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couprie, M. E.; Benabderrahmane, C.; Betinelli, P.; Bouvet, F.; Buteau, A.; Cassinari, L.; Daillant, J.; Denard, J. C.; Eymard, P.; Gagey, B.; Herbeaux, C.; Labat, M.; Lagarde, B.; Lestrade, A.; Loulergue, A.; Marchand, P.; Marlats, J. L.; Miron, C.; Morin, P.; Nadji, A.; Polack, F.; Pruvost, J. B.; Ribeiro, F.; Ricaud, J. P.; Roy, P.; Tanikawa, T.; Roux, R.; Bielawski, S.; Evain, C.; Szwaj, C.; Lambert, G.; Lifschitz, A.; Malka, V.; Lehe, R.; Rousse, A.; Phuoc, K. Ta; Thaury, C.; Devanz, G.; Luong, M.; Carré, B.; LeBec, G.; Farvacque, L.; Dubois, A.; Lüning, J.

    2013-03-01

    The LUNEX5 (free electron Laser Using a New accelerator for the Exploitation of X-ray radiation of 5th generation) in France aims at investigating the generation of short, intense, and coherent pulses in the soft x-ray region (with two particular targeted wavelengths of 20 and 13 nm). It consists in a single Free Electron Laser (FEL) line with cryo-ready in-vacuum undulators using a Conventional Linear Accelerator (CLA) using the superconducting technology of 400 MeV or a Laser Wake Field Accelerator (LWFA) ranging from 0.4 to 1 GeV with multi-TW or PW lasers. The FEL line can be operated in the seeded (High order Harmonic in Gas seeding) and Echo Enable Harmonic Generation configurations, which performances will be compared. Two pilot user experiments for time-resolved studies of isolated species and magnetization dynamics will take benefit of LUNEX5 FEL radiation.

  18. Devonian shelf basin, Michigan basin, Alpena region

    SciTech Connect

    Gutschick, R.C.

    1986-08-01

    This biostratigraphic study involves the Devonian paleogeography-paleoecology-paleobathymetry of the transition from carbonate platform shelf margin to basinal sedimentation for the northern part of the Michigan basin in the Alpena region. Shelf-basin analysis is based on lithofacies, rock colors, concretion, biostratigraphy, paleoecology of faunas - especially microfaunas and trace fossils - stratified water column, eustasy, and application of Walther's Law. Field observations were made on Partridge Point along Lake Huron, where type sections of the Middle Devonian Thunder Bay Limestone and Late Devonian Squaw Bay Limestone are exposed; and the Antrim black shale at Paxton quarry. The Thunder Bay Limestone evolved as a carbonate platform, subtidal shelf-margin aerobic environment dominated by sessile benthic coralline organisms and shelly fauna, but not reef framework. The Squaw Bay Limestone is transitional shelf to basin, with aspects of slope environment and deeper water off-platform, pelagic organic biostromal molluscan-conodont carbonate deposited during the onset of a stratified water column (dysaerobic benthos-polychaete. agglutinated tubes, sulfides) and pycnocline. The Antrim Shale, in an exceptional black shale exposure in the Paxton quarry, represents deep-water basinal deposition whose bottom waters lacked oxygen. Faunas (conodonts, styliolines, radiolarians) and floras (tasmanitids, calamitids, palynomorphs) are from the aerobic pelagic realm, as indicated from concretions and shale fossil evidence. A benthos is lacking, except for bioturbation from organisms introduced by entrained oxygenated distal turbidite dispersion into the barren bottom black muds. Basinal hydrocarbon source rocks are abundant and updip carbonate reservoirs rim the basin. The Antrim Shale sequence contains the interval of Frasnian-Famennian faunal extinction.

  19. Origin of cratonic basins

    SciTech Connect

    de V. Klein, G.; Hsui, A.T.

    1987-12-01

    Tectonic subsidence curves show that the Illinois, Michigan, and Williston basins formed by initial fault-controlled mechanical subsidence during rifting and by subsequent thermal subsidence. Thermal subsidence began around 525 Ma in the Illinois Basin, 520-460 Ma in the Michigan Basin, and 530-500 Ma in the Williston Basin. In the Illinois Basin, a second subsidence episode (middle Mississippian through Early Permian) was caused by flexural foreland subsidence in response to the Alleghanian-Hercynian orogeny. Past workers have suggested mantle phase changes at the base of the crust, mechanical subsidence in response to isostatically uncompensated excess mass following igneous intrusions, intrusion of mantle plumes into the crust, or regional thermal metamorphic events as causes of basin initiation. Cratonic basins of North America, Europe, Africa, and South America share common ages of formation, histories of sediment accumulation, temporal volume changes of sediment fills, and common dates of interregional unconformities. Their common date of formation suggests initiation of cratonic basins in response to breakup of a late Precambrian supercontinent. This supercontinent acted as a heat lens that caused partial melting of the lower crust and upper mantle followed by emplacement of anorogenic granites during extensional tectonics in response to supercontinent breakup. Intrusion of anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks weakened continental lithosphere, thus providing a zone of localized regional stretching and permitting formation of cratonic basins almost simultaneously over sites of intrusion of these anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks.

  20. Origin of cratonic basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dev. Klein, George; Hsui, Albert T.

    1987-12-01

    Tectonic subsidence curves show that the Illinois, Michigan, and Williston basins formed by initial fault-controlled mechanical subsidence during rifting and by subsequent thermal subsidence. Thermal subsidence began around 525 Ma in the Illinois Basin, 520 460 Ma in the Michigan Basin, and 530 500 Ma in the Williston Basin. In the Illinois Basin, a second subsidence episode (middle Mississippian through Early Permian) was caused by flexural foreland subsidence in response to the Alleghanian-Hercynian orogeny. Resurgent Permian rifting in the Illinois Basin is inferred because of intrusion of well-dated Permian alnoites; such intrusive rocks are normally associated with rifting processes. The process of formation of these cratonic basins remains controversial. Past workers have suggested mantle phase changes at the base of the crust, mechanical subsidence in response to isostatically uncompensated excess mass following igneous intrusions, intrusion of mantle plumes into the crust, or regional thermal metamorphic events as causes of basin initiation. Cratonic basins of North America, Europe, Africa, and South America share common ages of formation (around 550 to 500 Ma), histories of sediment accumulation, temporal volume changes of sediment fills, and common dates of interregional unconformities. Their common date of formation suggests initiation of cratonic basins in response to breakup of a late Precambrian super-continent. This supercontinent acted as a heat lens that caused partial melting of the lower crust and upper mantle followed by emplacement of anorogenic granites during extensional tectonics in response to supercontinent breakup. Intrusion of anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks weakened continental lithosphere, thus providing a zone of localized regional stretching and permitting formation of cratonic basins almost simultaneously over sites of intrusion of these anorogenic granites and other partially melted intrusive rocks.

  1. Intra-arc basins

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.A.

    1988-01-01

    Convergent-margin tectonic models feature forearc and back-arc basins and generally portray the arc itself as structurally static. However, intra-arc tectonics not only control distribution and petrology of extrusives and plutons, but also generate basins along the magmatic axis. Magma withdrawal and crustal loading by volcanic edifices contribute to subsidence, but most intra-arc basins are grabens or half-grabens indicative of extension. Grabens are isolated or continuous along long segments of the arc. Basin development may alternate with periods of arc uplife. No unique set of conditions causes intra-arc extension; numerous scenarios may initiate extension and subsidence of thermally weakened arc crust. Transtension related to oblique convergence contributed to the formation of most modern intra-arc basins. Andean basins may result from gravitational spreading of an unusually highstanding arc. Intra-arc basin sediment traps may starve arc-adjacent basins from coarse volcaniclastic detritus. Terrestrial intra-arc basins accommodate thick volcanic and volcaniclastic sediment sections, including lacustrine sequences. Marine intra-arc basins include bounding carbonate shelves, marginal and local intrabasinal submarine fans and aprons, and basin plains receiving pelagic and hemipelagic sediments. Structural patterns are appropriate for trapping hydrocarbons, source rocks are commonly present, and high heat flow favors early maturation. Reservoir quality is typically poor because of volcaniclastic diagenesis, but secondary porosity from dissolution of framework feldspars and carbonate or laumontite cements, and the known productivity of some volcanic reservoirs, suggest the potential for hydrocarbon accumulations. Geothermal resources and modest coal potential have also been recognized.

  2. Comparisons of observed and modeled elastic responses to hydrological loading in the Amazon basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, D. M.; Calmant, S.; Perosanz, F.; Xavier, L.; Rotunno Filho, O. C.; Seyler, F.; Monteiro, A. C.

    2016-09-01

    In large hydrological basins, water mass loading can produce significant crustal deformation. We compare the monthly vertical component of 18 GPS sites located in the Amazon basin, with the deflection models derived from Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) observations on the one hand and derived from HYDL, a global hydrological model, on the other hand. The GPS data set includes the largest deflections by hydrological loading ever recorded at two stations located in the center of the basin. The main result of the study is that the GRACE solution produced by GRGS (Groupe de Recherche en Géodesie Spatiale, Toulouse, France) produces the best agreement with the Global Navigation Satellite Systems series with a correlation coefficient up to 0.9 in the center of the basin, although 70% at best of the RMS variation in the GPS series is accounted for.

  3. Determinants of measles seroprevalence among pregnant women in Paris, France.

    PubMed

    Bodilis, H; Goffinet, F; Krivine, A; Andrieu, T; Anselem, O; Tsatsaris, V; Rozenberg, F; Launay, O

    2014-08-01

    Non-immune pregnant women are at risk of severe measles. As the measles vaccination is contraindicated during pregnancy, women should be vaccinated before conception or during the postpartum period. Nevertheless, measles serology is not recommended during pregnancy in France, and there are no data available concerning measles susceptibility and its associated risk factors among pregnant women. The socio-demographic determinants of measles seronegativity have been identified in a prospective cohort of 826 pregnant women in Paris, France. Measles seronegativity was 10.41% (95% CI 8.32-12.50). Women from higher socio-economic groups, born in France after 1980, were more frequently seronegative.

  4. Pronatalist policies in Eastern Europe and France.

    PubMed

    Girard, A

    1983-08-01

    Western European fertility rates dropped markedly during the 1930s, and several governments established pronatalist policies. The policies were shortlived as fertility began to rise again after World War 2 and government intervention no longer appeared warranted. In contrast the countries of Eastern Europe retained their relatively high birthrates until measures in the 1950s gave individuals, especially women, greater freedom of choice in childbearing. Divorce laws were liberalized following World War 2, and women's participation in the labor force became widespread. Most European governments, following the example of the Soviet Union, liberalized abortion laws as well, making safe, medical abortion available for social, economic, and medical reasons. Whether or not as a direct result of this legislation, the Eastern European nations experienced such a rapid decline in birthrates that governments, fearing further ramifications, decided to intervene. In 1966, for example, Romania decreed abortion to be illegal except for medical reasons or in the case of rape. Eastern European governments justified their actions by emphasizing their concern about longterm effects. They wanted to avoid the "aging" of their population and the risk of future decrease in total population size. The abortion restrictions were accompanied by widespread efforts to encourage contraception through education, information programs, and postnatal consultations. Incentives were also adopted, and there were adjustments in working conditions for women including longer maternity leave and the opportunity for young mothers to have extended leave. The government's goal is to encourage 2 child families with enough 3 or 4 child families to compensate for 1 child or childless households. Eastern Europe is not alone in its pronatalist policy. France has set similar policies into motion. If this is exceptional among Western countries, it is because French fertility declined about a century before other

  5. Periodicities of hail precipitation in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermida, Lucía; Sánchez, José Luis; Berthet, Claude; Dessens, Jean; López, Laura; Hierro, Rodrigo; Wu, Xueke; García-Ortega, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    The wavelet analysis is a powerful tool appropriated for studying multiscale and non-stationary processes that occur in finite spatial and temporal domains. Its development began with Morlet and, since then, the wavelet transform (WT) has had better applications in Geophysics. However, the characterization of hail precipitation is not exempt from difficulty, since it deals with phenomenon on a small scale, with elevated spatial and temporal variation. The extreme variability of the frequency and distribution of hail is attributed, among other things, to the same process of its formation. The conditions that influence hail formation span from air masses climatology to lower-scale factors such as orography, wind fields, concentration of ice nuclei or temperature. This last factor is important both from a point of view of convective activity as well as its influence in the height of the freezing point. Thus, it would be possible to do comparative analysis between time series of temperature and diverse hail variables; or, rather, to try to establish a relationship between periodicities found and phenomenon such as ENSO (El Niño, Southern Oscillation) or NAO (North-Atlantic Oscillation). France is one of the European countries that is most affected by hail precipitation. Previous climatic studies have been done with the objective of characterizing the long-term variability of distinct variables of this hydrometeor that is present in the time series. These measurements are obtained using networks of hailpads distributed in French territory and managed by ANELFA. Berthet et al. (2011) observed the annual hail frequency in France, finding successions of three years with high values followed by three years of low values; this being calculated as the number of hailfalls per year divided by the number of hailpad stations that were in use during said year. In the present paper, a wavelet analysis was carried out with the objective of detecting the possible existence of

  6. A κ Model for Mainland France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, John; Gehl, Pierre; Bonilla, Luis Fabian; Gélis, Céline

    2010-11-01

    An important parameter for the characterization of strong ground motion at high-frequencies (>1 Hz) is kappa, κ, which models a linear decay of the acceleration spectrum, a( f), in log-linear space (i.e. a( f) = A 0 exp(- π κ f) for f > f E where f is frequency, f E is a low frequency limit and A 0 controls the amplitude of the spectrum). κ is a key input parameter in the stochastic method for the simulation of strong ground motion, which is particularly useful for areas with insufficient strong-motion data to enable the derivation of robust empirical ground motion prediction equations, such as mainland France. Numerous studies using strong-motion data from western North America (WNA) (an active tectonic region where surface rock is predominantly soft) and eastern North America (ENA) (a stable continental region where surface rock is predominantly very hard) have demonstrated that κ varies with region and surface geology, with WNA rock sites having a κ of about 0.04 s and ENA rock sites having a κ of about 0.006 s. Lower κs are one reason why high-frequency strong ground motions in stable regions are generally higher than in active regions for the same magnitude and distance. Few, if any, estimates of κs for French sites have been published. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to estimate κ using data recorded by the French national strong-motion network (RAP) for various sites in different regions of mainland France. For each record, a value of κ is estimated by following the procedure developed by Anderson and Hough (Bull Seismol Soc Am 74:1969-1993, 1984): this method is based on the analysis of the S-wave spectrum, which has to be performed manually, thus leading to some uncertainties. For the three French regions where most records are available (the Pyrenees, the Alps and the Côtes-d’Azur), a regional κ model is developed using weighted regression on the local geology (soil or rock) and source-to-site distance. It is found that the studied

  7. [Proof of the indigenous nature of Populus alba L. in the western Mediterranean Basin].

    PubMed

    Roiron, Paul; Ali, Adam A; Guendon, Jean-Louis; Carcaillet, Christopher; Terral, Jean-Frédéric

    2004-02-01

    Around the western Mediterranean Basin, the ecological status of Populus alba, whether indigenous or introduced, is controversial. This note presents new palaeobotanical data based on analyses of leaf imprints from a travertine formation located in southern France. This travertine presents two levels with Populus alba imprints. The oldest level is dated back by 14C to the Early Holocene, i.e., 8890 +/- 70 BP. This demonstrates that Populus alba is an autochthonous species of the southern-France vegetation, removing speculations reporting that its distribution area was greatly influenced by Roman civilization. Finally, we discuss this new data in regard to other Pleistocene and Holocene deposits circum the Mediterranean Basin and in Europe, where this species was identified. PMID:15060983

  8. Is there a remnant Variscan subducted slab in the mantle beneath the Paris basin? Implications for the late Variscan lithospheric delamination process and the Paris basin formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averbuch, O.; Piromallo, C.

    2012-08-01

    The Paris basin (northern France) is a Late Paleozoic-Mesozoic intracratonic basin that settled upon the collapsed Variscan collisional belt. The lithospheric roots of the Variscan orogenic system, below the Paris basin, have been investigated using a European-scale P-wave velocity tomographic model. Tomography points out the existence of a significant high velocity anomaly in the upper mantle below the western part of the basin. At ~ 150-200 km depth, the anomaly extends with a NW-SE trend along the buried Northern France trace of the Northern Variscan Suture Zone i.e. the Bray segment of the Upper Carboniferous Lizard-Rhenohercynian (LRH) suture. Moreover, the high-velocity anomaly is spatially correlated with the prominent Paris Basin Magnetic Anomaly. Its downdip extent reaches depths greater than 200 km below the southern margin of the Paris basin. As suggested in previous tomographic studies below ancient suture zones, these data argue for such anomaly being the remnant of a Variscan subducted slab that escaped the extensive late orogenic delamination process affecting the lithospheric roots by Late Carboniferous-Early Permian times and that was preserved stable over 300 Ma at the base of the lithosphere. On a general geodynamical perspective, these results provide a new insight into the long-term evolution of subducted lithosphere into the mantle. In the case of the Western European Variscan orogenic belt, they suggest that the subduction of the LRH slab below the previously thickened Variscan crust, and its final detachment from the orogenic root, have played an important role in the collapse of the belt, inducing thermal erosion and extension of the overriding lithosphere. The spatial evolution of late orogenic extension across the belt and of subsequent thermal subsidence in the Paris basin is suggested to result from the heterogeneous delamination of the lithospheric roots along strike and from the resultant pattern of asthenospheric rise.

  9. Geolectrical methods applied on a contaminated site : the Entressen landfill case study (south-eastern France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naudet, V.; Revil, A.; Bottero, J.-Y.

    2003-04-01

    Redox potential is a controlling parameter in many contaminated site remediation technologies. Its knowledge is crutial to understand the contaminant plume development and risks for groundwater ressources. But, redox potential is very difficult to measure directlly in the field. A geophysical method that could determine the redox potential distribution in a contaminant plume would be particularly welcome. We believe that the self-potential method (SP) offers such a possibility. We performed extensive SP and electrical resistivity measurements downstream the Entressen landfill (south-eastern France in Provence). Thanks to the electrical resistivity tomographies, we obtained a 3D image of the aquifer datum. This image helps us to better understand the pattern of water flow through the channels, and to estimate the electrokinetic component of the SP signal. An important negative SP anomaly (-400 mV) is measured near the decantation basins of the landfill, suggesting an hypothetical leak of these basins. The polarity and the great amplitude of this anomaly indicate that the main component of the SP signal is due to electrochemical reactions such as oxido-reduction reactions. The comparison of the SP measurements and the geochemical data shows that the negative SP anomaly is correlated with the anaerobic zone of the contaminant plume. We believe that redox potential gradients in the contaminant plume generate a diffusion potential which is responsible for the SP anomaly. Microbial activity also plays a key role in all these processes.

  10. [Legionnaire's disease: surveillance in France in 2005].

    PubMed

    Campèse, C; Jarraud, S; Che, D

    2007-11-01

    Legionnaire's disease is a recently described infection and surveillance in France was implemented in 1987. In 2005, 1,527 cases were notified corresponding to a population incidence rate of 2.5 per 100,000. The median age of cases was 61 years [5-100] and the male to female sex ratio was 3.0. The case fatality rate was 11%. One or more risk factors were identified for 1,084 (71%) cases. The majority of cases (91%) was diagnosed by urinary antigen detection and a strain was identified in 276 cases (18%). Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 infection was confirmed in 95% of cases. A specific exposure during the incubation period was reported for 39% of cases. Travel exposure was reported for 17% and hospital exposure for 7%. Multiple clusters and outbreaks were investigated. The largest one reported was identified in the north Lyon with 34 cases. Since 1997 the incidence of LD has steadily increased. This probably suggests a better detection of cases and an improvement in the surveillance system. In recent years, several new measures concerning prevention and control were implemented. However these efforts must continue particularly in the research domain to improve knowledge of the disease, in order to limit its impact on exposed populations.

  11. Briquet and Briquet's syndrome viewed from France.

    PubMed

    Dongier, M

    1983-10-01

    Briquet's contributions to the description of hysteria have been almost completely forgotten in France. One may wonder how he, as well as contemporary French psychiatrists, would react to the approach to hysteria introduced and officialized by DSM III. In particular, its fragmentation into syndromes without apparent link to each other (psychogenic amnesia, conversion disorders, histrionic personality disorder, etc.) and its psychological causation, unbalanced by the consideration of organic factors in etiology, may raise questions. The correlation of conversion disorders with hysterical personality remains a feature of the WHO classification (ICD 9), as well as a feature of French contemporary texts, although it is no longer viewed as a regular association by American psychiatry. It may be that cultural factors lead, as suggested by Brisset, to a repression of conversion phenomena and of hyperexpressivity of affects replaced by more psychosomatic disorders in many contemporary societies. Finally, one may question whether the choice of the term "Briquet Syndrome" is appropriate, as many of the patients described by him did not have the chronic and malignant course described by Guze: It tends to limit hysteria to one end (the most severe one) of a spectrum of disorders.

  12. Briquet and Briquet's syndrome viewed from France.

    PubMed

    Dongier, M

    1983-10-01

    Briquet's contributions to the description of hysteria have been almost completely forgotten in France. One may wonder how he, as well as contemporary French psychiatrists, would react to the approach to hysteria introduced and officialized by DSM III. In particular, its fragmentation into syndromes without apparent link to each other (psychogenic amnesia, conversion disorders, histrionic personality disorder, etc.) and its psychological causation, unbalanced by the consideration of organic factors in etiology, may raise questions. The correlation of conversion disorders with hysterical personality remains a feature of the WHO classification (ICD 9), as well as a feature of French contemporary texts, although it is no longer viewed as a regular association by American psychiatry. It may be that cultural factors lead, as suggested by Brisset, to a repression of conversion phenomena and of hyperexpressivity of affects replaced by more psychosomatic disorders in many contemporary societies. Finally, one may question whether the choice of the term "Briquet Syndrome" is appropriate, as many of the patients described by him did not have the chronic and malignant course described by Guze: It tends to limit hysteria to one end (the most severe one) of a spectrum of disorders. PMID:6357422

  13. Identifying barriers to Muslim integration in France

    PubMed Central

    Adida, Claire L.; Laitin, David D.; Valfort, Marie-Anne

    2010-01-01

    Is there a Muslim disadvantage in economic integration for second-generation immigrants to Europe? Previous research has failed to isolate the effect that religion may have on an immigrant family's labor market opportunities because other factors, such as country of origin or race, confound the result. This paper uses a correspondence test in the French labor market to identify and measure this religious effect. The results confirm that in the French labor market, anti-Muslim discrimination exists: a Muslim candidate is 2.5 times less likely to receive a job interview callback than is his or her Christian counterpart. A high-n survey reveals, consistent with expectations from the correspondence test, that second-generation Muslim households in France have lower income compared with matched Christian households. The paper thereby contributes to both substantive debates on the Muslim experience in Europe and methodological debates on how to measure discrimination. Following the National Academy of Sciences’ 2001 recommendations on combining a variety of methodologies and applying them to real-world situations, this research identifies, measures, and infers consequences of discrimination based on religious affiliation, controlling for potentially confounding factors, such as race and country of origin. PMID:21098283

  14. Estimating nitrate emissions to surface water at regional and national scale: comparison of models using detailed regional and national-wide databases (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dupas, R.; Gascuel-Odoux, C.; Durand, P.; Parnaudeau, V.

    2012-04-01

    The European Union (EU) Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires River Basin District managers to carry out an analysis of nutrient pressures and impacts, in order to evaluate the risk of water bodies failing to reach "good ecological status" and to identify those catchments where prioritized nonpoint-source control measures should be implemented. A model has been developed to estimate nitrate nonpoint-source emissions to surface water, using readily available data in France. It was inspired from US model SPARROW (Smith al., 1997) and European model GREEN (Grizzetti et al., 2008), i.e. statistical approaches consisting of linking nitrogen sources and catchments' land and rivers characteristics. The N-nitrate load (L) at the outlet of a catchment is expressed as: L= R*(B*Lsgw+Ldgw+PS)-denitlake Where denitlake is a denitrification factor for lakes and reservoirs, Lsgw is the shallow groundwater discharge to streams (derived from the base flow index and N surplus in kgN.ha-1.yr-1), Ldgw is the deep groundwater discharge to streams (derived from total runoff, the base flow index and deep groundwater N concentration), PS is point sources from domestic and industrial origin (kgN.ha-1.yr-1) and R and B are the river system and basin reduction factor, respectively. Besides calibrating and evaluating the model at a national scale, its predictive quality was compared with those of regionalized models in Brittany (Western France) and in the Seine river basin (Paris basin), where detailed regional databases are available. The national-scale model proved to provide robust predictions in most conditions encountered in France, as it fitted observed N-nitrate load with an efficiency of 0.69. Regionalization of the model reduced the standard error in the prediction of N-nitrate loads by about 19 Hence, the development of regionalized models should be advocated only after the trade-off between improvement of fit and degradation of parameters' estimation has come under scrutiny.

  15. Reserves in western basins

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, R.H.; Cotton, B.W.

    1995-04-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate the reserves potential of tight gas reservoirs in three Rocky Mountain basins: the Greater Green River (GGRB), Uinta and Piceance basins. The basins contain vast gas resources that have been estimated in the thousands of Tcf hosted in low permeability clastic reservoirs. This study documents the productive characteristics of these tight reservoirs, requantifies gas in place resources, and characterizes the reserves potential of each basin. The purpose of this work is to promote understanding of the resource and to encourage its exploitation by private industry. At this point in time, the GGRB work has been completed and a final report published. Work is well underway in the Uinta and Piceance basins which are being handled concurrently, with reports on these basins being scheduled for the middle of this year. Since the GGRB portion of the project has been completed, this presentation win focus upon that basin. A key conclusion of this study was the subdivision of the resource, based upon economic and technological considerations, into groupings that have distinct properties with regard to potential for future producibility, economics and risk profile.

  16. The impact of international recruitment on healthcare delivery in France.

    PubMed

    Rusu, Ioana; Planck, Ashlee

    2010-01-01

    Mobility of Health Professionals (MoHProf), the European Commission-sponsored collaborative project, examines current trends in the mobility of health professionals to, from and within the European Union (EU). The French national level project studies the relevance of international recruitment in France by studying migratory flows and the "pull" and "preventive" factors influencing immigration of foreign health professionals to France. Using the results of the study, in this article, firstly, we quantify the phenomenon of health professional immigration and secondly, we discuss the 'pull' and 'preventive' factors. We argue that diploma and professional recognition is a variable that acts both as a 'pull' and 'preventive' factor at once and has one of the most significant impacts on international recruitment in France. We, therefore, analyze its impact on the recruitment of health professionals having obtained their diploma and qualifications abroad and the possible consequences on healthcare delivery in France. PMID:21155427

  17. 20. Photocopy of photograph (From Frances Rand Smith Collection, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photocopy of photograph (From Frances Rand Smith Collection, California Historical Society) Photographer unknown, Date unknown VIEW OF CHURCH FROM REAR - Mission San Miguel Arcangel, Highway 101, San Miguel, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  18. 16. Photocopy of photograph (from Frances Rand Smith Collection, California ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photocopy of photograph (from Frances Rand Smith Collection, California Historical Society, 1900) Photographer unknown, Date unknown FRONT VIEW OF MISSION, c. 1900 - Mission San Miguel Arcangel, Highway 101, San Miguel, San Luis Obispo County, CA

  19. Chirac of France: A new leader of the west?

    SciTech Connect

    Moiesi, D.

    1995-11-01

    In foreign and security policy the issues for France are contradictory nature of Chirac`s goals or in the incompatibility of the means to those ends. Chirac`s modernized Gaullist formula for independent French action to meet the exigencies of the post-Cold War world may be irreconcilable with the constraints and demands of the European unification process. The goal of independence may not mesh with the retention of influence. An immediate, concrete example is the apparent contradiction between France`s European and world ambitions and its resumption of nuclear testing. Four foreign policy themes have dominated the initial months of Chirac`s presidency: the war in Bosnia, nuclear testing, European relations, and the conflict in Algeria and its repercussions in France. These themes are examined in more detail.

  20. A short account of forensic dentistry in France.

    PubMed

    Riaud, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    The earliest records and more recent cases where forensic dentistry has been used to identify bodies in France are described. The establishment of the French Society of Forensic Odontology is detailed.

  1. Mineral dust deposition in Western Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Julie; Laurent, Benoit; Bergmatti, Gilles; Losno, Rémi; Bon Nguyen, Elisabeth; Chevaillier, Servanne; Roulet, Pierre; Sauvage, Stéphane; Coddeville, Patrice; Ouboulmane, Noura; Siour, Guillaume; Tovar Sanchez, Antonio; Massanet, Ana; Morales Baquero, Rafael; Di Sarra, Giogio; Sferlazzo, Damiano; Dulac, François; Fornier, Michel; Coursier, Cyril

    2014-05-01

    North African deserts are the world's largest sources of atmospheric mineral dust produced by aeolian erosion. Saharan dust is frequently transported toward Europe over the Mediterranean basin. When deposited in oceanic areas, mineral dust can constitute a key input of nutrients bioavailable for the oceanic biosphere. For instance, Saharan dust deposited in the in the Mediterranean Sea can be a significant source of nutrient like Fe, P and N during summer and autumn. Our objective is to study the deposition Saharan mineral dust in the western Mediterranean basin and to improve how deposition processes are parameterized in 3D regional models. To quantify the deposition flux of Saharan dust in the western Mediterranean region a specific collector (CARAGA) to sample automatically the insoluble atmospheric particle deposition was developed (LISA-ICARE) and a network of CARAGA collectors have been set up. Since 2011, eight CARAGA are then deployed in Frioul, Casset, Montandon and Ersa in France, Mallorca and Granada in Spain, Lampedusa in Italia, and Medenine in Tunisia, along a South-North gradient of almost 2000km from the North African coast to the South of Europe. We observe 10 well identified dust Saharan deposition events at Lampedusa and 6 at Mallorca for a 1-yr sampling period. These dust events are sporadic and the South-North gradient of deposition intensity and frequency is observed (the highest dust mass sampled at the stations are : 2,66 g.m-2 at Lampedusa ; 0,54 g.m-2 at Majorque ; 0,33 g.m-2 at Frioul ; 0,16 g.m-2 at Casset). The ability of the CHIMERE model to reproduce the deposition measurements is tested. The mineral dust plumes simulated over the western Mediterranean basin are also compared to satellite observations (OMI, MODIS) and in-situ measurements performed during the ChArMEx campaign and in the AERONET stations.

  2. River basin administration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Management of international rivers and their basins is the focus of the Centre for Comparative Studies on (International) River Basin Administration, recently established at Delft University of Technology in the Netherlands. Water pollution, sludge, and conflicting interests in the use of water in upstream and downstream parts of a river basin will be addressed by studying groundwater and consumption of water in the whole catchment area of a river.Important aspects of river management are administrative and policy aspects. The Centre will focus on policy, law, planning, and organization, including transboundary cooperation, posing standards, integrated environmental planning on regional scale and environmental impact assessments.

  3. Preliminary Results of a Multi-Proxy Lake Sediment Core Study in East-Central France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misner, T.; Meyers, S.; Rosenmeier, M.; Strano, S.; Straffin, E.

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of a multi-proxy study of natural and human-induced changes in the Burgundian environment, as recorded in the sediment geochemistry of three small freshwater basins within the Arroux River Valley, east-central France. Accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dates constrain the age of core material collected from the basins, and indicate that these mill and farm ponds were constructed by at least 1200 A.D. The pond sediments are predominantly massive, organic-rich muds that contain discrete sand and gravel lenses likely related to episodic flooding and/or basin drainage. In this study, continuous X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning is used to quantify bulk geochemical variability throughout the lake sediment cores, and to investigate specific elemental proxies for paleoenvironmental change (detrital flux, biogenic flux, and redox state). The high-resolution XRF data are supplemented by sediment magnetic susceptibility measurements, and organic matter concentration as determined by loss on ignition. These records demonstrate a general increase in detrital sediment input from 1200 to 1300 A.D., during a period of known regional agricultural expansion. We infer these changes to be the consequence of increased catchment soil erosion and material flux to the water bodies. The data also suggest changes in mill and farm pond primary productivity, also related to soil erosion and changing transport of soil nutrients to the basins. Near the onset of the Little Ice Age (ca. 1500 A.D.) pond productivity reductions are apparent, likely indicating colder climates. These mill and farm pond sedimentary archives, in conjunction with historic records, can be used to better understand past land management strategies. Furthermore, historically documented landscape changes can be examined within the context of prevailing climatic conditions over the last ~800 years in an effort to establish future best management practices and the most

  4. History of infrared optronics in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouilloy, J. P.; Siriex, Michel B.

    1995-09-01

    In France, the real start of work on the applications of infrared radiations occurred around 1947 - 1948. During many years, technological research was performed in the field of detectors, optical material, modulation techniques, and a lot of measurements were made in order to acquire a better knowledge of the propagation medium and radiation of IR sources, namely those of jet engines. The birth of industrial infrared activities in France started with the Franco-German missile guidance programs: Milan, HOT, Roland and the French air to air missile seeker programs: R530, MAGIC. At these early stages of IR technologies development, it was a great technical adventure for both the governmental agencies and industry to develop: detector technology with PbS and InSb, detector cooling for 3 - 5 micrometer wavelength range, optical material transparent in the infrared, opto mechanical design, signal processing and related electronic technologies. Etablissement Jean Turck and SAT were the pioneers associated with Aerospatiale, Matra and under contracts from the French Ministry of Defence (DGA). In the 60s, the need arose to enhance night vision capability of equipment in service with the French Army. TRT was chosen by DGA to develop the first thermal imagers: LUTHER 1, 2, and 3 with an increasing number of detectors and image frequency rate. This period was also the era in which the SAT detector made rapid advance. After basic work done in the CNRS and with the support of DGA, SAT became the world leader of MCT photovoltaic detector working in the 8 to 12 micron waveband. From 1979, TRT and SAT were given the responsibility for the joint development and production of the first generation French thermal imaging modular system so-called SMT. Now, THOMSON TTD Optronique takes over the opto-electronics activities of TRT. Laser based systems were also studied for military application using YAG type laser and CO2 laser: Laboratoire de Marcousis, CILAS, THOMSON CSF and SAT have

  5. The spatial distribution of Mustelidae in France.

    PubMed

    Calenge, Clément; Chadoeuf, Joël; Giraud, Christophe; Huet, Sylvie; Julliard, Romain; Monestiez, Pascal; Piffady, Jérémy; Pinaud, David; Ruette, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    We estimated the spatial distribution of 6 Mustelidae species in France using the data collected by the French national hunting and wildlife agency under the "small carnivorous species logbooks" program. The 1500 national wildlife protection officers working for this agency spend 80% of their working time traveling in the spatial area in which they have authority. During their travels, they occasionally detect dead or living small and medium size carnivorous animals. Between 2002 and 2005, each car operated by this agency was equipped with a logbook in which officers recorded information about the detected animals (species, location, dead or alive, date). Thus, more than 30000 dead or living animals were detected during the study period. Because a large number of detected animals in a region could have been the result of a high sampling pressure there, we modeled the number of detected animals as a function of the sampling effort to allow for unbiased estimation of the species density. For dead animals -- mostly roadkill -- we supposed that the effort in a given region was proportional to the distance traveled by the officers. For living animals, we had no way to measure the sampling effort. We demonstrated that it was possible to use the whole dataset (dead and living animals) to estimate the following: (i) the relative density -- i.e., the density multiplied by an unknown constant -- of each species of interest across the different French agricultural regions, (ii) the sampling effort for living animals for each region, and (iii) the relative detection probability for various species of interest. PMID:25811456

  6. The Spatial Distribution of Mustelidae in France

    PubMed Central

    Calenge, Clément; Chadoeuf, Joël; Giraud, Christophe; Huet, Sylvie; Julliard, Romain; Monestiez, Pascal; Piffady, Jérémy; Pinaud, David; Ruette, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    We estimated the spatial distribution of 6 Mustelidae species in France using the data collected by the French national hunting and wildlife agency under the “small carnivorous species logbooks” program. The 1500 national wildlife protection officers working for this agency spend 80% of their working time traveling in the spatial area in which they have authority. During their travels, they occasionally detect dead or living small and medium size carnivorous animals. Between 2002 and 2005, each car operated by this agency was equipped with a logbook in which officers recorded information about the detected animals (species, location, dead or alive, date). Thus, more than 30000 dead or living animals were detected during the study period. Because a large number of detected animals in a region could have been the result of a high sampling pressure there, we modeled the number of detected animals as a function of the sampling effort to allow for unbiased estimation of the species density. For dead animals -- mostly roadkill -- we supposed that the effort in a given region was proportional to the distance traveled by the officers. For living animals, we had no way to measure the sampling effort. We demonstrated that it was possible to use the whole dataset (dead and living animals) to estimate the following: (i) the relative density -- i.e., the density multiplied by an unknown constant -- of each species of interest across the different French agricultural regions, (ii) the sampling effort for living animals for each region, and (iii) the relative detection probability for various species of interest. PMID:25811456

  7. Metal music and mental health in France.

    PubMed

    Recours, Robin; Aussaguel, François; Trujillo, Nick

    2009-09-01

    Although numerous authors have associated metal music with social problems such as suicide, self-destruction and Satanism, few studies have been undertaken to examine the mental health of fans of heavy metal music. This study attempts to determine if there is a link between mental health and the enjoyment of this type of music in France. The researchers surveyed 333 fans of metal music. Their mental health was evaluated by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), a widely used instrument that measures anxiety and depression. The scores of the sample of metal music fans were then compared to the scores that reveal possible, probable, or severe mental disorders. Qualifying variables included age, gender, status, education, motivation and participation in metal music culture. The results indicated that fans of metal music are mainly young adults (median age = 22.67, SD = 5.29) and tend to be male (87.85 percent). As a whole, metal music fans have levels of anxiety and depression that are similar to and lower than levels in the general population. Specifically, <5 percent of metal music fans surveyed showed pathological symptoms. Subjects that scored higher levels of anxiety and depression were those that had literary and/or arts backgrounds rather than scientific backgrounds, that wrote metal music lyrics, that consumed alcohol and that engaged in the body modification practice of scarification. This study suggests that opponents of metal music should re-examine the basis for their criticism. More scholarly research is needed to better understand the effects of metal music on fans and on society.

  8. The spatial distribution of Mustelidae in France.

    PubMed

    Calenge, Clément; Chadoeuf, Joël; Giraud, Christophe; Huet, Sylvie; Julliard, Romain; Monestiez, Pascal; Piffady, Jérémy; Pinaud, David; Ruette, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    We estimated the spatial distribution of 6 Mustelidae species in France using the data collected by the French national hunting and wildlife agency under the "small carnivorous species logbooks" program. The 1500 national wildlife protection officers working for this agency spend 80% of their working time traveling in the spatial area in which they have authority. During their travels, they occasionally detect dead or living small and medium size carnivorous animals. Between 2002 and 2005, each car operated by this agency was equipped with a logbook in which officers recorded information about the detected animals (species, location, dead or alive, date). Thus, more than 30000 dead or living animals were detected during the study period. Because a large number of detected animals in a region could have been the result of a high sampling pressure there, we modeled the number of detected animals as a function of the sampling effort to allow for unbiased estimation of the species density. For dead animals -- mostly roadkill -- we supposed that the effort in a given region was proportional to the distance traveled by the officers. For living animals, we had no way to measure the sampling effort. We demonstrated that it was possible to use the whole dataset (dead and living animals) to estimate the following: (i) the relative density -- i.e., the density multiplied by an unknown constant -- of each species of interest across the different French agricultural regions, (ii) the sampling effort for living animals for each region, and (iii) the relative detection probability for various species of interest.

  9. [History of clinical pharmacology in France: adaptation, evaluation, defense and illustration of drug in France 1978-1981].

    PubMed

    Montastruc, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This text illustrates some unknown aspects of the history and beginnings of clinical pharmacology in France in the late 1970s and early 1980s From the current situation, development and objectives of clinical pharmacology are recalled as well as obstacles necessary to overcome to change the paradigm in the field of drug evaluation and appropriate use in France. The text recalls this important moment where French medicine and medical pharmacology entered the modern era.

  10. K Basin Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    PECH, S.H.

    2000-08-23

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Final Safety Analysis Report. This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  11. K Basins Hazard Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    WEBB, R.H.

    1999-12-29

    This report describes the methodology used in conducting the K Basins Hazard Analysis, which provides the foundation for the K Basins Safety Analysis Report (HNF-SD-WM-SAR-062, Rev.4). This hazard analysis was performed in accordance with guidance provided by DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U. S. Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports and implements the requirements of DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Report.

  12. Indicators for hydraulic and pollution retention assessment of stormwater infiltration basins.

    PubMed

    Dechesne, Magali; Barraud, Sylvie; Bardin, Jean-Pascal

    2004-07-01

    Infiltration basins are frequently used for stormwater management even though their long-term evolution is not well understood nor controlled. The two main problems encountered are clogging which compromises the hydraulic capacity of the basin and possible contamination of underlying soil and groundwater. This paper defines a framework for evaluating the hydraulic and pollution retention performance of infiltration basins in the long-term. Sets of context and performance indicators are proposed, along with two complementary modes of evaluation. Context indicators are identified in order to define the clogging and contamination states of the basins. Performance indicators are developed to assess several aspects of basin performance: drainage duration, overflow frequency, predictive life period, particle filtration and pollution trapping. Modes of evaluation include field investigation and long-term simulation modeling. Indicators are tested on five infiltration basins in suburban Lyon (France). Both context indicators and hydraulic performance indicators are reliable and their evaluation is representative of basin behavior. This is not the case for pollution retention performance indicators. Their assessment is difficult because of data quality. Field data has high uncertainties. The model is satisfactory for the hydraulic simulation and the evolution of clogging. Improvements are necessary for pollution flow simulation and the acquisition of better quality data is required.

  13. Isotopic reconstruction of ancient human migrations: A comprehensive Sr isotope reference database for France and the first case study at Tumulus de Sables, south-western France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willmes, M.; Boel, C.; Grün, R.; Armstrong, R.; Chancerel, A.; Maureille, B.; Courtaud, P.

    2012-04-01

    Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) can be used for the reconstruction of human and animal migrations across geologically different terrains. Sr isotope ratios in rocks are a product of age and composition and thus vary between geologic units. From the eroding environment Sr is transported into the soils, plants and rivers of a region. Humans and animals incorporate Sr from their diet into their bones and teeth, where it substitutes for calcium. Tooth enamel contains Sr isotope signatures acquired during childhood and is most resistant to weathering and overprinting, while the dentine is often diagenetically altered towards the local Sr signature. For the reconstruction of human and animal migrations the tooth enamel 87Sr/86Sr ratio is compared to the Sr isotope signature in the vicinity of the burial site and the surrounding area. This study focuses on the establishment of a comprehensive reference map of bioavailable 87Sr/86Sr ratios for France. In a next step we will compare human and animal teeth from key archaeological sites to this reference map to investigate mobility. So far, we have analysed plant and soil samples from ~200 locations across France including the Aquitaine basin, the western and northern parts of the Paris basin, as well as three transects through the Pyrenees Mountains. The isotope data, geologic background information (BRGM 1:1M), field images, and detailed method descriptions are available through our online database iRhum (http://rses.anu.edu.au/research/ee). This database can also be used in forensic studies and food sciences. As an archaeological case study teeth from 16 adult and 8 juvenile individuals were investigated from an early Bell Beaker (2500-2000 BC) site at Le Tumulus des Sables, south-west France (Gironde). The teeth were analysed for Sr isotope ratios using laser ablation ICP-MS. Four teeth were also analysed using solution ICP-MS, which showed a significant offset to the laser ablation results. This requires further

  14. Spatial and temporal trends in PCBs in sediment along the lower Rhone River, France

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Desmet, Marc; Mourier, Brice; Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Roux, Gwenaelle; Persat, Henri; Lefevre, Irene; Peretti, Annie; Chapron, Emmanuel; Anaelle, Simonneau; Miege, Cecile; Babut, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Despite increasingly strict control of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) releases in France since the mid-1970s, PCB contamination of fish recently has emerged as a major concern in the lower Rhone River basin. We measured PCB concentrations in Rhone sediment to evaluate the effects of PCB releases from major urban and industrial areas, sediment redistribution by large floods, and regulatory controls on PCB trends from 1970 to present. Profiles of PCBs (the sum of seven indicator PCB congeners) were reconstructed from sediment cores collected from an off-river rural reference site and from three depositional areas along the Rhone upstream and downstream from the city of Lyon, France. Core chronology was determined from radionuclide profiles and flood deposits. PCB concentrations increased progressively in the downstream direction, and reached a maximum concentration in 1991 of 281 μg/kg at the most downstream site. At the rural reference site and at the upstream Rhone site, PCB concentrations peaked in the 1970s (maximum concentration of 13 and 78 μg/kg, respectively) and have decreased exponentially since then. PCB concentrations in the middle and downstream cores were elevated into the early 1990s, decreased very rapidly until 2000, and since then have remained relatively stable. Congener profiles for three time windows (1965–80, 1986–93, and 2000–08) were similar in the three sediment cores from the Rhone and different from those at the rural reference site. The results indicate that permitted discharges from a hazardous-waste treatment facility upstream from Lyon might have contributed to high concentrations into the 1980-90s, but that industrial discharges from the greater Lyon area and tributaries to the Rhone near Lyon have had a greater contribution since the 1990s. There is little indication that PCB concentration in sediments downstream from Lyon will decrease over at least the short term.

  15. Nam Con Son Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Tin, N.T.; Ty, N.D.; Hung, L.T.

    1994-07-01

    The Nam Con Son basin is the largest oil and gas bearing basin in Vietnam, and has a number of producing fields. The history of studies in the basin can be divided into four periods: Pre-1975, 1976-1980, 1981-1989, and 1990-present. A number of oil companies have carried out geological and geophysical studies and conducted drilling activities in the basin. These include ONGC, Enterprise Oil, BP, Shell, Petro-Canada, IPL, Lasmo, etc. Pre-Tertiary formations comprise quartz diorites, granodiorites, and metamorphic rocks of Mesozoic age. Cenozoic rocks include those of the Cau Formation (Oligocene and older), Dua Formation (lower Miocene), Thong-Mang Cau Formation (middle Miocene), Nam Con Son Formation (upper Miocene) and Bien Dong Formation (Pliocene-Quaternary). The basement is composed of pre-Cenozoic formations. Three fault systems are evident in the basin: north-south fault system, northeast-southwest fault system, and east-west fault system. Four tectonic zones can also be distinguished: western differentiated zone, northern differentiated zone, Dua-Natuna high zone, and eastern trough zone.

  16. [The family environment of children in France and Canada].

    PubMed

    Festy, P

    1994-01-01

    "Two fundamental changes have influenced family demographics in both France and Canada over the past 25 years: the rise in the number of births to unmarried parents and the rapid growth in the proportion of children separated from one parent or another before they reach adulthood. The impact of these changes on the family life of children must, however, be seen in perspective. Parents not married at the time of the child's birth nevertheless tend to live together. As well, the separation of birth parents allows for the formation of new families, giving the child a stepmother or stepfather and step-siblings. International or interregional comparisons give a further dimension to these phenomena; for example, Quebec, France and the rest of Canada rank in that order for the frequency of births outside marriage, while Quebec and the rest of Canada come ahead of France with a higher frequency of separations." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA)

  17. Bilateral Pulmonary Embolism Following a Viper Envenomation in France

    PubMed Central

    Bart, Géraldine; Pineau, Samuel; Biron, Charlotte; Connault, Jérôme; Artifoni, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Complications following snake bites are not common in France. We report the case of a bilateral pulmonary embolism following a viper envenomation in France. A healthy 72-year-old female presented with a lower limb hematoma following a viper bite. She was admitted at the hospital 2 days later and received low-molecular-weight heparin because of bed rest. Seven days later, she complained of thoracic pain and respiratory failure, and a bilateral pulmonary was diagnosed, without biological sign of neither disseminated intravascular coagulation nor coagulation trouble. Repeated lower limbs Doppler ultrasound were normal. This case is particularly interesting because it is only the 7th reported case of pulmonary embolism following a snake envenomation; moreover, it happened in France where poisonous snakes are very rare. Several hypotheses have been made to explain this late localized coagulopathy: an increased level of unstable fibrin produced by thrombin-like glycoproteins from the venom is one of them. PMID:27175626

  18. River basin management

    SciTech Connect

    Newsome, D.H.; Edwards, A.M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The quality of water is of paramount importance in the management of water resources - including marine waters. A quantitative knowledge of water quality and the factors governing it is required to formulate and implement strategies requiring an inter-disciplinary approach. The overall purpose of this conference was to bring together the latest work on water quality aspects of river basin management. These proceedings are structured on the basis of five themes: problems in international river basins; the contribution of river systems to estuarial and marine pollution; the setting of standards; monitoring; and practical water quality management including use of mathematical models. They are followed by papers from the workshop on advances in the application of mathematical modelling to water quality management, which represent some of the current thinking on the problems and concepts of river basin management.

  19. Delaware River Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fischer, Jeffrey M.

    1999-01-01

    Assessing the quality of water in every location of the Nation would not be practical. Therefore, NAWQA investigations are conducted within 59 selected areas called study units (fig. 1). These study units encompass important river and aquifer systems in the United States and represent the diverse geographic, waterresource, land-use, and water-use characteristics of the Nation. The Delaware River Basin is one of 15 study units in which work began in 1996. Water-quality sampling in the study unit will begin in 1999. This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the NAWQA program, describes the Delaware River Basin study unit, identifies the major water-quality issues in the basin, and documents the plan of study that will be followed during the study-unit investigation.

  20. Geology, exploration status of Uruguay's sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Goso, C.; Santa Ana, H. de )

    1994-02-07

    This article attempts to present the geological characteristics and tectonic and sedimentary evolution of Uruguayan basins and the extent to which they have been explored. Uruguay is on the Atlantic coast of South America. The country covers about 318,000 sq km, including offshore and onshore territories corresponding to more than 65% of the various sedimentary basins. Four basins underlie the country: the Norte basin, the Santa Lucia basin, the offshore Punta del Este basin, and the offshore-onshore Pelotas-Merin basin. The Norte basin is a Paleozoic basin while the others are Mesozoic basins. Each basin has been explored to a different extent, as this paper explains.

  1. Bat Rabies in France: A 24-Year Retrospective Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Picard-Meyer, Evelyne; Robardet, Emmanuelle; Arthur, Laurent; Larcher, Gérald; Harbusch, Christine; Servat, Alexandre; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-01-01

    Since bat rabies surveillance was first implemented in France in 1989, 48 autochthonous rabies cases without human contamination have been reported using routine diagnosis methods. In this retrospective study, data on bats submitted for rabies testing were analysed in order to better understand the epidemiology of EBLV-1 in bats in France and to investigate some epidemiological trends. Of the 3176 bats submitted for rabies diagnosis from 1989 to 2013, 1.96% (48/2447 analysed) were diagnosed positive. Among the twelve recognised virus species within the Lyssavirus genus, two species were isolated in France. 47 positive bats were morphologically identified as Eptesicus serotinus and were shown to be infected by both the EBLV-1a and the EBLV-1b lineages. Isolation of BBLV in Myotis nattereri was reported once in the north-east of France in 2012. The phylogenetic characterisation of all 47 French EBLV-1 isolates sampled between 1989 and 2013 and the French BBLV sample against 21 referenced partial nucleoprotein sequences confirmed the low genetic diversity of EBLV-1 despite its extensive geographical range. Statistical analysis performed on the serotine bat data collected from 1989 to 2013 showed seasonal variation of rabies occurrence with a significantly higher proportion of positive samples detected during the autumn compared to the spring and the summer period (34% of positive bats detected in autumn, 15% in summer, 13% in spring and 12% in winter). In this study, we have provided the details of the geographical distribution of EBLV-1a in the south-west of France and the north-south division of EBLV-1b with its subdivisions into three phylogenetic groups: group B1 in the north-west, group B2 in the centre and group B3 in the north-east of France. PMID:24892287

  2. Trinity river basin, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulery, Randy L.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Crossfield, Allison S.

    1993-01-01

    In 1991 the Trinity River Basin National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) will include assessments of surface-water and ground-water quality. Initial efforts have focused on identifying water-quality issues in the basin and on the environmental factors underlying those issues. Physical characteristics described include climate, geology, soils, vegetation, physiography, and hydrology. Cultural characteristics discussed include population distribution, land use and land cover, agricultural practices, water use, an reservoir operations. Major water-quality categories are identified and some of the implications of the environmental factors for water quality are presented.

  3. Taunton River basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, John R.; Willey, Richard E.

    1970-01-01

    This report presents in tabular form selected records of wells, test wells, and borings collected during a study of the basin from 1966 to 1968 in cooperation with the Massachusetts Water Resources Commission, and during earlier studies. This report is released in order to make available to the public and to local, state, and federal agencies basic ground-water information that may aid in planning water-resources development. Basic records contained in this report will complement an interpretative report on the Taunton River basin to be released at a later date.

  4. Information and communication technology: models of evaluation in France.

    PubMed

    Baron, Georges-Louis; Bruillard, Eric

    2003-05-01

    This paper aims at analyzing the evaluation of information and communication technology (ICT) in educational settings in France. First, it focuses on some characteristics of the French educational system and analyzes the trend towards a more decentralized management of education, which raises several important issues, including the trend for central evaluation to evolve from control to communication. Secondly, we define our view of ICT and evaluation. Then we present an overview of evaluation at the national level and European level and discuss some of the main research approaches in France concerning students' learning, learning instruments, and teachers' communities. Finally, some perspectives for the future of ICT evaluation are proposed. PMID:24011486

  5. [Probable flora: an expression mean of ecological gradients in France].

    PubMed

    Garbolino, Emmanuel; De Ruffray, Patrice; Brisse, Henry; Grandjouan, Gilles

    2013-02-01

    The application of the criterion of fidelity of plants to plants over four millions botanical observations in France is considered to characterize the ecology of 215,000 phytosociological surveys. Among those discriminant plants, some are missing of the surveys, but they can have a certain probability of occurrence: these plants are called "probable plants" and they represent the "probable flora" of a territory. The study of their geographical distribution shows ecological gradients of flora across France in a better way than only considering the botanical observations. In fact, this method mitigates the discontinuities of taxa observations whose absence may be due to historical and/or anthropogenic factors.

  6. Temperature humidity index scenarios in the Mediterranean basin.

    PubMed

    Segnalini, M; Bernabucci, U; Vitali, A; Nardone, A; Lacetera, N

    2013-05-01

    The study was undertaken to describe the temperature humidity index (THI) dynamics over the Mediterranean basin for the period 1971-2050. The THI combines temperature and humidity into a single value, and has been widely used to predict the effects of environmental warmth in farm animals. The analysis was based on daily outputs of the temperature and relative humidity from the Max Planck Institute data using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report Emission Scenario A1B. Data revealed a gradual increase of both annual and seasonal THI during the period under investigation and a strong heterogeneity of the Mediterranean area. In particular, the analysis indicated that Spain, southern France and Italy should be expected to undergo the highest THI increase, which in the last decade under study (2041-2050) will range between 3 and 4 units. However, only during summer months the area presents characteristics indicating risk of thermal (heat) stress for farm animals. In this regard, scenario maps relative to the summer season suggested an enlargement of the areas in the basin where summer THI values will likely cause thermal discomfort in farm animals. In conclusion, the study indicated that the Mediterranean basin is likely to undergo THI changes, which may aggravate the consequences of hot weather on animal welfare, performances, health and survival and may help farmers, nutritionists, veterinarians, and policy-makers to develop appropriate adaptation strategies to limit consequences of climate change for the livestock sector in the Mediterranean countries. PMID:22850789

  7. Temperature humidity index scenarios in the Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segnalini, M.; Bernabucci, U.; Vitali, A.; Nardone, A.; Lacetera, N.

    2013-05-01

    The study was undertaken to describe the temperature humidity index (THI) dynamics over the Mediterranean basin for the period 1971-2050. The THI combines temperature and humidity into a single value, and has been widely used to predict the effects of environmental warmth in farm animals. The analysis was based on daily outputs of the temperature and relative humidity from the Max Planck Institute data using the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report Emission Scenario A1B. Data revealed a gradual increase of both annual and seasonal THI during the period under investigation and a strong heterogeneity of the Mediterranean area. In particular, the analysis indicated that Spain, southern France and Italy should be expected to undergo the highest THI increase, which in the last decade under study (2041-2050) will range between 3 and 4 units. However, only during summer months the area presents characteristics indicating risk of thermal (heat) stress for farm animals. In this regard, scenario maps relative to the summer season suggested an enlargement of the areas in the basin where summer THI values will likely cause thermal discomfort in farm animals. In conclusion, the study indicated that the Mediterranean basin is likely to undergo THI changes, which may aggravate the consequences of hot weather on animal welfare, performances, health and survival and may help farmers, nutritionists, veterinarians, and policy-makers to develop appropriate adaptation strategies to limit consequences of climate change for the livestock sector in the Mediterranean countries.

  8. Mesozoic-Cenozoic sequence stratigraphy of European basins

    SciTech Connect

    Vail, P.R. ); Jacquin, T. )

    1993-09-01

    The preliminary results of the project, [open quotes]Mesozoic-Cenozoic Sequence Stratigraphy of European Basins[close quotes] (introduced at a seminar in Dijon, France, on May 18-20, 1992), show that the Mesozoic-Cenozoic stratigraphic succession of western Europe can be subdivided into a series of transgressive-regressive facies cycles (second order, 3-50 m.y.) and related to tectonic events by subsidence analysis and regional geology. The distribution of the second-order cycles are shown on a series of transects that extend from the Mediterranean to the North Sea. Where possible, each transgressive-regressive phase has been subdivided into a series of higher frequency sequence cycles (third order, 0.5-3 m.y.). These sequence cycles are identified in regions with good outcrops and biostratigraphic control. The sequence stratigraphy interpretation of these outcrop sections provides documentation for the age and distribution of the second- and third-order stratigraphic cycles of western Europe. Subsurface seismic and well data from the North Sea Basin, Paris basin, and the Mediterranean area are interpreted in terms of sequence stratigraphy and correlated to the outcrop reference sections. Chronobiostratigraphy and numerical ages are based on a series of new charts made especially for this project that show the latest correlation of the biostratigraphic zones for both microfossils and macrofossils across Europe. The charts also include a numerical time scale that reconciles the differences between existing time scales.

  9. Integration of climate change in flood prediction: application to the Somme river (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinault, J.-L.; Amraoui, N.; Noyer, M.-L.

    2003-04-01

    Exceptional floods that have occurred for the last two years in western and central Europe were very unlikely. The concomitance of such rare events shows that they might be imputable to climate change. The statistical analysis of long rainfall series confirms that both the cumulated annual height and the temporal variability have increased for the last decade. This paper is devoted to the analysis of climate change impact on flood prediction applied to the Somme river. The exceptional pluviometry that occurred from October 2000 to April 2001, about the double of the mean value, entailed catastrophic flood between the high Somme and Abbeville. The flow reached a peak at the beginning of May 2001, involving damages in numerous habitations and communication routes, and economical activity of the region had been flood-bound for more than 2 months. The flood caught unaware the population and caused deep traumas in France since it was the first time such a sudden event was recognized as resulting from groundwater discharge. Mechanisms of flood generation were studied tightly in order to predict the behavior of the Somme catchment and other urbanized basins when the pluviometry is exceptional in winter or in spring, which occurs more and more frequently in the northern part of Europe. The contribution of groundwater in surface water flow was calculated by inverse modeling from piezometers that are representative of aquifers in valleys. They were found on the slopes and near the edge of plateaus in order to characterize the drainage processes of the watertable to the surface water network. For flood prediction, a stochastic process is used, consisting in the generation of both rainfall and PET time series. The precipitation generator uses Markov chain Monte Carlo and simulated annealing from the Hastings -- Metropolis algorithm. Coupling of rainfall and PET generators with transfer enables a new evaluation of the probability of occurrence of floods, taking into account

  10. Geodynamic evolution and sedimentary infill of the northern Levant Basin: A source to sink-perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawie, N.

    2013-12-01

    Nicolas Hawie a,b,c (nicolas.hawie@upmc.fr) Didier Granjeon c (didier.granjeon@ifpen.fr) Christian Gorini a,b (christian.gorini@upmc.fr) Remy Deschamps c (remy.deschamps@ifpen.fr) Fadi H. Nader c (fadi-henri.nader@ifpen.fr) Carla Müller Delphine Desmares f (delphine.desmares@upmc.fr) Lucien Montadert e (lucien.montadert@beicip.com) François Baudin a (francois.baudin@upmc.fr) a UMR 7193 Institut des Sciences de la Terre de Paris, Université Pierre et Marie Curie/ Univ. Paris 06, case 117. 4, place Jussieu 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France b iSTEP, UMR 7193, CNRS, F-75005, Paris, France c IFP Energies nouvelles, 1-4 avenue du Bois Préau 92852 Rueil Malmaison Cedex, France d UMR 7207, Centre de Recherche sur la Paleobiodiversité et les Paleoenvironnements. Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Tour 46-56 5ème. 4, place Jussieu 75252 Paris Cedex 05, France e Beicip Franlab, 232 Av. Napoléon Bonaparte, 95502 Rueil-Malmaison, France Sedimentological and biostratigraphic investigations onshore Lebanon coupled with 2D offshore reflection seismic data allowed proposing a new Mesozoic-Present tectono-stratigraphic framework for the northern Levant Margin and Basin. The seismic interpretation supported by in-depth facies analysis permitted to depict the potential depositional environments offshore Lebanon as no well has yet been drilled. The Levant region has been affected by successive geodynamic events that modified the architecture of its margin and basin from a Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic rift into a Late Cretaceous subduction followed by collision and Miocene-Present strike slip motion. The interplay between major geodynamic events as well as sea level fluctuations impacted on the sedimentary infill of the basin. During Jurassic and Cretaceous, the Levant Margin is dominated by the aggradation of a carbonate platform while deepwater mixed-systems prevailed in the basin. During the Oligo-Miocene, three major sedimentary pathways are expected to drive important

  11. Sedimentary basins and crustal thickening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobbold, P. R.; Davy, P.; Gapais, D.; Rossello, E. A.; Sadybakasov, E.; Thomas, J. C.; Tondji Biyo, J. J.; de Urreiztieta, M.

    1993-07-01

    We consider the development of sedimentary basins in a tectonic context dominated by horizontal shortening and vertical thickening of the crust. Well-known examples are foreland basins; others are ramp basins and buckle basins. We have reproduced various styles of compressional basins in experiments, properly scaled for gravity. A multilayered model lithosphere, with brittle and ductile layers, floats on a model asthenosphere. A computer-driven piston provides shortening and thickening, synchronous with erosion and sedimentation. After a first stage of lithospheric buckling, thrust faults appear, mainly at inflection points. Slip on an isolated reverse fault is accompanied by flexure. Footwall flexure results in a foreland basin and becomes accentuated by sedimentation. Hangingwall flexure is less marked, but may become accentuated by erosion. Motion on a fault leads to hangingwall collapse at the surface. Either footwall sedimentation or hangingwall erosion tends to prolong the active life of a reverse fault. Slip on any pair of closely spaced reverse faults of opposite vergence results in a ramp basin. Simultaneous slip produces a symmetric ramp basin, whereas alternating slip results in a butterfly-shaped basin, with superposed foredeeps. Some well-developed ramp basins become pushed down, until bounding faults meet at the surface and the basin disappears from view. At this stage, the basin depth is equivalent to 15 km or more. Slip on any pair of widely spaced reverse faults of opposite vergence results in a pronounced central anticline, between two distinct foredeeps. In Central Asia and in Western Europe, Cenozoic crustal thickening is due to continental collision. For Central Asia (Western China, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan), we have compiled a regional structure-contour map on the base of the Tertiary, as well as 4 regional sections. Foreland basins and ramp basins are numerous and associated with Cenozoic thrusts. Large basins (Tarim, Junggar

  12. France's Administrative Tertiary: Stable Numbers for Occupations in Flux.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liaroutzos, Olivier; Meriot, Sylvie-Anne

    1995-01-01

    During the past decade, the number of jobs in France's administrative service sector has remained stable. General administrative work has become more infrequent; however, the basic occupations of secretary and accountancy have been maintained. Although the number of typists has declined, the number of "secretarial" jobs has increased dramatically.…

  13. 78 FR 34960 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Model Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-11

    ... a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... rulemaking (NPRM). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter...

  14. 77 FR 54353 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-05

    ... 77 FR 20319, the Federal Register published our notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM), which proposed...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); (3) Will not affect...-17165; AD 2012-17-02] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters...

  15. 78 FR 59298 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-26

    ...--16847 (76 FR 70046, November 10, 2011), and adding the following new AD: Eurocopter France: Docket No...-05, Amendment 39-16847 (76 FR 70046, November 10, 2011) for Eurocopter Model AS350B, B1, B2, B3, BA... helicopter. Actions Since AD 2011-22-05 Was Issued Since we issued AD 2011-22-05 (76 FR 70046, November...

  16. Teaching of Languages to Migrant Workers . (Toulouse, France).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buscail, X.; And Others

    With the cooperation of the Council of Europe, CREPT (tr. Regional Center for the Study and Promotion of Travel) conducted an experimental training course for migrant workers at Toulouse, France. Aim of the course was to bring trainees from the stage of attaining literacy to that of entering the Centre for Vocational Training for Adults (FPA). In…

  17. Ecole Maternelle (Preschool) in France: A Cross-Cultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brougere, Gilles; Guenif-Souilamas, Nacira; Rayna, Sylvie

    2008-01-01

    This article looks at a cross-cultural analysis of interviews of (im/migrant and non-im/migrant) preschool teachers and parents, concerning im/migrant children enrolled in the French "ecole maternelle", in the context of the international Children Crossing Borders (CCB) research project. Interviews were conducted in France following a polyphonic…

  18. International Reports on Literacy Research: France, United Kingdom, Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botza, Stergios, Comp.

    2005-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on France, United Kingdom and Brazil. In the first report, research correspondent Jacques Fijalkow presents research into variations of reading motivation related to students' socioeconomic status (SES), age, and gender. Three of these…

  19. International Reports on Literacy Research: Argentina, Mexico, France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Mallozzi, Christine, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    This is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on Argentina, Mexico, and France. In the first report, Melina Porto reports on a new implementation of a teacher-education program currently underway in the province of Buenos Aires, Argentina, under the leadership of teacher-researcher…

  20. Changing Patterns of Educational Accountability in England and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadfoot, Patricia

    1985-01-01

    Uses France and England--because of their radically different institutional and ideological traditions in education--to illustrate common trends in educational accountability. Explains general trends affecting advanced capitalist societies at the present time, e.g., the use of corporate management approaches in education and the adoption of…

  1. Report of the first Vagococcus lutrae human infection, Marseille, France

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, V.; Abat, C.; Rolain, J.-M.

    2015-01-01

    Vagococcus lutrae is a Gram-positive coccus initially isolated from the common otter (Lutra lutra) but that has never been reported as a human pathogen. We describe the first case of human infection due to Vagococcus lutrae in Marseille, France. PMID:26862437

  2. Frances Kellor, Americanization, and the Quest for Participatory Democracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Press, John

    2010-01-01

    Frances Alice Kellor (1873 - 1952) is most famous for leading the Americanization movement that greeted immigrants from 1906 to 1921. The movement has been damned as coercive in the name of conformity in the historical literature. This dissertation argues that Kellor's Americanization movement promoted immigrants and immigration, Americanized…

  3. Fine-scale human genetic structure in Western France

    PubMed Central

    Karakachoff, Matilde; Duforet-Frebourg, Nicolas; Simonet, Floriane; Le Scouarnec, Solena; Pellen, Nadine; Lecointe, Simon; Charpentier, Eric; Gros, Françoise; Cauchi, Stéphane; Froguel, Philippe; Copin, Nane; Balkau, B; Ducimetière, P; Eschwège;, E; Alhenc-Gelas, F; Girault, A; Fumeron, F; Marre, M; Roussel, R; Bonnet, F; Cauchi, S; Froguel, P; Cogneau, J; Born, C; Caces, E; Cailleau, M; Lantieri, O; Moreau, J G; Rakotozafy, F; Tichet, J; Le Tourneau, Thierry; Probst, Vincent; Le Marec, Hervé; Molinaro, Sabrina; Balkau, Beverley; Redon, Richard; Schott, Jean-Jacques; Blum, Michael GB; Dina, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The difficulties arising from association analysis with rare variants underline the importance of suitable reference population cohorts, which integrate detailed spatial information. We analyzed a sample of 1684 individuals from Western France, who were genotyped at genome-wide level, from two cohorts D.E.S.I.R and CavsGen. We found that fine-scale population structure occurs at the scale of Western France, with distinct admixture proportions for individuals originating from the Brittany Region and the Vendée Department. Genetic differentiation increases with distance at a high rate in these two parts of Northwestern France and linkage disequilibrium is higher in Brittany suggesting a lower effective population size. When looking for genomic regions informative about Breton origin, we found two prominent associated regions that include the lactase region and the HLA complex. For both the lactase and the HLA regions, there is a low differentiation between Bretons and Irish, and this is also found at the genome-wide level. At a more refined scale, and within the Pays de la Loire Region, we also found evidence of fine-scale population structure, although principal component analysis showed that individuals from different departments cannot be confidently discriminated. Because of the evidence for fine-scale genetic structure in Western France, we anticipate that rare and geographically localized variants will be identified in future full-sequence analyses. PMID:25182131

  4. [Courses in microsurgical techniques in France and abroad].

    PubMed

    Alzakri, A; Al-Rajeh, M; Liverneaux, P A; Facca, S

    2014-06-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the state of current training programs for microsurgery in France and abroad. Our survey of microsurgery training programs determined the registration volume, program contents, and number of students in France, and looked at registration volume and teaching time for programs abroad. Data were obtained from the Internet, university administration, those responsible for university diploma programs, and students. There were 18 university diploma programs in microsurgery in France. The average list price was €1,129 for an average of 19 hours of theoretical training and 100 hours of practice. Evaluation methods varied, but all required at least vascular anastomosis in rats. In 2011-2012, 148 students were enrolled and 126 graduated (85% passing rate). Abroad, 16 basic courses were listed in the USA, Europe and Asia. Nine advanced courses were offered. The average price was $1,346 for 36 hours of practice in the basic courses and $1,955 for over 50 hours of training in advanced courses. None of these courses gave out a diploma. Our results show that in France, university diploma programs in microsurgery are heterogeneous and the French College should consider updating them. Globally, a study is underway by the International Microsurgical Simulation Society.

  5. Henry Hudson Monument, seen from Frances Schervier Apartments, with Henry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Henry Hudson Monument, seen from Frances Schervier Apartments, with Henry Hudson Bridge, Inwood Hill Park, Manhattan skyline, and George Washington Bridge in background, looking southwest. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  6. Henry Hudson Monument, seen from Frances Schervier Apartments, with Henry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Henry Hudson Monument, seen from Frances Schervier Apartments, with Henry Hudson Bridge, Inwood Hill Park, Manhattan skyline, George Washington Bridge, Hudson River, and Palisades Interstate Park in background, looking south. - Henry Hudson Parkway, Extending 11.2 miles from West 72nd Street to Bronx-Westchester border, New York County, NY

  7. Wildlife Reservoir for Hepatitis E Virus, Southwestern France

    PubMed Central

    Lhomme, Sebastien; Top, Sokunthea; Bertagnoli, Stephane; Dubois, Martine; Guerin, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    Pigs are a reservoir for hepatitis E virus (HEV). To determine the relative contribution of game to the risk for human HEV infection in southwestern France, we tested wildlife samples. HEV RNA was in 3.3% of wildlife livers, indicating that in this region, eating game meat is as risky as eating pork. PMID:26079541

  8. 77 FR 44118 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ... Order 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Final... France (Eurocopter) Model EC155B1 helicopters with a certain automated flight control system...

  9. Critical Citizenship Education in England and France: A Comparative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Laura; Morris, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The promotion of "critical citizenship" has become a key objective of official school curricula around the world. Using an analytic framework developed by the authors, this paper identifies the diverse conceptions of critical citizenship that are promoted, by comparing the official school curricula for citizenship in England and France. The…

  10. Promoting Reflective Practice in Continuing Education in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryder, Jane

    2012-01-01

    Educationalist Fred Korthagen elaborated a model in the 1980s for the relationship between the teacher educator and the teacher which embraces reflective practice as its guiding principle. In the present study, research was carried out into teacher development among a small group of language teachers working in continuing education in France.…

  11. Psychology and Didactics of Mathematics in France--An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergnaud, Gerard

    1983-01-01

    Examples are given of the variety of mathematical concepts and problems being studied by psychologically oriented researchers in France. Work on decimals, circles, natural numbers, decimal and real numbers, and didactic transposition are included. Comments on designing research on mathematics concept formation conclude the article. (MNS)

  12. Sea surface temperature of the coastal zones of France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deschamps, P. Y.; Verger, F.; Monget, J. M.; Crepon, M. (Principal Investigator); Frouin, R.; Cassanet, J.; Wald, L.

    1980-01-01

    The results of an investigation to map the various thermal gradients in the coastal zones of France are presented. Paricular emphasis is given to the natural phenomena and man made thermal effluents. It is shown that a close correlation exist between wind speed direction and the offshore width of the effluent.

  13. Location of robotic surgical systems worldwide and in France.

    PubMed

    Vaessen, C

    2011-10-01

    The advent of robot-assisted surgery is a surgical revolution. However, the costs of installing and using a da Vinci system are impediments to the proliferation of this technology. This article reviews the locations of robotic surgical systems worldwide and in France, in 2010.

  14. Recent Developments in Assessment and Examination Procedures in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadfoot, Patricia

    Recent changes in educational assessment in France reflect pressures to modernize the French educational system to align it with prevailing democratic and egalitarian values and to respond to the economy's vocational training needs. After providing background on the French educational system, this paper discusses two areas of secondary school…

  15. Adolescents and Smoking: Evidence from France and Spain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosanquet, Nick; Magee, Jayne

    1999-01-01

    Focuses on recent evidence now available from France and Spain on the smoking behavior of adolescents and young people. Evidence indicates that it will be a massive challenge to reduce smoking among young people. Argues that public awareness of the threat to health from smoking should be raised and that public health measures require further…

  16. 78 FR 37156 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM... file in the docket all comments that we receive, as well as a report summarizing each...

  17. Teacher Training in France in the Early 2010s

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapostolle, Guy; Chevaillier, Thierry

    2011-01-01

    The organisation of teacher training was thoroughly transformed in France in 2010. This transformation was the consequence of three interrelated reforms: the requirement of a Master's degree for all teachers, the new recruitment process for teachers and the integration of teacher training colleges (IUFM) into the universities. Universities are now…

  18. 'Miss Frances', 'Miss Gail' and 'Miss Sandra' Crapemyrtles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, announces the release to nurserymen of three new crapemyrtle cultivars named 'Miss Gail', 'Miss Frances', and 'Miss Sandra'. ‘Miss Gail’ resulted from a cross-pollination between ‘Catawba’ as the female parent and ‘Arapaho’ ...

  19. [The pharmaceutical industry in France: the turning point of 1915].

    PubMed

    Bonnemain, Bruno

    2015-12-01

    For several convergent reasons, 1915 was a key period for the pharmaceutical industry in France. The overall realization that France was dependent on Germany for chemical and pharmaceutical products came from shortages of key drugs but also from massive use of poison gas for which France was not able to face this unexpected event. France's shortage for chemists properly trained to answer the needs of industry, the weak relationship between industry and faculty, the uncomfortable situation of specialty drugs, the regulations on patents and trademarks were many subjects of controversies which will contribute to the analysis of the source of this French dependence to Germany. It will be at the origin of new orientations after the war for the pharmaceutical industry and the French society. The objective was to be independent for drugs and consequently to resolve the identified issues, as well as to have a dynamic industrial research. The creation and development of several pharmaceutical companies after the war was a more or less direct benefit from the considerations starting in 1915.

  20. Who Studies Abroad? Evidence from France and Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Pietro, Giorgio; Page, Lionel

    2008-01-01

    This article uses data from representative samples of university students in France and Italy in an attempt to investigate the determinants of participation in foreign exchange programmes. Empirical results indicate that selection into these programmes is mainly driven by student's academic and foreign language skills. On the other hand, parents'…

  1. School Design and Management: Three Examples from France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alt, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    Presents three examples of large-scale school construction and renovation projects in France where a link has been established between school design and successful teaching and learning. Further discussed are the conclusions that can be drawn from these projects in preparatory work prior to building. (GR)

  2. Identification Strategies of a Texas Rebel: Frances (Sissy) Farenthold.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahan, Eva M.

    The identification techniques in Herbert C. Kelman's schema of identification were used to analyze the near, and perhaps surprising, success of Rep. Frances (Sissy) Farenthold's bid for the Democratic Texas gubernatorial nomination in 1972. Opposing government corruption, Farenthold overcame the potential obstacles of being a politically liberal…

  3. Migration and Marginality: Guestworkers in Germany and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rist, Ray C.

    1979-01-01

    Examines migratory movements in Europe since 1954, with particular emphasis on the 13 to 14 million immigrants to the industrial countries of northern Europe. Concludes that the movement of manpower has been critical in sustaining the post-World War II economies of industrialized nations such as Germany and France. (Author/DB)

  4. Proceedings of the Full Board Meeting (Orleans, France, July 1971).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Council of Scientific Unions, Paris (France). Abstracting Board.

    The 1971 General Assembly and full board meetings of the International Council of Scientific Unions Abstracting Board (ICSU AB) were held in July at Orleans, France. This volume is the published proceedings of those meetings. The first part of the Proceedings is a detailed description of the activities of the Board. The second part records the…

  5. White-nose syndrome fungus (Geomyces destructans) in bat, France.

    PubMed

    Puechmaille, Sebastien J; Verdeyroux, Pascal; Fuller, Hubert; Gouilh, Meriadeg Ar; Bekaert, Michael; Teeling, Emma C

    2010-02-01

    White-nose syndrome is caused by the fungus Geomyces destructans and is responsible for the deaths of >1,000,000 bats since 2006. This disease and fungus had been restricted to the northeastern United States. We detected this fungus in a bat in France and assessed the implications of this finding. PMID:20113562

  6. France's grandes écoles accused of elitism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellemans, Alexander

    2010-02-01

    Physicists in France have backed government plans to open up the country's elite grandes écoles to more students from poorer backgrounds. The government wants to allow up to 30% of students to be given free scholarships in an attempt to broaden the social mix of the student body. The physicists say this would not lead to a lowering of standards.

  7. International Reports on Literacy Research: Canada, France, Russia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.

    2006-01-01

    This article is a compilation of reports on international literacy research. The report includes 3 separate reports on Canada, France and Russia. In the first report, research correspondent Linda M. Phillips, in collaboration with Christian Beaulieu, reports on the Canadian Language and Literacy Research Network (CLLRNet). The vision of CLLRNet is…

  8. Romanticism or Reality? An Exploration of Frances Mary Hendry's "Chandra."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jilaine

    This paper singles out a novel written for children about India, "Chandra" (1995) by Frances Mary Hendry, as a powerful and useful novel to present to today's 11 to 14 year old students. The paper contends that the novel allows students to explore and consider different value systems, challenges them to become aware of prejudice and the making of…

  9. Foodborne outbreak and nonmotile Salmonella enterica variant, France.

    PubMed

    Le Hello, Simon; Brisabois, Anne; Accou-Demartin, Marie; Josse, Adeline; Marault, Muriel; Francart, Sylvie; Da Silva, Nathalie Jourdan; Weill, François-Xavier

    2012-01-01

    We report a food-related outbreak of salmonellosis in humans caused by a nonmotile variant of Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium in France in 2009. This nonmotile variant had been circulating in laying hens but was not considered as Typhimurium and consequently escaped European poultry flock regulations.

  10. Correspondence Tuition in France and the Development of Permanent Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cros, Louis

    This report covers the current situation and general trends in correspondence study in France and describes two public institutions involved in it: Centre National de Tele-Enseignement and Radio-Television Scolaire. The evolution of correspondence study has been linked with the development of permanent education and the parallel transformation of…

  11. Infection with Mycobacterium microti in Animals in France

    PubMed Central

    Michelet, Lorraine; de Cruz, Krystel; Zanella, Gina; Aaziz, Rachid; Bulach, Tabatha; Karoui, Claudine; Hénault, Sylvie; Joncour, Guy

    2014-01-01

    We describe here 35 animal cases of tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium microti in France (2002–2014). Recently, molecular tools that overcome the difficulty of confirming infection by this potentially zoonotic agent have revealed an increasing number of cases, suggesting that its prevalence may have been underestimated. PMID:25540404

  12. Citrobacter amalonaticus human urinary tract infections, Marseille, France.

    PubMed

    Garcia, V; Abat, C; Moal, V; Rolain, J-M

    2016-05-01

    Citrobacter amalonaticus is a bacterium that has rarely been reported as a human pathogen. Here we report four cases of C. amalonaticus infections occurring in patients hospitalized in Marseille, France, and review all cases described in the published literature.

  13. "Training the Trainers" of Teachers in France: Assessment and Outlook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapostolle, Guy

    2009-01-01

    With the creation of IUFMs (university institutes of teacher training) in the 1990s, the training of teacher trainers in France has become a fundamental part of the renewal of teacher training. It is seen as a fundamental lever for the IUFMs to achieve the tasks and goals entrusted to them: training teachers who need to accommodate the new demands…

  14. Wastewater stabilisation ponds: Sludge accumulation, technical and financial study on desludging and sludge disposal case studies in France.

    PubMed

    Picot, B; Sambuco, J P; Brouillet, J L; Riviere, Y

    2005-01-01

    Waste stabilisation pond treatment was widely developed during the 1980s in France, where there are now over 3,000 plants. Desludging the ponds has now become essential. In 19 primary facultative ponds, in operation for 12-24 years, the net average sludge accumulation rate was 19 mm/yr. The average per capita accumulation rates ranged from 0.04-0.148 m3/person.year (mean of 0.08 m3/person.year). In primary facultative ponds the volume of sludge represented 15-39% of the total volume of the basin. A filling rate above 30% necessitates desludging. In France, a desludging interval of 15 years is recommended for primary facultative ponds. The cost evaluation of desludging and landspreading showed differences according to the desludging technique used. Desludging after emptying the water had an average cost of 38 Euro/m3 of sludge with 10% dry solid (range from 20 to 83 Euro/m3). Under-water desludging was 50% more expensive. Although desludging is carried out only after several years of operation, its cost must be allowed for in the annual operation and maintenance costs of the process. It can be estimated to be 3 ł/person.year. Even with this additional cost, waste stabilisation pond treatment remains less expensive than other treatment processes.

  15. Cenozoic basin development in Hispaniola

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, P.; Burke, K.

    1984-04-01

    Four distinct generations of Cenozoic basins have developed in Hispaniola (Haiti and Dominican Republic) as a result of collisional or strike-slip interactions between the North America and Caribbean plates. First generation basins formed when the north-facing Hispaniola arc collided with the Bahama platform in the middle Eocene; because of large post-Eocene vertical movements, these basins are preserved locally in widely separated areas but contain several kilometers of arc and ophiolite-derived clastic marine sediments, probably deposited in thrust-loaded, flexure-type basins. Second generation basins, of which only one is exposed at the surface, formed during west-northwesterly strike-slip displacement of southern Cuba and northern Hispaniola relative to central Hispaniola during the middle to late Oligocene; deposition occurred along a 5-km (3-mi) wide fault-angle depression and consisted of about 2 km (1 mi) of submarine fan deposits. Third generation basins developed during post-Oligocene convergent strike-slip displacement across a restraining bend formed in central Hispaniola; the southern 2 basins are fairly symmetrical, thrust-bounded ramp valleys, and the third is an asymmetrical fault-angle basin. Fourth generation basins are pull-aparts formed during post-Miocene divergent strike-slip motion along a fault zone across southern Hispaniola. As in other Caribbean areas, good source rocks are present in all generations of basins, but suitable reservoir rocks are scarce. Proven reservoirs are late Neogene shallow marine and fluvial sandstones in third generation basins.

  16. Natural frequency of regular basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjandra, Sugih S.; Pudjaprasetya, S. R.

    2014-03-01

    Similar to the vibration of a guitar string or an elastic membrane, water waves in an enclosed basin undergo standing oscillatory waves, also known as seiches. The resonant (eigen) periods of seiches are determined by water depth and geometry of the basin. For regular basins, explicit formulas are available. Resonance occurs when the dominant frequency of external force matches the eigen frequency of the basin. In this paper, we implement the conservative finite volume scheme to 2D shallow water equation to simulate resonance in closed basins. Further, we would like to use this scheme and utilizing energy spectra of the recorded signal to extract resonant periods of arbitrary basins. But here we first test the procedure for getting resonant periods of a square closed basin. The numerical resonant periods that we obtain are comparable with those from analytical formulas.

  17. Buried-euxenic-basin model sets Tarim basin potential

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, K.J. )

    1994-11-28

    The Tarim basin is the largest of the three large sedimentary basins of Northwest China. The North and Southwest depressions of Tarim are underlain by thick sediments and very thin crust. The maximum sediment thickness is more than 15 km. Of the several oil fields of Tarim, the three major fields were discovered during the last decade, on the north flank of the North depression and on the Central Tarim Uplift. The major targets of Tarim, according to the buried-euxenic-basin model, should be upper Paleozoic and lower Mesozoic reservoirs trapping oil and gas condensates from lower Paleozoic source beds. The paper describes the basin and gives a historical perspective of exploration activities and discoveries. It then explains how this basin can be interpreted by the buried-euxenic-basin model. The buried-euxenic-basin model postulates four stages of geologic evolution: (1) Sinian and early Paleozoic platform sedimentation on relic arcs and deep-marine sedimentation in back-arc basins in Xinjiang; (2) Late Paleozoic foreland-basin sedimentation in north Tarim; (3) Mesozoic and Paleogene continental deposition, subsidence under sedimentary load; and (4) Neogene pull-apart basin, wrench faulting and extension.

  18. Multiparameter monitoring of a salt cavern collapse (Cerville-Buissoncourt site, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daupley, Xavier; Fabriol, Robert; Contrucci, Isabelle; Bernardie, Séverine; Cao, Ngoc-Tuyen; Jousset, Philippe; Klein, Emmanuelle; Lebert, François; Behrooz, Bazargan

    2010-05-01

    Since 2004, in the framework of GISOS (Scientific Interest Group on the Impact and Safety of Underground Structures), INERIS and BRGM participated in a monitoring experiment of a salt cavern located in the Lorrain salt basin, few kilometers away from Nancy (France). The site is located in the mining concession of Cerville Buissoncourt, owned by SOLVAY. The mining method used consists in extracting the full salt formation by solution mining until the collapse of the overburden. Thereby, the opportunity offered by this collapse was taken to test various monitoring techniques to detect its early warning signs and to improve scientific and technical knowledge of salt caverns mechanical behavior and evolution. Several geotechnical and geophysical methods have been further implemented on site in addition to the monitoring carried out by the operator, which are : microseismic, hydroacoustic, broadband seismology, surface measurements (tacheometer and RTK GPS), drilling extensometry, hydro-chemistry. In early 2009, after several significant changes in the cavity behavior, and as it had reached its critical dimensions, the operator decided to trigger its collapse. For this, pumping operations in the cavern were carried out to reduce brine level and hydrostatic pressure that contributed previously to the cavern stability. These operations, conducted during 4 days, were monitored in real time. They led to the collapse of the cavity on February 13th, 2009. Comparative analysis of the measurements acquired by the several monitoring techniques allows describing in detail the different evolution stages of the cavity and the early warning signs of its collapse.

  19. Faunal reorganisation in terrestrial mammalian communities: evidence from France during the Lateglacial-Early Holocene transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridault, Anne

    2010-05-01

    The Lateglacial-Early Holocene transition is characterized by rapid oscillations between warm and cold episodes. Their impact on ecosystem dynamics was particularly pronounced in north-western Europe where hunter-gatherer societies experienced a succession of environmental transformations, including the expansion and dispersal of biotic communities and changing herbivore habitats. Recent archaeozoological studies and AMS direct dating on mammalian bones/or bone collagen allow to map and precise this process at a supra-regional scale (France). At regional scales (i.e. Paris Basin & Jura-Northern French Alps), results indicate a rapid faunal reorganisation at the end of Lateglacial that will be presented in detail. Composition of faunal assemblages remains then unchanged during the Early Holocene. By contrast, significant herbivore habitat changes are recorded during the Early Holocene by other proxies (pollen data and isotopic data) and a decrease in Red Deer size through time is evidenced by osteometrical analyses. Hypotheses regarding the kind of adaptation process experienced by the faunal communities through time will be presented. Factors that may have controlled the observed changes will be discussed.

  20. Topex/Poseidon: A United States/France mission. Oceanography from space: The oceans and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The TOPEX/POSEIDON space mission, sponsored by NASA and France's space agency, the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), will give new observations of the Earth from space to gain a quantitative understanding of the role of ocean currents in climate change. Rising atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other 'greenhouse gases' produced as a result of human activities could generate a global warming, followed by an associated rise in sea level. The satellite will use radar altimetry to measure sea-surface height and will be tracked by three independent systems to yield accurate topographic maps over the dimensions of entire ocean basins. The satellite data, together with the Tropical Ocean and Global Atmosphere (TOGA) program and the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) measurements, will be analyzed by an international scientific team. By merging the satellite observations with TOGA and WOCE findings, the scientists will establish the extensive data base needed for the quantitative description and computer modeling of ocean circulation. The ocean models will eventually be coupled with atmospheric models to lay the foundation for predictions of global climate change.

  1. Hydrological role of karst in the Chalk aquifer of Upper Normandy, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Janyani, Sanae; Dupont, Jean-Paul; Massei, Nicolas; Slimani, Smail; Dörfliger, Nathalie

    2014-05-01

    The role of karst on large-scale groundwater flow is defined for the Chalk aquifer of Upper Normandy (western Paris Basin), France. In the regional context, chalk plateaus occupy the greater part of watersheds and are the main sites of groundwater recharge. Previous studies focused on karstic output systems in the valleys and less on water-level variations in the recharge zones upstream. This study assesses the relevant hydrogeological processes using time-series data (boreholes and springs) recorded along a down-gradient hydrologeological cross-section in two selected watersheds. These hydrological data are interpreted in the framework of previous descriptions of the morphological organization of the study area's karst network. The results highlight the hydrological role of (1) the input karst (vertical conduits) which drains recharging water, (2) the output karst (sub-horizontal conduits widely developed in the vicinity of valleys in the surface watersheds) which drains the output flows, and (3) the connections between these two (input and output) networks, which control the upstream water levels and allow quick transfer to springs, particularly after strong rainfall events. A conceptual model of the hydrological functioning of this covered karst aquifer is established, which should serve for the structuring and parameterization of a numerical model.

  2. Transport of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in a Brittany river, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wafar, M. V. M.; le Corre, P.; Birrien, J. L.

    1989-11-01

    Concentrations of NO 3-, NO 2-, NH 4+, PO 43-, Si(OH) 4-, DOC, DON, DOP, POC, PON, POP, chlorophyl a, phaeopigments, carbohydrates and proteins were measured for one year in the Morlaix river waters (Brittany coast, France). By comparison with the averages known for the unpolluted rivers of the world, concentrations of NO 3-, NH 4+, PO 43-, NO 2- and DON are found to be much higher, and those of nitrate and ammonium exceed even those known for highly polluted rivers. The selective pollution by N compounds is caused by an excessive use of fertilizers in the hinterland although with NH 4+, however, urban pollution can also be an important factor. Allochthonous sources supply a major fraction of particulate organic compounds to the river waters. Dissolved fractions of N and P in river waters are very large compared to the particulate fractions, whereas carbon is more or less equally distributed between DOC and POC. Transport of these nutrients to the estuary show three different patterns in relation to river discharge changes. Areal loading of the estuary with NO 3 and NH 4+ is greater than that known for other temperate estuaries. The deleterious effects of N pollution are, however, offset by the low freshwater flow, high tidal prism volume, estuarine basin geomorphology and uptake by benthic microalgae.

  3. Improvement of ECMWF monthly forecasts of precipitation over France with an analog method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthelot, M.; Dubus, L.; Gailhard, J.

    2010-09-01

    Optimal operation of hydro-power plants requires accurate forecasts of precipitation which are then integrated into hydrological models to forecast river flows and water volumes in reservoirs. Precipitation is a difficult parameter to forecast, especially at long lead times (monthly and over) one of the reasons being the too coarse resolution of numerical weather prediction systems. In this study, we evaluate ECMWF's monthly forecasts of precipitation over 9 important basins in France. The deterministic approach shows that forecasts are useless over week 1. Using the probabilistic approach allows to get useful information for some events (lower and upper terciles for instance), up to week 3, but the overall scores are quite low, and hardly better than climatological scores. In a second step, EDF's analog method, currently used in operations for D+7 forecasts, has been adapted to ECWMF's monthly forecasts. It uses Z700 and Z1000 fields over North Atlantic and Europe to get local precipitations. For the nine catchments studied here and for the four weeks, results show an overall improvement of analog precipitation forecasts compared to raw forecasts. Improvement is also identified with respect to climatology in more than half of the catchments. The prediction skill is mostly pronounced for extreme events (low and heavy precipitations). The analog method thus presents significant performance, suited for operational use. Improvements can also be expected with some optimization of the method (mix of predictors, new similarity criterion…)

  4. Declining Dioxin concentrations in the Rhone River, France, attest to the effectiveness of emissions controls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Metre, Peter C.; Babut, Marc; Mourier, Brice; Mahler, Barbara J.; Roux, Gwenaelle; Desmet, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Emission-control policies have been implemented in Europe and North America since the 1990s for polychlorodibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and furans (PCDFs). To assess the effect of these policies on temporal trends and spatial patterns for these compounds in a large European river system, sediment cores were collected in seven depositional areas along the Rhone River in France, dated, and analyzed for PCDDs and PCDFs. Results show concentrations increase in the downstream direction and have decreased temporally at all sites during the last two decades, with an average decrease of 83% from 1992 to 2010. The time for a 50% decrease in concentrations (t1/2) averaged 6.9 ± 2.6 and 9.1 ± 2.9 years for the sum of measured PCDDs and PCDFs, respectively. Congener patterns are similar among cores and indicate dominance of regional atmospheric deposition and possibly weathered local sources. Local sources are clearly indicated at the most downstream site, where concentrations of the most toxic dioxin, TCDD, are about 2 orders of magnitude higher than at the other six sites. The relatively steep downward trends attest to the effects of the dioxin emissions reduction policy in Europe and suggest that risks posed to aquatic life in the Rhone River basin from dioxins and furans have been greatly reduced.

  5. Boron isotopes in the Seine River, France: a probe of anthropogenic contamination.

    PubMed

    Chetelat, Benjamin; Gaillardet, Jérôme

    2005-04-15

    Boron concentrations and isotopic compositions have been measured in the dissolved load of the Seine Basin rivers, France. Hydrology and chemistry of the Seine River and its tributaries are strongly influenced by human activities, as the anthropogenic pressure on the Seine catchment is one of the highest in Europe. The samples were collected between 1994 and 1996 during various stages of flow, complemented by a time-series of the Seine River in Paris for 1 yr. In particular, the decennial flood event of winter 1994 was sampled. Boron appears to be conservative in rivers and not influenced by adsorption onto suspended matter and/or consumption by microorganisms. Despite the complexity of the Seine River system, dissolved boron and its isotopes are found to be suitable tracers of contamination. The total dissolved boron of the Seine River at Paris is explained by the contribution from three distinct components: Urban effluents constitute 65% of the boron discharge measured in the Seine River whereas agriculture-affected waters contribute less than 10% with a more marked influence during high water discharges. Rainwater contribution is important (25% mean), reaching 30% of dissolved boron during high flood events.

  6. Canada Basin revealed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, David C.; Shimeld, John; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Chian, D; Lebedeva-Ivanova, Nina; Jackson, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    More than 15,000 line-km of new regional seismic reflection and refraction data in the western Arctic Ocean provide insights into the tectonic and sedimentologic history of Canada Basin, permitting development of new geologic understanding in one of Earth's last frontiers. These new data support a rotational opening model for southern Canada Basin. There is a central basement ridge possibly representing an extinct spreading center with oceanic crustal velocities and blocky basement morphology characteristic of spreading centre crust surrounding this ridge. Basement elevation is lower in the south, mostly due to sediment loading subsidence. The sedimentary succession is thickest in the southern Beaufort Sea region, reaching more than 15 km, and generally thins to the north and west. In the north, grabens and half-grabens are indicative of extension. Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge is a large igneous province in northern Amerasia Basin, presumably emplaced synchronously with basin formation. It overprints most of northern Canada Basin structure. The seafloor and sedimentary succession of Canada Basin is remarkably flat-lying in its central region, with little bathymetric change over most of its extent. Reflections that correlate over 100s of kms comprise most of the succession and on-lap bathymetric and basement highs. They are interpreted as representing deposits from unconfined turbidity current flows. Sediment distribution patterns reflect changing source directions during the basin’s history. Initially, probably late Cretaceous to Paleocene synrift sediments sourced from the Alaska and Mackenzie-Beaufort margins. This unit shows a progressive series of onlap unconformities with a younging trend towards Alpha and Northwind ridges, likely a response to contemporaneous subsidence. Sediment source direction appeared to shift to the Canadian Arctic Archipelago margin for the Eocene and Oligocene, likely due to uplift of Arctic islands during the Eurekan Orogeny. The final

  7. Lithium isotope systematics in a forested granitic catchment (Strengbach, Vosges Mountains, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemarchand, Emmanuel; Chabaux, François; Vigier, Nathalie; Millot, Romain; Pierret, Marie-Claire

    2010-08-01

    Over the last decade it has become apparent that Li isotopes may be a good proxy to trace silicate weathering. However, the exact mechanisms which drive the behaviour of Li isotopes in surface environments are not totally understood and there is a need to better calibrate and characterize this proxy. In this study, we analysed the Li concentrations and isotopic compositions in the various surface reservoirs (soils, rocks, waters and plants) of a small forested granitic catchment located in the Vosges Mountains (Strengbach catchment, France, OHGE http://ohge.u-strasbg.fr). Li fluxes were calculated in both soil profiles and at the basin scale and it was found that even in this forested basin, atmospheric inputs and litter fall represented a minor flux compared to input derived from the weathering of rocks and soil minerals (which together represent a minimum of 70% of dissolved Li). Li isotope ratios in soil pore waters show large depth dependent variations. Average dissolved δ 7Li decreases from -1.1‰ to -14.4‰ between 0 and -30 cm, but is +30.7‰ at -60 cm. This range of Li isotopic compositions is very large and it encompasses almost the entire range of terrestrial Li isotope compositions that have been previously reported. We interpret these variations to result from both the dissolution and precipitation of secondary phases. Large isotopic variations were also measured in the springs and stream waters, with δ 7Li varying from +5.3‰ to +19.6‰. δ 7Li increases from the top to the bottom of the basin and also covaries with discharge at the outlet. These variations are interpreted to reflect isotopic fractionations occurring during secondary phase precipitation along the water pathway through the rocks. We suggest that the dissolved δ 7Li increases with increasing residence time of waters through the rocks, and so with increasing time of interaction between waters and solids. A dissolution precipitation model was used to fit the dissolved Li isotopic

  8. A tentative of Holocene sediment budget for the Seulles catchment (western France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viel, Vincent; Lespez, Laurent; Delahaye, Daniel; Le Gouee, Patrick

    2010-05-01

    Geomorphological and paleoenvironmental researches on Holocene sedimentation in the valleys of Normandy provide evidence for fluvial system changes related to climate and human activities in the Paris basin. Alluvial and colluvial deposits are important as archives of past environments changes. They can be used to construct the temporal frameworks for historical erosion and to give an indication of the past erosion processes. Few studies attempts to make long-term soil erosion and sediment storage in the valley bottom in North-western France. This work put into forward results of a research on Holocene sediment budget. This study focuses in the Seulles catchment (430 km²), located in Normandy at the junction between the Armorican massif (upstream part) and the sedimentary Paris Basin (downstream part). In order to reconstruct the Holocene sediment budget, different approaches were used to quantify sediment deposit within the floodplain, soil erosion rates and colluvial deposition. To characterize and quantify the sediment storage into the valley bottoms, 32 partial or complete cross-sections, regularly placed along the valley bottom, were established. These field investigations allow to evaluate the global bulk of fluvial sediment storage into the catchment. In a second step, the assessment of dry bulk densities permits to convert volumetric data into weight. To establish the chronology of the alluvial filling, 6 drilling cores were realized on selected cross-sections to sample organic material content for AMS radiocarbon dating. In total, 38 dates were obtained at the catchment scale and numerous are in process. In the same way, we evaluated Holocene slope erosion and sediment storage using soils profiles descriptions determined from auger coring transects of two small catchments (15 Km²). Results demonstrate the existence until 2500 BP of two morpho-sedimentary units (a model related to sediments dynamics into the catchment and a second one related to the

  9. Albuquerque Basin seismic network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaksha, Lawrence H.; Locke, Jerry; Thompson, J.B.; Garcia, Alvin

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has recently completed the installation of a seismic network around the Albuquerque Basin in New Mexico. The network consists of two seismometer arrays, a thirteen-station array monitoring an area of approximately 28,000 km 2 and an eight-element array monitoring the area immediately adjacent to the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory. This report describes the instrumentation deployed in the network.

  10. Petroleum basin studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, P.M. ); Naylor, D. )

    1989-01-01

    This book reviews the tectonic setting, basin development and history of exploration of a number of selected petroleum provinces located in a variety of settings in the Middle East, North Sea, Nigeria, the Rocky Mountains, Gabon and China. This book illustrates how ideas and models developed in one area may be applied to other regions. Regional reviews and the reassessment of petroleum provinces are presented.

  11. Dimension of fractal basin boundaries

    SciTech Connect

    Park, B.S.

    1988-01-01

    In many dynamical systems, multiple attractors coexist for certain parameter ranges. The set of initial conditions that asymptotically approach each attractor is its basin of attraction. These basins can be intertwined on arbitrary small scales. Basin boundary can be either smooth or fractal. Dynamical systems that have fractal basin boundary show final state sensitivity of the initial conditions. A measure of this sensitivity (uncertainty exponent {alpha}) is related to the dimension of the basin boundary d = D - {alpha}, where D is the dimension of the phase space and d is the dimension of the basin boundary. At metamorphosis values of the parameter, there might happen a conversion from smooth to fractal basin boundary (smooth-fractal metamorphosis) or a conversion from fractal to another fractal basin boundary characteristically different from the previous fractal one (fractal-fractal metamorphosis). The dimension changes continuously with the parameter except at the metamorphosis values where the dimension of the basin boundary jumps discontinuously. We chose the Henon map and the forced damped pendulum to investigate this. Scaling of the basin volumes near the metamorphosis values of the parameter is also being studied for the Henon map. Observations are explained analytically by using low dimensional model map.

  12. Great Basin Paleontological Bibliography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blodgett, Robert B.; Zhang, Ning; Hofstra, Albert H.; Morrow, Jared R.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction This work was conceived as a derivative product for 'The Metallogeny of the Great Basin' project of the Mineral Resources Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. In the course of preparing a fossil database for the Great Basin that could be accessed from the Internet, it was determined that a comprehensive paleontological bibliography must first be compiled, something that had not previously been done. This bibliography includes published papers and abstracts as well as unpublished theses and dissertations on fossils and stratigraphy in Nevada and adjoining portions of California and Utah. This bibliography is broken into first-order headings by geologic age, secondary headings by taxonomic group, followed by ancillary topics of interest to both paleontologists and stratigraphers; paleoecology, stratigraphy, sedimentary petrology, paleogeography, tectonics, and petroleum potential. References were derived from usage of Georef, consultation with numerous paleontologists and geologists working in the Great Basin, and literature currently on hand with the authors. As this is a Web-accessible bibliography, we hope to periodically update it with new citations or older references that we have missed during this compilation. Hence, the authors would be grateful to receive notice of any new or old papers that the readers think should be added. As a final note, we gratefully acknowledge the helpful reviews provided by A. Elizabeth J. Crafford (Anchorage, Alaska) and William R. Page (USGS, Denver, Colorado).

  13. Advanced Chemistry Basins Model

    SciTech Connect

    William Goddard; Mario Blanco; Lawrence Cathles; Paul Manhardt; Peter Meulbroek; Yongchun Tang

    2002-11-10

    The DOE-funded Advanced Chemistry Basin model project is intended to develop a public domain, user-friendly basin modeling software under PC or low end workstation environment that predicts hydrocarbon generation, expulsion, migration and chemistry. The main features of the software are that it will: (1) afford users the most flexible way to choose or enter kinetic parameters for different maturity indicators; (2) afford users the most flexible way to choose or enter compositional kinetic parameters to predict hydrocarbon composition (e.g., gas/oil ratio (GOR), wax content, API gravity, etc.) at different kerogen maturities; (3) calculate the chemistry, fluxes and physical properties of all hydrocarbon phases (gas, liquid and solid) along the primary and secondary migration pathways of the basin and predict the location and intensity of phase fractionation, mixing, gas washing, etc.; and (4) predict the location and intensity of de-asphaltene processes. The project has be operative for 36 months, and is on schedule for a successful completion at the end of FY 2003.

  14. Caribbean basin framework, 3: Southern Central America and Colombian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Kolarsky, R.A.; Mann, P. )

    1991-03-01

    The authors recognize three basin-forming periods in southern Central America (Panama, Costa Rica, southern Nicaragua) that they attempt to correlate with events in the Colombian basin (Bowland, 1984): (1) Early-Late Cretaceous island arc formation and growth of the Central American island arc and Late Cretaceous formation of the Colombian basin oceanic plateau. During latest Cretaceous time, pelagic carbonate sediments blanketed the Central American island arc in Panama and Costa Rica and elevated blocks on the Colombian basin oceanic plateau; (2) middle Eocene-middle Miocene island arc uplift and erosion. During this interval, influx of distal terrigenous turbidites in most areas of Panama, Costa Rica, and the Colombian basin marks the uplift and erosion of the Central American island arc. In the Colombian basin, turbidites fill in basement relief and accumulate to thicknesses up to 2 km in the deepest part of the basin. In Costa Rica, sedimentation was concentrated in fore-arc (Terraba) and back-arc (El Limon) basins; (3) late Miocene-Recent accelerated uplift and erosion of segments of the Central American arc. Influx of proximal terrigenous turbidites and alluvial fans in most areas of Panama, Costa Rica, and the Colombian basin marks collision of the Panama arc with the South American continent (late Miocene early Pliocene) and collision of the Cocos Ridge with the Costa Rican arc (late Pleistocene). The Cocos Ridge collision inverted the Terraba and El Limon basins. The Panama arc collision produced northeast-striking left-lateral strike-slip faults and fault-related basins throughout Panama as Panama moved northwest over the Colombian basin.

  15. Paleontological analysis of a lacustrine carbonaceous uranium deposit at the Anderson mine, Date Creek basin, west-central Arizona (U.S.A.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otton, J.K.; Bradbury, J.P.; Forester, R.M.; Hanley, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    The Tertiary sedimentary sequence of the Date Creek basin area of Arizona is composed principally of intertonguing alluvial-fan and lacustrine deposits. The lacustrine rocks contain large intermediate- to, locally, high-grade uranium deposits that form one of the largest uranium resources in the United States (an estimated 670,000 tons of U3O8 at an average grade of 0.023% is indicated by drilling to date). At the Anderson mine, about 50,000 tons of U3O8 occurs in lacustrine carbonaceous siltstones and mudstones (using a cutoff grade of 0.01%). The Anderson mine constitutes a new class of ore deposit, a lacustrine carbonaceous uranium deposit. Floral and faunal remains at the Anderson mine played a critical role in creating and documenting conditions necessary for uranium mineralization. Organic-rich, uraniferous rocks at the Anderson mine contain plant remains and ostracodes having remarkably detailed preservation of internal features because of infilling by opaline silica. This preservation suggests that the alkaline lake waters in the mine area contained high concentrations of dissolved silica and that silicification occurred rapidly, before compaction or cementation of the enclosing sediment. Uranium coprecipitated with the silica. Thinly laminated, dark-colored, siliceous beds contain centric diatoms preserved with carbonaceous material suggesting that lake waters at the mine were locally deep and anoxic. These alkaline, silica-charged waters and a stagnant, anoxic environment in parts of the lake were necessary conditions for the precipitation of large amounts of uranium in the lake-bottom sediments. Sediments at the Anderson mine contain plant remains and pollen that were derived from diverse vegetative zones suggesting about 1500 m of relief in the area at the time of deposition. The pollen suggests that the valley floor was semiarid and subtropical, whereas nearby mountains supported temperate deciduous forests. ?? 1990.

  16. Hydrogeological controls and indicators for oil deposits in rift grabens - An example from the Upper Rhine graben, France

    SciTech Connect

    Otto, C.J.; Toth, J. )

    1988-08-01

    The Pechelbronn petroliferous region of northeast France is located on the west side of the Upper Rhine graben between the Vosges and Black Forest Mountains. Commercial oil occurs in Mesozoic and often Tertiary lenticular, faulted formations at various depths. In areas of oil fields and along fault zones, positive temperature anomalies at shallow and great depths (geothermal gradient: 10{degree}C/100 m), high salinities (TDS > 50,000 mg/L), and anomalously high Sr{sup {minus}}, Br{sup {minus}}, and I{sup {minus}} concentrations in shallow ground waters, flowing wells, and oil/gas seeps have been observed. These phenomena may be explained by topography-induced regionally ascending cross-formational groundwater flow. This interpretation is supported by the isotopic composition of the formation waters, suggesting a meteoric origin, relatively young {sup 14}c ages ({approx} 30,000 years), and calculated flow velocities of 0.30 m/year as well as numerical modeling. Ground-water recharges in the topographic highs, converges toward the Graben basin, and discharges under artesian conditions by vertically ascending flow, preferentially along conductive faults. Vertical migration of hydrocarons is also suggested by high methane concentrations in soils observed across faults with isotope ratios indicative of thermally mature hydrocarbon gases originating at depth. Consequently, a dynamic-genetic relationship appears to exist between basinal ground-water flow, hydrocarbon accumulations, and observed natural phenomena. This relationship may be used for hydrogeological-based exploration for hydrocarbons, complementing conventional methods.

  17. [Reflection on the psychiatric financial allocation in France].

    PubMed

    Boyer, L; Fond, G; Devictor, B; Samuelian, J-C; Lancon, C; Rouillon, F; Gaillard, R; Zendjidjian, X; Llorca, P-M

    2016-08-01

    For 25years work has been underway in France for the implementation of an alternative to public financing of health care. In the absence of progress, some regional health agencies are engaged in work related to the reallocation of public finances between psychiatric institutions. We propose a reflection with suggestion on the method proposed by the Provence Alpes Côte d'Azur Regional Health Agency. Without questioning the need for a reallocation of resources between psychiatric institutions, the method proposed here needs to evolve further to be applied in a legitimate and appropriate manner. There is a kind of urgency for a reallocation of resources between psychiatric institutions in France, but it implies a collective thinking and especially the definition of evaluation procedures for the selected models. These conditions are necessary to guarantee the quality of French psychiatry and equity in access to psychiatric care.

  18. Chikungunya outbreak in Montpellier, France, September to October 2014.

    PubMed

    Delisle, E; Rousseau, C; Broche, B; Leparc-Goffart, I; L'Ambert, G; Cochet, A; Prat, C; Foulongne, V; Ferre, J B; Catelinois, O; Flusin, O; Tchernonog, E; Moussion, I E; Wiegandt, A; Septfons, A; Mendy, A; Moyano, M B; Laporte, L; Maurel, J; Jourdain, F; Reynes, J; Paty, M C; Golliot, F

    2015-04-30

    In October 2014, an outbreak of 12 autochthonous chikungunya cases, 11 confirmed and 1 probable, was detected in a district of Montpellier, a town in the south of France colonised by the vector Aedes albopictus since 2010. A case returning from Cameroon living in the affected district was identified as the primary case. The epidemiological investigations and the repeated vector control treatments performed in the area and around places frequented by cases helped to contain the outbreak. In 2014, the chikungunya and dengue surveillance system in mainland France was challenged by numerous imported cases due to the chikungunya epidemic ongoing in the Caribbean Islands. This first significant outbreak of chikungunya in Europe since the 2007 Italian epidemic, however, was due to an East Central South African (ECSA) strain, imported by a traveller returning from West Africa. Important lessons were learned from this episode, which reminds us that the threat of a chikungunya epidemic in southern Europe is real.

  19. The future of astronomy PhDs in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boissier, S.

    2012-12-01

    This contribution presents a poll undertaken at the beginning of 2012, and addressed to every doctor in astronomy who obtained his/her degree in France. Its goal is to motivate the French astronomical community to think and discuss about what should be the training of PhDs, and what should be its objective. Further discussions and reactions can be posted e.g. on {http://docastro.blogspot.fr/}. A worrying results from the poll is that the majority of the participants would not encourage a young student to start a thesis in astronomy. The main reasons for this fact may be the high pressure on astronomy positions and the little interest a doctorate has for other careers in France. I suggest we either have to modify our training or reduce the number of thesis starting each year in astronomy.

  20. France tries to save its ailing national health insurance system.

    PubMed

    Sorum, Paul Clay

    2005-07-01

    France has provided universal health care through employment-based health insurance funds. As its governments have increasingly used tax revenues to supplement payroll levies, they have assumed a larger role. Faced with widening deficits in the funds' accounts, the National Assembly adopted in August 2004 legislation designed to decrease health expenses, increase revenues to the funds, and improve quality of care. The apparent impacts of the so-called Douste-Blazy law are to reaffirm social solidarity and equality of access; to reinforce central control rather than relying more on decentralized and market forces; to give the now-unified funds a stronger director, shielded not only from labor and business but also, possibly, from the central government; to allow French private physicians to retain their unrivaled freedom of prescription; and to continue France's reliance on taxes as well as payroll levies to finance its health care. PMID:16022215

  1. [Study on two manuscripts with colored illustrations collected in France].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Ping; Cao, Hui

    2013-09-01

    Two manuscripts with colored illustrations in French libraries were investigated. The research showed that: the first manuscript with colored pictures include 2 volumes, titled Animaux et Plantes de Chine collected in Library of Museum National d'Historie Naturelle (MNHN);the other manuscript with colored pictures has only 1 volume, titled Botanique Chinoise collected in Library of Societe Asiatique, College de France, which were identified as illustrations of Ben cao gang mu (Compendium of Materia Medica) (1640 edition) by Li Shi-zhen. These pictures were copied by P. d'Incarville, and are similar to Plantes fleurs et arbres de Chine in Bibliotheque de l'Institut de Franceand, Collection de Plantes Veneneuses de la Chine Gravees et Imprimees en Couleurs par les Missionnaries Jesuites in Bibliotheque Nationale de France, respectively. The latter two manuscripts were identified as illustrations of Ben cao pin hui jing yao (Essential Collections of Materia Medica) (1700 edition).

  2. The GMO case in France: politics, lawlessness and postmodernism.

    PubMed

    Kuntz, Marcel

    2014-07-01

    The GMO debacle in France is analyzed in the light of the balance of forces around this controversy, the changes in position of governments and the opponents' strategic use of intimidation. These factors have caused insurmountable difficulties for scientific experimentations and assessment of the technology, as well as for farmers attempting to grow GM maize in this country. The change from a "modern" to a "postmodern" framing of official public debates and scientific institutions has not appeased confrontations concerning GMOs. PMID:25437234

  3. [The employment of foreigners and policy toward foreigners in France].

    PubMed

    Werner, H

    1983-01-01

    The historical background of international labor migration to France is briefly reviewed, and data are presented on the development and structure of the foreign labor force and the foreign population between 1946 and the present. Consideration is then given to the development of migration policies after World War II. Attempts to curb the number of illegal migrants through legislation and the promotion of return migration are described, and the recent policy allowing reunion of family members but penalizing illegal employment is discussed.

  4. Vichy France and the continuity of medical nationalism.

    PubMed

    Evleth, D

    1995-04-01

    This paper reviews the rise of medical nationalism and protectionism in France from the end of the nineteenth century through to the 1940s, with an emphasis on the Vichy period. It presents this nationalism as part of a continuity, showing its beginnings well before the coming of the Vichy government, its extremes under this government, and its continuation after the fall of the Vichy government, although retreating from its more extreme positions.

  5. The GMO case in France: politics, lawlessness and postmodernism.

    PubMed

    Kuntz, Marcel

    2014-07-01

    The GMO debacle in France is analyzed in the light of the balance of forces around this controversy, the changes in position of governments and the opponents' strategic use of intimidation. These factors have caused insurmountable difficulties for scientific experimentations and assessment of the technology, as well as for farmers attempting to grow GM maize in this country. The change from a "modern" to a "postmodern" framing of official public debates and scientific institutions has not appeased confrontations concerning GMOs.

  6. Sea surface temperature of the coastal zones of France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deschamps, P. Y.; Crepon, M.; Monget, J. M.; Verger, F. (Principal Investigator); Frouin, R.; Cassanet, J.; Wald, L.

    1980-01-01

    The various thermal gradients in the coastal zones of France were mapped with regard to natural phenomena and man made thermal effluents. The mesoscale thermal features of the English Channel, the Bay of Biscay, and the northwestern Mediterranean Sea were also studied. The evolution of the thermal gradients generated by the main estuaries of the French coastal zones was investigated along with the modeling of diurnal heating of the sea surface and its influence on the oceanic surface layers.

  7. Geohistorical analysis of Paradox Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Lemke, L.D.

    1985-05-01

    The Paradox basin is an elongate sedimentary basin, asymmetric in profile, extending across common corners of Utah, Colorado, Arizona, and New Mexico. Subsidence of the basin began in Desmoinesian time and was coincident with the development of the ancestral Rocky Mountains. The Uncompahgre uplift formed the northeast boundary of the basin during Pennsylvanian and Permian times. Formation thickness and lithologies were obtained from lithologic and radioactivity logs from various parts of the basin. The stratigraphic column at each well, restored through the Upper Cretaceous, was back-stripped and decompacted to reconstruct its depositional history. Decompacted geohistory diagrams and residual (tectonic) subsidence curves were then generated for each well. The Mobil 1 McCormick well, drilled in 1977, penetrates Pennsylvanian strata beneath reverse-faulted granitic basement; this indicates that the basin was flexed down in response to pennsylvanian and Permian thrust faulting along the flank of the Uncompahgre uplift. However, close correspondence of the residual subsidence curves to theoretical thermal subsidence curves indicates that the basin formed by crustal extension. Consequently, development of the basin may have involved crustal stretching (transtensional.) beneath the basin floor, followed by thrusting (transpressional.) along the flank of the Uncompahgre uplift.

  8. Molecular Characterization of Cryptosporidium Isolates Obtained from Humans in France

    PubMed Central

    Guyot, K.; Follet-Dumoulin, A.; Lelièvre, E.; Sarfati, C.; Rabodonirina, M.; Nevez, G.; Cailliez, J. C.; Camus, D.; Dei-Cas, E.

    2001-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is usually considered the agent of human cryptosporidiosis. However, only in the last few years, molecular biology-based methods have allowed the identification of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes, and only a few data are available from France. In the present work, we collected samples of whole feces from 57 patients from France (11 immunocompetent patients, 35 human immunodeficiency virus [HIV]-infected patients, 11 immunocompromised but non-HIV-infected patients) in whom Cryptosporidium oocysts were recognized by clinical laboratories. A fragment of the Cryptosporidium 18S rRNA gene encompassing the hypervariable region was amplified by PCR and sequenced. The results revealed that the majority of the patients were infected with cattle (29 of 57) or human (18 of 57) genotypes of Cryptosporidium parvum. However, a number of immunocompromised patients were infected with C. meleagridis (3 of 57), C. felis (6 of 57), or a new genotype of C. muris (1 of 57). This is the first report of the last three species of Cryptosporidium in humans in France. These results indicate that immunocompromised individuals are susceptible to a wide range of Cryptosporidium species and genotypes. PMID:11574558

  9. Prevalence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in small rodents in France.

    PubMed

    Chastagner, A; Moinet, M; Perez, G; Roy, E; McCoy, K D; Plantard, O; Agoulon, A; Bastian, S; Butet, A; Rantier, Y; Verheyden, H; Cèbe, N; Leblond, A; Vourc'h, G

    2016-07-01

    Anaplasma phagocytophilum is an emerging zoonotic tick-borne pathogen affecting a wide range of mammals. Rodents are suspected to be natural reservoirs for this bacterium, but their role in the epidemiologic cycles affecting domestic animals and wild ungulates has not been demonstrated. This study aimed to improve our knowledge on A. phagocytophilum prevalence in Apodemus sylvaticus, A. flavicollis and Myodes glareolus using data collected in 2010 in one area in eastern France and in 2012-2013 in two others areas in western France. Rodents were captured in each site and infection was tested using qualitative real-time PCR assays on either blood or spleen samples. Prevalence showed high variability among sites. The highest prevalence was observed in the most eastern site (with an average infection rate of 22.8% across all species), whereas no rodent was found to be PCR positive in the south-west site and only 6.6% were positive in the north-west of France. Finally, a significant increase in prevalence was observed in autumn samples compared to spring samples in the north-west, but no change was found in the other two sites.

  10. Great Basin paleontological database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, N.; Blodgett, R.B.; Hofstra, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has constructed a paleontological database for the Great Basin physiographic province that can be served over the World Wide Web for data entry, queries, displays, and retrievals. It is similar to the web-database solution that we constructed for Alaskan paleontological data (www.alaskafossil.org). The first phase of this effort was to compile a paleontological bibliography for Nevada and portions of adjacent states in the Great Basin that has recently been completed. In addition, we are also compiling paleontological reports (Known as E&R reports) of the U.S. Geological Survey, which are another extensive source of l,egacy data for this region. Initial population of the database benefited from a recently published conodont data set and is otherwise focused on Devonian and Mississippian localities because strata of this age host important sedimentary exhalative (sedex) Au, Zn, and barite resources and enormons Carlin-type An deposits. In addition, these strata are the most important petroleum source rocks in the region, and record the transition from extension to contraction associated with the Antler orogeny, the Alamo meteorite impact, and biotic crises associated with global oceanic anoxic events. The finished product will provide an invaluable tool for future geologic mapping, paleontological research, and mineral resource investigations in the Great Basin, making paleontological data acquired over nearly the past 150 yr readily available over the World Wide Web. A description of the structure of the database and the web interface developed for this effort are provided herein. This database is being used ws a model for a National Paleontological Database (which we am currently developing for the U.S. Geological Survey) as well as for other paleontological databases now being developed in other parts of the globe. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

  11. ANN modeling for flood prediction in the upstream Eure's catchment (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharroubi, Ouissem; masson, Eric; Blanpain, Olivier; Lallahem, Sami

    2013-04-01

    Rainfall-Runoff relationship at basin scale is strongly depending on the catchment complexity including multi-scale interactions. In extreme events cases (i.e. floods and droughts) this relationship is even more complex and differs from average hydrological conditions making extreme runoff prediction very difficult to achieve. However, flood warning, flood prevention and flood mitigation rely on the possibility to predict both flood peak runoff and lag time. This point is crucial for decision making and flood warning to prevent populations and economical stakes to be damaged by extreme hydrological events. Since 2003 in France, a dedicated state service is in charge of producing flood warning from national level (i.e. SCHAPI) to regional level (i.e. SPC). This flood warning service is combining national weather forecast agency (i.e. Meteo France) together with a fully automated realtime hydrological network (i.e. Rainfall-Runoff) in order to produce a flood warning national map online and provide a set of hydro-meteorological data to the SPC in charge of flood prediction from regional to local scale. The SPC is in fact the flood service delivering hydrological prediction at operational level for decision making about flood alert for municipalities and first help services. Our research in collaboration with the SPC SACN (i.e. "Seine Aval et fleuves Côtiers Normands") is focused on the implementation of an Artificial Neural Network model (ANN) for flood prediction in deferent key points of the Eure's catchment and main subcatchment. Our contribution will focus on the ANN model developed for Saint-Luperce gauging station in the upstream part of the Eure's catchment. Prediction of extreme runoff at Saint-Luperce station is of high importance for flood warning in the Eure's catchment because it gives a good indicator on the extreme status and the downstream propagation of a potential flood event. Despite a good runoff monitoring since 27 years Saint Luperce flood

  12. Seasonal variability of suspended sediment transport in the Seine river catchment area (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, Christine; Baati, Selma; Ayrault, Sophie; Bonte, Philippe; Evrard, Olivier; Kissel, Catherine

    2010-05-01

    , C., Kissel, C., Robin, E., Bonté, P. and Lagroix, F., 2009, Magnetic particle characterization in the Seine river system: Implications for the determination of natural versus anthropogenic input, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., doi:10.1029/2009GC002544. Tessier, L., Bonté, P., Mouchel, J.M., Lefevre, I., Sogon, S., Ayrault, S., Le Cloarec, M.F., 2003, Transport et characterisation des matieres en suspension dans le basin de la Seine : Identification des signatures naturelles et anthropiques, 14èmes Journées Scientifiques de l'Environnement : l'Eau, la Ville, la Vie, Créteil : France 2003. http://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/docs/00/20/30/84/PDF/4-JSE-2003-Manuscrit-Tessier-HAL-2008-01-08.pdf

  13. The IRHUM database - bioavailable strontium isotope ratios of France for geochemical fingerprinting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willmes, Malte; Moffat, Ian; Grün, Rainer; Armstrong, Richard; Kinsley, Les; McMorrow, Linda

    2013-04-01

    Strontium isotope ratios (87Sr/86Sr) are used as a geochemical tracer in a wide range of fields including archaeology, ecology, soil, food and forensic sciences. These applications are based on the principle that strontium isotopic ratios of materials reflect the geological sources of the strontium, which were available during its formation. Geologic regions with distinct strontium isotope ranges, which depend on their age and composition, can be differentiated. A major constraint for current studies is the lack of robust reference maps to evaluate the strontium isotope ratios measured in the samples. The aim of the IRHUM (isotopic reconstruction of human migration) database is to provide a reference map of bioavailable strontium isotope ratios for continental France. The current dataset contains 400 sample locations covering the major geologic units of the Paris and Aquitaine Basin, the Massif Central, and the Pyrenees. At each site soil and plant samples have been collected to cover the whole range of strontium ratios at a specific location. The database is available online at www.rses.anu.edu.au/research-areas/archaeogeochemistry and contains the bioavailable strontium isotope data as well as major and trace element concentrations for soil and plant samples. Strontium isotopes were analysed using a Neptune multi-collector inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometer (MC-ICP-MS) and elemental concentrations with a Varian Vista Pro Axial ICP-AES (inductively-coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer). In addition, IRHUM provides spatial context for each sample, including background geology, field observations and soil descriptions. This metadata allows users to evaluate the suitability of a specific data point for their study. The IRHUM database fills an important gap between high resolution studies from specific sites (e.g. archaeological sites), to the very broad geochemical mapping of Europe. Thus it provides an excellent tool to evaluate the regional context

  14. Apollo Basin, Moon: Estimation of Impact Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Echaurren, J. C.

    2015-07-01

    The Apollo Basin is a, pre-Nectarian, multi-ring basin located within the large South Pole-Aitken Basin (SPA). Multispectral data from both Galileo and Clementine showed that the composition of materials in Apollo is distinct…

  15. Long-Term Care Financing: Lessons From France

    PubMed Central

    Doty, Pamela; Nadash, Pamela; Racco, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Context An aging population leads to a growing demand for long-term services and supports (LTSS). In 2002, France introduced universal, income-adjusted, public long-term care coverage for adults 60 and older, whereas the United States funds means-tested benefits only. Both countries have private long-term care insurance (LTCI) markets: American policies create alternatives to out-of-pocket spending and protect purchasers from relying on Medicaid. Sales, however, have stagnated, and the market's viability is uncertain. In France, private LTCI supplements public coverage, and sales are growing, although its potential to alleviate the long-term care financing problem is unclear. We explore whether France's very different approach to structuring public and private financing for long-term care could inform the United States’ long-term care financing reform efforts. Methods We consulted insurance experts and conducted a detailed review of public reports, academic studies, and other documents to understand the public and private LTCI systems in France, their advantages and disadvantages, and the factors affecting their development. Findings France provides universal public coverage for paid assistance with functional dependency for people 60 and older. Benefits are steeply income adjusted and amounts are low. Nevertheless, expenditures have exceeded projections, burdening local governments. Private supplemental insurance covers 11% of French, mostly middle-income adults (versus 3% of Americans 18 and older). Whether policyholders will maintain employer-sponsored coverage after retirement is not known. The government's interest in pursuing an explicit public/private partnership has waned under President François Hollande, a centrist socialist, in contrast to the previous center-right leader, President Nicolas Sarkozy, thereby reducing the prospects of a coordinated public/private strategy. Conclusions American private insurers are showing increasing interest in long

  16. Hydrocarbon associations in evaporite basins

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.

    1988-01-01

    Evaporite deposition today is not representative of the diversity of scale of evaporites of the past. Ancient evaporites were deposited in two main settings: platform wide or basin wide. Platform evaporites were composed of relatively thin stratiform units (usually <5-10 m thick) deposited on either ramps or behind rimmed shelves. Basinal evaporites were deposited as thick bedded units 10s to 100s of m thick, and laid down in 4 main tectonic settings--rift, collision, transform, and intracratonic. Basins could be further subdivided into three main depositional settings: deep basin-shallow water, deep basin-deep water, and shallow basin-shallow water. Thick basinal salts were remobilized into salt structures in all tectonic settings except intracratonic. Salt flow was due to inherent instability and differential loading in tectonically active settings. Hydrocarbon accumulations associated with these various platforms and basins followed a predictable, but not mutually exclusive, pattern related to the classification of evaporite settings presented in this paper. Reservoirs in platform and ramp settings tended to be of two types--depositional and diagenetic--with most of the diagenesis following patterns predicted by the porosity and plumbing established at or soon after evaporite emplacement. Ramp reservoirs were almost always found in Zone Y, while shelf reservoirs were most common in the grainstone shoals associated with rim or island-crest facies, or their dolomitized equivalents. Reservoirs associated with basinal evaporites were also depositional or diagenetic. Depositional reservoirs were almost all related to topography present during deposition of the carbonates in the basin, often immediately preceding or just beginning evaporitic conditions in the basin.

  17. Atlantic marginal basins of Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G.T.

    1988-02-01

    The over 10,000-km long Atlantic margin of Africa is divisible into thirty basins or segments of the margin that collectively contain over 18.6 x 10/sup 6/ km/sup 3/ of syn-breakup and post-breakup sediments. Twenty of these basins contain a sufficiently thick volume of sediments to be considered prospects. These basins lie, at least partially, within the 200 m isobath. The distribution of source rocks is broad enough to give potential to each of these basins. The sedimentation patterns, tectonics, and timing of events differ from basin to basin and are related directly to the margin's complex history. Two spreading modes exist: rift and transform. Rifting dates from Late Triassic-Early Jurassic in the northwest to Early Cretaceous south of the Niger Delta. A complex transform fault system separated these two margins. Deep-water communication between the two basins became established in the middle Cretaceous. This Mesozoic-Cenozoic cycle of rifting and seafloor spreading has segmented the margin and where observable, basins tend to be bounded by these segments.

  18. Foreland basins and fold belts

    SciTech Connect

    Macqueen, R.W.; Leckie, D.A. )

    1992-01-01

    The papers in this book describe six foreland basins and fold belts in terms of their regional setting, stratigraphy, tectonics, and structure, and their oil and gas systems. All of the basins show general similarities, but each differs significantly in detail from the others, posing something of a problem in terms of arriving at a 'typical' foreland basin and fold belt. Some are major hydrocarbon producers; others are not. The major characteristics of the six foreland basins and fold belts are summarized in Tables 1 through 5, which provide a convenient means of comparing and contrasting these basins and their hydrocarbon resources. The Western Canada foreland basin and fold belt serves as the type example for several reasons. These include: its setting and clear relationship to a major orogene of Mesozoic-Cenozoic age; the fact that it is uncomplicated by later overprinting, segmentation, or cover rocks unlike the Ouachita, Eastern Venezuela, and U.S. Rocky Mountain foreland basins and fold belts); the fact that there is a large volume of publicly available data on the basin and an active exploration and research community; and the fact that it has reasonable oil and gas reserves in a well-defined stratigraphic framework.

  19. Hydrocarbon associations in evaporite basins

    SciTech Connect

    Warren, J.

    1988-02-01

    Evaporite deposition today is not representative of the diversity or scale of evaporites of the past. Ancient evaporites were deposited in two main settings: platform wide or basin wide. Platform evaporites were composed of relatively thin stratiform units (usually <5-10 m thick) deposited on either ramps or behind rimmed shelves. Basinal evaporites were deposited as thick bedded units 10s to 100s of m thick, and laid down in 4 main tectonic settings - rift, collision, transform, and intracratonic. Basins could be further subdivided into three main depositional settings: deep basin-shallow water, deep basin-deep water, and shallow basin-shallow water. Thick basinal salts were remobilized into salt structures in all tectonic settings except intracratonic. Salt flow was due to inherent instability and differential loading in tectonically active settings. Hydrocarbon accumulations associated with these various platforms and basins followed a predictable, but not mutually exclusive, pattern related to the classification of evaporite settings presented in this paper. Reservoirs in platform and ramp settings tended to be of two types - depositional and diagenetic - with most of the diagenesis following patterns predicted by the porosity and plumbing established at or soon after evaporite emplacement.

  20. Ichnofabric and basin analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bottjer, D.J. ); Droser, M.L. )

    1991-06-01

    Utilization of ichnofabric indices for measuring recorded extent of bioturbation allows comparative studies of ichnofabric between different facies. In vertical sequences, measurements of ichnofabric indices can be normalized to percent of the total thickness measured for each ichnofabric index. These data can be presented as histograms, or ichnograms, when measurements are from strata deposited in a single genetically-defined sedimentary environment. Ichnograms can be used in conjunction with ichnofacies analysis to present a more complete summary of bioturbation in a sedimentary unit. Using a knowledge of the factors which contribute towards producing ichnofabric in different sedimentary environments, the range of possible ichnograms for any environment can be modeled. In addition to ichnograms, an average ichnofabric index also can be calculated as a useful summary characterization of the extent of bioturbation recorded in a sedimentary unit. Through measurement of ichnofabric indices, construction of ichnograms, and calculation of average ichnofabric index, broad-scale summary data are produced that can allow a more complete understanding of the physical and biological dynamics of sedimentary basins, especially when employed in conjunction with other basin analysis approaches.

  1. New Maturin basin, Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, A.R. )

    1989-09-01

    The Maturin basin of eastern Venezuela is an outstanding example of the historical logic of exploration concepts progressively woven into large-scale commercial development. Exploitation of natural asphalt in the basin started with the end of the 19th century. Geological reconnaissance in a systematic way started in 1911; first oil field, Guanoco, was discovered August 15, 1913; first seismic survey was shot in 1934; first giant oil field, Quiriquire, was discovered June 1, 1928. A well completed January 6, 1936, went through a very heavy and viscous tar interval, non-exploitable at the time, the first in the Orinoco Belt field; the preliminary geological evaluation of the 13,000 km{sup 2} accumulation started in 1967, but was done in earnest during 1979-1983. Only one well had been drilled deeper than 5,200 m in 1985, but then for the contrast, the El Furrial trend with many deep giant light crude oil fields was discovered in 1986.

  2. Advanced Chemistry Basins Model

    SciTech Connect

    Blanco, Mario; Cathles, Lawrence; Manhardt, Paul; Meulbroek, Peter; Tang, Yongchun

    2003-02-13

    The objective of this project is to: (1) Develop a database of additional and better maturity indicators for paleo-heat flow calibration; (2) Develop maturation models capable of predicting the chemical composition of hydrocarbons produced by a specific kerogen as a function of maturity, heating rate, etc.; assemble a compositional kinetic database of representative kerogens; (3) Develop a 4 phase equation of state-flash model that can define the physical properties (viscosity, density, etc.) of the products of kerogen maturation, and phase transitions that occur along secondary migration pathways; (4) Build a conventional basin model and incorporate new maturity indicators and data bases in a user-friendly way; (5) Develop an algorithm which combines the volume change and viscosities of the compositional maturation model to predict the chemistry of the hydrocarbons that will be expelled from the kerogen to the secondary migration pathways; (6) Develop an algorithm that predicts the flow of hydrocarbons along secondary migration pathways, accounts for mixing of miscible hydrocarbon components along the pathway, and calculates the phase fractionation that will occur as the hydrocarbons move upward down the geothermal and fluid pressure gradients in the basin; and (7) Integrate the above components into a functional model implemented on a PC or low cost workstation.

  3. Estancia Basin dynamic water budget.

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Richard P.

    2004-09-01

    The Estancia Basin lies about 30 miles to the east of Albuquerque, NM. It is a closed basin in terms of surface water and is somewhat isolated in terms of groundwater. Historically, the primary natural outlet for both surface water and groundwater has been evaporation from the salt lakes in the southeastern portion of the basin. There are no significant watercourses that flow into this basin and groundwater recharge is minimal. During the 20th Century, agriculture grew to become the major user of groundwater in the basin. Significant declines in groundwater levels have accompanied this agricultural use. Domestic and municipal use of the basin groundwater is increasing as Albuquerque population continues to spill eastward into the basin, but this use is projected to be less than 1% of agricultural use well into the 21st Century. This Water Budget model keeps track of the water balance within the basin. The model considers the amount of water entering the basin and leaving the basin. Since there is no significant surface water component within this basin, the balance of water in the groundwater aquifer constitutes the primary component of this balance. Inflow is based on assumptions for recharge made by earlier researchers. Outflow from the basin is the summation of the depletion from all basin water uses. The model user can control future water use within the basin via slider bars that set values for population growth, water system per-capita use, agricultural acreage, and the types of agricultural diversion. The user can also adjust recharge and natural discharge within the limits of uncertainty for those parameters. The model runs for 100 years beginning in 1940 and ending in 2040. During the first 55 years model results can be compared to historical data and estimates of groundwater use. The last 45 years are predictive. The model was calibrated to match to New Mexico Office of State Engineer (NMOSE) estimates of aquifer storage during the historical period by

  4. Thermal history of Michigan basin

    SciTech Connect

    Cercone, K.R.

    1984-02-01

    The elevated organic maturity observed in shallowly buried units from the Michigan basin implies that higher temperatures and thicker overburdens once existed in the basin. Evidence from sediment-accumulation rates, regional dips, and maturity of Pennsylvanian-age coals suggests that up to 1,000 m of sediment were removed by erosion prior to the Late Jurassic, when the basin became stable. Geothermal gradients during Paleozoic basin subsidence probably ranged from 35/sup 0/ to 45/sup 0/ C/ km in contrast to the average present value of 25/sup 0/ C/km. Depths to the top of the oil window ranged from 1,900 to 2,300 m during the Paleozoic. Post-Pennsylvanian erosional uplift and further thermal maturation of the basin have combined to raise the top of the oil window to its present level of 500 m.

  5. Flow ensemble prediction for flash flood warnings at ungauged basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demargne, Julie; Javelle, Pierre; Organde, Didier; Caseri, Angelica; Ramos, Maria-Helena; de Saint Aubin, Céline; Jurdy, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    Flash floods, which are typically triggered by severe rainfall events, are difficult to monitor and predict at the spatial and temporal scales of interest due to large meteorological and hydrologic uncertainties. In particular, uncertainties in quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPF) and quantitative precipitation estimates (QPE) need to be taken into account to provide skillful flash flood warnings with increased warning lead time. In France, the AIGA discharge-threshold flood warning system is currently being enhanced to ingest high-resolution ensemble QPFs from convection-permitting numerical weather prediction (NWP) models, as well as probabilistic QPEs, to improve flash flood warnings for small-to-medium (from 10 to 1000 km²) ungauged basins. The current deterministic AIGA system is operational in the South of France since 2005. It ingests the operational radar-gauge QPE grids from Météo-France to run a simplified hourly distributed hydrologic model at a 1-km² resolution every 15 minutes (Javelle et al. 2014). This produces real-time peak discharge estimates along the river network, which are subsequently compared to regionalized flood frequency estimates of given return periods. Warnings are then provided to the French national hydro-meteorological and flood forecasting centre (SCHAPI) and regional flood forecasting offices, based on the estimated severity of ongoing events. The calibration and regionalization of the hydrologic model has been recently enhanced to implement an operational flash flood warning system for the entire French territory. To quantify the QPF uncertainty, the COSMO-DE-EPS rainfall ensembles from the Deutscher Wetterdienst (20 members at a 2.8-km resolution for a lead time of 21 hours), which are available on the North-eastern part of France, were ingested in the hydrologic model of the AIGA system. Streamflow ensembles were produced and probabilistic flash flood warnings were derived for the Meuse and Moselle river basins and

  6. Integration of sewer system maps in topographically based sub-basin delineation in suburban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankowfsky, Sonja; Branger, Flora; Braud, Isabelle; Rodriguez, Fabrice

    2010-05-01

    " can be made. It encompasses the whole connected sewer system and the topographic catchment boundary. The area of interest is therefore defined. The next step is the determination of the extended drainage network, consisting of the natural river, ditches, combined and separated sewer systems and retention basins. This requires a detailed analysis of sewer system data, field work (mapping of ditches and inlets into the natural river). Contacts with local authorities are also required to keep up-to-date about recent changes. Pure wastewater and drinking water pipes are not integrated in the drainage network. In order to have a unique drainage network for the model, choices might have to be made in case of several coexisting drainage pipes. The urban sub-basins are then delineated with the help of a cadastral map (Rodriguez et al., 2003) or an aerial photography. Each cadastral unit is connected to the closest drainage pipe, following the principle of proximity and gravity. The assembly of all cadastral units connected to one network reach represents one urban sub-basin. The sub-basins in the rural part are calculated using the d8 flow direction and watershed delineation algorithm with "stream burning" (Hutchinson, 1989). One sub-basin is delineated for each reach of the extended drainage network. Some manual corrections of the calculated sub-basins are necessary. Finally, the urban and rural sub-basins are merged by subtraction of the urban area from the rural area and subsequent union of both maps. This method was applied to the Chaudanne catchment, a sub-basin of the Yzeron catchment (ca. 4 km2) in the suburban region of Lyon city, France. The method leads to a 30 % extended catchment area, as compared to the topographic catchment area. For each river inlet the sub-basin area could be determined, as well as for each retention basin. This information can be directly used for the dimensioning of retention basins, pipe diameters, etc.

  7. The deep Ionian Basin revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tugend, Julie; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Arsenikos, Stavros; Frizon de Lamotte, Dominique; Blanpied, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The deep Eastern Mediterranean Basins (Ionian and Herodotus) are characterized by thick sedimentary sequences overlying an extremely thinned basement evidenced from different geophysical methods. Yet, the nature of the crust (continental or oceanic) and the timing of the extreme crustal and lithosphere thinning in the different sub-basins remain highly controversial, casting doubts on the tectonic setting related to the formation of this segment of the North Gondwana paleo-margin. We focus on the Ionian Basin located at the western termination of the Eastern Mediterranean with the aim of identifying, characterizing and mapping the deepest sedimentary sequences. We present tentative age correlations relying on calibrations and observations from the surrounding margins and basins (Malta shelf and Escarpment, Cyrenaica margin, Sirte Basin, Apulian Platform). Two-ship deep refraction seismic data (Expanding Spread Profiles from the PASIPHAE cruise) combined with reprocessed reflection data (from the ARCHIMEDE survey) enabled us to present a homogeneous seismic stratigraphy across the basin and to investigate the velocity structure of its basement. Based on our results, and on a review of geological and geophysical observations, we suggest an Upper Triassic-Early Dogger age for the formation of the deep Ionian Basin. The nature of the underlying basement remains uncertain, both highly-thinned continental and slow-spreading type oceanic crust being compatible with the available constraints. The narrow size and relatively short-lived evolution of the Ionian Basin lead us to suggest that it is more likely the remnant of an immature oceanic basin than of a stable oceanic domain. Eventually, upscaling these results at the scale of the Eastern Mediterranean Basins highlights the complex interaction observed between two propagating oceans: The Central Atlantic and Neo-Tethys.

  8. RESERVES IN WESTERN BASINS PART IV: WIND RIVER BASIN

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Caldwell

    1998-04-01

    Vast quantities of natural gas are entrapped within various tight formations in the Rocky Mountain area. This report seeks to quantify what proportion of that resource can be considered recoverable under today's technological and economic conditions and discusses factors controlling recovery. The ultimate goal of this project is to encourage development of tight gas reserves by industry through reducing the technical and economic risks of locating, drilling and completing commercial tight gas wells. This report is the fourth in a series and focuses on the Wind River Basin located in west central Wyoming. The first three reports presented analyses of the tight gas reserves and resources in the Greater Green River Basin (Scotia, 1993), Piceance Basin (Scotia, 1995) and the Uinta Basin (Scotia, 1995). Since each report is a stand-alone document, duplication of language will exist where common aspects are discussed. This study, and the previous three, describe basin-centered gas deposits (Masters, 1979) which contain vast quantities of natural gas entrapped in low permeability (tight), overpressured sandstones occupying a central basin location. Such deposits are generally continuous and are not conventionally trapped by a structural or stratigraphic seal. Rather, the tight character of the reservoirs prevents rapid migration of the gas, and where rates of gas generation exceed rates of escape, an overpressured basin-centered gas deposit results (Spencer, 1987). Since the temperature is a primary controlling factor for the onset and rate of gas generation, these deposits exist in the deeper, central parts of a basin where temperatures generally exceed 200 F and drill depths exceed 8,000 feet. The abbreviation OPT (overpressured tight) is used when referring to sandstone reservoirs that comprise the basin-centered gas deposit. Because the gas resources trapped in this setting are so large, they represent an important source of future gas supply, prompting studies to

  9. The role of water nitrogen retention in integrated nutrient management: assessment in a large basin using different modelling approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grizzetti, Bruna; Passy, Paul; Billen, Gilles; Bouraoui, Fayçal; Garnier, Josette; Lassaletta, Luis

    2015-06-01

    Assessing the removal of nitrogen (temporary and permanent) in large river basins is complex due to the dependency on climate, hydrological and physical characteristics, and ecosystems functioning. Measurements are generally limited in number and do not account for the full integration of all processes contributing to nitrogen retention in the river basin. However, the estimation of nitrogen retention by the ecosystems is crucial to understanding the nitrate water pollution and the N2O emissions to the atmosphere, as well as the lag time between the implementation of agri-environmental measures to reduce nitrogen pollution and the improvement of water quality. Models have often been used to understand the dynamics of the river basin system. The objective of this study was to assess nitrogen retention in a large river basin, the Seine basin (∼65 000 km2, in France), through the application of three models with different levels of complexity developed for different specific purposes: the GREEN, SWAT and RiverStrahler models. The study analyses the different modelling approaches and compares their estimates of water nitrogen retention over an 11-year period. Then reflexions on the role played by nitrogen retention by aquatic ecosystems in integrated nutrient management are presented. The results of this study are relevant for the understanding of nitrogen retention processes at the large river basin scale and for the analysis of mitigation measure scenarios designed to reduce nitrogen impacts on aquatic ecosystems and climate.

  10. Fecal bacteria in the rivers of the Seine drainage network (France): sources, fate and modelling.

    PubMed

    Servais, Pierre; Garcia-Armisen, Tamara; George, Isabelle; Billen, Gilles

    2007-04-01

    The Seine river watershed (France) is a deeply anthropogenically impacted area, due to the high population density, intense industrial activities and intensive agriculture. The water quality and ecological functioning of the different rivers of the Seine drainage network have been extensively studied during the last fifteen years within the framework of a large French multidisciplinary scientific program (PIREN Seine program). This paper presents a synthesis of the main data gained in the scope of this program concerning the microbiological water contamination of the rivers of the Seine drainage network. The more common indicator of fecal contamination (fecal coliforms) was mainly used; some complementary works used E. coli and intestinal enterococci as alternative fecal indicators. Point sources (outfall of wastewater treatment plants) and non point sources (surface runoff and soil leaching) of fecal pollution to the rivers of the watershed were quantified. Results showed that, at the scale of a large urbanised watershed as the Seine basin, the input of fecal micro-organisms by non-point sources is much lower than the inputs by point sources. However, the local impact of diffuse non-human sources (especially surface runoff of pastured fields) can be of major importance on the microbiological quality of small headwater rivers. Fecal contamination of the main rivers of the Seine watershed (Seine, Marne, Oise rivers) was studied showing high level of microbiological pollution when compared to European guidelines for bathing waters. The strong negative impact of treated wastewater effluents outfall on the microbiological quality of receiving rivers was observed in different areas of the watershed. Once released in rivers, culturable fecal bacteria disappeared relatively rapidly due to mortality (protozoan grazing, lysis) or loss of culturability induced by stress conditions (sunlight effect, nutrient concentration, temperature). Mortality rates of E. coli were studied

  11. Factors controlling growth and morphology of early Miocene stromatolites from Montaigu-le-Blin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bontognali, Tomaso R. R.; Barilaro, Federica; McKenzie, Judith A.; Vasconcelos, Crisogono

    2015-04-01

    A large variety of stromatolite morphotypes are present in the early Miocene sedimentary sequence that outcrops in the region of Montaigu-le-Blin, France. Thanks to its good degree of preservation, this formation is an ideal place to evaluate the key factors controlling the occurrence and morphology of the stromatolites, as well as to study the diagenetic processes that transform a soft, slimy lithifying microbialite into a solid, laminated sedimentary rock. Facies analysis suggests that the Montaigu-le-Blin stromatolites formed in shallow waters, in a restricted, laterally heterogeneous basin. Various evidence suggests a biological origin for the stromatolites, whose formation cannot be explained through abiotic background precipitation driven by evaporation, temperature changes, or migration of metamorphic fluids. Microscopic observations revealed that the Montaigu-le-Blin stromatolites are mainly comprised of authigenic calcite that precipitated directly from the basin waters (no evidence for trapping and binding) in close association with algae, microbial cells, and exopolymeric substances. Well-preserved microfossils of photosynthetic organisms are widespread within the thin sections. The calcite constituting the stromatolites is characterized by positive δ13C values (1.7 to 4.4 o), suggesting that microbial mediation of calcite was mainly related to the metabolic activity of photosynthetic organisms or anoxygenic phototrophs, and not to metabolisms in which organic material is degraded (e.g. sulfate reduction). The laminated habit of the stromatolites results from alternating layers of porous, digit-like sparite and more compacted organic-rich micrite. No correlation was identified, through isotopic analysis, between these two types of laminae and external environmental factors (i.e. temperature, salinity, eutrophication state). Rather, we hypothesize that periodic fluctuations in the dominant microbial/algal species within the mat influenced the morphology

  12. HIV type 1 diversity in northern Paris, France.

    PubMed

    Simon, F; Loussert-Ajaka, I; Damond, F; Saragosti, S; Barin, F; Brun-Vézinet, F

    1996-10-10

    During a 6-month period, we studied the diversity of HIV-1 subtypes in 392 adult patients seen in Bichat-Claude Bernard Hospital, northern Paris, France. All the samples were serotyped and a subset was genotyped by means of HMA. Serotyping was performed with a new peptide subtype-specific EIA (SSEIA), based on in vitro competition for antibody binding between the representative V3 peptides of the different clades (A to E). HMA with plasmids from clades A to H gave unambiguous results on 105 of the 116 samples tested. The agreement between SSEIA and HMA was 36/41 for subtype B, 2/2 for subtype D, and 4/5 for subtype E. We found a discrepancy in the results between clade A and C: the patients with sera reacting to peptide C were confirmed by HMA as being infected by clade A strains. Three patients reactive with peptide A were infected by a subtype F. These results indicate that peptide cross-reactivity, even in the SSEIA format, hinders serotyping. In 11 samples, all from African patients, the subtype remained indeterminate because PCR or HMA failed. Caucasian patients (n = 223) were mainly infected by subtype B. HMA and/or SSEIA revealed non-subtype B infection in 14 Caucasians, who were infected by the sexual route overseas or in France. Patients originating from other countries (mainly in Africa) exhibited a broad strain diversity, with most of the different subtypes so far described being represented. This study confirms the frequency of subtype B strains in Caucasians living in France, but emphasizes the emergence of the different HIV-1 subtypes in Paris, together with the extent of strain trafficking. Discordances between serotype and genotype assays confirm that both tests require additional development.

  13. Improving ammonia emissions in air quality modelling for France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Meleux, Frédérik; Beekmann, Matthias; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Génermont, Sophie; Cellier, Pierre; Létinois, Laurent

    2014-08-01

    We have implemented a new module to improve the representation of ammonia emissions from agricultural activities in France with the objective to evaluate the impact of such emissions on the formation of particulate matter modelled with the air quality model CHIMERE. A novel method has been set up for the part of ammonia emissions originating from mineral fertilizer spreading. They are calculated using the one dimensional 1D mechanistic model “VOLT'AIR” which has been coupled with data on agricultural practices, meteorology and soil properties obtained at high spatial resolution (cantonal level). These emissions display high spatiotemporal variations depending on soil pH, rates and dates of fertilization and meteorological variables, especially soil temperature. The emissions from other agricultural sources (animal housing, manure storage and organic manure spreading) are calculated using the national spatialised inventory (INS) recently developed in France. The comparison of the total ammonia emissions estimated with the new approach VOLT'AIR_INS with the standard emissions provided by EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) used currently in the CHIMERE model shows significant differences in the spatiotemporal distributions. The implementation of new ammonia emissions in the CHIMERE model has a limited impact on ammonium nitrate aerosol concentrations which only increase at most by 10% on the average for the considered spring period but this impact can be more significant for specific pollution episodes. The comparison of modelled PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm) and ammonium nitrate aerosol with observations shows that the use of the new ammonia emission method slightly improves the spatiotemporal correlation in certain regions and reduces the negative bias on average by 1 μg m-3. The formation of ammonium nitrate aerosol depends not only on ammonia concentrations but also on nitric acid availability, which

  14. Spatial distribution of soil organic carbon stocks in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, M. P.; Wattenbach, M.; Smith, P.; Meersmans, J.; Jolivet, C.; Boulonne, L.; Arrouays, D.

    2011-05-01

    Soil organic carbon plays a major role in the global carbon budget, and can act as a source or a sink of atmospheric carbon, thereby possibly influencing the course of climate change. Changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks are now taken into account in international negotiations regarding climate change. Consequently, developing sampling schemes and models for estimating the spatial distribution of SOC stocks is a priority. The French soil monitoring network has been established on a 16 km × 16 km grid and the first sampling campaign has recently been completed, providing around 2200 measurements of stocks of soil organic carbon, obtained through an in situ composite sampling, uniformly distributed over the French territory. We calibrated a boosted regression tree model on the observed stocks, modelling SOC stocks as a function of other variables such as climatic parameters, vegetation net primary productivity, soil properties and land use. The calibrated model was evaluated through cross-validation and eventually used for estimating SOC stocks for mainland France. Two other models were calibrated on forest and agricultural soils separately, in order to assess more precisely the influence of pedo-climatic variables on SOC for such soils. The boosted regression tree model showed good predictive ability, and enabled quantification of relationships between SOC stocks and pedo-climatic variables (plus their interactions) over the French territory. These relationships strongly depended on the land use, and more specifically, differed between forest soils and cultivated soil. The total estimate of SOC stocks in France was 3.260 ± 0.872 PgC for the first 30 cm. It was compared to another estimate, based on the previously published European soil organic carbon and bulk density maps, of 5.303 PgC. We demonstrate that the present estimate might better represent the actual SOC stock distributions of France, and consequently that the previously published approach at the

  15. Spatial distribution of soil organic carbon stocks in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, M. P.; Wattenbach, M.; Smith, P.; Meersmans, J.; Jolivet, C.; Boulonne, L.; Arrouays, D.

    2010-11-01

    Soil organic carbon plays a major role in the global carbon budget, and can act as a source or a sink of atmospheric carbon, whereby it can influence the course of climate change. Changes in soil organic soil stocks (SOCS) are now taken into account in international negotiations regarding climate change. Consequently, developing sampling schemes and models for estimating the spatial distribution of SOCS is a priority. The French soil monitoring network has been established on a 16 km × 16 km grid and the first sampling campaign has recently been completed, providing circa 2200 measurements of stocks of soil organic carbon, obtained through an in situ composite sampling, uniformly distributed over the French territory. We calibrated a boosted regression tree model on the observed stocks, modelling SOCS as a function of other variables such as climatic parameters, vegetation net primary productivity, soil properties and land use. The calibrated model was evaluated through cross-validation and eventually used for estimating SOCS for the whole of metropolitan France. Two other models were calibrated on forest and agricultural soils separately, in order to assess more precisely the influence of pedo-climatic variables on soil organic carbon for such soils. The boosted regression tree model showed good predictive ability, and enabled quantification of relationships between SOCS and pedo-climatic variables (plus their interactions) over the French territory. These relationship strongly depended on the land use, and more specifically differed between forest soils and cultivated soil. The total estimate of SOCS in France was 3.260 ± 0.872 PgC for the first 30 cm. It was compared to another estimate, based on the previously published European soil organic carbon and bulk density maps, of 5.303 PgC. We demonstrate that the present estimate might better represent the actual SOCS distributions of France, and consequently that the previously published approach at the European

  16. Large number of imported chikungunya cases in mainland France, 2014: a challenge for surveillance and response.

    PubMed

    Paty, M C; Six, C; Charlet, F; Heuzé, G; Cochet, A; Wiegandt, A; Chappert, J L; Dejour-Salamanca, D; Guinard, A; Soler, P; Servas, V; Vivier-Darrigol, M; Ledrans, M; Debruyne, M; Schaal, O; Jeannin, C; Helynck, B; Leparc-Goffart, I; Coignard, B

    2014-01-01

    During the summer of 2014, all the pre-requisites for autochthonous transmission of chikungunya virus are present in southern France: a competent vector, Aedes albopictus, and a large number of travellers returning from the French Caribbean islands where an outbreak is occurring. We describe the system implemented for the surveillance of chikungunya and dengue in mainland France. From 2 May to 4 July 2014, there were 126 laboratory-confirmed imported chikungunya cases in mainland France.

  17. What strategy should France implement for H2020?

    PubMed

    Dhainaut, Jean-François; Diebolt, Vincent; Pouletty-Lefèbvre, Brigitte; Baker, Angela; Bassompierre, François; Borel, Thomas; Braunstein, David; Demotes, Jacques; François, Bruno; Huet, Stéphane; Micallef, Joëlle; Misse, Christophe; Molon, Annamaria; Rascol, Olivier; Ravoire, Sophie; Schwartz, Bertrand; Donne, Nathalie; Donne, Nathalie; Fusaï, Guillaume; Pouletty, Philippe; Vicaut, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The initiation of Horizon 2020--the European Union's 8th Framework Programme for Research and Innovation, allotted a budget of 79 billion euros--provides an opportunity to review France's participation in previous Framework Programmes. Indeed, French participation does not match either its scientific importance or its financial investment. While France contributed 16.5 to 17% of the EU's 7th Framework Programme research budget, its return through the funding of coordinated projects in which French teams are participating stands at around 12.5 to 13%, a shortfall of 600 million euros. Although the situation depends on the type of activity, French participation in clinical research appears to be smaller than that of its neighbours, with fewer responses to European calls for proposals. While France has many assets, which include the assured funding of clinical research, structured thematic networks and the initiation of major national programmes, it suffers from the dilution of resources due to France's regional development policy, the lack of multidisciplinarity and the ignorance of both the medical and scientific community and the institutions to which they belong as to how Horizon 2020 actually works. We propose three types of strategy to encourage proposals for coordinated clinical research projects or projects involving French teams, and to help in the drawing up of applications: Broaden the vision of our children, students and colleagues, helping them to adapt to the globalisation of knowledge throughout their educational and professional lives. Recognise the value of European actions to influence the European landscape and change mentalities. Help and support project initiators by pooling skills within a limited number of expert centres designed to assist them in their funding application. • Broaden the vision of our children, students and colleagues, helping them to adapt to the globalisation of knowledge throughout their educational and professional lives

  18. [Ventilators for anesthesia. Models available in France. Criteria for choice].

    PubMed

    Otteni, J C; Ancellin, J; Cazalaà, J B; Clergue, F; Feiss, P; Fougère, S; Nivoche, Y; Safran, D

    1995-01-01

    This update article discusses the criteria for the choice of an anaesthetic machine and provides a short analysis of the main components of the models commercialized in France in 1994. The following items are considered: the design of the machine, the fresh gas delivery system, the anaesthesia breathing system(s), the ventilator and the waste gas scavenging system, the monitors associated with the machine and other criteria such as facility of learning to run the machine and of its daily use, ease of "in-house" maintenance and quality of after-sales service, cost of the machine and of its use (driving gas, disposable equipment). PMID:7677278

  19. The GMO case in France: Politics, lawlessness and postmodernism

    PubMed Central

    Kuntz, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    The GMO debacle in France is analyzed in the light of the balance of forces around this controversy, the changes in position of governments and the opponents’ strategic use of intimidation. These factors have caused insurmountable difficulties for scientific experimentations and assessment of the technology, as well as for farmers attempting to grow GM maize in this country. The change from a “modern” to a “postmodern” framing of official public debates and scientific institutions has not appeased confrontations concerning GMOs. PMID:25437234

  20. 10-year update of Stirling cryogenic coolers in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Jean-Yves

    2000-12-01

    This paper enters in the scope of the session on 10-year update of IR in France. Cryotechnologies is a leader in both the French and European markets as a designer and manufacturer of cryogenic coolers. Serial production of the first generation of Stirling cryocoolers started at Cryotechnologies in the late eighties. A range of integral Stirling coolers is nowadays available and completes the existing range of split Stirling cryocoolers. Technical improvements are keeping up with the market evolutions and new potential applications (costs reduction, fast cooldown time, increase of cooling power, very high reliability, pulse tube cold finger).

  1. Severe peritonitis due to Balantidium coli acquired in France.

    PubMed

    Ferry, T; Bouhour, D; De Monbrison, F; Laurent, F; Dumouchel-Champagne, H; Picot, S; Piens, M A; Granier, P

    2004-05-01

    The case reported here concerns an alcoholic pork-butcher who presented with severe colitis with peritonitis, caused by the only ciliate protozoan capable of infecting humans, Balantidium coli. This parasite is common in a variety of domestic and wild mammals, mainly pigs; however, its prevalence rate in humans is very low--particularly in industrialised, northern countries, including France. The infection is most frequently acquired by ingesting food or water contaminated by pig faeces, and it may be asymptomatic or may cause acute diarrhoea. Specific antibiotic treatment is efficacious, and it is important to consider the risk of this parasitic disease in susceptible patients presenting with bloody diarrhoea. PMID:15112068

  2. Remote sensing of biomass of salt marsh vegetation in France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, M. F.; Klemas, V.; Levasseur, J. E.

    1988-01-01

    Spectral data (gathered using a hand-held radiometer) and harvest data were collected from four salt marsh vegetation types in Brittany, France, to develop equations predicting live aerial biomass from spectral measurements. Remote sensing estimates of biomass of the general salt marsh community (GSM) and of Spartina alterniflora can be obtained throughout the growing season if separate biomass prediction equations are formulated for different species mixtures (for the GSM) and for different canopy types (for S. alterniflora). Results suggest that remote sensing will not be useful for predicting Halimione portulacoides biomass, but can be used to estimate Puccinellia maritima biomass early in the growing season.

  3. What strategy should France implement for H2020?

    PubMed

    Dhainaut, Jean-François; Diebolt, Vincent; Pouletty-Lefèbvre, Brigitte; Baker, Angela; Bassompierre, François; Borel, Thomas; Braunstein, David; Demotes, Jacques; François, Bruno; Huet, Stéphane; Micallef, Joëlle; Misse, Christophe; Molon, Annamaria; Rascol, Olivier; Ravoire, Sophie; Schwartz, Bertrand; Donne, Nathalie; Donne, Nathalie; Fusaï, Guillaume; Pouletty, Philippe; Vicaut, Eric

    2015-01-01

    The initiation of Horizon 2020--the European Union's 8th Framework Programme for Research and Innovation, allotted a budget of 79 billion euros--provides an opportunity to review France's participation in previous Framework Programmes. Indeed, French participation does not match either its scientific importance or its financial investment. While France contributed 16.5 to 17% of the EU's 7th Framework Programme research budget, its return through the funding of coordinated projects in which French teams are participating stands at around 12.5 to 13%, a shortfall of 600 million euros. Although the situation depends on the type of activity, French participation in clinical research appears to be smaller than that of its neighbours, with fewer responses to European calls for proposals. While France has many assets, which include the assured funding of clinical research, structured thematic networks and the initiation of major national programmes, it suffers from the dilution of resources due to France's regional development policy, the lack of multidisciplinarity and the ignorance of both the medical and scientific community and the institutions to which they belong as to how Horizon 2020 actually works. We propose three types of strategy to encourage proposals for coordinated clinical research projects or projects involving French teams, and to help in the drawing up of applications: Broaden the vision of our children, students and colleagues, helping them to adapt to the globalisation of knowledge throughout their educational and professional lives. Recognise the value of European actions to influence the European landscape and change mentalities. Help and support project initiators by pooling skills within a limited number of expert centres designed to assist them in their funding application. • Broaden the vision of our children, students and colleagues, helping them to adapt to the globalisation of knowledge throughout their educational and professional lives

  4. The contract facilities for gamma irradiation at Dagneux, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellerin, D.; Kavanagh, M. T.

    CONSERVATOME SA have operated a facility at DAGNEUX near LYON, France since 1961. This operation is among the very first of its kind in the entire world. The process is based on gamma rays from Cobalt 60 of which there are three separate units. In addition there is a small experimental unit using Cesium 137. At present CONSERVATOME is owned by TRANSNUCLEAIRE and EPICEA as principal shareholders and so has the support of the French Atomic Energy Commission. This paper describes the larger D3 unit and reviews some of the products treated at DAGNEUX.

  5. Remote Operations of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeulen, T.; Thomas, J.; Burdullis, T.

    2014-05-01

    In 2007, the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) started a project with the goal to enable remote control of the Mauna Kea observatory from the Headquarters facility in Waimea. After a few years of development effort the observatory has operated exclusively in a remote fashion since the beginning of 2011. This paper will discuss the entire lifecycle of the project from design and development to the successful implementation and ongoing operation of remote observing. Special emphasis will be given to the challenges, successes and lessons learned along the way.

  6. Time transfer by laser link between China and France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, C.; Ni, W. T.; Samain, E.

    2008-07-01

    To advance from milli-arcsecond to micro-arcsecond astrometry, time keeping capability and its comparison among different stations need to be improved and enhanced. The T2L2 (Time transfer by laser link) experiment under development at OCA and CNES to be launched in 2008 on Jason-2, allows the synchronization of remote clocks on Earth. It is based on the propagation of light pulses in space which is better controlled than propagation of radio waves. In this paper, characteristics are presented for both a common view and non-common view T2L2 comparisons of clocks between China and France.

  7. Anthropophile elements in river sediments: Overview from the Seine River, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiu-Bin; Gaillardet, Jérôme; Bouchez, Julien; Louvat, Pascale; Wang, Yi-Na

    2014-11-01

    contrast to larger river systems that drain relatively pristine basins, little is known about the sediment geochemistry of rivers impacted by intense human activities. In this paper, we present a systematic investigation of the anthropogenic overprints on element geochemistry in sediments of the human-impacted Seine River, France. Most elements are fractionated by grain size, as shown by the comparison between suspended particulate matter (SPM) and riverbank deposits (RBD). The RBD are particularly coarse and enriched in carbonates and heavy minerals and thus in elements such as Ba, Ca, Cr, Hf, Mg, Na, REEs, Sr, Ti, Th, and Zr. Although the enrichment/depletion pattern of some elements (e.g., K, REEs, and Zr) can largely be explained by a binary mixture between two sources, other elements such as Ag, Bi, Cr, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, W, and Zn in SPM in Paris show that a third end-member having anthropogenic characteristics is needed to account for their enrichment at low water stage. These "anthropophile" elements, with high enrichment factors (EFs) relative to the upper continental crust (UCC), display a progressive enrichment downstream and different geochemical behaviors with respect to the hydrodynamic conditions (e.g., grain size) compared to elements having mainly a natural origin. Our findings emphasize the need for systematic studies of these anthropophile elements in other human-impacted rivers using geochemical normalization techniques, and stress the importance of studying the chemical variability associated with hydrodynamic conditions when characterizing riverine element geochemistry and assessing their flux to the ocean.

  8. Influence of fluvial environments on sediment archiving processes and temporal pollutant dynamics (Upper Loire River, France).

    PubMed

    Dhivert, E; Grosbois, C; Rodrigues, S; Desmet, M

    2015-02-01

    Floodplains are often cored to build long-term pollutant trends at the basin scale. To highlight the influences of depositional environments on archiving processes, aggradation rates, archived trace element signals and vertical redistribution processes, two floodplain cores were sampled near in two different environments of the Upper Loire River (France): (i) a river bank ridge and (ii) a paleochannel connected by its downstream end. The base of the river bank core is composed of sandy sediments from the end of the Little Ice Age (late 18th century). This composition corresponds to a proximal floodplain aggradation (<50 m from the river channel) and delimits successive depositional steps related to progressive disconnection degree dynamism. This temporal evolution of depositional environments is associated with mineralogical sorting and variable natural trace element signals, even in the <63-μm fraction. The paleochannel core and upper part of the river bank core are composed of fine-grained sediments that settled in the distal floodplain. In this distal floodplain environment, the aggradation rate depends on the topography and connection degree to the river channel. The temporal dynamics of anthropogenic trace element enrichments recorded in the distal floodplain are initially synchronous and present similar levels. Although the river bank core shows general temporal trends, the paleochannel core has a better resolution for short-time variations of trace element signals. After local water depth regulation began in the early 1930s, differences of connection degree were enhanced between the two cores. Therefore, large trace element signal divergences are recorded across the floodplain. The paleochannel core shows important temporal variations of enrichment levels from the 1930s to the coring date. However, the river bank core has no significant temporal variations of trace element enrichments and lower contamination levels because of a lower deposition of

  9. Influence of fluvial environments on sediment archiving processes and temporal pollutant dynamics (Upper Loire River, France).

    PubMed

    Dhivert, E; Grosbois, C; Rodrigues, S; Desmet, M

    2015-02-01

    Floodplains are often cored to build long-term pollutant trends at the basin scale. To highlight the influences of depositional environments on archiving processes, aggradation rates, archived trace element signals and vertical redistribution processes, two floodplain cores were sampled near in two different environments of the Upper Loire River (France): (i) a river bank ridge and (ii) a paleochannel connected by its downstream end. The base of the river bank core is composed of sandy sediments from the end of the Little Ice Age (late 18th century). This composition corresponds to a proximal floodplain aggradation (<50 m from the river channel) and delimits successive depositional steps related to progressive disconnection degree dynamism. This temporal evolution of depositional environments is associated with mineralogical sorting and variable natural trace element signals, even in the <63-μm fraction. The paleochannel core and upper part of the river bank core are composed of fine-grained sediments that settled in the distal floodplain. In this distal floodplain environment, the aggradation rate depends on the topography and connection degree to the river channel. The temporal dynamics of anthropogenic trace element enrichments recorded in the distal floodplain are initially synchronous and present similar levels. Although the river bank core shows general temporal trends, the paleochannel core has a better resolution for short-time variations of trace element signals. After local water depth regulation began in the early 1930s, differences of connection degree were enhanced between the two cores. Therefore, large trace element signal divergences are recorded across the floodplain. The paleochannel core shows important temporal variations of enrichment levels from the 1930s to the coring date. However, the river bank core has no significant temporal variations of trace element enrichments and lower contamination levels because of a lower deposition of

  10. Aleutian basin oceanic crust

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Christeson, Gail L.; Barth, Ginger A.

    2015-01-01

    We present two-dimensional P-wave velocity structure along two wide-angle ocean bottom seismometer profiles from the Aleutian basin in the Bering Sea. The basement here is commonly considered to be trapped oceanic crust, yet there is a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features within the basin that might reflect later processes. Line 1 extends ∼225 km from southwest to northeast, while Line 2 extends ∼225 km from northwest to southeast and crosses the observed change in magnetic lineation orientation. Velocities of the sediment layer increase from 2.0 km/s at the seafloor to 3.0–3.4 km/s just above basement, crustal velocities increase from 5.1–5.6 km/s at the top of basement to 7.0–7.1 km/s at the base of the crust, and upper mantle velocities are 8.1–8.2 km/s. Average sediment thickness is 3.8–3.9 km for both profiles. Crustal thickness varies from 6.2 to 9.6 km, with average thickness of 7.2 km on Line 1 and 8.8 km on Line 2. There is no clear change in crustal structure associated with a change in orientation of magnetic lineations and gravity features. The velocity structure is consistent with that of normal or thickened oceanic crust. The observed increase in crustal thickness from west to east is interpreted as reflecting an increase in melt supply during crustal formation.

  11. K-Basins design guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Roe, N.R.; Mills, W.C.

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of the design guidelines is to enable SNF and K Basin personnel to complete fuel and sludge removal, and basin water mitigation by providing engineering guidance for equipment design for the fuel basin, facility modifications (upgrades), remote tools, and new processes. It is not intended to be a purchase order reference for vendors. The document identifies materials, methods, and components that work at K Basins; it also Provides design input and a technical review process to facilitate project interfaces with operations in K Basins. This document is intended to compliment other engineering documentation used at K Basins and throughout the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project. Significant provisions, which are incorporated, include portions of the following: General Design Criteria (DOE 1989), Standard Engineering Practices (WHC-CM-6-1), Engineering Practices Guidelines (WHC 1994b), Hanford Plant Standards (DOE-RL 1989), Safety Analysis Manual (WHC-CM-4-46), and Radiological Design Guide (WHC 1994f). Documents (requirements) essential to the engineering design projects at K Basins are referenced in the guidelines.

  12. KE Basin Sludge Flocculant Testing

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Andrew J.; Hallen, Richard T.; Muzatko, Danielle S.; Gano, Sue

    2004-06-23

    In the revised path forward and schedule for the K Basins Sludge Retrieval and Disposal Project, the sludge in K East (KE) Basin will be moved from the floor and pits and transferred to large, free-standing containers located in the pits (so as to isolate the sludge from the basin). When the sludge is pumped into the containers, it must settle fast enough and clarify sufficiently that the overflow water returned to the basin pool will not cloud the water or significantly increase the radiological dose rate to the operations staff as a result of increased suspended radioactive material. The approach being evaluated to enhance sludge settling and speed the rate of clarification is to add a flocculant to the sludge while it is being transferred to the containers. In February 2004, seven commercial flocculants were tested with a specific K Basin sludge simulant to identify those agents that demonstrated good performance over a broad range of slurry solids concentrations. From this testing, a cationic polymer flocculant, Nalco Optimer 7194 Plus (7194+), was shown to exhibit superior performance. Related prior testing with K Basin sludge and simulant in 1994/1996 had also identified this agent as promising. In March 2004, four series of jar tests were conducted with 7194+ and actual KE Basin sludge (prepared by combining selected archived KE sludge samples). The results from these jar tests show that 7194+ greatly improves settling of the sludge slurries and clarification of the supernatant.

  13. Characterization of remarkable floods in France, a transdisciplinary approach applied on generalized floods of January 1910

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudou, Martin; Lang, Michel; Vinet, Freddy; Coeur, Denis

    2014-05-01

    . The January 1910's flood is one of these remarkable floods. This event is foremost known for its aftermaths on the Seine basin, where the flood remains the strongest recorded in Paris since 1658. However, its impacts were also widespread to France's Eastern regions (Martin, 2001). To demonstrate the evaluation grid's interest, we propose a deep analysis of the 1910's river flood with the integration of historical documentation. The approach focus on eastern France where the flood remains the highest recorded for several rivers but were often neglected by scientists in favor of Paris's flood. Through a transdisciplinary research based on the evaluation grid method, we will describe the January 1910 flood event and define why it can be considered as a remarkable flood for these regions.

  14. Basin development and petroleum potential of offshore Otway basin, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Williamson, P.E.; O'Brien, G.W.; Swift, M.G.; Scherl, A.S.; Marlow, M.S.; Exon, N.F.; Falvey, D.A.; Lock, J.; Lockwood, K.

    1987-05-01

    The Bass Strait region in southeastern Australia contains three sedimentary basins, which are, from east to west, the Gippsland, Bass, and Otway basins. The offshore Gippsland basin is Australia's most prolific petroleum-producing province and supplies over 90% of the country's production. In contrast, exploration has been unsuccessful in the offshore portion of the Otway basin; 17 wells have been drilled, and although shows of oil and gas have been common, no commercial discoveries have been made. Many of these wells, drilled in the 1960s and 1970s, were sited using poor-quality seismic data and, as a consequence, were frequently off structure. Seismic data quality has, however, improved significantly in recent years. The present study by the Australian Bureau of Mineral Resources (BMR) involved the collection, in the offshore Otway basin, of 3700 km of high-quality, 48-channel seismic reflection data by the BMR research vessel R/V Rig Seismic. These data have been integrated with existing industry seismic data, well data, limited dredged material, and geohistory analyses in a framework study of basin development and hydrocarbon potential in this under-explored area. The offshore Otway basin extends 500 km along the southern coastline and is typically 50 km wide in water depths of less than 200 m. It contains up to 10 km of predominantly late Mesozoic to early Cenozoic sediments, which are overlain by a thin sequence of middle to late Tertiary shelf carbonates. It has been divided into three main structural elements: the Mussel Platform in the east, the central Voluta Trough, and the Crayfish Platform in the west. The basin was initiated at the end of the Jurassic as part of the Bassian rift. Up to 6 km of Lower Cretaceous sediments were deposited prior to breakup at the end of the Early Cretaceous and the onset of sea-floor spreading between Australia and Antarctica.

  15. Pleistocene deformations in the contexte of the Rharb foredeep basin (north western Atlantic Moroccan margin)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maad, N.; Le Roy, P.; Sahabi, M.; Gutscher, M. A.; Dakki, M.; Hssain, M.; van Vliet-Lanoë, B.; Brahim, L. Ait; M'hammdi, N.; Trenteseaux, A.

    2009-04-01

    This study relates to the Cenozoic post rift deformations of Rharb foredeep basin in response to the Europe-Africa convergence. Here we are going to retail the tectonic structures of the Rharb basin, in particular the active front of the Prerifaine nappe in the area of Lalla Zahra. The method is based on the interpretations of the high resolution seismic reflection data acquired during the Protit2 (2003) and the Nomads cruises (2007). The surveys were conducted by the University of Brest in France and the Faculté des Sciences d'El Jadida in Morocco. They allowed to record more than 2000 km of seismic lines through the Rharb continental shelf. The integration of new data with industrial seismic lines provided by ONHYM and field observations collected along the coastline allows us to identify the formation and the recent evolution of the western termination of the Southern Rif Corridor. This coastal basin corresponds to the foredeep basin linked to the Rif Cordillera and extends southwards through the northern Moroccan Meseta that defines the foreland region of the Western Rif (Flinch,93). The integrated study clarifies the post-nappe evolution of the offshore Rharb basin during Neogene and quaternary times. A succession of deformations affect the Rharb basin with separating episodes of relaxation and quiescence. Their ages are based on chronostratigraphical attribution of mean unconformities. A Lower Pliocene episode is characterized by reactivation of faults affecting the Nappe. The uplift of the basin and the individualization of the Lallah Zarah ridge increases and controls the terrigenous fluxes. A Middle Pleistocene still active episode and corresponds to a new uplift of the two margins of the basin. Faulting remains more active in the North along the Lallah Zarah ridge and offshore Larache where large active listric faults are observed. The progressive segmentation of the basin determinates the sedimentary filling with cyclic sequences extending progressively

  16. Forensic mental health assessment in France: recommendations for quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Combalbert, Nicolas; Andronikof, Anne; Armand, Marine; Robin, Cécile; Bazex, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    The quality of forensic mental health assessment has been a growing concern in various countries on both sides of the Atlantic, but the legal systems are not always comparable and some aspects of forensic assessment are specific to a given country. This paper describes the legal context of forensic psychological assessment in France (i.e. pre-trial investigation phase entrusted to a judge, with mental health assessment performed by preselected professionals called "experts" in French), its advantages and its pitfalls. Forensic psychiatric or psychological assessment is often an essential and decisive element in criminal cases, but since a judiciary scandal which was made public in 2005 (the Outreau case) there has been increasing criticism from the public and the legal profession regarding the reliability of clinical conclusions. Several academic studies and a parliamentary report have highlighted various faulty aspects in both the judiciary process and the mental health assessments. The heterogeneity of expert practices in France appears to be mainly related to a lack of consensus on several core notions such as mental health diagnosis or assessment methods, poor working conditions, lack of specialized training, and insufficient familiarity with the Code of Ethics. In this article we describe and analyze the French practice of forensic psychologists and psychiatrists in criminal cases and propose steps that could be taken to improve its quality, such as setting up specialized training courses, enforcing the Code of Ethics for psychologists, and calling for consensus on diagnostic and assessment methods. PMID:24631526

  17. Comparing soil moisture retrievals from SMOS and ASCAT over France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrens, M.; Zakharova, E.; Lafont, S.; Calvet, J.-C.; Kerr, Y.; Wagner, W.; Wigneron, J.-P.

    2011-09-01

    The first products derived over France in 2010 from the L-band brightness temperatures (Tb) measured by the SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) satellite, launched in November 2009, were compared with the surface soil moisture (SSM) estimates produced by the C-band Advanced Scatterometter, ASCAT, launched in 2006 on board METOP-A. SMOS and ASCAT SSM products were compared with the simulations of the ISBA-A-gs model and with in situ measurements from the SMOSMANIA network, including 21 stations located in southern France. ASCAT tended to correlate better than SMOS with ISBA-A-gs. The significant anomaly correlation coefficients between in situ observations and the SMOS (ASCAT) product ranged from 0.23 to 0.48 (0.35 to 0.96). However, in wet conditions, similar results between the two satellite products were found. An attempt was made to derive SSM from regressed empirical logarithmic equations using a combination of SMOS Tb at different incidence angles and different polarizations, and the Leaf Area Index (LAI) modeled by ISBA-A-gs. The analysis of the intercept coefficient of the regression showed an impact of topography. A similar analysis applied to ASCAT and SMOS SSM values showed a more limited impact of topography on the intercept coefficient of the SMOS SSM product, while fewer residual geographic patterns were found for the ASCAT SSM.

  18. Comparing soil moisture retrievals from SMOS and ASCAT over France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrens, M.; Zakharova, E.; Lafont, S.; Calvet, J.-C.; Kerr, Y.; Wagner, W.; Wigneron, J.-P.

    2012-02-01

    The first products derived over France in 2010 from the L-band brightness temperatures (Tb) measured by the SMOS (Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity) satellite, launched in November 2009, were compared with the surface soil moisture (SSM) estimates produced by the C-band Advanced Scatterometer, ASCAT, launched in 2006 on board METOP-A. SMOS and ASCAT SSM products were compared with the simulations of the ISBA-A-gs model and with in situ measurements from the SMOSMANIA network, including 21 stations located in southern France. ASCAT tended to correlate better than SMOS with ISBA-A-gs. The significant anomaly correlation coefficients between in situ observations and the SMOS (ASCAT) product ranged from 0.23 to 0.48 (0.35 to 0.96). However, in wet conditions, similar results between the two satellite products were found. An attempt was made to derive SSM from regressed empirical logarithmic equations using a combination of SMOS Tb at different incidence angles and different polarizations, and the Leaf Area Index (LAI) modeled by ISBA-A-gs. The analysis of the intercept coefficient of the regression showed an impact of topography. A similar analysis applied to ASCAT and SMOS SSM values showed a more limited impact of topography on the intercept coefficient of the SMOS SSM product, while fewer residual geographic patterns were found for the ASCAT SSM.

  19. Wine and tobacco: risk factors for gastric cancer in France.

    PubMed

    Hoey, J; Montvernay, C; Lambert, R

    1981-06-01

    Cross-sectional studies in France have shown strong regional correlations between death rates from alcohol related diseases and death rates from gastric cancer. The present study involved 40 cases of newly diagnosed adenocarcinoma of the stomach and 168 control subjects with one of four other gastrointestinal diagnoses selected from the same hospital service during the same time period, 1978-1980. On the basis of a standard nutritional interview alcohol and particularly red wine were seen to be significant risk factors for this cancer (relative risks of 6.9 with 95% confidence limits (CL) of 3.3-14.3 for alcohol and 6.3 with CL 3.1-12.7 for wine). Smoking of one or more cigarettes per day was associated with a relative risk for gastric cancer of 4.8 with CL of 1.6-14.8. The presence of both risk factors was associated with a relative risk of 9.3 with 95% CL of 4.6-19.0. Possible confounding by age, smoking, and eating lettuce (a reported protective factor for gastric cancer in other studies) did not explain these results. The relative risks were consistently found and remained significant when each diagnostic group of control subjects was analyzed separately. These results suggest that alcohol, and particularly red wine, may be important risk factors for adenocarcinoma of the stomach in France. In addition, cigarette smoking, a risk factor in itself, when coupled with alcohol appears markedly to increase the risk.

  20. Obtaining reimbursement in France and Italy for new diabetes products.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Elmar; Schnell, Gerald; Sonsalla, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers launching next-generation or innovative medical devices in Europe face a very heterogeneous reimbursement landscape, with each country having its own pathways, timing, requirements and success factors. We selected 2 markets for a deeper look into the reimbursement landscape: France, representing a country with central decision making with defined processes, and Italy, which delegates reimbursement decisions to the regional level, resulting in a less transparent approach to reimbursement. Based on our experience in working on various new product launches and analyzing recent reimbursement decisions, we found that payers in both countries do not reward improved next-generation products with incremental reimbursement. Looking at innovations, we observe that manufacturers face a challenging and lengthy process to obtain reimbursement. In addition, requirements and key success factors differ by country: In France, comparative clinical evidence and budget impact very much drive reimbursement decisions in terms of pricing and restrictions, whereas in Italy, regional key opinion leader (KOL) support and additional local observational data are key. PMID:25550411

  1. USA-France: Confronting two perspectives on shale gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautier, C.; Fellous, J.

    2013-12-01

    Exploiting shale gas and oil can be seen from very different perspectives, whether you live in the US where it is a decade long reality shaping the country's energy landscape or in France, where it is banned by law since 2011. Beyond this situation, the overall legal framework that regulates (or not) environmental and water protection, the use of chemicals, land ownership and the exploitation of underground mineral resources, the attribution of licenses for exploration and exploitation, etc. in Europe (and particularly in France, the only European country with Bulgaria where hydraulic fracturation is strictly forbidden) and in the US is at complete variance. This presentation will discuss subsequent attitudes vis-à-vis exploration, exploitation, scientific research on shale gas and fracking, and public activism that has arisen as a result of environmental, socioeconomic and human concerns. It will compare and contrast the different views and look at lessons that can be learned from those differences. This work is building upon the experience of the authors who have studied the issues relating to energy, water, population and climate and their connections, as seen from both sides of the Atlantic.

  2. [Vauquelin: route from a thatched cottage to Institute of France].

    PubMed

    Lafont, O

    2014-07-01

    Nicolas Louis Vauquelin was born in a little thatched cottage in Saint-André-d'Hébertot, in Normandy, on May 16th 1763. He went to Rouen and then to Paris where he met Antoine de Fourcroy and became his co-worker and his friend. They published together sixty articles, and he published alone a hundred and twenty articles. He became a pharmacist in 1787. He occupied simultaneously or not many important University positions. He was Associate Professor at École polytechnique, Professor at École des mines, Professor at Collège de France, Director of School of Pharmacy, Professor at Museum d'histoire naturelle, Professor at Faculty of Medicine. He became Empire Knight, Member of Institute of France, Member and President of Academy of Medicine, Member and President of Society of Pharmacy. He discovered and isolated chrome and discovered beryllium. He was a very efficient professor and many of his students were well-known scientists. He died on November 14th 1829.

  3. National Report France: The French Balloon Programme 2013-2016

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubourg, V.; Vassaux, D.; Vargas, A.; Cocquerez, P.; Louvel, S.; Douchin, F.; Saccocio, M.; Mirc, F.

    2015-09-01

    With over 50 years' experience in the field, the French Centre National dEtudes Spatiales (CNES) goes on supporting a significant scientific ballooning program. In particular so because balloons still give a unique access to near space science. Over the past 6 years, most of the systems, beginning by the Zero Pressure Balloons, had to be renewed to comply with more stringent Safety constraints and to growing performance and reliability requirements from the scientific missions. This paper will give an overview of the CNES new capabilities and services for operational balloon activities, and their availability status. The scientific launch campaigns of the past two years will be presented. A focus will be made on the results of the Stratoscience 2014 flight campaign from Timmins, Ontario, using the NOSYCA command and control system for zero pressure balloons, qualified in 2013. The ChArMEx campaign (Chemistry-AeRosol Mediterranean Experiment) performed in 2013 from the Baleares islands and from the south of France, with Boundary Layer Pressurized Balloons will also be presented as well as the LOAC-VOLTAIRE experiment, carried out from Aire-sur-l'Adour (France), through the flights of 20 instrumented light expandable balloons. An outlook of the new stratospheric long duration flight systems currently studied at CNES will be given. The scientific launch campaigns and the main payloads in the study for the near future will also be presented.

  4. Slavery, smallpox, and revolution: 1792 in Ile de France (Mauritius).

    PubMed

    Vaughan, M

    2000-12-01

    In 1792 a slave-ship arrived on the french Indian Ocean island of Ile de France (Mauritius) from South India, bringing with it smallpox. As the epidemic spread, a heated debate ensued over the practice of inoculation. The island was in the throes of revolutionary politics and the community of French colonists were acutely aware of their new rights as 'citizens'. In the course of the smallpox epidemic, many of the political tenisons of the period came to focus on the question of inoculation, and were played out on the bodies of slaves. Whilst some citizens asserted their right, as property owners, to inoculate their slaves, others, equally vehemently, objected to the practice and asserted their right to protect their slaves from infection. Eighteenth-century colonial medicine was largely geared to keeping the bodies of slaves and workers productive and useful, but formal medicine never had a monopoly. Slaves on Ile de France brought with them a rich array of medical beliefs and practices from Africa, India, and Madagascar. We have little direct historical evidence for these, but we do know that many slaves came from areas in which forces of smallpox inoculation were known and practised.

  5. Neanderthal infant and adult infracranial remains from Marillac (Charente, France).

    PubMed

    Dolores Garralda, María; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-09-01

    At the site of Marillac, near the Ligonne River in Marillac-le-Franc (Charente, France), a remarkable stratigraphic sequence has yielded a wealth of archaeological information, palaeoenvironmental data, as well as faunal and human remains. Marillac must have been a sinkhole used by Neanderthal groups as a hunting camp during MIS 4 (TL date 57,600 ± 4,600BP), where Quina Mousterian lithics and fragmented bones of reindeer predominate. This article describes three infracranial skeleton fragments. Two of them are from adults and consist of the incomplete shafts of a right radius (Marillac 24) and a left fibula (Marillac 26). The third fragment is the diaphysis of the right femur of an immature individual (Marillac 25), the size and shape of which resembles those from Teshik-Tash and could be assigned to a child of a similar age. The three fossils have been compared with the remains of other Neanderthals or anatomically Modern Humans (AMH). Furthermore, the comparison of the infantile femora, Marillac 25 and Teshik-Tash, with the remains of several European children from the early Middle Ages clearly demonstrates the robustness and rounded shape of both Neanderthal diaphyses. Evidence of peri-mortem manipulations have been identified on all three bones, with spiral fractures, percussion pits and, in the case of the radius and femur, unquestionable cutmarks made with flint implements, probably during defleshing. Traces of periostosis appear on the fibula fragment and on the immature femoral diaphysis, although their aetiology remains unknown. PMID:24919796

  6. Forensic mental health assessment in France: recommendations for quality improvement.

    PubMed

    Combalbert, Nicolas; Andronikof, Anne; Armand, Marine; Robin, Cécile; Bazex, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    The quality of forensic mental health assessment has been a growing concern in various countries on both sides of the Atlantic, but the legal systems are not always comparable and some aspects of forensic assessment are specific to a given country. This paper describes the legal context of forensic psychological assessment in France (i.e. pre-trial investigation phase entrusted to a judge, with mental health assessment performed by preselected professionals called "experts" in French), its advantages and its pitfalls. Forensic psychiatric or psychological assessment is often an essential and decisive element in criminal cases, but since a judiciary scandal which was made public in 2005 (the Outreau case) there has been increasing criticism from the public and the legal profession regarding the reliability of clinical conclusions. Several academic studies and a parliamentary report have highlighted various faulty aspects in both the judiciary process and the mental health assessments. The heterogeneity of expert practices in France appears to be mainly related to a lack of consensus on several core notions such as mental health diagnosis or assessment methods, poor working conditions, lack of specialized training, and insufficient familiarity with the Code of Ethics. In this article we describe and analyze the French practice of forensic psychologists and psychiatrists in criminal cases and propose steps that could be taken to improve its quality, such as setting up specialized training courses, enforcing the Code of Ethics for psychologists, and calling for consensus on diagnostic and assessment methods.

  7. NATO SET-093 joint field experiment at Bourges, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marty, C.; Bruel, F.; Prieur, D.; Naz, P.; Miller, L. S.

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes the NATO Task Group SET-093/RTG53/MSE (referred to as TG-53 in this report) Acoustic Detection of Weapons Firing Joint Field Experiment II conducted at the Etablissement Technique de Bourges (ETBS), Bourges, France, during 16 to 27 June 2008. This field experiment is a follow-on to the NATO TG-53 Acoustic Detection of Weapons Firing Joint Field Experiment I conducted at the Yuma Proving Grounds (YPG), Yuma, Arizona, USA, during 31 October to 4 November 2005 [1]. The objectives of the joint experiment were: (i) to collect acoustic signatures of direct and indirect firings from weapons' such as small arms, mortars, artillery, rockets, and C4 explosives, (ii) to analyze the propagation effects of grassy, wooded, and urban terrains, (iii) to share signatures collected from a variety of acoustic sensors, on the ground and in the air, distributed over a wide area, and (iv) to demonstrate the interoperability of disparate sensors developed by the various nations involved. The participating NATO countries , including France, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States of America, and Israel as well as part of the Mediterranean dialogue countries, deployed nearly 90 sensors and sensor systems over the test range area.

  8. E-waste management and resources recovery in France.

    PubMed

    Vadoudi, Kiyan; Kim, Junbeum; Laratte, Bertrand; Lee, Seung-Jin; Troussier, Nadège

    2015-10-01

    There are various issues of concern regarding electronic waste management, such as the toxicity of hazardous materials and the collection, recycling and recovery of useful resources. To understand the fate of electronic waste after collection and recycling, a products and materials flow analysis should be performed. This is a critical need, as material resources are becoming increasingly scarce and recycling may be able to provide secondary sources for new materials in the future. In this study, we investigate electronic waste systems, specifically the resource recovery or recycling aspects, as well as mapping electronic waste flows based on collection data in France. Approximately 1,588,453 t of new electrical and electronic equipment were sold in the French market in 2010. Of this amount, 430,000 t of electronic waste were collected, with the remaining 1,128,444 t remaining in stock. Furthermore, the total recycled amounts were 354,106 t and 11,396 t, respectively. The main electronic waste materials were ferrous metals (37%), plastic (22%), aluminium (12%), copper (11%) and glass (7%). This study will contribute to developing sustainable electronic waste and resource recycling systems in France. PMID:26283311

  9. E-waste management and resources recovery in France.

    PubMed

    Vadoudi, Kiyan; Kim, Junbeum; Laratte, Bertrand; Lee, Seung-Jin; Troussier, Nadège

    2015-10-01

    There are various issues of concern regarding electronic waste management, such as the toxicity of hazardous materials and the collection, recycling and recovery of useful resources. To understand the fate of electronic waste after collection and recycling, a products and materials flow analysis should be performed. This is a critical need, as material resources are becoming increasingly scarce and recycling may be able to provide secondary sources for new materials in the future. In this study, we investigate electronic waste systems, specifically the resource recovery or recycling aspects, as well as mapping electronic waste flows based on collection data in France. Approximately 1,588,453 t of new electrical and electronic equipment were sold in the French market in 2010. Of this amount, 430,000 t of electronic waste were collected, with the remaining 1,128,444 t remaining in stock. Furthermore, the total recycled amounts were 354,106 t and 11,396 t, respectively. The main electronic waste materials were ferrous metals (37%), plastic (22%), aluminium (12%), copper (11%) and glass (7%). This study will contribute to developing sustainable electronic waste and resource recycling systems in France.

  10. French hormones: progestins and therapeutic variation in France.

    PubMed

    Löwy, Ilana; Weisz, George

    2005-06-01

    Western medicine is seen as universally valid, but in reality it displays a wide range of national and local variability. Our paper focuses on one such case of local variation: the widespread use of progestins in France to treat various pre-menopausal conditions as well as for contraception. The case of progestins allows us to explore how specific styles of research may come to dominate a particular local medical culture, and how they are influenced by changing criteria of scientific validity and wider social relations. We argue that in the 1980s and 1990s a single prestigious research-oriented Parisian hospital service played a dominant role in the transformation of progestins into scientifically validated medical practice. This status was not called seriously into question until recently when foreign research on a different form of hormone therapy suggested that risk was associated with their use. We also propose that both the research around and medical use of progestins in France was shaped by the positive attitude of many French women, including feminists, to hormonal therapies and to the non-surgical specialty most closely associated with hormones, medical gynaecology. PMID:15814185

  11. Obtaining Reimbursement in France and Italy for New Diabetes Products

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Elmar; Sonsalla, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturers launching next-generation or innovative medical devices in Europe face a very heterogeneous reimbursement landscape, with each country having its own pathways, timing, requirements and success factors. We selected 2 markets for a deeper look into the reimbursement landscape: France, representing a country with central decision making with defined processes, and Italy, which delegates reimbursement decisions to the regional level, resulting in a less transparent approach to reimbursement. Based on our experience in working on various new product launches and analyzing recent reimbursement decisions, we found that payers in both countries do not reward improved next-generation products with incremental reimbursement. Looking at innovations, we observe that manufacturers face a challenging and lengthy process to obtain reimbursement. In addition, requirements and key success factors differ by country: In France, comparative clinical evidence and budget impact very much drive reimbursement decisions in terms of pricing and restrictions, whereas in Italy, regional key opinion leader (KOL) support and additional local observational data are key. PMID:25550411

  12. Neanderthal infant and adult infracranial remains from Marillac (Charente, France).

    PubMed

    Dolores Garralda, María; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-09-01

    At the site of Marillac, near the Ligonne River in Marillac-le-Franc (Charente, France), a remarkable stratigraphic sequence has yielded a wealth of archaeological information, palaeoenvironmental data, as well as faunal and human remains. Marillac must have been a sinkhole used by Neanderthal groups as a hunting camp during MIS 4 (TL date 57,600 ± 4,600BP), where Quina Mousterian lithics and fragmented bones of reindeer predominate. This article describes three infracranial skeleton fragments. Two of them are from adults and consist of the incomplete shafts of a right radius (Marillac 24) and a left fibula (Marillac 26). The third fragment is the diaphysis of the right femur of an immature individual (Marillac 25), the size and shape of which resembles those from Teshik-Tash and could be assigned to a child of a similar age. The three fossils have been compared with the remains of other Neanderthals or anatomically Modern Humans (AMH). Furthermore, the comparison of the infantile femora, Marillac 25 and Teshik-Tash, with the remains of several European children from the early Middle Ages clearly demonstrates the robustness and rounded shape of both Neanderthal diaphyses. Evidence of peri-mortem manipulations have been identified on all three bones, with spiral fractures, percussion pits and, in the case of the radius and femur, unquestionable cutmarks made with flint implements, probably during defleshing. Traces of periostosis appear on the fibula fragment and on the immature femoral diaphysis, although their aetiology remains unknown.

  13. Vaccine knowledge in students in Paris, France, and surrounding regions

    PubMed Central

    Mellon, Guillaume; Rigal, Laurent; Partouche, Henri; Aoun, Olivier; Jaury, Philippe; Joannard, Nathalie; Guthmann, Jean Paul; Cochereau, Delphine; Caumes, Eric; Bricaire, Francois; Salmon-Céron, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In France, young adults are legally freed from parental authority at the age of 18 years and are, thus, responsible for their own vaccine record. This young adult population is more frequently exposed to vaccine-preventable infectious diseases. OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors associated with students’ knowledge of the interval between two antitetanus boosters and their report of having up-to-date vaccinations. METHODS: In April 2009, a survey was conducted involving a random sample of students between 18 and 25 years of age eating lunch at university dining facilities in Paris and its suburbs (Ile de France). RESULTS: Among the 677 students approached, 583 agreed to participate. Only 207 (36%) of respondents knew the recommended dosing interval between two doses of tetanus vaccine booster (10 years). The majority of students (69%) reported having up-to-date vaccinations. Declaring having up-to-date vaccinations was significantly associated with having a general practitioner (OR 3.03 [95% CI 1.69 to 5.55]). Health care students were significantly more likely to know the decennial interval between two antitetanus boosters (OR 2 [95% CI 1.28 to 3.25]). Most of responding students (n=519 [89%]) believed that vaccines were very useful. CONCLUSIONS: An overall lack of knowledge of vaccines was observed among this student population. Health care providers, such as GPs and university medical practice staff, who interact with these young individuals have an essential role to promote better vaccination coverage in this population. PMID:25285109

  14. The Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope - Gestation, infancy and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racine, R.

    1981-12-01

    The development, current status and future potential of the 3.6-m Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT), on Mauna Kea are reviewed. The joint project is shown to have arisen from a desire on the part of France beginning in 1965 for an instrument similar to the 3.6-m ESO telescope, in the Northern Hemisphere, and a parallel desire on the part of Canadian astronomers for a large telescope at a location with the best seeing conditions, coupled with the promotion of the Mauna Kea site as a location with clear sky, sensational images, and excellent quality for infrared astronomy. Since the inauguration of the telescope in September 1979, the telescope has been used for 110 projects in 18 months, even as the installation of the coude focus and spectrograph, Reticon detector, and final control software were in progress. Although the CFHT has a potential for high performance in infrared studies, high-dispersion coude spectroscopy, moderate-resolution spectroscopy, stellar photometry, polarimetry or photoelectric spectrophotometry, it is expected that it will prove most useful in imaging applications.

  15. Bishop plays down report on condoms / AIDS in France.

    PubMed

    1996-02-26

    Individual bishops in France and other European countries have argued that condom use can save lives by preventing the spread of HIV. The French Bishops' Conference social commission published a 200-page report which in which agreement was expressed with widespread medical opinion that condom use is the sole and necessary barrier against the sexual spread of HIV. Extensive media coverage ensued and led to Bishop Albert Rouet, the bishop of Poitiers and chairman of the French Bishops' Conference, being interviewed by the Holy See's official radio. In the interview, Bishop Rouet distanced the Roman Catholic Church in France from the report, claiming that the media had exaggerated the issue and that his commission was not bound by the reference. The Vatican remains staunchly opposed to condom use against HIV infection and preaches abstinence outside of marriage and fidelity within marriage as the only true ways to avoid HIV infection. In 1995, the Vatican fired Jacques Gaillot, the former bishop of Evreux in Normandy, for his outspoken endorsement of condom use against HIV.

  16. 10 years of surveillance of human tularaemia in France.

    PubMed

    Mailles, A; Vaillant, V

    2014-11-13

    Tularaemia has been mandatorily notifiable in France since October 2002. The surveillance aims to detect early any infection possibly due to bioterrorism and to follow up disease trends. We report the results of national surveillance from 2002 to 2012. A case is defined as a patient with clinical presentation suggestive of tularaemia and biological confirmation of infection or an epidemiological link with a biologically confirmed case. Clinical, biological and epidemiological data are collected using a standardised notification form. From 2002 to 2012, 433 cases were notified, with a median age of 49 years (range 2 to 95 years) and a male–female sex ratio of 1.8. Most frequent clinical presentations were glandular tularaemia (n=200; 46%) and ulceroglandular tularaemia (n=113; 26%). Most frequent at-risk exposures were handling hares (n=179; 41%) and outdoor leisure exposure to dust aerosols (n=217; 50%). Tick bites were reported by 82 patients (19%). Ten clusters (39 cases) were detected over the 10-year period, as well as a national outbreak during winter 2007/2008. The tularaemia surveillance system is able to detect small clusters as well as major outbreaks. Surveillance data show exposure to dust aerosols during outdoor leisure activities to be a major source of contamination in France.

  17. France-wide future evolution of discharges for the next decades: a multi-RCP/GCM/hydrological model and calibration exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirel, Guillaume; Nicolas, Madeleine; Beersma, Jules

    2015-04-01

    Due to complex interactions between atmosphere, vegetation, oceans, land and human beings, climate is continually evolving. The last IPCC report highlighted that by the end of the 21st century, dramatic climate modifications may occur: in Europe, the temperature is expected to increase by several degrees, and the evolution of precipitation is more uncertain. These changes will impact the water cycle, and as a consequence river discharges, which can potentially impact economical, industrial and touristic activities as well as the ecosphere. In order to provide new insights for hydrology in France, we propose to assess the impact of climate change on discharge module, high and low flows for over 800 river points in France. For this, the last CMIP5 projections are used for the periods 2021-2050 and 2071-2100. This country-wide evaluation, a compromise between basin-based and continental studies usually performed in literature, is of the utmost importance due to the numerous interconnections of water uses inside France. For this work, the 4 IPCC Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) were utilized to drive part or all of 27 Global Circulation Models (GCMs) or versions of GCMs, for which one to ten different runs were available. This represents a total of 183 climatic projections that were then downscaled using the Advanced Delta Change (ADC) method, a statistical method calibrated between a past reference period and the two future periods. In this study, we applied the ADC to an 8x8 km 52-year meteorological reanalysis available over France. Six global conceptual hydrological models (GR4J, GR5J, GR6J, MORD6, TOPMO, HBV0) were used to produce the hydrological projections, allowing the representation of uncertainty in hydrological modelling. Moreover, one of the hydrological models was calibrated with several objective functions and over contrasted climatic periods. By having several methods or models for every step (except regarding the downscaling method), we

  18. Modeling overpressures in sedimentary basins: Consequences for permeability and rheology of shales, and petroleum expulsion efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Burrus, J.; Schneider, F.; Wolf, S. )

    1994-07-01

    The prediction of overpressures using Institut Francais du Petrole's 2-D numerical model TEMISPACK is applied to several provinces of the world. In the Paris basin, France, normally pressured Liassic shales are shown to have permeabilities around a microdarcy, independently confirmed by laboratory measurements. In contrast, in the Norway section of the North Sea, Williston Basin, Canada, Gulf Coast, and in the Mahakam delta, observed overpressures of 10-50 MPa are consistently modeled with shale permeabilities around 1-10 nanodarcys. This theoretical value fits well with the lowest permeability measured in compacted shales. For these basins, compaction disequilibrium was found to explain most (>85%) of the overpressures. The only exception was the Williston basin in which overpressures observed in the organic-rich Bakken shales are entirely due to hydrocarbon generation. In Mahakam delta, the rheology of shales is nonlinear, i.e., the strength of shales increases rapidly with death. Consequently, shale compaction cannot be described by the linear behavior often assumed in hydrology. In the absence of fault barriers, numerical simulations and geological evidence suggest that overpressured source rocks have low or very low expulsion efficiency, irrespective of their organic content. However, shales with a permeability on the order of a microdarcy do not hinder petroleum migration.

  19. Tectonic framework of Turkish sedimentary basins

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, P.O. )

    1988-08-01

    Turkey's exploration potential primarily exists in seven onshore (Southeast Turkey platform, Tauride platform, Pontide platform, East Anatolian platform, Interior, Trace, and Adana) basins and four offshore (Black Sea, Marmara Sea, Aegean Sea, and Mediterranean Sea) regional basins formed during the Mesozoic and Tertiary. The Mesozoic basins are the onshore basins: Southeast Turkey, Tauride, Pontide, East Anatolian, and Interior basins. Due to their common tectonic heritage, the southeast Turkey and Tauride basins have similar source rocks, structural growth, trap size, and structural styles. In the north, another Mesozoic basin, the Pontide platform, has a much more complex history and very little in common with the southerly basins. The Pontide has two distinct parts; the west has Paleozoic continental basement and the east is underlain by island-arc basement of Jurassic age. The plays are in the upper Mesozoic rocks in the west Pontide. The remaining Mesozoic basins of the onshore Interior and East Anatolian basins are poorly known and very complex. Their source, reservoir, and seal are not clearly defined. The basins formed during several orogenic phases in mesozoic and Tertiary. The Cenozoic basins are the onshore Thrace and Adana basins, and all offshore regional basins formed during Miocene extension. Further complicating the onshore basins evolution is the superposition of Cenozoic basins and Mesozoic basins. The Thrace basin in the northwest and Adana basin in the south both originate from Tertiary extension over Tethyan basement and result in a similar source, reservoir, and seal. Local strike-slip movement along the North Anatolian fault modifies the Thrace basin structures, influencing its hydrocarbon potential.

  20. Principles of Sedimentary Basin Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanton, Robert J., Jr.

    Basin analysis is the ultimate act of synthesis in stratigraphy. Its objective is to weave together the diverse strands of information in order to portray the tectonic evolution of a basin, its filling with sediments in a broad range of depositional environments, the subsequent diagenesis and lithification of these sediments, and the localization therein of mineral and petroleum resources. Thus, although the primary emphasis in basin analysis is stratigraphic and sedimentologic in nature, paleontologic, tectonic, and geophysical data, among others, are also integral components of the effort. It is scientifically challenging and, in practical terms, forms the foundation for the exploration for strata-bound resources. The wide range of topics that must be incorporated into a basin analysis requires that it be a group project of specialists and means that it is a difficult subject to teach or to present in a book.

  1. Provenance and basin evolution, Zhada basin, southwestern Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saylor, J.; Decelles, P.; Gehrels, G.; Kapp, P.

    2007-12-01

    The Zhada basin is a late Miocene - Pliocene intermontane basin situated at high elevations in the Himalayan hinterland. The fluvial and lacustrine sediments of the Zhada formation are undeformed and sit in angular unconformity above the deformed Tethyan Sedimentary Sequence (TSS). The basin sits just south of the Indus suture in a structural position occupied elsewhere in the Himalayan orogen by some of the highest mountains on earth, including Everest. The occurrence of a basin at this location demands explanation. Currently, the Sutlej River flows parallel to the structural grain of the Himalaya, westward through the basin, towards the Leo Pargil (Qusum) range. Near the range front it takes a sharp southward turn, cuts across the structural grain of the Himalaya and out into the Gangetic foreland. Palaeocurrent indicators in the lower part of the Zhada formation show that the basin originated as a northwest flowing axial river. Palaeocurrent indicators are consistently northwest oriented, even to within to within 10 km of the Leo Pargil range front in the north-western end of the basin. This implies that at the onset of sedimentation in Zhada basin the Leo Pargil range was not a barrier as it is today. In the upper part of the Zhada formation, palaeocurrent indicators are generally directed towards the centre of the basin. In the central and southern portions of the basin this indicates a transition from an axial, northwest flowing river to prograding fluvial and alluvial fans. However, in the north-western part of the basin the change between lower and upper Zhada formation involves a complete drainage reversal. This change in palaeocurrent orientation is also reflected in the detrital zircon signal from basin sediments. Low in the Zhada formation the detrital zircon signal is dominated by zircons from the Kailash (Gangdese) batholith (or associated extrusives, see below). However, higher in the sections, a local source, either from the TSS or the core of the

  2. Upper Stephanian volcanism and sedimentation in the French Massif Central (France): A high resolution ion microprobe U-Th-Pb study of volcanic tuffs and its tectonic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruguier, O.; Becq-Giraudon, J. F.; Champenois, M.; Deloule, E.; Ludden, J.; Mangin, D.

    2003-04-01

    Post-convergence evolution of the Variscan belt is characterized by the development of numerous intramontane coal-bearing basins containing volcano-sedimentary successions. As these basins are widely distributed in the whole Variscan belt, they represent important tectonic markers that can be used to bracket the phases of extensional tectonics affecting basement country rocks. A series of five volcanic ash layers interbedded in stephanian sedimentary basins from the southern part of the French Massif Central (France) have been studied by high resolution ion-microprobe analyses of zircons in order to constrain the age of basin formation and sedimentation. Weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages for the five studied tuffs are indistinguishable at the 95% confidence level and range from 295.5±5.1 Ma (Graissessac) to 297.9±5.1 Ma (Roujan-Neffies). These U-Pb ages support the argument for intense magmatic activity in the southern part of the French Massif Central during the period 295--300 Ma which is contemporaneous with volcanic events identified in other parts of the Variscan Belt. This suggests magma generation by orogenic belt scale phenomenoms. Inherited zircons were identified in two out of the five dated tuff horizons and support a model involving a anatexis of basement source rocks with ages of ca. 2400 Ma (Jaujac basin), 1900 and 340 Ma (Graissessac basin). One possible xenocrystic grain, ca. 600 Ma old was also detected in zircons from the Graissessac bentonite. The Proterozoic components indicate a Gondwanan affinity for the deep seated material. Apatite concentrates and single zircon grains, analysed for their chemical composition, further indicate magma generation from the continental crust and, at least for the Jaujac basin, with participation of a mafic component. Contemporaneous eruption of mafic and silicic magmas is thought to be related to replenishment of magmatic chambers at depth by influx of mafic, mantle-derived, magmas triggering the upper Stephanian

  3. 77 FR 45653 - Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water Enhancement Project...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ... Bureau of Reclamation Yakima River Basin Conservation Advisory Group; Yakima River Basin Water... on the structure, implementation, and oversight of the Yakima River Basin Water Conservation Program... of the Water Conservation Program, including the applicable water conservation guidelines of...

  4. Daily quantitative precipitation forecasts based on the analogue method: Improvements and application to a French large river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Daoud, Aurélien; Sauquet, Eric; Bontron, Guillaume; Obled, Charles; Lang, Michel

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents some improvements of a probabilistic quantitative precipitation forecasting method based on analogues, formerly developed on small basins located in South-Eastern France. The scope is extended to large scale basins mainly influenced by frontal systems, considering a case study area related to the Saône river, a large basin in eastern France. For a given target situation, this method consists in searching for the most similar situations observed in a historical meteorological archive. Precipitation amounts observed during analogous situations are then collected to derive an empirical predictive distribution function, i.e. the probabilistic estimation of the precipitation amount expected for the target day. The former version of this forecasting method (Bontron, 2004) has been improved by introducing two innovative variables: temperature, that allows taking seasonal effects into account and vertical velocity, which enables a better characterization of the vertical atmospheric motion. The new algorithm is first applied in a perfect prognosis context (target situations come from a meteorological reanalysis) and then in an operational forecasting context (target situations come from weather forecasts) for a three years period. Results show that this approach yields useful forecasts, with a lower false alarm rate and improved performances from the present day D to day D + 2.

  5. Groundwater dolocretes from the Upper Triassic of the Paris Basin, France: a case study of an arid, continental diagenetic facies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spotl, S.; Wright, V.P.

    1992-01-01

    The majority of the dolomite consists of a finely crystalline groundmass of dolomicrospar and, less commonly, dolomicrite. Glaebules, irregular spar-filled cracks, spheroidal dolomite, silificiation and vuggy porosity are locally abundant in the massive dolomite. In contrast, biologically induced micromorphological features such as rhizocretions and alveolar-septal fabrics were observed in the thin, nodular dolomite beds. Petrographic observations argue in favour of primary (proto)dolomite precipitation, although early diagenetic replacement of calcite by (proto)dolomite cannot be ruled out. Strontium and carbon isotope data of early diagenetic dolocrete cements and oxygen isotope data of early diagenetic silica indicate an entirely non-marine, continental origin for the groundwaters. -from Authors

  6. Polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, and phthalates in roach from the Seine River basin (France): impact of densely urbanized areas.

    PubMed

    Teil, Marie-Jeanne; Tlili, Khawla; Blanchard, Martine; Labadie, Pierre; Alliot, Fabrice; Chevreuil, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) from three chemical classes-polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), and phthalates-were investigated in the Seine River and one tributary, the Orge River, upstream and downstream of urban areas. The impact of urban areas was characterized by a concentration increase of all compounds in the Seine River and for phthalates and PBDEs in the Orge River. In the Seine River, from upstream (Marnay) to downstream (Triel) of urban areas, water concentration increases were greater for diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) (6 times, p < 0.05) and ∑tri-hexa BDE (5 times [p < 0.05]) than for ∑7PCBi (2.6 times). Simultaneously, sediments displayed a strong accumulation of contaminants downstream and compared with upstream values, their concentrations increased greatly: 202-fold for DEHP, 69-fold for BDE209, 25-fold for ∑tri-hexa-BDE, and 11-fold for ∑7PCBi. Variations of fish ED concentrations gave an indication of their habitat contamination increase observed downstream of densely urbanized areas of the Seine River, especially for PBDEs (∑tri-hexa-PBDEs = 14-fold increase ≤15.7 ± 6.9 ng g(-1) dry weight [dw; p < 0.001]) and for PCBs (∑7PCBi eightfold increase ≤211 ± 55 ng g(-1) dw [p < 0.01]). PCA results highlighted relationships between the different ED classes. A correlation (p < 0.05) was observed between PCB and PBDE fish concentrations, suggesting common sources and similar absorption mechanisms. For PCBs, which were poorly biodegraded, the bioaccumulation factor was strongly correlated (p < 0.001) to molecular hydrophobicity, whereas for PBDEs a negative correlation (p < 0.05) was observed related active debromination processes. This multichemical study investigates for the first time the occurrence of a wide range of EDs in roach, which was chosen as a sentinel species for this survey of surface water contamination. PMID:24132598

  7. Evolution of hut access facing glacier shrinkage in the Mer de Glace basin (Mont Blanc massif, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mourey, Jacques; Ravanel, Ludovic

    2016-04-01

    Given the evolution of high mountain environment due to global warming, mountaineering routes and huts accesses are more and more strongly affected by glacial shrinkage and concomitant gravity processes, but almost no studies have been conducted on this relationship. The aim of this research is to describe and explain the evolution over the last century of the access to the five alpine huts around the Mer de Glace glacier (Mont Blanc massif), the larger French glacier (length = 11.5 km, area = 30 km²), a major place for Alpine tourism since 1741 and the birthplace of mountaineering, by using several methods (comparing photographs, surveying, collecting historical documents). While most of the 20th century shows no marked changes, loss of ice thickness and associated erosion of lateral moraines generate numerous and significant changes since the 1990s. Boulder falls, rockfalls and landslides are the main geomorphological processes that affect the access, while the glacier surface lowering makes access much longer and more unstable. The danger is then greatly increased and the access must be relocated and/or equipped more and more frequently (e.g. a total of 520 m of ladders has been added). This questions the future accessibility to the huts, jeopardizing an important part of mountaineering and its linked economy in the Mer de Glace area.

  8. 75 FR 69858 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model AS332L2 Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... France (Eurocopter) Model AS332L2 Helicopters AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department... AS332L2 helicopters have been approved by the aviation authority of France and are approved for...

  9. Corporate Language: The Blind Spot of Language Policy? Reflections on France's Loi Toubon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saulière, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    This article looks at France's Loi Toubon, which mandates the use of French in private companies, to illustrate how macro-level language planning reaches a dead end if it fails to consider local contexts and involve micro-level agents. The motivations, limitations and contradictions of France's language policy in relation to companies…

  10. Education in France. Bulletin, 1963, No. 33. OE-14091. [Chapter VII - Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Male, George M.

    1963-01-01

    The present bulletin on education in France is another in the Office of Education's long established series on education in other countries. France is of particular interest because of its strong educational traditions and its dedication to democratic principles. In the process of gathering information for this study, the author visited schools in…

  11. What Do We Do with a Difference? France and the Debate over Headscarves in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshet, Dan

    2008-01-01

    This book focuses on the recent debates surrounding headscarves in public schools in France, where the wearing of an article of clothing became the focus of intense national debate. The book is divided into two parts. Part One, Framing the Discussion, includes the following essays: (1) Essay: Immigration and Integration in Europe (2) France; (3)…

  12. Possible application of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index in France: A pilot study in Brittany

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our goal was to determine if the US Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI) scale might have application in France. Twenty homes in Brittany, north western region of France were classified by inspection as “Moldy” or “Non-Moldy”. Dust and air samples were collected (MiTest ...

  13. Educating the People: "Cours d'adultes" and Social Stratification in France, 1830-1870

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Steven E.

    2010-01-01

    This essay examines the formation, operation, and social effects of adult education classes in France during the nineteenth century. These classes were created and operated prior to the formation of France's national education system and were part of the expansion of primary schooling for the working class, or more generally for "the people". The…

  14. From Higher Education to Employment: Inequalities among Ethnic Backgrounds in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frickey, Alan; Murdoch, Jake; Primon, Jean-Luc

    2006-01-01

    In France, as in many European countries, youth from foreign ethnic backgrounds appear less integrated than those who are accepted as established French citizens into civil society through the educational system and the labor market. Until now, existing research on employment inequalities in France has, for good reasons, concentrated on the large…

  15. 76 FR 11509 - Brass Sheet and Strip From France, Germany, Italy, and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... France, Germany, and Italy (52 FR 6995; Italy amended at 52 FR 11299 (April 8, 1987)). On August 12, 1988... and strip from France, Germany, Italy, and Japan (71 FR 16552). The Commission is now conducting third... recently amended at 74 FR 2847 (January 16, 2009). \\1\\ No response to this request for information...

  16. 77 FR 53844 - Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France and Italy: Rescission of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ... Duty Administrative Reviews and Request for Revocations in Part, 77 FR 40565 (July 10, 2012... International Trade Administration Ball Bearings and Parts Thereof From France and Italy: Rescission of... parts thereof from France and Italy. The period of review is May 1, 2011, through September 14, 2011....

  17. Accreditation or Validation of Prior Experiential Learning: Knowledge and "Savoirs" in France-A Different Perspective?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pouget, Mireille; Osborne, Michael

    2004-01-01

    This article stems from the study of the process and application of Accreditation of Prior Experiential Learning (APEL) in the French higher education system, in France referred to as VAP (Validation des Acquis Professionnels ). The paper seeks to review not only the context in which the concepts underpinning VAP in France have developed, but also…

  18. Reform and Development of Higher Education in Europe: France, The Netherlands, and Poland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This document examines reform and development of higher education in France, Poland, and the Netherlands. Part I examines facets of higher education in France including the tasks of the universities: research, teaching, and development of higher training and continuing education; present structures of French universities; increase in student…

  19. Communication Patterns and Intellectual Traditions in Educational Sciences: France and Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schriewer, Jurgen; Keiner, Edwin

    1991-01-01

    Examines patterns of institutional organization and communication in education in France and Germany. The science of education is autonomous and philosophically oriented in Germany but is intertwined with sociology, psychology, and other social sciences and is positivistic in nature in France. Overlap between the cognitive textures of the French…

  20. New introductions of enterovirus 71 subgenogroup C4 strains, France, 2012.

    PubMed

    Schuffenecker, Isabelle; Henquell, Cécile; Mirand, Audrey; Coste-Burel, Marianne; Marque-Juillet, Stéphanie; Desbois, Delphine; Lagathu, Gisèle; Bornebusch, Laure; Bailly, Jean-Luc; Lina, Bruno

    2014-08-01

    In France during 2012, human enterovirus 71 (EV-A71) subgenogroup C4 strains were detected in 4 children hospitalized for neonatal fever or meningitis. Phylogenetic analysis showed novel and independent EV-A71 introductions, presumably from China, and suggested circulation of C4 strains throughout France. This observation emphasizes the need for monitoring EV-A71 infections in Europe.

  1. Economic Analysis of Grain Production in France. Staff Report No. AGES880202.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liapis, Peter S.

    A study analyzed grain production in France, the major grain producer in the European Community and one of the leading producers in the world. France is also a major grain exporter and thus competes with the United States in world markets. The United States is pursuing a policy of lower world prices to regain market share. Large grain surpluses in…

  2. 75 FR 42380 - Revocation of Antidumping Duty Order on Sorbitol From France

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... from France. See Initiation of Five-year (``Sunset'') Review, 74 FR 31412 (July 1, 2009). Pursuant to... United States within a reasonably foreseeable time. Sorbitol From France; Determination, 75 FR 39277... Order, 47 FR 15391 (April 9, 1982). On June 29, 1984, the order was revoked, in part. See Sorbitol...

  3. 77 FR 19642 - Low Enriched Uranium From France: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... Uranium From France, 67 FR 6680 (February 13, 2002). As for evaluating AREVA's request, the Department... Circumstances Review, 77 FR 7128 (February 10, 2012) (Preliminary Results). DATES: Effective Date: April 2, 2012... International Trade Administration Low Enriched Uranium From France: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

  4. 77 FR 1059 - Low Enriched Uranium From France: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed Circumstances Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... International Trade Administration Low Enriched Uranium From France: Initiation of Antidumping Duty Changed... review of the antidumping duty order on low enriched uranium (LEU) from France with respect to Eurodif S... deadline for re-exporting the LEU entry at issue. \\1\\ See Letter from AREVA, ``Low Enriched Uranium...

  5. Severe Ketoalkalosis as Initial Presentation of Imported Human Rabies in France

    PubMed Central

    Contou, Damien; Dacheux, Laurent; Bendib, Inès; Jolivet, Sarah; Rodriguez, Christophe; Tomberli, Françoise; Cleret de Langavant, Laurent; Lavenir, Rachel; Lepelletier, Anthony; Larrous, Florence; Troupin, Cécile; Bourhy, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    We report a patient with an unusual initial metabolic presentation of imported human rabies who became symptomatic within 2 weeks of returning from Mali to France. This is the single case of imported human rabies identified in France within the past 11 years and the first report of viral RNA in bronchial secretions. PMID:25854482

  6. From Sun King to Royal Twilight: Painting in Eighteenth Century France from the Musee Picardie, Amiens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Mark M.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on the traveling exhibition from the Musee de Picardie in Amiens, France, called "From the Sun King to the Royal Twilight: Painting in Eighteenth Century France," that provides an overview of French paintings from the reign of Louis IV to the fall of the monarchy. (CMK)

  7. [First-aid in France. Current situation and future perspectives].

    PubMed

    Larcan, Alain; Julien, Henri

    2010-06-01

    First-aid--treatment aimed at enabling a victim to survive pending the arrival of qualified medical support--is less well developed in France than in many other industrialized countries, especially among the general public. The current status of first-aid in France is paradoxical: schooling is free and obligatory, the ambulance service and emergency services are of the highest quality, but the general public are too often passive and unknowledgeable when faced with an emergency situation. This situation is due to several factors, including the complexity of first-aid training and regulations, the involvement of too many public bodies, the legal liability of the first-aider, and a lack of ongoing training. The French National Academy of Medicine recommends 8 measures to improve this situation: Provide a legal definition of first-aid: "a set of recognized measures aimed, in an emergency setting, at preserving the physical and psychological integrity of the victim of an accident or illness, notably pending the arrival of professional medical assistance". Waive, as in many other countries, civil and legal responsibility for the non professional first-aider, except in case of clear negligence. Reinforce the organization of first-aid in France in order to monitor the number and quality of first-aiders, and to ensure theoretical and pedagogic research; create a communications department capable of supporting and promoting first-aid. Improve access to first-aid training by increasing the number of situations in which it is obligatory (driving tuition, school and university examinations, group responsibility, at-risk practices), by providing financial assistance for certain groups, and by ensuring routine training at school, in the armed forces, and in the workplace. Create a progressive and integrated citizen first-aid training course with individual modules, ensuring that first-aiders update and perfect their knowledge throughout life. Soften pedagogic rules and shorten

  8. Exposure to indoor tanning in France: a population based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Tanning lamp sessions have increased in Europe in recent years. Recent epidemiological studies have confirmed a proven link between melanoma and artificial UV exposure. However, in France, little information is available to determine the exposure of the population. This article presents the results from the ‘Baromètre cancer 2010’ concerning the proportion of users exposed to artificial UV radiation in France, their characteristics and level of information on the risks associated. Methods A two stage random sampling telephone survey assisted by CATI system (household, individual) was performed from 3 April 2010 to 7 August 2010 on a sample of 3,359 people aged 15 to 75 years old. Results In 2010, 13.4% of the French population reported to have tanning lamp sessions at least once in their lifetime and 3.5% of the total population reported the use of artificial UV radiation over the last twelve months. Exposure over the last twelve months is most commonly seen among females (5.0%) and young population between 20–25 years old (9.6%). In addition, 3.5% of those under 18 years report having attended UV booths at least once during their lifetime even though they are forbidden to minors. Moreover, more than one the third of users reported more than 10 exposures within a year. The places of exposure cited most often were beauty salons (50%) and tanning centers (46%). Only 49.2% of those surveyed felt that they were well informed on the risks of cancer associated with UV booths. Furthermore, the population was found to have misconceptions about artificial UV radiation. One quarter of the population, believe that artificial UV radiation use before vacation protects the skin from sunburn. Conclusions This first study on artificial UV radiation exposure in France has better quantified and characterized the users. It has also defined the state of knowledge and the perception of risk by the general French population. This work will contribute to determine

  9. [First-aid in France. Current situation and future perspectives].

    PubMed

    Larcan, Alain; Julien, Henri

    2010-06-01

    First-aid--treatment aimed at enabling a victim to survive pending the arrival of qualified medical support--is less well developed in France than in many other industrialized countries, especially among the general public. The current status of first-aid in France is paradoxical: schooling is free and obligatory, the ambulance service and emergency services are of the highest quality, but the general public are too often passive and unknowledgeable when faced with an emergency situation. This situation is due to several factors, including the complexity of first-aid training and regulations, the involvement of too many public bodies, the legal liability of the first-aider, and a lack of ongoing training. The French National Academy of Medicine recommends 8 measures to improve this situation: Provide a legal definition of first-aid: "a set of recognized measures aimed, in an emergency setting, at preserving the physical and psychological integrity of the victim of an accident or illness, notably pending the arrival of professional medical assistance". Waive, as in many other countries, civil and legal responsibility for the non professional first-aider, except in case of clear negligence. Reinforce the organization of first-aid in France in order to monitor the number and quality of first-aiders, and to ensure theoretical and pedagogic research; create a communications department capable of supporting and promoting first-aid. Improve access to first-aid training by increasing the number of situations in which it is obligatory (driving tuition, school and university examinations, group responsibility, at-risk practices), by providing financial assistance for certain groups, and by ensuring routine training at school, in the armed forces, and in the workplace. Create a progressive and integrated citizen first-aid training course with individual modules, ensuring that first-aiders update and perfect their knowledge throughout life. Soften pedagogic rules and shorten

  10. Flexural analysis of two broken foreland basins; Late Cenozoic Bermejo basin and Early Cenozoic Green River basin

    SciTech Connect

    Flemings, P.B.; Jordan, T.E.; Reynolds, S.

    1986-05-01

    Lithospheric flexure that generates basin in a broke foreland setting (e.g., the Laramide foreland of Wyoming) is a three-dimensional system related to shortening along basin-bounding faults. The authors modeled the elastic flexure in three dimensions for two broken foreland basins: the early Cenozoic Green River basin and the analogous late Cenozoic Bermejo basin of Argentina. Each basin is located between a thrust belt and a reverse-fault-bounded basement uplift. Both basins are asymmetric toward the basement uplifts and have a central basement high: the Rock Springs uplift and the Pie de Palo uplift, respectively. The model applies loads generated by crustal thickening to an elastic lithosphere overlying a fluid mantle. Using the loading conditions of the Bermejo basin based on topography, limited drilling, and reflection and earthquake seismology, the model predicts the current Bermejo basin geometry. Similarly, flexure under the loading conditions in the Green River basin, which are constrained by stratigraphy, well logs, and seismic profiling and summed for Late Cretaceous (Lance Formation) through Eocene (Wasatch Formation), successfully models the observed geometry of the pre-Lance surface. Basin depocenters (> 4 km for the Green River basin; > 7 km for the Bermejo basin) and central uplifts are predicted to result from constructive interference of the nonparallel applied loads. Their Bermejo model implies that instantaneous basin geometry is successfully modeled by crustal loading, whereas the Green River basin analysis suggests that basin evolution can be modeled over large time steps (e.g., 20 Ma). This result links instantaneous basin geometry to overall basin evolution and is a first step in predicting stratigraphic development.

  11. Viscoelastic Relaxation of Lunar Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohit, P. S.; Phillips, R. J.

    2004-12-01

    The large lunar impact basins provide a unique glimpse into early lunar history. Here we investigate the possibility that the relief of the oldest lunar basins (with the exception of South-Pole Aitken) has decayed through viscous relaxation. We identify nine ancient multi-ring basins with very low relief and low-amplitude Bouguer and free-air gravity anomalies. The characteristics of these basins are consistent with either 1) relaxation of topographic relief by ductile flow (e.g. Solomon et al., 1982) or 2) obliteration of basin topography during crater collapse immediately following impact. Both scenarios require that the basins formed early in lunar history, when the Moon was hot. The latter possibility appears to be unlikely due to the great topographic relief of South Pole-Aitken basin (SPA), the largest and oldest impact basin on the Moon (with the possible exception of the putative Procellarum basin; Wilhelms, 1987). On the other hand, the thin crust beneath SPA may not have allowed ductile flow in its lower portions, even for a hot Moon, implying that a thicker crust is required beneath other ancient basins for the hypothesis of viscous relaxation to be tenable. Using a semi-analytic, self-gravitating viscoelastic model, we investigate the conditions necessary to produce viscous relaxation of lunar basins. We model topographic relaxation for a crustal thickness of 30 km, using a dry diabase flow law for the crust and dry olivine for the mantle. We find that the minimum temperature at the base of the crust (Tb) permitting nearly complete relaxation of topography by ductile flow on a timescale < 108 yrs is 1400 K, corresponding to a heat flow of 55mW/m2, into the crust. Ductile flow in the lower crust becomes increasingly difficult as the crustal thickness decreases. The crust beneath SPA, thinned by the impact, is only 15-20 km thick and would require Tb ≥ 1550 K for relaxation to occur. The fact that SPA has maintained high-amplitude relief suggests that

  12. Basin modeling of Tadla basin, Morocco, for hydrocarbon potential

    SciTech Connect

    Jabour, H.; Nakayama, K.

    1988-09-01

    The Tadla basin, Morocco, is the easternmost major structural subdivision of the Meseta south of the Central Massif. After the basin remained relatively stable through the Paleozoic, movements during the Variscan orogeny divided the basin into two subbasins, a western subbasin where compressional forces formed large anticlines and an eastern subbasin where intense folding and faulting are associated with uplift and erosion. The sedimentary basin fill includes numerous organic shales, which provide the source beds. Also deposited were numerous shallow-water to continental clastics and to a lesser extent carbonates, providing several possible reservoir rocks for hydrocarbons. The results from computer modeling show that the chief formations of hydrocarbon generation are Carboniferous and Silurian. Most of these formations may have generated hydrocarbons before Variscan movements, which probably destroyed preexisting oil and gas traps. The only source rocks in the generation stage from Mesozoic to the present are the upper Visean shales. The western part of the Tadla basin was the most favorable area for the generation and maturation of hydrocarbons of the upper Visean shales. 22 figures.

  13. Toscana virus infections: a case series from France.

    PubMed

    Dupouey, J; Bichaud, L; Ninove, L; Zandotti, C; Thirion-Perrier, L; de Lamballerie, X; Charrel, R N

    2014-03-01

    Toscana virus (TOSV) is a neglected sandfly-borne pathogen in Mediterranean countries. Although discovered four decades ago, articles that describe the clinical aspects are scarce and consist mostly of case reports, with few series of cases. We studied retrospectively symptomatic TOSV infections in patients hospitalized in Marseille (France) from 2004 to 2011. Seventeen patients were classified as probable or confirmed cases. Fourteen cases (82%) occurred between June and September, and 3 cases in March, April and November. Two cases were potentially imported from Croatia and Tuscany. All patients presented with fever and neurological signs were observed such as aseptic meningitis (n = 6), muscular symptoms (n = 3), or encephalitis (n = 4). The outcome was always favorable. At the acute stage, anti TOSV IgM were observed in 14/17 patients, neutralization tests were positive for 3/8 patients, and RT-PCR confirmed TOSV infections in 5/8 CSF specimens.

  14. New digital circuits at Thomson semiconductor in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellamussia, J. P.

    1985-11-01

    DCS, Thomson Semiconductors' Semi-Standard Circuits Department, has just announced a CMOS gate array with up to 4,200 gates, standard cells, and a unique 900-component, 3 GHz linear gate array. All of Thomson's gate arrays are supported by Daisy, Valid and Mentor workstations. These are the first fruits of a reorganization begun several months ago to distance the department from the actual design and manufacture of integrated circuits, making it more of an archestrator among customers, workstation manufacturers, independent designers and the various Thomson Semiconductors division. Thomson Semiconductors' silicon sales based on DCS contracts totaled 25,000,000 Frances in 1984. This figure should be double in 1985. Thomson Semiconductors plans to offer 120 new integrated circuits this year, twice the number available in 1984. At the same time, the Munich design center and the American subsidiary, VSI, should open new markets in 1985, bringing exports to an estimated 30 percent of sales.

  15. The Rank-Ferenczi relationship, as seen from France.

    PubMed

    Lugrin, Yves

    2012-12-01

    Seen from France, where Rank's "American" work is not well known, the Rank-Ferenczi relationship does not allow to state that the two learned colleagues were the best friends. Rank met Ferenczi in 1908, but their most valuable and fruitful working relationship is limited to the 1922-1924 time period. Their working relationship must be read in light of the unique transference links of each to Freud, and in light of the tormented history of the analytic movement, especially after the First World War. The sensible reader will not forget that after the fast extinction of their short collaboration they continued their own works in their own ways, Otto Rank in Paris and in America and Sándor Ferenczi in Budapest. No more friends, nor enemies, but both, in a different style, brave and creative analysts.

  16. Trend of heat flow in france: relation with deep structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasseur, Guy; Nouri, Yamina; Groupe Fluxchaf

    1980-06-01

    The trend of heat flow over France is discussed using both direct measurements at equilibrium in boreholes and file data. The two types of data are found to be in agreement. They exhibit high heat flow values over the Massif Central and the Vosges. An E-W cross section across the Massif Central allows us to observe the relationship between the high heat flow values, the thinning of the crust and the uprising of the asthenosphere deduced from seismic and gravity measurements. High heat flow values could be explained using a cinematic model where upward convection occurs in the upper mantle for a period of 40 m.y. with a vertical velocity reaching 5 mm/y.

  17. [Needs and financing of radiotherapy in France and Europe].

    PubMed

    Defourny, N; Lievens, Y

    2016-10-01

    Access to high-quality and safe radiotherapy is a prerequisite to assure optimal oncology care in a multidisciplinary environment. In view of supporting long-term radiotherapy planning, actual and predicted radiotherapy needs should be put in context of the nowadays' available resources. The present article reviews the existing data on radiotherapy resources and needs, along with the prevailing reimbursement systems in the different European countries, with a specific emphasis on France. It describes potential incentives of different financing systems on clinical practice and highlights how knowledge of the cost of radiotherapy treatments, by indication and technique, is essential to support correct reimbursement, hence access to radiotherapy. It is expected that such data will help national professional and scientific radiotherapy societies across Europe in their negotiations with policy makers, with the ultimate aim to make radiotherapy accessible to all cancer patients who need it, now and in the decades to come.

  18. Automation under suspicion--case flight AF-447 Air France.

    PubMed

    Martins, Edgard; Soares, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    The probes allow the pilot to control the aircraft speed was essential to the balance of the flight. Opinions of experts who claim that "the design of the plane would have exercised a not inconsiderable role in the occurrence of a disaster." These messages revealed a series of important operating errors in a zone of turbulence, "making the plane uncontrollable, leading to a rapid depressurization device, according to these reports. A lawsuit in Toulouse and in Brazil aims to recognition of the liability of Air France and Airbus not insignificant role in the design and operation of the aircraft in the event of catastrophe. Opinions are taken from senior pilots that no commercial aviation training for certain situations abnormal flight that, if realized, could have influenced the pilots of the AF-447 to remove the plane's fatal dive show what experiments performed in simulators for military pilots, who are permanently subject to critical flight situations.

  19. [Intraosseous vascular access, a technic previously underestimated in France].

    PubMed

    Oriot, D; Cardona, J; Berthier, M; Nasimi, A; Boussemart, T

    1994-07-01

    Intraosseous vascular access is a simple and very efficient technique for fluid and drug administration in any pediatric emergencies where the intravenous route is impossible or inadequate. Yet it remains unrecognized in France. Its pharmacokinetics is close to that of peripheral intravenous route, but it allows much greater infusion flow rates. In pediatric resuscitation it must be considered as the number one technique of intravascular access in infants, and rapidly as the first alternative after failure of attempt of intravenous route in children under 6. Provided that the technique is performed with careful asepsis, the risk of infectious complications is very low. However the intraosseous route must remain a transitory vascular access, and has to be stopped as soon as possible, its use never exceeding 24 hours. PMID:7987470

  20. The Rank-Ferenczi relationship, as seen from France.

    PubMed

    Lugrin, Yves

    2012-12-01

    Seen from France, where Rank's "American" work is not well known, the Rank-Ferenczi relationship does not allow to state that the two learned colleagues were the best friends. Rank met Ferenczi in 1908, but their most valuable and fruitful working relationship is limited to the 1922-1924 time period. Their working relationship must be read in light of the unique transference links of each to Freud, and in light of the tormented history of the analytic movement, especially after the First World War. The sensible reader will not forget that after the fast extinction of their short collaboration they continued their own works in their own ways, Otto Rank in Paris and in America and Sándor Ferenczi in Budapest. No more friends, nor enemies, but both, in a different style, brave and creative analysts. PMID:23175027