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Sample records for frankfurt research reactor-2

  1. Status report on the Frankfurt EBIS research program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinod, M.; Becker, R.; Kester, O.; Lakatos, A.; Mücke, M.; Pfisterer, B.; Rao, R.; Schneider, J.; Teske, L.; Thomae, H.; Zipfel, B.

    1997-01-01

    The Frankfurt superconducting EBIS has been run beyond the space-charge neutralization limit making use of the evaporative cooling technique showing a continuous transition between EBIS to EBIT operation. The experience gained on the performance of this more sophisticated source has been employed to develop simpler EBIS sources: The MEDEBIS using a warm solenoid will demonstrate rapid extraction of bare nuclei for single turn injection into a synchrotron for cancer therapy. The PPM-focused EBIS with permanent magnets and the XEBIS without any focusing magnetic field have been developed to demonstrate by its reduced power consumption and size to be more suitable to small laboratories. High emission current densities from a laser heated tip cathode offer the formation of a well-defined high current density beam. Several spectrometers have been built and installed to offer diagnostics for the EBIS operation as well as atomic physics research. Ionization measurements can be performed using the magnetic switchyard, an external electrostatic and magnetic spectrometer allows to study secondary electron emission by highly charged ions as well as to ionize and analyse sputtered atoms.

  2. Effect of vegetable oils on fatty acid composition and cholesterol content of chicken frankfurters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belichovska, D.; Pejkovski, Z.; Belichovska, K.; Uzunoska, Z.; Silovska-Nikolova, A.

    2017-09-01

    To study the effect of pork adipose tissue substitution with vegetable oils in chicken frankfurters, six frankfurter formulations were produced: control; with pork backfat; with olive oil; with rapeseed oil; with sunflower oil; with palm oil, and; with a mixture of 12% rapeseed oil and 8% palm oil. Fatty acid composition and cholesterol content and some oxides thereof were determined in the final products. The use of vegetable oils resulted in improvement of the fatty acid composition and nutritional of frankfurters. Frankfurters with vegetable oils contained significantly less cholesterol and some of its oxides, compared to the frankfurters with pork fat. The formulation with palm oil had the least favourable fatty acid composition. The use of 12% rapeseed oil improved the ratio of fatty acids in frankfurters with a mixture of rapeseed and palm oils. Complete pork fat replacement with vegetable oils in chicken frankfurter production is technologically possible. The mixture of 12% rapeseed oil and 8% palm oil is a good alternative to pork fat from health aspects. Further research is needed to find the most appropriate mixture of vegetable oils, which will produce frankfurters with good sensory characteristics, a more desirable fatty acid ratio and high nutritional value.

  3. The Frankfurt School's Theory of Manipulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petryszak, Nicholas

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the critical sociology of communication of the Frankfurt School suggesting that theorists such as Lowenthal, Adorno, and Habermas have outlined both the political economics of manipulation and the social psychological interaction between the audience and the media. (MH)

  4. The Frankfurt School's Theory of Manipulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petryszak, Nicholas

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the critical sociology of communication of the Frankfurt School suggesting that theorists such as Lowenthal, Adorno, and Habermas have outlined both the political economics of manipulation and the social psychological interaction between the audience and the media. (MH)

  5. Destruction of Staphylococcus aureus during frankfurter processing.

    PubMed Central

    Palumbo, S A; Smith, J L; Kissinger, J C

    1977-01-01

    We studied the thermal resistance of Staphylococcus aureus during frankfurter processing in respect to whether staphylococci are killed by the heating step of the process and whether heat injury interferes with the quantitative estimation of the survivors. With S. aureus 198E, heat injury could be demonstrated only when large numbers of cells (10(8)/g) were present and at a product temperature of 140 degrees F (60 degrees C). On tryptic soy agar and tryptic soy agar plus 7% NaCl media, at temperatures less than 140 degrees F, the counts were virtually identical; above 140 degrees F, the counts converged, with the organisms dying so rapidly that heat injury was not demonstrable. Heat injury was thus judged not to interfere with the quantitative estimation of staphylococci surviving the normal commercial heating given frankfurters. By using a combination of direct plating on tryptic soy agar and a most-probable-number technique, we detected no viable cells (less than 0.3/g) of several strains of S. aureus in frankfurters heated to 160 degrees F (71.1 degrees C). This temperature is compatible with the normal final temperature to which federally inspected processors heat their frankfurters and with the temperature needed to destroy salmonellae. PMID:563701

  6. [French translation of the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (Frankfurter Beschwerde-Fragebogen, FBF, Süllwold, 1986)].

    PubMed

    Loas, G; Berner, P; Rein, W; Yon, V; Boyer, P; Lecrubier, Y

    1997-01-01

    Observable behaviors play the predominant role in the clinical assessment of schizophrenia, while only secondary emphasis is placed on exclusively subjective complaints. Huber employed the phenomenological approach to obtain subjective symptoms that he named "basic symptoms". Subjective symptoms constitute an important component of the schizophrenic symptomatology. They may play a predominant role during the prodromal or early phases of the disease, they may be useful in elucidating cognitive and perceptual disturbances in schizophrenia. In the last decade, the assessment of patients' subjective experiences has acquired significance with the development of several instruments for their specific evaluation. The Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ, Süllwold, 1986) is the instrument most widely used in Europe for assessing subjective experiences. It covers a wide range of complaints of cognitive deficits that Süllwold compiled from the complaints of schizophrenic patients. We present the French translation of the FCQ. The availability of the FCQ in French could be an important step in promoting the study of subjective experiences in research and clinical activities.

  7. Replacement of Pork Meat with Pork Head Meat for Frankfurters

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Song, Dong-Heon; Jeon, Ki-Hong; Park, Jong-Dae; Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of reducing pork meat concentrations from 50% to 30% and replacing it with up to 20% pork head meat on chemical composition, cooking characteristics, physicochemical and textural properties, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of frankfurters was determined. The highest moisture content in frankfurters was found in the control and T1 (frankfurter with 45% pork meat + 5% pork head). Protein and fat contents in frankfurters with pork head meat added were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those in the control. When the concentration of pork head meat was increased from 0% to 20%, cooking loss, total expressible fluid separation, fat separation, and pH of frankfurters were increased, while the lightness, redness, yellowness, and apparent viscosity of frankfurters were decreased. Ash contents, cohesiveness, color, and tenderness of sensory characteristics of frankfurters added with different amounts of pork meat or pork head meat were not significantly (p>0.05) different from those of the control or there treatments. Frankfurters in T4 (frankfurter with 30% pork meat + 20% pork head) had the lowest (p<0.05) hardness and gumminess. The hardness and gumminess of frankfurters in other treatments were not significantly different (p>0.05) from that in the control. Frankfurters with higher pork head meat concentrations had lower flavor, juiciness, and overall acceptability scores. Therefore, replacing pork meat with pork head meat in the formulation could successfully produce results similar to those of control frankfurters. The best results were obtained when 10% pork head meat was used to replace pork meat. PMID:27621683

  8. Dimensional structure of the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Loas, Gwenolé; Yon, Valérie; Brien, Denis

    2002-01-01

    The Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ) was designed to evaluate the subjective symptoms of schizophrenics. Several validation studies of the FCQ using principal components analyses (PCA) have shown one-, two-, or four-factor solutions. The present study was conducted using FCQ data on 310 schizophrenics who met the ICD-10 criteria for F20 (schizophrenia) disorder. Using several guidelines to select the number of factors, the PCA yielded one factor. This result suggests a unidimensionality underlying FCQ items. A new scale comprising 24 items was derived from those items with higher weights in the first factor.

  9. [The Frankfurt-Pamplona subjective experience scale].

    PubMed

    Cuesta Zorita, M J; Peralta Martín, V; Irigoyen Recalde, I

    1995-01-01

    Several instruments have been designed to assess subjective experiences (SE). The Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ) is the most widely used scale to assess SE. This study was aimed to replicate the factor validation of the scale in a Spanish sample. A factor analysis we carried out on the 98-items of FCQ. No a four-factor solution was found, as initially it had been proposed by authors of the scale. A simplified version of the FCQ was derived through procedures of unidimensionality analysis of factors.

  10. FLSR - The Frankfurt low energy storage ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiebing, K. E.; Alexandrov, V.; Dörner, R.; Enz, S.; Kazarinov, N. Yu.; Kruppi, T.; Schempp, A.; Schmidt Böcking, H.; Völp, M.; Ziel, P.; Dworak, M.; Dilfer, W.

    2010-02-01

    An electrostatic storage ring for low-energy ions with a design energy of 50 keV is presently being set up at the Institut für Kernphysik der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, Germany (IKF). This new device will provide a basis for new experiments on the dynamics of ionic and molecular collisions, as well as for high precision and time resolved laser spectroscopy. In this article, the design parameters of this instrument are reported.

  11. Grape seed flour is a viable ingredient to improve the nutritional profile and reduce lipid oxidation of frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Özvural, Emin Burçin; Vural, Halil

    2011-05-01

    In this study, grape seed flour (GSF) obtained from wine by-products was incorporated into frankfurters at seven concentrations (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5%) and the effects occurred on physical, nutritional and sensory characteristics of the products were investigated. The colour values (L*, a* and b*) of frankfurters generally decreased (p < 0.05) on account of the increasing amount of GSF. The utilization of this flour also led to a decline in the oxidation level of the products (p < 0.05), probably due to its antioxidant content. The increment of GSF in the frankfurters enhanced the protein, total dietary fibre and water holding capacity of the treatments (p < 0.05). Although the level of GSF above 0.5% reduced overall acceptability, the frankfurters containing the level up to 2% received scores above the average. The evaluation of wine by-products in the production of healthier and functional frankfurters has been achieved by the study, but further research is necessary to improve palatability of the products. Copyright © 2011 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from vacuum-sealed packages of frankfurters: comparison of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) food safety and inspection service product composite enrichment method, the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) product composite rinse method, and the USDA-ARS package rinse method.

    PubMed

    Luchansky, John B; Porto, Anna C S; Wallace, F Morgan; Call, Jeffrey E

    2002-03-01

    This study compared three methods for the recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from commercially prepared and vacuum-packaged frankfurters that were inoculated with a five-strain mixture of this pathogen at averages of 22 and 20,133 CFU per package over three trials. The presence and levels of the pathogen were determined by (i) the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS) product composite enrichment method, involving the selective enrichment of a 25-g composite of product and the subsequent plating of this product onto selective agar plates; (ii) the USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) product composite rinse method, involving the rinsing of a 25-g composite of product with 0.1% peptone water and the subsequent plating of a portion of the rinse fluid directly onto selective agar plates; and (iii) the USDA-ARS package rinse method, involving the use of 25 ml of 0.1% peptone water to rinse the entire contents of a package and the subsequent plating of a portion of the rinse fluid directly onto selective agar plates. For packages inoculated with 20,133 CFU. L. monocytogenes was recovered at a frequency (percentage of packages positive) of 100% by each of the three methods. The pathogen was recovered at efficiencies (percentages of recovery of L. monocytogenes) of 43 and 94% with the USDA-ARS product rinse method and the USDA-ARS package rinse method, respectively. For packages inoculated with 22 CFU, L. monocytogenes was recovered at frequencies of 17, 10, and 100% by the USDA-FSIS product composite enrichment method, the USDA-ARS product composite rinse method, and the USDA-ARS package rinse method, respectively. The pathogen was recovered at efficiencies of 20 and 95% with the USDA-ARS product composite rinse method and the USDA-ARS package rinse method, respectively. In a related study, the USDA-ARS package rinse method was the only method that detected the pathogen in 60 packages from each of five brands of frankfurters

  13. Utilization of interesterified oil blends in the production of frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Ozvural, Emin Burçin; Vural, Halil

    2008-03-01

    Ten treatments of frankfurters were produced with interesterified oil and oil blends (palm oil, palm stearin, cottonseed oil, hazelnut oil and their mixtures) and were compared to control, produced with all animal fat. Addition of interesterified oil and oil blends affected (p<0.05) the moisture and fat content and pH values of frankfurters. According to the colour measurements, the brightness value (L(∗)) of most of the samples with interesterified oil and oil blends were higher (p<0.05) than the control. The fatty acid composition of frankfurters was modified. The PUFA/SFA values of frankfurters were increased due to the presence of interesterified oil and oil blends in the formulation. Frankfurters with 100% interesterified cottonseed oil or with interesterified oil blends with 66.6% and 83.4% cottonseed oil had PUFA/SFA ratio higher than 0.4 and are considered better than all others from the health point of view. Frankfurters produced with 100% interesterified cottonseed and hazelnut oil or with interesterified hazelnut oil blends had the same (p>0.05) scores for sensory attributes with the control, while all other treatments were also acceptable.

  14. Effect of shaddock albedo addition on the properties of frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Shan, Bing; Li, Xingmin; Pan, Teng; Zheng, Limin; Zhang, Hao; Guo, Huiyuan; Jiang, Lu; Zhen, Shaobo; Ren, Fazheng

    2015-07-01

    To explore the potential as a natural auxiliary emulsifier, shaddock albedo was added into frankfurters at six different levels: 0.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10 and 12.5 %. The emulsion capacity (EC) of meat batters and cooking properties of frankfurters were evaluated. EC of meat batters was improved with the addition of shaddock albedo and the maximum value was reached at the 5 % albedo concentration. The addition of shaddock albedo resulted in lower cooking losses of frankfurters, with the lowest value obtained at the 7.5 % level. The presence of shaddock albedo decreased the total expressible fluid (TEF) and the proportion of fat in total expressible fluid (PF) which indicated the emulsion stability of frankfurters and the lowest values both occurred at the concentration of 7.5 %. Shaddock albedo inclusion increased the lightness and yellowness of frankfurters and decreased redness. Texture profile analysis showed increased hardness and decreased chewiness of frankfurters with the addition of shaddock albedo. Consequently, shaddock albedo could be a potential source of auxiliary emulsifier filler for emulsion-type meat products.

  15. Pigeon Navigation: Different Routes Lead to Frankfurt

    PubMed Central

    Schiffner, Ingo; Wiltschko, Roswitha

    2014-01-01

    Background Tracks of pigeons homing to the Frankfurt loft revealed an odd phenomenon: whereas birds returning from the North approach their loft more or less directly in a broad front, pigeons returning from the South choose, from 25 km from home onward, either of two corridors, a direct one and one with a considerable detour to the West. This implies differences in the navigational process. Methodology/Principle Findings Pigeons released at sites at the beginning of the westerly corridor and in this corridor behave just like pigeons returning from farther south, deviating to the west before turning towards their loft. Birds released at sites within the straight corridors, in contrast, take more or less straight routes. The analysis of the short-term correlation dimension, a quantity reflecting the complexity of the system and with it, the number of factors involved in the navigational process, reveals that it is significantly larger in pigeons choosing the westerly corridor than in the birds flying straight - 3.03 vs. 2.85. The difference is small, however, suggesting a different interpretation of the same factors, with some birds apparently preferring particular factors over others. Conclusions The specific regional distribution of the factors which pigeons use to determine their home course seems to provide ambiguous information in the area 25 km south of the loft, resulting in the two corridors. Pigeons appear to navigate by deriving their routes directly from the locally available navigational factors which they interpret in an individual way. The fractal nature of the correlation dimensions indicates that the navigation process of pigeons is chaotic-deterministic; published tracks of migratory birds suggest that this may apply to avian navigation in general. PMID:25391144

  16. Chemical, physical and sensory properties of chicken frankfurters substituted with palm fats.

    PubMed

    Tan, S S; Aminah, A; Mohd Suria Affandi, Y; Atil, O; Babji, A S

    2001-01-01

    Physico-chemical and sensory characteristics of frankfurters prepared with three types of palm fats (PF60: 40, PF70: 30 and PF80: 20) and palm olein (POo) at 20 and 25% of fat levels were studied. Incorporation of different fats at 20 and 25% did not affect the cooking yields of the frankfurters. Frankfurters incorporated with 25% POo showed the highest value of water-holding capacity (WHC) among eight formulations. The frankfurters containing POo showed the least cooking loss compared to those with palm fats. The incorporation of different type and level of fats resulted in significant changes in the colour (lightness, redness, yellowness) of frankfurters. Texture profiles of both raw and cooked frankfurters were found to be altered by the blending of different type and level of fats. In raw frankfurters, hardness for frankfurters mixed with palm fats were significantly higher than the one with POo but greater values for cohesiveness was observed in raw frankfurters blended with POo. Lowest chewiness was demonstrated by frankfurters mixed with 20% POo. Grilling increased the hardness values of all frankfurters. Contrary to the raw counterparts, cooked frankfurter with POo was the hardest among all formulations. Cohesiveness and chewiness was also found to be significantly higher for cooked frankfurters mixed with POo. Raw frankfurters with fat content of 25% showed greater value in hardness than those of 20%. However, there were no significant differences (P > 0.05) observed for all the texture profile attributes in cooked frankfurters due to fat levels. In sensory evaluation, frankfurters prepared with POo were found to be most acceptable by consumer panels as they scored the highest for hardness rating, chicken flavour, oiliness and overall acceptance attributes.

  17. The Frankfurt School: Critical Theory as the Negation of Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Beverly

    In examining the Frankfurt School's critical theory of society in an effort to discover the theoretical basis for the school's inability to merge theory with praxis, this paper points out that the school's analysis of culture in the 1930s and 1940s presents a radical, penetrating critique of the role of mass communication in advanced…

  18. Effect of Duck Feet Gelatin on Physicochemical, Textural, and Sensory Properties of Low-fat Frankfurters

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Duck feet gelatin (DFG) gel was added as a fat replacer to low-fat frankfurters and the effect of DFG on physicochemical, textural, and sensory characteristics of low-fat frankfurters was evaluated. DFG gel was prepared with a 20% duck feet gelatin concentration (w/w). Adding DFG decreased lightness and increased yellowness of the low-fat frankfurters (p<0.05). However, DFG did not affect redness of low-fat frankfurters (p>0.05). The statistical results indicated that adding DFG improved cooking yield of low-fat frankfurters (p<0.05). In addition, replacing pork back fat with DFG resulted in increased moisture content, protein content, and ash content of low-fat frankfurters, and the low-fat frankfurter formulated with 5% pork back fat and 15% DFG gel had the highest moisture content and lowest fat content (p<0.05). Adding of DFG increased all textural parameters including hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, chewiness, and gumminess of low-fat frankfurters (p<0.05). In terms of sensory properties, the low-fat frankfurter formulated with 5% pork back fat and 15% DFG gel showed similar satisfaction scores for the flavor, tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptance when compared to the regular frankfurters (20% back fat). Therefore, our results suggest that DFG could be an effective novel source, as a fat replacer, for manufacturing of low-fat frankfurters. PMID:26761279

  19. Efficacy of a food grade blend of lactate-diacetate-propionate as ingredients to control Listeria monocytogenes on commericially produced frankfurters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: Further research is warranted to evaluate different levels/types of food grade antimicrobials to control Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) on RTE meats. Purpose: Determine viability of Lm on frankfurters formulated with a blend of lactate-diacetate-propionate (0, 0.5, 0.75, or 1.0%) and then...

  20. Max Wertheimer, Habilitation candidate at the Frankfurt Psychological Institute.

    PubMed

    Gundlach, Horst

    2014-05-01

    Max Wertheimer told Edwin B. Newman that it was pure chance that on his way to the Rhineland he prematurely got off the train in Frankfurt, and that he did so because he had an inspiration for an experiment that he wanted to perform. Most historians of psychology accept this anecdote, but fail to mention that thereby Wertheimer also mastered the next and decisive step toward his academic career in accomplishing his Habilitation. Exposing the institutional, personal, and intellectual context of Wertheimer's going to Frankfurt and giving a detailed account of the procedure of Habilitation will show that Newman's and similar reports of the episode, even if verbatim to Wertheimer's own telling, are nevertheless too improbable to accept at face value.

  1. Status of the Frankfurt low energy electrostatic storage ring (FLSR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, F.; Kruppi, T.; Müller, J.; Dörner, R.; Schmidt, L. Ph H.; Schmidt-Böcking, H.; Stiebing, K. E.

    2015-11-01

    Frankfurt low-energy storage ring (FLSR) is an electrostatic storage ring for low-energy ions up to q · 80 keV (q being the ion charge state) at Institut für Kernphysik der Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main, Germany. It has especially been designed to provide a basis for experiments on the dynamics of ionic and molecular collisions in complete kinematics, as well as for high precision and time resolved laser spectroscopy. The ring has ‘racetrack’ geometry with a circumference of 14.23 m. It comprises four experimental/diagnostic sections with regions of enhanced ion density (interaction regions). First beam has successfully been stored in FLSR in summer 2013. Since then the performance of the ring has continuously been improved and an electron target for experiments on dissociative recombination has been installed in one of the experimental sections.

  2. Microbiology of the frankfurter process: salmonella and natural aerobic flora.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, S A; Huhtanen, C N; Smith, J L

    1974-04-01

    Salmonella senftenberg 775W added to frankfurter emulsion was killed during normal processing in the smoke house when internal product temperature was 71.1 C (160 F) or above. The thermal destruction point of S. senftenberg 775W in frankfurters (temperature at which no viable cells were detected) was a function of the length of time of the process rather than of the starting number of cells. Heating of frankfurters to 73.9 C (165 F) substantially reduced the total non-salmonella count. For total non-salmonella bacterial flora and salmonella, relatively little thermal destruction occurred below 43.3 C (110 F). The heating step can bring about a 7-log cycle decrease (10(8) to 10(1)/g) of bacteria present in the raw emulsion. The flora of this high-bacteriological-count raw emulsion was predominantly gram-negative rods. Variation in the number of bacteria (both total and salmonella) surviving at various temperatures during processing was attributed to slight variations in the temperature pattern of the smoke house during its operation. An integration process was devised which allowed calculation of exposure to temperatures above 110 F (43.3 C) on the basis of degree-minutes. Plots of degree-minutes versus log of surviving bacteria were linear. The salmonella plot had a greater slope than that of the total non-salmonella flora, indicating that salmonellae are more heat sensitive than the bacterial population as a whole. The predominant bacteria surviving the heating step were micrococci. These micrococci were able to increase in number in or on the frankfurters during storage at 5 C.

  3. Influence of beet sugar, calcium lactate, and Staphylococcus xylosus (with nitrate reductase activity) on the chemical, microbiological, and sensorial properties of Persian uncured frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Tahmouzi, Saeed; Razavi, Seyed Hadi; Safari, Mohammad; Emam-Djomeh, Zahra

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of beet sugar (BS), calcium lactate (CL), and Staphylococcus xylosus (SX) on the general characteristics of uncured frankfurters. Minimum residual nitrite was observed in samples with a high level of BS and S. xylosus (8log(10) l0 viable cfu/g) after 2 mo. There was an increase in total aerobic counts in frankfurters after 4 wk. Samples containing higher BS and CL had no Clostridium perfringens at storage time. Histamine content was similar for all treatments except SX. No differences were observed in textural properties among the treatments. Water activity was decreased significantly in treatment CL1+BS2. The results indicated that samples treated with BS or CL had (P < 0.05) taste and sensory attributes considered appropriate by a tasting panel. Frankfurters are among the most popular meat products in many countries. Health problems (such as cancer) associated with the overconsumption of cured meat have led to searches for new, alternative methods of preservation. Hurdle technology (combinations of beet sugar, calcium lactate, and Staphylococcus xylosus in different concentrations) can be developed for frankfurter processing. Results of this research will be useful for meat manufacturers; however, any new process may affect the strategies chosen for marketing these products. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Test-retest reliability of the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Loas, Gwenolé; Yon, Valerie; Monestès, Jean Louis; Cuesta, Manuel J

    2011-04-01

    Long-term reliability of the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ) was investigated in two follow-up studies of participants with psychosis using a test-retest method. In the first study (N = 56), the duration of the follow-up ranged from 6 months to 2 years; Spearman rho was .62 for the abridged (18 items) Spanish version of the questionnaire. In Study 2 (N = 21), in participants with stable schizophrenia, the follow-up ranged from 8 to 11 years; test-retest Spearman rho was .83 for the French version of the questionnaire. Subjective experiences could constitute, in psychosis-prone people, traits or markers of psychotic vulnerability.

  5. Inactivation of Listeria innocua on frankfurters using flash pasteurization and lauric arginate ester

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Listeria monocytogenes, a psychrotrophic food-borne pathogen, is a recurring post-process contaminant on ready-to-eat meat (RTE) products including frankfurters. Flash Pasteurization (FP) uses short pulses of steam to decontaminate the surface of precooked sausages such as frankfurters. The antimi...

  6. 9 CFR 319.309 - Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Beans with frankfurters in sauce... STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.309 Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products. “Beans with Frankfurters in...

  7. 9 CFR 319.309 - Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Beans with frankfurters in sauce... STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.309 Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products. “Beans with Frankfurters in...

  8. 9 CFR 319.309 - Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Beans with frankfurters in sauce... STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.309 Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products. “Beans with Frankfurters in...

  9. 9 CFR 319.309 - Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Beans with frankfurters in sauce... STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.309 Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products. “Beans with Frankfurters in...

  10. 9 CFR 319.309 - Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Beans with frankfurters in sauce... STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.309 Beans with frankfurters in sauce, sauerkraut with wieners and juice, and similar products. “Beans with Frankfurters in...

  11. Strategies for incorporation of chia (Salvia hispanica L.) in frankfurters as a health-promoting ingredient.

    PubMed

    Pintado, T; Herrero, A M; Jiménez-Colmenero, F; Ruiz-Capillas, C

    2016-04-01

    Different strategies were examined for incorporation of chia flour (10%) and olive oil to improve the fat content in frankfurters. Nutritional composition, technological properties, sensory and microbiological analyses were studied as affected by the strategy used and by chilling storage. Chia increased total dietary fibre (98% insoluble dietary fibre) and minerals (K, Mg, Ca, Mn) irrespective of the incorporation strategy. Fat and energy content reduction (>26%) were achieved in all frankfurters reformulated with chia and olive oil. Chia addition increased linolenic acid and reduced processing and purge in all samples. Lightness and redness of frankfurters were affected by the presence of chia, but there was no clear evidence of influence by the mode of addition. Frankfurter texture was influenced by the strategy used to incorporate chia and olive oil and by chilling storage. Samples were judged acceptable and contained low microorganism levels. Frankfurters containing chia were suitable for labelling with certain nutrition and health claims. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Technological, sensory and microbiological impacts of sodium reduction in frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Yotsuyanagi, Suzana E; Contreras-Castillo, Carmen J; Haguiwara, Marcia M H; Cipolli, Kátia M V A B; Lemos, Ana L S C; Morgano, Marcelo A; Yamada, Eunice A

    2016-05-01

    Initially, meat emulsions were studied in a model system to optimize phosphate and potassium chloride concentrations. In the second step, frankfurters containing 1.00%, 1.30% and 1.75% sodium chloride (NaCl) were processed and their stability was monitored over 56 days. In the emulsion tests, the best levels in relation to shear force found in model system were 0.85% and 0.25% of potassium chloride and phosphate, respectively. In the second step, treatments with 1.30% and 1.75% NaCl performed better in most of the analysis, particularly the sensory analysis. Consumers could identify the levels of salt, but this was not the factor that determined the overall acceptability. In some technological parameters, frankfurters with 1.30% NaCl were better than those with 1.75%. This represents a reduction of approximately 25% sodium chloride, or 18% reduction in sodium (916 mg/100g to 750 mg/100g), and it appears to be feasible from a technological, microbiological and sensory point of view. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of natural colourants and nitrites on colour attributes of frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Bloukas, J G; Arvanitoyannis, I S; Siopi, A A

    1999-07-01

    The colour attributes in a control and six more treatments of frankfurters (18% fat) produced with natural colourants and two levels of NaNO(2) (0 and 150 mg/kg) were studied. The following natural colourants, permitted by the EU 94/36 guideline, were used: E 100 curcumin (CU), E 120 carminic acid (CA), E 150a caramel (CR), E 160a beta-carotene (BC), E 160g paprika-extract (PE) and E162 betanin (B). CA, B, BC and PE significantly increased the redness of batter, while BC, PE and CU increased (p<0.05) the yellowness. NaNO(2) decreased (p<0.05) the redness of batters in all treatments. Frankfurters with CA had the highest a* value followed by those with BC, PE and B. BC, PE and B increased the yellowness of frankfurters. NaNO(2) increased (p<0.05) the redness of frankfurters in all treatments. The storage of frankfurters for 4 weeks had no effect on redness and yellowness of frankfurters. Exposure either for 2 h in sunlight or for 4 h in artificial light had no significant effect on redness and yellowness of frankfurters from all treatments. Canned frankfurters (117°) with B had the greatest decrease in redness while those with BC the greatest increase in yellowness. Frankfurters with B were the most acceptable from the consumers according to their colour followed by those with PE. Frankfurters with B had also the highest score for overall acceptability, followed by those with CA and nitrites. By employing discriminant analysis on the data, equations were derived for the identification of the natural colourant used in the production of frankfurters. Results from frankfurters, produced with 0, 3.6, 14.4 and 28.8 mg of pure B kg and 100 and 150 mg/kg NaNO(2), have shown that the level of NaNO(2) can be reduced from 150 to 100 mg/kg with appropriate increase in B level and frankfurters with 14.4 mg B/kg were the most acceptable from the consumers according to their colour.

  14. Frankfurt EBIS development: Fundamental research and new applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinod, M.; Becker, R.; Kester, O.; Lakatos, A.; Thomae, H.; Zipfel, B.; Klein, H.

    1994-04-01

    Fundamental questions of electron beam ion sources (EBIS) are studied using three different setups. Cryogenic classical EBIS: The limit of ion-ion cooling in EBIS devices operating near the space-charge neutralization limit has been studied experimentally. To investigate different degrees of compensation of the electron beam by highly charged ions, a hemispherical analyzer has been constructed including a novel deceleration optic for high resolution. Using its energy definition we tested different modes of ion transportation in our multipassage magnetic spectrometer, which can be operated chromatically as well as extremely dispersively: up to 200 passages could be obtained. EBIS without magnetic field: First results on ion production in the short trap at the very dense crossover of an electron beam (XEBIS) confined only inertially without the use of magnetic fields are presented. Normal conducting short EBIS: Using a normal conducting field of 0.8 T of 25-cm length an EBIS is under construction to study extremely short ion extraction of approximately 4 μs for single turn injection into a medical synchrotron for cancer therapy (MEDEBIS).

  15. Which is the best grape seed additive for frankfurters: extract, oil or flour?

    PubMed

    Özvural, Emin Burçin; Vural, Halil

    2014-03-15

    Grape seed products (winery by-products) are valuable vegetable sources to enhance the quality of meat products. In this study, 21 treatments of frankfurters, in three different groups, including 0%, 0.01%, 0.03%, 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.3% and 0.5% grape seed extract (GSE), 0%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8% and 10% grape seed oil (GSO), and 0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5% grape seed flour (GSF) were produced in order to compare the differences among them during refrigerated storage for 90 days. Increasing the level of GSO made the frankfurters lighter in color (P < 0.05). Lipid oxidation of all the 21 frankfurters were under the limit of deterioration (2.0 mg malonaldehite kg⁻¹ treatment) during 90 days' storage. However, increasing the amount of additives (GSE, GSO and GSF) led to a decrease in overall acceptability for each group. According to the general comparison of the three frankfurter groups in terms of lipid oxidation, TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) values of the frankfurters including GSE and GSF were found to be similar, but the frankfurters containing GSO exhibited the highest lipid oxidation (P < 0.05). While the products including GSE were the most acceptable group in terms of overall acceptability, the group produced with GSF received the lowest points (P < 0.05). Although the three grape seed products have partially undesirable effects on the sensory characteristics of the frankfurters, all these additives showed different positive influences in the production of frankfurters. The results showed that the group of frankfurters including GSE was the best of three different groups of products due to the lipid oxidation and overall acceptability results. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Influence of the addition of rosemary essential oil on the volatiles pattern of porcine frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Sonia; Ramírez, Rosario; Cava, Ramón

    2005-10-19

    The effect of the addition of increasing levels of rosemary essential oil (150, 300, and 600 mg/kg) on the generation of volatile compounds in frankfurters from Iberian and white pigs was analyzed using solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). Lipid-derived volatiles such as aldehydes (hexanal, octanal, nonanal) and alcohols (pentan-1-ol, hexan-1-ol, oct-1-en-3-ol) were the most abundant compounds in the headspace (HS) of porcine frankfurters. Frankfurters from different pig breeds presented different volatile profiles due to their different oxidation susceptibilities as a likely result of their fatty acid composition and vitamin E content. Rosemary essential oil showed a different effect on the generation of volatiles depending on the type of frankfurter in which they were added. In frankfurters from Iberian pigs, the antioxidant effect of the essential oil improved with increasing levels, showing the highest activity at 600 mg/kg. In contrast, 150 mg/kg of the essential oil improved the oxidative stability of frankfurters from white pigs, whereas higher levels led to no effect or a prooxidant effect. The activity of the essential oil could have been affected by the different fatty acid compositions and vitamin E contents between types of frankfurters. SPME successfully allowed the isolation and analysis of volatile terpenes from frankfurters with added rosemary essential oil including alpha-pinene, beta-myrcene, l-limonene, (E)-caryophyllene, linalool, camphor, and 1,8-cineole, which might contribute to the aroma characteristics of frankfurters.

  17. Aircraft noise and quality of life around Frankfurt Airport.

    PubMed

    Schreckenberg, Dirk; Meis, Markus; Kahl, Cara; Peschel, Christin; Eikmann, Thomas

    2010-09-01

    In a survey of 2,312 residents living near Frankfurt Airport aircraft noise annoyance and disturbances as well as environmental (EQoL) and health-related quality of life (HQoL) were assessed and compared with data on exposure due to aircraft, road traffic, and railway noise. Results indicate higher noise annoyance than predicted from general exposure-response curves. Beside aircraft sound levels source-related attitudes were associated with reactions to aircraft noise. Furthermore, aircraft noise affected EQoL in general, although to a much smaller extent. HQoL was associated with aircraft noise annoyance, noise sensitivity and partly with aircraft noise exposure, in particular in the subgroup of multimorbid residents. The results suggest a recursive relationship between noise and health, yet this cannot be tested in cross-sectional studies. Longitudinal studies would be recommendable to get more insight in the causal paths underlying the noise-health relationship.

  18. Aircraft Noise and Quality of Life around Frankfurt Airport

    PubMed Central

    Schreckenberg, Dirk; Meis, Markus; Kahl, Cara; Peschel, Christin; Eikmann, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    In a survey of 2,312 residents living near Frankfurt Airport aircraft noise annoyance and disturbances as well as environmental (EQoL) and health-related quality of life (HQoL) were assessed and compared with data on exposure due to aircraft, road traffic, and railway noise. Results indicate higher noise annoyance than predicted from general exposure-response curves. Beside aircraft sound levels source-related attitudes were associated with reactions to aircraft noise. Furthermore, aircraft noise affected EQoL in general, although to a much smaller extent. HQoL was associated with aircraft noise annoyance, noise sensitivity and partly with aircraft noise exposure, in particular in the subgroup of multimorbid residents. The results suggest a recursive relationship between noise and health, yet this cannot be tested in cross-sectional studies. Longitudinal studies would be recommendable to get more insight in the causal paths underlying the noise-health relationship. PMID:20948931

  19. Effects of Organogel Hardness and Formulation on Acceptance of Frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Barbut, S; Wood, J; Marangoni, A G

    2016-09-01

    Different organogel formulations used as beef fat (BF) replacement (0%, 20%, 40%, 60%, and 80%) were utilized to optimize the mechanical properties of frankfurters. Organogels, made of canola oil (CO), included different concentrations of ethyl cellulose (EC) and sorbitan monostearate (SMS). They consisted of: 8% EC + 1.5% SMS referred to as organogel-I (OG-I), 8% EC + 3.0% SMS (OG-II), and 10% EC + 1.5% SMS (OG-III), which were found promising in a previous study when used at 100% replacement. Replacement of BF with organogels at all levels could bring down the very high hardness values (texture profile analysis and sensory) of frankfurters prepared using CO by itself, relative to the BF control. OG-I and OG-II quantity had no significant effect on hardness and springiness, being similar in many cases to the BF and lower than the CO control. Shear force values of all organogel treatments were not significantly different from one another, and were between the BF and CO controls. Smokehouse yield showed a pattern of decreasing losses with increasing organogel replacement level. Sensory analysis revealed that using CO by itself significantly increased hardness, but structuring the oil (via organogelation), brought it down to the BF control value in all OG-I and OG-II formulations. Juiciness was significantly reduced by using liquid oil but increased with raising the amount of organogels. Oiliness sensation increased with higher organogel substitution and was actually higher than the beef control. The study demonstrates the potential use of vegetable oil structuring in replacing the more saturated BF in emulsion-type meat products. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Microwave oven heating for inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on frankfurters before consumption.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Marval, Mawill; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Kendall, Patricia A; Scanga, John A; Belk, Keith E; Sofos, John N

    2009-10-01

    Microwave oven heating was evaluated for inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on inoculated and stored frankfurters. Frankfurters formulated without/with 1.5% potassium lactate and 0.1% sodium diacetate were inoculated with L. monocytogenes (1.9 +/- 0.2 log CFU/cm(2)), vacuum-packaged, and stored (4 degrees C) to simulate conditions prior to purchase by consumers. At storage days 18, 36, and 54, packages were opened and placed at 7 degrees C, simulating aerobic storage in a household refrigerator. At 0, 3, and 7 d of aerobic storage, 2 frankfurters were placed in a bowl with water (250 mL) and treated in a household microwave oven at high (1100 W) power for 30, 45, 60, or 75 s, or medium (550 W) power for 60 or 75 s. Frankfurters and the heating water were analyzed for total microbial counts and L. monocytogenes populations. Exposure to high power for 75 s reduced pathogen levels (0.7 +/- 0.0 to 1.0 +/- 0.1 log CFU/cm(2)) to below the detection limit (<-0.4 log CFU/cm(2)) on frankfurters with lactate/diacetate, even after 54 d of vacuum-packaged storage followed by 7 d of aerobic storage. For frankfurters without lactate/diacetate, high power for 75 s caused reductions between > 1.5 and 5.9 log CFU/cm(2) from control levels of 1.5 +/- 0.1 to 7.2 +/- 0.5 log CFU/cm(2). Depending on treatment and storage time, the water used to reheat the frankfurters had viable L. monocytogenes counts of <-2.4 to 5.5 +/- 0.5 log CFU/mL. The results indicated that frankfurters should be reheated in a microwave oven at high power for 75 s to inactivate up to 3.7 log CFU/cm(2) of L. monocytogenes contamination.

  1. Classification of frankfurters by FT-Raman spectroscopy and chemometric methods.

    PubMed

    Campos, Náira da Silva; Oliveira, Kamila Sá; Almeida, Mariana Ramos; Stephani, Rodrigo; de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando Cappa

    2014-11-18

    Frankfurters are widely consumed all over the world, and the production requires a wide range of meat and non-meat ingredients. Due to these characteristics, frankfurters are products that can be easily adulterated with lower value meats, and the presence of undeclared species. Adulterations are often still difficult to detect, due the fact that the adulterant components are usually very similar to the authentic product. In this work, FT-Raman spectroscopy was employed as a rapid technique for assessing the quality of frankfurters. Based on information provided by the Raman spectra, a multivariate classification model was developed to identify the frankfurter type. The aim was to study three types of frankfurters (chicken, turkey and mixed meat) according to their Raman spectra, based on the fatty vibrational bands. Classification model was built using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and the performance model was evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, efficiency and Matthews's correlation coefficient. The PLS-DA models give sensitivity and specificity values on the test set in the ranges of 88%-100%, showing good performance of the classification models. The work shows the Raman spectroscopy with chemometric tools can be used as an analytical tool in quality control of frankfurters.

  2. Influence of bacterial cellulose (nata) on the physicochemical and sensory properties of frankfurter.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shih-Yi; Lin, Kuo-Wei

    2014-06-01

    The physicochemical and sensory characteristics of pork frankfurters containing different levels (10% to 30%) of bacterial cellulose (nata) were evaluated. Emulsion stability of the raw meat batter decreased with the addition of nata. For nata-added treatments, increasing levels of nata in frankfurters resulted in decreased textural hardness and shear values. Sensory results indicated that N10 and N20 had significantly higher firmness scores than N30 and control. However, juiciness score did not differ for all treatments. Incorporation of nata at lower levels (10% to 20%) did not have detrimental effects on the physicochemical, textural, sensory, and microbiological properties of regular-fat frankfurters. Addition of a higher level (30%) of nata essentially produced comparable sensory properties to the control, but lower levels of nata in frankfurters yielded higher sensory firmness and instrumental hardness values. Based on the composite results, manufacture of regular-fat frankfurter containing 10% to 20% high-fiber nata resulted in product quality comparable to the control. We demonstrated the manufacture of quality-improved frankfurters with the inclusion of a high-fiber functional ingredient, nata. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Storage stability of low-fat beef frankfurters formulated with carrageenan or carrageenan with pectin.

    PubMed

    Candogan, Kezban; Kolsarici, Nuray

    2003-06-01

    Storage stability of low-fat frankfurters (<3.0 fat content) formulated with carrageenan (0.3, 0.5, and 0.7%) or carrageenan with a pectin gel (PG) (20%) was examined during 49-day refrigerated storage. Low fat frankfurters had higher bacterial growth than high-fat control (HFC) over the refrigerated storage due to higher water activity resulting from extra water addition. While there was no change in the pH of low-fat frankfurters initially due to carrageenan or PG incorporation, the most noticeable pH decline was observed in PG-added frankfurters followed by only carrageenan added ones over the storage period. HFC had the highest (P<0.05) TBA value and the lowest redness index (a(∗)/b(∗)) all the time as compared with carrageenan or carrageenan and PG added low-fat frankfurters. Low-fat frankfurters formulated with either carrageenan or carrageenan with PG had acceptable sensory scores.

  4. The new ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic: November 15-16, 2011, Frankfurt, Germany.

    PubMed

    Hanala, Sherif

    2012-01-01

    The inaugural IgM event entitled "The new ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic" brought together the increasingly active and growing IgM antibody community to discuss recent advances and challenges facing the discovery and development of IgM antibody therapies and technologies. Researchers, clinicians and biomanufacturing experts delivered 21 talks on the basic science and isolation of IgM, upstream and downstream development, and formulation and clinical development of the molecules. Participants networked around topics aimed at exploring the full potential of IgM antibodies. The meeting was held at DECHEMA Gesellschaft für Chemische Technik und Biotechnologie e. V. (Society for Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology), a non-profit scientific and technical society based in Frankfurt am Main, Germany. The meeting was sponsored by Patrys, Laureate Biopharma, Bio-Rad Laboratories, BIA Separations, Percivia and the Bio Affinity Company (BAC). The second New ParaDIgm: IgM from bench to clinic meeting, will be held on April 23-24, 2013 in Frankfurt, Germany.

  5. Texture and acceptability of goat meat frankfurters processed with 3 different sources of fat.

    PubMed

    Bratcher, C L; Dawkins, N L; Solaiman, S; Kerth, C R; Bartlett, J R

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the texture and consumer acceptability of goat meat frankfurter formulations with no added fat (NAF), beef fat (BF), or canola oil (CO). Consumer sensory evaluation, fat, and moisture and texture profile analyses were performed on goat meat frankfurters produced with the fat sources BF, CO, and NAF. For sensory evaluations, NAF was less tender (P = 0.007; 4.90 vs. 4.11 and 4.35 for BF and CO, respectively) and the flavor was liked less (P = 0.004; 4.59 vs. 3.83 and 4.30 for BF and CO, respectively); BF was scored as the juiciest (P = 0.003; 3.86 vs. 4.49 and 4.58 for CO and NAF, respectively); and CO had the least amount of flavor (P = 0.029; 3.65 vs. 3.12 and 3.10 for BF and NAF, respectively). Moisture was least (P < 0.001) in CO (46.59%), followed by BF (48.57%) and NAF (55.80%). The amount of fat was not different (P = 0.761) in BF (24.36%) or CO (24.43%) but was less (P < 0.001) in NAF (9.06%), as expected. The NAF had the most protein (P < 0.001; 34.14%), followed by CO (27.98%) and BF (26.07%). For texture profile analyses, NAF had the least hardness value (P = 0.008; 3.92 vs. 4.48 and 4.40 for BF and CO, respectively) and least chewiness value (P = 0.026; 2.89 vs. 3.39 and 3.29 for BF and CO, respectively). Beef fat and CO were not different for hardness (P = 0.596) or chewiness (P = 0.530). No differences were observed in springiness (P = 0.954) or resilience (P = 0.561). The sensory panelists tended to prefer BF for overall acceptability. Results from these data revealed that value-added goat meat products received acceptable sensory scores; therefore, continued research and development will greatly expand the knowledge of goat meat and increase the acceptance of value-added products.

  6. Proton Driver Linac for the Frankfurt Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Wiesner, C.; Chau, L. P.; Dinter, H.; Droba, M.; Heilmann, M.; Joshi, N.; Maeder, D.; Metz, A.; Meusel, O.; Noll, D.; Podlech, H.; Ratzinger, U.; Reichau, H.; Schempp, A.; Schmidt, S.; Schweizer, W.; Volk, K.; Wagner, C.; Mueller, I.

    2010-08-04

    The Frankfurt Neutron Source at the Stern-Gerlach-Zentrum (FRANZ) will deliver high neutron fluxes in the energy range of 1 to 500 keV. The Activation Mode provides a high averaged neutron flux created by a cw proton beam of up to 5 mA, while in the Compressor Mode intense neutron pulses of 1 ns length are formed with a repetition rate of up to 250 kHz. The Compressor Mode is well-suited for energy-dependent neutron capture measurements using the Time-of-Flight method in combination with a 4{pi} BaF{sub 2} detector array. The design of the proton driver linac for both operation modes is presented. This includes the volume type ion source, the ExB chopper located in the low energy section, the RFQ-IH combination for beam acceleration and the bunch compressor. Finally, the neutron production at the lithium-7 target and the resulting energy spectrum is described.

  7. Dimensional structure and diagnostic specificity of the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Maβ, R; Haasen, C; Krausz, M

    1997-01-01

    The Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ) is a widely used method to investigate non-psychotic subjective experiences of schizophrenics. Less is known about its dimensional structure. Therefore, principal components analyses (PCA) were conducted with the FCQ data of 505 schizophrenics and 187 alcoholics. Furthermore, results of a former analysis using item-to-item comparisons between schizophrenics and alcoholics were examined. PCA yielded two factors called 'dysphoric concomitants of severe illness particularly impairing concentration' and 'subjective experiences of perceptual uncertainties'. Neither of the factors was specific to schizophrenia. The item comparisons suggest that only a group of eight FCQ items (subscale 'FCQ-S') is specific to schizophrenia while ten items ('FCQ-A') are related more to alcoholism. The validity of FCQ-S and FCQ-A was confirmed: schizophrenics reached high scores in FCQ-S and low scores in FCQ-A; alcoholics scored high in FCQ-A and low in FCQ-S; schizophrenics with an additional alcohol disorder scored high in both of the subscales. It is concluded that direct group comparisons seem to be promising for the identification of non-psychotic subjective phenomena which are characteristic for schizophrenia.

  8. The second Team Haemophilia Education Meeting, 2016, Frankfurt, Germany.

    PubMed

    Berntorp, Erik; Dargaud, Yesim; Hart, Daniel; Lobet, Sébastien; Mancuso, Maria Elisa; d'Oiron, Roseline; Perry, David; Pollard, Debra; van den Berg, Marijke; Blatný, Jan; Chambost, Hervé; Doria, Andrea S; Holme, Pål André; Kaczmarek, Radoslaw; Mantovani, Lorenzo; McLaughlin, Paul; Nanayakkara, Lochana; Petrini, Pia; Sannié, Thomas; Laane, Edward; Maia, Raquel; Dettoraki, Athina; Farrell, Anna; Halimeh, Susan; Raza, Sayma; Taylor, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    The first Team Haemophilia Education (THE) Meeting was held on 7-8 May 2015 in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. It aimed to promote the optimal care of patients with haemophilia through education of the multidisciplinary treatment team. This was achieved by reviewing the latest developments in haemophilia management, considering how these can be implemented in the clinic to improve patient care and providing a platform for networking and debate for all haemophilia treatment team members. The second THE Meeting was held on 19-20 May in Frankfurt, Germany, and participants included doctors, nurses, physiotherapists, patient representatives and data management staff from 20 different countries. Topics covered the role of the multidisciplinary team in delivering the best haemophilia care, challenges in the management of haemophilia across Europe, available clotting factor treatments, future treatments and the use of genetics in advising carriers of haemophilia. This report is a summary of the key developments in haemophilia care presented by various investigators and healthcare professionals at THE Meeting 2016.

  9. Loss of coolant analysis for the tower shielding reactor 2

    SciTech Connect

    Radcliff, T.D.; Williams, P.T.

    1990-06-01

    The operational limits of the Tower Shielding Reactor-2 (TSR-2) have been revised to account for placing the reactor in a beam shield, which reduces convection cooling during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). A detailed heat transfer analysis was performed to set operating time limits which preclude fuel damage during a LOCA. Since a LOCA is survivable, the pressure boundary need not be safety related, minimizing seismic and inspection requirements. Measurements of reactor component emittance for this analysis revealed that aluminum oxidized in water may have emittance much higher than accepted values, allowing higher operating limits than were originally expected. These limits could be increased further with analytical or hardware improvements. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  10. Effects of Edible Seaweed on Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced-salt Frankfurters

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ko-Eun; Jeong, Tae-Jun; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    The effects of sea tangle, sea mustard, hijiki, and glasswort were investigated based on the proximate composition, salinity, cooking loss, emulsion stability, pH, color, texture profile analysis, apparent viscosity, and sensory characteristics of reduced-salt (NaCl) meat batter and frankfurters. The moisture content, salinity, lightness of the meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, gumminess, and chewiness of the reduced-salt frankfurters with sea weeds were lower than the control without seaweed (p<0.05). The protein content, springiness, and cohesiveness of the reduced-salt frankfurters were not significantly different among the treatments (p>0.05). The moisture content, salinity, cooking loss, lightness, redness, hardness, gumminess, and chewiness of treatments with sea tangle and with sea mustard were lower than the control (p<0.05). Among the sensory traits, color was highest in the control (p<0.05). The flavor was also highest in the control. The treatments with sea tangle and with sea mustard samples had high tenderness, juiciness, and overall acceptability scores similar to the control (p<0.05). The results of this study show that the combination of low-salt and seaweed in the formulation successfully improved reduced-salt frankfurters, improving sensory characteristics to levels similar to the regular salt control (1.5%). PMID:26877634

  11. Effects of emulsion gels containing bioactive compounds on sensorial, technological, and structural properties of frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Pintado, T; Herrero, A M; Ruiz-Capillas, C; Triki, M; Carmona, P; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2016-03-01

    Emulsion gels prepared with olive oil, chia, and cold gelling agents (transglutaminase, alginate, or gelatin) were used as fat replacers in reduced-fat frankfurter formulation. Nutritional advantages, sensory analysis, technological properties, and microbiological populations of frankfurters were evaluated along with their lipid structural characteristics over chilled storage. Frankfurters with emulsion gels showed significant improvements in fat content (lower saturated fatty acid, higher mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acid contents) and had good fat and water-binding properties. The presence of an emulsion gel reduced lightness and redness, but increased yellowness. Textural behavior of samples was significantly affected by the presence of emulsion gels and by storage. Sensory properties were not affected by the incorporation of emulsion gels, and all frankfurters were judged acceptable. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy results showed that samples with emulsion gels involve more lipid-protein interactions. Frankfurters with emulsion gels showed good stability to oxidation during storage and contained lower levels of microorganism than reduced-fat control at 85 days.

  12. Double emulsions to improve frankfurter lipid content: impact of perilla oil and pork backfat.

    PubMed

    Freire, María; Bou, Ricard; Cofrades, Susana; Solas, María Teresa; Jiménez-Colmenero, Francisco

    2016-02-01

    The technology involving the use of water-in-oil-in-water double emulsions (DEs) offers an interesting approach to improve the fat content of foods. With this aim, the effect on frankfurter properties of replacing pork backfat with two different DEs prepared using perilla oil and pork backfat as lipid phases was assessed. This strategy was compared with straightforward addition of the lipid source and addition by means of an oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion. As compared with all-pork-fat frankfurters, the ones with perilla oil had a higher proportion of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Reduced-fat frankfurters had similar water- and fat-binding properties irrespective of the lipid source or the technological strategy used to incorporate it. Moreover, the oil source but not its mode of incorporation determined the oxidation levels of frankfurters. In reduced-fat samples, except in the case of frankfurters formulated with a perilla oil-in-water emulsion, hardness was unaffected either by the type of fat or by its mode of incorporation. The replacement of pork backfat by perilla oil reduced the overall acceptability of products when perilla oil was added by means of the O/W emulsion and DE approaches. This technology is suitable for labelling meat products with specific nutritional and health claims. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. Combining organic acid treatment with steam pasteurization to eliminate Listeria monocytogenes on fully cooked frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Murphy, R Y; Hanson, R E; Johnson, N R; Chappa, K; Berrang, M E

    2006-01-01

    An organic acid solution of 2% acetic, 1% lactic, 0.1% propionic, and 0.1% benzoic acids was combined with steam surface pasteurization to treat frankfurters during vacuum packaging to eliminate potential postcook contamination with Listeria monocytogenes. The thermal lethality of L. monocytogenes from steam was evaluated at an inoculation concentration of 1 to 6 log CFU/cm2. About 3-log reductions of L. monocytogenes were achieved when frankfurters were treated by steam for 1.5 s. Combining organic acid treatment with steam pasteurization further inhibited the growth of surviving L. monocytogenes cells for 19 and 14 weeks when the packaged frankfurters were stored at 4 and 7 degrees C, respectively. The results from this study provide meat processors with useful information for controlling L. monocytogenes on ready-to-eat meats.

  14. The improvement effect and mechanism of citrus fiber on the water-binding ability of low-fat frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Song, Junhong; Pan, Teng; Wu, Jianping; Ren, Fazheng

    2016-12-01

    Water-binding ability is a major quality attribute of low-fat meat products. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of citrus fiber on the water-binding ability of low-fat frankfurters. Low-fat (10% fat) frankfurters with different contents (0, 1, 2, and 3%) of citrus fiber were prepared. Their cooking loss, water distribution, microstructure, and protein structure were assessed and compared to those of normal-fat (20% fat) frankfurters. Results demonstrated that citrus fiber could significantly reduce the cooking loss of low-fat frankfurters from 12.69 to 4.71%. Adding citrus fiber led to a faster relaxation time in low-fat frankfurters, and a significant increase in the proportion of immobilized water. Frankfurters with citrus fiber exhibited a more compact, continuous protein network structure. Furthermore, the intensity changes in the Raman bands near 760 and 2930 cm(-1) showed that citrus fiber increased hydrophobic interactions around hydrocarbon chains and tryptophan residues in myofibrillar proteins. In conclusion, citrus fiber effectively improved the water-binding ability of low-fat frankfurters by increasing the hydrophobic interactions of myofibrillar proteins and changing the frankfurter microstructure.

  15. Psychological, Philosophical, and Educational Criticisms of Harry Frankfurt's Concept of and Views about "Bullshit" in Human Discourse, Discussions, and Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perla, Rocco J.; Carifio, James

    2007-01-01

    Princeton University Press recently published the American moral philosopher Harry Frankfurt's book "On Bullshit", which quickly made the New York Times best seller list. Originally published in the journal "Raritan" in 1986, Frankfurt's book has been heralded as an important theoretical development in the study of what he (and society)…

  16. Psychological, Philosophical, and Educational Criticisms of Harry Frankfurt's Concept of and Views about "Bullshit" in Human Discourse, Discussions, and Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perla, Rocco J.; Carifio, James

    2007-01-01

    Princeton University Press recently published the American moral philosopher Harry Frankfurt's book "On Bullshit", which quickly made the New York Times best seller list. Originally published in the journal "Raritan" in 1986, Frankfurt's book has been heralded as an important theoretical development in the study of what he (and society)…

  17. EBR-2 (Experimental Breeder Reactor-2) containment seismic analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gale, J.G.; Lehto, W.K.

    1990-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor-2 (EBR-2) is a liquid metal reactor located at the Argonne National Laboratory near Idaho Falls, Idaho. At the time the EBR-2 was designed and constructed, there were no engineering society or federal guide lines specifically directed toward the seismic design of reactor containment structures; hence, static analysis techniques were used in the design. With the increased focus on safety of reactor and fuel reprocessing facilities, Argonne has initiated a program to analyze its existing facilities for seismic integrity using current Department of Energy guidelines and industry consensus standards. A seismic analysis of the EBR-2 containment building has been performed using finite-element analysis techniques. The containment building is essentially a vertical right cylindrical steel shell with heads on both ends. The structure is unique in that the interior of the steel shell is lined with reinforced concrete. The actual containment function of the building is served by the steel shell; whereas the function of the concrete liner is to serve as a missile shield and a thermal insulating shield to protect the steel containment shell from internally generated missiles and fires. Model development and structural evaluation of the EBR-2 containment building are discussed in this paper. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Research on Mathematics Learning at the "Center of Individual Development and Adaptive Education" (IDeA)--An Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krummheuer, Götz

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, the research center "Individual Development and Adaptive Education" was constituted by the Goethe University, the German Institute for International Educational Research, and the Sigmund Freud Institute, all located in Frankfurt am Main, Germany (http://www.idea-frankfurt.eu). The research of the center focuses on the…

  19. Research on Mathematics Learning at the "Center of Individual Development and Adaptive Education" (IDeA)--An Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krummheuer, Götz

    2013-01-01

    In 2008, the research center "Individual Development and Adaptive Education" was constituted by the Goethe University, the German Institute for International Educational Research, and the Sigmund Freud Institute, all located in Frankfurt am Main, Germany (http://www.idea-frankfurt.eu). The research of the center focuses on the…

  20. Inactivation of foodborne pathogens on frankfurters using ultraviolet light and GRAS antimicrobials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Listeria monocytogenes is an occasional contaminant of ready-to-eat meats such as frankfurters and sausages and is responsible for foodborne illness outbreaks and recalls of the subsequently adulterated food products. Salmonellae and Staphylococus aureus are prevalent among pathogens which cause foo...

  1. Culture and Rationality in Frankfurt School Thought: Ideological Foundations for a Theory of Social Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry A.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the contributions of the "Frankfurt School" members to the development of critical theories of social education in the United States. Drawing from their sociohistorical analyses, Horkheimer, Marcuse, and Adorno theorized that the dominance of scientific, rational thought in the twentieth century was leading to highly technological,…

  2. Effect of varying salt and fat levels on the sensory and physiochemical quality of frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Tobin, Brian D; O'Sullivan, Maurice G; Hamill, Ruth M; Kerry, Joseph P

    2012-12-01

    The sensory and physiochemical properties of frankfurters with varying fat and salt levels were investigated. Twenty frankfurter formulations were produced with varying concentrations of fat (10%, 15%, 20%, 25% w/w) and salt (1%, 1.5%, 2%, 2.5%, 3% w/w). Frankfurters were assessed instrumentally for colour, moisture, fat, cooking loss and texture profile analysis. Consumers (n=25) evaluated each product in duplicate for colour, coarseness, tenderness, juiciness, salt taste, meat flavour, off-flavour and overall acceptability using a hedonic scale. Salt levels below 1.5% were shown to have a negative effect on consumer acceptability, with 2.5% salt concentration being the most accepted (P<0.001) by consumers. However, frankfurters containing the lower fat levels 10% and 15% fat with higher salt levels (2.5-3%) were significantly the most acceptable variants to consumers. Samples containing less fat and salt were found to be tougher, less juicy and had greater cooking losses. Thus salt perception is very important for consumer acceptability, but fat levels can be potentially reduced without significantly affecting overall acceptability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 9 CFR 319.180 - Frankfurter, frank, furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and similar products. 319.180 Section 319.180..., furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and similar products. (a) Frankfurter, frank, furter, hot-dog, wiener, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst and similar...

  4. 9 CFR 319.180 - Frankfurter, frank, furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and similar products. 319.180 Section 319.180..., furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and similar products. (a) Frankfurter, frank, furter, hot-dog, wiener, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst and similar...

  5. Inactivation of Listeria innocua on frankfurters by ultraviolet light and flash pasteurization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Listeria monocytogenes, a psychrotrophic food-borne pathogen, is a recurring post-process contaminant on ready-to-eat meat (RTE) products including frankfurters. Flash (Steam) Pasteurization (FP) and ultraviolet light (254 nm-UVC) has been shown to reduce levels of L. monocytogenes and L. innocua o...

  6. Inactivation of Listeria innocua on the surfaces of frankfurters using UVC light and flash pasteurization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Listeria monocytogenes is an occasional contaminant on the surfaces of ready-to-eat meat products such as frankfurters. Flash Steam Pasteurization (FP), Ultraviolet Light (UVC), and the GRAS antimicrobials Sodium Diacetate and Potassium Lactate (SD-PL) have all been used to inactivate L. monocytoge...

  7. Inactivation of foodborne pathogens on frankfurters using ultraviolet light (254 nm) and GRAS antimicrobials

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Listeria monocytogenes is an occasional contaminant of ready-to-eat meats such as frankfurters and sausages and is responsible for foodborne illness outbreaks and recalls of the subsequently adulterated food products. Salmonella and Staphylococus aureus are prevalent among pathogens which cause food...

  8. Culture and Rationality in Frankfurt School Thought: Ideological Foundations for a Theory of Social Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry A.

    1982-01-01

    Examines the contributions of the "Frankfurt School" members to the development of critical theories of social education in the United States. Drawing from their sociohistorical analyses, Horkheimer, Marcuse, and Adorno theorized that the dominance of scientific, rational thought in the twentieth century was leading to highly technological,…

  9. Reception of Theory: Film-Television Studies and the Frankfurt School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinman, Clay

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the Critical Theory of the Frankfurt School and how it offers a way of seeing normally obscured relations of social power in the details of modern capitalist culture. Concentrates on claims about critical theory that have functioned as strategies of denial. (MS)

  10. Effects of Glasswort (Salicornia herbacea L.) Hydrates on Quality Characteristics of Reduced-salt, Reduced-fat Frankfurters

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yun-Sang

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of adding glasswort hydrate containing non-meat ingredient (GM, carboxy methyl cellulose; GC, carrageenan; GI, isolated soy protein; GS, sodium caseinate) on the quality characteristics of reduced-salt, reduced-fat frankfurters. The pH and color evaluation showed significant differences, depending on the type of glasswort hydrate added (p<0.05). In the raw batters and cooked frankfurters, the addition of glasswort hydrate decreased the redness and increased the yellowness in comparison with frankfurters without glasswort hydrate. The reduction in salt and fat content significantly increased cooking loss and decreased hardness, tenderness and juiciness (p<0.05). Glasswort hydrate containing non-meat ingredient improved cooking loss, water holding capacity, emulsion stability, hardness, and viscosity of reduced-salt, reduced-fat frankfurters. The GM treatment had the highest myofibiliar protein solubility among all treatments, which was associated with emulsion stability and viscosity. The GC treatment had higher values for all texture parameters than the control. In the sensory evaluation, the addition of glasswort hydrate with non-meat ingredient improved tenderness and juiciness of reduced-salt, reduced-fat frankfurters. GM, GC, and GI treatments improved not only the physicochemical properties but also the sensory characteristics of reduced-salt, reduced-fat frankfurters. The results indicated that the use of glasswort hydrate containing non-meat ingredient was improved the quality characteristics of reduced-salt, reduced-fat frankfurters. PMID:26877638

  11. Status of the development of electron beam ion sources at Frankfurt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinod, M.; Becker, R.; Höltermann, H.; Mücke, M.; Rao, R.; Weidenmüller, M.; Zipfel, B.

    1998-02-01

    The Frankfurt superconducting electron beam ion source (EBIS) is under reconstruction for higher ion yield by employing an immersed gun with a 2-mm-diam cathode for a 3 A electron beam. The trap electrode construction is as simple as possible to avoid any rf production. The ion extraction will be similar to the one applied in our MEDEBIS, using tapered electrodes to create a high axial extraction gradient. Research was continued on the use of oscillating electrons to reduce the power requirements of the beam, investigating the formation of a virtual cathode by decelerating the beam at full magnetic field strength while operating the gun under immersed flow conditions with adjustable compression. The MEDEBIS has proven its quality and reliability for the application as an injector for a medically dedicated synchrotron. To improve its yield of bare nuclei, better vacuum conditions are provided by drilling out the inner windings of the warm solenoid to allow for the installation of higher vacuum conductance. After the successful presentation of our XEBIST principle that delivers highly charged ions as Ar18+ and Ba46+ we have now shown its application for the production of singly charged ions as an injector of metallic ions. Finally, an EBIS/T with an internal Penning trap has been constructed to prepare selected ion species and charge states inside the ionization region. This new device will allow the study of electron-ion interactions in well-defined initial and final charge states, i.e., to be able to distinguish between single and multiple step ionization. If the homogeneity of the magnetic field in the trap region will reach 10-9, the determination of binding energies of highly charged ions may be better than a 1 eV accuracy.

  12. Geophysical prospection on an Early Iron Age Cult Site near Frankfurt/Oder, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullrich, Burkart; Kaufmann, Georg; Beilke-Voigt, Ines

    2010-05-01

    The Free University of Berlin and the Humboldt University of Berlin hosts the excellence cluster 264 Topoi, "The Formation and Transformation of Space and Knowledge in Ancient Civilizations". The Excellence Cluster pursues the goal of researching the interdependence of space and knowledge in the civilizations of the Ancient Near East, the Mediterranean, and Black Sea region and parts of the Eurasian steppe from the 6th millennium BC to around AD 500. Within this excellence cluster, the project A-I-11 "Lossow near Frankfurt/Oder - An Early Iron Age Cult Site of the Ancient Peripheral Zone" examines the evolution of an important cult site in Central Europe. The castle mound of Lossow was built as a fortified settlement in the late Bronze Age (10th century B.C.). After a phase of around 200 years, a supra-regionally significant, early Iron Age cult centre developed on this site (8th-6th century B.C.). Several pieces of evidence indicate that the locality had a central-site character. Typical for the site are well-shapes shafts, filled with large amounts of human and animal bones. The shafts with a diameter of about 1 meter and a depth of about 5 to 7 meters are a great challenge to near surface geophysics. Here, geophysical methods (geomagnetic gradiometry, geoelectric imaging, georadar survey) have been used to obtain a large-scale conclusive picture of the sub-surface both within the castle mount and around the perimeter. While the magnetic results reveal numerous archaeological artefacts, geoelectric imaging decipers the subsurface structure of the site.

  13. Fate of Listeria monocytogenes during freezing, thawing and home storage of frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Simpson Beauchamp, C; Byelashov, O A; Geornaras, I; Kendall, P A; Scanga, J A; Belk, K E; Smith, G C; Sofos, J N

    2010-02-01

    Little information is available regarding the fate of Listeria monocytogenes during freezing, thawing and home storage of frankfurters even though recent surveys show that consumers regularly store unopened packages in home freezers. This study examined the effects of antimicrobials, refrigerated storage, freezing, thawing method, and post-thawing storage (7 degrees C) on L. monocytogenes on frankfurters. Inoculated (2.1 log CFU/cm(2)) frankfurters formulated without (control) or with antimicrobials (1.5% potassium lactate plus 0.1% sodium diacetate) were vacuum-packaged, stored at 4 degrees C for 6 or 30 d and then frozen (-15 degrees C) for 10, 30, or 50 d. Packages were thawed under refrigeration (7 degrees C, 24 h), on a countertop (23 +/- 2 degrees C, 8 h), or in a microwave oven (2450 MHz, 1100 watts, 220 s followed by 120 s holding), and then stored aerobically (7 degrees C) for 14 d. Bacterial populations were enumerated on PALCAM agar and tryptic soy agar plus 0.6% yeast extract. Antimicrobials completely inhibited (p < 0.05) growth of L. monocytogenes at 4 degrees C for 30 d under vacuum-packaged conditions, and during post-thawing aerobic storage at 7 degrees C for 14 d. Different intervals between inoculation and freezing (6 or 30 d) resulted in different pathogen levels on control frankfurters (2.1 or 3.9 log CFU/cm(2), respectively), while freezing reduced counts by <1.0 log CFU/cm(2). Thawing treatments had little effect on L. monocytogenes populations (<0.5 log CFU/cm(2)), and post-thawing fate of L. monocytogenes was not influenced by freezing or by thawing method. Pathogen counts on control samples increased by 1.5 log CFU/cm(2) at d-7 of aerobic storage, and reached 5.6 log CFU/cm(2) at d-14. As indicated by these results, consumers should freeze frankfurters immediately after purchase, and discard frankfurters formulated without antimicrobials within 3 d of thawing and/or opening.

  14. The disappearance of a "classical" ice marginal position in NE-Germany: the Frankfurt phase puzzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böse, Margot; Lüthgens, Christopher; Nitzsche, Carolin; Hardt, Jacob

    2016-04-01

    The Frankfurt phase of the Weichselian glaciation is a classical ice marginal position in the North European plain according to all geological and geomorphological maps since the end of the 19th century. Its detection is based on the connection of prominent, but rather isolated landscape features to a supposed ice margin. As in NE-Germany no till layer is connected to the proposed ice marginal position, it is usually considered to represent an active ice margin which formed during a stability phase of the downwasting from the maximum Weichselian ice extent, the Brandenburg phase, which is located about 60 km further south. This is in contrast to the supposed equivalent of the Frankfurt ice marginal position in Poland, the Poznan phase, which is documented by a more prominent landform record and an associated till. New investigations and a reinterpretation of the topography, a reevaluation of sediments in sand pits, as well as geochronological data of glaciofluvial sediments give new insights into the glacial processes as well as in the timing. The landscape was widely formed by glaciofluvial processes forming a complex pattern of intercalated outwash sediments of the advancing, as well as of the downwasting glacier of the Brandenburg phase. A detailed study of the topography by LIDAR data gives evidence of a successive ice retreat pattern south of the so called Frankfurt ice marginal area, documented in the form of a differentiated pattern of glaciofluvial sediments and till on top. An outwash plain, the Müncheberger Sandur, on which several eskers have been mapped, was classically interpreted as a proglacial feature of the Frankfurt ice marginal position. Nevertheless, a series of OSL-ages shows Weichselian ages which are not in accordance with the supposed timing as an outwash plain related to the Frankfurt ice marginal position. The ages, as well as sedimentological evidence suggest that the sandy glaciofluvial sediments belong to the proglacial sediment cycle

  15. Dog rose (Rosa canina L.) as a functional ingredient in porcine frankfurters without added sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite.

    PubMed

    Vossen, Els; Utrera, Mariana; De Smet, Stefaan; Morcuende, David; Estévez, Mario

    2012-12-01

    The effect of dog rose (Rosa canina L.; RC), rich in polyphenols and ascorbic acid, on lipid and protein oxidation, colour stability and texture of frankfurters was investigated. Four treatments were prepared: with 5 or 30 g/kg RC extract and without sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite (5RC and 30RC, respectively), a positive control (with sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite; PC) and a negative control (without sodium ascorbate, sodium nitrite or RC extract; NC). Hexanal values were much higher throughout storage in NC compared to RC and PC frankfurters (P<0.001). The RC extracts protected against protein oxidation, but not as efficiently as PC (P<0.05). In the RC treated frankfurters, lower a* values were measured compared to PC due to the lack of sodium nitrite. In conclusion, dog rose can act as a natural antioxidant in frankfurters, but not as full replacer for sodium nitrite.

  16. Re-evaluating the Frankfurt isothermal static diffusion chamber for ice nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrod, Jann; Danielczok, Anja; Weber, Daniel; Ebert, Martin; Thomson, Erik S.; Bingemer, Heinz G.

    2016-03-01

    Recently significant advances have been made in the collection, detection and characterization of ice nucleating particles (INPs). Ice nuclei are particles that facilitate the heterogeneous formation of ice within the atmospheric aerosol by lowering the free energy barrier to spontaneous nucleation and growth of ice from atmospheric water and/or vapor. The Frankfurt isostatic diffusion chamber (FRankfurt Ice nucleation Deposition freezinG Experiment: FRIDGE) is an INP collection and offline detection system that has become widely deployed and shows additional potential for ambient measurements. Since its initial development FRIDGE has gone through several iterations and improvements. Here we describe improvements that have been made in the collection and analysis techniques. We detail the uncertainties inherent in the measurement method and suggest a systematic method of error analysis for FRIDGE measurements. Thus what is presented herein should serve as a foundation for the dissemination of all current and future measurements using FRIDGE instrumentation.

  17. Residual nitrite and nitrate levels of frankfurters along with their shelf-life.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, M L; Bosch-Bosch, N; García-Mata, M

    1997-01-01

    Nitrite and nitrate levels of vacuum-packaged frankfurters from four commercial brands were tested over 145 days' storage at 3 degrees C. The use of both curing salts, KNO3 and NaNO2, was indicated by only two manufacturers on the label. However, nitrate levels from 36 to 88 mg KNO3/kg were also found in those where only nitrite was mentioned among the ingredients. A good correlation between nitrite and nitrate levels and storage time was shown by multiple linear regression analysis. The results obtained were compared with those from frankfurters prepared in a pilot plant with different concentrations of NaNO2, alone or combined with 200 mg KNO3/kg.

  18. Joint Probability of Selected Cloud and Visibility Thresholds Around Frankfurt, Germany.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-11-01

    by assuming statistical independence, i.e., the probability obtained from the product of the two individual station probabilities. The reduction in...probabilities when considering individual stations versus simultaneous occurrences at two stations is eviden ~t for all data grouped together. For example...Frankfurt/Hahn in this role. The largest range of probabilities within any ad-.erse weather category during the fall and winter was obtained at 04 UT

  19. Textural and viscoelastic properties of pork frankfurters containing canola-olive oils, rice bran, and walnut.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, D; Xiong, Y L; Castillo, M; Payne, F A; Garrido, M D

    2012-09-01

    Textural, rheological and microstructural properties of frankfurters made with 20% pork backfat, 20% canola or 20% canola-olive (3:1) oils, including rice bran (RB) and walnut extract (WE) as macronutrients (2.5%) were investigated. Textural parameters, including hardness, gumminess and rupture-force, were highly (P<0.05) influenced by the fat-oil composition. Addition of RB or WE in vegetable oil emulsions improved textural consistency (P<0.05). However, RB addition reduced gelling capacity, suggesting antagonistic interactions between fiber and oil droplets. Vegetable oil addition favored gel network formation, and, when combined with WE, showed the highest improvement of gel elasticity. These textural and gelling properties were corroborated by frankfurter micrographs, which revealed interactions between vegetable oils, RB, or WE with protein matrix and fat globules affecting these parameters. The results suggest that functional plant-derived ingredients can be valuable to the modification of frankfurter formulations for improved nutrition and as well as textural quality. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Healthier oils stabilized in konjac matrix as fat replacers in n-3 PUFA enriched frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Salcedo-Sandoval, L; Cofrades, S; Ruiz-Capillas Pérez, C; Solas, M T; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2013-03-01

    Nutritional, sensory and technological properties of frankfurters as affected by reformulation processes designed to reduce fat content and improve fatty acid profile were investigated. Healthier oils stabilized in oil in water emulsion or in konjac matrix gel were used as fat replacers. Results showed that improved fat content by the replacement of pork backfat with konjac gel and by the addition of healthier oils stabilized by various different systems, both resulted in products with very similar characteristics. From a nutritional standpoint, reformulated frankfurters with konjac gel and/or added a healthier oil combination may claim "reduced fat content" and/or "high omega 3 fatty acid content" according to European Regulation, since they could contain less than 30% of the fat in the reference product and more than 0.6 g of ALA/100 g and more than 80 mg of the sum of EPA plus DHA per 100 g, respectively. Chill storage over 40days generally had little effect on the technological characteristics of frankfurters. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of COMPARE and BEACON subcompartment analyses of Battelle-Frankfurt containment tests. [PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Idar, E.S.; Lime, J.F.; Gido, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    This report presents the results of computations performed with the COMPARE/MOD1 and BEACON/MOD3 computer codes for selected Battelle-Frankfurt loss-of-coolant accident experiments. COMPARE is used widely to perform nuclear power plant containment subcompartment analyses, and BEACON is an advanced multiphase, multidimensional best-estimate code. The objective of this study was to evaluate the margins of COMPARE calculations by comparing them with BEACON calculations and test data. The calculations were performed for the Battelle-Frankfurt D3, D6, and C9 tests. Descriptions of the two codes and the Battelle-Frankfurt experiments are included. Comparisons of the codes' calculations and experimental data for absolute pressure, differential pressure, and temperature are presented for margin evaluation. Evaluations of the sensitivity of BEACON calculations to variations in model noding, form loss, and vent area modeling are prsesented. Conclusions summarizing the results of the COMPARE margin evaluation and BEACON sensitivity studies are given as well.

  2. Initializing a digital chromatography data archive for tropospheric air samples on Taunus Observatory Frankfurt by GC-TOF-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoker, Jesica; Obersteiner, Florian; Bönisch, Harald; Engel, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The inception of a digital air archive for halogenated hydrocarbons will be presented. This archive is based on weekly samples taken at the Taunus Observatory on "Kleiner Feldberg" near Frankfurt/ Main, i.e. a very central position in Germany. The station is characterized by a mixture of clean air, moderately polluted air and occasional influence from the nearby city of Frankfurt. Regular meteorological and air quality data are available from the German Weather service (DWD) and the regional air quality monitoring (Hessiche Landesanstalt für Umwelt und Geologie, HLUG). Two air samples are collected in parallel in 2 l stainless steel flasks using a metal bellows pump. The air samples are analysed in the laboratory by gas chromatography coupled with Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (GC TOF MS) and Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry (GC QUAD MS) for halogenated trace gases. Analysis is carried out no later than a month after sampling. Our current target species which will be measured by both mass spectrometers contain a wide range of halogenated trace gases, with calibration scales linked to both global monitoring networks, i.e. NOAA and AGAGE. A Time of Flight Mass Spectrometer has the advantage to measure a full mass range with a high sensitivity. Other measuring networks use Quadrupole mass spectrometers which need to be tuned to selected masses in order to achieve sufficient sensitivity. The full mass scan information available in the TOF data in combination with the high sensitivity of the instrument opens the possibility for retrospective analysis of the data in the future, as information on all substances which can be trapped and desorbed using our sampling technique are recorded, even though they may not be retrieved at the time of measurements. This will open the opportunity to have a look on historical developments even of yet undiscovered halogenated trace gases or those, which have not been subject to one's research focus until a certain time point but have

  3. Effect of retorting and oven cooking on the nutritional properties of beef frankfurters blended with palm oils.

    PubMed

    Wan Rosli, W I; Babji, A S; Aminah, A; Foo, S P; Abd Malik, O

    2010-08-01

    The effect of retorting and oven cooking on the nutritional properties of beef frankfurters blended with palm oil (PO), red PO35 and red PO48 were compared against the control beef fat treatment. Red PO oven-cooked beef frankfurters resulted in a significant loss of vitamin E from 538.5 to 287.5 microg after 6 months. Oven cooked sausages stored at -18 degrees C and retorted sausages stored for the 6 months of shelf studies resulted in more than 90% loss of alpha-carotene and beta-carotene in red PO beef frankfurters. Cholesterol was reduced at the range of 29.0-32.2 mg/100 g when beef fat was substituted with palm-based oils, in beef frankfurters. Differences of heat treatments did not significantly change THE cholesterol content, within all treatments. This study showed the potential of utilizing red palm oils as animal fat analogues in improving vitamin E, reducing cholesterol but not carotenes in beef frankfurters.

  4. Inactivation of avirulent Yersinia pestis in Butterfield's phosphate buffer and frankfurters by UVC (254 nm) and gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Sommers, Christopher H; Cooke, Peter H

    2009-04-01

    Yersinia pestis is the causative agent of plague. Although rare, pharyngeal plague in humans has been associated with consumption or handling of meat prepared from infected animals. The risks of contracting plague from consumption of deliberately contaminated food are currently unknown. Gamma radiation is a penetrating form of electromagnetic radiation, and UVC radiation is used for decontamination of liquids or food surfaces. Gamma radiation D10-values (the radiation dose needed to inactivate 1 log unit pathogen) were 0.23 (+/-0.01) and 0.31 (+/-0.03) kGy for avirulent Y. pestis inoculated into Butterfield's phosphate buffer and onto frankfurter surfaces, respectively, at 0 degree C. A UVC radiation dose of 0.25 J/cm2 inactivated avirulent Y. pestis suspended in Butterfield's phosphate buffer. UVC radiation doses of 0.5 to 4.0 J/cm2 inactivated 0.97 to 1.20 log units of the Y. pestis surface inoculated onto frankfurters. A low gamma radiation dose of 1.6 kGy could provide a 5-log reduction and a UVC radiation dose of 1 to 4 J/cm2 would provide a 1-log reduction of Y. pestis surface inoculated onto frankfurters. Y. pestis was capable of growth on frankfurters during refrigerated storage (10 degrees C). Gamma radiation of frankfurters inhibited the growth of Y. pestis during refrigerated storage, and UVC radiation delayed the growth of Y. pestis.

  5. Effects of adding red wine on the physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of uncured frankfurter-type sausage.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xi; Sebranek, Joseph G; Lee, Hyun Yong; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the quality and sensory characteristics of RTE frankfurter-type sausage cured with celery juice powder and including red wine. Four frankfurter treatments including a conventionally cured treatment without red wine (control) and three treatments cured with pre-converted vegetable juice powder and 0%, 5% or 10% (v/w) red wine were prepared. Results showed that adding 5% red wine increased the a*-value, and the textural resilience, cohesiveness and springiness of the frankfurters, as well as decreased lipid/protein oxidation of the final products. Added wine also introduced new volatiles (alcohol and ester compounds) to the frankfurters. The principal component (PC) analysis showed that the pre-converted vegetable juice powder achieved the same effects as the conventional curing agents for typical frankfurter properties. However, the addition of excess amounts of red wine (10%) to the meat batter decreased the pH of meat batter and accelerated lipid oxidation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Control of Listeria monocytogenes on frankfurters by dipping in hops beta acids solutions.

    PubMed

    Shen, Cangliang; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Kendall, Patricia A; Sofos, John N

    2009-04-01

    Hops beta acids (HBA) are parts of hops flowers used in beer brewing and have shown antilisterial activity in bacteriological broth. The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Food Safety and Inspection Service has approved HBA for use to control Listeria monocytogenes on ready-to-eat meat products. This study evaluated the effects of HBA as dipping solutions to control L. monocytogenes during storage of frankfurters. Frankfurters (two replicates and three samples each) were inoculated (1.9 +/- 0.1 log CFU/cm2) with L. monocytogenes (10-strain mixture), dipped (2 min, 25 +/- 2 degrees C) in HBA solutions (0.03, 0.06, and 0.10%) or distilled water, and then vacuum packaged and stored at 4 or 10 degrees C for up to 90 and 48 days, respectively. Samples were periodically analyzed for microbial survival and growth on tryptic soy agar plus 0.6% yeast extract and PALCAM agar. Dipping in HBA solutions caused immediate L. monocytogenes reductions (P < 0.05) of 1.3 to 1.6 log CFU/cm2, whereas distilled water reduced counts by 1.0 log CFU/cm2. Pathogen growth was completely suppressed (P < 0.05) for 30 to 50 (4 degrees C) or 20 to 28 (10 degrees C) days on frankfurters dipped in HBA solutions, with antilisterial effects increasing with higher concentrations (0.03 to 0.10%). Fitting the data with the Baranyi model confirmed that the lag-phase duration of the pathogen was extended, and the growth rate was decreased on samples dipped in HBA solutions. Therefore, HBA may be considered for use to improve the microbial safety of ready-to-eat meat products, provided that future studies show no adverse effects on sensory qualities and that their use is economically feasible.

  7. Use of Antimicrobial Food Additives as Potential Dipping Solutions to Control Pseudomonas spp. Contamination in the Frankfurters and Ham

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Mi-Hwa; Park, Beom-Young; Choi, Kyoung-Hee

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of sodium diacetate and sodium lactate solutions for reducing the cell count of Pseudomonas spp. in frankfurters and hams. A mixture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCCP10338, NCCP10250, and NCCP11229), and Pseudomonas fluorescens (KACC10323 and KACC10326) was inoculated on cooked frankfurters and ham. The inoculated samples were immersed into control (sterile distilled water), sodium diacetate (5 and 10%), sodium lactate (5 and 10%), 5% sodium diacetate + 5% sodium lactate, and 10% sodium diacetate + 10% sodium lactate for 0-10 min. Inoculated frankfurters and ham were also immersed into acidified (pH 3.0) solutions such as acidified sodium diacetate (5 and 10%), and acidified sodium lactate (5 and 10%) in addition to control (acidified distilled water) for 0-10 min. Total aerobic plate counts for Pseudomonas spp. were enumerated on Cetrimide agar. Significant reductions (ca. 2 Log CFU/g) in Pseudomonas spp. cells on frankfurters and ham were observed only for a combination treatment of 10% sodium lactate + 10% sodium diacetate. When the solutions were acidified to pH 3.0, the total reductions of Pseudomonas spp. were 1.5-4.0 Log CFU/g. The order of reduction amounts of Pseudomonas spp. cell counts was 10% sodium lactate > 5% sodium lactate ≥ 10% sodium diacetate > 5% sodium diacetate > control for frankfurters, and 10% sodium lactate > 5% sodium lactate > 10% sodium diacetate > 5% sodium diacetate > control for ham. The results suggest that using acidified food additive antimicrobials, as dipping solutions, should be useful in reducing Pseudomonas spp. on frankfurters and ham. PMID:26761492

  8. Effect of salts of organic acids on Listeria monocytogenes, shelf life, meat quality, and consumer acceptability of beef frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Morey, Amit; Bowers, Jordan W J; Bauermeister, Laura J; Singh, Manpreet; Huang, Tung-Shi; McKee, Shelly R

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate anti-listerial efficacy of salts of organic acids, and their impact on the quality of frankfurters. Beef frankfurters were manufactured by incorporating organic acids in 5 different combinations: (1) control (no marinade addition; C); (2) sodium lactate (2% wt/wt; SL); (3) potassium lactate (2% wt/wt; PL); (4) sodium citrate (0.75% wt/wt; SC); and (5) sodium lactate (2% wt/wt)/sodium diacetate (0.25% wt/wt; SL/SD). Cooked frankfurters were inoculated with streptomycin-resistant (1500 μg/mL) L. monocytogenes (7 log₁₀ CFU/frank). Inoculated and noninoculated frankfurters were vacuum packaged and stored at 4 °C. Samples were taken weekly up to 10 wk for estimation of L. monocytogenes as well as aerobic plate count (APC) and psychrotrophs (PSY), respectively. Total of 2 independent trials of the entire experiment were conducted. Noninoculated beef frankfurters were evaluated weekly by untrained sensory panelists for 7 wk. SL, PL, and SC treatments did not (P > 0.05) adversely affect consumer acceptability through 8 wk although, SL/SD treatment was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) less preferred across all sensory attributes. SL/SD treatment negatively affected product quality, but was able to control APC, PSY, and L. monocytogenes levels. SC performed similar to the control throughout the 8, 9, and 10 wk storage periods, providing no benefit for inhibiting L. monocytogenes (increasing from 7 logs CFU/frank to 10 logs CFU/frank throughout storage) or extending shelf life of the beef frankfurters. In conclusion, 2% SL and PL, and 2% SL/0.25% SD may be effective L. monocytogenes inhibitors (maintaining inoculation levels of 7 logs CFU/frank during storage), but changes in SL/SD treatment formulation should be studied to improve product quality.

  9. Use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to monitor a five-strain mixture of Listeria monocytogenes in frankfurter packages.

    PubMed

    Porto, Anna C S; Wonderling, Laura; Call, Jeffrey E; Luchansky, John B

    2003-08-01

    In a previous study, the viability of a five-strain mixture of Listeria monocytogenes (including Scott A [serotype 4b, clinical isolate], 101M [serotype 4b, beef-pork sausage isolate], F6854 [serotype 1/2a, turkey frankfurter isolate], H7776 [serotype 4b, frankfurter isolate], and MFS-2 [serotype 1/2a, pork plant isolate]) was monitored during refrigerated storage of frankfurters prepared with and without 3.0% added potassium lactate. Throughout a 90-day period of storage at 4 degrees C, the initial inoculum level of 20 CFU per package remained relatively constant in packages containing frankfurters prepared with potassium lactate, but pathogen counts increased to 4.6 log10 CFU in packages containing frankfurters prepared without added potassium lactate. To determine which of the five strains persisted under these conditions, randomly selected colonies obtained after 28 and 90 days of refrigerated storage of frankfurters were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with the restriction enzyme SmaI to generate distinct banding patterns for each of the five strains. Then, with the use of PFGE as a tool for identification, the percentages of the strains on days 28 and 90 of the growth study were compared. In the absence of any added potassium lactate in the product, 43% of the 58 isolates recovered on day 28 were identified as strain Scott A, 12% were identified as strain 101M, 22% were identified as strain F6854, 10% were identified as strain H7776, and 12% were identified as strain MFS-2. However, by day 90, an appreciable number (83%) of the 60 isolates analyzed were identified as strain MFS-2. In packages containing frankfurters formulated with 3.0% potassium lactate, all five strains were present at frequencies of 5 to 36% among the 19 isolates tested on day 28; however, by day 90, strain MFS-2 made up the statistical majority (63%) of the 27 isolates tested. The results of this study indicate that strain MFS-2, a serotype 1/2a isolate recovered from

  10. The infrared-based early warning system for bird strike prevention at Frankfurt airport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münzberg, M.; Schilling, A.; Schlemmer, H.; Vogel, H.; Cramer, H.; Schlosshauer, J.

    2011-06-01

    Flocks of migratory birds are very often using geographic structures like rivers, valleys or coast lines for orientation. Wherever the preferred migration routes are crossing the approach corridor of an airport there is an increased risk of bird strike. Flocks of birds crossing the runway corridor of the new runway Northwest of the Frankfurt airport are kept under surveillance now with in total three watch towers located at the river Main which in this case is the preferred used line of orientation. Each of the watch towers carries an early warning system which consists of two pairs of stereoscopic thermal imaging cameras sensitive in the mid wavelength infrared range (3 - 5 μm). A stereoscopic pair measures the swarm size, direction of flight and velocity in real time and with high accuracy. From these results an early warning is derived under all relevant weather conditions. The fixed focus thermal imaging cameras are thermally compensated and designed for ultra low image distortion. Each stereoscopic pair is aligned in the sub-pixel range and is controlled by a reference beam to ensure that the alignment is preserved under all environmental conditions and over a very long time. The technical concept is discussed and the design of the realized warning system at the Frankfurt airport is presented.

  11. Between Marxism and psychoanalysis: antifascism and antihomosexuality in the Frankfurt School.

    PubMed

    Halle, R

    1995-01-01

    In their efforts to utilize individualist psychoanalysis as a tool for understanding mass behavior, the social theorists associated with the Frankfurt School increasingly came to rely on a static, essentializing construction of sexuality which ultimately led to an equation of fascism and homosexuality. Heretofore unexamined in studies of the Frankfurt School, this equation will here serve as the starting point for a fundamental critique of the concept of sexuality developed by this influential circle of Marxist thinkers. While directed at the concept of sexuality, such a critique more importantly opens up the underlying understanding of the social and psychological realms advanced by Critical Theory. Attending to the equation of homosexuality and fascism as the central point of concern, this essay will first trace the introduction of psychoanalysis into Critical Theory through Erich Fromm and then investigate the extent of Fromm's influence on the concept of sexuality propounded by his colleagues, especially Max Horkheimer and Theodor W. Adorno. Finally, it will take up a frequently overlooked essay by Herbert Marcuse which promoted a vision of sexuality radically different from that of his associates.

  12. Monitoring nitrite and nitrate residues in frankfurters during processing and storage.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, M L; Bosch-Bosch, N; Garciá-Mata, M

    1996-09-01

    Frankfurter-type sausages were prepared in a pilot plant with different concentrations of NaNO(2) (75, 125 or 250 ppm) combined or not with 200 ppm KNO(3). A meat system, free of curing agents, was also used as control. Nitrite and nitrate levels were tested in various processing steps and over 120 days storage at 3 °C of the vacuum-packaged frankfurters. Little influence of the originally added nitrite level on the amount of nitrate formed was observed. Important losses of nitrite and nitrate were due to cooking. Thereafter about 50% of the nitrite added initially remained in this form in all samples (39, 59 and 146 ppm, respectively) and between 10 and 15% as nitrate. When only nitrate was initially added, formation of nitrite after cooking was observed (maximum level 43 ppm NaNO(2)). Formulations prepared with both nitrate and nitrite showed no significant differences (p < 0.01) respect to their nitrite or nitrate counterparts. A good correlation among nitrite and nitrate levels and storage time was showed by multiple linear regression analysis. It is concluded that the use of nitrate in combination with nitrite in cooked meat products seems to have little technological significance and adds to the total body burden of nitrite.

  13. Raman spectroscopic study of structural changes upon chilling storage of frankfurters containing olive oil bulking agents as fat replacers.

    PubMed

    Herrero, A M; Ruiz-Capillas, C; Jiménez-Colmenero, F; Carmona, P

    2014-06-25

    Technological properties and structural characteristics of proteins and lipids, using Raman spectroscopy, of frankfurters formulated with olive oil bulking agents as animal fat replacers were examined during chilling storage. Frankfurters reformulated with oil bulking agents showed lower (P<0.05) processing loss and higher (P<0.05) hardness and chewiness. Purge loss during chilling storage was relatively low, demonstrating a good water retention in the products. β-Sheet structures were enhanced by the use of olive oil bulking agents, and this effect was more pronounced in samples containing inulin. Reformulated frankfurters contained the least turns (P<0.05). A significant decrease of β-sheets and an increase of turns were observed after 85 days of chilled storage. The lowest (P<0.05) values of IνsCH2/IνasCH2 were recorded in frankfurters reformulated with oil bulking agents, which suggests more lipid acyl chain disorder. Structural characteristics were correlated to processing losses, hardness, and chewiness.

  14. Against a Science of Human Communication: The Role of Hermeneutics in Contributing Arguments from the Frankfurt School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLuskie, Ed

    In examining "the thesis of complementarity for American communication studies," this paper refers to the idea that the dominating social science behaviorism of communication inquiry can be fruitfully complemented or supplemented with the science of interpretation (hermeneutics) as interpretation is regarded by the Frankfurt School of…

  15. Effects of Dietary Fiber Extracted from Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced-Fat Frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Cheon-Jei; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Choi, Ji-Hun; Kim, Young-Boong; Choi, Yun-Sang

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of reducing fat levels from 30% to 25, 20, and 15% by substituting pork fat with water and pumpkin fiber (2%) on the quality of frankfurters compared with control. Decreasing the fat concentration from 30% to 15% significantly increased moisture content, redness of meat batter and frankfurter, cooking loss, and water exudation, and decreased fat content, energy value, pH, and lightness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity. The addition of 2% pumpkin fiber was significantly increased moisture content, yellowness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity, whereas reduced cooking loss and emulsion stability. The treatment of reduced-fat frankfurters formulated with 20 and 25% fat levels and with pumpkin fiber had sensory properties similar to the high-fat control frankfurters. The results demonstrate that when the reduced-fat frankfurter with 2% added pumpkin fiber and water replaces fat levels can be readily made with high quality and acceptable sensory properties.

  16. Effects of Dietary Fiber Extracted from Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) on the Physico-Chemical and Sensory Characteristics of Reduced-Fat Frankfurters

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Cheon-Jei; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Choi, Ji-Hun

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of reducing fat levels from 30% to 25, 20, and 15% by substituting pork fat with water and pumpkin fiber (2%) on the quality of frankfurters compared with control. Decreasing the fat concentration from 30% to 15% significantly increased moisture content, redness of meat batter and frankfurter, cooking loss, and water exudation, and decreased fat content, energy value, pH, and lightness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity. The addition of 2% pumpkin fiber was significantly increased moisture content, yellowness of meat batter and frankfurter, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, and apparent viscosity, whereas reduced cooking loss and emulsion stability. The treatment of reduced-fat frankfurters formulated with 20 and 25% fat levels and with pumpkin fiber had sensory properties similar to the high-fat control frankfurters. The results demonstrate that when the reduced-fat frankfurter with 2% added pumpkin fiber and water replaces fat levels can be readily made with high quality and acceptable sensory properties. PMID:27433101

  17. Re-evaluating the Frankfurt isothermal static diffusion chamber for ice nucleation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrod, J.; Danielczok, A.; Weber, D.; Ebert, M.; Thomson, E. S.; Bingemer, H. G.

    2015-12-01

    Recently significant advances have been made in the collection, detection, and characterization of ice nucleating particles (INP). Ice nuclei are particles that facilitate the heterogeneous formation of ice within the atmospheric aerosol by lowering the free energy barrier to spontaneous nucleation and growth of ice from atmospheric water and/or vapor. The Frankfurt isostatic diffusion chamber (FRIDGE) is an INP collection and offline detection system that has become widely deployed and shows additional potential for ambient measurements. Since its initial development FRIDGE has gone through several iterations and improvements. Here we describe improvements that have been made in the collection and analysis techniques. We detail the uncertainties inherent in the measurement method, and suggest a systematic method of error analysis for FRIDGE measurements. Thus what is presented herein should serve as a foundation for the dissemination of all current and future measurements using FRIDGE instrumentation.

  18. [Generally accepted engineering standards and Legionella in drinking water : findings from Frankfurt am Main].

    PubMed

    Hentschel, W; Heudorf, U

    2011-06-01

    To investigate the association between the engineering standards of drinking water systems and the extent of the Legionella colonization, we subjected our 2006 published data of the drinking water monitoring of the city's public health services for Frankfurt on Main, Germany, to closer analysis. A total of 413 records were available, with both technical data and results of the Legionella colonization. When comparing the classes of technical deficiencies of the drinking water installations with the Legionella colonization results, 93% of the Legionella data "not dedectable in 100 ml" were found in the group of drinking water installations that were technically assessed as "free of deficiencies". Thus, "good" technical engineering is associated with low or lack of Legionella colonization with a high probability even with hints for a dose-effect phenomenon-the more engineering deficiencies that exist, the higher the Legionella contamination.

  19. Pilot evaluation of the Frankfurt Social Skills Training for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Herbrecht, Evelyn; Poustka, Fritz; Birnkammer, Sabine; Duketis, Eftichia; Schlitt, Sabine; Schmötzer, Gabriele; Bölte, Sven

    2009-06-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a group-based intervention aiming at improving social and communication skills in individuals with autism spectrum disorder. Over a period of 11 months, N = 17 children and adolescents received treatment according to the manualised Frankfurt Social Skills Training (KONTAKT). Parent, teacher, expert and blind expert ratings were assessed to judge outcome regarding peer interaction, autistic behaviours, adaptive functioning and family burden. The participants exhibited improvements pre to follow-up treatment, particularly in the area of autistic symptomatology. Effect sizes (partial eta squared) ranged from 0.02 to 0.69. Among other things, regression models showed a positive influence of IQ and language skills on gains in social skills. Findings indicate that KONTAKT might be useful for enhancing social skills and reducing autism-related psychopathology over time in different contexts. Nevertheless, controlled trials are needed to reassure its effectiveness.

  20. Geochronological (OSL) and geomorphological investigations at the presumed Frankfurt ice marginal position in northeast Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardt, Jacob; Lüthgens, Christopher; Hebenstreit, Robert; Böse, Margot

    2016-12-01

    The Weichselian Frankfurt ice marginal position in northeast Germany has been critically discussed in the past owing to weak morphological evidence and a lack of clear sedimentological records. This study aims to contribute to this discussion with new geochronological and geomorphological results. Apart from very few cosmogenic exposure ages, the time frame is to date still based on long distance correlation with radiocarbon chronologies. We selected a study site in a key position regarding the classic location of the Frankfurt ice marginal position and the recently described arcuate ridge structures on the Barnim plateau. For the first time we present Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) ages of quartz from glaciofluvial deposits for this Weichselian phase. Our results indicate an advance of the Scandinavian Ice Sheet (SIS) at around 34.1 ± 4.6 ka. This is in agreement with OSL ages from sandur deposits at the Brandenburg ice marginal position located farther south and could also be correlated with the Klintholm advance in Denmark. The subsequent meltdown phase lasted until around 26.3 ± 3.7 ka. During the meltdown phase a minor oscillation of the SIS caused the formation of the recently described arcuate ridges on the Barnim till plain. Recalculated surface exposure ages of glacigenic boulders with an updated global production rate indicate a landscape stabilization phase at around 22.7 ± 1.6 ka, which is in agreement with our ages. A phase of strong aeolian activity has been dated with OSL to 1 ± 0.1 ka; this may have been triggered by human activities that are documented in this region for the medieval period.

  1. Reduction of Listeria monocytogenes on frankfurters treated with lactic acid solutions of various temperatures.

    PubMed

    Byelashov, Oleksandr A; Daskalov, Hristo; Geornaras, Ifigenia; Kendall, Patricia A; Belk, Keith E; Scanga, John A; Smith, Gary C; Sofos, John N

    2010-09-01

    United States regulations require ready-to-eat meat and poultry processors to control Listeria monocytogenes using interventions which may include antimicrobials that reduce post-processing contamination by at least 1 log-cycle; if the treatment achieves > or = 2 log reductions, the plant is subject to less frequent microbial testing. Lactic acid (LA) may be useful as a post-lethality intervention and its antimicrobial properties may increase with temperature of application. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of LA solution concentration and temperature on L. monocytogenes counts of inoculated frankfurters and to identify parameters (concentration, temperature, and time) that achieve 1 and 2 log-unit immediate reductions. Frankfurters were surface-inoculated with a 10-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes (4.4 +/- 0.1 log CFU/cm(2)) and then immersed in distilled water or LA solutions (0-3%) of 4, 25, 40, or 55 degrees C for 0-120 s. A regression equation for L. monocytogenes reduction included significant (P < 0.05) effects by the terms of concentration, time, temperature, and the interaction of concentration and temperature; other tested parameters (other interactions, quadratic and cubic terms), within the experimental range examined, did not affect (P > or = 0.05) the extent of reduction. Results indicated that the effectiveness of LA against L. monocytogenes, in addition to concentration, increased with solution temperature (in the range of 0.6-2.8 log CFU/cm(2)). The developed equation may allow processors to vary conditions of treatment with LA to achieve a 1 or 2 log-unit reduction of the pathogen and comply with United States regulations. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Seroepidemiology of parvovirus B19 in the Frankfurt am Main area, Germany: evaluation of risk factors.

    PubMed

    Reinheimer, C; Allwinn, R; Doerr, H W; Wittek, M

    2010-10-01

    Parvovirus B 19 is a virus that is distributed by respiratory droplets. It is known to be an initiator of erythema infectiosum (children's fifth disease), with erythroblasts being the target cells of infection. In case of vertically transmission, hydrops fetalis has been documented. Parvovirus B19 seroprevalence was investigated in serum samples routinely collected from patients who had been admitted to the University Hospital in Frankfurt a. M., Germany. Patients were classified in different groups in order to analyze parovirus B19 seroprevalences in terms of risk factors. Between June 2007 and March 2010, a total of 2,197 serum samples were analyzed for parvovirus B19-immunoglobulin G using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The study population included six groups of patients, namely, patients suffering from haemophilia, malignant disease, immunodeficiency diseases, common gynecological ailments, pregnant women and children with malignant diseases. Of the 2,197 serum samples, 1,383 contained antibodies to parvovirus B19 (62.9%). The overall seroprevalence in adults (20 to ≥60 years of age) was 71%. Gradually rising prevalences were recorded in children/adolescents with increasing age. We found a positive serostatus in 54.9% of adult patients with malignant disease, in 64.2% of patients with haemophilia (1 to ≥60 years), in 66.7% of patients under immunosuppression with various drugs (1 to ≥60 years) and in 41.7% of oncological patients aged 1-19 years. Of the pregnant women (aged 15-49 years), 71.1% were seropositive. The seroprevalence of parvovirus B19 in patients admitted to the University Hospital in Frankfurt a.M. was, on average, lower than that among the general population in Germany. Infection among patients in specific risk groups did not spread more than that in age-matched non-selected patients, with the exception of the group of immunocompromised patients.

  3. Twenty-five years of biomonitoring lead in the Frankfurt/Main area.

    PubMed

    Ballach, Hans-Joachim; Wittig, Rüdiger; Wulff, Svenja

    2002-01-01

    The present study is an example of the historical monitoring of heavy metals. The specific question it aims to explore is: to what extent has the lead content of selected organisms used for biomonitoring in Frankfurt/Main--one of the cities in Germany most heavily affected by automobile traffic--changed as a result of legislation on leaded gasoline? Data on the lead content of the moss species Bryum argenteum Hedw. from the years 1974, 1975 and 1978 and data on the lead content of the outer bark of the ash species Fraxinus excelsior L. from 1973 served as the basis for the repeated measurements. Remeasurement was successful in 76.5% (i.e. 124 trees at 26 growth sites). The study produced the following results: As was expected, the lead content of the short-term accumulator Bryum argenteum Hedw. was distinctly lowered with a decreasing particulate lead concentration. However, the reduction factor varied greatly between the different growth sites. On the other hand, the lead content measured in the outer bark layers of Fraxinus excelsior L. has risen markedly during the past two decades. Whereas in 1973 nearly all trees examined displayed very low concentrations of lead (< 38 ppm), only 9.5% were still in this category in 1997 and nearly 30% exhibited high or even unacceptable lead concentrations (< 150 ppm-->225 ppm). Various factors have to be taken into account to explain this increase. First of all, bark is a long-term accumulator for heavy metals like lead and its enrichment capacity could have increased as the surface becomes rougher over time. Furthermore, lead is most probably leached out of the bark to a lesser degree now than in the 1970s, owing to the reduced concentration of sulphuric acid in the rain. The dramatic growth of automobile traffic in the Frankfurt/Main area during the period covered by the study undoubtedly plays an important role as well.

  4. Physicochemical properties and sensory characteristics of reduced-fat frankfurters with pork back fat replaced by dietary fiber extracted from makgeolli lees.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Choi, Ji-Hun; Lee, Mi-Ai; Chung, Hai-Jung; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2014-02-01

    The effects of reducing pork fat levels from 30% to 20%, 15%, and 10% by partially substituting pork back fat with a makgeolli lees fiber were investigated regarding approximate composition, energy value, pH, color, cooking loss, emulsion stability, texture profile analysis, apparent viscosity, and sensory evaluation. The moisture and ash contents, redness, and yellowness were higher in reduced-fat frankfurters containing makgeolli lees fiber than in the control with 30% fat. With increasing fat levels, samples displayed higher pH, lightness, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, chewiness, apparent viscosity, and sensory quality, while displaying lower cooking loss and total expressible fluid. The results show that fat levels of frankfurters with added makgeolli lees fiber can be successfully reduced. Thus, 20% fat frankfurters with the addition of 2% makgeolli lees fiber are similar in quality to regular frankfurters with 30% fat. © 2013 The American Meat Science Association. All rights reserved.

  5. Studies on the flight medical aspects of the German Lufthansa non-stop route from Frankfurt to Rio de Janeiro, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegmann, H. M.; Klein, K. E.; Goeters, K. M.; Samel, A.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of crew size for regularly scheduled flights between Frankfurt and Rio de Janeiro is discussed. Factors affecting crew performance are examined, comparisons are drawn to regulations of other countries and crew questionnaires and tests are presented.

  6. Quality characteristics of reduced-fat frankfurters with pork fat replaced by sunflower seed oils and dietary fiber extracted from makgeolli lees.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Park, Kwaon-Sik; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Choi, Min-Sung; Lee, Soo-Yeon; Paik, Hyun-Dong; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2013-03-01

    The effects of reducing pork fat levels from 30% to 20% by partially substituting pork fat with a mix of sunflower seed oil (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20%) and makgeolli lees fiber (2%) were investigated based on physicochemical properties, textural properties, and sensory characteristics of reduced-fat frankfurters. The moisture and ash content, and lightness were higher in reduced-fat frankfurter samples containing sunflower seed oil and makgeolli lees fiber than in the control. The results showed that reduced-fat frankfurter samples with higher sunflower seed oil levels had lower redness and yellowness values, as well as less cooking loss, emulsion stability, hardness, springiness, and apparent viscosity. The results of this study show that incorporating sunflower seed oil and makgeolli lees fiber into the formulation successfully reduced animal fat in frankfurters, while improving quality characteristics. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of replacing pork back fat with vegetable oils and rice bran fiber on the quality of reduced-fat frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Choi, Ji-Hun; Han, Doo-Jeong; Kim, Hack-Youn; Lee, Mi-Ai; Jeong, Jong-Youn; Chung, Hai-Jung; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2010-03-01

    The effects of substituting olive, grape seed, corn, canola, or soybean oil and rice bran fiber on the chemical composition, cooking characteristics, fatty acid composition, and sensory properties of low-fat frankfurters were investigated. Ten percent of the total fat content of frankfurters with a total fat content of 30% (control) was partially replaced by one of the vegetable oils to reduce the pork fat content by 10%. The moisture and ash content of low-fat frankfurters with vegetable oil and rice bran fiber were all higher than the control (P<0.05). Low-fat frankfurters had reduced-fat content, energy values, cholesterol and trans-fat levels, and increased pH, cooking yield and TBA values compared to the controls (P<0.05). Low-fat frankfurters with reduced-fat content plus rice bran fiber had sensory properties similar to control frankfurters containing pork fat. Crown Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Quality of frankfurter-type sausages with added pig skin and wheat fiber mixture as fat replacers.

    PubMed

    Choe, Ju-Hui; Kim, Hack-Youn; Lee, Jong-Moon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2013-04-01

    Pig skin and wheat fiber mixture (PSFM) were assessed as fat replacers in frankfurter-type sausages. The addition of PSFM increased the moisture and protein content in the sausage because of the water binding capacity in wheat fiber and protein content in pig skin. The sausage sample containing 20% PSFM had 50% less fat, 32% fewer calories, and showed 39.5% less cooking loss than those of the control (p<0.05). High PSFM content resulted in more stable meat emulsions and increased hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and chewiness. No significant differences were observed in color, flavor, tenderness, juiciness, warm-off flavor, and overall acceptability between the control and sausage sample with PSFM by the sensory panel. Therefore, PSFM could be used as fat replacers to obtain lower calories, and higher moisture, protein contents, and emulsion stability than in low-fat frankfurter-type sausages without PSFM. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Properties of Frankfurter-type Sausages with Pork Back-fat Replaced with Bovine Heart Surimi-like Materials

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Jin-Kyu; Yum, Hyeon-Woong; Kim, Gap-Don; Jeong, Jin-Yeon; Yang, Han-Sul

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of bovine heart surimi-like material (BHSM) used as a back fat replacer, on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of frankfurter-type sausages. Frankfurter-type sausage with added BHSM had a higher moisture content and lower fat content than the control. In addition, the samples with added BHSM had higher pH, cooking loss and 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) value and lower water exudation than the control. The sausage formulation with 40% BHSM was more effective in delaying lipid oxidation without affecting cooking loss compared to the 60% BHSM treatment sample. Results showed that hardness values increased upon replacement with BHSM, and sausages manufactured with 40% BHSM had higher lightness and lower redness values. Panelists found there were no differences in color, odor, and tenderness scores and the overall acceptability score found that treatment samples containing 20% and 40% BHSM were preferable to the control after storage for 14 d. These results indicate that fat replacement with BHSM was beneficial to the quality of frankfurter-type sausages, and acceptable reduced-fat products can be produced when back fat is replaced with up to 40% BHSM. PMID:27621694

  10. Control of Listeria monocytogenes on frankfurters and cooked pork chops by irradiation combined with modified atmosphere packaging.

    PubMed

    Kudra, Li L; Sebranek, Joseph G; Dickson, James S; Larson, Elaine M; Mendonca, Aubrey F; Prusa, Kenneth J; Cordray, Joseph C; Jackson-Davis, Armitra; Lu, Zheng

    2012-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of controlling Listeria monocytogenes on frankfurters and cooked pork chops with irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) containing a high concentration of CO(2). Frankfurters and cooked pork chops were inoculated with a five-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes and packaged in vacuum or high-CO(2) MAP. Irradiation was applied to each product at 0, 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 kGy. No significant packaging effect was found for the radiation sensitivity of L. monocytogenes. Radiation D(10)-values for L. monocytogenes were 0.66 ± 0.03 and 0.70 ± 0.05 kGy on frankfurters and 0.60 ± 0.02 and 0.57 ± 0.02 kGy on cooked pork chops in vacuum and high-CO(2) MAP, respectively. High-CO(2) MAP was more effective than vacuum packaging for controlling the growth of survivors during refrigerated storage. These results indicate that irradiation and high-CO(2) MAP can be used to improve control of L. monocytogenes in ready-to-eat meats.

  11. Design and nutritional properties of potential functional frankfurters based on lipid formulation, added seaweed and low salt content.

    PubMed

    López-López, I; Cofrades, S; Ruiz-Capillas, C; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to design and analyse the nutritional composition (fatty acid profile, cholesterol, mineral and amino acid content) of low-fat frankfurters enriched with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) (using algal oil to add 400mg of docosahexanoic acid - DHA/100g of product) as affected by the addition of seaweed (5.5% Himanthalia elongata) and the partial substitution (50%) of animal fat by olive oil (as a source of monounsaturated fatty acids - MUFA) or combinations of olive oil and seaweed. Reduction of NaCl level was also studied. The presence of algal oil produced frankfurters with high long-chain n-3 PUFA contents. The partial substitution of the pork fat by olive oil reduced (P<0.05) saturated fatty acids (SFA) and promoted (P<0.05) MUFA. A healthier lipid formulation (algal and olive oils and the reducing animal fat) produced a good balance of MUFA/SFA, PUFA/SFA and n-6/n-3 ratios. Although adding seaweed had little effect on the lipid and amino acid profiles of frankfurters, it does constitute a means to produce low-sodium products with important dietary fibre content, with better Na/K ratios and rich in Ca.

  12. Control of Listeria monocytogenes on frankfurters with antimicrobials in the formulation and by dipping in organic acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Barmpalia, I M; Geornaras, I; Belk, K E; Scanga, J A; Kendall, P A; Smith, G C; Sofos, J N

    2004-11-01

    The antilisterial activity of sodium lactate (SL) and sodium diacetate (SD) was evaluated in a frankfurter formulation and in combination with a dipping treatment into solutions of lactic acid or acetic acid after processing and inoculation. Pork frankfurters were formulated with 1.8% SL or 0.25% SD or combinations of 1.8% SL with 0.25 or 0.125% SD. After processing, frankfurters were inoculated (2 to 3 log CFU/cm2) with a 10-strain composite of Listeria monocytogenes and left undipped or were dipped (2 min) in 2.5% solutions of lactic acid or acetic acid (23 +/- 2 degrees C) before vacuum packaging and storage at 10 degrees C for 40 days. Total microbial populations and L. monocytogenes, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts and molds were enumerated during storage. Sensory evaluations also were carried out on frankfurters treated and/or formulated with effective antimicrobials. The combination of 1.8% SL with 0.25% SD provided complete inhibition of L. monocytogenes growth throughout storage. Dipping in lactic acid or acetic acid reduced initial populations by 0.7 to 2.1 log CFU/cm2, but during storage (12 to 20 days), populations on dipped samples without antimicrobials in the formulation reached 5.5 to 7.9 log CFU/cm2. For samples containing single antimicrobials and dipped in lactic acid or acetic acid, L. monocytogenes growth was completely inhibited or reduced over 12 and 28 days, respectively, whereas final populations were lower (P < 0.05) than those in undipped samples of the same formulations. Bactericidal effects during storage (reductions of 0.6 to 1.0 log CFU/ cm2 over 28 to 40 days) were observed in frankfurters containing combinations of SL and SD that were dipped in organic acid solutions. Inclusion of antimicrobials in the formulation and/or dipping the product into organic acid solutions did not affect (P > 0.05) the flavor and overall acceptability of products compared with controls. The results of this study may be valuable to meat processors as

  13. Effective and reusable monolith capillary trap of nitrosamine extraction by superheated water from frankfurter sausage.

    PubMed

    Chienthavorn, Orapin; Ramnut, Narumol; Subprasert, Panee; Sasook, Anupop; Insuan, Wimonrut

    2014-02-12

    A novel, simple, rapid, and inexpensive method of extraction and cleanup of nitrosamines from frankfurter sausage was achieved with a capillary filled with monolith of either polystyrene-co-divinylbenzene (PS-DVB), Polydivinylbenzene (P-DVB), or silica that had been fabricated. The study of capability in trapping nonpolar matrix and monolith capillaries with varied lengths revealed that a silica monolith gave the best result for nitrosamine determination. With an online coupling between superheated water extraction (SWE) and silica monolith capillary connected to a 5% phenyl-methylpolysiloxane column, factors affecting the extraction and determination, namely, sensitivity with and without the monolith, reusability, injection-injection repeatability, capillary-capillary precision, and chromatographic separation, were investigated. This confirmed the feasibility of the method. The optimal length of silica monolith capillary was 30 mm, offering reuse more than 20 times. Separation and quantification of selected volatile nitrosamines were carried out using gas chromatography (GC) coupled with either a flame ionization detector (FID) or mass spectrometer (MS). The overall extraction and determination method determined by GC-MS allowed for a recovery of 75-88% with a <5% relative standard deviation (RSD) and detection limit of 2-5 ng of injected nitrosamine.

  14. Low-fat frankfurters from protein concentrates of tilapia viscera and mechanically separated tilapia meat

    PubMed Central

    Cavenaghi-Altemio, Angela D; Alcade, Lígia B; Fonseca, Gustavo G

    2013-01-01

    In order to develop a healthy low-fat frankfurter-type sausage, different formulations were developed with tilapia viscera surimi (T1) and two with mechanically separated tilapia meat (MSTM) surimi (T2 and T3), all without pig lard addition. Due to technological problems observed for T1 sausage during cooking, it was not further investigated. The functionality of the other two formulations was evaluated based on proximate composition, pH, water activity, and texture. Finally, microbiological and sensory analyses based on acceptance tests were performed. Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were found to be absent. T2 showed higher frequencies for the attributes color (90.0%) and overall acceptability (86.7%), while T3 showed higher frequencies for taste (86.7%) and texture (96.7%). The surimi concentration was reflected in the physical properties of the sausages. It was found that the addition of MSTM surimi to sausage favored greater cutting strength (3.9 N for T2 and 4.9 N for T3). Beyond the surimi utilization, the total replacement of pig lard by cassava starch and soybean protein had also contributed with the texture properties. PMID:24804055

  15. Low-fat frankfurters from protein concentrates of tilapia viscera and mechanically separated tilapia meat.

    PubMed

    Cavenaghi-Altemio, Angela D; Alcade, Lígia B; Fonseca, Gustavo G

    2013-11-01

    In order to develop a healthy low-fat frankfurter-type sausage, different formulations were developed with tilapia viscera surimi (T1) and two with mechanically separated tilapia meat (MSTM) surimi (T2 and T3), all without pig lard addition. Due to technological problems observed for T1 sausage during cooking, it was not further investigated. The functionality of the other two formulations was evaluated based on proximate composition, pH, water activity, and texture. Finally, microbiological and sensory analyses based on acceptance tests were performed. Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were found to be absent. T2 showed higher frequencies for the attributes color (90.0%) and overall acceptability (86.7%), while T3 showed higher frequencies for taste (86.7%) and texture (96.7%). The surimi concentration was reflected in the physical properties of the sausages. It was found that the addition of MSTM surimi to sausage favored greater cutting strength (3.9 N for T2 and 4.9 N for T3). Beyond the surimi utilization, the total replacement of pig lard by cassava starch and soybean protein had also contributed with the texture properties.

  16. World Antibody Drug Conjugate Summit Europe: February 21-23, 2011; Frankfurt, Germany.

    PubMed

    Beck, Alain; Senter, Peter; Chari, Ravi

    2011-01-01

    The World Antibody Drug Conjugate Summit Europe, organized by Biorbis/ Hanson Wade was held in Frankfurt, Germany on February 21-23, 2011. Antibody drug conjugates (ADCs), also called immunoconjugates, are becoming an increasingly important class of therapeutics as demonstrated by the attendance of nearly 100 delegates at this highly focused meeting. Updates on three ADCs that are in late-stage clinical development, trastuzumab emtansine (T-DM1), brentuximab vedotin (SGN-35) and inotuzumab ozogamicin (CMC-544), were presented by speakers from ImmunoGen, Genentech, Roche, Seattle Genetics and Pfizer. These ADCs have shown encouraging therapeutic effects against solid tumors (T-DM1) and hematological malignancies (SGN-35, CMC-544). The key feature of the new generation of ADCs is the effective combination of the cytotoxicity of natural or synthetic highly potent antineoplastic agents, tumor selective monoclonal antibodies and blood-stable optimized linkers. Early clinical data for ADCs were showcased by Progenics Pharmaceuticals (PSMA ADC), Celldex (CDX-011) and Biotest (BT-062). Takeda, MedImmune and sanofi-aventis outlined their strategies for process development and analytical characterization. In addition, presentations on duocarmycin based-ADCs, alpha emitting immunoconjugates and antibody-conjugated nanoparticles were given by representatives from Syntarga, Algeta and the University of Stuttgart, respectively.

  17. Factor analysis of the Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire in a Spanish sample.

    PubMed

    Cuesta, M J; Peralta, V; Irigoyen, I

    1996-01-01

    The Frankfurt Complaint Questionnaire (FCQ) is a self-assessment instrument designed to evaluate the subjective experiences (SE) of psychotic patients. It is composed of 98 yes-no items grouped in ten phenomenological subscales. The original validation of the FCQ included a factor analysis with a four-factor structure. No further studies of factor validity have been carried out. The present study aimed to replicate the factor structure of the FCQ in a Spanish sample. The sample was composed of 286 consecutively admitted patients due to a recrudescence of their psychotic symptoms. They were evaluated through a semistructured interview for schizophrenia and diagnosed according to DSM-III-R criteria. Organic mental disorders were excluded. Sixteen patients who failed to fulfill the FCQ were excluded. The sample finally comprised 270 patients. A factor structure of FCQ items comprising 25 factors was found. The first factor obtained the highest explained variance, and most items obtained their highest load on the first factor. These results strongly suggest a unidimensionality underlying FCQ items. A new scale composed of 18 items was derived from those with higher weights in the first factor. The new scale of SE was presented in a Likert format to demonstrate their frequency and intensity more clearly.

  18. "PULS." – a Blog-based Online-Magazine for Students of Medicine of the Goethe University Frankfurt

    PubMed Central

    Wurche, Bettina; Klauer, Gertrud; Nürnberger, Frank

    2013-01-01

    In the context of nationwide protests 2009 also students of the faculty of medicine/dentistry at Goethe-University in Frankfurt demanded more transparency and communication. To satisfy these demands, a web 2.0-tool offered an innovative solution: A blog-based online-magazine for students and other faculty-members. The online-magazine „PULS.“ is realized with the share-ware blog-software (wordpress version 3.1.3) and is conceived and written by an online-journalist. „PULS.“ is available from https://newsmagazin.puls.med.uni-frankfurt.de/wp/. The articles are generated from own investigations and from ideas of different groups of the faculty– deanship, students and lecturers. A user-analysis is conducted with the open-source software Piwik and considers the data security. Additionally, every year an anonymous online-user-survey (Survey Monkey) is conducted. “PULS.” is continuously online since 14.02.2010 and has published 806 articles (state: 27.11.2012) and has about 2400 readers monthly. The content focuses on the needs of Frankfurt medical students. The close cooperation with different groups of the faculty - deanship, students and lecturers - furthermore guarantees themes relevant to the academic faculty. “PULS.” flanks complex projects and decisions with background-information and communicates them understandable. The user-evaluation shows a growing number of readers and a high acceptance for the online-magazine, its themes and its style. The web 2.0-tool “Blog” and the web-specific language comply with media habits of the main target group, the students of the faculty medicine/dentistry. Thus, “PULS.” has proven as a suitable and strategic instrument. It pushes towards a higher transparency, more communication and a stronger identification of the students with their faculty. PMID:23467571

  19. "PULS." - a blog-based online-magazine for students of medicine of the Goethe University Frankfurt.

    PubMed

    Wurche, Bettina; Klauer, Gertrud; Nürnberger, Frank

    2013-01-01

    In the context of nationwide protests 2009 also students of the faculty of medicine/dentistry at Goethe-University in Frankfurt demanded more transparency and communication. To satisfy these demands, a web 2.0-tool offered an innovative solution: A blog-based online-magazine for students and other faculty-members. The online-magazine "PULS." is realized with the share-ware blog-software (wordpress version 3.1.3) and is conceived and written by an online-journalist. "PULS." is available from https://newsmagazin.puls.med.uni-frankfurt.de/wp/. The articles are generated from own investigations and from ideas of different groups of the faculty- deanship, students and lecturers. A user-analysis is conducted with the open-source software Piwik and considers the data security. Additionally, every year an anonymous online-user-survey (Survey Monkey) is conducted. "PULS." is continuously online since 14.02.2010 and has published 806 articles (state: 27.11.2012) and has about 2400 readers monthly. The content focuses on the needs of Frankfurt medical students. The close cooperation with different groups of the faculty - deanship, students and lecturers - furthermore guarantees themes relevant to the academic faculty. "PULS." flanks complex projects and decisions with background-information and communicates them understandable. The user-evaluation shows a growing number of readers and a high acceptance for the online-magazine, its themes and its style. The web 2.0-tool "Blog" and the web-specific language comply with media habits of the main target group, the students of the faculty medicine/dentistry. Thus, "PULS." has proven as a suitable and strategic instrument. It pushes towards a higher transparency, more communication and a stronger identification of the students with their faculty.

  20. Color, sensory and textural attributes of beef frankfurter, beef ham and meat-free sausage containing tomato pomace.

    PubMed

    Savadkoohi, Sobhan; Hoogenkamp, Henk; Shamsi, Kambiz; Farahnaky, Asgar

    2014-08-01

    The present investigation focuses on the textural properties, sensory attributes and color changes of beef frankfurter, beef ham and meat-free sausage produced by different levels of bleached tomato pomace. The texture and color profile were performed using an instrumental texture analyzer and colorimeter. The findings indicated that tomato pomace-added sausages had higher water holding capacity (WHC) compared to that of commercial samples. The frankfurters containing 5 and 7% (w/w) tomato pomace had the highest redness (a*), chroma (C*) and color differences (ΔE) values, while the meat-free sausages containing 7% (w/w) tomato pomace had significant (p<0.05) values for lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*). Furthermore, there were no significant (p>0.05) color differences between beef ham samples (with and without tomato pomace). A significant progression in the textural hardness and chewiness of systems containing tomato pomace was observed as well as higher sensory scores by panelists. According to sensorial evaluations, bleached tomato pomace improved the consumer acceptability and preference. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. [Social and economic consequences of night-time aircraft noise in the vicinity of Frankfurt/Main airport].

    PubMed

    Greiser, E; Glaeske, G

    2013-03-01

    A prospective calculation of disease-related social and economic costs due to night-time aircraft noise in the vicinity of Frankfurt/Main airport was performed for the calendar years 2012-2021. It was based on risk estimates for a variety of diagnostic entities (cardiovascular disease, depression, psychosis, diabetes mellitus, dementia and Alzheimer's disease, all cancers except malignancies of the respiratory system) from a previous case-control study on more than 1 million persons enrolled in compulsory sickness funds in the vicinity of the Cologne-Bonn airport, on disease-related cost estimates performed by the German Federal Statistical Office for the calender years 2002-2008, and calculations of the population exposed to night-time aircraft noise in the vicinity of Frankfurt/Main airport (2005 aircraft routes and flight frequencies). Total estimated costs came to more than 1.5 billion € with an excess of 23 400 cases of diseases treated in hospitals and of 3 400 subsequent deaths. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  2. Effect of Various Phyto-extracts on Physico-chemical, Colour, and Oxidative Stability of Pork Frankfurters

    PubMed Central

    Wagh, Rajesh V.; Chatli, Manish K.; Ruusunen, Marita; Puolanne, Eero; Ertbjerg, Per

    2015-01-01

    Lipid oxidation, colour stability and physico-chemical quality of pork frankfurters with the incorporation of 0.30% sea buckthorn (SBT), 0.10% grape seed (GSE), 0.03% green tea (GTE), 0.12% fenugreek seed (FSE) and 0.10% Acacia catechu (ACE) were studied during 20 days of refrigerated aerobic storage. The SBT and ACE were identified as being the most effective antioxidants to retard lipid oxidation with the potency decreasing in the following order: SBT>ACE>GSE>GTE>FSE based on thiobarbituric acid reacting substances, peroxide value and free fatty acids. In all samples pH and aw decreased during storage period. The L* value of treated as well as control samples decreased over time while SBT and ACE exhibited an increased redness producing higher a* values than other treatments. However, GTE was more effective in increasing b* values than other treatments at the end of storage. The results suggest that functional plant-derived extracts can be valuable to the modification of frankfurter formulations for improved oxidative stability as well as quality characteristics. PMID:26104527

  3. Gastric Fluid and Heat Stress Response of Listeria monocytogenes Inoculated on Frankfurters Formulated with 10%, 20%, and 30% Fat Content

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hack-Youn; Kim, Cheon-Jei; Han, Sung Gu; Choi, Kyoung-Hee

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of frankfurter fat content on Listeria monocytogenes resistance to heat stress and gastric fluid, and the Caco-2 cell invasion efficiency of the pathogen. A 10-strain mixture of L. monocytogenes was inoculated on frankfurters formulated with 10%, 20%, and 30% fat content (10%: F10, 20%: F20, 30%: F30) and stored at 10℃ for 30 d. The samples were analyzed for L. monocytogenes resistance to heat stress and a simulated gastric fluid challenge. The total bacteria and L. monocytogenes survival rates were measured on tryptic soy agar plus 0.6% yeast extract and Palcam agar, respectively. L. monocytogenes colonies inoculated on F10, F20, and F30 samples were used for a Caco-2 cell invasion assay. In general, no obvious differences were observed between the survival rates of total bacteria and L. monocytogenes grown on different fat contents under heat stress and gastric fluid challenge. However, L. monocytogenes obtained from the F30 samples had a significantly higher Caco-2 cell invasion efficiency than those in the F10 and F20 samples (p<0.05). These results indicate that although high fat content in food may not be related to L. monocytogenes resistance to heat stress and gastric fluid, it may increase the Caco-2 cell invasion efficiency of the pathogen. PMID:26760741

  4. A comparison of the head and cervical posture between the self-balanced position and the Frankfurt method.

    PubMed

    Armijo-Olivo, S; Jara, X; Castillo, N; Alfonso, L; Schilling, A; Valenzuela, E; Frugone, R; Magee, D

    2006-03-01

    Head and cervical posture evaluation has been a concern for many years, not only because of the purported relationship that exists between head and cervical posture in the presence of temporomandibular disorders, neck pain and headache, but also because of the biomechanical relationship between the head and cervical spine and dentofacial structures. Many methods have been suggested in an attempt to establish the best way to evaluate the position of the head using teleradiographs and cephalometric analysis. However, there is still no agreement as to which procedure is the best. The objective of this study was to evaluate the differences that exist between craniocervical measurements in lateral teleradiographs when comparing the position of the head in the self-balanced position to the position of the head using the Frankfurt method (Frankfurt plane parallel to the floor). Sixty-eight subjects who sought dental treatment in community health centres in Talca, Chile participated in this study. Rocabado analysis was used to measure the craniocervical variables. The Cobb analysis was used to measure cervical lordosis. A paired student t-test was used to evaluate the differences between both procedures, using an alpha of 0.05 and a power of 0.90. The use of the cephalostat changed only the craniocervical angle (P < 0.001). However, this change was minimal. No changes related to gender and age were found. More studies are needed to determine the variation between different procedures and to define a good procedure for evaluating head posture.

  5. Infrared spectroscopy used to determine effects of chia and olive oil incorporation strategies on lipid structure of reduced-fat frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Herrero, A M; Ruiz-Capillas, C; Pintado, T; Carmona, P; Jimenez-Colmenero, F

    2017-04-15

    This article reports an infrared spectroscopic study, using attenuated total reflectance (ATR-FTIR), on the structural characteristics of lipids in frankfurters as affected by different strategies to replace animal fat with chia flour and olive oil. Three incorporation strategies were considered: direct addition (FCO) and addition in a conventional emulsion (non-gelled) (FCE) or an emulsion gel using alginate as a gelling agent (FCEG). Reduced-fat (all-pork-fat) frankfurters (FP) were used as reference. Proximate composition and specific technological properties (pH, processing loss, texture) were also evaluated. FCE and FCEG frankfurters showed a shift to higher frequencies and the highest (p<0.05) half-bandwidth in the νasCH2 and νsCH2 bands. These spectroscopic results could be related to the fact that the lipid chain was more disorderly in these samples, presumably because there were more lipid interactions than in the reference frankfurter. These features of lipid structure correlated significantly with processing loss and textural behaviour.

  6. Behavior of Listeria monocytogenes on frankfurters surface treated with lauric arginate and/or a liquid smoke extract delivered using the Sprayed Lethality in Container (SLIC®) technology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to determine the viability of Listeria monocytogenes (LM) on commercially-produced frankfurters prepared without lactates that were surface treated with 0 or 4 mL of a blend of LAE (CytoGuard; 1.0% LAE final concentration) diluted in a concentrated liquid smoke extrac...

  7. Survival and growth of Clostridium perfringens in commercial no-nitrate-or-nitrite-added (natural and organic) frankfurters, hams, and bacon.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Armitra L; Sullivan, Gary A; Kulchaiyawat, Charlwit; Sebranek, Joseph G; Dickson, James S

    2011-03-01

    The popularity of "preservative-free" foods among consumers has stimulated rapid growth of processed meats manufactured without sodium nitrite. The objective of this study was to quantify the potential for Clostridium perfringens growth in commercially available processed meats manufactured without the direct addition of nitrite or nitrate. Commercial brands of naturally cured, no-nitrate-or-nitrite-added frankfurters (10 samples), hams (7 samples), and bacon (9 samples) were obtained from retail stores and challenged with a three-strain inoculation (5 log CFU/g) of C. perfringens. Reduced inhibition (P < 0.05) was observed in seven brands of frankfurters, six brands of hams, and four brands of bacon when compared with each respective sodium nitrite-added control. In naturally cured and truly uncured commercial frankfurters, growth over time was approximately 4.7 log, while conventionally cured frankfurters exhibited growth at 1.7 log. Naturally cured ham and bacon products exhibited growth at 4.8 and 3.4 log, respectively, while their conventionally cured counterparts exhibited growth at 2.6 and 2.3 log, respectively. These products also demonstrated variation in growth response. The results indicate that commercially available natural/organic naturally cured meats have more potential for growth of this pathogen than do conventionally cured products. Natural and organic processed meats may require additional protective measures in order to consistently provide the level of safety from bacterial pathogens achieved by conventionally cured meat products, and which is expected by consumers.

  8. Infrared study of structural characteristics of Frankfurters formulated with olive oil-in-water emulsions stabilized with casein as pork backfat replacer.

    PubMed

    Carmona, P; Ruiz-Capillas, C; Jiménez-Colmenero, F; Pintado, T; Herrero, A M

    2011-12-28

    This article reports an infrared spectroscopic (FT-IR) study on lipids and protein structural characteristics in frankfurters as affected by an emulsified olive oil stabilizing system used as a pork backfat replacer. The oil-in-water emulsions were stabilized with sodium caseinate, without (F/SC) and with microbial transglutaminase (F/SC+MTG). Proximate composition and textural characteristics were also evaluated. Frankfurters F/SC+MTG showed the highest (P < 0.05) hardness and lowest (P < 0.05) adhesiveness. These products also showed the lowest (P < 0.05) half-bandwidth of the 2922 cm(-1) band, which could be related to the fact that the lipid chain was more orderly than that in the frankfurters formulated with animal fat and F/SC. The spectral results revealed modifications in the amide I band profile when the olive oil-in-water emulsion replaced animal fat. This fact is indicative of a greater content of aggregated intermolecular β-sheets. Structural characteristics in both proteins and lipids could be associated with the specific textural properties of frankfurters.

  9. Low-fat frankfurters enriched with n-3 PUFA and edible seaweed: Effects of olive oil and chilled storage on physicochemical, sensory and microbial characteristics.

    PubMed

    López-López, I; Cofrades, S; Jiménez-Colmenero, F

    2009-09-01

    This article reports a study of the physicochemical, sensory and microbiological characteristics of low-fat (10%) and n-3 PUFA-enriched frankfurters as affected by addition of seaweed (5% Himanthalia elongata), partial substitution (50%) of animal fat by olive oil and chilled storage (41days at 2°C). The presence of seaweed improved water and fat binding properties, reduced (P<0.05) lightness and redness and increased (P<0.05) the hardness and chewiness of low-fat frankfurters enriched with n-3 PUFA. The effect of olive oil on those characteristics was less pronounced than that of seaweed. Replacing pork backfat with olive oil in frankfurters produced acceptable sensory characteristics, similar to control, while addition of seaweed resulted in less acceptable products, due mainly to the special flavour of the seaweed. Formulation and storage time affected the total viable count and lactic acid bacteria count. Frankfurters containing olive oil and seaweed had the highest total viable count from day 14 of storage, with lactic acid bacteria becoming the predominant microflora.

  10. Effects of soybean protein, potato starch and pig lard on the properties of frankfurters formulated from mechanically separated chicken meat surimi-like material.

    PubMed

    Cortez-Vega, William Renzo; Fonseca, Gustavo Graciano; Prentice, Carlos

    2013-10-01

    Mechanically separated chicken meat has become a common ingredient of comminuted sausage products, as 'frankfurters', mainly due to its low price. The present work aimed to develop a frankfurter from mechanically separated chicken meat surimi-like material, and evaluated the chemical, rheological, microbiological and sensorial properties of this product. The response surface methodology was utilized to investigate the effects of the soybean protein, potato starch and pig lard on the texture of the obtained frankfurters. For this purpose, five levels of each factor were evaluated: soybean protein varied from 0% to 6%, potato starch from 0% to 10% and pig lard from 2% to 12%. The regression analysis of the model showed that the soybean protein exerted a linear positive effect and a quadratic negative effect in the compression force of the product (p < 0.05), and that the variable which more influenced the shear force was the potato starch, presenting linear and quadratic effects (p < 0.05). The highest composite design averages obtained were 202.2 g for breaking force, 7.9 cm for deformation, 10.1 N for shear force, and 90.9 N.s for work of shearing. The obtained models presented high determination coefficients, explaining 97.31%, 97.83%, 97.49%, and 95.39% of the breaking force, deformation, shear force and work of shearing variabilities, respectively. The microbiological analysis demonstrated that the achieved results were below the limits fixed by the FDA. The mechanically separated chicken meat surimi-like material frankfurter presented 72.2% of acceptability and 59.3% of the examiners found the color of the product slightly lighter than the ideal. Finally, the frankfurter-type sausages, without pork fat, produced and characterized here have presented promising characteristics for commercial applications.

  11. Fate of Listeria monocytogenes inoculated onto the surface of model Turkey frankfurter pieces treated with zein coatings containing nisin, sodium diacetate, and sodium lactate at 4 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Lungu, B; Johnson, M G

    2005-04-01

    The antimicrobial effects of zein coatings containing nisin, sodium lactate, and sodium diacetate against Listeria monocytogenes on turkey frankfurters at 4 degrees C were determined. Our objectives were to determine whether zein, nisin, lactate, and diacetate alone or in combination could control the growth of L. monocytogenes on full-fat turkey frankfurters at 4 degrees C and to determine whether lactate or diacetate had any synergistic effect on the activity of nisin. Turkey frankfurter pieces surface inoculated with L. monocytogenes strain V7 were treated with zein-ethanol-glycerol (ZEG), zein-propylene-glycol (ZPR), ethanol-glycerol (EG), propylene glycol (PR), nisin (N), sodium lactate (L), or sodium diacetate (D) alone or in combination. Over 28 days, treatment with N or D alone reduced L. monocytogenes counts on frankfurters by 6.6 or 6.3 log CFU/g, respectively. N-D treatment reduced L. monocytogenes by 6 log CFU/g. The zein solvents EG and PR reduced L. monocytogenes by about 5.6 and 5.2 log CFU/g, respectively, similar to the results obtained with ZEG and ZPR, which suggests that zein powder per se had no antimicrobial activity. After 28 days, ZEG-N-D, ZEG-N-D-L, ZPR-N-D, and ZPR-N-D-L yielded no detectable CFU. L alone was ineffective. No synergies were observed. N and D when used singly and the combinations of N-D, ZEG-N-D, ZEG-N-D-L, ZPR-N-D, ZPR-N-D-L, EG, and PR were effective as inhibitors of the growth of recontaminating L. monocytogenes cells on full-fat turkey frankfurters.

  12. Survey of naturally and conventionally cured commercial frankfurters, ham, and bacon for physio-chemical characteristics that affect bacterial growth.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Gary A; Jackson-Davis, Armitra L; Schrader, Kohl D; Xi, Yuan; Kulchaiyawat, Charlwit; Sebranek, Joseph G; Dickson, James S

    2012-12-01

    Natural and organic food regulations preclude the use of sodium nitrite/nitrate and other antimicrobials for processed meat products. Consequently, processors have begun to use natural nitrate/nitrite sources, such as celery juice/powder, sea salt, and turbinado sugar, to manufacture natural and organic products with cured meat characteristics but without sodium nitrite. The objective of this study was to compare physio-chemical characteristics that affect Clostridium perfringens and Listeria monocytogenes growth in naturally cured and traditionally cured commercial frankfurters, hams, and bacon. Correlations of specific product characteristics to pathogen growth varied between products and pathogens, though water activity, salt concentration, and product composition (moisture, protein and fat) were common intrinsic factors correlated to pathogen growth across products. Other frequently correlated traits were related to curing reactions such as % cured pigment. Residual nitrite and nitrate were significantly correlated to C. perfringens growth but only for the ham products. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Technological and sensory characteristics of reduced/low-fat, low-salt frankfurters as affected by the addition of konjac and seaweed.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Colmenero, F; Cofrades, S; López-López, I; Ruiz-Capillas, C; Pintado, T; Solas, M T

    2010-03-01

    This paper reports the effect of an edible seaweed, Sea Spaghetti (Himanthalia elongata), on the physicochemical (emulsion stability, cooking loss, colour, texture, residual nitrite and microstructure) and sensory characteristics of reduced- and low-fat, low-salt (NaCl) frankfurters prepared with konjac gel as a fat substitute. The effects on emulsion stability of substituting konjac gel for pork backfat were conditioned by the proportion of the substitution. Incorporation of a combination of Sea Spaghetti/konjac gel (accompanied by reduction in salt) increased (P<0.05) cooking loss and reduced (P<0.05) emulsion stability in the gel/emulsion systems. Incorporation of Sea Spaghetti/konjac gel produced a decrease (P<0.05) of lightness (L*) and redness (a*) values and an increase (P<0.05) of yellowness (b*) as compared to the other samples. The effect of adding seaweed on the texture parameters of low-salt frankfurters varied depending on the proportion of konjac gel used in the formulation. Morphological differences in frankfurter microstructure were observed as fat content was reduced and konjac gel increased. Incorporation of a combination of Sea Spaghetti/konjac gel caused the formation of a more heterogeneous structure, in which the seaweed was integrated in the meat protein matrix. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Frankfurt early intervention program FFIP for preschool aged children with autism spectrum disorder: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Freitag, Christine M; Feineis-Matthews, Sabine; Valerian, Jennifer; Teufel, Karoline; Wilker, Christian

    2012-09-01

    Different early intervention programs, developed predominantly in the US, for preschool aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have been published. Several systematic review articles including a German Health Technology Assessment on behavioural and skill-based early interventions in children with ASD reported insufficient evidence and a substantial problem of generalisability to the German context. In Germany, approx. 2-5 h early intervention is supported by social services. Here, we report the results of a 1 year pre-post pilot study on a developmentally based social pragmatic approach, the Frankfurt Early Intervention program FFIP. In FFIP, individual 2:1, behaviourally and developmentally based therapy with the child is combined with parent training and training of kindergarten teachers. Treatment frequency is 2 h/week. Outcome measures were the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales II (VABS), mental age and the ADOS severity score. Improvements after 1 year were observed for the VABS socialisation scale and the mental age quotient/IQ (medium effect sizes). Results are comparable with several other studies with a similar or slightly higher therapeutic intensity implementing comparable or different early intervention methods or programs. Compared to most high-intensity programs (30-40 h/week), lower cognitive gains were observed. Results have to be replicated and assessed by a randomized-controlled study before any final conclusions can be drawn.

  15. Effect of fat volume fraction, sodium caseinate, and starch on the optimization of the sensory properties of frankfurter sausages

    PubMed Central

    Petridis, Dimitris; Ritzoulis, Christos; Tzivanos, Iakovos; Vlazakis, Eleuterios; Derlikis, Emmanuel; Patroklos, Vareltzis

    2013-01-01

    The effect of two important nonmeat constituents (starch and sodium caseinate) and fat content on the sensory perception of frankfurter sausages has been assessed for two mixture amounts (17% and 27%). A strong correlation among objective fattiness, elasticity, and chewiness has been established; these correlate negatively to consistency and hardness. This has been attributed to the protein gel disruption arising from local phase separations. Hedonic consistency, elasticity, and chewiness showed a very strong positive correlation to one another. Contour plots, based on responses of principal component axes, show that lard is important in increasing the objective sensory intensities of fattiness, chewiness, and elasticity, and for decreasing hardness and consistency. In higher lard proportions, caseinate and starch decrease the red color intensity and the acceptability of chewiness, elasticity, and consistency. Optimization of the component amounts was performed using response trace plots. After redundancy analysis, sensory and instrumental variables were found in very good mutual agreement; hardness was assessed as the most important mechanical variable, followed by chewiness. PMID:24804012

  16. [Recreational athletes and doping--a survey in 11 gyms in the area of Frankfurt/Main].

    PubMed

    Raschka, C; Chmiel, C; Preiss, R; Boos, C

    2013-07-25

    Doping no longer concerns exclusively competitive sports, but also recreational sports. Survey of 484 recreational athletes in 11 gyms in the area of Frankfurt/Main. 12.9% of the men and 3.6% of the women reported to take anabolic drugs. Theyconsumed anabolic steroids (100%; 35% p.o., 71% parenterally), stimulants (14%) and growth hormone (5%). Suppliers were friends (39%), sports mates (28%), physicians (28%) and coaches (6%). The acquisition costs amounted to an average intake over 9 weeks to 175 Euro. Information about doping side effects came from literature (67%), physicians (38%), sports mates and the so-called Black Book (14% respectively), coaches, friends and Internet (5% respectively). 2% of the athletes with abuse of doping substances were smokers, 11% had a drink several times a week, 3% also consumed other drugs, 35% had consumed other drugs in the past. Abusers of doping substances primarily intended to increase muscle size (86%) and strength (61%). From a sports medical point of view it is concerning that the proportion of doping drugs prescribed by physicians has doubled in the decade after the publication of the predecessor study in Northern Germany despite optimized sports medical and legal education measures.

  17. From 'Nerve Fiber Regeneration' to 'Functional Changes' in the Human Brain-On the Paradigm-Shifting Work of the Experimental Physiologist Albrecht Bethe (1872-1954) in Frankfurt am Main.

    PubMed

    Stahnisch, Frank W

    2016-01-01

    Until the beginning 1930's the traditional dogma that the human central nervous system (CNS) did not possess any abilities to adapt functionally to degenerative processes and external injuries loomed large in the field of the brain sciences (Hirnforschung). Cutting-edge neuroanatomists, such as the luminary Wilhelm Waldeyer (1836-1921) in Germany or the Nobel Prize laureate Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852-1934) in Spain, debated any regenerative and thus "plastic" properties in the human brain. A renewed interest arose in the scientific community to investigate the pathologies and the healing processes in the human CNS after the return of the high number of brain injured war veterans from the fronts during and after the First World War (1914-1918). A leading research center in this area was the "Institute for the Scientific Study of the Effects of Brain Injuries," which the neurologist Ludwig Edinger (1855-1918) had founded shortly before the war. This article specifically deals with the physiological research on nerve fiber plasticity by Albrecht Bethe (1872-1954) at the respective institute of the University of Frankfurt am Main. Bethe conducted here his paradigmatic experimental studies on the pathophysiological and clinical phenomena of peripheral and CNS regeneration.

  18. From ‘Nerve Fiber Regeneration’ to ‘Functional Changes’ in the Human Brain—On the Paradigm-Shifting Work of the Experimental Physiologist Albrecht Bethe (1872–1954) in Frankfurt am Main

    PubMed Central

    Stahnisch, Frank W.

    2016-01-01

    Until the beginning 1930’s the traditional dogma that the human central nervous system (CNS) did not possess any abilities to adapt functionally to degenerative processes and external injuries loomed large in the field of the brain sciences (Hirnforschung). Cutting-edge neuroanatomists, such as the luminary Wilhelm Waldeyer (1836–1921) in Germany or the Nobel Prize laureate Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1852–1934) in Spain, debated any regenerative and thus “plastic” properties in the human brain. A renewed interest arose in the scientific community to investigate the pathologies and the healing processes in the human CNS after the return of the high number of brain injured war veterans from the fronts during and after the First World War (1914–1918). A leading research center in this area was the “Institute for the Scientific Study of the Effects of Brain Injuries,” which the neurologist Ludwig Edinger (1855–1918) had founded shortly before the war. This article specifically deals with the physiological research on nerve fiber plasticity by Albrecht Bethe (1872–1954) at the respective institute of the University of Frankfurt am Main. Bethe conducted here his paradigmatic experimental studies on the pathophysiological and clinical phenomena of peripheral and CNS regeneration. PMID:26941616

  19. [Cleaning and disinfection of surfaces in hospitals: Data on structure, process and result in the Frankfurt/Main Metropolitan Area].

    PubMed

    Hausemann, A; Hofmann, H; Otto, U; Heudorf, Ursel

    2015-06-01

    In addition to hand hygiene and reprocessing of medical products, cleaning and disinfection of surfaces is also an important issue in the prevention of germ transmission and by implication infections. Therefore, in 2014, the quality of the structure, process and result of surface preparation of all hospitals in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, was monitored. All 17 hospitals transferred information on the quality of structure. Process quality was obtained through direct observation during cleaning and disinfection of rooms and their plumbing units. Result quality was gained using the fluorescent method, i.e. marking surfaces with a fluorescent liquid and testing if this mark has been sufficiently removed by cleaning. Structure quality: in all hospitals the employees were trained regularly. In 12 of them, the foremen had the required qualifications, in 6 hospitals unclarity as to the intersection of the cleaning and care services remained. In 14 hospitals only visible contamination was cleaned on the weekends, whereas complete cleaning was reported to take place in 12 hospitals on Saturdays and in 2 hospitals on Sundays. The contractually stipulated cleaning (observations specified in brackets) averaged 178 m(2)/h (148 m(2)/h) per patient room and 69 m(2)/h (33 m(2)/h) for bathrooms. Process quality: during process monitoring, various hand contact surfaces were prepared insufficiently. Result quality: 63 % of fluorescent markings were appropriately removed. The need for improvement is given especially in the area of the qualification of the foremen and a in a clear definition of the intersection between cleaning and care services, as well as in the regulations for weekends and public holidays.

  20. Influence of technological parameters on the structure of the batter and the texture of frankfurter type sausages.

    PubMed

    Girard, J P; Culioli, J; Maillard, T; Denoyer, C; Touraille, C

    1990-01-01

    The aim of the study was, on the one hand, to determine the relationships between various technological factors, the structure of the batters and the texture characteristics of frankfurter type sausages, and, on the other, to define the possibilities of realizing a reference scale for texture. The addition of sodium chloride in the 0-2% range induces a large increase (60%) in the cooking yield, a decrease in the specific gravity and an increase in the viscosity of the batter determined indirectly through the evolution of the product temperature during chopping. These variations together, give a 30% decrease in the mechanical firmness and a 100% and 90% increase in the juiciness and elasticity of the final products, respectively. However, beyond 2%, sodium chloride does not induce any significant effect on these characteristics. The addition of caseinate in a 1-3% range induces a degassing of the batter and a 10-37% decrease in the water losses during cooking. The higher the caseinate content in the 0-6% range, the larger the rise in the batter temperature during chopping. Sausages are also considered harder (+22%) and less juicy and elastic (-50%) when caseinate content increases. Addition of 0·1-0·5% polyphosphates and chopping under vacuum (0·2 atm) induce variations in the cooking yield, +3% and -1%, respectively, but have no influence on the texture of the final products. Modifications of all these technological parameters induced variations by a factor of 2 in the different mechanical parameters and in parallel differences of 1-2 points on a 6 point scale for sensory characteristics. Copyright © 1990. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Augmented Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster Therapy in Adolescents and Young Adults (AYA) with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)

    PubMed Central

    Rytting, Michael E; Thomas, Deborah A; O'Brien, Susan M; Ravandi-Kashani, Farhad; Jabbour, Elias J; Franklin, Anna R; Kadia, Tapan M; Pemmaraju, Naveen; Daver, Naval G.; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Konopleva, Marina Y; Cortes, Jorge E; Borthakur, Gautham; Garris, Rebecca; Cardenas-Turanzas, Maria; Schroeder, Kurt; Jorgensen, Jeffrey L; Kornblau, Steven M; Kantarjian, Hagop M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Various trials report improved outcomes for adolescents and young adults (AYA) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with pediatric- based regimens. This prompted the investigation of the pediatric Augmented Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (ABFM) regimen in AYA patients. Results were compared with the hyper–fractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, Adriamycin and dexamethasone (hyper-CVAD) regimen in a similar population. Methods Eighty-five patients age 12 to 40 years with Philadelphia chromosome- (Ph) negative ALL were treated with ABFM from 10/2006 through 4/2012. Their outcome was compared to 71 historical AYA patients treated with hyper-CVAD from our institution. Patient and disease characteristics, as well as status of minimal residual disease (MRD), were analyzed for their impact on outcomes. Results The complete remission (CR) rate with ABFM was 94%. The 3-year complete remission duration (CRD) and overall survival (OS) rates were 70% and 74%, respectively. The 3-year CRD and OS were 72% and 85%, respectively, with age ≤ 21 years, and 69% and 60%, respectively, with age 21-40 years. Initial white blood cell count was an independent predictive factor of OS and CRD. The MRD status on Day 29 and Day 84 of therapy were also predictive of long-term outcomes. Severe regimen toxicities included transient hepatotoxicity in 35-39%, pancreatitis in 11%, osteonecrosis in 11%, and thrombosis in 22%. The 3-year OS rate was 74% with ABFM versus 71% with hyper-CVAD; the 3-year CRD rate was 70% with ABFM versus 66% with hyper-CVAD. Conclusion ABFM was tolerable in AYA patients with ALL but was not associated with significant improvements in CRD and OS compared with hyper-CVAD. PMID:25042398

  2. Profile of thrombin generation in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated by Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM) protocols.

    PubMed

    Lejhancova-Tousovska, Katerina; Zapletal, Ondrej; Vytiskova, Sona; Strbackova, Petra; Sterba, Jaroslav

    2012-03-01

    Treatment with L-asparaginase is associated with coagulation disturbances with deep venous thrombosis being the most common clinical consequence. Use of the calibrated automated thrombogram allows precise estimation of thrombin generated in vitro. We show the first data on thrombin generation, measured by calibrated automated thrombography (CAT), in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with L-asparaginase. Thrombin generation was measured by means of CAT in 23 children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Samples were obtained at predefined time points during the induction and reinduction phase of acute lymphoblastic leukemia-intercontinental Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM) 2000 or Associazione Italiana Ematologica Oncologia Pedaitrica Interim BFM 2000 protocols. Antihrombin and fibrinogen were measured on the same sample. Twenty-eight sets of thrombin generation measurements were collected from 23 patients. We observed no significant effect of antithrombin deficiency and/or hypofibrinogenemia on thrombin generation. Endogenous thrombin generation and peak thrombin were significantly higher during induction than in the reinduction phase (P < 0.001). Four patients with severe infection experienced an increase in thrombin generation, reaching maximum in a median of 7.5 days after the onset of infection. Two of those patients developed deep venous thrombosis at the time of peaked endogenous thrombin generation. Thrombin generation in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated according to BFM protocols is significantly higher during the induction phase compared with reinduction and is not substantially affected by hypofibrinogenemia and/or antithrombin deficiency. Severe infection during the induction phase enhances thrombin generation with subsequent risk of thrombosis.

  3. Growth kinetics of Listeria monocytogenes in broth and beef frankfurters--determination of lag phase duration and exponential growth rate under isothermal conditions.

    PubMed

    Huang, L

    2008-06-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a new kinetic model to describe the isothermal growth of microorganisms. The new model was tested with Listeria monocytogenes in tryptic soy broth and frankfurters, and compared with 2 commonly used models-Baranyi and modified Gompertz models. Bias factor (BF), accuracy factor (AF), and root mean square errors (RMSE) were used to evaluate the 3 models. Either in broth or in frankfurter samples, there were no significant differences in BF (approximately 1.0) and AF (1.02 to 1.04) among the 3 models. In broth, the mean RMSE of the new model was very close to that of the Baranyi model, but significantly lower than that of the modified Gompertz model. However, in frankfurters, there were no significant differences in the mean RMSE values among the 3 models. These results suggest that these models are equally capable of describing isothermal bacterial growth curves. Almost identical to the Baranyi model in the exponential and stationary phases, the new model has a more identifiable lag phase and also suggests that the bacteria population would increase exponentially until the population approaches to within 1 to 2 logs from the stationary phase. In general, there is no significant difference in the means of the lag phase duration and specific growth rate between the new and Baranyi models, but both are significantly lower than those determined from the modified Gompertz models. The model developed in this study is directly derived from the isothermal growth characteristics and is more accurate in describing the kinetics of bacterial growth in foods.

  4. Patient Blood Management Implementation Strategies and Their Effect on Physicians' Risk Perception, Clinical Knowledge and Perioperative Practice – the Frankfurt Experience

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Dania P.; Zacharowski, Kai D.; Müller, Markus M.; Geisen, Christof; Seifried, Erhard; Müller, Heiko; Meybohm, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A multicomponent, evidence-based and interdisciplinary Patient Blood Management (PBM) program was introduced at the University Hospital Frankfurt in July 2013. The implementation strategy included practical and tactical components aimed to increase knowledge on the risks of preoperative anemia, to standardize hemotherapy, and to facilitate PBM components. Methods This article analyzes barriers to PBM implementation and outlines a strategy to introduce and manifest PBM. The effects in Frankfurt were measured in a before and after questionnaire study distributed among groups of physicians immediately before and 1 year after PBM implementation. Results 142 clinicians completed the questionnaire in July 2013 and 101 clinicians in August 2014. Absolute certainty that the treatment of preoperative anemia favorably influences morbidity and mortality rose from 25 to 37%. Transfusion behavior seems to have been affected: In 2014, 56% of clinicians stated that they clinically reassess the patient and analyze hemoglobin following each single red blood cell unit compared to only 38% stating this in 2013. Conclusion These results show that our implementation strategy was effective in changing physicians' risk perception, attitude, and knowledge on PBM principles. Our experience highlights key success factors for the implementation of a comprehensive PBM program. PMID:26019704

  5. Combined effects of potassium lactate and calcium ascorbate as sodium chloride substitutes on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low-sodium frankfurter sausage.

    PubMed

    Choi, Y M; Jung, K C; Jo, H M; Nam, K W; Choe, J H; Rhee, M S; Kim, B C

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) substitutes, including potassium lactate (K-lactate) and calcium ascorbate (Ca-ascorbate), on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low-sodium frankfurter sausage (1.2% content of NaCl). Sausages produced with 40% substitution of NaCl with combined K-lactate and Ca-ascorbate showed a higher value of lightness (P<0.001) than sausages containing 2.0% content of NaCl (control). However, the sensory panels were unable to distinguish a difference in color intensity between the control and treatment groups. Frankfurter sausages produced with 30% K-lactate and 10% Ca-ascorbate exhibited similar water-holding capacity, textural properties, and organoleptic characteristics (P>0.05) when compared to control sausages. Thus, the use of these salt mixtures is a good way to reduce the NaCl content in meat products while maintaining the quality of meat products. These results may be useful in developing low-sodium meat products.

  6. Virulence for mice, resistance to synthetic gastric fluid, and biofilm formation of Listeria monocytogenes H7550, a serotype 4b strain isolated from frankfurters associated with the BilMar listeriosis outbreak

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Introduction: One of the largest and most severe listeriosis outbreaks in the United States occurred in 1998 as a result of contamination of frankfurters with a serotype 4b strain of Listeria monocytogenes. However, there has been little characterization of the virulence attributes of strains reta...

  7. [Oral health hygiene education programme for nursing personnel to improve oral health of residents in long-term care facilities 2010 in Frankfurt/Main, Germany].

    PubMed

    Czarkowski, G; Allroggen, S; Köster-Schmidt, A; Bausback-Schomakers, S; Frank, M; Heudorf, U

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have shown the urgent need for improving oral health hygiene in nursing home residents. Deficits in the knowledge of the personnel about dental and oral hygiene are often cited as one of the causes. Therefore, an oral health education programme was provided to the personnel of 20 nursing homes in Frankfurt/Main. Here the results of the assessment of the impact of the education programme on knowledge and attitudes of the personnel as well as on oral health of the residents are presented. In May/June 2010, 471 nurses in 20 nursing homes in the Frankfurt/Main, Germany, received a two-hour education programme on oral health. The lessons were held by dentists with special education in geriatric dentistry. The personnel were asked to complete a questionnaire regarding knowledge and attitudes on oral health care before the education programme and 4-6 months afterwards. The oral health status of 313 residents (i. e., about 10% of the total residents) was examined by two dentists. Before and 4-6 months after education of the caregivers, the following data were recorded in the residents: number of teeth, caries, plaque index (PI), sulcus bleeding index (SBI), community periodontal index of treatment needs (CPITN) and denture hygiene index (DHI). By attending the lessons, good improvements in knowledge of the caregivers could be obtained. The education programme was rated as very good/good by 85% of the nurses, having reduced their fear of oral care in the seniors and having gained more competence in practical oral hygiene procedures. Mean age of the residents was 80±13 years. About 32% of the residents were edentulous. Teeth were carious in 53% of the residents. Initially, one half of the residents exhibited plaque index>2, in 29% of the residents a severe and in 59% of them a very severe parodontitis was found (CPITN 3 or, respectively, 4). At 4-6 months after the education programme, an improvement in oral and dental hygiene of the residents could be

  8. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of whey protein isolate coating incorporated with nisin, grape seed extract, malic acid, and EDTA on a Turkey frankfurter system.

    PubMed

    Gadang, V P; Hettiarachchy, N S; Johnson, M G; Owens, C

    2008-10-01

    The effectiveness of whey protein isolate (WPI) coatings incorporated with grape seed extract (GSE), nisin (N), malic acid (MA), and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) and their combinations to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7, and Salmonella typhimurium were evaluated in a turkey frankfurter system through surface inoculation (approximately 10(6) CFU/g) of pathogens. The inoculated frankfurters were dipped into WPI film forming solutions both with and without the addition of antimicrobial agents (GSE, MA, or N and EDTA, or combinations). Samples were stored at 4 degrees C for 28 d. The L. monocytogenes population (5.5 log/g) decreased to 2.3 log/g after 28 d at 4 degrees C in the samples containing nisin (6000 IU/g) combined with GSE (0.5%) and MA (1.0%). The S. typhimurium population (6.0 log/g) was decreased to approximately 1 log cycles after 28 d at 4 degrees C in the samples coated with WPI containing a combination of N, MA, GSE, and EDTA. The E. coli O157:H7 population (6.15 log/g) was decreased by 4.6 log cycles after 28 d in samples containing WPI coating incorporated with N, MA, and EDTA. These findings demonstrated that the use of an edible film coating containing nisin, organic acids, and natural extracts is a promising means of controlling the growth and recontamination of L. monocytogenes, S. typhimurium, and E. coli O157:H7 in ready-to-eat poultry products.

  9. A high intensity 200 mA proton source for the FRANZ-Project (Frankfurt-Neutron-Source at the Stern-Gerlach-Center)

    SciTech Connect

    Schweizer, W. Ratzinger, U.; Klump, B.; Volk, K.

    2014-02-15

    At the University of Frankfurt a high current proton source has been developed and tested for the FRANZ-Project [U. Ratzinger, L. P. Chau, O. Meusel, A. Schempp, K. Volk, M. Heil, F. Käppeler, and R. Stieglitz, “Intense pulsed neutron source FRANZ in the 1–500 keV range,” ICANS-XVIII Proceedings, Dongguan, April 2007, p. 210]. The ion source is a filament driven arc discharge ion source. The new design consists of a plasma generator, equipped with a filter magnet to produce nearly pure proton beams (92 %), and a compact triode extraction system. The beam current density has been enhanced up to 521 mA/cm{sup 2}. Using an emission opening radius of 4 mm, a proton beam current of 240 mA at 50 keV beam energy in continuous wave mode (cw) has been extracted. This paper will present the current status of the proton source including experimental results of detailed investigations of the beam composition in dependence of different plasma parameters. Both, cw and pulsed mode were studied. Furthermore, the performance of the ion source was studied with deuterium as working gas.

  10. Responses in the growth of the northern forest biomes to a CO{sub 2}-induced climatic change, as evaluated by the Frankfurt Biosphere Model (FBM)

    SciTech Connect

    Hager, C.; Wurth, G.; Wagner, U.; Kohlmaier, G.H.

    1996-12-31

    The Frankfurt Biosphere Model (FBM), a mechanistic, seasonal and prognostic compartment model of the terrestrial biosphere, has been developed in recent years to simulate the carbon exchange fluxes between the vegetation and the atmosphere with a spatial resolution of 0.5{degree} x 0.5{degree} on a global scale. In this contribution the authors use the FBM to assess the possible changes in the transient response of the northern forest biomes under a future 2 {times} CO{sub 2} climate. The development of these ecosystems from its initial seedling state to its climax state is simulated under different climatic conditions. In their simulations the 2 {times} CO{sub 2} climate provided by the GCM of the MPI fuer Meteorologie in Hamburg (ECHAM) is used. The differences in vegetation`s growth under contemporary and future climate can be assessed by performing two model runs with the same parameterization but with different driving climatic variables for each vegetation type and location.

  11. A high intensity 200 mA proton source for the FRANZ-Project (Frankfurt-Neutron-Source at the Stern-Gerlach-Center).

    PubMed

    Schweizer, W; Ratzinger, U; Klump, B; Volk, K

    2014-02-01

    At the University of Frankfurt a high current proton source has been developed and tested for the FRANZ-Project [U. Ratzinger, L. P. Chau, O. Meusel, A. Schempp, K. Volk, M. Heil, F. Käppeler, and R. Stieglitz, "Intense pulsed neutron source FRANZ in the 1-500 keV range," ICANS-XVIII Proceedings, Dongguan, April 2007, p. 210]. The ion source is a filament driven arc discharge ion source. The new design consists of a plasma generator, equipped with a filter magnet to produce nearly pure proton beams (92 %), and a compact triode extraction system. The beam current density has been enhanced up to 521 mA/cm(2). Using an emission opening radius of 4 mm, a proton beam current of 240 mA at 50 keV beam energy in continuous wave mode (cw) has been extracted. This paper will present the current status of the proton source including experimental results of detailed investigations of the beam composition in dependence of different plasma parameters. Both, cw and pulsed mode were studied. Furthermore, the performance of the ion source was studied with deuterium as working gas.

  12. Probabilistic models to describe the effect of NaNO2 in combination with NaCl on the growth inhibition of Lactobacillus in frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soomin; Lee, Heeyoung; Kim, Sejeong; Lee, Jeeyeon; Ha, Jimyeong; Gwak, Eunji; Oh, Mi-Hwa; Park, Beom-Young; Kim, Jin-Seok; Choi, Kyoung-Hee; Yoon, Yohan

    2015-12-01

    Probabilistic models were developed to describe the antimicrobial effect of NaNO2 (0-210 ppm) in combination with NaCl (0-1.75%) on Lactobacillus growth under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Growth (1) or no growth (0) was assessed every 24h as turbid or not turbid, respectively. The growth response data were analyzed by logistic regression to select significant variables (P<0.05) for Lactobacillus growth inhibition, and these variables were used to generate a probabilistic model. The model was then validated with observed data from frankfurters (a model system). NaNO2 and NaCl inhibited (P<0.05) Lactobacillus growth at all temperatures under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, and the antimicrobial effect of NaNO2 increased as the NaCl concentration increased. Validation showed that the performance of the developed model was appropriate. These results indicate that the models developed in this study should be useful for describing the antimicrobial effect of NaNO2 in combination with NaCl on Lactobacillus.

  13. Sodium nitrite and sorbic acid effects on Clostridium botulinum spore germination and total microbial growth in chicken frankfurter emulsions during temperature abuse.

    PubMed Central

    Sofos, J N; Busta, F F; Allen, C E

    1979-01-01

    Samples of (i) a control or of (ii) sodium nitrite-containing or (iii) sorbic acid-containing, mechanically deboned chicken meat frankfurter-type emulsions inoculated with Clostridium botulinum spores, or a combination of ii and iii, were temperature abuse at 27 degrees C. Spore germination and total microbial growth were followed and examined at specified times and until toxic samples were detected. The spores germinated within 3 days in both control and nitrite (20, 40 and 156 micrograms/g) treatments. Sorbic acid (0.2%) alone or in combination with nitrite (20, 40, and 156 micrograms/g) significantly (P less than 0.05) inhibited spore germinations. No significant germination was recorded until toxic samples were detected. A much longer incubation period was necessary for toxin to be formed in nitrite-sorbic acid combination treatments as contrasted with controls or nitrite and sorbic acid used individually. Total growth was not affected by the presence of nitrite, whereas sorbic acid appeared to depress it. Possible mechanisms explaining the effects of nitrite and sorbic acid on spore germination and growth are postulated. PMID:384904

  14. Degradation of PCBs in a frankfurter-type meat emulsion: effects of a meat starter, its proteins extract and thermal treatments.

    PubMed

    Lušnic, M; Polak, T; Gašperlin, L; Absec, A; Kirinčič, S; Kozolc, B; Žlender, B

    2012-08-01

    The degradation of a series of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (PCBs 10, 28, 52, 138, 153, 180) in meat emulsions of a frankfurter type was investigated. With a pool of these PCBs added to the meat emulsion, three initial experimental groups were used: no further addition, or plus a commercial meat starter (containing Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus carnosus), or plus the protein extract from this commercial meat starter. Prior to further treatments, these samples were incubated for 72 h at 4°C. These meat emulsions were then either left at 4 °C (raw) or thermally treated to two different internal temperatures: 78 and 100 °C. Following cooling and a further 24 h at 4 °C, all of the samples were extracted with hexane to recover the PCB residues, following method EPA 608, with some modifications. The addition into the meat emulsion of the commercial meat starter and the proteins extract both affected PCB degradation. Also, the effects of thermal treatment at both temperatures saw the PCB contents successfully reduced, as compared to the raw meat emulsions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of a metal-dielectric structure introduced in the plasma chamber of the Frankfurt 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schächter, L.; Stiebing, K. E.; Dobrescu, S.; Badescu-Singureanu, Al. I.; Schmidt, L.; Hohn, O.; Runkel, S.

    1999-02-01

    A new approach of the possibility to significantly increase the high charge state ion beams delivered by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) ion sources by using metal-dielectric (MD) structures characterized by high secondary electron emission properties is presented. The intensities of argon ion beams extracted from the 14 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source of the Institut für Kernphysik (IKF) der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität in Frankfurt/Main were measured when a 26 mm diam disk of a specially treated MD structure (Al-Al2O3) was introduced axially close to the ECR plasma. The Ar beam intensities and charge-state distributions obtained with this disk are compared to measurements with disks of iron and pure aluminum at the same position relative to the plasma. All measurements were performed with the disk at the plasma chamber potential. The results with the MD structure show a net shift of the beam intensity towards higher charge states as compared with the other disk materials. Enhancement factors of the beam current of up to 10 (for Ar12+) when using a MD disk compared to the output when using an aluminum disk and up to 40 (for Ar11+) when using an iron disk were measured.

  16. Effect of the partial replacement of pork backfat by microencapsulated fish oil or mixed fish and olive oil on the quality of frankfurter type sausage.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Rubén; Pateiro, Mirian; Agregán, Rubén; Lorenzo, José M

    2017-01-01

    Frankfurter sausages were reformulated to produce better lipid compositions by replacing the pork backfat by healthy oils. Sausages in, three different batches were manufactured: control (CO) with 100% of pork backfat, and modified sausages where the pork backfat was replaced with 50% by microencapsulated fish oil (ME) and by unencapsulated olive and fish oil mixture (OM). The ME treatments showed the lowest pH, fat and energy values and the highest protein and carbohydrates levels. The fat replacement by oils significantly (P < 0.05) affected to color parameters, since the ME batches presented the highest L* and b* values, whereas the OM treatments showed the highest values of a* values. As expected, the replacement of backfat by oils also greatly modified the fatty acids profile, since the OM group had the highest MUFA and n-3 PUFA contents. The microencapsulation process significantly (P < 0.001) increased the lipid oxidation. The ME batch presented the highest TBARS values and volatile compounds derivate from lipid oxidation, while the OM treatment showed the same lipid oxidation rate as CO group.

  17. Double Gene Targeting Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism Assay Discriminates Beef, Buffalo, and Pork Substitution in Frankfurter Products.

    PubMed

    Hossain, M A Motalib; Ali, Md Eaqub; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee; Asing; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Mohd Desa, Mohd Nasir; Zaidul, I S M

    2016-08-17

    Beef, buffalo, and pork adulteration in the food chain is an emerging and sensitive issue. Current molecular techniques to authenticate these species depend on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays involving long and single targets which break down under natural decomposition and/or processing treatments. This novel multiplex polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay targeted two different gene sites for each of the bovine, buffalo, and porcine materials. This authentication ensured better security, first through a complementation approach because it is highly unlikely that both sites will be missing under compromised states, and second through molecular fingerprints. Mitochondrial cytochrome b and ND5 genes were targeted, and all targets (73, 90, 106, 120, 138, and 146 bp) were stable under extreme boiling and autoclaving treatments. Target specificity and authenticity were ensured through cross-amplification reaction and restriction digestion of PCR products with AluI, EciI, FatI, and CviKI-1 enzymes. A survey of Malaysian frankfurter products revealed rampant substitution of beef with buffalo but purity in porcine materials.

  18. Duplex real-time PCR assay using SYBR Green to detect and quantify Malayan box turtle (Cuora amboinensis) materials in meatballs, burgers, frankfurters and traditional Chinese herbal jelly powder.

    PubMed

    Asing; Ali, Eaqub; Hamid, Sharifah Bee Abd; Hossain, Motalib; Ahamad, Mohammad Nasir Uddin; Hossain, S M Azad; Naquiah, Nina; Zaidul, I S M

    2016-11-01

    The Malayan box turtle (Cuora amboinensis) (MBT) is a vulnerable and protected species widely used in exotic foods and traditional medicines. Currently available polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays to identify MBT lack automation and involve long targets which break down in processed or denatured tissue. This SYBR Green duplex real-time PCR assay has addressed this research gap for the first time through the combination of 120- and 141-bp targets from MBT and eukaryotes for the quantitative detection of MBT DNA in food chain and herbal medicinal preparations. This authentication ensures better security through automation, internal control and short targets that were stable under the processing treatments of foods and medicines. A melting curve clearly demonstrated two peaks at 74.63 ± 0.22 and 78.40 ± 0.31°C for the MBT and eukaryotic products, respectively, under pure, admixed and commercial food matrices. Analysis of 125 reference samples reflected a target recovery of 93.25-153.00%, PCR efficiency of 99-100% and limit of detection of 0.001% under various matrices. The quantification limits were 0.00001, 0.00170 ± 0.00012, 0.00228 ± 0.00029, 0.00198 ± 0.00036 and 0.00191 ± 0.00043 ng DNA for the pure meat, binary mixtures, meatball, burger and frankfurter products, respectively. The assay was used to screen 100 commercial samples of traditional Chinese herbal jelly powder from eight different brands; 22% of them were found to be MBT-positive (5.37 ± 0.50-7.00 ± 0.34% w/w), which was reflected through the Ct values (26.37 ± 0.32-28.90 ± 0.42) and melting curves (74.63-78.65 ± 0.22°C) of the amplified MBT target (120 bp), confirming the speculation that MBT materials are widely used in Chinese herbal desserts, exotic dishes consumed with the hope of prolonging life and youth.

  19. Prediction of stainless steel activation in experimental breeder reactor 2 (EBR-II) reflector and blanket subassemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Bunde, K.A.

    1996-12-31

    Stainless steel structural components in nuclear reactors become radioactive wastes when no longer useful. Prior to disposal, certain physical attributes must be analyzed. These attributes include structural integrity, chemical stability, and the radioactive material content among others. The focus of this work is the estimation of the radioactive material content of stainless steel wastes from a research reactor operated by Argonne National Laboratory.

  20. [Particulate matter in classrooms--problem and the impact of cleaning and ventilation with the City of Frankfurt am Main as an example].

    PubMed

    Heudorf, U

    2008-04-01

    Indoor air quality in schools, especially the levels of particulate matter in classrooms, have become a matter of great public concern in Germany, Convenient recommendations to improve the hygienic situation in classrooms via cleaning and ventilation are often not followed. Here, data on particulate matter in the indoor air of classrooms, before and after intensified cleaning, are reported. In the winter of 2006, analyses for particulate matter were done in two primary schools in Frankfurt/M, one of them located in a rural area the other one in an inner city area of Frankfurt/M. Particulate matter (PM10) was analysed by laser beam technology, the data documented every five minutes from 8 am to 2 pm. In parallel, a documentation of the number of persons present in the room, their activity and ventilation was done according to a standardised protocol. Measurements were collected for a period of three weeks. During the first week, the normal school situation was analysed, i.e., the classrooms were ventilated as usual and were cleaned by wet wiping twice a week. During the second and third weeks, the rooms were cleaned every day, so that the effect of intensified cleaning could be studied. In winter 2007, these measurements were continued for one week in two classrooms of a passive house school, following the identical study protocol. During the first week--wet cleaning twice a week--mean particulate concentrations of 86 microg/m3 (median 60 microg/m3) were obtained, during the 2nd and 3rd weeks--wet cleaning every school day mean concentrations of 60 microg/m3 (median 53 microg/m3)--with great differences on different days. Especially during and after handicraft (casting candles) lessons, maximum levels up to >1000 microg/m3 were analysed. Although an impact of cleaning on levels of indoor particles could be established, indoor PM10 levels were dominated by indoor factors, such as occupancy and activity of the persons in the room. After substraction of the outdoor PM

  1. [Cleaning and disinfection in nursing homes. Data on quality of structure, process and outcome in nursing homes in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, 2011].

    PubMed

    Heudorf, U; Gasteyer, S; Samoiski, Y; Voigt, K

    2012-08-01

    Due to the Infectious Disease Prevention Act, public health services in Germany are obliged to check the infection prevention in hospitals and other medical facilities as well as in nursing homes. In Frankfurt/Main, Germany, standardized control visits have been performed for many years. In 2011 focus was laid on cleaning and disinfection of surfaces. All 41 nursing homes were checked according to a standardized checklist covering quality of structure (i.e. staffing, hygiene concept), quality of process (observation of the cleaning processes in the homes) and quality of output, which was monitored by checking the cleaning of fluorescent marks which had been applied some days before and should have been removed via cleaning in the following days before the final check. In more than two thirds of the homes, cleaning personnel were salaried, in one third external personnel were hired. Of the homes 85% provided service clothing and all of them offered protective clothing. All homes had established hygiene and cleaning concepts, however, in 15% of the homes concepts for the handling of Norovirus and in 30% concepts for the handling of Clostridium difficile were missing. Regarding process quality only half of the processes observed, i.e. cleaning of hand contact surfaces, such as handrails, washing areas and bins, were correct. Only 44% of the cleaning controls were correct with enormous differences between the homes (0-100%). The correlation between quality of process and quality of output was significant. There was good quality of structure in the homes but regarding quality of process and outcome there was great need for improvement. This was especially due to faults in communication and coordination between cleaning personnel and nursing personnel. Quality outcome was neither associated with the number of the places for residents nor with staffing. Thus, not only quality of structure but also quality of process and outcome should be checked by the public health

  2. Characterizing metal(loid) solubility in airborne PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 in Frankfurt, Germany using simulated lung fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Clare L. S.; Zereini, Fathi

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the solubility of traffic-related metal(loid)s associated with airborne PM of human health concern, employing a physiologically-based extraction test with simulated lung fluids (artificial lysosomal fluid (ALF) and Gamble's solution). Airborne PM (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) samples were collected in Frankfurt am Main, Germany, using a high volume sampler. Following extraction of the soluble metal(loid) fractions, sample filters were digested with a high pressure asher. Metal(loid) concentrations (As, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Ti and V) were determined in extracts and digests per ICP-Q-MS. All metal(loid)s occurred at detectable concentrations in the three airborne PM fractions. Copper was the most abundant element in mass terms, with mean concentrations of 105 and 53 ng/m3 in PM10 and PM2.5, respectively. Many of the metal(loid)s were observed to be soluble in simulated lung fluids, with Cu, As, V and Sb demonstrating the highest overall mobility in airborne PM. For instance, all four elements associated with PM10 had a solubility of >80% in ALF (24 h). Clearly, solubility is strongly pH dependent, as reflected by the higher relative mobility of samples extracted with the acidic ALF. Given their demonstrated solubility, this study provides indirect evidence that a number of toxic metal(loid)s are likely to possess an enhanced pulmonary toxic potential upon their inhalation. The co-presence of many toxic elements of concern in airborne PM suggests an assessment of health risk must consider the possible interactive impacts of multi-element exposures.

  3. Thermal tolerance of O157 and non-O157 Shiga toxigenic strains of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and potential pathogen surrogates, in frankfurter batter and ground beef of varying fat levels.

    PubMed

    Vasan, Akhila; Geier, Renae; Ingham, Steve C; Ingham, Barbara H

    2014-09-01

    The non-O157 Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) serogroups most commonly associated with illness are O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145. We compared the thermal tolerance (D55°C) of three or more strains of each of these six non-O157 STEC serogroups with five strains of O157:H7 STEC in 7% fat ground beef. D55°C was also determined for at least one heat-tolerant STEC strain per serogroup in 15 and 27% fat ground beef. D55°C of single-pathogen cocktails of O157 and non-O157 STEC, Salmonella, and potential pathogen surrogates, Pediococcus acidilactici and Staphylococcus carnosus, was determined in 7, 15, and 27% fat ground beef and in frankfurter batter. Samples (25 g) were heated for up to 120 min at 55°C, survivors were enumerated, and log CFU per gram was plotted versus time. There were significant differences in D55°C across all STEC strains heated in 7% fat ground beef (P < 0.05), but no non-O157 STEC strain had D55°C greater than the range observed for O157 STEC. D55°C was significantly different for strains within serogroups O45, O145, and O157 (P < 0.05). D55°C for non-O157 STEC strains in 15 and 27% fat ground beef were less than or equal to the range of D55°C for O157. D55°C for pathogen cocktails was not significantly different when measured in 7, 15, and 27% fat ground beef (P ≥ 0.05). D55°C of Salmonella in frankfurter batter was significantly less than for O157 and non-O157 STEC (P < 0.05). Thermal tolerance of pathogen cocktails in ground beef (7, 15, or 27% fat) and frankfurter batter was significantly less than for potential pathogen surrogates (P < 0.05). Results suggest that thermal processes in beef validated against E. coli O157:H7 have adequate lethality against non-O157 STEC, that thermal processes that target Salmonella destruction may not be adequate against STEC in some situations, and that the use of pathogen surrogates P. acidilactici and S. carnosus to validate thermal processing interventions in ground beef and

  4. Corporate Regional Responsibility - Warum engagieren sich Unternehmen gemeinsam für ihre Region?. Motive der kollektiven regionalen Verantwortungsübernahme von Unternehmen an den Beispielen des Initiativkreises Ruhr und der Wirtschaftsinitiative FrankfurtRheinMain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiek, Meike

    2016-03-01

    Companies can voluntarily participate in matters of regional developments, thereby accepting responsibility on a regional level. Referring to the concept of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR), the term Corporate Regional Responsibility (CRR) is used to describe this behavior. Moreover, companies can form a CRR-corporation with other companies in order to take over a collective CRR. So far, the motives of companies for exercising collective CRR are unknown, thus, corporate resources can not be mobilized and utilized efficiently for regional developments. This article explores the subject of collective CRR and illustrates CRR motives using the example of the two CRR-cooperations Initiativkreis Ruhr and Wirtschaftsinitiative FrankfurtRheinMain.

  5. 'Two dead frankfurts and a blob of sauce': the serendipity of receiving nutrition and hydration in Australian residential aged care.

    PubMed

    Bernoth, Maree Anne; Dietsch, Elaine; Davies, Carmel

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the serendipity of residents accessing adequate food and fluids in aged care facilities. It draws on the findings of two discrete but interrelated research projects conducted in 2009 and 2011 relating to the experience of living in, or having a friend or family member living in, residential aged care. Participants were recruited through media outlets. Indepth interviews with participants were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and thematically analysed. This paper discusses a theme that was iterated by participants in both projects that is, the difficulty residents in aged care facilities experienced in receiving adequate and acceptable food and fluids. Unacceptable dining room experiences, poor quality food and excessive food hygiene regulations contributed to iatrogenic malnutrition and dehydration. Implications for staffing, clinical supervision, education of carers and the impact of negative attitudes to older people are discussed. The inability of dependent residents in aged care facilities to receive adequate nourishment and hydration impacts on their health and their rights as a resident, and is an ongoing issue in Australian residential aged care.

  6. In-situ NO and NO2 profiles measured onboard passenger aircraft over Frankfurt airport in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkes, Florian; Houben, Norbert; Blomel, Torben; Tappertzhofen, Marlon; Volz-Thomas, Andreas; Petzold, Andreas

    2017-04-01

    NOx (sum of NO and NO2) play a central role in atmospheric chemistry related to ozone and oxidation capacity (OH and NO3 radicals). The most important sources of NOx in the upper troposphere are lightning, and transport from the boundary layer (combustion processes, from biomass burning, agriculture, and industry/transport/aircraft emissions). In-situ measurements of NOx from the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) down to the surface are rare, but important for understanding the local photochemistry and for the assessment of the impact of aviation on the budgets of greenhouse gases such as ozone. The European Research Infrastructure IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System) operates a global-scale monitoring system for atmospheric temperature, trace gases, aerosols and clouds at high spatial resolution by passenger aircraft. The IAGOS NOx instrument is designed for the autonomous measurement of nitrogen oxides over serval months. The measurement principle is based on the well-established chemiluminescence technique, using one channel with sequential measurements of NO and NOx every 50 s. Here, we present vertical profiles of nitrogen oxides from the UTLS down to the surface for day and night time conditions obtained over 12 months in 2015 and 2016. The analysis focuses mainly on Europe, the region with the largest amount of profiles. Other regions (North America, South America and East Asia) will also be discussed. Typically, NO and NO2 varies in the low ppt range in the UT, slightly increasing towards the pressure altitude of 200 hPa. Down to the surface, the values of NO and of NO2 increase up to several ppb. These profiles combined with in-situ water vapor and cloud parameters will be valuable for validation of model and of satellite data in the future.

  7. Control of lightness and firmness of cold and reheated frankfurter-type sausages using different spectroscopic methods applied to raw batter.

    PubMed

    Egelandsdal, B; Dingstad, G I; Tøgersen, G; Hildrum, K I

    2007-03-01

    Muscle types and collagen, fat, and muscle protein minus collagen were varied in cooked frankfurter-type sausages made from beef and pork meat as well as pork backfat. The content of collagen was fixed at preset levels with pork rind. The amount of total muscle protein in the sausages varied between 5.9% and 11.9% and the fat between 16.1% and 22.1%. The collagen content varied between 1.3% and 4%. Spectroscopic measurements (near-infrared reflectance spectra 1100 to 2500 nm; front-face autofluorescence emission spectra 360 to 640 nm) on raw batters were used to predict the amounts of total muscle protein minus collagen, collagen, myoglobin, and fat (biochemical components), L* values from a Minolta chromameter, and firmness of cold (22 degrees C) and reheated sausages (60 degrees C). Lightness of sausages was most accurately determined from the batter data with a Minolta chromameter or the autofluorescence measurement system. Firmness of cold sausages could be described by the amounts of biochemical components plus the type of muscle used in the sausage. The 2nd-best approach was to use the shape of the near-infrared spectra to determine firmness. This was possible as the shape of near-infrared spectra depended on total protein content, and total protein content largely determined the firmness of cold sausages. If the sausages were reheated to 60 degrees C, near-infrared spectroscopy alone determined firmness of the sausages with a lower accuracy than a combined solution of fluorescence and near-infrared spectroscopy. The 2 spectroscopic techniques could thus be used to estimate the amount of biochemical components in sausages. Once these components were known, firmness could be calculated from a model between the amounts of biochemical components and firmness. For reheated sausages, as opposed to cold ones, there was a need to differentiate between collagen and the other muscle proteins in order to determine firmness. This was optimally achieved by using both

  8. [Amendments to the Drinking Water Ordinance: Legionellae in Hot Water Systems - Data from the Public Health Authority Frankfurt am Main, Germany].

    PubMed

    Westphal, T; Voigt, K; Heudorf, U

    2015-07-01

    The first and second amendment to the Drinking Water Ordinance came in to force in the years 2011 and 2012 causing additional tasks and responsibilities for operators of commercial large-scale systems, usually hot water systems in large residential buildings, and for the local health authorities. This article describes the experiences of the health authority in Frankfurt/Main with these new regulations. Some of the revisions in the first amendment of the ordinance (TrinkwV 2001 (2011)) were omitted in the second revision (TrinkwV 2001 (2012)) such as the obligation to notify for large-scale systems. Furthermore, the intervals between the obligatory inspections were extended from 1 to 3 years and merely exceedances of the legal limits were to be notified in contrast to the previous obligation to notify all values. On the basis of the TrinkwV 2001 (2011) a large additional staff requirement had been estimated (13/21 positions). After the TrinkwV 2001 (2012) the tasks can be accomplished by less than 2 employees. While the notification obligation was still in force, the health authority received 4,461 notifications of large-scale systems, since then a further 477 have been notified. Of a total of 1,335 initial analyses, 794 (60%) exceeded the technical action value and in 113 properties with values exceeding 10,000/100 ml a usage restriction was necessary. Due to the suspension of the notification obligation to report any result of the analyses performed the assessment of the reports on large-scale systems has become difficult. An appropriate assessment of the implementation of the regulation is not possible, since the total number of large-scale systems is not known and a failure to report may result from a measured value below the technical action value as well as from a not inspected system. The large number of usage restrictions is an indication for the necessity to inspect and if required to treat and restore the system. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart

  9. The Frankfurt neutron source FRANZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alzubaidi, Suha; Bartz, Ulrich; Basten, Markus; Bechtold, Alexander; Chau, Long Phi; Claessens, Christine; Dinter, Hannes; Droba, Martin; Fix, Christopher; Hähnel, Hendrik; Heilmann, Manuel; Hinrichs, Ole; Huneck, Simon; Klump, Batu; Lotz, Marcel; Mäder, Dominik; Meusel, Oliver; Noll, Daniel; Nowottnick, Tobias; Obermayer, Marcus; Payir, Onur; Petry, Nils; Podlech, Holger; Ratzinger, Ulrich; Schempp, Alwin; Schmidt, Stefan; Schneider, Philipp; Seibel, Anja; Schwarz, Malte; Schweizer, Waldemar; Volk, Klaus; Wagner, Christopher; Wiesner, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    A 2MeV proton beam will produce a quasi-Maxwellian neutron spectrum of around 30 keV by the 7Li(p, n)7Be reaction. The experiments are mainly focused on the measurement of differential neutron capture cross sections relevant for the astrophysical s-process in nuclear synthesis. Moreover, proton capture cross sections for the astrophysical p-process can be measured directly with the proton beam. For an efficient time of flight measurement of the neutron energies along the 0.7 m long drift from the Li-target to the sample, 1ns short, intense proton pulses are needed at the target. Additionally, to reach 107 n/cm2/s at the sample, a pulse repetition rate of 250 kHz is intended. After completion and successful running in, FRANZ will become a user facility with internal and external users. The 120 kV injector terminal and the 200mA proton source as well as the low-energy beam transport section and the FRANZ cave have been realized successfully. The 1.9 MV RF accelerator consists of a combined 4-Rod-RFQ/IH-DTL-resonator and is in the RF tuning and power testing phase. The 2 MeV transport and rebuncher section is ready for installation. In a first step FRANZ will offer experimental areas for neutron activation experiments and for proton beam experiments, as mentioned above. From the accelerator physics point of view, FRANZ will be an excellent facility for high current beam investigations and for beam wall interaction studies.

  10. Characterising tropospheric O3 and CO around Frankfurt over the period 1994-2012 based on MOZAIC-IAGOS aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petetin, Hervé; Thouret, Valérie; Fontaine, Alain; Sauvage, Bastien; Athier, Giles; Blot, Romain; Boulanger, Damien; Cousin, Jean-Marc; Nédélec, Philippe

    2016-12-01

    In the framework of the MOZAIC-IAGOS programme, vertical profiles of ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) have been available since 1994 and 2002, respectively. This study investigates the variability and trend of both species in three tropospheric layers above the German airports Frankfurt and Munich. About 21 300 flights have taken place over the period 1994-2012, which represents the worldwide densest vertical in situ data set of O3 and CO (with ˜ 96 flights per month on average). The mean vertical profile of ozone shows a strong gradient in the first kilometre during the whole year and in the tropopause region in spring and summer. The mean vertical profile of CO is characterised by high mixing ratios at the ground, a strong decrease in the first kilometre, in particular in winter and autumn, and a moderate one in the free troposphere. O3 minimises in November-December and shows a broad spring/summer maximum in the lower and mid-troposphere and a sharp maximum in summer in the upper troposphere. The seasonal variation of CO shows a broad minimum in July-October close to the surface and in September-October it occurs higher in the troposphere, while the maximum occurs in February-April in the whole troposphere. Over the period 1994-2012, O3 has changed insignificantly (at a 95 % confidence level), except in winter where a slightly significant increase (from +0.83 [+0.13;+1.67] % yr-1 in the LT to +0.62 [+0.02;+1.22] % yr-1 in the UT, relative to the reference year 2000) is found. The O3 5th percentile shows similar upward trends at the annual scale in all three tropospheric layers. All trends remain insignificant for the O3 95th percentile. In contrast, for CO the mean as well as its 5th and 95th percentiles decrease both at the annual scale and at the seasonal scale in winter, spring and summer (although not always in all three tropospheric layers) with trends ranging between -1.22 [-2.27;-0.47] and -2.63 [-4.54;-1.42] % yr-1, relative to the reference year

  11. Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathematics Teaching, 1973

    1973-01-01

    Implications for teachers from Piagetian-oriented piagetian-oriented research on problem solving reported in an article by Eleanor Duckworth are presented. Edward de Bono's Children Solve Problems,'' a collection of examples, is also discussed. (MS)

  12. Prevention and control of catheter-associated urinary tract infections - implementation of the recommendations of the Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO) in nursing homes for the elderly in Frankfurt am Main, Germany.

    PubMed

    Heudorf, Ursel; Gasteyer, Stefanie; Müller, Maria; Samoiski, Yvonne; Serra, Nicole; Westphal, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Ziel: Nicht nur in Krankenhäusern, auch in Altenpflegeheimen zählen Harnwegsinfektionen zu den häufigsten nosokomialen Infektionen der Bewohner. Das größte Risiko für eine Harnwegsinfektion sind Harnwegskatheter. In den Empfehlungen „Infektionsprävention in Heimen“ (2005) und „Prävention und Kontrolle Katheter-assoziierter Harnwegsinfektionen“ (2015) hat die Kommission für Krankenhaushygiene und Infektionsprävention (KRINKO) geeignete Präventionsmaßnahmen empfohlen. Im Jahr 2015 wurde in allen Frankfurter Altenpflegeheimen die Umsetzung dieser KRINKO-Empfehlungen untersucht.Methode: Alle 40 Altenpflegeheime wurden anhand einer auf Grundlage dieser Empfehlungen erstellten Checkliste überprüft. Neben allgemeinen Arbeitsanweisungen, Indikationen etc. wurden bei allen Bewohnern mit Katheter Alter, Geschlecht, die Liegedauer des Katheters und Harnwegsinfekte aktuell und in den letzten 6 Monaten erfragt.Ergebnisse: In 35 (87,5%) der Altenpflegeheime lagen Arbeitsanweisungen zum Umgang mit Harnwegskathetern vor. Die Indikation für einen Harnwegskatheter wird von Ärzten gestellt, das Legen des Katheters wird häufig an den Pflegedienst delegiert; in aller Regel werden Silikonkatheter gelegt. In drei Viertel der Heime wurden feste Intervalle zum Katheterwechsel von 4–6 Wochen angegeben. Am jeweiligen Erhebungstag waren 7,3% der Bewohner mit einem Katheter versorgt. 3,6% (4,2%) von ihnen hatten am Erhebungstag, insgesamt 28% (28,9%) von ihnen in den vorangegangenen 6 Monaten eine Harnwegsinfektion (Prävalenz der Antibiotikatherapie in Klammern). Ciprofloxacin wurde am häufigsten eingesetzt, gefolgt von Cefuroxim und Cotrimoxazol.Diskussion: Bei der aktuellen Erhebung waren weniger Altenpflegeheimbewohner in Frankfurt mit Harnwegskathetern versorgt als in früheren Jahren und die Rate der Harnwegsinfektionen war niedrig. Dies spricht für einen zunehmend zurückhaltenderen und offenbar weitgehend sachgerechten Umgang mit Harnwegskathetern. Auch die

  13. [Self-rating scales in schizophrenia: validity assessment of the Paranoid-Depression Scale (PD-S), the Frankfurt Self-feeling Scale (FBS) and of two visual analogy scales].

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Ewa; Wciórka, Jacek

    2003-01-01

    To assess the validity of the Paranoid-Depressivity Scale (PD-S, Paranoid-Depresivitäts-Skala), the Frankfurt Self-feeling Scale (FBS, Frankfurter Befindlichkeitsskala), and of two visual analogy scales: the Sense of Illness Scale (WAC) and the Self-feeling Scale (WAS). 210 patients with schizophrenia of various clinical courses. Diagnostic validity was evaluated by comparing the results of self-rating with clinical assessment using the CGI, KOSS-C, BPRS, and KOSS-W scales. Content validity was evaluated by analysis of the results' correlation with given clinical and social-demographic variables. Theoretical (construct) validity was evaluated through factorial analysis with Varimax rotation of the principal elements. The correlation between the self-rating scales and the clinical assessment scales was moderate in the case of questionnaire scales and low for the visual analogy scales. Scales of a similar type were found to correlate to a very high degree. Correlation with clinical assessment depended significantly on the phase and degree of disorder--it was lower in periods of exacerbation and higher during remission. The results of the complex questionnaire scales en somme, correlate better with symptoms considered as typical for schizophrenia, than with others, whereas the isolated self-rating constructs (paranoid, depressive) correlate well with the appropriate dimensions of clinical assessment. There was no significant correlation between the clinical symptoms and dimensions, and the results of self-rating using the two visual analogy scales. Factorial analysis revealed that the internal structure of the basic constructs of the questionnaire scales (general attitude, mood, self-feeling) was based on a very rational concept, as well as the fact that the factors isolated have a rational foundation within the theoretical and clinical picture of schizophrenic disorders. The validity of self-rating scales remains a complex question; analysis of diagnostic, content

  14. Final results of a single institution experience with a pediatric-based regimen, the augmented Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster, in adolescents and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and comparison to the hyper-CVAD regimen.

    PubMed

    Rytting, Michael E; Jabbour, Elias J; Jorgensen, Jeffrey L; Ravandi, Farhad; Franklin, Anna R; Kadia, Tapan M; Pemmaraju, Naveen; Daver, Naval G; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Konopleva, Marina Y; Borthakur, Gautam; Garris, Rebecca; Wang, Sa; Pierce, Sherry; Schroeder, Kurt; Kornblau, Steven M; Thomas, Deborah A; Cortes, Jorge E; O'Brien, Susan M; Kantarjian, Hagop M

    2016-08-01

    Several studies reported improved outcomes of adolescents and young adults (AYA) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) treated with pediatric-based ALL regimens. This prompted the prospective investigation of a pediatric Augmented Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (ABFM) regimen, and its comparison with hyper-fractionated cyclophosphamide, vincristine, Adriamycin, and dexamethasone (hyper-CVAD) in AYA patients. One hundred and six AYA patients (median age 22 years) with Philadelphia chromosome- (Ph) negative ALL received ABFM from October 2006 through March 2014. Their outcome was compared to 102 AYA patients (median age 27 years), treated with hyper-CVAD at our institution. The complete remission (CR) rate was 93% with ABFM and 98% with hyper-CVAD. The 5-year complete remission duration (CRD) were 53 and 55%, respectively (P = 0.98). The 5-year overall survival (OS) rates were 60 and 60%, respectively. The MRD status on Day 29 and Day 84 of therapy was predictive of long-term outcomes on both ABFM and hyper-CVAD. Severe regimen toxicities with ABFM included hepatotoxicity in 41%, pancreatitis in 11%, osteonecrosis in 9%, and thrombosis in 19%. Myelosuppression-associated complications were most significant with hyper-CVAD. In summary, ABFM and hyper-CVAD resulted in similar efficacy outcomes, but were associated with different toxicity profiles, asparaginase-related with ABFM and myelosuppression-related with hyper-CVAD. Am. J. Hematol. 91:819-823, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Pediatric acute myeloid leukemia with t(8;16)(p11;p13), a distinct clinical and biological entity: a collaborative study by the International-Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster AML-study group

    PubMed Central

    Coenen, Eva A.; Zwaan, C. Michel; Reinhardt, Dirk; Harrison, Christine J.; Haas, Oskar A.; de Haas, Valerie; Mihál, Vladimir; De Moerloose, Barbara; Jeison, Marta; Rubnitz, Jeffrey E.; Tomizawa, Daisuke; Johnston, Donna; Alonzo, Todd A.; Hasle, Henrik; Auvrignon, Anne; Dworzak, Michael; Pession, Andrea; van der Velden, Vincent H. J.; Swansbury, John; Wong, Kit-fai; Terui, Kiminori; Savasan, Sureyya; Winstanley, Mark; Vaitkeviciene, Goda; Zimmermann, Martin; Pieters, Rob; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.

    2013-01-01

    In pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML), cytogenetic abnormalities are strong indicators of prognosis. Some recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities, such as t(8;16)(p11;p13), are so rare that collaborative studies are required to define their prognostic impact. We collected the clinical characteristics, morphology, and immunophenotypes of 62 pediatric AML patients with t(8;16)(p11;p13) from 18 countries participating in the International Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (I-BFM) AML study group. We used the AML-BFM cohort diagnosed from 1995-2005 (n = 543) as a reference cohort. Median age of the pediatric t(8;16)(p11;p13) AML patients was significantly lower (1.2 years). The majority (97%) had M4-M5 French-American-British type, significantly different from the reference cohort. Erythrophagocytosis (70%), leukemia cutis (58%), and disseminated intravascular coagulation (39%) occurred frequently. Strikingly, spontaneous remissions occurred in 7 neonates with t(8;16)(p11;p13), of whom 3 remain in continuous remission. The 5-year overall survival of patients diagnosed after 1993 was 59%, similar to the reference cohort (P = .14). Gene expression profiles of t(8;16)(p11;p13) pediatric AML cases clustered close to, but distinct from, MLL-rearranged AML. Highly expressed genes included HOXA11, HOXA10, RET, PERP, and GGA2. In conclusion, pediatric t(8;16)(p11;p13) AML is a rare entity defined by a unique gene expression signature and distinct clinical features in whom spontaneous remissions occur in a subset of neonatal cases. PMID:23974201

  16. Implementation of the updated 2015 Commission for Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO) recommendations "Prevention and control of catheter-associated urinary tract infections" in the hospitals in Frankfurt/Main, Germany.

    PubMed

    Heudorf, Ursel; Grünewald, Miriam; Otto, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Ziel: Zur Prävention von Katheter-assoziierten Harnwegsinfektionen hat die Kommission für Krankenhaushygiene und Infektionsprävention (KRINKO) im Jahr 2015 neue Empfehlungen publiziert. In diesem Beitrag wird über die Umsetzung dieser Empfehlungen in Frankfurter Krankenhäusern im Herbst 2015 berichtet.Material und Methode: In jedem der 17 Krankenhäuser der Stadt fanden auf jeweils zwei peripheren Stationen (keine Intensivstationen) anhand einer auf Grundlage der neuen KRINKO-Empfehlung erarbeiteten Checkliste Überprüfungen statt, in einer großen Klinik wurden insgesamt 5 Stationen überprüft. Die Überprüfung umfasste die Struktur- und Prozessqualität (Arbeitsanweisungen, Schulungen, Indikation, das Legen und die Pflege von Kathetern) und die Demonstration des Legens eines Katheters an einem fiktiven Patienten oder einem Modell. Ergebnisse: Alle Stationen verfügten über einschlägige Arbeitsanweisungen, in etwa der Hälfte der Stationen fanden auch regelmäßige Schulungen statt. Die Indikationen entsprachen weitgehend den Empfehlungen der KRINKO. Alternativen zum Harnwegskatheter (HWK) waren vorhanden und wurden häufiger eingesetzt als Harnwegskatheter selbst (15,9% vs. 13,5%). Auf eine Antibiotika-Prophylaxe beim Legen des Katheters, die Instillationen antiseptischer oder antimikrobieller Substanzen oder Spülungen wurde in Übereinstimmung mit den Empfehlungen verzichtet. Auch die Demonstration des Katheter-Legens war fachgerecht. Verbesserungsbedarf wurde bei der Dokumentation der täglichen Überprüfung des Fortbestehens der Indikation für den HWK sowie bei dem „regelmäßigen“ Katheterwechsel gesehen. Schlussfolgerung: Insgesamt wurde eine gute Umsetzung der Empfehlungen der KRINKO zur Prävention von Katheter-assoziierten Harnwegsinfektionen vorgefunden. Es ist aber nicht auszuschließen, dass in Situationen mit Zeitdruck und bei Personalknappheit der Umgang mit Harnwegskathetern weniger positiv verläuft, als wie es im Rahmen der

  17. Role of cranial radiotherapy for childhood T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia with high WBC count and good response to prednisone. Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica and the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster groups.

    PubMed

    Conter, V; Schrappe, M; Aricó, M; Reiter, A; Rizzari, C; Dördelmann, M; Valsecchi, M G; Zimmermann, M; Ludwig, W D; Basso, G; Masera, G; Riehm, H

    1997-08-01

    The ALL-BFM 90 and AIEOP-ALL 91 studies share the same treatment backbone and have 5-year event-free survival (EFS) rates close to 75%. This study evaluated the impact of differing presymptomatic CNS therapies in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) patients with a good response to prednisone (PGR) according to WBC count and Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM) risk factor (RF). A total of 192 patients (141 boys; median age, 7.5 years) with T-ALL, PGR, RF less than 1.7, and no CNS leukemia diagnosed between 1990 and 1995 were enrolled onto the ALL-BFM 90 (n = 123) or AIEOP-ALL 91 (n = 69) study. Presymptomatic CNS therapy consisted of cranial radiation (CRT) and intrathecal methotrexate (I.T. MTX) (11 doses) in the BFM study and of extended triple intrathecal therapy (T.I.T.) (17 doses) in the Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP) study. Patients were divided into a low-WBC group (WBC count < 100,000/microL) and a high-WBC group (WBC count > 100,000/microL). EFS was compared using the log-rank test. For patients treated with CRT and I.T. MTX (BFM group), the 3-year EFS rate was 89.8% (SE = 3.5) for 99 patients in the low-WBC group versus 81.9% (SE = 8.2) in the high-WBC group (difference not significant). Conversely, for patients treated with T.I.T. alone (AIEOP group), the EFS rate was 80.6% (SE = 5.6) in 55 patients with a low WBC count versus 17.9% (SE = 11.0) in 14 patients with a high WBC count (P < .001). These data suggest that CRT may not be necessary in PGR T-ALL patients with a WBC count less than 100,000/microL; on the contrary, in patients with a high count, extended T.I.T. may be inferior to CRT and I.T. MTX.

  18. Extended intrathecal methotrexate may replace cranial irradiation for prevention of CNS relapse in children with intermediate-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster-based intensive chemotherapy. The Associazione Italiana di Ematologia ed Oncologia Pediatrica.

    PubMed

    Conter, V; Aricò, M; Valsecchi, M G; Rizzari, C; Testi, A M; Messina, C; Mori, P G; Miniero, R; Colella, R; Basso, G

    1995-10-01

    To assess the effect of treatment intensification and that of extended intrathecal methotrexate substitution for cranial irradiation in intermediate-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) children treated with a Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM)-based intensive chemotherapy. Three hundred ninety-six children with non-B-ALL were enrolled onto the Associazione Italiana di Ematologia ed Oncologic Pediatrica (AIEOP) ALL 88 study. Standard risk (SR) included patients with low tumor burden (BFM risk index [RI], < 0.8); intermediate risk (IR) were patients with an RI > or = 0.8 but less than 1.2; and high risk (HR) were those with an RI > or = 1.2 or CNS involvement at diagnosis. The treatment schedule was a modified version of the ALL-BFM 86 study. CNS-directed treatment consisted of high-dose methotrexate (HD-MTX; 5 g/m2 for four courses) plus intrathecal methotrexate (IT-MTX; nine doses); IR patients additionally received extended IT-MTX (nine doses during continuation therapy); cranial irradiation was given only to HR patients. Of the 375 (94.7%) children who achieved remission, 1.3% had an adverse event other than relapse. The estimated event-free survival (EFS) at 6 years was 66.6% (SE 2.4) overall; 80.7% (4.5) in the SR patients, 77.5% (3.9) in the IR patients, and 54.5% (3.7) in the HR patients. Relapse occurred in 107 children (27.0%). Isolated CNS relapse occurred in 20 children (5.0%): 5 (6.3%) in the SR group, 1 (0.8%) in the IR group, and 14 (7.1%) in the HR group. The estimated 6-year CNS leukemia-free survival was 94.6% (1.2) overall: 93.5% (2.8) in the SR group, 99.1% (0.9) in the IR group, and 92.3% (2.0) in the HR group. Cranial irradiation may be omitted safely in IR ALL patients treated with BFM-based intensive chemotherapy when extended intrathecal chemotherapy is given. Because the CNS disease control was less complete in the SR group, these data challenge the effectiveness of HD-MTX for protection from CNS disease and support the protective role of

  19. Incidence and clinical relevance of TEL/AML1 fusion genes in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia enrolled in the German and Italian multicenter therapy trials. Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica and the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster Study Group.

    PubMed

    Borkhardt, A; Cazzaniga, G; Viehmann, S; Valsecchi, M G; Ludwig, W D; Burci, L; Mangioni, S; Schrappe, M; Riehm, H; Lampert, F; Basso, G; Masera, G; Harbott, J; Biondi, A

    1997-07-15

    The molecular approach for the analysis of leukemia associated chromosomal translocations has led to the identification of prognostic relevant subgroups. In pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), the most common translocations, t(9;22) and t(4;11), have been associated with a poorer clinical outcome. Recently the TEL gene at chromosome 12p13 and the AML1 gene at chromosome 21q22 were found to be involved in the translocation t(12;21)(p13;q22). By conventional cytogenetics, however, this chromosomal abnormality is barely detectable and occurs in less than 0.05% of childhood ALL. To investigate the frequency of the molecular equivalent of the t(12;21), the TEL/AML1 gene fusion, we have undertaken a prospective screening in the running German Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM) and Italian Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP) multicenter ALL therapy trials. We have analyzed 334 unselected cases of pediatric ALL patients consecutively referred over a period of 5 and 9 months, respectively. The overall incidence of the t(12;21) in pediatric ALL is 18.9%. The 63 cases positive for the TEL/AML1 chimeric products ranged in age between 1 and 12 years, and all but one showed CD10 and pre-B immunophenotype. Interestingly, one case displayed a pre-pre-B immunophenotype. Among the B-lineage subgroup, the t(12;21) occurs in 22.0% of the cases. Fifteen of 61 (24.6%) cases coexpressed at least two myeloid antigens (CD13, CD33, or CDw65) in more than 20% of the gated blast cells. DNA index was available for 59 of the 63 TEL/AML1 positive cases; a hyperdiploid DNA content (> or = 1.16) was detected in only four patients, being nonhyperdiploid in the remaining 55. Based on this prospective analysis, we retrospectively evaluated the impact of TEL/AML1 in prognosis by identifying the subset of B-lineage ALL children enrolled in the closed German ALL-BFM-90 and Italian ALL-AIEOP-91 protocols who had sufficient material for analysis. A total of 342 children

  20. Nuclear reactors for research and radioisotope production in Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, H.H.

    1981-01-01

    In Argentina, the construction, operation, and use of research and radioisotope production reactors is and has been an important method of personnel preparation for the nuclear power program. Moreover, it is a very suitable means for technology transfer to countries developing their own nuclear programs. At present, the following research reactors are in operation in Argentina: Argentine Reactor 0 (RA-0); Argentine Reactor 1 (RA-1); Argentine Reactor 2 (RA-2); Argentine Reactor 3 (RA-3); Argentine Reactor 4 (RA-4). The Argentine Reactor 6 (RA-6), under construction, should reach criticality in 1981.

  1. Researcher / Researched: Repositioning Research Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meerwald, Agnes May Lin

    2013-01-01

    "Researcher / Researched" calls for a complementary research methodology by proposing autoethnography as both a method and text that crosses the boundaries of conventional and alternative methodologies in higher education. Autoethnography rearticulates the researcher / researched positions by blurring the boundary between them. This…

  2. Critical Theory and Educational Practice. ESA 841, Theory and Practice in Educational Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giroux, Henry

    The introductory essay in this volume argues for the importance of the original critical theory developed by the Frankfurt school (The Institute for Social Research in Frankfurt, Germany) in developing a critical foundation for a neo-Marxist theory of radical pedagogy. Accordingly, it begins by defining the aims of the Frankfurt school and then…

  3. Effect of protracted high-dose L-asparaginase given as a second exposure in a Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster-based treatment: results of the randomized 9102 intermediate-risk childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia study--a report from the Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica.

    PubMed

    Rizzari, C; Valsecchi, M G; Aricò, M; Conter, V; Testi, A; Barisone, E; Casale, F; Lo Nigro, L; Rondelli, R; Basso, G; Santoro, N; Masera, G

    2001-03-01

    To assess in a randomized study the therapeutic effect of the addition of high-dose L-asparaginase (HD ASP) in the context of a Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (BFM)-based chemotherapy regimen for intermediate risk (IR) childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). From March 1991 to April 1995, a total of 705 patients, with 59% of the cohort of patients fewer than 15 years old, with newly diagnosed non-B ALL, enrolled onto the Associazione Italiana Ematologia Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP) ALL-91 study, were assigned to the IR group. Patients in remission at the beginning of the reinduction phase were randomized either to the standard treatment (SD ASP arm) or the experimental treatment (HD ASP arm; weekly intramuscular administration of HD ASP 25,000 IU/m(2) repeated for a total of 20 weeks). Most of the patients (90%) were treated with Erwinia chrysanthemi L-asparaginase product. Among the 610 patients randomized to the SD ASP arm (n = 322) or to the HD ASP arm (n = 288), relapse occurred at a median time of 24 months after randomization in 76 (24%) and in 64 children (22%), respectively. Most of the relapses occurred in the marrow (100 isolated, 21 combined). There was no significant difference between the disease-free survival in the two treatment arms (P =.64), with estimated values at 7 years from randomization of 72.4% (SE 3.1) v 75.7% (SE 2.6) in the SD ASP and HD ASP arms, respectively. No advantage was observed for IR ALL children treated with BFM-based intensive chemotherapy who received protracted E chrysanthemi HD ASP during reinduction and the early continuation phase.

  4. Research Visibility: Manpower Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, George L., Ed.

    1969-01-01

    Thirteen research reviews in this issue pertain to manpower research organized under these topics: (1) Manpower and Youth, treating youth unemployment and the youth labor market, (2) Manpower Needs, including an analysis of manpower research since World War II, health manpower planning, the shortage of skilled and technical workers, a projection…

  5. Research News

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research News Share this page Facebook Twitter Email Research News Research News Quarterly Updates Research Call Archive ... Clinical Trials in MS Learn More Become a Research Champion An MS Research Revolution Support MS Research ...

  6. Reactor2D: A tool for simulation of shock deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraus, Eugeny I.; Shabalin, Ivan I.

    2016-10-01

    The basic steps for creating a numerical tool to simulate the deformation and failure processes of complex technical objects (CTO) are presented. Calculations of shock loading of CTO both at low and high speeds, showing the efficiency of the numerical tools created are carried out.

  7. Chemical composition, mixing state, size and morphology of Ice nucleating particles at the Jungfraujoch research station, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Martin; Worringen, Annette; Kandler, Konrad; Weinbruch, Stephan; Schenk, Ludwig; Mertes, Stephan; Schmidt, Susan; Schneider, Johannes; Frank, Fabian; Nilius, Björn; Danielczok, Anja; Bingemer, Heinz

    2014-05-01

    An intense field campaign from the Ice Nuclei Research Unit (INUIT) was performed in January and February of 2013 at the High-Alpine Research Station Jungfraujoch (3580 m a.s.l., Switzerland). Main goal was the assessment of microphysical and chemical properties of free-tropospheric ice-nucelating particles. The ice-nucleating particles were discriminated from the total aerosol with the 'Fast Ice Nucleation CHamber' (FINCH; University Frankfurt) and the 'Ice-Selective Inlet' (ISI, Paul Scherer Institute) followed by a pumped counter-stream virtual impactor. The separated ice-nucleating particles were then collected with a nozzle-type impactor. With the 'FRankfurt Ice nuclei Deposition freezinG Experiment' (FRIDGE), aerosol particles are sampled on a silicon wafer, which is than exposed to ice-activating conditions in a static diffusion chamber. The locations of the growing ice crystals are recorded for later analysis. Finally, with the ICE Counter-stream Virtual Impactor (ICE-CVI) atmospheric ice crystals are separated from the total aerosol and their water content is evaporated to retain the ice residual particles, which are then collected also by impactor sampling. All samples were analyzed in a high-resolution scanning electron microscope. By this method, for each particle its size, morphology, mixing-state and chemical composition is obtained. In total approximately 1700 ice nucleating particles were analyzed. Based on their chemical composition, the particles were classified into seven groups: silicates, metal oxides, Ca-rich particles, (aged) sea-salt, soot, sulphates and carbonaceous matter. Sea-salt is considered as artifact and is not regarded as ice nuclei here. The most frequent ice nucleating particles/ice residuals at the Jungfraujoch station are silicates > carbonaceous particles > metal oxides. Calcium-rich particles and soot play a minor role. Similar results are obtained by quasi-parallel measurements with an online single particle laser ablation

  8. Korea Research Reactor -1 & 2 Decommissioning Project in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S. K.; Chung, U. S.; Jung, K. J.; Park, J. H.

    2003-02-24

    Korea Research Reactor 1 (KRR-1), the first research reactor in Korea, has been operated since 1962, and the second one, Korea Research Reactor 2 (KRR-2) since 1972. The operation of both of them was phased out in 1995 due to their lifetime and operation of the new and more powerful research reactor, HANARO (High-flux Advanced Neutron Application Reactor; 30MW). Both are TRIGA Pool type reactors in which the cores are small self-contained units sitting in tanks filled with cooling water. The KRR-1 is a TRIGA Mark II, which could operate at a level of up to 250 kW. The second one, the KRR-2 is a TRIGA Mark III, which could operate at a level of up 2,000 kW. The decontamination and decommissioning (D & D) project of these two research reactors, the first D & D project in Korea, was started in January 1997 and will be completed to stage 3 by 2008. The aim of this decommissioning program is to decommission the KRR-1 & 2 reactors and to decontaminate the residual building structure s and the site to release them as unrestricted areas. KAERI (Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute) submitted the decommissioning plan and the environmental impact assessment reports to the Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) for the license in December 1998, and was approved in November 2000.

  9. Research Results Research Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-09-01

    Breakthrough Achievement by Chinese Scientists on Mechanism of Spider Silk's Water Collection Shell-isolated Nanoparticle-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy Significant Progress in the Research on Mechanics-Dimension Effect Two Types of Melanosomes Found by Chinese and Foreign Scientists in Early Birds and Hairy Dinosaurs

  10. Research News

    MedlinePlus

    ... Studies Participate in Genetic Studies Donate to Tissue Banks d Research News & Progress Research News ECTRIMS 2016 ... Other Research Studies Learn More Donate to Tissue Banks Learn More Progressive MS Research Learn More Clinical ...

  11. Research Results Research Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-04-01

    A Highly Efficient Route for Selective Phenol Hydrogenation to Cyclohexanone A Novel Mechanism Employed by KSHV to Maintain the Latent Infection was Revealed Breakthrough in the Synthesis of Interconnected NW/NT and NT/NW/NT Heterojunctions with Branched Topology GABA Transporter-1 Activity Modulates Hippocampal Theta Oscillation and Theta Burst Stimulation-Induced Long-Term Potentiation Meta-analysis of Vitamin D, Calcium and the Prevention of Breast Cancer New Findings on the Origin of TrpRS PKCd Regulates Cortical Radial Migration by Stabilizing the Cdk5 Activator P35 PKU Research Team Publishes Papers on Inhalation Exposure to Pollutant and Cancer Risk Progress of the Research on Arbitrarily Elliptical Invisibility Cloaks An Advance in Complete Oxidation of Formaldehyde at Low Temperatures

  12. Variability of IN measured with the Fast Ice Nucleus Chamber (FINCH) at the high altitude research station Jungfraujoch during wintertime 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Fabian; Nillius, Björn; Bundke, Ulrich; Curtius, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    Ice nuclei (IN) are an important component of the atmospheric aerosol. Despite their low concentrations in the atmosphere, they have an influence on the formation of ice crystals in mixed-phase clouds and therefore on precipitation. The Fast Ice Nucleus CHamber (FINCH)1, a counter for ice nucleating particles developed at the Goethe University Frankfurt am Main allows long-term measurements of the IN number concentration. In FINCH the ice activation of the aerosol particles is achieved by mixing air flows with different temperature and humidity. The IN number concentration measurements at different meteorological conditions during the INUIT-JFJ campaign at the high altitude research station Jungfraujoch in Switzerland are presented and its variability are discussed. The good operational performance of the instrument allowed up to 10 hours of continuous measurements. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the German Research Foundation, DFG Grant: BU 1432/3-2 BU 1432/4-1 in the framework of INUIT (FOR 1525) and SPP 1294 HALO. 1- Bundke, U., Nillius, B., Jaenicke, R., Wetter, T., Klein, H., and Bingemer, H. (2008). The fast ice nucleus chamber finch. Atmospheric Research, 90:180-186.

  13. Research design.

    PubMed

    Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H

    2012-10-01

    The development of a good research design permits us to obtain the best research data possible. From the experimental question to the research hypothesis and data collection variables, we can begin to consider the optimal research design. Details pertaining to the selection of the research design are considered within and very much in relation with the knowledge of the researcher and the support of his research group.

  14. Personalized translational epilepsy research - Novel approaches and future perspectives: Part II: Experimental and translational approaches.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Sebastian; van Alphen, Natascha; Becker, Albert; Chiocchetti, Andreas; Deichmann, Ralf; Deller, Thomas; Freiman, Thomas; Freitag, Christine M; Gehrig, Johannes; Hermsen, Anke M; Jedlicka, Peter; Kell, Christian; Klein, Karl Martin; Knake, Susanne; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Liebner, Stefan; Norwood, Braxton A; Omigie, Diana; Plate, Karlheinz; Reif, Andreas; Reif, Philipp S; Reiss, Yvonne; Roeper, Jochen; Ronellenfitsch, Michael W; Schorge, Stephanie; Schratt, Gerhard; Schwarzacher, Stephan W; Steinbach, Joachim P; Strzelczyk, Adam; Triesch, Jochen; Wagner, Marlies; Walker, Matthew C; von Wegner, Frederic; Rosenow, Felix

    2017-09-13

    Despite the availability of more than 15 new "antiepileptic drugs", the proportion of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy has remained constant at about 20-30%. Furthermore, no disease-modifying treatments shown to prevent the development of epilepsy following an initial precipitating brain injury or to reverse established epilepsy have been identified to date. This is likely in part due to the polyetiologic nature of epilepsy, which in turn requires personalized medicine approaches. Recent advances in imaging, pathology, genetics, and epigenetics have led to new pathophysiological concepts and the identification of monogenic causes of epilepsy. In the context of these advances, the First International Symposium on Personalized Translational Epilepsy Research (1st ISymPTER) was held in Frankfurt on September 8, 2016, to discuss novel approaches and future perspectives for personalized translational research. These included new developments and ideas in a range of experimental and clinical areas such as deep phenotyping, quantitative brain imaging, EEG/MEG-based analysis of network dysfunction, tissue-based translational studies, innate immunity mechanisms, microRNA as treatment targets, functional characterization of genetic variants in human cell models and rodent organotypic slice cultures, personalized treatment approaches for monogenic epilepsies, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, therapeutic focal tissue modification, computational modeling for target and biomarker identification, and cost analysis in (monogenic) disease and its treatment. This report on the meeting proceedings is aimed at stimulating much needed investments of time and resources in personalized translational epilepsy research. This Part II includes the experimental and translational approaches and a discussion of the future perspectives, while the diagnostic methods, EEG network analysis, biomarkers, and personalized treatment approaches were addressed in Part I [1]. Copyright © 2017

  15. Personalized translational epilepsy research - Novel approaches and future perspectives: Part I: Clinical and network analysis approaches.

    PubMed

    Rosenow, Felix; van Alphen, Natascha; Becker, Albert; Chiocchetti, Andreas; Deichmann, Ralf; Deller, Thomas; Freiman, Thomas; Freitag, Christine M; Gehrig, Johannes; Hermsen, Anke M; Jedlicka, Peter; Kell, Christian; Klein, Karl Martin; Knake, Susanne; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Liebner, Stefan; Norwood, Braxton A; Omigie, Diana; Plate, Karlheinz; Reif, Andreas; Reif, Philipp S; Reiss, Yvonne; Roeper, Jochen; Ronellenfitsch, Michael W; Schorge, Stephanie; Schratt, Gerhard; Schwarzacher, Stephan W; Steinbach, Joachim P; Strzelczyk, Adam; Triesch, Jochen; Wagner, Marlies; Walker, Matthew C; von Wegner, Frederic; Bauer, Sebastian

    2017-09-13

    Despite the availability of more than 15 new "antiepileptic drugs", the proportion of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy has remained constant at about 20-30%. Furthermore, no disease-modifying treatments shown to prevent the development of epilepsy following an initial precipitating brain injury or to reverse established epilepsy have been identified to date. This is likely in part due to the polyetiologic nature of epilepsy, which in turn requires personalized medicine approaches. Recent advances in imaging, pathology, genetics and epigenetics have led to new pathophysiological concepts and the identification of monogenic causes of epilepsy. In the context of these advances, the First International Symposium on Personalized Translational Epilepsy Research (1st ISymPTER) was held in Frankfurt on September 8, 2016, to discuss novel approaches and future perspectives for personalized translational research. These included new developments and ideas in a range of experimental and clinical areas such as deep phenotyping, quantitative brain imaging, EEG/MEG-based analysis of network dysfunction, tissue-based translational studies, innate immunity mechanisms, microRNA as treatment targets, functional characterization of genetic variants in human cell models and rodent organotypic slice cultures, personalized treatment approaches for monogenic epilepsies, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, therapeutic focal tissue modification, computational modeling for target and biomarker identification, and cost analysis in (monogenic) disease and its treatment. This report on the meeting proceedings is aimed at stimulating much needed investments of time and resources in personalized translational epilepsy research. Part I includes the clinical phenotyping and diagnostic methods, EEG network-analysis, biomarkers, and personalized treatment approaches. In Part II, experimental and translational approaches will be discussed (Bauer et al., 2017) [1]. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc

  16. Research Roadmaps

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These Roadmaps identify scientific gaps that inform the National Research Programs in the development of their Strategic Research Action Plans. EPA expects to use this approach to integrate existing research efforts and to identify needed work.

  17. Research Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pons, Alain

    Thirty-four key ideas on research and research management summarize the views of scientists in charge of research institutes who attended three regional seminars held in 1960 and 1961 in France, Austria, and Denmark. Meaningful research, whether pure, directed, or applied, requires professional management by directors who are technically skilled…

  18. Educating Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Arthur

    2007-01-01

    This is the third in a series of policy reports on the results of a four-year study of America's education schools. This report focuses on the need for quality education research and on the preparation of scholars and researchers who conduct such research. Approximately two decades into a school improvement movement, education research is assuming…

  19. Research Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Fe Community Coll., Gainesville, FL.

    The five parts of this report are: research on instruction; faculty dissertations; inter-institutional research; in-college research; and college-endorsed research. The first covers experiments in teaching French, practical nursing, English, math, and chemistry, and in giving examinations. Faculty dissertations include studies of post-graduate…

  20. Leadership Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplun, Irina

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to explore recent research in the field of leadership as related to education and to link such research to a possible research project. This research project would focus on increasing standardized test scores in California schools focusing on the elementary school level through focusing on increasing reading competency and…

  1. Research Highlights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Melbourne.

    This report presents highlights of the research activities of the Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER). The ACER is a national independent research body that specializes in collecting and interpreting information to shape strategic decision making. In addition to being a national center for educational policy research and advice,…

  2. Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberson, Donald N., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe how a researcher may conduct a basic qualitative research. This paper deals specifically with research of learning, older adults, and in a rural area. This paper became the foundation for the research of my dissertation. I discuss the sample and the criteria for the sample. I also describe the sources of…

  3. Qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Gelling, Leslie

    2015-03-25

    Qualitative research has an important role in helping nurses and other healthcare professionals understand patient experiences of health and illness. Qualitative researchers have a large number of methodological options and therefore should take care in planning and conducting their research. This article offers a brief overview of some of the key issues qualitative researchers should consider.

  4. Current Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Michael B.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes three articles about research in the school library media field: (1) "The State of Research Today" (Michael B. Eisenberg) (2) "Recent Trends in School Library Media Research" (Robert Grover and Susan G. Fowler); and (3) "Notes from ERIC" (Barbara Minor) provides references to 10 research overviews and…

  5. Fetal Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, John T.; Sladek, John R.

    1989-11-01

    This article reviews some of the significant contributions of fetal research and fetal tissue research over the past 20 years. The benefits of fetal research include the development of vaccines, advances in prenatal diagnosis, detection of malformations, assessment of safe and effective medications, and the development of in utero surgical therapies. Fetal tissue research benefits vaccine development, assessment of risk factors and toxicity levels in drug production, development of cell lines, and provides a source of fetal cells for ongoing transplantation trials. Together, fetal research and fetal tissue research offer tremendous potential for the treatment of the fetus, neonate, and adult.

  6. Malaria Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prepare Your Application Draft Specific Aims Outline Your Experiments Know Your Audience Write Your Research Plan Plan ... Applications Requesting Prior Clinical Trial Planning Application Vertebrate Animals Research Animals Involvement Codes Select Agents NIAID Select ...

  7. Research Publications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarbrough, Cornelia, Comp.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that research can provide a cutting edge for the profession and essential information for teachers as they plan new instructional strategies, evaluation techniques, and advocacy efforts. Presents an annotated bibliography of 17 items related to music education research. (ACM)

  8. Research essentials.

    PubMed

    Bray, Lucy; Collier, Sue

    2016-05-09

    THERE IS an increasing recognition of the importance of involving patients, family members and the public in health research. This involvement is commonly termed patient and public involvement (PPI) and refers to an 'active partnership between the public and researchers'. This is different to children, young people and/or parents being participants in a research project. Effective PPI ensures that research does not just focus on professionally driven priorities, but addresses what actually matters to children, young people and their families.

  9. [Research designs].

    PubMed

    Hochman, Bernardo; Nahas, Fabio Xerfan; Oliveira Filho, Renato Santos de; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the classifications and concepts found in the literature regarding the research models on scientific studies commonly used in medical articles. This paper provides elements to facilitate the creation of a research model. It also helps the researcher to identify which is the research model of an article. This article will enable the reader of a scientific paper to have a more accurate sense of criticism of the Methods of a study.

  10. Research Malpractice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chubin, Daryl E.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the issue of academic fraud in the form of science research malpractice. Topic areas considered include: malpractice studies; causes of misconduct; normal and deviant research behavior; and distinguished research characteristics in production, reporting, dissemination, and evaluation. Consequences of malpractice and…

  11. Research Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2004-01-01

    Research advances, a new feature in Journal of Chemical Engineering that brings information about innovations in current areas of research to high school and college science faculty with an intent to provide educators with timely descriptions of latest progress in research that can be integrated into existing courses to update course content and…

  12. Ginning Research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There are four USDA-ARS labs involved in cotton harvesting, processing & fiber quality research; The Southwestern Cotton Ginning Research Laboratory (Mesilla Park, NM); The Cotton Production and Processing Unit (Lubbock, TX); The Cotton Ginning Research Unit (Stoneville, MS); and The Cotton Structur...

  13. Research 1971.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tisher, R. P., Ed.

    The eleven papers presented at the 1970 meeting of the Australian Science Education Research Association are arranged in five sections. The first two sections, "Countenance of Science Education Research" and "Cognitive Style," contain one paper each; the first, a review of research trends and the second, an experimental report.…

  14. [Genealogical Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClure, Patricia Harlan

    Two Institute papers were concerned with genealogical research. "Manuscripts, Private Papers and Genealogical Research," deals with the handling and evaluation of unpublished and private papers in genealogical research. "The Genealogical Society of the Church of Jesus Christ of the Latter-Day Saints," discusses the Mormon…

  15. Psychotherapy Research

    PubMed Central

    Høglend, Per

    1999-01-01

    The last decade has seen progress in psychotherapy research, despite the methodological complexity in this field. However, empirical research has influenced training and clinical practice to only a limited extent. This article is a brief evaluation of trends and some findings in modern psychotherapy research that may influence professional psychotherapy training and practice. PMID:10523428

  16. The Unmanned Research Airplane Facility at the Cyprus Institute: Advanced Atmospheric Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Manfred A.; Argyrides, Marios; Ioannou, Stelios; Keleshis, Christos

    2014-05-01

    colleagues from Heidelberg and Mainz, Germany and test flights that have been successfully completed. We also engaged in a new research project aimed at measuring vertical profiles of aerosols in the Eastern Mediterranean. This is being achieved in field campaigns employing an innovative aerosol sampler in close collaboration with colleagues from the University of Frankfurt, Germany as well as with colleagues from the Universities of Tel Aviv and the Weizmann Institute (Israel). More recently, we have started to prepare our platforms to carry out research missions in the context of the newly funded EU-BACCHUS project.

  17. Research reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Tonneson, L.C.; Fox, G.J.

    1996-04-01

    There are currently 284 research reactors in operation, and 12 under construction around the world. Of the operating reactors, nearly two-thirds are used exclusively for research, and the rest for a variety of purposes, including training, testing, and critical assembly. For more than 50 years, research reactor programs have contributed greatly to the scientific and educational communities. Today, six of the world`s research reactors are being shut down, three of which are in the USA. With government budget constraints and the growing proliferation concerns surrounding the use of highly enriched uranium in some of these reactors, the future of nuclear research could be impacted.

  18. Research ethics for clinical researchers.

    PubMed

    Harnett, John D; Neuman, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This chapter describes the history of the development of modern research ethics. The governance of research ethics is discussed and varies according to geographical location. However, the guidelines used for research ethics review are very similar across a wide variety of jurisdictions. The paramount importance of protecting the privacy and confidentiality of research participants is discussed at length. Particular emphasis is placed on the process of informed consent, and step-by-step practical guidelines are described. The issue of research in vulnerable populations is touched upon and guidelines are provided. Practical advice is provided for researchers to guide their interactions with research ethics boards. Issues related to scientific misconduct and research fraud are not dealt with in this paper.

  19. Paul Ehrlich: pathfinder in cell biology. 1. Chronicle of his life and accomplishments in immunology, cancer research, and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kasten, F H

    1996-01-01

    The paper reviews the life of Paul Ehrlich and his biomedical accomplishments in immunology, cancer research, and chemotherapy. Ehrlich achieved renown as an organic chemist, histologist, hematologist, immunologist, and pharmacologist. He disliked the formality of school but managed to excel in Latin and mathematics. His role model was an older cousin, Carl Weigert, who became a lifelong friend. Ehrlich studied medicine at Breslau, Strasbourg, Freiburg, and Leipzig, coming under the influence of Wilhelm Waldeyer, Julius Cohnheim, Rudolf Heidenhein, and Ferdinand Cohn. As a medical student, Ehrlich was captivated by structural organic chemistry and dyes. When he was 23, his first paper was published on selective staining. His doctoral thesis, "Contribution to the Theory and Practice of Histological Staining" contained most of the germinal ideas that would guide his future career. Most of his early work was centered in Berlin at Charite Hospital, where he did pioneering studies on blood and intravital staining, and at Robert Koch's Institute for Infectious Diseases, where he undertook important investigations in immunology. Ehrlich became an authority on antitoxin standardization and developed the "side-chain theory" of antibody formation for which he was later awarded the Nobel Prize. He became director of an Institute for Experimental Therapy in Frankfurt where he continued research in immunology and carried out routine serum testing. He developed new lines of investigation in cancer research and originated the field of chemotherapy. Using principles developed in his early work with dyes, he successfully treated certain experimental trypanosomal infections with azo dyes. His crowning accomplishment was discovering that the compound Salvarsan could control human syphilis. Ehrlich's legacy in immunology and chemotherapy is discussed and an intimate portrait is drawn of Ehrlich the person.

  20. Researching Practice and Practicing Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPardo, Anne

    2011-01-01

    When works of teacher scholars were recognized with major National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE) research awards, and the sections and conferences instituted research initiatives of their own, many were filled with the soaring hope that a new synergy was in the making. The "Research in the Teaching of English" (RTE) Alan C. Purves Award,…

  1. Research Review: Doing Artistic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serig, Dan

    2012-01-01

    In this review, the author focuses on the pragmatic consideration: How do artists do artistic research? Artistic research in the context of this review is about the connections and relationships among three primary domains: (1) the arts; (2) higher education; and (3) arts education. Broadly stated, all artists do research when they do art--whether…

  2. Research 101: Understanding Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Angela; Bagby, Janet; Sulak, Tracey

    2010-01-01

    Currently, the Montessori community is increasing its focus on the importance of research. The purpose of this article is to provide some background for critical readers of research related to Montessori education and to provide the tools to implement these findings in one's own Montessori work. Research articles are generally organized in a way…

  3. Research Impact and Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oancea, Alis

    2013-01-01

    Based on a 2010-11 study involving senior researchers from seven disciplines, this article explores critically some of the diverse interpretations of impact in different disciplines, sub-fields and modes of research, and researchers' views about how these interpretations articulate with top-down impact agendas and with university structures…

  4. Research 101: Understanding Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Angela; Bagby, Janet; Sulak, Tracey

    2010-01-01

    Currently, the Montessori community is increasing its focus on the importance of research. The purpose of this article is to provide some background for critical readers of research related to Montessori education and to provide the tools to implement these findings in one's own Montessori work. Research articles are generally organized in a way…

  5. Research Review: Doing Artistic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serig, Dan

    2012-01-01

    In this review, the author focuses on the pragmatic consideration: How do artists do artistic research? Artistic research in the context of this review is about the connections and relationships among three primary domains: (1) the arts; (2) higher education; and (3) arts education. Broadly stated, all artists do research when they do art--whether…

  6. Basic research vs. applied research.

    PubMed

    Reulen, H J

    2002-01-01

    Research rotation is an important component in the education of a neurosurgical resident. The selection of the area of research is essential. There are many arguments in favour of selecting research projects to be close to the individual trainee's clinical interest. Studies far away from the individual's clinical interest in most cases are less productive and will not be pursued later. There are also many advantages if a cooperation is planned with other institutions. The programme director or staff members play an important role in the selection of the research project, of an appropriate laboratory or institution, and in the process of financing a research rotation.

  7. Researcher's Workbench.

    PubMed

    Graves, J R; Fu, L S

    1991-01-01

    The Researcher's Workbench, developed at the University of Utah College of Nursing, is a computer toolkit for nurse researchers. Workbench includes a set of software tools, most of which are commercially available, to support each stage of the research process. The tools reside on a Macintosh II desk-top computer (Apple Computer, Cupertino, CA) that houses processors to run both Macintosh and MS-DOS (Microsoft Corporation) software. The Workbench is available to all College of Nursing faculty, research associates, and graduate students. This article describes the purpose, methods, design, and implementation of the Workbench. The article assumes familiarity with personal computer terminology.

  8. Plant Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Land's agricultural research team is testing new ways to sustain life in space as a research participant with Kennedy Space Center's Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS). The Land, sponsored by Kraft General Foods, is an entertainment, research, and education facility at EPCOT Center, part of Walt Disney World. The cooperative effort is simultaneously a research and development program, a technology demonstration that provides the public to see high technology at work and an area of potential spinoff: the CELSS work may generate Earth use technology beneficial to the hydroponic (soilless growing) vegetable production industries of the world.

  9. Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serig, Dan, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This research review is dedicated to the memory of William Safire (1929-2009). A visionary leader, Safire brought other visionaries, researchers, educators, artists, and policymakers together to explore the confluence of arts education and neuroscience. He fostered the new field of neuroeducation in his work as chair of The Dana Foundation in…

  10. Research Technology

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-10-21

    Pictured is an artist's concept of an advanced chemical propulsion system called Pulse Detonation. Long term technology research in this advanced propulsion system has the potential to dramatically change the way we think about space propulsion systems. This research is expected to significantly reduce the cost of space travel within the next 25 years.

  11. Research Ethics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dooly, Melinda; Moore, Emilee; Vallejo, Claudia

    2017-01-01

    Qualitative research, especially studies in educational contexts, often brings up questions of ethics because the study design involves human subjects, some of whom are under age (e.g. data collected in primary education classrooms). It is not always easy for young researchers to anticipate where ethical issues might emerge while designing their…

  12. Research: Bereavement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, C. M.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews last 10 years of research, counseling, and treatment in area of bereavement. Notes that community support can help some individuals coping with grief, but that others require different interventions. Sees need for research into sequence of events that lead to adverse physical, mental, or social consequences in bereavement, and about types…

  13. Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serig, Dan

    2011-01-01

    In this review, the author explores an often-used process in research--the mind map. He uses this method in his own research and artwork. He also uses this extensively with students, particularly master students when they are trying to surround issues in their thesis projects. Mind maps are closely associated with brainstorming, as brainstorming…

  14. Research Technology

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-07-01

    Dr. Tom Markusic, a propulsion research engineer at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), adjusts a diagnostic laser while a pulsed plasma thruster (PPT) fires in a vacuum chamber in the background. NASA/MSFC's Propulsion Research Center (PRC) is presently investigating plasma propulsion for potential use on future nuclear-powered spacecraft missions, such as human exploration of Mars.

  15. Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glick, Ashley

    2010-01-01

    Background: Action Research about my 2nd grade classroom in the Buffalo School District. I examined three areas of interest and tried to find some conclusions related to behavior management. Purpose: The purpose of this study is how will implementing procedures, rules, and consequences help improve student behavior. Research Design: Descriptive;…

  16. Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton-Brkich, Katie Lynn; Shumbera, Kristen; Beran, Becky

    2010-01-01

    Defined as "any systemic inquiry conducted by teachers... for the purpose of gathering information about how their particular schools operate, how they teach, and how their students learn" (Mertler, 2009), "action research" is empowering and professional research done by teachers to inform and improves their own practices. Although there are many…

  17. Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serig, Dan

    2011-01-01

    In this review, the author explores an often-used process in research--the mind map. He uses this method in his own research and artwork. He also uses this extensively with students, particularly master students when they are trying to surround issues in their thesis projects. Mind maps are closely associated with brainstorming, as brainstorming…

  18. Research 101

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silverman, Wayne

    2007-01-01

    "Research may help, but..." is not a phrase that warms a scientist's heart, but it reflects the true sentiment of many parents of children with intellectual and developmental disabilities, who may believe that it is more important to work with what is at hand rather than waiting for research to provide the elusive magic bullet. However, while it…

  19. Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serig, Dan, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This research review is dedicated to the memory of William Safire (1929-2009). A visionary leader, Safire brought other visionaries, researchers, educators, artists, and policymakers together to explore the confluence of arts education and neuroscience. He fostered the new field of neuroeducation in his work as chair of The Dana Foundation in…

  20. Monsoon research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Forecasting monsoons is one of four research areas proposed as part of an expanded program of collaborative projects by U.S. and Indian scientists and engineers, according to George A. Keyworth, II, science advisor to President Reagan and director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP). The other proposed research areas are health, agriculture and biomass production, and decentralized electrical power sources.During the next 6 months, scientists will ‘scope out research projects’ and detail specific research activities, according to Roger Doyon, head of the Africa and Asia section of the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Directorate for Scientific, Technological, and International Affairs. Most of the actual research will begin with the advent of fiscal 1984.

  1. Disseminating research.

    PubMed

    Baillie, Lesley

    2015-07-01

    THE THEME of this edition of Nurse Researcher, 'disseminating research', is pertinent to researchers across the career spectrum and tackles two important issues: open access publishing and originality in PhD research. In the first paper, Suzanne Fredericks examines and contrasts two models of open access publishing, revealing some notable advantages of 'green' open access, achieved through repositories, as opposed to the more well-known 'gold' open access offered by journals ( Fredericks 2015 ). In the second paper, Paul Gill and Gina Dolan discuss originality in PhD studies, exploring the nature of the concept and how doctoral students can demonstrate originality, which is an essential consideration in their research dissemination activities as well as their thesis preparation ( Gill and Dolan 2015 ).

  2. Research Technology

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-08-01

    A new, world-class laboratory for research into future space transportation technologies is under construction at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, AL. The state-of-the-art Propulsion Research Laboratory will serve as a leading national resource for advanced space propulsion research. Its purpose is to conduct research that will lead to the creation and development of irnovative propulsion technologies for space exploration. The facility will be the epicenter of the effort to move the U.S. space program beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of greatly improved access to space and rapid transit throughout the solar system. The Laboratory is designed to accommodate researchers from across the United States, including scientists and engineers from NASA, the Department of Defense, the Department of Energy, universities, and industry. The facility, with 66,000 square feet of useable laboratory space, will feature a high degree of experimental capability. Its flexibility will allow it to address a broad range of propulsion technologies and concepts, such as plasma, electromagnetic, thermodynamic, and propellantless propulsion. An important area of emphasis will be development and utilization of advanced energy sources, including highly energetic chemical reactions, solar energy, and processes based on fission, fusion, and antimatter. The Propulsion Research Laboratory is vital for developing the advanced propulsion technologies needed to open up the space frontier, and will set the stage of research that could revolutionize space transportation for a broad range of applications.

  3. Bioprocessing research

    SciTech Connect

    Weigand, W.A.; Kaufman, E.N.

    1995-12-31

    Bioprocessing research integrates a wide variety of fields and disciplines to achieve a process with economic and environmental advantages over conventional chemical processing. Specific fields of bioprocessing research typically involve biocatalysis development to identify and improve the enzyme or microorganism, biocatalysis production and retention to provide and maintain biocatalytic activity at the lowest possible cost, raw material treatment and selection to provide low cost substrates that are amenable to biological transformation, reactor design, downstream processing to purify the desired product and recycle nutrients or biocatalysts, and, finally, system integration. The papers presented in this session address many of the above issues in bioprocessing research.

  4. Bioprocessing research

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, E.N.

    1996-06-01

    This section describes research and development activities performed for the Fossil Energy Bioprocessing Research Program. This program includes fundamental research for coal applications that investigates advanced reactor design for conversion of coal and coal liquids, the use of enzymes in pure organic media, and development of biological processes for the conversion of coal residuum. In addition, the program includes studies on advanced bioreactor systems for the treatment of gaseous substrates and the conversion to liquid fuels, removal of heteroatoms from heavy oils, renewable hydrogen production, remediation of oil containing soils. The program also includes natural gas and oil technology partnership support.

  5. Researching Undergraduate Social Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The experience(s) of undergraduate research students in the social sciences is under-represented in the literature in comparison to the natural sciences or science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM). The strength of STEM undergraduate research learning environments is understood to be related to an apprenticeship-mode of learning supported…

  6. Researching Undergraduate Social Science Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Jane

    2016-01-01

    The experience(s) of undergraduate research students in the social sciences is under-represented in the literature in comparison to the natural sciences or science, technology, engineering and maths (STEM). The strength of STEM undergraduate research learning environments is understood to be related to an apprenticeship-mode of learning supported…

  7. Research essentials.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joanna; Chudleigh, Jane

    2016-03-01

    TO MAXIMISE success, a research grant application should: ■ Have a clear purpose with demonstrable and measurable outcomes. ■ Be in line with government policies, healthcare agendas and health priorities. ■ Meet objectives of the funding body and application criteria.

  8. Air Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's air research provides the critical science to develop and implement outdoor air regulations under the Clean Air Act and puts new tools and information in the hands of air quality managers and regulators to protect the air we breathe.

  9. Polar Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Mort D.; McKenzie, Garry D.

    1983-01-01

    Three major breakthroughs in Antarctic earth sciences which occurred during 1982 are discussed (finding of land fossils, meteorite, and subsurface microorganisms). Highlights of conferences, research activities, and significant publications are also discussed. (JN)

  10. Research summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegmann, W. L.; Robertson, J. S.; Jacobson, M. J.

    1993-01-01

    The final report for progress during the period from 15 Nov. 1988 to 14 Nov. 1991 is presented. Research on methods for analysis of sound propagation through the atmosphere and on results obtained from application of our methods are summarized. Ten written documents of NASA research are listed, and these include publications, manuscripts accepted, submitted, or in preparation for publication, and reports. Twelve presentations of results, either at scientific conferences or at research or technical organizations, since the start of the grant period are indicated. Names of organizations to which software produced under the grant was distributed are provided, and the current arrangement whereby the software is being distributed to the scientific community is also described. Finally, the names of seven graduate students who worked on NASA research and received Rensselaer degrees during the grant period, along with their current employers are given.

  11. Research Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDeWeghe, Rick

    2004-01-01

    Educator and researcher Robert J. Sternberg's two theories, the theory of successful intelligence and theory of wisdom, are discussed. The teachers who wish to nurture students' expertise should take care of their analytical ability, creative and practical thinking.

  12. Polar Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Mort D.; McKenzie, Garry D.

    1983-01-01

    Three major breakthroughs in Antarctic earth sciences which occurred during 1982 are discussed (finding of land fossils, meteorite, and subsurface microorganisms). Highlights of conferences, research activities, and significant publications are also discussed. (JN)

  13. Preeclampsia Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... with conditions associated with insulin resistance, such as gestational diabetes and obesity, have a higher risk of developing ... of research: maternal health; fetal health and development; gestational diabetes, asthma, and thyroid disorders; and preterm labor. Several ...

  14. Ionosphere research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A report is presented on on-going research projects in ionospheric studies. The topics discussed are planetary atmospheres, E and F region, D region, mass spectrometer measurements, direct measurements and atmospheric reactions.

  15. Ionospheric research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Data from research on ionospheric D, E, and F, regions are reported. Wave propagation, mass spectrometer measurements, and atmospheric reactions of HO2 with NO and NO2 and NH2 with NO and O2 are summarized.

  16. Research Innovation

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA provides innovative research activities that help transform the protection of human health and the environment with high-risk, high-reward Pathfinder Innovation Projects, the P3 student competition, and low-cost air monitoring.

  17. Research education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, James; Harris, Carolyn; Borenstein, Samuel; Curran, Brendan; Fox, Mitchell

    1997-11-01

    Introduction How can we get the public to appreciate the way scientific understanding advances via iterative research? How can we provide females and underrepresented minorities an opportunity to be involved in science early enough in their schooling to make a difference in career motivation? How can research laboratories help improve science education in our schools and prepare students with skills that they will need in the workforce? We do not have the answers to these questions. Indeed, we are only beginning to work together, as researchers and educators, on these topics. However, the Editor, upon seeing the large number of student and educator coauthors on our paper in this issue of Journal of Geophysical Research, invited us to describe our fledgling program, with the hope of stimulating dialogue on a topic of increasing interest.

  18. Test Takers' Attitudes about the TOEFL iBT[TM]. TOEFL iBT Research Report. RR-10-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stricker, Lawrence J.; Attali, Yigal

    2010-01-01

    The principal aims of this study, a conceptual replication of an earlier investigation of the TOEFL[R] computer-based test, or TOEFL CBT, in Buenos Aires, Cairo, and Frankfurt, were to assess test takers' reported acceptance of the TOEFL Internet-based test, or TOEFL iBT[TM], and its associations with possible determinants of this acceptance and…

  19. Research essentials.

    PubMed

    English, Christine; Pengelly, Theresa

    2016-04-01

    A RESEARCHER needs to select a methodology and methods that fit the purpose of the study and will be able to answer the questions it poses. Clarifying viewpoints about epistemology (the philosophical theory of knowledge) and ontology (the nature of reality) is also important because these perspectives can affect the choice of study design. Consideration must also be given to any specific criteria in the research proposal bid criteria.

  20. Oceanographic Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The PNF-300 Natural Fluorometer is an optical instrument for oceanographic research developed under NASA contract by Biospherical Instruments, Inc. An important innovation for oceanographers, it measures photosynthetic productivity and estimates phytoplankton production less expensively, is non-intrusive and can be used on site - an improved way of estimating ocean productivity. Applications include environmental impact studies, monitoring plankton concentrations in a reservoir, and other research uses.

  1. Quantitative research.

    PubMed

    Watson, Roger

    2015-04-01

    This article describes the basic tenets of quantitative research. The concepts of dependent and independent variables are addressed and the concept of measurement and its associated issues, such as error, reliability and validity, are explored. Experiments and surveys – the principal research designs in quantitative research – are described and key features explained. The importance of the double-blind randomised controlled trial is emphasised, alongside the importance of longitudinal surveys, as opposed to cross-sectional surveys. Essential features of data storage are covered, with an emphasis on safe, anonymous storage. Finally, the article explores the analysis of quantitative data, considering what may be analysed and the main uses of statistics in analysis.

  2. Research Technology

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-02-01

    Researchers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have designed, fabricated, and tested the first solar thermal engine, a non-chemical rocket engine that produces lower thrust but has better thrust efficiency than a chemical combustion engine. This photograph shows components for the thermal propulsion engine being laid out prior to assembly. MSFC turned to solar thermal propulsion in the early 1990s due to its simplicity, safety, low cost, and commonality with other propulsion systems. As part of MSFC's Space Transportation Directorate, the Propulsion Research Center serves as a national resource for research of advanced, revolutionary propulsion technologies. The mission is to move the Nation's capabilities beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of aircraft-like access to Earth-orbit, rapid travel throughout the solar system, and exploration of interstellar space.

  3. Chemistry Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    Philip Morris research center scientists use a computer program called CECTRP, for Chemical Equilibrium Composition and Transport Properties, to gain insight into the behavior of atoms as they progress along the reaction pathway. Use of the program lets the scientist accurately predict the behavior of a given molecule or group of molecules. Computer generated data must be checked by laboratory experiment, but the use of CECTRP saves the researchers hundreds of hours of laboratory time since experiments must run only to validate the computer's prediction. Philip Morris estimates that had CECTRP not been available, at least two man years would have been required to develop a program to perform similar free energy calculations.

  4. Welding Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Welding fabrication and welding processes were studied. The following research projects are reported: (1) welding fabrication; (2) residual stresses and distortion in structural weldments in high strength steels; (3) improvement of reliability of welding by in process sensing and control (development of smart welding machines for girth welding of pipes); (4) development of fully automated and integrated welding systems for marine applications; (5) advancement of welding technology; (6) research on metal working by high power laser (7) flux development; (8) heat and fluid flow; (9) mechanical properties developments.

  5. Research Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-12-01

    Research on Global Carbon Emission and Sequestration NSFC Funded Project Made Significant Progress in Quantum Dynamics Functional Human Blood Protein Obtained from Rice How Giant Pandas Thrive on a Bamboo Diet New Evidence of Interpersonal Violence from 129,000 Years Ago Found in China Aptamer-Mediated Efficient Capture and Release of T Lymphocytes on Nanostructured Surfaces BGI Study Results on Resequencing 50 Accessions of Rice Cast New Light on Molecular Breeding BGI Reports Study Results on Frequent Mutation of Genes Encoding UMPP Components in Kidney Cancer Research on Habitat Shift Promoting Species Diversification

  6. Research essentials.

    PubMed

    Milnes, Linda

    2016-06-08

    CONDUCTING RESEARCH to a high standard requires funding and grant applications to funding bodies need a detailed breakdown of justified costs to show value for money. All expenditure must be accounted for, even down to the cost of tea and coffee.

  7. Embryological Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Steven B.

    1989-01-01

    To integrate a research/discovery component into one course, an experiment using the sea urchin embryo system is introduced because the teacher manages only one organism and students provide the variables. The materials, handling methods, and experimental methods of the experiment are described. (YP)

  8. Library Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Nancy Kirkpatrick

    This workbook, designed for a Library Research course at Yavapai College, provides 15 lessons in advanced library reference skills. Each lesson provides explanatory text and reinforcement exercises. After Lesson I introduces specialized dictionaries and encyclopedias (e.g., for foreign languages, medicine, music, economics, social sciences, and…

  9. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This column features summaries of research articles from 3 recent crisis management publications. The first, "School Shootings and Counselor Leadership: Four Lessons from the Field" summarized by Kristi Fenning, was conducted as the result of the increased demand for trained crisis personnel on school campuses. Survey participants were…

  10. Research Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2004-01-01

    Nanotechnology are employed by researchers at Northwestern University to develop a method of labeling disease markers present in blood with unique DNA tags they have dubbed "bio-bar-codes". The preparation of nanoparticle and magnetic microparticle probes and a nanoparticle-based PSR-less DNA amplification scheme are involved by the DNA-BCA assay.

  11. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.; Bratica, Robyn; Dempsey, Jack R.; Karle, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    This article presents summaries of recent crisis management publications. The first article summarized provides a review of research documenting that even when children are not physically proximal to a national disaster (9/11), they may still have negative reactions. The second article summarized is an examination of the PTSD diagnostic criterion…

  12. Research Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serig, Dan

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the author's review of research about material culture and its relevance to teaching artists. In this review, three themes emerged that may provide a conceptual framework. This framework may offer a base of understanding from which teaching artists may, in turn, be able to situate some of their practices or create new…

  13. Research Frontier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Teacher, 1971

    1971-01-01

    New research topics have been brought about by the acceleration of nitrogen nuclei to the energy of 36 billion electron volts. Describes experiments on tumor cells, cosmic rays, and nuclear fission performed with the Bevatron at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. (TS)

  14. Element Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herald, Christine

    2001-01-01

    Describes a research assignment for 8th grade students on the elements of the periodic table. Students use web-based resources and a chemistry handbook to gather information, construct concept maps, and present the findings to the full class using the mode of their choice: a humorous story, a slideshow or gameboard, a brochure, a song, or skit.…

  15. Research Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2005-01-01

    Researchers in the Department of Bioengineering at Rice University are developing a new approach for fighting cancer, based on nanoshells that can both detect and destroy cancerous cells. The aim is to locate the cells, and be able to make a rational choice about whether they need to be destroyed and if possible they should immediately be sent for…

  16. Energy Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Group of Eight (Go8) is a coalition of leading Australian universities, intensive in research and comprehensive in general and professional education. The Go8 member universities recognise that the issue of energy usage and transformation is one of vital importance not only to Australia but to the world as a whole. The universities aim to make…

  17. Embryological Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oppenheimer, Steven B.

    1989-01-01

    To integrate a research/discovery component into one course, an experiment using the sea urchin embryo system is introduced because the teacher manages only one organism and students provide the variables. The materials, handling methods, and experimental methods of the experiment are described. (YP)

  18. Research Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnik, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Presents six research abstracts from the ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) database. Topics include: effectiveness of distance versus traditional on-campus education; improved attribution recall from diversification of environmental context during computer-based instruction; qualitative analysis of situated Web-based learning;…

  19. Research Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2004-01-01

    Nanotechnology are employed by researchers at Northwestern University to develop a method of labeling disease markers present in blood with unique DNA tags they have dubbed "bio-bar-codes". The preparation of nanoparticle and magnetic microparticle probes and a nanoparticle-based PSR-less DNA amplification scheme are involved by the DNA-BCA assay.

  20. Research Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnick, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Presents research abstracts from the ERIC Clearinghouse on Information and Technology. Topics include: classroom communication apprehension and distance education; outcomes of a distance-delivered science course; the NASA/Kennedy Space Center Virtual Science Mentor program; survey of traditional and distance learning higher education members;…

  1. Critiquing research.

    PubMed

    Preston, Jennifer

    2015-12-02

    Literature reviews can help to improve evidence-based practice and promote positive change in nursing. They aim to analyse, evaluate and clarify ideas presented by various authors and summarise them. After reading the CPD article on critiquing research literature, I have gained an understanding of the process that I would use to carry out a literature review.

  2. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This column features summaries of five research articles relevant to school crisis response. The first, "High School Teachers' Experiences With Suicidal Students," summarized by Robyn Bratica, offers the results of a study examining high school teachers' experiences with suicidal students and suggests that contact with suicidal students is very…

  3. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This column features summaries of research articles from 3 recent crisis management publications. The first, "School Shootings and Counselor Leadership: Four Lessons from the Field" summarized by Kristi Fenning, was conducted as the result of the increased demand for trained crisis personnel on school campuses. Survey participants were…

  4. Research Windows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collis, Betty

    1988-01-01

    Presents summaries of research studies related to instructional computer use: three compare word processed and handwritten text of students with and without learning disabilities; one compares student retrieval skills using print and electronic encyclopedias; and one examines computer use by math and science teachers via data from a U.S. national…

  5. Research Summaries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brock, Stephen E., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This column features summaries of five research articles relevant to school crisis response. The first, "High School Teachers' Experiences With Suicidal Students," summarized by Robyn Bratica, offers the results of a study examining high school teachers' experiences with suicidal students and suggests that contact with suicidal students is very…

  6. Library Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Nancy Kirkpatrick

    This workbook, designed for a Library Research course at Yavapai College, provides 15 lessons in advanced library reference skills. Each lesson provides explanatory text and reinforcement exercises. After Lesson I introduces specialized dictionaries and encyclopedias (e.g., for foreign languages, medicine, music, economics, social sciences, and…

  7. Research Frontier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physics Teacher, 1971

    1971-01-01

    New research topics have been brought about by the acceleration of nitrogen nuclei to the energy of 36 billion electron volts. Describes experiments on tumor cells, cosmic rays, and nuclear fission performed with the Bevatron at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. (TS)

  8. Population Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Child Health and Human Development (NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    The scope of population research as carried on by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) is set forth in this booklet. Population problems of the world, United States, and the individual are considered along with international population policies based on voluntary family planning programs. NICHD goals for biological…

  9. Research Advances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Angela G.

    2005-01-01

    Researchers in the Department of Bioengineering at Rice University are developing a new approach for fighting cancer, based on nanoshells that can both detect and destroy cancerous cells. The aim is to locate the cells, and be able to make a rational choice about whether they need to be destroyed and if possible they should immediately be sent for…

  10. Researching Complexity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumara, Dennis J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses what Complexity Theory (presented as a rubric that collects theoretical understandings from a number of domains such as ecology, biology, neurology, and education) suggests about mind, selfhood, intelligence, and practices of reading, and the import of these reconceptualizations to reader-response researchers. Concludes that developing…

  11. Research Abstracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plotnik, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Presents six research abstracts from the ERIC (Educational Resources Information Center) database. Topics include: effectiveness of distance versus traditional on-campus education; improved attribution recall from diversification of environmental context during computer-based instruction; qualitative analysis of situated Web-based learning;…

  12. Element Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herald, Christine

    2001-01-01

    Describes a research assignment for 8th grade students on the elements of the periodic table. Students use web-based resources and a chemistry handbook to gather information, construct concept maps, and present the findings to the full class using the mode of their choice: a humorous story, a slideshow or gameboard, a brochure, a song, or skit.…

  13. Researching Complexity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumara, Dennis J.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses what Complexity Theory (presented as a rubric that collects theoretical understandings from a number of domains such as ecology, biology, neurology, and education) suggests about mind, selfhood, intelligence, and practices of reading, and the import of these reconceptualizations to reader-response researchers. Concludes that developing…

  14. Types of Cancer Research

    Cancer.gov

    An infographic from the National Cancer Institute (NCI) describing the four broad categories of cancer research: basic research, clinical research, population-based research, and translational research.

  15. Research Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-12-01

    Achievements in Sino-German Interdisciplinary Major Research Project Published by Small A Conserved Proline Switch on the Ribosome Facilitates the Recruitment and Binding of trGTPases Air Pollution Contributes in Sunshine Dimming in China Role of Lymphatic Trafficking and Biodistribution Soft Fibrin Gels Promote Selection and Growth of Tumorigenic Cells Targeted Therapy: The New Lease on Life for Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia, and Beyond The Structural Basis for the Sensing and Binding of Cyclic di-GMP by STING Research on Atomic-Scale Investigation of Li Storage Mechanism in Spinel Li4Ti5O12 NSFC Funded Project Made Significant Progress in Intelligent Nanomaterial and Device Palaeobotany and the Evolution of the Monsoon in China Non Heme System Asymmetric Epoxidation Reaction Made Progress Rapid Advancement of Immunology Study in China Chinese Experts Successfully Produced Transgenic Animals from Haploid Embryonic Stem Cells

  16. Materials research

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    This presentation on materials will concentrate on dielectric and electrical insulation materials and the directions and needs for research and development. Some examples will also be given on amorphous metals and metal oxide varistor developments which can have significant impact on future equipment designs. Under the existing situation of the limited load growth projections in the utility industry, no single manufacturer of power equipment can justify a broad-based, fundamental and coordinated research program to develop electrical insulation systems to meet the long term needs. The trend is, therefore, towards a weakening of the US competitive position and the potential for a lack of availability of key products from domestic sources needed by the utility industry.

  17. Qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Maher, Lisa; Dertadian, George

    2017-08-07

    This narrative review aims to highlight key insights from qualitative research on drug use and drug users by profiling a selection of classic works. Consensus methods were used to identify and select four papers published in 1938, 1969, 1973 and 1984 considered to be classics. These landmark qualitative studies included the first account of addiction as a social process, demonstrating that people have meaningful responses to drug use that cannot be reduced to their pharmacological effects; the portrayal of inner-city heroin users as exacting, energetic and engaged social agents; identification of the interactive social learning processes involved in becoming a drug user; the application of the 'career' concept to understanding transitions and trajectories of drug use over time; and the articulation of a framework for understanding drug use that incorporates the interaction between pharmacology, psychology and social environments. These classic sociological and anthropological studies deployed qualitative research methods to show how drug use is shaped by complex sets of factors situated within social contexts, viewing drug users as agents engaged actively in social processes and worlds. Their findings have been used to challenge stereotypes about drug use and drug users, develop a deeper understanding of drug use among hidden, hard-to-research and under-studied populations, and provide the foundations for significant developments in scientific knowledge about the nature of drug use. They continue to retain their relevance, providing important correctives to biomedical and behaviourist paradigms, reminding us that drug use is a social process, and demonstrating how the inductive approach of qualitative research can strengthen the way we understand and respond to drug use and related harms. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  18. Research reflections.

    PubMed

    Switzer, William P

    2009-01-01

    Dr Switzer received D.V.M, from Texas A and M, in 1948, M.S. and a Ph.D, from Iowa State University in 1951 and 1954 and the Dr.h.c. from the University of Vienna, in 1979. He was Professor of Iowa State University, Veterinary Medical Research Inst, during 1961-74. He later became the Associate Dean for Research, ISU College of Veterinary Medicine, 1974-90. In 1990 he became Distinguished Professor emeritus, Iowa State University, 1990 and Associate Dean emeritus, in 1990 to the present. He has won the following honors and awards: Borden Scholarship Award, Honorary Master Swine Producer, ISU Faculty Citation, ISU Distinguished Professor, American Feed Manufacturers Vet. Med. Research Award, Iowa Inventors' Hall of Fame, National Hog Farmer Award, Gamma Sigma Delta Award, International Award of Merit, Gamma Sigma Delta, Howard W. Dunne Memorial Award, Iowa Veterinarian of the year, 1988 in addition to several others. Switzer Research Award established at ISU College of Veterinary Medicine, Selected as one of the 150 most influential faculty members in the 150 year history of ISU, Vaccines developed by W. P. Switzer were selected as one of the 150 most valuable contributions in the history of ISU. DR. Switzer's patents: A) Use of Sulfonamides for Treatment of Atrophic Rhinitis in Swine; B) Vaccine for Control of Atrophic Rhinitis in Swine, and xx Vaccine for Control and Prevention of Kennel Cough in Dogs. He has also served on the following Advisory Boards: A) Animal Health Advisor, Merck and Co, five years; B) Animal Health Advisor, Pfizer, Inc, six years; and C) Animal Health Advisor, Diamond-Shamrock, two years.

  19. Research Technology

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-08-01

    Researchers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have designed, fabricated and tested the first solar thermal engine, a non-chemical rocket engine that produces lower thrust but has better thrust efficiency than a chemical combustion engine. MSFC turned to solar thermal propulsion in the early 1990s due to its simplicity, safety, low cost, and commonality with other propulsion systems. Solar thermal propulsion works by acquiring and redirecting solar energy to heat a propellant. This photograph, taken at MSFC's Solar Thermal Propulsion Test Facility, shows a concentrator mirror, a combination of 144 mirrors forming this 18-ft diameter concentrator, and a vacuum chamber that houses the focal point. The 20- by 24-ft heliostat mirror (not shown in this photograph) has a dual-axis control that keeps a reflection of the sunlight on the 18-foot diameter concentrator mirror, which then focuses the sunlight to a 4-in focal point inside the vacuum chamber. The focal point has 10 kilowatts of intense solar power. As part of MSFC's Space Transportation Directorate, the Propulsion Research Center serves as a national resource for research of advanced, revolutionary propulsion technologies. The mission is to move the Nation's capabilities beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of aircraft-like access to Earth-orbit, rapid travel throughout the solar system, and exploration of interstellar space.

  20. Research Technology

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-11-01

    This photograph shows an overall view of the Solar Thermal Propulsion Test Facility at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The 20-by 24-ft heliostat mirror, shown at the left, has dual-axis control that keeps a reflection of the sunlight on an 18-ft diameter concentrator mirror (right). The concentrator mirror then focuses the sunlight to a 4-in focal point inside the vacuum chamber, shown at the front of concentrator mirror. Researchers at MSFC have designed, fabricated, and tested the first solar thermal engine, a non-chemical rocket engine that produces lower thrust but has better thrust efficiency than chemical a combustion engine. MSFC turned to solar thermal propulsion in the early 1990s due to its simplicity, safety, low cost, and commonality with other propulsion systems. Solar thermal propulsion works by acquiring and redirecting solar energy to heat a propell nt. As part of MSFC's Space Transportation Directorate, the Propulsion Research Center serves as a national resource for research of advanced, revolutionary propulsion technologies. The mission is to move the Nation's capabilities beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of aircraft-like access to Earth-orbit, rapid travel throughout the solar system, and exploration of interstellar space.

  1. Research Technology

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-08-01

    Researchers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have designed, fabricated, and tested the first solar thermal engine, a non-chemical rocket engine that produces lower thrust but has better thrust efficiency than a chemical combustion engine. MSFC turned to solar thermal propulsion in the early 1990s due to its simplicity, safety, low cost, and commonality with other propulsion systems. Solar thermal propulsion works by acquiring and redirecting solar energy to heat a propellant. The 20- by 24-ft heliostat mirror (not shown in this photograph) has dual-axis control that keeps a reflection of the sunlight on an 18-ft diameter concentrator mirror, which then focuses the sunlight to a 4-in focal point inside the vacuum chamber. The focal point has 10 kilowatts of intense solar power. This photograph is a close-up view of a 4-in focal point inside the vacuum chamber at the MSFC Solar Thermal Propulsion Test facility. As part of MSFC's Space Transportation Directorate, the Propulsion Research Center serves as a national resource for research of advanced, revolutionary propulsion technologies. The mission is to move the Nation's capabilities beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of aircraft-like access to Earth orbit, rapid travel throughout the solar system, and exploration of interstellar space.

  2. Research Technology

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-11-01

    Researchers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have designed, fabricated, and tested the first solar thermal engine, a non-chemical rocket engine that produces lower thrust but has better thrust efficiency than a chemical combustion engine. MSFC turned to solar thermal propulsion in the early 1990s due to its simplicity, safety, low cost, and commonality with other propulsion systems. Solar thermal propulsion works by acquiring and redirecting solar energy to heat a propellant. This photograph shows a fully assembled solar thermal engine placed inside the vacuum chamber at the test facility prior to testing. The 20- by 24-ft heliostat mirror (not shown in this photograph) has a dual-axis control that keeps a reflection of the sunlight on the 18-ft diameter concentrator mirror, which then focuses the sunlight to a 4-in focal point inside the vacuum chamber. The focal point has 10 kilowatts of intense solar power. As part of MSFC's Space Transportation Directorate, the Propulsion Research Center serves as a national resource for research of advanced, revolutionary propulsion technologies. The mission is to move theNation's capabilities beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of aircraft-like access to Earth orbit, rapid travel throughout the solar system, and exploration of interstellar space.

  3. Research Technology

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-03-01

    Researchers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have designed, fabricated, and tested the first solar thermal engine, a non-chemical rocket engine that produces lower thrust but has better thrust efficiency than a chemical combustion engine. MSFC turned to solar thermal propulsion in the early 1990s due to its simplicity, safety, low cost, and commonality with other propulsion systems. Solar thermal propulsion works by acquiring and redirecting solar energy to heat a propellant. The 20- by 24-ft heliostat mirror (not shown in this photograph) has a dual-axis control that keeps a reflection of the sunlight on the 18-ft diameter concentrator mirror, which then focuses the sunlight to a 4-in focal point inside the vacuum chamber. The focal point has 10 kilowatts of intense solar power. This image, taken during the test, depicts the light being concentrated into the focal point inside the vacuum chamber. As part of MSFC's Space Transportation Directorate, the Propulsion Research Center serves as a national resource for research of advanced, revolutionary propulsion technologies. The mission is to move the Nation's capabilities beyond the confines of conventional chemical propulsion into an era of aircraft-like access to Earth orbit, rapid travel throughout the solar system, and exploration of interstellar space.

  4. 2008 Research Portfolio: Research & Development Division

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Educational Testing Service, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This document describes the breadth of the research being conducted in 2008 by the Research and Development Division at Educational Testing Service (ETS). The research described falls into three large categories: (1) Research supported by the ETS research allocation; (2) Research funded by testing programs at ETS; and (3) Research funded by…

  5. RICIS research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Charles W.; Feagin, Terry; Bishop, Peter C.; Hallum, Cecil R.; Freedman, Glenn B.

    1987-01-01

    The principle focus of one of the RICIS (Research Institute for Computing and Information Systems) components is computer systems and software engineering in-the-large of the lifecycle of large, complex, distributed systems which: (1) evolve incrementally over a long time; (2) contain non-stop components; and (3) must simultaneously satisfy a prioritized balance of mission and safety critical requirements at run time. This focus is extremely important because of the contribution of the scaling direction problem to the current software crisis. The Computer Systems and Software Engineering (CSSE) component addresses the lifestyle issues of three environments: host, integration, and target.

  6. Biomedical research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Biomedical problems encountered by man in space which have been identified as a result of previous experience in simulated or actual spaceflight include cardiovascular deconditioning, motion sickness, bone loss, muscle atrophy, red cell alterations, fluid and electrolyte loss, radiation effects, radiation protection, behavior, and performance. The investigations and the findings in each of these areas were reviewed. A description of how biomedical research is organized within NASA, how it is funded, and how it is being reoriented to meet the needs of future manned space missions is also provided.

  7. Research Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The GENETI-SCANNER, newest product of Perceptive Scientific Instruments, Inc. (PSI), rapidly scans slides, locates, digitizes, measures and classifies specific objects and events in research and diagnostic applications. Founded by former NASA employees, PSI's primary product line is based on NASA image processing technology. The instruments karyotype - a process employed in analysis and classification of chromosomes - using a video camera mounted on a microscope. Images are digitized, enabling chromosome image enhancement. The system enables karyotyping to be done significantly faster, increasing productivity and lowering costs. Product is no longer being manufactured.

  8. Robotics research

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, M.; Paul, R.

    1984-01-01

    Organized around a view of robotics as ''the intelligent connection of perception to action,'' the fifty-three contributions collected in this book present leading current research in one of the fastest moving fields of artificial intelligence. Readings Include: Hand-Eye Coordination in Rope Handling; 3-D Balance Using 2-D algorithms. A Model Driven Visual Inspection Module: Stereo Vision: Complexity and Constraints; Interpretation of Contact Geometers from Force Measurement; The Utah MIT Dextrous Hand: Work in Progress; Hierarchical Nonlinear Control for Robots; VAL-11; A Robot Programming Language and Control System; Technological Barriers in Robotics: A Perspective from Industry.

  9. Riblet Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Research at Langley on skin friction drag was described in Tech Briefs. 3M engineers suggested to Langley that grooves molded into a lightweight plastic film with adhesive backing and pressed on an airplane would be simpler than cutting grooves directly onto the surface. Boeing became involved and tested the "riblet" on an olympic rowing shell; the US won a silver medal. Based on the riblet-like projections on shark's skins, the technology may provide a 5 percent fuel saving for airplanes. Product is no longer commercially available.

  10. Research roundtable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A blue-ribbon panel of government, university, and industry leaders has been established to explore alternative approaches to strengthening their relationships.The 18 member Government- University-Industry-Research Roundtable Council, organized as an independent unit under the aegis of the council of the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), will address issues affecting and limiting the vitality of science in the United States. Thirteen of the 18 members are from universities and industry; 5 are senior federal officials. Dale R. Corson, president emeritus of Cornell University, is chairman of the roundtable council.

  11. Atomic research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadaway, James B.; Connatser, Robert; Cothren, Bobby; Johnson, R. B.

    1993-01-01

    Work performed by the University of Alabama in Huntsville's (UAH) Center for Applied Optics (CAO) entitled Atomic Research is documented. Atomic oxygen (AO) effects on materials have long been a critical concern in designing spacecraft to withstand exposure to the Low Earth Orbit (LEO) environment. The objective of this research effort was to provide technical expertise in the design of instrumentation and experimental techniques for analyzing materials exposed to atomic oxygen in accelerated testing at NASA/MSFC. Such testing was required to answer fundamental questions concerning Space Station Freedom (SSF) candidate materials and materials exposed to atomic oxygen aboard the Long-Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). The primary UAH task was to provide technical design, review, and analysis to MSFC in the development of a state-of-the-art 5eV atomic oxygen beam facility required to simulate the RAM-induced low earth orbit (LEO) AO environment. This development was to be accomplished primarily at NASA/MSFC. In support of this task, contamination effects and ultraviolet (UV) simulation testing was also to be carried out using NASA/MSFC facilities. Any materials analysis of LDEF samples was to be accomplished at UAH.

  12. Structures research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abu-Saba, Elias; Mcginley, Williams; Shen, Ji-Yao

    1992-01-01

    The main objective of the structures group is to provide quality aerospace research with the Center for Aerospace Research - A NASA Center for Excellence at North Carolina Agricultural and Technical State University. The group includes dedicated faculty and students who have a proven record in the area of structures, in particular space structures. The participating faculty developed accurate mathematical models and effective computational algorithms to characterize the flexibility parameters of joint dominated beam-truss structures. Both experimental and theoretical modelling has been applied to the dynamic mode shapes and mode frequencies for a large truss system. During the past few months, the above procedures has been applied to the hypersonic transport plane model. The plane structure has been modeled as a lumped mass system by Doctor Abu-Saba while Doctor Shen applied the transfer matrix method with a piecewise continuous Timoshenko tapered beam model. Results from both procedures compare favorably with those obtained using the finite element method. These two methods are more compact and require less computer time than the finite element method. The group intends to perform experiments on structural systems including the hypersonic plane model to verify the results from the theoretical models.

  13. Glass Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinberg, M. C.

    1985-01-01

    Research efforts span three general areas of glass science: glass refining, gel-derived glasses, and nucleation and crystallization of glasses. Gas bubbles which are present in a glass product are defects which may render the glass totally useless for the end application. For example, optical glasses, laser host glasses, and a variety of other specialty glasses must be prepared virtually defect free to be employable. Since a major mechanism of bubble removal, buoyant rise, is virtually inoperative in microgravity, glass fining will be especially difficult in space. On the other hand, the suppression of buoyant rise and the ability to perform containerless melting experiments in space allows the opportunity to carry out several unique bubble experiments in space. Gas bubble dissolution studies may be performed at elevated temperatures for large bubbles with negligible bubble motion. Also, bubble nucleation studies may be performed without the disturbing feature of heterogeneous bubble nucleation at the platinum walls. Ground based research efforts are being performed in support of these potential flight experiments.

  14. Heart Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    James Antaki and a group of researchers from the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine used many elements of the Technology Utilization Program while looking for a way to visualize and track material points within the heart muscle. What they needed were tiny artificial "eggs" containing copper sulfate solution, small enough (about 2 mm in diameter) that they would not injure the heart, and large enough to be seen in Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) images; they also had to be biocompatible and tough enough to withstand the beating of the muscle. The group could not make nor buy sufficient containers. After reading an article on microspheres in NASA Tech Briefs, and a complete set of reports on microencapsulation from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), JPL put Antaki in touch with Dr.Taylor Wang of Vanderbilt University who helped construct the myocardial markers. The research is expected to lead to improved understanding of how the heart works and what takes place when it fails.

  15. Research sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englund, David R.

    1987-01-01

    The program described covers development of sensors and sensing techniques for research applications on aeropropulsion systems. In general, the sensors are used in-situ to measure the environment at a given location within a turbine engine, or to measure the response of an engine component to the imposed environment. Locations of concern are generally in the gas path and, for the most part, are within the hot section. Specific parameters of concern are dynamic gas temperature, heat flux, airfoil surface temperature, and strain on airfoils and combustor liners. In order to minimize the intrusiveness of surface-mounted sensors, a considerable effort was expended to develop thin-film sensors for surface temperature, strain, and heat flux measurements. Most of the work described is sufficiently advanced that sensors were used and useful data were obtained. The notable exception is the work to develop a high-temperature static strain measuring capability; this work is still in progress.

  16. Research Technology

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1999-05-12

    The Gasdynamic Mirror, or GDM, is an example of a magnetic mirror-based fusion propulsion system. Its design is primarily consisting of a long slender solenoid surrounding a vacuum chamber that contains plasma. The bulk of the fusion plasma is confined by magnetic field generated by a series of toroidal-shaped magnets in the center section of the device. the purpose of the GDM Fusion Propulsion Experiment is to confirm the feasibility of the concept and to demonstrate many of the operational characteristics of a full-size plasma can be confined within the desired physical configuration and still reman stable. This image shows an engineer from Propulsion Research Technologies Division at Marshall Space Flight Center inspecting solenoid magnets-A, an integrate part of the Gasdynamic Mirror Fusion Propulsion Engine Experiment.

  17. Research Brief.

    PubMed

    Schoenfelder, Erin; McCabe, Connor; Fife, Aurora; Herzig, Lisa; Ahrens, Kym

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents with ADHD are at risk of functional problems that may be mitigated by consistent ADHD treatment. This study pilots a brief intervention for adolescents with ADHD and their parents to increase treatment knowledge and family motivation to seek treatment. The 3-hr curriculum was developed by a multidisciplinary team and included psychoeducation, goal setting, and motivational interviewing. Fifteen adolescents and 20 caregivers participated in the workshop, completed pre- and post-test assessments, and reported on acceptability. Acceptability and satisfaction with the intervention were high. Perceived knowledge of ADHD increased post intervention; stigma was unchanged. Parents reported more acceptability of stimulant medications and less willingness to use special diets or cognitive games. Family feedback informed modifications to the curriculum. The Teen ADHD Workshop is a feasible and acceptable intervention to increase knowledge of ADHD and evidence-based treatments. Further research will evaluate effects on treatment participation.

  18. Speech Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Several articles addressing topics in speech research are presented. The topics include: exploring the functional significance of physiological tremor: A biospectroscopic approach; differences between experienced and inexperienced listeners to deaf speech; a language-oriented view of reading and its disabilities; Phonetic factors in letter detection; categorical perception; Short-term recall by deaf signers of American sign language; a common basis for auditory sensory storage in perception and immediate memory; phonological awareness and verbal short-term memory; initiation versus execution time during manual and oral counting by stutterers; trading relations in the perception of speech by five-year-old children; the role of the strap muscles in pitch lowering; phonetic validation of distinctive features; consonants and syllable boundaires; and vowel information in postvocalic frictions.

  19. Research sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Englund, David R.

    1988-01-01

    The work described is part of a program (Englund and Seasholtz, 1988) to develop sensors and sensing techniques for research applications on aircraft turbine engines. In general, the sensors are used to measure the environment at a given location within a turbine engine or to measure the response of an engine component to the imposed environment. Locations of concern are generally in the gas path and, for the most part, are within the hot section. Specific parameters of concern are dynamic gas temperature, heat flux, airfoil surface temperature, and strain on airfoils and combustor liners. To minimize the intrusiveness of surface-mounted sensors, a considerable effort was expended to develop thin-film sensors for surface temperature, strain, and heat flux measurements. In addition, an optical system for viewing the interior of an operating combustor was developed. Most of the work described is sufficiently advanced that the sensors were used and useful data were obtained. The notable exception is the work to develop a high-temperature static strain measuring capability; the work is still in progress.

  20. Research Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-01-01

    In situ Oxidation Study of Pt (110) and Its Interaction with CO Chinese Scientists Published a Paper on Prevention of Drug Craving and Relapse by Memory Retrieval-extinction Procedure in Science Series Papers Published in Energy Policy: Modeling Energy Use of China's Road Transport and Policy Evaluation Breakthrough in the Ambient Catalytic Destruction of Formaldehyde Novel Findings for High Altitude Adaptation from the Yak Genome Binary Colloidal Structures Assembled through Ising Interactions Reemergence of superconductivity at 48K in Compressed Iron Selenide Based Superconductors Nucleosomes Suppress Spontaneous Mutations Base-Specifically in Eukaryotes Single-Chain Fragmented Antibodies Guided SiRNA Delivery in Breast Cancer Does Yeast Suicide? China Scientists Developed Important Methodologies for Spatiotemporal Detecting and Manipulating of Cellular Activities Scorpions Inspire Chinese Scientists in Making Bionic Non-eroding Surfaces for Machinery Research on Phylogenetic Placement of Borthwickia and Description of a New Family of Angiosperms, Borthwickiaceae Plasmoid Ejection and Secondary Current Sheet Generation from Magnetic Reconnection in Laser-plasma Interaction Cotton Bollworm Adapts to Bt Cotton via Diverse Mutations A Histone Acetyltransferase Regulates Active DNA Demethylation in Arabidopsis

  1. Research Technology

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2002-03-11

    Engineers at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have begun a series of engine tests on a new breed of space propulsion: a Reaction Control Engine developed for the Space Launch Initiative (SLI). The engine, developed by TRW Space and Electronics of Redondo Beach, California, is an auxiliary propulsion engine designed to maneuver vehicles in orbit. It is used for docking, reentry, attitude control, and fine-pointing while the vehicle is in orbit. The engine uses nontoxic chemicals as propellants, a feature that creates a safer environment for ground operators, lowers cost, and increases efficiency with less maintenance and quicker turnaround time between missions. Testing includes 30 hot-firings. This photograph shows the first engine test performed at MSFC that includes SLI technology. Another unique feature of the Reaction Control Engine is that it operates at dual thrust modes, combining two engine functions into one engine. The engine operates at both 25 and 1,000 pounds of force, reducing overall propulsion weight and allowing vehicles to easily maneuver in space. The low-level thrust of 25 pounds of force allows the vehicle to fine-point maneuver and dock while the high-level thrust of 1,000 pounds of force is used for reentry, orbit transfer, and coarse positioning. SLI is a NASA-wide research and development program, managed by the MSFC, designed to improve safety, reliability, and cost effectiveness of space travel for second generation reusable launch vehicles.

  2. Research Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawes, Lyn

    2004-06-01

    This paper examines what is important about talk between learners during school science and, having identified this, suggests how we can ensure that what we consider important happens. By looking at the interaction between teachers and learners talking about science, it is possible to indicate ways in which learners can be helped to continue this learning conversation with one another when teacher support is withdrawn. Strategies for teaching and learning are examined. The paper reports on the findings of a research project designed to teach children how to negotiate their ideas about science concepts through rational dialogue. Children's development of scientific concepts in classrooms is undertaken through structured activity and mediated through oral language. Children must move forward simultaneously in their use of specialized vocabulary and in their understanding of current scientific explanations, models and ideas. New language and new ways of using language are learned by doing, which means for children, primarily speaking and listening. Children's understanding of science can benefit from teaching them to understand that spoken language is a powerful tool for thinking together.

  3. Building research capital to facilitate research

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The National Institute for Health Research, Research Design Service (NIHR RDS) was set up to increase the number and proportion of high quality applications for funding for applied and patient focused health and social care research. Access to specialist expertise and collaboration between researchers and health practitioners at the proposal development stage is crucial for high quality applied health research. In this essay we develop the concept of ‘research capital’ to describe the wide range of resources and expertise required to develop fundable research projects. It highlights the key role the RDS plays supporting researchers to broker relationships to access the requisite ‘research capital’. PMID:23557109

  4. Building research capital to facilitate research.

    PubMed

    Green, Gill; Rein, Melanie

    2013-04-04

    The National Institute for Health Research, Research Design Service (NIHR RDS) was set up to increase the number and proportion of high quality applications for funding for applied and patient focused health and social care research. Access to specialist expertise and collaboration between researchers and health practitioners at the proposal development stage is crucial for high quality applied health research. In this essay we develop the concept of 'research capital' to describe the wide range of resources and expertise required to develop fundable research projects. It highlights the key role the RDS plays supporting researchers to broker relationships to access the requisite 'research capital'.

  5. Research for the Classroom: Teachers Practicing Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorlewski, Julie, Ed.; Roberts, Mike

    2009-01-01

    How can teachers merge research and daily practice? Where can they find the time, information, and resources? In exploring this issue, it is important to clarify the definition of "research". "Research" might mean (1) using best practices that are already research-based or (2) doing research on one's own students. For purposes of discussion in…

  6. Research Productivity and Academics' Conceptions of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brew, Angela; Boud, David; Namgung, Sang Un; Lucas, Lisa; Crawford, Karin

    2016-01-01

    This paper asks the question: do people with different levels of research productivity and identification as a researcher think of research differently? It discusses a study that differentiated levels of research productivity among English and Australian academics working in research-intensive environments in three broad discipline areas: science,…

  7. Research Productivity and Academics' Conceptions of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brew, Angela; Boud, David; Namgung, Sang Un; Lucas, Lisa; Crawford, Karin

    2016-01-01

    This paper asks the question: do people with different levels of research productivity and identification as a researcher think of research differently? It discusses a study that differentiated levels of research productivity among English and Australian academics working in research-intensive environments in three broad discipline areas: science,…

  8. Questions and Research Strategies: One Researcher's Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Chere Campbell

    1990-01-01

    Considers the practice of using research from other fields for application to distance education concerns. Topics discussed include research methods from various social science disciplines; the nature of scientific inquiry; purposes of research; the politics and ethics of research; and research strategies. (24 references) (LRW)

  9. Training Researchers To Commercialize Research Results.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Sijde, P. C.; Cuyvers, R.

    2003-01-01

    A training course was designed to prepare researchers for research commercialization for researchers. It introduces concepts involved in the publishing of knowledge such as protection of intellectual property, spin-off companies, and working with commercial companies. (JOW)

  10. Wood Protection Research Council: Research Priorities 2013

    Treesearch

    Carol A Clausen; Frederick Green III; Grant T. Kirker; Stan T. Lebow

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes presentations and comments from the inaugural Wood Protection Research Council meeting. Research needs for the wood protection industry were identified and prioritized. Methods for successfully addressing research needs were discussed by industry, academia, and association representatives.

  11. African primary care research: participatory action research.

    PubMed

    Mash, Bob

    2014-03-05

    This article is part of the series on African primary care research and focuses on participatory action research. The article gives an overview of the emancipatory-critical research paradigm, the key characteristics and different types of participatory action research. Following this it describes in detail the methodological issues involved in professional participatory action research and running a cooperative inquiry group. The article is intended to help students with writing their research proposal.

  12. African Primary Care Research: Participatory action research

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This article is part of the series on African primary care research and focuses on participatory action research. The article gives an overview of the emancipatory-critical research paradigm, the key characteristics and different types of participatory action research. Following this it describes in detail the methodological issues involved in professional participatory action research and running a cooperative inquiry group. The article is intended to help students with writing their research proposal. PMID:26245439

  13. A new chapter in doctoral candidate training: The Helmholtz Space Life Sciences Research School (SpaceLife)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellweg, C. E.; Gerzer, R.; Reitz, G.

    2011-05-01

    In the field of space life sciences, the demand of an interdisciplinary and specific training of young researchers is high due to the complex interaction of medical, biological, physical, technical and other questions. The Helmholtz Space Life Sciences Research School (SpaceLife) offers an excellent interdisciplinary training for doctoral students from different fields (biology, biochemistry, biotechnology, physics, psychology, nutrition or sports sciences and related fields) and any country. SpaceLife is coordinated by the Institute of Aerospace Medicine at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in Cologne. The German Universities in Kiel, Bonn, Aachen, Regensburg, Magdeburg and Berlin, and the German Sports University (DSHS) in Cologne are members of SpaceLife. The Universities of Erlangen-Nürnberg, Frankfurt, Hohenheim, and the Beihang University in Beijing are associated partners. In each generation, up to 25 students can participate in the three-year program. Students learn to develop integrated concepts to solve health issues in human spaceflight and in related disease patterns on Earth, and to further explore the requirements for life in extreme environments, enabling a better understanding of the ecosystem Earth and the search for life on other planets in unmanned and manned missions. The doctoral candidates are coached by two specialist supervisors from DLR and the partner university, and a mentor. All students attend lectures in different subfields of space life sciences to attain an overview of the field: radiation and gravitational biology, astrobiology and space physiology, including psychological aspects of short and long term space missions. Seminars, advanced lectures, laboratory courses and stays at labs at the partner institutions or abroad are offered as elective course and will provide in-depth knowledge of the chosen subfield or allow to appropriate innovative methods. In Journal Clubs of the participating working groups, doctoral students learn

  14. Mixed methods research.

    PubMed

    Halcomb, Elizabeth; Hickman, Louise

    2015-04-08

    Mixed methods research involves the use of qualitative and quantitative data in a single research project. It represents an alternative methodological approach, combining qualitative and quantitative research approaches, which enables nurse researchers to explore complex phenomena in detail. This article provides a practical overview of mixed methods research and its application in nursing, to guide the novice researcher considering a mixed methods research project.

  15. Automated operator procedure prompting for startup of Experimental Breeder Reactor-2

    SciTech Connect

    Renshaw, A.W.; Ball, S.J.; Ford, C.E.

    1990-11-01

    This report describes the development of an operator procedure prompting aid for startup of a nuclear reactor. This operator aid is a preliminary design for a similar aid that eventually will be used with the Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) presently in the design stage. Two approaches were used to develop this operator procedure prompting aid. One method uses an expert system software shell, and the other method uses database software. The preliminary requirements strongly pointed toward features traditionally associated with both database and expert systems software. Database software usually provides data manipulation flexibility and user interface tools, and expert systems tools offer sophisticated data representation and reasoning capabilities. Both methods, including software and associated hardware, are described in this report. Proposals for future enhancements to improve the expert system approach to procedure prompting and for developing other operator aids are also offered. 25 refs., 14 figs.

  16. Stories on Research, Research on Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petit, Sandrine; Mougenot, Catherine; Fleury, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    This article deals with a group of researchers involved in Participatory Action Research projects on biodiversity and who volunteered to take part in a "storytelling" experiment. Their "stories" were used to describe this new type of research collective comprising various partners, including researchers and managers, focused on obtaining directly…

  17. Research and Research Methods in Geographical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Norman J., Ed.

    This collection of papers examines research methods in geographical education in nine countries. "Research Methods in the History of Geographical Education" (William Marsden, the United Kingdom) examines the methods used and some of the research undertaken in the history of geographical education. "Research Methods in Investigating…

  18. Research and Research Methods in Geographical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Norman J., Ed.

    This collection of papers examines research methods in geographical education in nine countries. "Research Methods in the History of Geographical Education" (William Marsden, the United Kingdom) examines the methods used and some of the research undertaken in the history of geographical education. "Research Methods in Investigating…

  19. Researching Research: Mathematics Education in the Political

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pais, Alexandre; Valero, Paola

    2012-01-01

    We discuss contemporary theories in mathematics education in order to do research on research. Our strategy consists of analysing discursively and ideologically recent key publications addressing the role of theory in mathematics education research. We examine how the field fabricates its object of research by deploying Foucault's notion of…

  20. Developing Professional Researchers: Research Students' Graduate Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manathunga, Catherine; Lant, Paul; Mellick, George

    2007-01-01

    The impetus to broaden the scope of research education is not new. Since the 1970s, concern has been expressed about the suitability of research education as preparation for a research career outside academe. Universities have been criticized for producing over-specialized research graduates, who struggle to apply their expertise to new workplace…

  1. Developing Professional Researchers: Research Students' Graduate Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manathunga, Catherine; Lant, Paul; Mellick, George

    2007-01-01

    The impetus to broaden the scope of research education is not new. Since the 1970s, concern has been expressed about the suitability of research education as preparation for a research career outside academe. Universities have been criticized for producing over-specialized research graduates, who struggle to apply their expertise to new workplace…

  2. 1991 research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Selected research and technology activities at Ames Research Center, including the Moffett Field site and the Dryden Flight Research Facility, are summarized. These activities exemplify the Center's varied and productive research efforts for 1991.

  3. Research and Technology, 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Selected research and technology activities at Ames Research Center, including the Moffett Field site and the Dryden Flight Research Facility, are summarized. These accomplishments exemplify the Center's varied and highly productive research efforts for 1989.

  4. Reading a Research Article.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schantz, Donna; Lindeman, Carol A.

    1982-01-01

    The authors present guidelines for reading a research report. They discuss the format for research reports and point out critical questions to keep in mind when critiquing a research study or reading published research reports. (Editor)

  5. Research and technology, 1992

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Selected research and technology activities at Ames Research Center, including the Moffett Field site and the Dryden Flight Research Facility, are summarized. These activities exemplify the Center's varied and productive research efforts for 1992.

  6. Social Biography and Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crepeau, Elizabeth Blesedell

    1997-01-01

    A researcher's life experiences cannot help but influence the research process. Including elements of one's social biography in research reports helps readers identify how a researcher's history and biases shaped the study. (SK)

  7. Dystonia Medical Research Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Member Joins Peer Review of DOD Peer Reviewed Medical Research Program More News Support Groups Join the DMRF ... of Dystonia Research Research News Funding Programs Current Research Dystonia Coalition ... Connect Contact Us Privacy Policy Support Groups Calendar

  8. Outline of Current Research.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    MEDICAL RESEARCH, *SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH, DATA PROCESSING, BIOCHEMISTRY, REPORTS, PATHOLOGY, INFECTIOUS DISEASES, EPIDEMIOLOGY, MICROBIOLOGY, ECOLOGY, PARASITIC DISEASES, DISEASE VECTORS, VETERINARY MEDICINE .

  9. The School Research Lead

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Tom

    2015-01-01

    The researchED movement has generated a new debate about the role of research in schools. Of course there have always been teachers interested in undertaking research and applying the research findings of others. However, involvement in research has tended to be the personal enthusiasm of the individual teacher rather than a coordinated whole…

  10. Research and technology, 1993

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Selected research and technology activities at Ames Research Center, including the Moffett Field site and the Dryden Flight Research Facility, are summarized. These activities exemplify the center's varied and productive research efforts for 1993. This year's report presents some of the challenging work recently accomplished in the areas of aerospace systems, flight operations and research, aerophysics, and space research.

  11. From Evaluation to Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arthur, Linet; Cox, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally there has been a tension between evaluation research and so-called pure research which has resulted in evaluation research seldom being recognized by the UK Research Assessment Exercises. The newly configured Research Excellence Framework (REF) will use similar criteria to judge research, notwithstanding the introduction of…

  12. Participatory Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Martha Lentz

    1993-01-01

    Describes aspects of participatory action research and considers advantages of using participatory action research in research by disabilities and rehabilitation researchers. Notes that participatory action research can be built into any rehabilitation research design but that it rests upon the recognition of persons with disabilities as integral…

  13. Research Exchange, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Research Exchange, 2002

    2002-01-01

    These three issues of the "Research Exchange" focus on how better to conduct disability research and disseminate research results. The first issue examines the topic of human subject/human research participant protection, with a focus on research funded through the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR). It…

  14. Participatory Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Martha Lentz

    1993-01-01

    Describes aspects of participatory action research and considers advantages of using participatory action research in research by disabilities and rehabilitation researchers. Notes that participatory action research can be built into any rehabilitation research design but that it rests upon the recognition of persons with disabilities as integral…

  15. Tackling the true prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in 16 tons of frankfurters

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Given its ubiquity, persistence, and pathogenicity in our food supply, Listeria monocytogenes remains a serious threat to public health. To minimize the load and occurrence of the pathogen and concomitantly continue efforts to develop and implement effective interventions to ensure that an infectio...

  16. [Frankfurt group social communication and interaction skills training for children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders].

    PubMed

    Herbrecht, Evelyn; Poustka, Fritz

    2007-01-01

    Despite the recognition of the need for group-based training programmes for children and adolescents with autistic disorders, there are only very few specific German-speaking training programmes available. Since 2003, a structured group training programme on social skills for children and adolescents with high-functioning autism or Asperger syndrome has been developed and conducted at our department. The training programme focuses on the main deficits of those disorders. Thus, the primary goal is to improve communication and interaction skills. Participants are children and adolescents without significant cognitive and language delays. Principles of intervention include structured formats, combination of theoretical and practical elements, predictable rules, consideration of individual difficulties, and sequential and progressive learning. Techniques range from structured games, the training of affect recognition, group activities, role play, team discussions, and feedback to homework using a newly designed manual on our group-based social skill training programme and curriculum. Generally, three groups of 5-7 participants each and of different age range (children, adolescents) meet weekly/biweekly for 1-1.5 hours (excluding the holidays). Two trainers--who change during the programme--carry out each of the sessions. Trainers meet regularly with the parents to discuss experiences and to provide details of the programme. Acceptance by and satisfaction with the programme are high among participants, as is the mutual recognition of and tolerance of their respective problems. Both feedback from parents and trainers' clinical impressions indicate distinct improvement of verbalization and contact abilities. Participants seem to benefit particularly from role play. Qualtitative measures (impressions of the participants, their parents and their trainers with regard to change in behaviour skills) suggest mounting interaction, communication, and problem-solving skills during the group treatment. An ongoing pilot evaluation also includes measurements of effects in everyday settings. Depending on the results, the training subsequently could be conducted and evaluated in groups with both pervasive developmental, as well as other psychiatric disorders.

  17. 9 CFR 319.180 - Frankfurter, frank, furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... sausages are comminuted, semisolid sausages prepared from one or more kinds of raw skeletal muscle meat or raw skeletal muscle meat and raw or cooked poultry meat, and seasoned and cured, using one or more of... consisting of not less than 15 percent of one or more kinds of raw skeletal muscle meat with raw meat...

  18. 9 CFR 319.180 - Frankfurter, frank, furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... sausages are comminuted, semisolid sausages prepared from one or more kinds of raw skeletal muscle meat or raw skeletal muscle meat and raw or cooked poultry meat, and seasoned and cured, using one or more of... consisting of not less than 15 percent of one or more kinds of raw skeletal muscle meat with raw meat...

  19. 9 CFR 319.180 - Frankfurter, frank, furter, hotdog, weiner, vienna, bologna, garlic bologna, knockwurst, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... sausages are comminuted, semisolid sausages prepared from one or more kinds of raw skeletal muscle meat or raw skeletal muscle meat and raw or cooked poultry meat, and seasoned and cured, using one or more of... consisting of not less than 15 percent of one or more kinds of raw skeletal muscle meat with raw meat...

  20. Bioventing and Natural Attenuation Technology Demonstration at Rhein-Main Air Base, Frankfurt, Germany

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    This project involved the installation and operation of a bioventing system and the evaluation of natural attenuation of a mixed fuels spill at the...LImin (7 cfm) at a pressure of 24 psi (165 kP). Data gathered indicated that bioventing was stimulating biodegradation of the hydrocarbon contaminants at

  1. [Validation of the Spanish version of the Frankfurt Emotion Work Scales].

    PubMed

    Ortiz Bonnín, Silvia; Navarro Guzmán, Capilla; García Buades, Esther; Ramis Palmer, Carmen; Manassero Mas, M Antonia

    2012-05-01

    This study presents the validity and reliability analysis of a questionnaire that assesses emotion work in the service sector. Emotion work is a term introduced by Hochschild (1983) and it refers to the expression of organizationally desirable emotions to influence the interactions with clients at work. The results show a 6-factor structure: Requirement to display Positive, Negative and Neutral Emotions, Sensitivity Requirements, Interaction Control and Emotional Dissonance. The analysis of the sub-scale scores reveals that the most frequently expressed emotions are positive, whereas negative emotions are expressed less frequently.

  2. Involvement in research without compromising research quality.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Ruth; Liabo, Kristin

    2012-10-01

    Health research funders in the UK now ask applicants to state how their research will involve patients and members of the public. Such involvement can help with questions that researchers repeatedly face: about improving trial recruitment, response rates and follow-up. Patient and Public Involvement (PPI) in research is usually presented in the form of a ladder, from a low rung where studies are led by researchers with no patient involvement, to a high rung where studies are patient-led. This hierarchy does not sit well with many clinicians and academics whose expertise appears to have been downgraded. This article argues that research quality and relevance are optimised when patient expertise is integrated with researchers' and policy-makers' expertise, and each role acknowledged and valued, illustrated by an alternative model for PPI which places research and expertise at the centre of the involvement enterprise.

  3. Case Study Research Methodology in Nursing Research.

    PubMed

    Cope, Diane G

    2015-11-01

    Through data collection methods using a holistic approach that focuses on variables in a natural setting, qualitative research methods seek to understand participants' perceptions and interpretations. Common qualitative research methods include ethnography, phenomenology, grounded theory, and historic research. Another type of methodology that has a similar qualitative approach is case study research, which seeks to understand a phenomenon or case from multiple perspectives within a given real-world context.

  4. Teacher as Researcher: Teaching as Lived Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Marni

    2012-01-01

    Teacher inquiry can shape empirical inquiries by nonpracticing researchers, by allowing them to draw on the practical knowledge of those in the classroom. This recognition challenged the author to question what legitimized her role as a teacher-researcher and ask how she could have felt empowered as a researcher without higher education. In this…

  5. Teacher as Researcher: Teaching as Lived Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Marni

    2012-01-01

    Teacher inquiry can shape empirical inquiries by nonpracticing researchers, by allowing them to draw on the practical knowledge of those in the classroom. This recognition challenged the author to question what legitimized her role as a teacher-researcher and ask how she could have felt empowered as a researcher without higher education. In this…

  6. Research Supervision: The Research Management Matrix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, T. W.; Smyth, Robyn

    2010-01-01

    We briefly make a case for re-conceptualising research project supervision/advising as the consideration of three inter-related areas: the learning and teaching process; developing the student; and producing the research project/outcome as a social practice. We use this as our theoretical base for an heuristic tool, "the research management…

  7. Research Supervision: The Research Management Matrix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, T. W.; Smyth, Robyn

    2010-01-01

    We briefly make a case for re-conceptualising research project supervision/advising as the consideration of three inter-related areas: the learning and teaching process; developing the student; and producing the research project/outcome as a social practice. We use this as our theoretical base for an heuristic tool, "the research management…

  8. USDA-Agricultural Research Service Irrigation Research

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ARS irrigation research program at the Delta Center is part of the USDA-ARS Cropping Systems and Water Quality Research Unit located at Columbia, Missouri. It began in 2000 with cooperative research between ARS scientists at Columbia and Delta Center faculty. By 2003 the program had expanded eno...

  9. Governing Knowledge: Research Steering and Research Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozga, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    This article argues that the "quality" debate in education research is not so much about quality as about creating the conditions in which research and knowledge production in the field of education can be managed and steered. The criticisms of research in education have destabilised the field and promoted its closer dependence on and…

  10. Researching Research in Master's Degrees in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sin, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The research dimension of higher education programmes is usually discussed in association with doctoral studies. Against a background of scarce literature investigating research in a Master's degree, this article aims to analyse the place of research in Master's qualifications, first, as envisaged by official European and national documents acting…

  11. Mixed methods research in music therapy research.

    PubMed

    Bradt, Joke; Burns, Debra S; Creswell, John W

    2013-01-01

    Music therapists have an ethical and professional responsibility to provide the highest quality care possible to their patients. Much of the time, high quality care is guided by evidence-based practice standards that integrate the most current, available research in making decisions. Accordingly, music therapists need research that integrates multiple ways of knowing and forms of evidence. Mixed methods research holds great promise for facilitating such integration. At this time, there have not been any methodological articles published on mixed methods research in music therapy. The purpose of this article is to introduce mixed methods research as an approach to address research questions relevant to music therapy practice. This article describes the core characteristics of mixed methods research, considers paradigmatic issues related to this research approach, articulates major challenges in conducting mixed methods research, illustrates four basic designs, and provides criteria for evaluating the quality of mixed methods articles using examples of mixed methods research from the music therapy literature. Mixed methods research offers unique opportunities for strengthening the evidence base in music therapy. Recommendations are provided to ensure rigorous implementation of this research approach.

  12. Research Leadership as Entrepreneurial Organizing for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Finn; Monsted, Mette

    2008-01-01

    The paper discusses research leadership in public universities under change and the role of entrepreneurial strategies in research. Research leadership function today in situations where the New Public Management movement one the one hand have introduced management by accountability and control in the university while on the other hand open…

  13. Research: The Trouble with Research, Part 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2004-01-01

    Overall the past decade has not been kind to educational research. First, some "research" has been subordinated to and corrupted by ideology. Second, there has been substantial questioning of what educational research should be and a fear that the federal government is moving to a rigid orthodoxy in defining what counts as…

  14. Researching Research in Master's Degrees in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sin, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    The research dimension of higher education programmes is usually discussed in association with doctoral studies. Against a background of scarce literature investigating research in a Master's degree, this article aims to analyse the place of research in Master's qualifications, first, as envisaged by official European and national documents acting…

  15. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2004 Research Accomplishments

    Treesearch

    Rick Fletcher

    2005-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of six regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization - the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 14-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains, and parts of the Great...

  16. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2003 Research Accomplishments

    Treesearch

    Rick Fletcher

    2004-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of six regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization - the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 14-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains and parts of the Great...

  17. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2010 Research Accomplishments

    Treesearch

    Rick Fletcher

    2010-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of seven regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization ­ the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 12-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains, and parts of the Great Plains...

  18. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2007 Research Accomplishments

    Treesearch

    Rick Fletcher

    2008-01-01

    This past year has been a period of transition for the Rocky Mountain Research Station. In 2006, we identified the need to move from an organization of approximately 30 research work units whose work was formed around national Strategic Program Areas, to a more streamlined team-oriented organization composed of Science Programs and Research, Development, and...

  19. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2002 Research Accomplishments

    Treesearch

    Rick Fletcher

    2003-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station is one of six regional units that make up the USDA Forest Service Research and Development organization - the most extensive natural resources research organization in the world. We maintain 12 field laboratories throughout a 14-state territory encompassing the Great Basin, Southwest, Rocky Mountains and parts of the Great...

  20. Education and Conflict: Research and Research Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Kathryn; Benefield, Pauline

    2005-01-01

    This project aimed to undertake a scoping study of existent and potential research into the relationship between education and conflict, peace building and post-conflict situations, both nationally and internationally. Within this aim, the project investigates the main research dimensions of this area, identifies gaps in the research literature,…

  1. Glenn Research Center Human Research Program: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nall, Marsha M.; Myers, Jerry G.

    2013-01-01

    The NASA-Glenn Research Centers Human Research Program office supports a wide range of technology development efforts aimed at enabling extended human presence in space. This presentation provides a brief overview of the historical successes, current 2013 activities and future projects of NASA-GRCs Human Research Program.

  2. Research Leadership as Entrepreneurial Organizing for Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansson, Finn; Monsted, Mette

    2008-01-01

    The paper discusses research leadership in public universities under change and the role of entrepreneurial strategies in research. Research leadership function today in situations where the New Public Management movement one the one hand have introduced management by accountability and control in the university while on the other hand open…

  3. Rocky Mountain Research Station: 2006 Research Accomplishments

    Treesearch

    Rick Fletcher

    2007-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Research Station has a long and celebrated legacy of conducting relevant natural resources research throughout the Interior West and beyond. Land managers and planners regularly rely upon our science to help make wise resource decisions. Our niche among research organizations is distinct: mission-oriented, close to the customers, a reputation for...

  4. Researcher-researched relationship in qualitative research: Shifts in positions and researcher vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Råheim, Målfrid; Magnussen, Liv Heide; Sekse, Ragnhild Johanne Tveit; Lunde, Åshild; Jacobsen, Torild; Blystad, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    The researcher role is highly debated in qualitative research. This article concerns the researcher-researched relationship. A group of health science researchers anchored in various qualitative research traditions gathered in reflective group discussions over a period of two years. Efforts to establish an anti-authoritarian relationship between researcher and researched, negotiation of who actually "rules" the research agenda, and experiences of shifts in "inferior" and "superior" knowledge positions emerged as central and intertwined themes throughout the discussions. The dual role as both insider and outsider, characteristic of qualitative approaches, seemed to lead to power relations and researcher vulnerability which manifested in tangible ways. Shifting positions and vulnerability surfaced in various ways in the projects. They nonetheless indicated a number of similar experiences which can shed light on the researcher-researched relationship. These issues could benefit from further discussion in the qualitative health research literature.

  5. Questionable research practices among italian research psychologists.

    PubMed

    Agnoli, Franca; Wicherts, Jelte M; Veldkamp, Coosje L S; Albiero, Paolo; Cubelli, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    A survey in the United States revealed that an alarmingly large percentage of university psychologists admitted having used questionable research practices that can contaminate the research literature with false positive and biased findings. We conducted a replication of this study among Italian research psychologists to investigate whether these findings generalize to other countries. All the original materials were translated into Italian, and members of the Italian Association of Psychology were invited to participate via an online survey. The percentages of Italian psychologists who admitted to having used ten questionable research practices were similar to the results obtained in the United States although there were small but significant differences in self-admission rates for some QRPs. Nearly all researchers (88%) admitted using at least one of the practices, and researchers generally considered a practice possibly defensible if they admitted using it, but Italian researchers were much less likely than US researchers to consider a practice defensible. Participants' estimates of the percentage of researchers who have used these practices were greater than the self-admission rates, and participants estimated that researchers would be unlikely to admit it. In written responses, participants argued that some of these practices are not questionable and they have used some practices because reviewers and journals demand it. The similarity of results obtained in the United States, this study, and a related study conducted in Germany suggest that adoption of these practices is an international phenomenon and is likely due to systemic features of the international research and publication processes.

  6. Questionable research practices among italian research psychologists

    PubMed Central

    Wicherts, Jelte M.; Veldkamp, Coosje L. S.; Albiero, Paolo; Cubelli, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    A survey in the United States revealed that an alarmingly large percentage of university psychologists admitted having used questionable research practices that can contaminate the research literature with false positive and biased findings. We conducted a replication of this study among Italian research psychologists to investigate whether these findings generalize to other countries. All the original materials were translated into Italian, and members of the Italian Association of Psychology were invited to participate via an online survey. The percentages of Italian psychologists who admitted to having used ten questionable research practices were similar to the results obtained in the United States although there were small but significant differences in self-admission rates for some QRPs. Nearly all researchers (88%) admitted using at least one of the practices, and researchers generally considered a practice possibly defensible if they admitted using it, but Italian researchers were much less likely than US researchers to consider a practice defensible. Participants’ estimates of the percentage of researchers who have used these practices were greater than the self-admission rates, and participants estimated that researchers would be unlikely to admit it. In written responses, participants argued that some of these practices are not questionable and they have used some practices because reviewers and journals demand it. The similarity of results obtained in the United States, this study, and a related study conducted in Germany suggest that adoption of these practices is an international phenomenon and is likely due to systemic features of the international research and publication processes. PMID:28296929

  7. Basics of research (Part 12): Qualitative research.

    PubMed

    Thompson, C B; Walker, B L

    1998-01-01

    Although both the assumptions and methods of qualitative and quantitative approaches in nursing research are different, both have the goal of furthering the scientific basis for practice. A variety of qualitative approaches are available, and which approach to use depends on the purpose of the research. In general, qualitative investigations address broad questions related to description, discovery, or theory building, and, as a consequence, the researcher is concerned with the entire context surrounding the phenomenon of interest rather than concentrating on specific variables thought to influence that phenomenon. The type of data collected and the methods of analysis differ, but qualitative research demands the same careful attention to selecting a design appropriate to answer the research question and the same assurance of rigor in conducting the research and interpreting the results as is required in quantitative studies. When these issues are thoroughly addressed, the clinician has a basis for judging both the accuracy and the applicability of qualitative research findings.

  8. Arctic contaminants research program: Research plan

    SciTech Connect

    Landers, D.H.; Ford, J.; Allen, S.; Curtis, L.; Omernik, J.M.

    1992-12-01

    The research plan was initially intended to contain the information needed to evaluate the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Arctic Contaminant Research Program (ACRP). The scientific aspects of the proposed research form the main body of the document and focus on objectives of the specific research components, current literature, approach, and rationale. The ACRP has three major components: (1) extensive sampling of lichens, mosses, and soils to provide a spatial understanding of the status and extent of contaminants present in arctic ecosystems, (2) lake sediment research to evaluate the source and history of arctic contaminant inputs, and (3) food web research to evaluate the possible effects of atmospherically transported pollutants on arctic food webs. The research plan will be used to provide a framework for the ACRP, based on the preliminary studies done to date and will be implemented over the next five years. The Program will undergo additional peer reviews at two-year intervals in the future.

  9. RESEARCH IN LANGUAGE ARTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PETTY, WALTER T.

    VERY LITTLE IMPORTANT RESEARCH HAS BEEN DONE IN THE FIELD OF LANGUAGE ARTS, AND THE RESEARCH INTEREST IN THAT FIELD ENDS WITH THE PUBLICATION OF RESEARCH REPORTS WHICH OFFER PRONOUNCEMENTS RATHER THAN RESEARCH EVIDENCE. THE PURPOSES OF RESEARCH OR HOW ITS FINDINGS COULD BE USED HAVE NOT BEEN CLARIFIED. THERE IS ALSO BLIND ACCEPTANCE OF WHAT…

  10. Understanding & Conducting Qualitative Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stainback, Susan; Stainback, William

    In this book, which applies the state of the art in qualitative research to special education, qualitative research is used as a generic term for investigative methodologies described variously as ethnographic, naturalistic, anthropological, field research, or participant-observer research. Chapter 1 introduces and defines qualitative research and…

  11. Nuclear energy related research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rintamaa, R.

    1992-05-01

    The annual Research Program Plan describes publicly funded nuclear energy related research to be carried out mainly at the Technical Research Center of Finland (VTT) in 1992. The research is financed primarily by the Ministry of Trade and Industry (KTM), the Finnish Center for Radiation and Nuclear Safety (STUK), and VTT itself. Other research institutes, utilities, and industry also contribute to many projects.

  12. [Memorandum prevention research - research areas and methods].

    PubMed

    Walter, U; Nöcker, G; Plaumann, M; Linden, S; Pott, E; Koch, U; Pawils, S; Altgeld, T; Dierks, M L; Frahsa, A; Jahn, I; Krauth, C; Pomp, M; Rehaag, R; Robra, B P; Süß, W; Töppich, J; Trojan, A; von Unger, H; Wildner, M; Wright, M

    2012-10-01

    From 2004 to 2012, the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) established its first funding programme for the promotion of prevention research. 60 projects on primary prevention and health promotion and the meta-project entitled "Cooperation for Sustainable Prevention Research" (KNP) received BMBF grants under this programme during this period. The experience and knowledge gained and recommendations arising from the research funded under this programme are compiled in memorandum format. The "Memorandum on Prevention Research - Research Areas and Methods" highlights 5 research areas that are considered to be especially relevant from the perspective of the involved scientists and practice partners.The promotion of structural development and sustainability enhancement in disease prevention and health promotion are central areas that should branch out from existing nuclei of crystallization. Improving the health competence of the population and of specific subpopulations is another major area. Research in these areas should contribute to the development of theoretical concepts and to the empirical testing of these concepts. The transfer of knowledge for effective use of developed disease prevention and health promotion programmes and measures is still a scarcely researched area. Among other things, studies of the transfer of programmes from one context to another, analyses of the coop-eration between politics and science, and the continued theoretical and conceptual development of transfer research are needed. Long-term data on the effects of intervention studies are also needed for proper evaluation of sustainability. The latter dem-onstrates the importance of method development in disease prevention and health promotion research as an area that should receive separate funding and support. This research should include, in particular, studies of the efficacy of complex interventions, health economic analyses, and participative health research. © Georg Thieme

  13. Perspectives on rehabilitation research.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Wayne A

    2010-02-01

    Gordon WA. Perspectives on rehabilitation research. The author provides his perspectives on both the methodologic and funding challenges faced by rehabilitation researchers. His concerns are conveyed about the devaluing of rehabilitation research by federal funding agencies and Congress.

  14. Research on Catalysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholomew, Calvin H.; Hecker, William C.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives and philosophy of the Catalysis Laboratory at Brigham Young University are discussed. Also discusses recent and current research activities at the laboratory as well as educational opportunities, research facilities, and sources of research support. (JN)

  15. Research Reports: Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications » Research Reports » Marijuana » Letter From the Director Marijuana Email Facebook Twitter Letter From the Director Photo ... research-reports/marijuana press ctrl+c to copy Marijuana and Cannabinoids: A Neuroscience Research Summit March 22- ...

  16. Children's Environmental Health Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Conducted in-house, with our federal partners like NIH’s National Institute of Environmental Health Services (NIEHS), and by external researchers through a research grants program administered through the agency’s Office of Research & Development.

  17. Research Advocacy at NCI

    Cancer.gov

    The patient perspective research advocates brings into NCI’s research enterprise helps to inform research focus and support the dissemination of results that lead to new and better cancer prevention, detection, and treatment methods.

  18. WASTE RESEARCH STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Waste Research Strategy covers research necessary to support both the proper management of solid and hazardous wastes and the effective remediation of contaminated waste sites. This research includes improving the assessment of existing environmental risks, as well as develop...

  19. Research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This report describes various research and technology activities at Ames Moffett and Ames Dryden Research Centers. Highlights of these accomplishments indicate the Centers' varied and highly productive research efforts for 1987.

  20. NRMRL BIOSOLIDS RESEARCH UNDERWAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) has a reputation for producing useful and highly regarded research in the area of wastewater sludges and biosolids. Presently many projects are underway which uphold this reputation. NRMRL biosolids research can be categori...

  1. WILDLIFE RESEARCH STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document describes a strategy for conducting wildlife effects research within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys (EPA) National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL). The NHEEL wildlife research strategy is designed to address critical researc...

  2. Lymphoma Research Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... options and patient support topics. Read More LYMPHOMA RESEARCH Featured Researchers – 2017 LRF Scholars The LCRMP is ... and junior faculty who intend to focus their research and clinical careers in lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic ...

  3. Researcher Story: Stuttering

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Trials and You Talking to Your Doctor Science Education Resources Community Resources Clear Health A–Z Publications ... Research & Training Medical Research Initiatives Science Highlights Science Education Research in NIH Labs & Clinics Training Opportunities Library ...

  4. Research on Catalysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartholomew, Calvin H.; Hecker, William C.

    1984-01-01

    The objectives and philosophy of the Catalysis Laboratory at Brigham Young University are discussed. Also discusses recent and current research activities at the laboratory as well as educational opportunities, research facilities, and sources of research support. (JN)

  5. NRMRL BIOSOLIDS RESEARCH UNDERWAY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Risk Management Research Laboratory (NRMRL) has a reputation for producing useful and highly regarded research in the area of wastewater sludges and biosolids. Presently many projects are underway which uphold this reputation. NRMRL biosolids research can be categori...

  6. National Exposure Research Laboratory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Ecosystems Research Division of EPA’s National Exposure Research Laboratory, conducts research on organic and inorganic chemicals, greenhouse gas biogeochemical cycles, and land use perturbations that create stressor exposures and potentia risk

  7. WILDLIFE RESEARCH STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document describes a strategy for conducting wildlife effects research within the U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys (EPA) National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL). The NHEEL wildlife research strategy is designed to address critical researc...

  8. WASTE RESEARCH STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Waste Research Strategy covers research necessary to support both the proper management of solid and hazardous wastes and the effective remediation of contaminated waste sites. This research includes improving the assessment of existing environmental risks, as well as develop...

  9. Research Fellowship Opportunities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA supports research in areas including natural and life sciences, environmental sciences, social sciences, physical sciences, mathematics and computer sciences, and engineering through research fellowships.

  10. Research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    The role of the Langley Research Center is to engage in the basic and applied research necessary for the advancement of aeronautics and space flight, to generate new and advanced concepts for the accomplishment of related national goals, and to provide research advice, technological support, and assistance to other NASA installations, other government agencies, and industry. This Langley Research Center 1985 Annual Report on Research and Technology contains highlights of major accomplishments and applications made during the past year. The highlights illustrate both the broad range of the research and technology activities at the Langley Research Center and the contributions of this work toward maintaining United States leadership in aeronautics and space research.

  11. Agricultural Research Service

    MedlinePlus

    ... Protection Natural Resources and Sustainable Agricultural Systems Nutrition, Food Safety, and Quality Overseas Biological Control Laboratories Office of International Research Programs National Agricultural Library Research Locations (Map) ...

  12. Researching the researchers: using a snowballing technique.

    PubMed

    Streeton, Rosemarie; Cooke, Mary; Campbell, Jackie

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, Rosemarie Streeton, Mary Cooke and Jackie Campbell focus on an aspect of the needs and obligations of the UK Research Governance Framework (DoH 2001). In particular, they discuss the snowballing recruitment technique and how this relates to the demands of research governance. The discussion is supported by examples from the literature and from the authors' own experiences in identifying research activity and skills across health and social care within a single health authority in the UK.

  13. Mixed methods research for the novice researcher.

    PubMed

    Giddings, Lynne S; Grant, Barbara M

    2006-10-01

    Mixed methods research is becoming increasingly popular in the health and social science disciplines. The aim of this article is to give an overview of the varieties of mixed methods designs. We begin by situating mixed methods research in the context of a paradigmatic framework which assists a researcher in making decisions concerning the design of their study. Although the most commonly used mixed methods designs are underpinned by positivist/postpositivist assumptions, the combination of qualitative and quantitative methods can be used within any research paradigm.

  14. National Environmental Research Parks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The National Environmental Research Parks are outdoor laboratories that provide opportunities for environmental studies on protected lands that act as buffers around Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The research parks are used to evaluate the environmental consequences of energy use and development as well as the strategies to mitigate these effects. They are also used to demonstrate possible environmental and land-use options. The seven parks are: Fermilab National Environmental Research Park; Hanford National Environmental Research Park; Idaho National Environmental Research Park; Los Alamos National Environmental Research Park; Nevada National Environmental Research Park; Oak Ridge National Environmental Research Park; and Savannah River National Environmental Research Park. This document gives an overview of the events that led to the creation of the research parks. Its main purpose is to summarize key points about each park, including ecological research, geological characteristics, facilities, and available databases.

  15. Research essentials. How to critique quantitative research.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Sharon; Collier, Sue

    2015-11-01

    QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH is a systematic approach to investigating numerical data and involves measuring or counting attributes, that is quantities. Through a process of transforming information that is collected or observed, the researcher can often describes a situation or event, answering the 'what' and 'how many' questions about a situation ( Parahoo 2014 ).

  16. Teaching Qualitative Research to Practitioner-Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Rebecca D.

    2012-01-01

    Practitioner-researchers are well-positioned to apply qualitative methods to the study of significant problems of educational practice. However, while learning the skills of qualitative inquiry, practitioners may be compelled by forces outside of qualitative research classrooms to think quantitatively. In this article, the author considers two…

  17. Researching as an Enactivist Mathematics Education Researcher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Laurinda

    2015-01-01

    This paper focusses on how researching is done through reflections about, or at a meta-level to, the practice over time of an enactivist mathematics education researcher. How are the key concepts of enactivist theory ("ZDM Mathematics Education," doi: 10.1007/s11858-014-0634-7, 2015) applied? This paper begins by giving an…

  18. FNS Research Corner: Summary of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Danielle; Burdg, Jinee

    2017-01-01

    The FNS Research Corner provides a continuing series to summarize recently completed and current research conducted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service (FNS) in the area of child nutrition. For further information, contact the Office of Policy Support (OPS) at (703) 305-2117. Links to published studies and reports as…

  19. Researcher Risk Perception in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Cris

    2010-01-01

    Throughout history human subject research has been plagued by researchers whose studies were riddled with danger and/or risk to their subjects. Indeed, one may cite numerous situations where human subjects were injured and/or killed in experiments that were designed with no thought or anticipation of risk to the subjects. As a result, the federal…

  20. Researching the Individual in Workplace Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loftus, Stephen; Higgs, Joy

    2010-01-01

    Researching how people are educated for practice has often been seen as problematic. We recommend qualitative approaches that draw on hermeneutic phenomenology and narrative inquiry. It is our intention to outline approaches that we believe can be used in an emerging research agenda. We begin by examining assumptions underlying much workplace…

  1. Composites research at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Stanley R.; Duffy, Stephen; Vary, Alex; Nathal, Michael V.; Miner, Robert V.; Arnold, Steven M.; Castelli, Michael G.; Hopkins, Dale A.; Meador, Michael A.

    1994-01-01

    Composites research at NASA Lewis is focused on their applications in aircraft propulsion, space propulsion, and space power, with the first being predominant. Research on polymer-, metal-, and ceramic-matrix composites is being carried out from an integrated materials and structures viewpoint. This paper outlines some of the topics being pursued from the standpoint of key technical issues, current status, and future directions.

  2. Researching as an Enactivist Mathematics Education Researcher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Laurinda

    2015-01-01

    This paper focusses on how researching is done through reflections about, or at a meta-level to, the practice over time of an enactivist mathematics education researcher. How are the key concepts of enactivist theory ("ZDM Mathematics Education," doi: 10.1007/s11858-014-0634-7, 2015) applied? This paper begins by giving an…

  3. Teacher Retirement Systems: Research Findings. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Janet S.; Podgursky, Michael J.; Costrell, Robert M.

    2009-01-01

    This policy brief summarizes findings presented at a February 2009 research conference on teacher retirement systems hosted by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) at Vanderbilt University's Peabody College. The 2009 conference was the second in a series of NCPI events focusing on findings from recent research on issues related to…

  4. Researcher Risk Perception in Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Cris

    2010-01-01

    Throughout history human subject research has been plagued by researchers whose studies were riddled with danger and/or risk to their subjects. Indeed, one may cite numerous situations where human subjects were injured and/or killed in experiments that were designed with no thought or anticipation of risk to the subjects. As a result, the federal…

  5. Doing Educational Research: An Action Research Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Alice; Nkanga, S.

    1995-01-01

    An American teaching anesthesiology in Tanzania sought help from a member of the host culture in order to grasp cultural meanings underpinning medical education practices, using action research to develop and refine research methods and solve problems related to the need to accommodate culturally diverse students' learning needs. (SM)

  6. Doing Educational Research: An Action Research Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otto, Alice; Nkanga, S.

    1995-01-01

    An American teaching anesthesiology in Tanzania sought help from a member of the host culture in order to grasp cultural meanings underpinning medical education practices, using action research to develop and refine research methods and solve problems related to the need to accommodate culturally diverse students' learning needs. (SM)

  7. Storytelling as Research/Research as Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    If story is central to human meaning why, in the research world, is there not more storytelling? Walter Benjamin (1973) noted that, "a story is different. It does not expend itself. It preserves and concentrates its strength and is capable of releasing it even after a long time" (p. 90). How might research not expend itself, but preserve and…

  8. Storytelling as Research/Research as Storytelling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Patrick J.

    2011-01-01

    If story is central to human meaning why, in the research world, is there not more storytelling? Walter Benjamin (1973) noted that, "a story is different. It does not expend itself. It preserves and concentrates its strength and is capable of releasing it even after a long time" (p. 90). How might research not expend itself, but preserve and…

  9. Teaching Qualitative Research to Practitioner-Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Rebecca D.

    2012-01-01

    Practitioner-researchers are well-positioned to apply qualitative methods to the study of significant problems of educational practice. However, while learning the skills of qualitative inquiry, practitioners may be compelled by forces outside of qualitative research classrooms to think quantitatively. In this article, the author considers two…

  10. Field Research: Methodological Themes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatman, Elfreda A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper deals with use of field research in an investigation of diffusion and use of information in environment of working poor. Highlights include discussion of field research and identification of conceptual themes (gaining entry, field researcher's role, anxiety in field research, rapport, reciprocity, empathy, maturity). Forty references…

  11. Annual Research Briefs - 1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This report contains the 1996 annual progress reports of the research fellows and students supported by the Center for Turbulence Research. Last year, CTR hosted twelve resident Postdoctoral Fellows, three Research Associates, four Senior Research Fellows, and supported one doctoral student and ten short term visitors.

  12. Research in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, James E., Ed.; Kaufman, Alan S., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    "Research in the Schools" publishes empirical studies focusing on the results of applied educational research, scholarly reviews of research, descriptions of technology applications and innovative teaching strategies, and other topics of interest to educational researchers. Issue number 1 contains these articles: (1) "Factors Associated with…

  13. Becoming an Academic Researcher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angervall, Petra; Gustafsson, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The neo-liberal restructuring of academia justifies research concerning what constitutes academic work, what it means to be an academic researcher and how researchers manoeuvre in academia. The aim of this article is to investigate how this reshaping of higher education affects how research careers are formed and impacts on "becoming…

  14. Research in Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    2016-01-01

    As one of the three Rs, "'rithmetic" has always been central to education and education research. By virtue of that centrality, research in mathematics education has often reflected and at times led trends in education research. This chapter provides some deep background on epistemological and other issues that shape current research,…

  15. Research Methods Tutorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguilera, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    A guiding principle for conducting research in technology, science, and engineering, leading to innovation is based on our use of research methodology (both qualitative and qualitative). A brief review of research methodology will be presented with an overview of NASA process in developing aeronautics technologies and other things to consider in research including what is innovation.

  16. Strategic Education Research Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, M. S., Ed.; Wigdor, A. K., Ed.; Snow, C. E., Ed.

    This book is a proposal for the Strategic Education Research Partnership (SERP), a large-scale coherent program of research and development carried out through a partnership between researchers and practitioners. The program would put the problems of educational practice at its center and focus on carrying research and development through all the…

  17. Becoming an Academic Researcher

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angervall, Petra; Gustafsson, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The neo-liberal restructuring of academia justifies research concerning what constitutes academic work, what it means to be an academic researcher and how researchers manoeuvre in academia. The aim of this article is to investigate how this reshaping of higher education affects how research careers are formed and impacts on "becoming…

  18. Research Methods Tutorial

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguilera, Frank J.

    2015-01-01

    A guiding principle for conducting research in technology, science, and engineering, leading to innovation is based on our use of research methodology (both qualitative and quantitative). A brief review of research methodology will be presented with an overview of NASA process in developing aeronautics technologies and other things to consider in research including what is innovation.

  19. Catalog of Research Reports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Board, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This catalog lists research reports, research notes, and other publications available from the College Board's website. The catalog briefly describes research publications available free of charge. Introduced in 1981, the Research Report series includes studies and reviews in areas such as college admission, special populations, subgroup…

  20. NFSMI Research Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Mary Frances

    2014-01-01

    The NFSMI Research Summary is a continuing series of summaries reporting recently completed research and research-based resources funded by the National Food Service Management Institute. The following research studies are summarized in this article: (1) Succession Planning for Management Level Staff in School Nutrition Programs; (2)…

  1. NFSMI Research Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Mary Frances

    2014-01-01

    The NFSMI Research Summary is a continuing series of summaries reporting recently completed research and research-based resources funded by the National Food Service Management Institute. The following research studies are summarized in this article: (1) Succession Planning for Management Level Staff in School Nutrition Programs; (2)…

  2. Survey of Peace Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcombe, Hanna

    1984-01-01

    This bibliographic essay discusses peace research. There are four major sections. The first section discusses traditional peace research, i.e., research with relevance to world peace that was carried out before the term "peace research" became widely used. Emphasized are the disciplines of international relations, international…

  3. School-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennon, Catherine; Hinton, Christina; Callahan, Thomas; Fischer, Kurt W.

    2013-01-01

    In the field of medicine, research and practice are joined in teaching hospitals. In these institutions, researchers work alongside doctors to incorporate recent advances in medical research into practice and track results. There is a growing movement in the field of education to create analogous institutions in education called research schools.…

  4. Strategic Education Research Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, M. S., Ed.; Wigdor, A. K., Ed.; Snow, C. E., Ed.

    This book is a proposal for the Strategic Education Research Partnership (SERP), a large-scale coherent program of research and development carried out through a partnership between researchers and practitioners. The program would put the problems of educational practice at its center and focus on carrying research and development through all the…

  5. Conditions for Teacher Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Simon

    2006-01-01

    The article starts by defining teacher research and a summary of its benefits. In reviewing teacher research in the field of ELT, the author points out that such research is not enough. The author then suggests ten conditions that would increase the incidence of teacher research. Additional questions for consideration are suggested at the end that…

  6. Research, Adaptation, & Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Lee A., Ed.; And Others

    Research adaptation is an endeavor that implies solid collaboration among school practitioners and university and college researchers. This volume addresses the broad issues of research as an educational endeavor, adaptation as a necessary function associated with applying research findings to school situations, and change as an inevitable…

  7. Decolonizing Researcher Authenticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daza, Stephanie Lynn

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which researcher authenticity is negotiated along three axes of difference, ethno-linguistic affiliation, sexual orientation and race/skin color. Ultimately, it analyzes how researcher authenticity is produced and played out within research, via interactions between participants, researchers and others who…

  8. Research in Mathematics Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    2016-01-01

    As one of the three Rs, "'rithmetic" has always been central to education and education research. By virtue of that centrality, research in mathematics education has often reflected and at times led trends in education research. This chapter provides some deep background on epistemological and other issues that shape current research,…

  9. Teaching to Enhance Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harland, Tony

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I present a conceptual argument for "teaching-led research" in which university lecturers construct courses that directly and positively influence their research, while at the same time, safeguard and enhance the student experience. A research-pedagogy for higher education considers the link between teaching and research,…

  10. Research Messages 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Research messages 2011" is a collection of summaries of research projects published by National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) in 2011. The publication also has an overview essay that captures the themes and highlights from the research for the year, including: (1) the initial education and training of young people and…

  11. Reporting Research Results Effectively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkwein, J. Fredericks

    2010-01-01

    Assessment research is at its best when it packages research results and data so that they can be digested by multiple audiences. Too many assessment researchers spend all their efforts planning and executing the research project with little attention to closing the loop at the end. If assessment findings are not communicated effectively, the…

  12. Effectively Communicating Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Grieger, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    This article is a guide for counseling researchers wishing to communicate the methods and results of their qualitative research to varied audiences. The authors posit that the first step in effectively communicating qualitative research is the development of strong qualitative research skills. To this end, the authors review a process model for…

  13. The Integrity of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axman, Linnea; Boren, Denise

    2010-01-01

    This text is the foundation from which a distinguished lecture was developed focusing on the necessity for research in healthcare carried out with attention to issues of integrity, the hallmark of all commendable research. A cautionary historical review of research misconduct and related topics is provided. Research within a cultural context and…

  14. Researchers in Residence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Julian

    1996-01-01

    Describes a program that is part of the Pupil Researcher Initiative (PRI) where volunteer Ph.D. students visit schools to help bring the excitement and wonder of science and engineering research to the classroom. The purpose of the Researchers in Residence program is to bring students and teachers in schools into contact with research scientists…

  15. Stepping up research efforts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) – Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is the principal in-house research agency within the USDA. The USDA-ARS provides research for finding solutions to agricultural problems. The Hydraulic Engineering Research Unit (HERU) within the USDA-ARS prov...

  16. Decolonizing Researcher Authenticity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daza, Stephanie Lynn

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the ways in which researcher authenticity is negotiated along three axes of difference, ethno-linguistic affiliation, sexual orientation and race/skin color. Ultimately, it analyzes how researcher authenticity is produced and played out within research, via interactions between participants, researchers and others who…

  17. Educational Researchers and Practicality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Velzen, Joke H.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, an attempt to identify further directions in research designs that researchers can use to contribute to the relevance of educational research findings, by including teachers' practicality issues, is presented. Sixty experienced teachers in secondary education read the reporting of modified experimental research findings about an…

  18. Research Messages 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2011

    2011-01-01

    Research messages 2010 is a collection of summaries of research projects published by the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER). The summaries are clustered under five broad themes used by NCVER to organise its research and analysis: Industry and employers; Students and individuals; Teaching and learning: VET system; and VET in…

  19. Becoming Teacher Researchers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Chris, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This serial issue contains eight articles all on the theme of "Becoming Teacher Researchers.""Becoming a Network of Teacher Researchers" (Scott Christian) discusses how portfolios of classroom work provide documentation and encourage more systematic teacher research involving established research techniques. "Identifying…

  20. Rangeland Research Roundup -1

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Welcome to the inaugural edition of “Rangeland Research Roundup”. Please allow me to introduce myself and provide an overview of our rangeland research in this edition. My name is Justin Derner and I have been the Research Leader for the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Rangeland Resources...

  1. Brain Research and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerhard, Muriel M.

    1985-01-01

    Provides background information and research findings on right and left brain hemisphere research. The cerebral hemisphere, research on split-brain subjects, research with normal subjects, and sex differences are addressed. Indicates that each hemisphere functions differently (left--verbal and analytical; right--spatial and perceptual) but both…

  2. Building Research Literacy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Community-Based Participatory Research is an equitable partnership of researchers and communities, with community members being fully engaged and empowered to plan, implement, and evaluate research. Assumption of equitable roles requires a basic knowledge of the research process. The ability and wil...

  3. Research, Adaptation, & Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Lee A., Ed.; And Others

    Research adaptation is an endeavor that implies solid collaboration among school practitioners and university and college researchers. This volume addresses the broad issues of research as an educational endeavor, adaptation as a necessary function associated with applying research findings to school situations, and change as an inevitable…

  4. Reporting Research Results Effectively

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volkwein, J. Fredericks

    2010-01-01

    Assessment research is at its best when it packages research results and data so that they can be digested by multiple audiences. Too many assessment researchers spend all their efforts planning and executing the research project with little attention to closing the loop at the end. If assessment findings are not communicated effectively, the…

  5. Teaching to Enhance Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harland, Tony

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, I present a conceptual argument for "teaching-led research" in which university lecturers construct courses that directly and positively influence their research, while at the same time, safeguard and enhance the student experience. A research-pedagogy for higher education considers the link between teaching and research,…

  6. Effectively Communicating Qualitative Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Grieger, Ingrid

    2007-01-01

    This article is a guide for counseling researchers wishing to communicate the methods and results of their qualitative research to varied audiences. The authors posit that the first step in effectively communicating qualitative research is the development of strong qualitative research skills. To this end, the authors review a process model for…

  7. School-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glennon, Catherine; Hinton, Christina; Callahan, Thomas; Fischer, Kurt W.

    2013-01-01

    In the field of medicine, research and practice are joined in teaching hospitals. In these institutions, researchers work alongside doctors to incorporate recent advances in medical research into practice and track results. There is a growing movement in the field of education to create analogous institutions in education called research schools.…

  8. Principles of Quantitative Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitao, S. Kathleen

    Research results should not be taken at face value; some research is not well designed, and readers must be able to assess whether the research carried out actually supports the results or may be explained otherwise. Research reports are usually divided into introduction or literature review, methods, results, and discussion and conclusions. Basic…

  9. Research Messages 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER), 2017

    2017-01-01

    The "Research messages" annual series presents a summary of the research-focused reports produced by the National Centre for Vocational Education Research (NCVER) each year. In addition to presenting the research reports published by NCVER during 2016, NCVER has expanded this edition to include other relevant and informative resources,…

  10. Action Research Facilitator's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro-Bruce, Cathy

    This handbook is a roadmap for action research facilitators to help groups as they work through the research process. It offers quotations, handouts, strategies, resources, and insights from actual experiences. The sections of the handbook follow the action research cycle, focusing on: "What is Action Research?"; "What is the Action…

  11. Research and technology, 1991. Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The mission of the NASA Langley Research Center is to increase the knowledge and capability of the United States in a full range of aeronautics disciplines and in selected space disciplines. This mission will be accomplished by performing innovative research relevant to national needs and Agency goals, transferring technology to users in a timely manner, and providing development support to other United States Government agencies, industry, and other NASA centers. Highlights are given of the major accomplishments and applications that have been made during the past year. The highlights illustrate both the broad range of the research and technology (R&T) activities at NASA Langley Research Center and the contributions of this work toward maintaining United States leadership in aeronautics and space research.

  12. Research and technology, 1989: Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The mission of the NASA Langley Research Center is to increase the knowledge and capability of the United States in a full range of aeronautics disciplines and in selected space disciplines. This mission will be accomplished by performing innovative research relevant to national needs and Agency goals, transferring technology to users in a timely manner, and providing development support to other United States Government agencies, industry, and other NASA centers. Highlights of the major accomplishments and applications that were made during the past year are presented. The highlights illustrate both the broad range of the research and technology activities at NASA Langley Research Center and the contributions of this work toward maintaining United States leadership in aeronautics and space research.

  13. Ames Research Center Research and Technology 2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This report highlights the challenging work accomplished during fiscal year 2000 by Ames research scientists,engineers, and technologists. It discusses research and technologies that enable the Information Age, that expand the frontiers of knowledge for aeronautics and space, and that help to maintain U.S. leadership in aeronautics and space research and technology development. The accomplishments are grouped into four categories based on four of NASA's Strategic Enterprises: Aerospace Technology, Space Science, Biological and Physical Research, and Earth Science. The primary purpose of this report is to communicate knowledge-to inform our stakeholders, customer, and partners, and the people of the United States about the scope and diversity of Ames' mission,the nature of Ames' research and technolog) activities,and the stimulating challenges ahead. The accomplishments cited illustrate the contributions that Ames is willing to improve the quality of life for our citizens and the economic position of the United States in the world marketplace.

  14. Case study research.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Ruth; Thomas-Gregory, Annette

    2015-06-10

    This article describes case study research for nursing and healthcare practice. Case study research offers the researcher an approach by which a phenomenon can be investigated from multiple perspectives within a bounded context, allowing the researcher to provide a 'thick' description of the phenomenon. Although case study research is a flexible approach for the investigation of complex nursing and healthcare issues, it has methodological challenges, often associated with the multiple methods used in individual studies. These are explored through examples of case study research carried out in practice and education settings. An overview of what constitutes 'good' case study research is proposed.

  15. Research and technology, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Selected research and technology activities at Ames Research Center, including the Moffett Field site and the Dryden Flight Research Facility, are summarized. These accomplishments exemplify the Center's varied and highly productive research efforts for 1990. The activities addressed are under the directories of: (1) aerospace systems which contains aircraft technology, full-scale aerodynamics research, information sciences, aerospace human factors research, and flight systems and simulation research divisions; (2) Dryden flight research facility which contains research engineering division; (3) aerophysics which contains aerodynamics, fluid dynamics, and thermosciences divisions; and (4) space research which contains advanced life support, space projects, earth system science, life science, and space science divisions, and search for extraterrestrial intelligence and space life sciences payloads offices.

  16. Research collaboration in health management research communities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study uses scientometrics methodology to reveal the status quo and emerging issues of collaboration in health management. Methods We searched all the articles with the keyword “health management” in the period 1999–2011 in Web of Knowledge, then 3067 articles were found. Methods such as Social network analysis (SNA), co-authorship, co-word analysis were used in this study. Results Analysis of the past 13 years of research in the field of health management indicates that, whether the production of scientific research, or authors, institutions and scientific research collaboration at the national level, collaboration behavior has been growing steadily across all collaboration types. However, the international scientific research cooperation about health management study between countries needs to be further encouraged. 17 researchers can be seen as the academic leaders in this field. 37 research institutions play a vital role in the information dissemination and resources control in health management. The component analysis found that 22 research groups can be regarded as the backbone in this field. The 8 institution groups consisting of 33 institutions form the core of this field. USA, UK and Australia lie in the center by cohesive subgroup analysis; Based on keywords analysis, 44 keywords with high frequency such as care, disease, system and model were involved in the health management field. Conclusions This study demonstrates that although it is growing steadily, collaboration behavior about health management study needs to be enhanced, especially between different institutions or countries/regions, which would promote the progress and internationalization of health management. Besides, researchers should pay attention to the cooperation of representative scholars and institutions, as well as the hot areas of research, because their experience would help us promote the research development of our nation. PMID:23617236

  17. Rigour in quantitative research.

    PubMed

    Claydon, Leica Sarah

    2015-07-22

    This article which forms part of the research series addresses scientific rigour in quantitative research. It explores the basis and use of quantitative research and the nature of scientific rigour. It examines how the reader may determine whether quantitative research results are accurate, the questions that should be asked to determine accuracy and the checklists that may be used in this process. Quantitative research has advantages in nursing, since it can provide numerical data to help answer questions encountered in everyday practice.

  18. Research Summaries of 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    0 M--_- NAVAL MEDICAL _ RESEARCH INSTITUTE / _- BETHESDA, MARYLAND = DTI ’N ELECTE I ’ll ’ JUNO 3199J’: ~ss RESEARCH SUMMARIES OF 1989 LARRY W...LAUGHLIN, CAPT, MC, USN COMMANDING OFFICER NAVAL MEDICAL RESEARCH INSTITUTE NAVAL MEDICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT COMMAND 91-00890 fr’,i ~v - - 1 042i...OF MONITORING ORGANIZATION Naval Medical Research (If applicable) Naval Medical Command Institute 6c. ADDRESS (Gty, State, and ZIP Code) 7b. ADDRESS

  19. International Arctic Research Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-07-01

    the following results: " The U.S. now has an Arctic Research Policy Committee to define overall policy and coordinate Federal research efforts. " The...Arctic and the Nation as a whole. These accomplishments are the result of the cooperation among member agencies of the Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee...facing the U.S. in the Arctic. THE INTERAGENCY ARCTIC RESEARCH POLICY COMMITTEE The Interagency Arctic Research Policy Committee, which met initially

  20. Evaluating quantitative research reports.

    PubMed

    Russell, Cynthia L

    2005-01-01

    As a novice reviewer, it is often difficult to trust your evaluation of a research report. You may feel uncertain in your interpretations. These are common concerns and can be remedied by reading and discussing research reports on research listservs, through journal clubs, or with other nephrology nurses. Practice using the criteria for research report evaluation and you too can perfect critiquing a research report!

  1. Research paradigms in medical education research.

    PubMed

    Bunniss, Suzanne; Kelly, Diane R

    2010-04-01

    The growing popularity of less familiar methodologies in medical education research, and the use of related data collection methods, has made it timely to revisit some basic assumptions regarding knowledge and evidence. This paper outlines four major research paradigms and examines the methodological questions that underpin the development of knowledge through medical education research. This paper explores the rationale behind different research designs, and shows how the underlying research philosophy of a study can directly influence what is captured and reported. It also explores the interpretivist perspective in some depth to show how less familiar paradigm perspectives can provide useful insights to the complex questions generated by modern healthcare practice. This paper concludes that the quality of research is defined by the integrity and transparency of the research philosophy and methods, rather than the superiority of any one paradigm. By demonstrating that different methodological approaches deliberately include and exclude different types of data, this paper highlights how competing knowledge philosophies have practical implications for the findings of a study.

  2. Aerothermodynamics research at NASA Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deiwert, George S.

    1987-01-01

    Research activity in the aerothermodynamics branch at the NASA Ames Research Center is reviewed. Advanced concepts and mission studies relating to the next generation aerospace transportation systems are summarized and directions for continued research identified. Theoretical and computational studies directed at determining flow fields and radiative and convective heating loads in real gases are described. Included are Navier-Stokes codes for equilibrium and thermochemical nonequilibrium air. Experimental studies in the 3.5-ft hypersonic wind tunnel, the ballistic ranges, and the electric arc driven shock tube are described. Tested configurations include generic hypersonic aerospace plane configurations, aeroassisted orbital transfer vehicle shapes and Galileo probe models.

  3. Fundamentals of surgical research course: research presentations.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Kathrin

    2005-10-01

    The effective communication of research outcomes is a skill that can be learned. To make the greatest impact, it is imperative to know your audience. Oral communication is a highly effective means for dissemination of new information. The preparation of a research presentation requires significant time. The researcher must determine the key messages to be delivered and plan the presentation accordingly. High quality visual aids can impress your audience and, in combination with a succinct oral presentation, can increase retention of the material. In addition to the communication of the raw scientific data and results, the importance of stance, appearance, voice, and eye contact necessary to engage your audience should not be overlooked.

  4. Translational Educational Research

    PubMed Central

    Issenberg, S. Barry; Cohen, Elaine R.; Barsuk, Jeffrey H.; Wayne, Diane B.

    2012-01-01

    Medical education research contributes to translational science (TS) when its outcomes not only impact educational settings, but also downstream results, including better patient-care practices and improved patient outcomes. Simulation-based medical education (SBME) has demonstrated its role in achieving such distal results. Effective TS also encompasses implementation science, the science of health-care delivery. Educational, clinical, quality, and safety goals can only be achieved by thematic, sustained, and cumulative research programs, not isolated studies. Components of an SBME TS research program include motivated learners, curriculum grounded in evidence-based learning theory, educational resources, evaluation of downstream results, a productive research team, rigorous research methods, research resources, and health-care system acceptance and implementation. National research priorities are served from translational educational research. National funding priorities should endorse the contribution and value of translational education research. PMID:23138127

  5. Life After Research Misconduct.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, Kyle L

    2017-02-01

    Research misconduct is a serious violation of a scientific community's ethical standards. Scientists who commit research misconduct typically face corrective actions from employers and funding agencies, as well as significant professional stigma. Unfortunately, there is little systematic data about the post-misconduct career of these guilty parties. Through a review of Office of Research Integrity (ORI) case summaries, I identified a pool of 284 researchers who engaged in research misconduct and were subject to ORI corrective actions. To assess the prevalence of post-misconduct research activities for these scientists, I searched publicly available databases and online resources for evidence of post-misconduct research activities (such as publications and federal research support). The data demonstrate that researchers often receive second chances as researchers, with indicators of post-misconduct research activities identified for 134 (47.18%) of the offending researchers. In addition, those researchers have received more than US$123 million in federal support for their post-misconduct research efforts.

  6. [Research in tropical medicine].

    PubMed

    Dumas, Michel; Preux, Pierre-Marie

    2013-10-01

    In France, research in tropical medicine is carried out by the Institute for Research and Development (IRD), university-affiliated institutes, and other research organizations such as INSERM, CNRS and the Pasteur Institute. Currently, this research is highly fragmented and therefore inefficient. As a result, despite significant financial means, French research in this field is not sufficiently competitive. This research activity should be coordinated by creating a "federation ", that would 1) facilitate the sharing of material and human resources, thereby improving efficiency and resulting in cost savings; 2) valorize French research in tropical medicine and its expert know-how, thus favoring the nomination of French experts in large international research programs (French experts in tropical medicine are currently under-recognized); 3) attract young researchers from France and elsewhere; and 4) adapt to the ongoing demographic and economic evolution of tropical countries. The creation of a Federation of French researchers would also make research in tropical medicine more visible. The objectives to which it leads already must include 1) a better understanding of the priorities of countries in the southern hemisphere, taking into account the social, cultural and economic contexts and ensuring the consistency of current and future projects ; 2) strengthening of research networks in close and equal partnership with researchers in the southern hemisphere, with pooling of resources (scientific, human and material) to reach the critical mass required for major projects ; 3) promoting the emergence of centers of excellence for health research in tropical countries ; and 4) contributing more effectively to training, because there can be no training without research, and no research without training This consolidation will help to empower research in tropical medicine, as in other Western countries, and will allow France to recover the place it deserves. The specific

  7. Undergraduate Research at the Research Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merkel, Carolyn Ash

    2003-01-01

    Explores four higher education institutions (Rutgers University, the University of Washington, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and the California Institute of Technology) and their histories of developing a culture of undergraduate research. (EV)

  8. Rocket Propulsion Research at Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Virginia P.

    1992-01-01

    A small contingent of engineers at NASA Lewis Research Center pioneered in basic research on liquid propellants for rockets shortly after World War II. Carried on through the 1950s, this work influenced the important early decisions made by Abe Silverstein when he took charge of the Office of Space Flight Programs for NASA. He strongly supported the development of liquid hydrogen as a propulsion fuel in the face of resistance from Wernher von Braun. Members of the Lewis staff played an important role in bringing liquid hydrogen technology to the point of reliability through their management of the Centaur Program. This paper demonstrates how the personality and engineering intuition of Abe Silverstein shaped the Centaur program and left a lasting imprint on the laboratory research tradition. Many of the current leaders of Lewis Research Center received their first hands-on engineering experience when they worked on the Centaur program in the 1960s.

  9. Advancing Ethical Neuroscience Research.

    PubMed

    Borah, B Rashmi; Strand, Nicolle K; Chillag, Kata L

    2016-12-01

    As neuroscience research advances, researchers, clinicians, and other stakeholders will face a host of ethical challenges. The Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues (Bioethics Commission) has published two reports that provide recommendations on how to advance research endeavors ethically. The commission addressed, among other issues, how to prioritize different types of neuroscience research and how to include research participants who have impaired consent capacity. The Bioethics Commission's recommendations provide a foundation for ethical guidelines as neuroscience research advances and progresses. © 2016 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The role of the Langley Research Center is to engage in the basic and applied research necessary for the advancement of aeronautics and space flight, to enerate new and advanced concepts for the accomplishment of related national goals, and to provide research advice, technological support, and assistance to other NASA installations, other government agencies, and industry. Highlights of the major accomplishments and applications made during the past year are described. The highlights illustrate both the broad range of the research and technology activities at the Langley Research Center and the contributions of this work toward maintaining United States leadership in aeronautics and space research.

  11. Water Environment Research Foundation research program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noss, Charles I.

    2002-02-01

    The Water Environment Research Foundation (WERF) is a not- for-profit organization established in 1989 to advance the science and technology of a broad spectrum of environmental and human health concerns to the wastewater industry and the public. It is a unique public/private partnership between utilities, academia, government, and industry, committed to funding research by leveraging resources and expertise to develop and disseminate sound scientific and technological information. Funded by subscribers, grants and contributions, WERF manages a broad array of research projects aimed at protecting human health and the environment. While WERF funds and manages projects, the actual research is carried out by individual organizations or teams composed of utilities, consultants, universities, and industrial or commercial firms. Examples of WERF's current research program include the investigation of on- line monitoring techniques for microbial and chemical contaminants in water and wastewater, optimization of processes for pathogen removal and inactivation, improved treatment of toxic compounds, and assessing the potential risks to public health from exposure to these microbial and chemical contaminants. This paper will provide an overview of the program, research funded to date, and technology needs for the future.

  12. Developing great research questions.

    PubMed

    Lipowski, Earlene E

    2008-09-01

    The process for developing a good research question is described. Three steps comprise the formulation of a great research question: (1) ask interesting questions, (2) select the best question for research, and (3) transform the research question into a testable hypothesis. Research is designed to generate information that cannot be gained from any other source. A research question is a narrow, challenging question addressing an issue, problem, or controversy that is answered with a conclusion based on the analysis and interpretation of evidence. A variety of strategies can be applied to stimulate creative thinking and generate new insights into old problems. A good research question challenges researchers to see matters from a new perspective and to learn something new. Practice research questions are evaluated by the probability of achieving their goal, along with the potential impact and feasibility of the project. The proposed research must meet important professional and societal goals, fit with the mission of the organization, garner administrative support, and be accomplished with available resources in a reasonable time frame. The research question should be refined to generate one or more hypotheses that specify the nature of the relationships to be observed and measured. Properly formulated questions yield findings to inform decisions that enhance practice, transfer to other settings, and make efficient use of resources. Developing a good research question is the most important part of the research process. The question should be narrow and address an important issue that fits within the mission of the organization.

  13. Research Suggestions for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, John L.

    1974-01-01

    Describes how to perform accurate research. Also includes suggestions for specific research projects under such headings as: (1) types; (2) environments; (3) interactions; (4) classification; (5) hexagonal model; and (6) differentiation. (HMV)

  14. Featured Immune System Research

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prepare Your Application Draft Specific Aims Outline Your Experiments Know Your Audience Write Your Research Plan Plan ... Applications Requesting Prior Clinical Trial Planning Application Vertebrate Animals Research Animals Involvement Codes Select Agents NIAID Select ...

  15. Photochemistry research at NREL

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, C.E.; Carlson, C.E.

    1996-09-01

    Photochemistry research team at NREL conducts research and development work in all R&D areas, basic, applied, demonstration and transfer to commercialization. Basic research includes core PCO R&D and catalysts work as well as conducting research into new photochemistry areas such as photoinduced adsorption and high temperature solar PCO. Applied research work consists of remediation of chloroethylenes in gas phase, gas phase solar photoreactor development, and application research including indoor air quality, hybrid biological/PCO processes and more. We are demonstrating the PCO treatment technology in the gas phase with SEMATECH through CRADA work and remediation of organics in aqueous phase through the Solarchem Environmental Systems. We are working with IT through a CRADA to transfer the PCO gas phase remediation technology to IT to commercialize this promising -technology. Photochemistry research conducted at NREL spans the R&D spectrum from basic research through technology demonstration with the goal of technology commercialization.

  16. Learn About Research Grants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    NCER is one of 7 research organizations that comprise EPAs ORD. NCERs mission is to support high-quality research by the nations leading scientists and engineers that will improve the scientific basis for national environmental decisions.

  17. DCB - Tumor Metastasis Research

    Cancer.gov

    Tumor metastasis research examines the mechanisms that allow cancer cells to leave the primary tumor and spread to another part of the body. Learn about recent tumor metastasis research studies supported by the Division of Cancer Biology.

  18. Research and technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    This report describes various research and technology activities at Ames Moffett and Ames Dryden. Highlights of these accomplishments indicate the Center's varied and highly productive research efforts for 1985.

  19. Scoliosis Research Society

    MedlinePlus

    Scoliosis Research Society Close Menu Member Login Become a Member Home Find a Specialist | Calendar Contact | Donate Patients and Families Professionals ... Find a Specialist Calendar Contact Donate Scoliosis Research Society Dedicated to the optimal care of patients with ...

  20. Researcher Interview: Tom Hudson

    Cancer.gov

    Tom Hudson, M.D., President and Scientific Director of the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, describes the International Cancer Genome Consortium (ICGC), which brings together cancer genomic data and research from across the world.