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Sample records for freeport lng development

  1. 76 FR 53440 - Freeport LNG Development, LP; Freeport LNG Expansion, LP; FLNG Liquefaction LLC; Notice of Intent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Freeport LNG Development, LP; Freeport LNG Expansion, LP; FLNG Liquefaction... construction and operation of facilities proposed by Freeport LNG Development, LP, Freeport LNG Expansion, LP... liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal on Quintana Island in Brazoria County, Texas. The Project...

  2. 77 FR 43589 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P., Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P., FLNG Liquefaction LLC; Supplemental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Freeport LNG Development, L.P., Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P., FLNG... proposed by Freeport LNG Development, L.P., Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P, and FLNG Liquefaction LLC... existing liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal on Quintana Island in Brazoria County, Texas....

  3. 76 FR 81925 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Notice of Application Take notice that on December 9, 2011, Freeport LNG Development, L.P. (Freeport LNG), filed an application pursuant to Section 3... authorization to modify the certificated LNG facilities located on Quintana Island, Texas. The filing may...

  4. 78 FR 35263 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported... receipt of an application (Application), filed on April 19, 2013, by Freeport LNG Development, L.P. (Freeport LNG), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) that previously...

  5. 75 FR 13755 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application To Amend Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-23

    ... Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application To Amend Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas... application filed on March 4, 2010, by Freeport LNG Development, L.P. (Freeport LNG), requesting an amendment to its blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) granted by DOE/FE on May 28,...

  6. 76 FR 33746 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... Freeport LNG Development, L.P.; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas..., 2011, by Freeport LNG Development, L.P. (Freeport LNG), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) that previously had been imported into the United States from foreign sources...

  7. 77 FR 58118 - Freeport LNG Development, L.P., FLNG Liquefaction, LLC, FLNG Liquefaction 2, LLC, FLNG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Freeport LNG Development, L.P., FLNG Liquefaction, LLC, FLNG Liquefaction 2, LLC, FLNG Liquefaction 3, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on August 31, 2012, Freeport LNG... natural gas liquefaction and export facilities will be constructed adjacent to the existing Freeport...

  8. 75 FR 11000 - Security Zone; Freeport LNG Basin, Freeport, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; Freeport LNG Basin, Freeport, TX AGENCY... in the Freeport LNG Basin. This security zone is needed to protect vessels, waterfront facilities... notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled Security Zone; Freeport LNG Basin, Freeport, TX in...

  9. 76 FR 4885 - Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC Application for Long-Term Authorization...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC Application for Long-Term Authorization to Export... (Application), filed on December 17, 2010, by Freeport LNG Expansion L.P. (FLNG Expansion) and FLNG... gas (LNG) for a 25-year period commencing on the date of the first export or five years from the...

  10. 77 FR 7568 - Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export... December 19, 2011, by Freeport LNG Expansion, L.P. and FLNG Liquefaction, LLC (collectively, FLEX... (LNG) in an amount up to the equivalent of 511 Billion cubic feet (Bcf) of natural gas per year,...

  11. 77 FR 38790 - Noble Americas Gas & Power Corp., LNG Development Company, LLC, LNG Development Company, LLC (d/b...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... Americas Gas & Power Corp., LNG Development Company, LLC, LNG Development Company, LLC (d/b/a Oregon LNG... Corp. authority to import/ export natural gas from/ to Canada/Mexico, and to import LNG from various international sources by vessel. 3099 05/31/12 12-43-NG LNG Development Order granting blanket Company,...

  12. Mack LNG vehicle development

    SciTech Connect

    Southwest Research Institute

    2000-01-05

    The goal of this project was to install a production-ready, state-of-the-art engine control system on the Mack E7G natural gas engine to improve efficiency and lower exhaust emissions. In addition, the power rating was increased from 300 brake horsepower (bhp) to 325 bhp. The emissions targets were oxides of nitrogen plus nonmethane hydrocarbons of less than 2.5 g/bhp-hr and particulate matter of less than 0.05 g/bhp-hr on 99% methane. Vehicle durability and field testing were also conducted. Further development of this engine should include efficiency improvements and oxides of nitrogen reductions.

  13. 78 FR 38703 - LNG Development Company (d/b/a Oregon LNG); Oregon Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission LNG Development Company (d/b/a Oregon LNG); Oregon Pipeline Company, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on June 7, 2013, LNG Development Company, LLC (d/ b/a Oregon LNG) (Oregon LNG), 8100 NE Parkway Drive, Suite 165, Vancouver, WA 98662, filed in Docket No. CP9-6-001...

  14. Facies development in the Lower Freeport coal bed, west-central Pennsylvania, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pierce, B.S.; Stanton, R.W.; Eble, C.F.

    1991-01-01

    The Lower Freeport coal bed in west-central Pennsylvania is interpreted to have formed within a lacustrine-mire environment. Conditions of peat formation, caused by the changing chemical and physical environments, produced five coal facies and two mineral-rich parting facies within the coal bed. The coal bed facies are compositionally unique, having developed under varying conditions, and are manifested by megascopic, petrographic, palynologic and quality characteristics. The initial environment of the Lower Freeport peat resulted in a coal facies that is relatively high in ash yield and contains large amounts of lycopod miospores and moderate abundances of cryptotelinite, crypto-gelocollinite, inertinite and tree fern miospores. This initial Lower Freeport peat is interpreted to have been a topogenous body that was low lying, relatively nutrient rich (mesotrophic to eutrophic), and susceptible to ground water and to sediment influx from surface water. The next facies to form was a ubiquitous, clay-rich durain parting which is attributed to a general rise in the water table accompanied by widespread flooding. Following formation of the parting, peat accumulation resumed within an environment that inhibited clastic input. Development of doming in this facies restricted deposition of the upper shale parting to the margins of the mire and allowed low-ash peat to form in the interior of the mire. Because this environment was conducive to preservation of cellular tissue, this coal facies also contains large amounts of crypto-telinite. This facies development is interpreted to have been a transitional phase from topogenous, planar peat formation to slightly domed, oligotrophic (nutrient-poor) peat formation. As domed peat formation continued, fluctuations in the water table enabled oxidation of the peat surface and produced high inertinite concentrations toward the top of the coal bed. Tree ferns became an increasingly important peat contributor in the e upper facies

  15. The Asia Pacific LNG trade: Status and technology development

    SciTech Connect

    Hovdestad, W.R.

    1995-10-01

    The Asia Pacific Region is experiencing a period of sustained economic expansion. Economic growth has led to an increasing demand for energy that has spurred a rapid expansion of baseload liquefied natural gas (LNG) facilities in this region. This is illustrated by the fact that seven of the ten baseload facilities in existence provide LNG for markets in the Asia Pacific region. With the three exceptions having been initially commissioned in 1972 and earlier, it is fair to observed that most advances in LNG technology have been developed and applied for this market. The paper presents the current status and identified future trends for the Asia Pacific LNG trade. Technology development in terms of application to onstream production, processing and transportation facilities, including LNG tankers, is presented. The potential of future advances to applied technology and operational practices to improve the cost-effectiveness of new and existing facilities is discussed. Current design data and methods as actually used are examined in terms of identifying where fundamental research and basic physical data are insufficient for optimization purposes. These findings are then summarized and presented in terms of the likely evolution of future and existing LNG projects in the Asia Pacific region.

  16. Developments in the safe design of LNG tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulford, N. J.; Slatter, M. D.

    The objective of this paper is to discuss how the gradual development of design concepts for liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage systems has helped to enhance storage safety and economy. The experience in the UK is compared with practice in other countries with similar LNG storage requirements. Emphasis is placed on the excellent record of safety and reliability exhibited by tanks with a primary metal container designed and constructed to approved standards. The work carried out to promote the development of new materials, fire protection, and monitoring systems for use in LNG storage is also summarized, and specific examples described from British Gas experience. Finally, the trends in storage tank design world-wide and options for future design concepts are discussed, bearing in mind planned legislation and design codes governing hazardous installations.

  17. LNG SAFETY RESEARCH: FEM3A MODEL DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Havens; Iraj A. Salehi

    2005-02-21

    This quarterly report for DE-FG26-04NT42030 covers a period from October 1, 2004 to December 31, 2004. On December 9, 2004 a meeting was held in Morgantown to rescope the LNG safety modeling project such that the work would complement the DOE's efforts relative to the development of the intended LNG-Fluent model. It was noted and discussed at the December 9th meeting that the fundamental research being performed on surface to cloud heat transfer and low wind speed issues will be relevant to the development of the DOE LNG/Fluent Model. In general, it was decided that all research to be performed from December 9th through the remainder of the contract is to be focused on the development of the DOE LNG/Fluent model. In addition, all GTI activities for dissemination and transfer of FEM3A will cease and dissemination activities will focus on the new DOE LNG/Fluent model. The proposed new scope of work is presented in section 4 of this report. The work reported in the present document relates to the original scope of work which was in effect during the reporting period. The future work will be re-scoped to meet the requirements of the new scope of work. During the report period work was underway to address numerical problems present during simulation of low-wind-speed, stable, atmospheric conditions with FEM3A. Steps 1 and 2 in the plan outlined in the first Quarterly report are complete and steps 3 and 4 are in progress. During this quarter, the University of Arkansas has been investigating the effect upon numerical stability of the heat transfer model used to predict the surface-to-cloud heat transfer, which can be important for LNG vapor dispersion. Previously, no consideration has been given to ground cooling as a result of heat transfer to the colder gas cloud in FEM3A.

  18. Development of mid-scale and floating LNG facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Price, B.C.; Mortko, R.A.

    1998-12-31

    The development of large-scale base load LNG facilities has dominated the process industry for decades. However, in many areas of the world, base load facilities are not feasible due to inadequate reserves. Mid-scale facilities can be economically attractive in certain locations and, in fact, have several advantages which aid in their development. The PRICO II LNG liquefaction process offers a process configuration which fits well with these developments. The process has been used in a range of facility sizes from base load to peak shaving applications. In addition to onshore facilities, floating liquefaction facilities can be developed on barges or tankers to handle mid-scale to large scale LNG production. Concepts for several sizes and configurations of floating facilities have been developed using the PRICO II process integrated into a total production, liquefaction, and load-out system. This paper covers the PRICO process concept, application areas and facility configurations which are currently being developed for mid-scale and floating LNG facilities.

  19. 78 FR 34084 - Freeport-McMoRan Energy LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... Freeport-McMoRan Energy LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas... authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) produced from domestic sources in an amount up to 24 million..., condition, and liquefy domestic natural gas for export as LNG. Construction of the MPEH TM Port will...

  20. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Liese Dallbauman

    2004-06-30

    During this reporting period, kickoff and planning meetings were held. Subcontracted experimental and modeling tasks were defined. Efforts to address the numerical stability problems that hamper FEM3A's applicability to low wind speed, stable atmospheric conditions were initiated. A detailed review of FEM3A code and its execution, required for development of an accessible user interface, was also begun. A one-day workshop on LNG safety models has been scheduled for September 2004. The goals of this project are to develop a national focal point for LNG safety research and technical dissemination and to develop the FEM3A dispersion model for application to general scenarios involving dispersion problems with obstacle and terrain features of realistic complexity. During this reporting period, the objectives and scope of the project and its constituent tasks were discussed at a project kickoff meeting in Morgantown. Details of the subcontracted experimental and modeling tasks were further defined at a separate meeting at the University of Arkansas. Researchers at the university have begun to modify the turbulence closure model used in FEM3A to insure numerical stability during simulation of low-wind-speed, stable atmospheric conditions. The university's wind tunnel is being prepared for upcoming experimental studies. GTI has begun a detailed review of the FEM3A code and its execution that will provide guidance during development of an accessible user interface. Plans were made for a one day workshop on LNG safety models that will be held at the end of September and will provide an introduction to currently available and pending software tools.

  1. 75 FR 8489 - Security Zone; Freeport Channel Entrance, Freeport, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zone; Freeport Channel Entrance, Freeport, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard has established moving security zones for certain vessels, for which the Captain of the Port, Houston-Galveston deems enhanced...

  2. LNG SAFETY RESEARCH: FEM3A MODEL DEVELOPMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jerry Havens; Iraj A. Salehi

    2005-05-10

    The objective of this report is to develop the FEM3A model for application to general scenarios involving dispersion problems with obstacles and terrain features of realistic complexity, and for very low wind speed, stable weather conditions as required for LNG vapor dispersion application specified in 49 CFR 193. The dispersion model DEGADIS specified in 49 CFR 193 is limited to application for dispersion over smooth, level terrain free of obstacles (such as buildings, tanks, or dikes). There is a need for a dispersion model that allows consideration of the effects of terrain features and obstacles on the dispersion of LNG vapor clouds. Project milestones are: (1) Simulation of Low-Wind-Speed Stable Atmospheric Milestones Conditions; (2) Verification for Dispersion over Rough Surfaces, With And Without Obstacles; and (3) Adapting the FEM3A Model for General Application. Results for this quarter are work continues to underway to address numerical problems during simulation of low-wind-speed, stable, atmospheric conditions with FEM3A. Steps 1 and 2 in the plan outlined in the first Quarterly report are complete and steps 3 and 4 are in progress. During this quarter, we have been investigating the effect upon numerical stability of the heat transfer model used to predict the surface-to-cloud heat transfer, which can be important for LNG vapor dispersion. Previously, no consideration has been given to ground cooling as a result of heat transfer to the colder gas cloud in FEM3A. The present effort is directed to describing the ground surface temperature decrease as a function of time.

  3. 77 FR 66830 - LNG Development Company, LLC and Oregon Pipeline Company; Northwest Pipeline GP; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission LNG Development Company, LLC and Oregon Pipeline Company; Northwest Pipeline GP; Notice of Extension of Comment Period for the Oregon LNG Export and Washington Expansion Projects This notice announces the extension of the public scoping process and comment period for the Oregon...

  4. 77 FR 55197 - LNG Development Company, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY LNG...) filed on July 16, 2012, by LNG Development Company, LLC (d/b/a Oregon LNG), requesting long-term, multi-contract authorization to export up to 9.6 million tons per annum (mtpa) of liquefied natural gas...

  5. Developments in non-utility uses of liquefied natural gas (LNG)

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.J.

    1988-01-01

    The development uses, and market for liquefied natural gas (LNG) is addressed. Applications discussed include aircraft fuel, rocket fuel, diesel locomotive fuel, and as a refrigeration source for a shrimp boat in a demonstration program. 3 figs. (CBS)

  6. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Iraj A. Salehi

    2004-09-30

    This quarterly report for DE-FG26-04NT42030 covers a period from July 1, 2004 to September 30, 2004. Activity during this period included preparation of a CD containing the FEM3a FORTRAN code for distribution and organization of an LNG safety workshop. Contract negotiation between GTI and University of Arkansas continued.

  7. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Salehi, Iraj A.; Havens, Jerry; Spicer, Tom

    2006-12-22

    The initial scope of work for this project included: 1) Improving the FEM3A advanced turbulence closure module, 2) Adaptation of FEM3A for more general applications, and 3) Verification of dispersion over rough surfaces, with and without obstacle using the advanced turbulence closure module. These work elements were to be performed by Chemical Hazards Research Center (CHRC), Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Arkansas as a subcontractor to Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The tasks for GTI included establishment of the scientific support base for standardization of the FEM3A model, project management, technology transfer, and project administration. Later in the course of the project, the scope of work was modified by the National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) to remove the emphasis on FEM3A model and instead, develop data in support of NETL’s FLUENT modeling. With this change, GTI was also instructed to cease activities relative to FEM3A model. GTI’s technical activities through this project included the initial verification of FEM3A model, provision of technical inputs to CHRC researchers regarding the structure of the final product, and participation in technical discussion sessions with CHRC and NETL technical staff. GTI also began the development of a Windows-based front end for the model but the work was stopped due to the change in scope of work. In the meantime, GTI organized a workshop on LNG safety in Houston, Texas. The workshop was very successful and 75 people from various industries participated. All technical objectives were met satisfactorily by Dr. Jerry Havens and Dr. Tom Spicer of CHRC and results are presented in a stand-alone report included as Appendix A to this report.

  8. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Iraj A. Salehi; Jerry Havens; Tom Spicer

    2006-09-30

    The initial scope of work for this project included: (1) Improving the FEM3A advanced turbulence closure module, (2) Adaptation of FEM3A for more general applications, and (3) Verification of dispersion over rough surfaces, with and without obstacle using the advanced turbulence closure module. These work elements were to be performed by Chemical Hazards Research Center (CHRC), Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Arkansas as a subcontractor to Gas Technology Institute (GTI). The tasks for GTI included establishment of the scientific support base for standardization of the FEM3A model, project management, technology transfer, and project administration. Later in the course of the project, the scope of work was modified by the National Energy Technology Laboratories (NETL) to remove the emphasis on FEM3A model and instead, develop data in support of NETL's FLUENT modeling. With this change, GTI was also instructed to cease activities relative to FEM3A model. GTI's technical activities through this project included the initial verification of FEM3A model, provision of technical inputs to CHRC researchers regarding the structure of the final product, and participation in technical discussion sessions with CHRC and NETL technical staff. GTI also began the development of a Windows-based front end for the model but the work was stopped due to the change in scope of work. In the meantime, GTI organized a workshop on LNG safety in Houston, Texas. The workshop was very successful and 75 people from various industries participated. All technical objectives were met satisfactorily by Dr. Jerry Havens and Dr. Tom Spicer of CHRC and results are presented in a stand-alone report included as Appendix A to this report.

  9. Design and Development of the Simulation System for Marine LNG Fuel Reliquefaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Boyang; Zhang, Yunqiu; Liu, Yunxin; Li, Diyang

    This paper introduced the background of LNG powered ship reliquefaction plant and its working principle, established the calculation model of simulation system, taking the VLCC ship LNG powered ship as the mother ship, provided the thermodynamic calculation flow chart, developed the software for the operation simulation system and the developed the assessment system and the equipment management system. This software can simulate the operation process and carry out the numerical calculation. It is good for the purpose of training students and has great reference value for research.

  10. Perspectives on the Development of LNG Market Hubs in the Asia Pacific Region

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    The report discusses current initiatives to establish regional liquefied natural gas (LNG) trading hubs and pricing benchmarks in Asia and assesses the prospects for the Asian gas hubs in the near future. The report examines the characteristics of successful natural gas trading hubs and develops qualitative and quantitative indicators of the components of effective hubs, with emphasis on applying these indicators to Asian markets

  11. New LNG process scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Foglietta, J.H.

    1999-07-01

    A new LNG cycle has been developed for base load liquefaction facilities. This new design offers a different technical and economical solution comparing in efficiency with the classical technologies. The new LNG scheme could offer attractive business opportunities to oil and gas companies that are trying to find paths to monetize gas sources more effectively; particularly for remote or offshore locations where smaller scale LNG facilities might be applicable. This design offers also an alternative route to classic LNG projects, as well as alternative fuel sources. Conceived to offer simplicity and access to industry standard equipment, This design is a hybrid result of combining a standard refrigeration system and turboexpander technology.

  12. Development of an FBG-based low temperature measurement system for cargo containment of LNG tankers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D. G.; Yoo, W.; Swinehart, P.; Jiang, B.; Haber, T.; Mendez, A.

    2007-09-01

    Given the growing demand for oil and natural gas to meet the world's energy needs, there is nowadays renewed interest in the use of liquefied natural gas (LNG) systems. For LNG to remain in its liquid phase, the gas has to be kept at cryogenic temperatures (< 160°C). And, as part of the LNG supply process, it becomes necessary to transport it using massive carrier tankers with cargo hulls operating at low temperatures and using special insulating double-wall construction. The safe and reliable storage and transportation of LNG products calls for low temperature monitoring of said containers to detect the onset of any potential leaks and possible thermal insulation degradation. Because of the hazardous nature of this cargo, only intrinsically-safe, explosion proof devices can be used. Optical fiber sensors-- such as fiber Bragg gratings-- are ideal for this application given their dielectric nature and multi-point sensing telemetry capability. In this paper, we describe the development of an on-line, multi-point FBG-based low temperature monitoring system based on a network of specially packaged FBG temperature and strain sensors mounted at critical locations within the inner hull, cofferdam and secondary barriers of a LNG carrier tanker. Given the stringent cryogenic operating temperature conditions, pertinent FBG designs, coatings and packaging approaches were formulated along with adequate installation techniques and integration of the interrogating FBG electronics into the tanker's overall SCADA monitoring system. FBG temperature sensors were demonstrated to be stable and sensitive over the 80-480K range. Stability is +/- 0.25K or better with repeated calibrations, and long term stability at 480K is ~0.2mK/hour.

  13. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) dispenser verification device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Maotao; Yang, Jie-bin; Zhao, Pu-jun; Yu, Bo; Deng, Wan-quan

    2013-01-01

    The composition of working principle and calibration status of LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) dispenser in China are introduced. According to the defect of weighing method in the calibration of LNG dispenser, LNG dispenser verification device has been researched. The verification device bases on the master meter method to verify LNG dispenser in the field. The experimental results of the device indicate it has steady performance, high accuracy level and flexible construction, and it reaches the international advanced level. Then LNG dispenser verification device will promote the development of LNG dispenser industry in China and to improve the technical level of LNG dispenser manufacture.

  14. The development of mathematical model for cool down technique in the LNG pipe-line system

    SciTech Connect

    Hamaogi, Kenji; Takatani, Kouji; Kosugi, Sanai; Fukunaga, Takeshi

    1999-07-01

    An increase in demand for LNG as energy source can be expected since LNG is clean, in stable supply and produces low levels of carbon dioxide. Expansion of various LNG plants is planned. However, the optimal design of the LNG pipe-line systems has not yet been determined since the LNG transport phenomenon is not yet fully understood clearly. For example, in the LNG pipe-line system, large temperature gradients occur when the LNG transport starts. Therefore, although the necessity to cool down the pipe in order to minimize serious deformation is clear, the studies to understand it quantitatively have not been carried out. In this study, experiments on a commercial plant scale and a computer simulation, made up of structural analysis and two phase flow simulation were carried out to establish a prediction model of pipe deformation and to understand the phenomenon in the pipe.

  15. Development of a simple 5-15 litre per hour LNG refueling system

    SciTech Connect

    Corless, A.J.; Sarangi, S.; Hall, J.L.; Barclay, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    A variable capacity, small-scale liquefied natural gas (LNG) refueling system has been designed, built, and tested at the Cryofuel Systems` Laboratory, University of Victoria, Canada. The system, designed to continuously liquefy between 5 and 15 litres of NG, utilizes liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) as its cold source and contains most of the components found in a typical commercial refueling system; i.e. purification system, liquefier, LNG storage, automatic control and monitoring system. This paper describes the design of the system as well as the results of a set of LNG production trials. The performance of the system exceeded expected LNG production rates, but at levels of efficiency somewhat less than predicted. Cryofuel Systems expects to use this system to implement an LNG vehicle demonstration program and to gain experience in the integration of LNG refueling systems which exploit advanced liquefaction technology such as magnetic refrigeration.

  16. Development of LM10-MIRA LOX/LNG expander cycle demonstrator engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudnykh, Mikhail; Carapellese, Stefano; Liuzzi, Daniele; Arione, Luigi; Caggiano, Giuseppe; Bellomi, Paolo; D'Aversa, Emanuela; Pellegrini, Rocco; Lobov, S. D.; Gurtovoy, A. A.; Rachuk, V. S.

    2016-09-01

    This article contains results of joint works by Konstruktorskoe Buro Khimavtomatiki (KBKhA, Russia) and AVIO Company (Italy) on creation of the LM10-MIRA liquid-propellant rocket demonstrator engine for the third stage of the upgraded "Vega" launcher.Scientific and research activities conducted by KBKhA and AVIO in 2007-2014 in the frame of the LYRA Program, funded by the Italian Space Agency, with ELV as Prime contractor, and under dedicated ASI-Roscosmos inter-agencies agreement, were aimed at development and testing of a 7.5 t thrust expander cycle demonstrator engine propelled by oxygen and liquid natural gas (further referred to as LNG).

  17. First LNG from North field overcomes feed, start-up problems

    SciTech Connect

    Redha, A.; Rahman, A.; Al-Thani, N.H.; Ishikura, Masayuki; Kikkawa, Yoshitsugi

    1998-08-24

    Qatar Gas LNG is the first LNG project in the gas-development program of the world`s largest gas reservoir, North field. The LNG plant was completed within the budget and schedule. The paper discusses the LNG plant design, LNG storage and loading, alternative mercaptan removal, layout modification, information and control systems, training, data management systems, start-up, and performance testing.

  18. LNG -- Technology on the edge

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, C.B.

    1995-10-01

    With immense promise and many supporters, LNG as a vehicular fuel is still, a nascent industry. In about two years, an array of LNG engines should be commercially available, and infrastructure greatly expanded. These developments should reduce the present premium of LNG equipment, greatly improving industry economics. The most propitious sign for LNG-market developed lies in the natural gas industry`s recently refined strategy for natural gas vehicles. The new strategy targets the right competitor--diesel, not gasoline. It also targets the right market for an emerging fuel--high-fuel-usage fleets made up of medium- and heavy-duty vehicles, often driven long distances. But problems persist in critical areas of development. These problems are related to the materials handling of LNG and the refueling of vehicles. The paper discusses the studies on LNG handling procedures, its performance benefits to high-fuel use vehicles, economic incentives for its use, tax disadvantages that are being fought, and LNG competition with ``clean`` diesel fuels.

  19. Research of design challenges and new technologies for floating LNG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dong-Hyun; Ha, Mun-Keun; Kim, Soo-Young; Shin, Sung-Chul

    2014-06-01

    With the rate of worldwide LNG demand expected to grow faster than that of gas demand, most major oil companies are currently investing their resources to develop floating LNG-FLNG (i.e. LNG FSRU and LNG FPSO). The global Floating LNG (FLNG) market trend will be reviewed based on demand and supply chain relationships. Typical technical issues associated with FLNG design are categorized in terms of global performance evaluation. Although many proven technologies developed through LNG carrier and oil FPSO projects are available for FLNG design, we are still faced with several technical challenges to clear for successful FLNG projects. In this study, some of the challenges encountered during development of the floating LNG facility (i.e. LNG FPSO and FSRU) will be reviewed together with their investigated solution. At the same time, research of new LNG-related technologies such as combined containment system will be presented.

  20. MLTI Transforms Teaching and Learning at Freeport Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunt, John S.

    2004-01-01

    Last summer, a truck arrived at Freeport Middle School in Freeport, Maine, and unloaded more than 130 laptops--one for every seventh-grade teacher and student. What had seemed to be an unlikely pipe dream months before suddenly was a reality. The seventh-grade teachers were eager to get involved in this project, even though they were not sure how…

  1. 75 FR 8491 - Security Zones; Brazos River, Freeport, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Security Zones; Brazos River, Freeport, TX AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Coast Guard has established four permanent security zones in the Brazos River in Freeport, Texas. These security zones are being put in place to...

  2. 33 CFR 80.845 - Galveston, TX to Freeport, TX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... (a) A line drawn from Galveston North Jetty Light 6A to Galveston South Jetty Light 5A. (b) A line formed by the centerline of the highway bridge over San Luis Pass. (c) Lines formed by the centerlines of... the seaward extremity of the Freeport North Jetty to Freeport Entrance Light 6; thence...

  3. 33 CFR 80.845 - Galveston, TX to Freeport, TX.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... (a) A line drawn from Galveston North Jetty Light 6A to Galveston South Jetty Light 5A. (b) A line formed by the centerline of the highway bridge over San Luis Pass. (c) Lines formed by the centerlines of... the seaward extremity of the Freeport North Jetty to Freeport Entrance Light 6; thence...

  4. North American LNG Project Sourcebook

    SciTech Connect

    2007-06-15

    The report provides a status of the development of LNG Import Terminal projects in North America, and includes 1-2 page profiles of 63 LNG projects in North America which are either in operation, under construction, or under development. For each project, the sourcebook provides information on the following elements: project description, project ownership, project status, projected operation date, storage capacity, sendout capacity, and pipeline interconnection.

  5. LNG satellites in a distribution system

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, C.T.

    1980-04-01

    An LNG satellite system using two LNG sources has been developed by Bay State Gas Co. for Massachusetts incorporating small, portable ambient vaporizers and a large peak-shaving facility. The primary facilities at Ludlow, MA, consist of a 1 billion cu ft storage tank, equipment capable of liquefying 7.5 million cu ft/day of gas, vaporization equipment with a capacity of 55 million cu ft/day, and LNG transport trailer loading-unloading facilities. Secondary facilities are located at a similar terminal at Everett, MA. The largest satellite station has an 8 billion cu ft storage tank, equipment capable of vaporizing 35 million cu ft/day, and LNG transport trailer loading-unloading facilities. Mobile units consisting of a trailer-mounted vaporizer and an LNG trailer also are in use. Factors in safe and dependable operation of the satellite LNG system are reviewed, including local transportation restrictions.

  6. 77 FR 73627 - 2012 LNG Export Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-11

    ... Development Company, LLC [FE Docket No. 12-77-LNG] (d/b/a Oregon LNG). Cheniere Marketing, LLC...... [FE... National Energy Modeling System does not account for the impact of energy price changes on the global... natural gas used in the EIA analysis, as well as a range of additional global scenarios for natural...

  7. Strategic evaluation central to LNG project formation

    SciTech Connect

    Nissen, D.; DiNapoli, R.N.; Yost, C.C.

    1995-07-03

    An efficient-scale, grassroots LNG facility of about 6 million metric tons/year capacity requires a prestart-up outlay of $5 billion or more for the supply facilities--production, feedgas pipeline, liquefaction, and shipping. The demand side of the LNG chain requires a similar outlay, counting the import-regasification terminal and a combination of 5 gigawatts or more of electric power generation or the equivalent in city gas and industrial gas-using facilities. There exist no well-developed commodity markets for free-on-board (fob) or delivered LNG. A new LNG supply project is dedicated to its buyers. Indeed, the buyers` revenue commitment is the project`s only bankable asset. For the buyer to make this commitment, the supply venture`s capability and commitment must be credible: to complete the project and to deliver the LNG reliably over the 20+ years required to recover capital committed on both sides. This requirement has technical, economic, and business dimensions. In this article the authors describe a LNG project evaluation system and show its application to typical tasks: project cost of service and participant shares; LNG project competition; alternative project structures; and market competition for LNG-supplied electric power generation.

  8. LNG links remote supplies and markets

    SciTech Connect

    Avidan, A.A.; Gardner, R.E.; Nelson, D.; Borrelli, E.N.; Rethore, T.J.

    1997-06-02

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) has established a niche for itself by matching remote gas supplies to markets that both lacked indigenous gas reserves and felt threatened in the aftermath of the energy crises of the 1970s and 1980s. It has provided a cost-effective energy source for these markets, while also offering an environmentally friendly fuel long before that was fashionable. The introduction of natural-gas use via LNG in the early years (mostly into France and Japan) has also allowed LNG to play a major role in developing gas infrastructure. Today, natural gas, often supplied as LNG, is particularly well-suited for use in the combined cycle technology used in independent power generation projects (IPPs). Today, LNG players cannot simply focus on monetizing gas resources. Instead, they must adapt their projects to meet the needs of changing markets. The impact of these changes on the LNG industry has been felt throughout the value chain from finding and producing gas, gas treatment, liquefaction, transport as a liquid, receiving terminals and regasification, and finally, to consumption by power producers, industrial users, and households. These factors have influenced the evolution of the LNG industry and have implications for the future of LNG, particularly in the context of worldwide natural gas.

  9. Safety implications of a large LNG tanker spill over water.

    SciTech Connect

    Hightower, Marion Michael; Gritzo, Louis Alan; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine

    2005-04-01

    The increasing demand for natural gas in the United States could significantly increase the number and frequency of marine LNG (liquefied natural gas) imports. Although many studies have been conducted to assess the consequences and risks of potential LNG spills, the increasing importance of LNG imports suggests that consistent methods and approaches be identified and implemented to help ensure protection of public safety and property from a potential LNG spill. For that reason the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Fossil Energy, requested that Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) develop guidance on a risk-based analysis approach to assess and quantify potential threats to an LNG ship, the potential hazards and consequences of a large spill from an LNG ship, and review prevention and mitigation strategies that could be implemented to reduce both the potential and the risks of an LNG spill over water. Specifically, DOE requested: (1) An in-depth literature search of the experimental and technical studies associated with evaluating the safety and hazards of an LNG spill from an LNG ship; (2) A detailed review of four recent spill modeling studies related to the safety implications of a large-scale LNG spill over water; (3) Evaluation of the potential for breaching an LNG ship cargo tank, both accidentally and intentionally, identification of the potential for such breaches and the potential size of an LNG spill for each breach scenario, and an assessment of the potential range of hazards involved in an LNG spill; (4) Development of guidance on the use of modern, performance-based, risk management approaches to analyze and manage the threats, hazards, and consequences of an LNG spill over water to reduce the overall risks of an LNG spill to levels that are protective of public safety and property.

  10. Caribbean LNG project marks progress; LNG tanker launched

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-20

    World LNG trade continues to expand as construction of a major LNG project in the Caribbean hits full stride this fall and another LNG carrier was launched earlier this year. Engineering is nearly complete and construction is nearing midway on Trinidad`s Atlantic LNG. In Japan, NKK Corp. launched another LNG tanker that employs the membrane-storage system. The 50-mile pipeline to move natural gas to the Atlantic LNG facility is also on track for completion by October 1998.

  11. LNG fire and vapor control system technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

    1982-06-01

    This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

  12. Cost reduction ideas for LNG terminals

    SciTech Connect

    Habibullah, A.; Weldin, F.

    1999-07-01

    LNG projects are highly capital intensive and this has long been regarded as being inevitable. However, recent developments are forcing the LNG industry to aggressively seek cost reductions. For example, the gas-to-liquids (GTL) process is increasingly seen as a potential rival technology and is often being touted as an economically superior alternative fuel source. Another strong driving force behind needed cost reductions is the low crude oil price which seems to have settled in the $10--13/bb. range. LNG is well positioned as the fuel of choice for environmentally friendly new power projects. As a result of the projected demand for power especially in the Pacific Rim countries several LNG terminal projects are under consideration. Such projects will require a new generation of LNG terminal designs emphasizing low cost, small scale and safe and fully integrated designs from LNG supply to power generation. The integration of the LNG terminal with the combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plant offers substantial cost savings opportunities for both plants. Various cost reduction strategies and their impact on the terminal design are discussed including cost reduction due to integration.

  13. LNG production for peak shaving operations

    SciTech Connect

    Price, B.C.

    1999-07-01

    LNG production facilities are being developed as an alternative or in addition to underground storage throughout the US to provide gas supply during peak gas demand periods. These facilities typically involved a small liquefaction unit with a large LNG storage tank and gas sendout facilities capable of responding to peak loads during the winter. Black and Veatch is active in the development of LNG peak shaving projects for clients using a patented mixed refrigerant technology for efficient production of LNG at a low installed cost. The mixed refrigerant technology has been applied in a range of project sizes both with gas turbine and electric motor driven compression systems. This paper will cover peak shaving concepts as well as specific designs and projects which have been completed to meet this market need.

  14. LNG vehicle markets and infrastructure. Final report, October 1994-October 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Nimocks, R.

    1995-09-01

    A comprehensive primary research of the LNG-powered vehicle market was conducted, including: the status of the LNG vehicle programs and their critical constraints and development needs; estimation of the U.S. LNG liquefaction and delivery capacity; profiling of LNG vehicle products and services vendors; identification and evaluation of key market drivers for specific transportation sector; description of the critical issues that determine the size of market demand for LNG as a transportation fuel; and forecasting the demand for LNG fuel and equipment.

  15. LNG ventures raise economic, technical, partnership issues

    SciTech Connect

    Acord, H.K.

    1995-07-03

    The author feels that natural gas will remain a competitive energy alternative and the preferred fuel for many residential and industrial customers around the globe. The article attempts to explain where liquefied natural gas will fit into the global picture. The paper discusses the growth in the Asia-Pacific region; the complex interactions in a LNG project involving buyers, sellers, governments, financial institutions, and shipping companies; the cost of development of such projects; and the elements of a LNG venture.

  16. Development of mass production type rigid polyurethane foam for LNG carrier using ozone depletion free blowing agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yeongbeom; Baek, Kye Hyun; Choe, Kunhyung; Han, Chonghun

    2016-12-01

    Nowadays the price of natural gas has become higher and the efficiency of propulsion system of liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers has improved. Due to these trends, required boil-off rate (BOR) for LNG carrier has been lowered from 0.15%/day to 0.12%/day for conventional LNG carriers with sizes between 125,000 m3 and 170,000 m3. This requirement of BOR can be satisfied by using a rigid polyurethane foam (PUF) blown by 1,1-dichloro-1-fluoroethane (HCFC-141b) as an insulator. However, ozone depletion potential (ODP) of HCFC-141b requires alternative blowing agents with zero ODP such as hydroflurocarbons (HFCs) because of tougher environmental regulations. This paper introduces use of HFCs and additives to enhance properties of rigid PUFs under a mass production environment. Among the additives, perfluoroalkane (PFA) reduces thermal conductivity down to 12% and increases compressive strength up to 15% of a rigid PUF prepared in a laboratory scale. Based on this result, a mass production type rigid PUF is manufactured and is evaluated for BOR, mechanical strengths over operation temperature range, and thermal shock stability for LNG carriers. The BOR of the manufactured rigid PUF is below 0.12%/day, which satisfies the recent BOR specification for LNG carriers. The other required properties are also met the specifications for a conventional LNG carrier. Consequently, it is expected that the results in this paper will bring low BOR (<0.12%/day) LNG carries with rigid PUFs using ODP free blowing agents and contribute environmental protection through saving energy and preserving the ozone layer in the stratosphere.

  17. 33 CFR 165.818 - Moving Security Zones, for certain vessels in Freeport Entrance Channel, Freeport, Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Moving Security Zones, for... Areas Eighth Coast Guard District § 165.818 Moving Security Zones, for certain vessels in Freeport... hundred (500) yards on each side of any vessel that has a moving security zone established around it....

  18. 33 CFR 165.818 - Moving Security Zones, for certain vessels in Freeport Entrance Channel, Freeport, Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Moving Security Zones, for... Areas Eighth Coast Guard District § 165.818 Moving Security Zones, for certain vessels in Freeport... hundred (500) yards on each side of any vessel that has a moving security zone established around it....

  19. 33 CFR 165.818 - Moving Security Zones, for certain vessels in Freeport Entrance Channel, Freeport, Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Moving Security Zones, for... Areas Eighth Coast Guard District § 165.818 Moving Security Zones, for certain vessels in Freeport... hundred (500) yards on each side of any vessel that has a moving security zone established around it....

  20. 33 CFR 165.818 - Moving Security Zones, for certain vessels in Freeport Entrance Channel, Freeport, Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Moving Security Zones, for... Areas Eighth Coast Guard District § 165.818 Moving Security Zones, for certain vessels in Freeport... hundred (500) yards on each side of any vessel that has a moving security zone established around it....

  1. 33 CFR 165.818 - Moving Security Zones, for certain vessels in Freeport Entrance Channel, Freeport, Texas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Moving Security Zones, for... Areas Eighth Coast Guard District § 165.818 Moving Security Zones, for certain vessels in Freeport... hundred (500) yards on each side of any vessel that has a moving security zone established around it....

  2. Technical efforts focus on cutting LNG plant costs

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, Ichizo; Kikkawa, Yoshitsugi

    1995-07-03

    LNG demand is growing due to the nuclear setback and environmental issues spurred by concern about the greenhouse effect and acid rain, especially in the Far East. However, LNG is expensive compared with other energy sources. Efforts continue to minimize capital and operating costs and to increase LNG plant availability and safety. Technical trends in the LNG industry aim at reducing plant costs in pursuit of a competitive LNG price on an energy value basis against the oil price. This article reviews key areas of technical development. Discussed are train size, liquefaction processes, acid gas removal, heavy end removal, nitrogen rejection, refrigeration compressor and drivers, expander application, cooling media selection, LNG storage and loading system, and plant availability.

  3. Simulation of groundwater conditions and streamflow depletion to evaluate water availability in a Freeport, Maine, watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, Martha G.; Locke, Daniel B.

    2012-01-01

    , the public-supply withdrawals (105.5 million gallons per year (Mgal/yr)) were much greater than those for any other category, being almost 7 times greater than all domestic well withdrawals (15.3 Mgal/yr). Industrial withdrawals in the study area (2.0 Mgal/yr) are mostly by a company that withdraws from an aquifer at the edge of the Merrill Brook watershed. Commercial withdrawals are very small (1.0 Mgal/yr), and no irrigation or other agricultural withdrawals were identified in this study area. A three-dimensional, steady-state groundwater-flow model was developed to evaluate stream-aquifer interactions and streamflow depletion from pumping, to help refine the conceptual model, and to predict changes in streamflow resulting from changes in pumping and recharge. Groundwater levels and flow in the Freeport aquifer study area were simulated with the three-dimensional, finite-difference groundwater-flow modeling code, MODFLOW-2005. Study area hydrology was simulated with a 3-layer model, under steady-state conditions. The groundwater model was used to evaluate changes that could occur in the water budgets of three parts of the local hydrologic system (the Harvey Brook watershed, the Merrill Brook watershed, and the buried aquifer from which pumping occurs) under several different climatic and pumping scenarios. The scenarios were (1) no pumping well withdrawals; (2) current (2009) pumping, but simulated drought conditions (20-percent reduction in recharge); (3) current (2009) recharge, but a 50-percent increase in pumping well withdrawals for public supply; and (4) drought conditions and increased pumping combined. In simulated drought situations, the overall recharge to the buried valley is about 15 percent less and the total amount of streamflow in the model area is reduced by about 19 percent. Without pumping, infiltration to the buried valley aquifer around the confining unit decreased by a small amount (0.05 million gallons per day (Mgal/d)), and discharge to the

  4. LNG Safety Assessment Evaluation Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Muna, Alice Baca; LaFleur, Angela Christine

    2015-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories evaluated published safety assessment methods across a variety of industries including Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), hydrogen, land and marine transportation, as well as the US Department of Defense (DOD). All the methods were evaluated for their potential applicability for use in the LNG railroad application. After reviewing the documents included in this report, as well as others not included because of repetition, the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist is most suitable to be adapted to the LNG railroad application. This report was developed to survey industries related to rail transportation for methodologies and tools that can be used by the FRA to review and evaluate safety assessments submitted by the railroad industry as a part of their implementation plans for liquefied or compressed natural gas storage ( on-board or tender) and engine fueling delivery systems. The main sections of this report provide an overview of various methods found during this survey. In most cases, the reference document is quoted directly. The final section provides discussion and a recommendation for the most appropriate methodology that will allow efficient and consistent evaluations to be made. The DOE Hydrogen Safety Plan Checklist was then revised to adapt it as a methodology for the Federal Railroad Administration’s use in evaluating safety plans submitted by the railroad industry.

  5. 33 CFR 110.156 - Randall Bay, Freeport, Long Island, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Randall Bay, Freeport, Long Island, N.Y. 110.156 Section 110.156 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.156 Randall Bay, Freeport, Long Island,...

  6. 33 CFR 110.156 - Randall Bay, Freeport, Long Island, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Randall Bay, Freeport, Long Island, N.Y. 110.156 Section 110.156 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.156 Randall Bay, Freeport, Long Island,...

  7. Modeling of LNG spills into trenches.

    PubMed

    Gavelli, Filippo; Chernovsky, Melissa K; Bullister, Edward; Kytomaa, Harri K

    2010-08-15

    A new method for the analysis of LNG spills into trenches has been developed to quantify vapor dispersion hazard distances. The model uses three steps to capture the behavior of an LNG spill into a trench. The first is to analytically calculate the evolving LNG flow, the second to calculate the vaporization rate along the trench, and the third is to calculate the dispersion of the vapors using a CFD model that has been validated for this application in the presence of complex geometries. This paper presents case studies that show the effect of wind perpendicular and parallel to the large aspect ratio trenches on vapor dispersion. The case studies also demonstrate the effect of complex terrain and obstacles such as vapor fences on vapor dispersion. The simulations show that wind direction relative to the trench has a significant effect on cloud shape, height, and maximum downwind distance. The addition of vapor fences to mitigate vapor dispersion hazards from an LNG spill into the LNG containment trench is shown to be effective.

  8. Landfill Gas Conversion to LNG and LCO{sub 2}. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W.R.; Cook, W. J.; Siwajek, L.A.

    2000-10-20

    This report summarizes work on the development of a process to produce LNG (liquefied methane) for heavy vehicle use from landfill gas (LFG) using Acrion's CO{sub 2} wash process for contaminant removal and CO{sub 2} recovery. Work was done in the following areas: (1) production of natural gas pipeline methane for liquefaction at an existing LNG facility, (2) production of LNG from sewage digester gas, (3) the use of mixed refrigerants for process cooling in the production of LNG, liquid CO{sub 2} and pipeline methane, (4) cost estimates for an LNG production facility at the Arden Landfill in Washington PA.

  9. Development of LNG-Powered Heavy-Duty Trucks in Commercial Hauling

    SciTech Connect

    Detroit Diesel Corporation; Trucking Research Institute

    1998-12-03

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy's development, deployment, and evaluation of alternative fuels, NREL and the Trucking Research Institute contracted with Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) to develop and operate a liquid natural gas fueled tractor powered by a DDC Series 50 prototype natural gas engine. This is the final report on the project.

  10. 78 FR 18970 - Trunkline LNG Company, LLC; Trunkline LNG Export, LLC; Trunkline Gas Company, LLC; Supplemental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Trunkline LNG Company, LLC; Trunkline LNG Export, LLC; Trunkline Gas Company... Trunkline LNG Company, LLC; Trunkline LNG Export, LLC; and Trunkline Gas Company, LLC (collectively referred... natural gas (LNG) terminal in Calcasieu Parish, Louisiana to liquefy natural gas and export the LNG....

  11. Development of polymer concrete for dike insulation at LNG (liquified natural gas) facilities: Phase 3, Final report, November 1, 1986-August 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, J.J.; Reams, W.; Elling, D.

    1987-10-31

    Insulating polymer concrete (IPC) composites have been developed for use as a dike insulation material at Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) storage facilities. Using inert, low density multicellular glass and/or ceramic macrospheres with unsaturated polyester or epoxy resins, a lightweight insulating polymer concrete has been made. Installation of IPC as an overlay on a concrete substrate has been shown to be a practical method of insulating LNG storage tank containment dikes. In many cases, the impounding dikes have compacted earthen or crushed stone surfaces. In these cases, the cost and time required to install a concrete substrate could be eliminated if the IPC can be installed by spraying or shotcretting it directly on the earthen or crushed stone surfaces. An evaluation was made of shotcretting IPC directly onto earthen and crushed stone surfaces using a polymer shotcrete machine. Shotcrete installations were made on sloped and vertical surfaces. In all cases, machine application was made without technical difficulty. Polymer shotcrete technology was shown to be technically feasible for IPC applications to a variety of substrates and surface geometries. Cost estimates indicate that IPC shotcrete applications can be almost 30% less than the installation of a concrete substrate with an IPC overlay.

  12. Supplying LNG markets using nitrogen rejection units at Exxon Shute Creek Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Hanus, P.M.; Kimble, E.L.

    1995-11-01

    Interest is growing in the United States for using Liquid Natural Gas (LNG) as an alternative transportation fuel for diesel and as a source of heating fuel. For gas producers, LNG offers a premium price opportunity versus conventional natural gas sales. To supply this developing market, two existing Nitrogen Rejection Units (NRU) at the Exxon Shute Creek Facility in Wyoming were modified allowing LNG extraction and truck loading for transport to customers. The modifications involved adding heat exchanger capacity to the NRUs to compensate for the refrigeration loss when LNG is removed. Besides allowing for LNG extraction, the modifications also debottlenecked the NRUs resulting in higher methane recovery and lower compression costs. With the modifications, the NRUs are capable of producing for sale 60,000 gpd (5 MMscfd gas equivalent) of high purity LNG. Total investment has been $5 million with initial sales of LNG occurring in September 1994.

  13. LNG risk management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martino, P.

    1980-12-01

    A general methodology is presented for conducting an analysis of the various aspects of the hazards associated with the storage and transportation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) which should be considered during the planning stages of a typical LNG ship terminal. The procedure includes the performance of a hazards and system analysis of the proposed site, a probability analysis of accident scenarios and safety impacts, an analysis of the consequences of credible accidents such as tanker accidents, spills and fires, the assessment of risks and the design and evaluation of risk mitigation measures.

  14. 77 FR 59603 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Oregon LNG Export...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... Proposed Oregon LNG Export Project and Washington Expansion Project, Request for Comments on Environmental Issues, and Notice of Public Scoping Meetings ] LNG Development Company, LLC Docket No. PF12-18-000 and... facilities proposed by LNG Development Company, LLC and Oregon Pipeline Company (collectively referred to...

  15. Development of polymer concrete for dike insulation at LNG facilities: Phase 4, Low cost materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Earlier GRI-sponsored work at Brookhaven National Laboratory has resulted in the development and utilization of insulating polymer concrete composites (IPC) as a means of reducing the evaporation rate of liquified natural gas in the event of a spill into a containment dike, thereby improving the safety at these sites. Although all of the required properties can be attained with the IPC, it was estimated that a low-cost replacement for the expensive organic binder would be necessary before use of the material would be cost-effective. In the current program, several latex modified cement formulations were evaluated and the most promising one identified. A mixture of two carboxylated styrene-butadiene latexes was selected for use in detailed laboratory property characterizations and a subsequent field evaluation. When compared to the properties of IPC, the latex-modified insulating materials display somewhat higher thermal conductivities, greater permeability to water, and reduced strength. However, these properties still meet most of the performance criteria, and the unit cost of the material is less than one-fifth that of IPC made with epoxy binders. When installed as a 0.75-in. thick overlay, material costs are estimated to be $1.00/ft{sup 2}.

  16. LNG annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Bomelburg, H.J.; Counts, C.A.; Cowan, C.E.; Davis, W.E.; DeSteese, J.G.; Pelto, P.J.

    1982-09-01

    This document updates the bibliography published in Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Safety and Environmental Control Assessment Program: third status report (PNL-4172) and is a complete listing of literature reviewed and reported under the LNG Technical Surveillance Task. The bibliography is organized alphabetically by author.

  17. Technology advances keeping LNG cost-competitive

    SciTech Connect

    Bellow, E.J. Jr.; Ghazal, F.P.; Silverman, A.J.; Myers, S.D.

    1997-06-02

    LNG plants, often very expensive in the past, will in the future need to cost less to build and operate and yet maintain high safety and reliability standards, both during construction and operation. Technical advancements, both in the process and in equipment scaling, manufacturing, and metallurgy, will provide much of the impetus for the improved economics. Although world energy demand is predicted to grow on average of about 2% annually over the next decade, LNG is expected to contribute an increasing portion of this growth with annual growth rates averaging about 7%. This steep growth increase will be propelled mainly by the environmentally friendlier burning characteristics of natural gas and the strong industrial growth in Asian and pacific Rim countries. While LNG is emerging as the fuel of choice for developing economies, its delivered cost to consumers will need to stay competitive with alternate energy supplies if it is to remain in front. The paper discusses LNG process development, treating process, equipment developments (man heat exchanger, compressors, drivers, and pressure vessels), and economy of scale.

  18. Project financing knits parts of costly LNG supply chain

    SciTech Connect

    Minyard, R.J.; Strode, M.O.

    1997-06-02

    The supply and distribution infrastructure of an LNG project requires project sponsors and LNG buyers to make large, interdependent capital investments. For a grassroots project, substantial investments may be necessary for each link in the supply chain: field development; liquefaction plant and storage; ports and utilities; ships; receiving terminal and related facilities; and end-user facilities such as power stations or a gas distribution network. The huge sums required for these projects make their finance ability critical to implementation. Lenders have become increasingly comfortable with LNG as a business and now have achieved a better understanding of the risks associated with it. Raising debt financing for many future LNG projects, however, will present new and increasingly difficult challenges. The challenge of financing these projects will be formidable: political instability, economic uncertainty, and local currency volatility will have to be recognized and mitigated. Described here is the evolution of financing LNG projects, including the Rasgas LNG project financing which broke new ground in this area. The challenges that lie ahead for sponsors seeking to finance future projects selling LNG to emerging markets are also discussed. And the views of leading experts from the field of project finance, specifically solicited for this article, address major issues that must be resolved for successful financing of these projects.

  19. Four band differential radiometer for monitoring LNG vapors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmonds, J. J.

    1981-01-01

    The development by JPL of a four band differential radiometer (FBDR) which is capable of providing a fast rate of response, accurate measurements of methane, ethane, and propane concentrations on the periphery of a dispersing LNG cloud. The FBDR is a small, low power, lightweight, portable instrument system that uses differential absorption of near infrared radiation by the LNG cloud as a technique for the determination of concentration of the three gases as the LNG cloud passes the instrument position. Instrument design and data analysis approaches are described. The data obtained from the FBDR prototype instrument system deployed in an instrument array during two 40 cubic meter spill tests are discussed.

  20. LNG to the year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Davenport, S.T.

    1984-04-01

    By 2000, about 190 MM metric-tpy of LNG will be moving in world trade, with Asia-Pacific as the dominant producer By the year 2000, approximately 190 million metric tons per year of LNG will be moving in worldwide trade. Production of LNG will be spread throughout most of the world, with Asia-Pacific as the dominant producer. LNG will be delivered only to the heavily industrialized areas of North America, Europe and Asia-Pacific. The success of any LNG project will be dependent on its individual economics, market needs, financial planning, and governmental permit processes. We hope industry will be able to put together the LNG projects required to meet the quanitities of production forecast here for the year 2000.

  1. LNG scene; Qatar's export plans intensify; sale of Columbia's U. S. terminal in doubt

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-20

    This paper reports that Activity continues to percolate in Qatar's massive liquefied natural gas export program. In the latest development, France's Ste. Nationale Elf Aquitaine and Japan's Sumitomo Corp. agreed to promote development of Qatar's LNG export project based on supergiant North Offshore gas field and step up discussions with potential buyers in coming months. Target markets lie in Japan and the Far East. Among other LNG operations, Columbia Gas System Inc. last week the it was told by Shell LNG Co. it is unlikely that presale conditions will be met prior to Shell LNG's scheduled purchase July 29 of 40.8% of the stock in Columbia LNG. Columbia LNG owns and LNG receiving terminal at Cove Point, Md., with a design sendout capacity of 1 bcfd of regasified LNG. That makes it the biggest in type U.S. Columbia the it had not received work on what action Shell LNG will take on the purchase agreement. However, failure to meet the undisclosed conditions will allow Shell LNG to end the agreement.

  2. 33 CFR 127.319 - LNG transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false LNG transfer. 127.319 Section 127... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.319 LNG transfer. During LNG transfer operations, the following must be met: (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall...

  3. 33 CFR 127.319 - LNG transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false LNG transfer. 127.319 Section 127... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.319 LNG transfer. During LNG transfer operations, the following must be met: (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall...

  4. 33 CFR 127.319 - LNG transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false LNG transfer. 127.319 Section 127... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.319 LNG transfer. During LNG transfer operations, the following must be met: (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall...

  5. 33 CFR 127.319 - LNG transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false LNG transfer. 127.319 Section 127... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.319 LNG transfer. During LNG transfer operations, the following must be met: (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall...

  6. 33 CFR 127.319 - LNG transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false LNG transfer. 127.319 Section 127... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.319 LNG transfer. During LNG transfer operations, the following must be met: (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall...

  7. LNG Observer: Second Qatargas train goes onstream

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The January-February, 1997 issue of the LNG Observer is presented. The following topics are discussed: second Qatargas train goes onstream; financing for the eighth Indonesian liquefaction train; Koreans take stakes in Oman LNG; US imports and exports of LNG in 1996; A 60% increase in proved reserves on the North West Shelf; proposals for Indian LNG terminal CEDIGAZ forecasts world LNG trade by 2010; growth for North African gas production and exports; and new forecast sees strong growth for Asian gas.

  8. Aussie LNG players target NE Asia in expansion bid

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-28

    Australia's natural gas players, keen to increase their presence in world liquefied natural gas trade, see Asia as their major LNG market in the decades to come. That's despite the fact that two spot cargoes of Australian Northwest Shelf LNG were shipped to Europe during the last 12 months and more are likely in 1994. Opportunities for growth are foreseen within the confines of the existing Northwest Shelf gas project for the rest of the 1990s. But the main focus for potential new grassroots project developers and expansions of the existing LNG plant in Australia is the expected shortfall in contract volumes of LNG to Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan during 2000--2010. Traditionally the price of crude oil has been used as a basis for calculating LNG prices. This means the economics of any new 21st century supply arrangements are delicately poised because of the current low world oil prices, a trend the market believes is likely to continue. In a bid to lessen the effect of high initial capital outlays and still meet projected demand using LNG from new projects and expansion of the existing plant, Australia's gas producers are working toward greater cooperation with prospective Asian buyers.

  9. LNG plants in the US and abroad

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, C.F.; Biederman, R.T.

    1992-12-31

    The Institute of Gas Technology recently conducted a comprehensive survey of LNG production and storage facilities in North America. This survey was performed as part of IGT`s LNG Observer newsletter which covers both domestic and international LNG news, reports on LNG related economics and statistics, and routinely conducts interviews with key industry leaders. In addition to providing consulting services to the LNG industry, IGT has cosponsored the International Conference on Liquefied Natural Gas for the part 20 years. The objective of this paper is to present a summary of our recent survey results as well as provide an overview of world LNG trade. This information is important in assessing the potential near term availability of LNG for transportation applications. The IGT LNG Survey appraised the capacity and current market activity of LNG peak shaving, satellite storage, and import receiving facilities in the United States and Canada. Information was requested from facilities on three main topics: liquefaction, storage, and regasification. Additional questions were posed regarding the year of operation, designer/contractor for liquefaction cycle and storage, source of LNG (for storage-only facilities), plans for expansion, and level of interest in providing LNG as a vehicle fuel. The IGT LNG Survey has to date received information on 56 LNG peak shaving facilities, 28 satellite storage facilities, and 4 LNG import receiving terminals.

  10. LNG pool fire spectral data and calculation of emissive power.

    PubMed

    Raj, Phani K

    2007-04-11

    Spectral description of thermal emission from fires provides a fundamental basis on which the fire thermal radiation hazard assessment models can be developed. Several field experiments were conducted during the 1970s and 1980s to measure the thermal radiation field surrounding LNG fires. Most of these tests involved the measurement of fire thermal radiation to objects outside the fire envelope using either narrow-angle or wide-angle radiometers. Extrapolating the wide-angle radiometer data without understanding the nature of fire emission is prone to errors. Spectral emissions from LNG fires have been recorded in four test series conducted with LNG fires on different substrates and of different diameters. These include the AGA test series of LNG fires on land of diameters 1.8 and 6m, 35 m diameter fire on an insulated concrete dike in the Montoir tests conducted by Gaz de France, a 1976 test with 13 m diameter and the 1980 tests with 10 m diameter LNG fire on water carried out at China Lake, CA. The spectral data from the Montoir test series have not been published in technical journals; only recently has some data from this series have become available. This paper presents the details of the LNG fire spectral data from, primarily, the China Lake test series, their analysis and results. Available data from other test series are also discussed. China Lake data indicate that the thermal radiation emission from 13 m diameter LNG fire is made up of band emissions of about 50% of energy by water vapor (band emission), about 25% by carbon dioxide and the remainder constituting the continuum emission by luminous soot. The emissions from the H2O and CO2 bands are completely absorbed by the intervening atmosphere in less than about 200 m from the fire, even in the relatively dry desert air. The effective soot radiation constitutes only about 23% during the burning period of methane and increases slightly when other higher hydrocarbon species (ethane, propane, etc.) are

  11. Analysis of temperature and pressure changes in liquefied natural gas (LNG) cryogenic tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Q.-S.; Wegrzyn, J.; Prasad, V.

    2004-10-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is being developed as a transportation fuel for heavy vehicles such as trucks and transit buses, to lessen the dependency on oil and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The LNG stations are properly designed to prevent the venting of natural gas (NG) from LNG tanks, which can cause evaporative greenhouse gas emissions and result in fluctuations of fuel flow and changes of fuel composition. Boil-off is caused by the heat added into the LNG fuel during the storage and fueling. Heat can leak into the LNG fuel through the shell of tank during the storage and through hoses and dispensers during the fueling. Gas from tanks onboard vehicles, when returned to LNG tanks, can add additional heat into the LNG fuel. A thermodynamic and heat transfer model has been developed to analyze different mechanisms of heat leak into the LNG fuel. The evolving of properties and compositions of LNG fuel inside LNG tanks is simulated. The effect of a number of buses fueled each day on the possible total fuel loss rate has been analyzed. It is found that by increasing the number of buses, fueled each day, the total fuel loss rate can be reduced significantly. It is proposed that an electric generator be used to consume the boil-off gas or a liquefier be used to re-liquefy the boil-off gas to reduce the tank pressure and eliminate fuel losses. These approaches can prevent boil-off of natural gas emissions, and reduce the costs of LNG as transportation fuel.

  12. LNG Vehicle High-Pressure Fuel System and ''Cold Energy'' Utilization

    SciTech Connect

    powers,Charles A.; Derbidge, T. Craig

    2001-03-27

    A high-pressure fuel system for LNG vehicles with direct-injection natural gas engines has been developed and demonstrated on a heavy-duty truck. A new concept for utilizing the ''cold energy'' associated with LNG vehicles to generate mechanical power to drive auxiliary equipment (such as high-pressure fuel pumps) has also been developed and demonstrated in the laboratory. The high-pressure LNG fuel system development included the design and testing of a new type of cryogenic pump utilizes multiple chambers and other features to condense moderate quantities of sucked vapor and discharge supercritical LNG at 3,000 to 4,000 psi. The pump was demonstrated on a Class 8 truck with a Westport high-pressure direct-injection Cummins ISX engine. A concept that utilizes LNG's ''cold energy'' to drive a high-pressure fuel pump without engine attachments or power consumption was developed. Ethylene is boiled and superheated by the engine coolant, and it is cooled and condensed by rejecting h eat to the LNG. Power is extracted in a full-admission blowdown process, and part of this power is applied to pump the ethylene liquid to the boiler pressure. Tests demonstrated a net power output of 1.1. hp at 1.9 Lbm/min of LNG flow, which is adequate to isentropically pump the LNG to approximately 3,400 psi..

  13. Lessons learned from LNG safety research.

    PubMed

    Koopman, Ronald P; Ermak, Donald L

    2007-02-20

    During the period from 1977 to 1989, the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) conducted a liquefied gaseous fuels spill effects program under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, Department of Transportation, Gas Research Institute and others. The goal of this program was to develop and validate tools that could be used to predict the effects of a large liquefied gas spill through the execution of large scale field experiments and the development of computer models to make predictions for conditions under which tests could not be performed. Over the course of the program, three series of LNG spill experiments were performed to study cloud formation, dispersion, combustion and rapid phase transition (RPT) explosions. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of this program, the lessons learned from 12 years of research as well as some recommendations for the future. The general conclusion from this program is that cold, dense gas related phenomena can dominate the dispersion of a large volume, high release rate spill of LNG especially under low ambient wind speed and stable atmospheric conditions, and therefore, it is necessary to include a detailed and validated description of these phenomena in computer models to adequately predict the consequences of a release. Specific conclusions include: * LNG vapor clouds are lower and wider than trace gas clouds and tend to follow the downhill slope of terrain due to dampened vertical turbulence and gravity flow within the cloud. Under low wind speed, stable atmospheric conditions, a bifurcated, two lobed structure develops. * Navier-Stokes models provide the most complete description of LNG dispersion, while more highly parameterized Lagrangian models were found to be well suited to emergency response applications. * The measured heat flux from LNG vapor cloud burns exceeded levels necessary for third degree burns and were large enough to ignite most flammable materials. * RPTs are of two

  14. LNG cascading damage study. Volume I, fracture testing report.

    SciTech Connect

    Petti, Jason P.; Kalan, Robert J.

    2011-12-01

    As part of the liquefied natural gas (LNG) Cascading Damage Study, a series of structural tests were conducted to investigate the thermal induced fracture of steel plate structures. The thermal stresses were achieved by applying liquid nitrogen (LN{sub 2}) onto sections of each steel plate. In addition to inducing large thermal stresses, the lowering of the steel temperature simultaneously reduced the fracture toughness. Liquid nitrogen was used as a surrogate for LNG due to safety concerns and since the temperature of LN{sub 2} is similar (-190 C) to LNG (-161 C). The use of LN{sub 2} ensured that the tests could achieve cryogenic temperatures in the range an actual vessel would encounter during a LNG spill. There were four phases to this test series. Phase I was the initial exploratory stage, which was used to develop the testing process. In the Phase II series of tests, larger plates were used and tested until fracture. The plate sizes ranged from 4 ft square pieces to 6 ft square sections with thicknesses from 1/4 inches to 3/4 inches. This phase investigated the cooling rates on larger plates and the effect of different notch geometries (stress concentrations used to initiate brittle fracture). Phase II was divided into two sections, Phase II-A and Phase II-B. Phase II-A used standard A36 steel, while Phase II-B used marine grade steels. In Phase III, the test structures were significantly larger, in the range of 12 ft by 12 ft by 3 ft high. These structures were designed with more complex geometries to include features similar to those on LNG vessels. The final test phase, Phase IV, investigated differences in the heat transfer (cooling rates) between LNG and LN{sub 2}. All of the tests conducted in this study are used in subsequent parts of the LNG Cascading Damage Study, specifically the computational analyses.

  15. 46 CFR 154.703 - Methane (LNG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.703 Methane (LNG). Unless a cargo tank carrying methane (LNG)...

  16. Offshore Deepwater Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) Ports ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2017-04-10

    EPA received three National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit applications for wastewater discharges related to the construction and operation of deepwater LNG ports in state and federal waters of Massachusetts Bay. One was for construction-related discharges associated with the Northeast Gateway LNG deepwater port, one was for operations-related discharges associated with the Northeast Gateway LNG deepwater port, and the other was for both construction-related and operations-related discharges for the Neptune LNG deepwater port.

  17. Fire suppression system of a small-scale LNG loading facility at PT Badak NGL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yustiarza, Farhan Hilmyawan

    2017-03-01

    LNG progressively become favorable energy to replace oil-based fuel due to lower cost and more environment-friendly. In order to support an emerging LNG demands in Kalimantan, PT Badak NGL, one of the leading LNG Company in the world, develops the land-transported LNG loading facility. This facility performs loading the LNG into a small-scale tank (ISO Tank) with 20 m3 capacities. Safety reviews over this facility were conducted. Based on these reviews, the LNG filling station requires supplemental safeguards, such as LNG spill containment and firefighting foam system besides firewater system and dry chemical system. The spill containment provides holding LNG spill within the limits of plant property, while the high expansion foam system deals to minimize the vaporization rate to prevent a fire incident. This paper mainly discusses designing of such supplemental safeguards. The requirement of the spill containment is 20 m3 (6.3 × 3.3 × 2.0) m and the foam system should be capable generating foam at least 40 m3/min.

  18. 76 FR 76298 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Old Brazos River, Freeport, Brazoria County, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-07

    ... operation of the Union Pacific Railroad Swing Span Bridge across the Old Brazos River, mile 4.4, at Freeport... feet above mean sea level (MSL). This deviation will allow the lift span of the bridge to remain in the... (7a-09-8) dated September 14, 2010. The project involves the replacement of the old swing span...

  19. 75 FR 12726 - Expansion/Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 149; Port Freeport, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Expansion/Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 149; Port Freeport, TX Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as amended (19 U.S.C....

  20. 33 CFR 110.156 - Randall Bay, Freeport, Long Island, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Island, N.Y. 110.156 Section 110.156 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.156 Randall Bay, Freeport, Long Island, N... available, may be assigned to any vessel by the Captain of the Port of Long Island Sound. (2) The Captain...

  1. 33 CFR 110.156 - Randall Bay, Freeport, Long Island, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Island, N.Y. 110.156 Section 110.156 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.156 Randall Bay, Freeport, Long Island, N... available, may be assigned to any vessel by the Captain of the Port of Long Island Sound. (2) The Captain...

  2. 33 CFR 110.156 - Randall Bay, Freeport, Long Island, N.Y.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Island, N.Y. 110.156 Section 110.156 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.156 Randall Bay, Freeport, Long Island, N... available, may be assigned to any vessel by the Captain of the Port of Long Island Sound. (2) The Captain...

  3. 33 CFR 100.106 - Freeport Grand Prix, Long Beach, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY REGATTAS AND MARINE PARADES SAFETY OF LIFE ON NAVIGABLE WATERS § 100.106 Freeport Grand Prix, Long... of Long Island to the south of Long Beach, New York. The regulated area is one and one quarter (11/4...-45 North; 073-36-19 West. (3) Southwest Corner. east of East Rockaway Approach Buoy (R “4”;...

  4. 76 FR 4818 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Old Brazos River, Freeport, Brazoria County, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... operation of the Union Pacific Railroad Swing Span Bridge across the Old Brazos River, mile 4.4, at Freeport... February 10, 2011 until 7 a.m. on February 16, 2011. This deviation will allow the swing span of the bridge to remain in the closed-to-navigation position in order for the north end of the swing span to be...

  5. Overview study of LNG release prevention and control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pelto, P.J.; Baker, E.G.; Holter, G.M.; Powers, T.B.

    1982-03-01

    The liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry employs a variety of release prevention and control techniques to reduce the likelihood and the consequences of accidental LNG releases. A study of the effectiveness of these release prevention and control systems is being performed. Reference descriptions for the basic types of LNG facilities were developed. Then an overview study was performed to identify areas that merit subsequent and more detailed analyses. The specific objectives were to characterize the LNG facilities of interest and their release prevention and control systems, identify possible weak links and research needs, and provide an analytical framework for subsequent detailed analyses. The LNG facilities analyzed include a reference export terminal, marine vessel, import terminal, peakshaving facility, truck tanker, and satellite facility. A reference description for these facilities, a preliminary hazards analysis (PHA), and a list of representative release scenarios are included. The reference facility descriptions outline basic process flows, plant layouts, and safety features. The PHA identifies the important release prevention operations. Representative release scenarios provide a format for discussing potential initiating events, effects of the release prevention and control systems, information needs, and potential design changes. These scenarios range from relatively frequent but low consequence releases to unlikely but large releases and are the principal basis for the next stage of analysis.

  6. Floating LNG plant will stress reliability and safety

    SciTech Connect

    Kinney, C.D.; Schulz, H.R.; Spring, W.

    1997-07-01

    Mobil has developed a unique floating LNG plant design after extensive studies that set safety as the highest priority. The result is a production, storage and offloading platform designed to produce 6 million tons per year of LNG and up to 55,000 bpd of condensate from 1 Bcfd of feed gas. All production and off-loading equipment is supported by a square donut-shaped concrete hull, which is spread-moored. The hull contains storage tanks for 250,000 m{sup 3} of LNG, 6540,000 bbl of condensate and ballast water. Both LNG and condensate can be directly offloaded to shuttle tankers. Since the plant may be moved to produce from several different gas fields during its life, the plant and barge were designed to be generic. It can be used at any location in the Pacific Rim, with up to 15% CO{sub 2}, 100 ppm H{sub 2}S, 55 bbl/MMcf condensate and 650 ft water depth. It can be modified to handle other water depths, depending upon the environment. In addition, it is much more economical than an onshore grassroots LNG plant, with potential capital savings of 25% or more. The paper describes the machinery, meteorology and oceanography, and safety engineering.

  7. 46 CFR 154.703 - Methane (LNG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methane (LNG). 154.703 Section 154.703 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... and Temperature Control § 154.703 Methane (LNG). Unless a cargo tank carrying methane (LNG)...

  8. 46 CFR 154.703 - Methane (LNG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Methane (LNG). 154.703 Section 154.703 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... and Temperature Control § 154.703 Methane (LNG). Unless a cargo tank carrying methane (LNG)...

  9. 46 CFR 154.703 - Methane (LNG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Methane (LNG). 154.703 Section 154.703 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... and Temperature Control § 154.703 Methane (LNG). Unless a cargo tank carrying methane (LNG)...

  10. 46 CFR 154.703 - Methane (LNG).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Methane (LNG). 154.703 Section 154.703 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR... and Temperature Control § 154.703 Methane (LNG). Unless a cargo tank carrying methane (LNG)...

  11. Recommended research on LNG safety

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, H.J.; Gilmore, F.R.

    1981-03-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting research on the safety and other environmental aspects of liquefied energy gases including liquefied natural gas (LNG). The effort reported here was conducted as part of the planning for further research into the safety aspects of transporting and storing LNG, with primary emphasis on public safety. Although the modern LNG industry has enjoyed excellent success in providing for safe operations, significant questions remain on the part of many, the expressions of which were intensified with the addition of marine-based LNG import terminals. Public safety with regard to large-scale importation of this fuel has received widespread attention in the US Congress, state legislatures, county and city governments, and from various individuals and public groups, with coverage in all the news media, including books published on the subject. The safety concerns have centered around the consequences to the public of a large spill of the cryogenic liquid from an ocean tanker or a larger storage tank, either of which might hold as much as 125,000 m/sup 3/ of LNG.

  12. Release of LNG vapor from large-volume, low-pressure LNG storage. Letter report, September 30, 1981-September 30, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This project involves development of practical release prevention measures by developing design and operating procedures beyond current practice. The objective of the program is to obtain the quantitative field data necessary to model the physics of the tank vapor space pressure response to boil-off compressor operation and atmospheric pressure changes. This work will lead to the development of guides to LNG storage tank operation and equipment specification that will limit the possibility of vapor venting or rollover of the stored LNG.

  13. LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powars, Charles A.; Moyer, Carl B.; Lowell, Douglas D.

    1994-02-01

    Liquid natural gas (LNG) is an attractive transportation fuel because of its high heating value and energy density (i.e., Btu/lb. and Btu/gal.), clean burning characteristics, relatively low cost ($/Btu), and domestic availability. This research evaluated LNG vehicle and refueling system technology, economics, and safety. Prior and current LNG vehicle projects were studied to identify needed technology improvements. Life-cycle cost analyses considered various LNG vehicle and fuel supply options. Safety records, standards, and analysis methods were reviewed. The LNG market niche is centrally fueled heavy-duty fleet vehicles with high fuel consumption. For these applications, fuel cost savings can amortize equipment capital costs.

  14. LNG plants in the US and abroad. [Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG)

    SciTech Connect

    Blazek, C.F.; Biederman, R.T.

    1992-01-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology recently conducted a comprehensive survey of LNG production and storage facilities in North America. This survey was performed as part of IGT's LNG Observer newsletter which covers both domestic and international LNG news, reports on LNG related economics and statistics, and routinely conducts interviews with key industry leaders. In addition to providing consulting services to the LNG industry, IGT has cosponsored the International Conference on Liquefied Natural Gas for the part 20 years. The objective of this paper is to present a summary of our recent survey results as well as provide an overview of world LNG trade. This information is important in assessing the potential near term availability of LNG for transportation applications. The IGT LNG Survey appraised the capacity and current market activity of LNG peak shaving, satellite storage, and import receiving facilities in the United States and Canada. Information was requested from facilities on three main topics: liquefaction, storage, and regasification. Additional questions were posed regarding the year of operation, designer/contractor for liquefaction cycle and storage, source of LNG (for storage-only facilities), plans for expansion, and level of interest in providing LNG as a vehicle fuel. The IGT LNG Survey has to date received information on 56 LNG peak shaving facilities, 28 satellite storage facilities, and 4 LNG import receiving terminals.

  15. Non-contraceptive uses of levonorgestrel-releasing hormone system (LNG-IUS)--a systematic enquiry and overview.

    PubMed

    Varma, Rajesh; Sinha, Deepali; Gupta, Janesh K

    2006-03-01

    Levonorgestrel releasing-intrauterine systems (LNG-IUS) were originally developed as a method of contraception in the mid 1970s. The only LNG-IUS approved for general public use is the Mirena LNG-IUS, which releases 20 mcg of levonorgestrel per day directly in to the uterine cavity. However, new lower dose (10 and 14 mcg per day) and smaller sized LNG-IUS (MLS, FibroPlant-LNG) are currently under clinical development and investigation. Research into the non-contraceptive uses of LNG-IUS is rapidly expanding. In the UK, LNG-IUS is licensed for use in menorrhagia and to provide endometrial protection to perimenopausal and postmenopausal women on estrogen replacement therapy. There is limited evidence to suggest that LNG-IUS may also be beneficial in women with endometriosis, adenomyosis, fibroids, endometrial hyperplasia and early stage endometrial cancer (where the patient is deemed unfit for primary surgical therapy). This systematic enquiry and overview evaluates the quality of evidence relating to the non-contraceptive therapeutic uses of LNG-IUS in gynaecology.

  16. Potential for long-term LNG supplies to the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Lihn, M.L.

    1992-02-01

    Topics discussed here include: (1) terminal capacity; (2) potential sources for US LNG (liquefied natural gas) imports; (3) LNG liquefaction and transportation capacity; (4) historical US LNG imports; (5) LNG supply costs; (6)delivered cost of future LNG imports.

  17. 77 FR 58373 - Trunkline LNG Company, LLC; Trunkline LNG Export, LLC; Trunkline Gas Company, LLC; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Trunkline LNG Company, LLC; Trunkline LNG Export, LLC; Trunkline Gas Company... Project involving construction and operation of facilities by Trunkline LNG Company, LLC/Trunkline LNG... Trunkline plans to expand its existing liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal in Calcasieu Parish,...

  18. 75 FR 26744 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ...-000] Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Application May 5, 2010. On April 22, 2010, Cameron LNG, LLC filed... directed to William D. Rapp, Senior Regulatory Counsel at Cameron LNG, LLC, 101 Ash Street, HQ-12,...

  19. Natural gas and CO2 price variation: impact on the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipelines

    PubMed Central

    Ulvestad, Marte; Overland, Indra

    2012-01-01

    This article develops a formal model for comparing the cost structure of the two main transport options for natural gas: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels, and LNG as a modern and efficient way of transporting it. Some research has been carried out into the local environmental impact of LNG facilities, but almost none into aspects related to climate change. This paper concludes that at current price levels for natural gas and CO2 emissions the distance from field to consumer and the volume of natural gas transported are the main determinants of transport costs. The pricing of natural gas and greenhouse emissions influence the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipeline transport, but only to a limited degree at current price levels. Because more energy is required for the LNG process (especially for fuelling the liquefaction process) than for pipelines at distances below 9100 km, LNG is more exposed to variability in the price of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions up to this distance. If the prices of natural gas and/or greenhouse gas emission rise dramatically in the future, this will affect the choice between pipelines and LNG. Such a price increase will be favourable for pipelines relative to LNG. PMID:24683269

  20. Natural gas and CO2 price variation: impact on the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipelines.

    PubMed

    Ulvestad, Marte; Overland, Indra

    2012-06-01

    THIS ARTICLE DEVELOPS A FORMAL MODEL FOR COMPARING THE COST STRUCTURE OF THE TWO MAIN TRANSPORT OPTIONS FOR NATURAL GAS: liquefied natural gas (LNG) and pipelines. In particular, it evaluates how variations in the prices of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions affect the relative cost-efficiency of these two options. Natural gas is often promoted as the most environmentally friendly of all fossil fuels, and LNG as a modern and efficient way of transporting it. Some research has been carried out into the local environmental impact of LNG facilities, but almost none into aspects related to climate change. This paper concludes that at current price levels for natural gas and CO2 emissions the distance from field to consumer and the volume of natural gas transported are the main determinants of transport costs. The pricing of natural gas and greenhouse emissions influence the relative cost-efficiency of LNG and pipeline transport, but only to a limited degree at current price levels. Because more energy is required for the LNG process (especially for fuelling the liquefaction process) than for pipelines at distances below 9100 km, LNG is more exposed to variability in the price of natural gas and greenhouse gas emissions up to this distance. If the prices of natural gas and/or greenhouse gas emission rise dramatically in the future, this will affect the choice between pipelines and LNG. Such a price increase will be favourable for pipelines relative to LNG.

  1. Waste Management's LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Norton, P.; Clark, N.

    2001-01-25

    Waste Management, Inc., began operating a fleet of heavy-duty LNG refuse trucks at its Washington, Pennsylvania, facility. The objective of the project was to provide transportation professionals with quantitative, unbiased information on the cost, maintenance, operational, and emissions characteristics of LNG as one alternative to conventional diesel for heavy-duty trucking applications.

  2. Wisconsin natural gas makes successful LNG turnaround

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, G.H.

    1981-11-01

    Wisconsin Natural Gas Co. successfully purged a 250-MMcf capacity LNG tank out of service, entered the tank, made necessary inspections, and performed planned modifications. The experience gained during this operation made it evident that an LNG tank need not be inspected at regular intervals for there was no deterioration or corrosion associated with the service.

  3. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181... Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum...

  4. 78 FR 41047 - UGI LNG, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission UGI LNG, Inc.; Notice of Application On June 17, 2013, UGI LNG, Inc. (UGI LNG) filed a request pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act, and Part 157 of the Rules and Regulations of the Commission. UGI LNG seeks authorization to construct additional refrigeration capacity...

  5. 33 CFR 127.321 - Release of LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release of LNG. 127.321 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.321 Release of LNG. (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall ensure that— (1) No person releases LNG into the...

  6. 33 CFR 127.321 - Release of LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Release of LNG. 127.321 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.321 Release of LNG. (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall ensure that— (1) No person releases LNG into the...

  7. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181... Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum...

  8. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181... Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum...

  9. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. 193.2181... Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks. Each impounding system serving an LNG storage tank must have a minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum...

  10. 33 CFR 127.321 - Release of LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Release of LNG. 127.321 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.321 Release of LNG. (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall ensure that— (1) No person releases LNG into the...

  11. 33 CFR 127.321 - Release of LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Release of LNG. 127.321 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.321 Release of LNG. (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall ensure that— (1) No person releases LNG into the...

  12. 33 CFR 127.321 - Release of LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Release of LNG. 127.321 Section... Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Operations § 127.321 Release of LNG. (a) The operator of the waterfront facility handling LNG shall ensure that— (1) No person releases LNG into the...

  13. 76 FR 2677 - Southern LNG Company, LLC; Notice of Public Scoping Meeting for the Proposed LNG Truck Loading...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern LNG Company, LLC; Notice of Public Scoping Meeting for the Proposed LNG Truck Loading Project January 7, 2011. On February 2, 2011, the Office of Energy Projects staff... Southern LNG Company, LLC's (Southern) LNG Truck Loading Project. We scheduled this meeting to...

  14. How Gaz de France optimizes LNG regasification

    SciTech Connect

    Colonna, J.L.; Lecomte, B.; Caudron, S.

    1986-05-05

    A regasification optimization program was implemented at Montoir-de-Bretagne in 1984, and rapidly accepted by the operators. It has been an important tool for decision-making in the optimizing operation of this liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage and regasification terminal. The models used are regularly and easily updated on the basis of equipment behavior: aging or fouling. The Montoir-de-Bretagne LNG terminal is in the port area of Nates-Saint Nazaire on the Atlantic coast. It was commissioned in 1982 by Gaz de France. This terminal is used for receiving, storing, and regasifying the Algerian LNG received under a contract between Gaz de France and Sonatrach, as well as the LNG imported by Belgium and temporarily routed through France. It is designed to receive 25,000 to 200,000 cu m LNG carriers and has three 120,000 cm m LNG storage tanks. The daily sendout ranges between 6.7 million cu m and 36 million cu m. Monitor terminal supplies mainly Brittany and the Paris area. Two identifical berths allow the simultaneous reception of two LNG carriers. LNG is carried to the storage tanks in 32-in. lines at a rate of 12,000 cu m/hr. Each storage tank is equipped with three submerged 450 cu m/hr pumps with which the LNG is sent from the tanks to the secondary pumps at 8 bar. The nine high-pressure (HP) secondary pumps, with a capacity of either 450 cu m/hr or 180 cu m/hr, raise the LNG pressure to a level at least equal to pipeline pressure prior to revaporization.

  15. Numerical investigation of supercritical LNG convective heat transfer in a horizontal serpentine tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Chang-Liang; Ren, Jing-Jie; Dong, Wen-Ping; Bi, Ming-Shu

    2016-09-01

    The submerged combustion vaporizer (SCV) is indispensable general equipment for liquefied natural gas (LNG) receiving terminals. In this paper, numerical simulation was conducted to get insight into the flow and heat transfer characteristics of supercritical LNG on the tube-side of SCV. The SST model with enhanced wall treatment method was utilized to handle the coupled wall-to-LNG heat transfer. The thermal-physical properties of LNG under supercritical pressure were used for this study. After the validation of model and method, the effects of mass flux, outer wall temperature and inlet pressure on the heat transfer behaviors were discussed in detail. Then the non-uniformity heat transfer mechanism of supercritical LNG and effect of natural convection due to buoyancy change in the tube was discussed based on the numerical results. Moreover, different flow and heat transfer characteristics inside the bend tube sections were also analyzed. The obtained numerical results showed that the local surface heat transfer coefficient attained its peak value when the bulk LNG temperature approached the so-called pseudo-critical temperature. Higher mass flux could eliminate the heat transfer deteriorations due to the increase of turbulent diffusion. An increase of outer wall temperature had a significant influence on diminishing heat transfer ability of LNG. The maximum surface heat transfer coefficient strongly depended on inlet pressure. Bend tube sections could enhance the heat transfer due to secondary flow phenomenon. Furthermore, based on the current simulation results, a new dimensionless, semi-theoretical empirical correlation was developed for supercritical LNG convective heat transfer in a horizontal serpentine tube. The paper provided the mechanism of heat transfer for the design of high-efficiency SCV.

  16. The use of a synthetic progesterone, levonorgestrel (LNG), to control the oestrous cycle in the koala.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, K; Anderson, S T; Pyne, M; Nicolson, V; Mucci, A; Lisle, A; Johnston, S D

    2015-05-01

    This study investigated the efficacy of a synthetic progestogen, levonorgestrel (LNG), to control koala ovarian activity for the purposes of oestrous synchronisation. Captive koalas were administered either saline control or a 70-mg LNG implant on Day 2 of oestrus. Urogenital cytology, oestrous behaviour and plasma oestradiol-17β and LH concentrations were monitored over a 6-week period. After LNG implant removal females were monitored to determine if the return to oestrus was synchronised. LNG-treated koalas immediately ceased displaying oestrous behaviour, showed no evidence of cornified epithelial cells in smears of urogenital cytology and exhibited low plasma oestradiol-17β concentrations throughout the implantation period. In contrast, oestradiol-17β levels in control koalas showed evidence of continued cyclic activity associated with behavioural oestrus and increased cornified epithelial cells in urogenital smears on Days 33 to 35 after saline injection. After implant removal, LNG-treated koalas exhibited oestrus at 13, 14, 17 and 30 days after implant removal. Plasma LH concentrations varied throughout the study period with no significant time (P = 0.49) or treatment (P = 0.13) effect. Overall results from this study suggest that LNG implants in koalas can inhibit oestrous behaviour and reduce circulating oestradiol-17β levels before oestrus, most likely by preventing development of the pre-ovulatory follicle. However, there was no evidence of LH suppression by the LNG implants. Removal of LNG implants resulted in the synchronous return to oestrus in three of the four treated koalas. Further studies on a larger population are required to validate these findings.

  17. Calcite genesis in the Upper Freeport coal bed as indicated by stable isotope geochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Dulong, F.T.; Spiker, E.C.; Cecil, C.B.; Stanton, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The grinding and sizing in float-sink testing of the Upper Freeport coal bed physically separates calcite of different origins. The different origins are distinguished by different isotopic compositions. The isotopic compositions of calcite indicates at least two, possibly three, stages of calcite formation in the Upper Freeport coal bed. Calcite samples obtained from cleat, and isolated from 8x100 mesh-1.8 specific gravity sink fraction and -100 mesh size fraction, are enriched in /sup 13/C. The dispersion in /sup 18/O values for all three sample types, as measured by the standard deviation, is 2.7 per mil relative to SMOW, which may indicate similar temperature of formation. In contrast, calcite from the 1.275 specific gravity float fraction is depleted in /sup 13/C (mean = -4.6 per mil), indicative of CO/sub 2/ generated from the oxidation of organic matter. The standard deviation of /sup 18/O values for these samples is 9.2 per mil, probably indicating variation in the temperature of formation. Limestone samples associated with the Upper Freeport coal bed are slightly depleted in /sup 13/C (mean = -3.1 per mil). Genesis of calcite in the coal apparently resulted from biotic, as well as, thermogenic processes. A second stage of calcite formation, resulting from fermentation and methanogenesis is in cleat, and in the 8x100 mesh-1.8 specific gravity sink and -100 mesh size fractions. Part of the calcite in the 1.275 specific gravity float fraction may have formed from thermally generated CO/sub 2/ released during coalification.

  18. Numerical simulations of LNG vapor dispersion in Brayton Fire Training Field tests with ANSYS CFX.

    PubMed

    Qi, Ruifeng; Ng, Dedy; Cormier, Benjamin R; Mannan, M Sam

    2010-11-15

    Federal safety regulations require the use of validated consequence models to determine the vapor cloud dispersion exclusion zones for accidental liquefied natural gas (LNG) releases. One tool that is being developed in industry for exclusion zone determination and LNG vapor dispersion modeling is computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This paper uses the ANSYS CFX CFD code to model LNG vapor dispersion in the atmosphere. Discussed are important parameters that are essential inputs to the ANSYS CFX simulations, including the atmospheric conditions, LNG evaporation rate and pool area, turbulence in the source term, ground surface temperature and roughness height, and effects of obstacles. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to illustrate uncertainties in the simulation results arising from the mesh size and source term turbulence intensity. In addition, a set of medium-scale LNG spill tests were performed at the Brayton Fire Training Field to collect data for validating the ANSYS CFX prediction results. A comparison of test data with simulation results demonstrated that CFX was able to describe the dense gas behavior of LNG vapor cloud, and its prediction results of downwind gas concentrations close to ground level were in approximate agreement with the test data.

  19. US North Slope gas and Asian LNG markets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.

    1994-01-01

    Prospects for export of liquified natural gas (LNG) from Alaska's North Slope are assessed. Projected market conditions to 2010 show that new LNG capacity beyond announced expansions will be needed to meet regional demand and that supplies will probably come from outside the region. The estimated delivered costs of likely suppliers show that Alaska North Slope gas will not be competitive. The alternative North Slope gas development strategies of transport and sale to the lower 48 states and use on the North Slope for either enhanced oil recovery or conversion to liquids are examined. The alternative options require delaying development until US gas prices increase, exhaustion of certain North Slope oil fields, or advances occur in gas to liquid fuels conversion technology. ?? 1995.

  20. LNG -- A paradox of propulsion potential

    SciTech Connect

    McKay, D.J.

    1995-12-31

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) has been demonstrating its viability as a clean-burning alternative fuel for buses and medium- and heavy-duty trucks for the past 30 years. The first known LNG vehicle project began in San Diego in 1965, When San Diego Gas and Electric converted 22 utility trucks and three passenger vehicles to dedicated LNG. A surge in LNG vehicle project activity over the past five years has led to a fairly robust variety of vehicles testing the fuel, from Class 8 tractors, refuse haulers and transit buses to railroad locomotives and ferry boats. Recent technology improvements in engine design, cryogenic tanks, fuel nozzles and other related equipment have made LNG more practical to use than in the 1960s. LNG delivers more than twice the driving range from the same-sized fuel tank as a vehicle powered by compressed natural gas (CNG). Although technical and economic hurdles must be overcome before this fuel can achieve widespread use, various ongoing demonstration projects are showing LNG`s practicality, while serving the vital role of pinpointing those areas of performance that are the prime candidates for improvement.

  1. Study of gelled LNG. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Rudnicki, M I; Cabeal, J A; Hoffman, L C; Newton, R A; Schaplowsky, R K; Vander Wall, E M

    1980-01-01

    Research involved the characterization of gelled LNG (GELNG) with respect to process, flow, and use properties and an examination of the degree of safety enhancement attainable by gelation. The investigation included (1) an experimental examination of gel properties and gel safety characteristics as well as (2) an analytical study involving the economics and preliminary design of an industrial scale gelation system. The safety-related criterion for successful application of gelled LNG is the substantial reduction of the Maximum Distance to the Lower Flammability Limit, MDLFL. This will be achieved by first, gel-inhibition of the hydrodynamic pooling and spreading of the spill, and second, the suppressed thermal transport properties of the GELNG relative to those of LNG. The industrial scale gelation study evaluated a design capable of producing 11,000 gallons (LNG tank truck) of gel in two hours. The increased cost of gelation using this equipment was estimated at $0.23/10/sup 6/ Btu for plants with liquefaction facilities. The technical results of this study are supportive of the conclusion that gelation of LNG will reduce, relative to ungelled LNG, the hazard associated with a given size spill. Parameters of interest to the LNG facility operator (such as pumpability) are not significantly affected by gelation, and the impact on LNG delivery cost appears to be small, about 5%. Thus, the initial assumption that gelation would provide a practical means to enhance safety is supported by the results of this study. Larger scale, comparative spill tests of LNG and GELNG are now required to confirm the safety aspects of use of the gelled material.

  2. Raley's LNG Truck Site Final Data Report

    SciTech Connect

    Battelle

    1999-07-01

    Raley's is a 120-store grocery chain with headquarters in Sacramento, California, that has been operating eight heavy-duty LNG trucks (Kenworth T800 trucks with Cummins L10-300G engines) and two LNG yard tractors (Ottawa trucks with Cummins B5.9G engines) since April 1997. This report describes the results of data collection and evaluation of the eight heavy-duty LNG trucks compared to similar heavy-duty diesel trucks operating at Raley's. The data collection and evaluation are a part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Alternative Fuel Truck Evaluation Project.

  3. Damage-detection system for LNG carriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mastandrea, J. R.; Scherb, M. V.

    1978-01-01

    System utilizes array of acoustical transducers to detect cracks and leaks in liquefied natural gas (LNG) containers onboard ships. In addition to detecting leaks, device indicates location and leak rate.

  4. Gas treating alternatives for LNG plants

    SciTech Connect

    Clarke, D.S.; Sibal, P.W.

    1998-12-31

    This paper covers the various gas treating processes available for treating sour natural gas to specifications required for LNG production. The LNG product specification requires that the total sulfur level be less than 30--40 ppmv, the CO{sub 2} level be less than 50 ppmv and the water level be less than 100 ppmv to prevent freezing problems in the LNG cryogenic column. A wide variety of natural gas compositions are encountered in the various fields and the gas treating process selection is dependent on the type of impurities present in the gas, namely, levels of H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, mercaptans and other organic sulfur compounds. This paper discusses the implications various components in the feed to the LNG plant can have on process selection, and the various treating processes that are available to condition the gas. Process selection criteria, design and operating philosophies are discussed. An economic comparison for two treating schemes is provided.

  5. Norcal Prototype LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-07-01

    U.S. DOE and National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluated Norcal Waste Systems liquefied natural gas (LNG) waste transfer trucks. Trucks had prototype Cummins Westport ISXG engines. Report gives final evaluation results.

  6. LNG carrier using membrane tank system delivered

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-06

    The world's first LNG carrier that incorporates the Technigaz Mark 3 membrane tank system was delivered in October to its owner, Asia LNG Transport Sdn. Bhd., a joint venture between Nippon Yusen K.K. and Perbadanan Nasional Shipping Line Berhad of Malaysia. NKK built the 18,800 cu m, fully double-hull carrier Aman Bintulu at its Tsu works. Construction was completed in September with more than 2 months of sea trials and gas tests using [minus]190 C. Liquid nitrogen and final gas trails with LNG. The orthogonally corrugated stainless membrane primary barrier and the triplex (aluminum foil/fiber glass cloth) composite-material secondary barrier prevent LNG from leaking in the event of an accident.

  7. Coupling dynamic blow down and pool evaporation model for LNG.

    PubMed

    Woodward, John L

    2007-02-20

    Treating the dynamic effects of accidental discharges of liquefied natural gas (LNG) is important for realistic predictions of pool radius. Two phenomena have important influence on pool spread dynamics, time-varying discharge (blow down) and pool ignition. Time-varying discharge occurs because a punctured LNG tanker or storage tank drains with a decreasing liquid head and decreasing head-space pressure. Pool ignition increases the evaporation rate of a pool and consequently decreases the ultimate pool area. This paper describes an approach to treat these phenomena in a dynamic pool evaporation model. The pool evaporation model developed here has two separate regimes. Early in the spill, momentum forces dominate and the pool spreads independently of pool evaporation rate and the corresponding heat transfer rate. After the average pool depth drops below a minimum value, momentum forces are largely dissipated and the thin edges of the pool completely evaporate, so pool area is established by the heat transfer rate. The maximum extent of a burning pool is predicted to be significantly less than that of an unignited pool because the duration of the first regime is reduced by higher heat transfer rates. The maximum extent of an LNG pool is predicted to be larger upon accounting for blow down compared with using a constant average discharge rate. However, the maximum pool extent occurs only momentarily before retreating.

  8. Design advanced for large-scale, economic, floating LNG plant

    SciTech Connect

    Naklie, M.M.

    1997-06-30

    A floating LNG plant design has been developed which is technically feasible, economical, safe, and reliable. This technology will allow monetization of small marginal fields and improve the economics of large fields. Mobil`s world-scale plant design has a capacity of 6 million tons/year of LNG and up to 55,000 b/d condensate produced from 1 bcfd of feed gas. The plant would be located on a large, secure, concrete barge with a central moonpool. LNG storage is provided for 250,000 cu m and condensate storage for 650,000 bbl. And both products are off-loaded from the barge. Model tests have verified the stability of the barge structure: barge motions are low enough to permit the plant to continue operation in a 100-year storm in the Pacific Rim. Moreover, the barge is spread-moored, eliminating the need for a turret and swivel. Because the design is generic, the plant can process a wide variety of feed gases and operate in different environments, should the plant be relocated. This capability potentially gives the plant investment a much longer project life because its use is not limited to the life of only one producing area.

  9. Effects of lng Mutations on LngA Expression, Processing, and CS21 Assembly in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli E9034A.

    PubMed

    Saldaña-Ahuactzi, Zeus; Rodea, Gerardo E; Cruz-Córdova, Ariadnna; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Viridiana; Espinosa-Mazariego, Karina; González-Montalvo, Martín A; Ochoa, Sara A; González-Pedrajo, Bertha; Eslava-Campos, Carlos A; López-Villegas, Edgar O; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Arellano-Galindo, José; Patiño-López, Genaro; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of morbidity in children under 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries and a leading cause of traveler's diarrhea worldwide. The ability of ETEC to colonize the intestinal epithelium is mediated by fimbrial adhesins, such as CS21 (Longus). This adhesin is a type IVb pilus involved in adherence to intestinal cells in vitro and bacterial self-aggregation. Fourteen open reading frames have been proposed to be involved in CS21 assembly, hitherto only the lngA and lngB genes, coding for the major (LngA) and minor (LngB) structural subunit, have been characterized. In this study, we investigated the role of the LngA, LngB, LngC, LngD, LngH, and LngP proteins in the assembly of CS21 in ETEC strain E9034A. The deletion of the lngA, lngB, lngC, lngD, lngH, or lngP genes, abolished CS21 assembly in ETEC strain E9034A and the adherence to HT-29 cells was reduced 90%, compared to wild-type strain. Subcellular localization prediction of CS21 proteins was similar to other well-known type IV pili homologs. We showed that LngP is the prepilin peptidase of LngA, and that ETEC strain E9034A has another peptidase capable of processing LngA, although with less efficiency. Additionally, we present immuno-electron microscopy images to show that the LngB protein could be localized at the tip of CS21. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the LngA, LngB, LngC, LngD, LngH, and LngP proteins are essential for CS21 assembly, as well as for bacterial aggregation and adherence to HT-29 cells.

  10. Effects of lng Mutations on LngA Expression, Processing, and CS21 Assembly in Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli E9034A

    PubMed Central

    Saldaña-Ahuactzi, Zeus; Rodea, Gerardo E.; Cruz-Córdova, Ariadnna; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Viridiana; Espinosa-Mazariego, Karina; González-Montalvo, Martín A.; Ochoa, Sara A.; González-Pedrajo, Bertha; Eslava-Campos, Carlos A.; López-Villegas, Edgar O.; Hernández-Castro, Rigoberto; Arellano-Galindo, José; Patiño-López, Genaro; Xicohtencatl-Cortes, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is a major cause of morbidity in children under 5 years of age in low- and middle-income countries and a leading cause of traveler's diarrhea worldwide. The ability of ETEC to colonize the intestinal epithelium is mediated by fimbrial adhesins, such as CS21 (Longus). This adhesin is a type IVb pilus involved in adherence to intestinal cells in vitro and bacterial self-aggregation. Fourteen open reading frames have been proposed to be involved in CS21 assembly, hitherto only the lngA and lngB genes, coding for the major (LngA) and minor (LngB) structural subunit, have been characterized. In this study, we investigated the role of the LngA, LngB, LngC, LngD, LngH, and LngP proteins in the assembly of CS21 in ETEC strain E9034A. The deletion of the lngA, lngB, lngC, lngD, lngH, or lngP genes, abolished CS21 assembly in ETEC strain E9034A and the adherence to HT-29 cells was reduced 90%, compared to wild-type strain. Subcellular localization prediction of CS21 proteins was similar to other well-known type IV pili homologs. We showed that LngP is the prepilin peptidase of LngA, and that ETEC strain E9034A has another peptidase capable of processing LngA, although with less efficiency. Additionally, we present immuno-electron microscopy images to show that the LngB protein could be localized at the tip of CS21. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the LngA, LngB, LngC, LngD, LngH, and LngP proteins are essential for CS21 assembly, as well as for bacterial aggregation and adherence to HT-29 cells. PMID:27536289

  11. Exergy of LNG regasification - possible utilization method. Case study of LNG - ANG coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roszak, E. A.; Chorowski, M.

    2014-01-01

    This article gives an overview on new exergy recovery methods for LNG. The concept is based on coupling the LNG regasification unit with the filling process of Adsorbed Natural Gas (ANG) tanks. The latent heat of the LNG vaporization is directly used for precooling the ANG adsorption bed. This reduces the back pressure from filling ANG tanks due to strong adsorption temperature dependency. This improves the economic attractiveness of ANG storage (no need for compressors, longer lifetime cycle of adsorbent). This case study presents the concept of LNG - ANG coupling. Presented results are based on experimental adsorption data. A brief exergy analysis of the process shows an advantage of this method over others. This LNG-ANG method is worth consideration as a cost optimizing solution, especially for periodically working regasification stations.

  12. Process simulation for a new conceptual design of LNG terminal coupling NGL recovery and LNG re-gasification for maximum energy savings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muqeet, Mohammed A.

    With the high demands of shale gas and promising development of LNG terminals, a lot of research has focused towards the process development for effective recovery of C2+ hydrocarbons (NGL). Shale gas requires a large amount of cold energy to cool down and recover the NGL; and the LNG re-gasification process requires a lot of heat energy to evaporate for NGL recovery. Thus, coupling the shale gas NGL recovery process and LNG re-gasification process, for utilizing the cold energy from LNG re-gasification process to assist NGL recovery from shale gas has significant economic benefits on both energy saving and high value product recovery. Wang et al. developed new conceptual design of such coupled process in 2013 and later Wang and Xu developed an optimal design considering uncertainties in 2014. This work deals with process simulation of both these designs and the feasibility of the process is verified. A steady state model is developed based on the plant design proposed by Wang et al. using Aspen plusRTM and then a dynamic model of the process is developed using Aspen dynamicsRTM. An effective control strategy is developed and the flexibility of the dynamic model is examined by giving disturbances in the shale gas feed. A comparison is made between the two proposed design and the prospects of the design for real plant scenario is discussed.

  13. Keys to modeling LNG spills on water.

    PubMed

    Hissong, D W

    2007-02-20

    Although no LNG ship has experienced a loss of containment in over 40 years of shipping, it is important for risk management planning to understand the predicted consequences of a spill. A key parameter in assessing the impact of an LNG spill is the pool size. LNG spills onto water generally result in larger pools than land spills because they are unconfined. Modeling of LNG spills onto water is much more difficult than for land spills because the phenomena are more complex and the experimental basis is more limited. The most prevalent practice in predicting pool sizes is to treat the release as instantaneous or constant-rate, and to calculate the pool size using an empirical evaporation or burn rate. The evaporation or burn rate is particularly difficult to estimate for LNG spills on water, because the available data are so limited, scattered, and difficult to extrapolate to the large releases of interest. A more effective modeling of possible spills of LNG onto water calculates, rather than estimating, the evaporation or burn rate. The keys to this approach are to: * Use rigorous multicomponent physical properties. * Use a time-varying analysis of spill and evaporation. * Use a material and energy balance approach. * Estimate the heat transfer from water to LNG in a way that reflects the turbulence. These keys are explained and demonstrated by predictions of a model that incorporates these features. The major challenges are describing the effects of the LNG-water turbulence and the heat transfer from the pool fire to the underlying LNG pool. The model includes a fundamentally based framework for these terms, and the current formulation is based on some of the largest tests to-date. The heat transfer coefficient between the water and LNG is obtained by applying a "turbulence factor" to the value from correlations for quiescent film and transition boiling. The turbulence factor is based on two of the largest unignited tests on water to-date. The heat transfer from

  14. Potential for BLEVE associated with marine LNG vessel fires.

    PubMed

    Pitblado, Robin

    2007-02-20

    Recent LNG marine shipping hazard studies have discounted BLEVE hazards associated with LNG vessels. This exclusion of a potential major hazard event has been queried, particularly since a recent LNG truck BLEVE-like event in Spain. This paper reviews the physical factors associated with the Spanish LNG truck event and accepts that this had features of a classical BLEVE event and that there is no inherent property of LNG excluding BLEVE-like events, although US LNG trucks would be safer due to design features. Marine LNG vessels have differently designed tanks and it is demonstrated that the combination of physical barriers makes direct thermal input to the LNG inner tank more limited than hypothesized by some, but if it occurs these tanks cannot rise to a pressure sufficient to cause a large flash of liquid and consequent BLEVE event of a scale hypothesized in the literature.

  15. Qatargas exporting LNG from Qatar`s new Ras Laffan Port

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-24

    When the 135,000 cu m LNG carrier Al Zubarah departed Ras Laffan Port in December, Qatar entered a new era of commerce that will both boost the emirate`s economic development and influence energy trade around the world. The event capped more than a decade of planning, design, and construction of Ras Laffan Port--the world`s newest and largest LNG exporting facility. During the 1980s, the focus in Qatar was on exploration and development of North field, which holds the world`s largest reserves of nonassociated natural gas. In the 1990s, efforts concentrated on establishing a direct production and export link between North field, the new multi-billion-dollar Qatar Liquefied Gas Co. (Qatargas) gas liquefaction plant at Ras Laffan, and LNG export facilities at the 8.5 sq km Ras Laffan Port. Markets of the Far East will be first to be served by LNG from Ras Laffan Port. Two 25-year LNG supply contracts have been signed with buyers in Japan and South Korea, and negotiations are under way with potential customers from China, Taiwan, and Thailand. The paper describes the port, its operations, and export projects.

  16. MICROCHARACTERIZATION OF ARSENIC- AND SELENIUM-BEARING PYRITE IN UPPER FREEPORT COAL, INDIANA COUNTY, PENNSYLVANIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minkin, J.A.; Finkelman, R.B.; Thompson, C.L.; Chao, E.C.T.; Ruppert, L.F.; Blank, H.; Cecil, C.B.

    1984-01-01

    Optical and scanning electron microscope as well as electron and proton microprobe techniques have been used in a detailed investigation of the modes of occurrence of arsenic and selenium in pyrite in Upper Freeport coal from the Homer City area, Indiana County, Pennsylvania. Polished blocks were prepared from columnar samples of the coal bed to represent particular zones continuously from top to bottom. Initial selection of zones to be studied was based on chemical analysis of bench-channel samples. Microprobe data indicate that the highest concentrations of arsenic (as great as 1. 5 wt. %) are apparently in solid solution in pyrite within a limited stratigraphic interval of the coal bed. Smaller amounts of arsenic and selenium (concentrations up to approximately 0. 1 and 0. 2 wt. % respectively) were detected at isolated points within pyrite grains in various strata of the coal bed.

  17. Helium-volume dynamics of Upper Freeport coal powder and lumps

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, Vyacheslav; Soong, Yee

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to 7 MPa of helium at room temperature alters the texture of Upper Freeport coal in a lump form. The differences in texture and porosity between coal powder and lumps may affect the transport and interaction of fluids and coal. In this work, the information about the coal texture and micro- and meso-porosity was obtained via the BET, BJH, and Dubinin-Astakhov analyses. We further investigated the free-fluid-phase volume (free-volume) effects due to helium interaction with the powder and the lumps. During the manometric experiment, helium penetration into the dry coal matrix resulted in slow relaxation of pressure. After exposure of coal to helium, there have been no significant changes of the macroscopic dimensions observed and the relaxation process can be attributed to microscopic 'freevolume' effects. Evolution of the sorption-desorption rates indicates that exposure to helium may change the texture and apparent (helium) density of dry coal.

  18. Helium-volume dynamics of Upper Freeport coal powder and lumps

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, V.N.; Soong, Yee

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to 7 MPa of helium at room temperature alters the texture of Upper Freeport coal in a lump form. The differences in texture and porosity between coal powder and lumps may affect the transport and interaction of fluids and coal. In this work, the information about the coal texture and micro- and meso-porosity was obtained via the BET, BJH, and Dubinin–Astakhov analyses. We further investigated the free-fluid-phase volume (free-volume) effects due to helium interaction with the powder and the lumps. During the manometric experiment, helium penetration into the dry coal matrix resulted in slow relaxation of pressure. After exposure of coal to helium, there have been no significant changes of the macroscopic dimensions observed and the relaxation process can be attributed to microscopic ‘free-volume’ effects. Evolution of the sorption–desorption rates indicates that exposure to helium may change the texture and apparent (helium) density of dry coal.

  19. Results of the evaluation and preliminary validation of a primary LNG mass flow standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Beek, Mijndert; Lucas, Peter; Kerkhof, Oswin; Mirzaei, Maria; Blom, Gerard

    2014-10-01

    LNG custody transfer measurements at large terminals have been based on ship tank level gauging for more than 50 years. Flow meter application has mainly been limited to process control in spite of the promise of simplified operations, potentially smaller uncertainties and better control over the measurements for buyers. The reason for this has been the lack of LNG flow calibration standards as well as written standards. In the framework of the EMRP1 ‘Metrology for LNG’ project, Van Swinden Laboratory (VSL) has developed a primary LNG mass flow standard. This standard is so far the only one in the world except for a liquid nitrogen flow standard at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The VSL standard is based on weighing and holds a Calibration and Measurement Capability (CMC) of 0.12% to 0.15%. This paper discusses the measurement principle, results of the uncertainty validation with LNG and the differences between water and LNG calibration results of four Coriolis mass flow meters. Most of the calibrated meters do not comply with their respective accuracy claims. Recommendations for further improvement of the measurement uncertainty will also be discussed.

  20. 46 CFR 154.1854 - Methane (LNG) as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1854 Methane (LNG) as fuel. (a) If methane (LNG) vapors are used as fuel in the main propulsion system of a vessel, the... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Methane (LNG) as fuel. 154.1854 Section...

  1. 46 CFR 154.1854 - Methane (LNG) as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1854 Methane (LNG) as fuel. (a) If methane (LNG) vapors are used as fuel in the main propulsion system of a vessel, the... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Methane (LNG) as fuel. 154.1854 Section...

  2. 46 CFR 154.1854 - Methane (LNG) as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1854 Methane (LNG) as fuel. (a) If methane (LNG) vapors are used as fuel in the main propulsion system of a vessel, the... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Methane (LNG) as fuel. 154.1854 Section...

  3. 46 CFR 154.1854 - Methane (LNG) as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Methane (LNG) as fuel. 154.1854 Section 154.1854... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1854 Methane (LNG) as fuel. (a) If methane (LNG) vapors are used as fuel in the main propulsion system of a vessel,...

  4. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. 193.2019... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service...

  5. 46 CFR 154.1854 - Methane (LNG) as fuel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methane (LNG) as fuel. 154.1854 Section 154.1854... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1854 Methane (LNG) as fuel. (a) If methane (LNG) vapors are used as fuel in the main propulsion system of a vessel,...

  6. 76 FR 73609 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Application Take notice that on November 4, 2010, Cameron LNG, LLC (Cameron), 101 Ash Street, San Diego, California 92101, filed in Docket No. CP12- 15-000... operate a boil-off gas (BOG) liquefaction system at its LNG import terminal in Cameron Parish,...

  7. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. 193.2019... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service...

  8. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. 193.2019... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service...

  9. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. 193.2019... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service...

  10. 49 CFR 193.2019 - Mobile and temporary LNG facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. 193.2019... LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS General § 193.2019 Mobile and temporary LNG facilities. (a) Mobile and temporary LNG facilities for peakshaving application, for service...

  11. 49 CFR 193.2623 - Inspecting LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2623 Inspecting LNG storage tanks. Each LNG... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Inspecting LNG storage tanks. 193.2623 Section...

  12. 49 CFR 193.2623 - Inspecting LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2623 Inspecting LNG storage tanks. Each LNG... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Inspecting LNG storage tanks. 193.2623 Section...

  13. LNG systems for natural gas propelled ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorowski, M.; Duda, P.; Polinski, J.; Skrzypacz, J.

    2015-12-01

    In order to reduce the atmospheric pollution generated by ships, the International Marine Organization has established Emission Controlled Areas. In these areas, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides and particulates emission is strongly controlled. From the beginning of 2015, the ECA covers waters 200 nautical miles from the coast of the US and Canada, the US Caribbean Sea area, the Baltic Sea, the North Sea and the English Channel. From the beginning of 2020, strong emission restrictions will also be in force outside the ECA. This requires newly constructed ships to be either equipped with exhaust gas cleaning devices or propelled with emission free fuels. In comparison to low sulphur Marine Diesel and Marine Gas Oil, LNG is a competitive fuel, both from a technical and economical point of view. LNG can be stored in vacuum insulated tanks fulfilling the difficult requirements of marine regulations. LNG must be vaporized and pressurized to the pressure which is compatible with the engine requirements (usually a few bar). The boil-off must be controlled to avoid the occasional gas release to the atmosphere. This paper presents an LNG system designed and commissioned for a Baltic Sea ferry. The specific technical features and exploitation parameters of the system will be presented. The impact of strict marine regulations on the system's thermo-mechanical construction and its performance will be discussed. The review of possible flow-schemes of LNG marine systems will be presented with respect to the system's cost, maintenance, and reliability.

  14. LNG shipments in 1994 set records

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-15

    Worldwide LNG shipments by ocean-going vessels in 1994 increased to 1,619 voyages, according to an LNG shipping industry statistical annual. LNG Log 20 published the recently compiled 1994 data in the last quarter of 1995. The publication is from the Society of International Gas Tanker and Terminal Operators Ltd., London. The year`s total was 8.8% more than for 1993 and the most in 35 years of records. The trips were made and the vessels loaded and discharged without report of serious safety or environmental incident, says the publication. Of the voyages completed during the year, 596 were to European receiving terminals (up 2.8% over 1993), and 1,003 went to the Far East (an increase of 10.7%); shipments to the US, however, dropped to 20, from 32 in 1993. This paper shows that the 1,619 voyages represent 3.6 million nautical miles logged by 78 vessels active during the year. These ships pumped ashore record annual volumes of approximately 144.3 million cu m of LNG, 110.1 million cu m (76.3%) of which went to Far Eastern customers. The paper also summarizes containment systems in use in 1994 and since LNG began to be shipped in 1959.

  15. A NOVEL PROCESS TO USE SALT CAVERNS TO RECEIVE SHIP BORNE LNG

    SciTech Connect

    Michael M. McCall; William M. Bishop; Marcus Krekel; James F. Davis; D. Braxton Scherz

    2005-05-31

    delivery capacity, shorter construction time, and be much more secure than a conventional liquid tank based terminal. Operating costs of a salt cavern terminal are lower than tank based terminals because ''boil off'' is eliminated and maintenance costs of caverns are lower than LNG tanks. Phase II included the development of offshore mooring designs, wave tank tests, high pressure LNG pump field tests, heat exchanger field tests, and development of a model offshore LNG facility and cavern design. Engineers designed a model facility, prepared equipment lists, and confirmed capital and operating costs. In addition, vendors quoted fabrication and installation costs, confirming that an offshore salt cavern based LNG terminal would have lower capital and operating costs than a similarly sized offshore tank based terminal. Salt cavern storage is infinitely more secure than surface storage tanks, far less susceptible to accidents or purposeful damage, and much more acceptable to the community. More than thirty industry participants provided cost sharing, technical expertise, and guidance in the conduct and evaluation of the field tests, facility design and operating and cost estimates. Their close participation has accelerated the industry's acceptance of the conclusions of this research. The industry participants also developed and submitted several alternative designs for offshore mooring and for high pressure LNG heat exchangers in addition to those that were field tested in this project. HNG Storage, a developer, owner, and operator of natural gas storage facilities, and a participant in the DOE research has announced they will lead the development of the first offshore salt cavern based LNG import facility. Which will be called the Freedom LNG Terminal. It will be located offshore Louisiana, and is expected to be jointly developed with other members of the research group yet to be named. An offshore port license application is scheduled to be filed by fourth quarter 2005 and

  16. Raley's LNG Truck Fleet: Final Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Norton, P.; Clark, N.

    2000-05-03

    Raley's, a large retail grocery company based in Northern California, began operating heavy-duty trucks powered by liquefied natural gas (LNG) in 1997, in cooperation with the Sacramento Metropolitan Air Quality Management District (SMAQMD). The US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) sponsored a research project to collect and analyze data on the performance and operation costs of eight of Raley's LNG trucks in the field. Their performance was compared with that of three diesel trucks operating in comparable commercial service. The objective of the DOE research project, which was managed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), was to provide transportation professionals with quantitative, unbiased information on the cost, maintenance, operational, and emissions characteristics of LNG as one alternative to conventional diesel fuel for heavy-duty trucking applications.

  17. Comparative safety analysis of LNG storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Fecht, B.A.; Gates, T.E.; Nelson, K.O.; Marr, G.D.

    1982-07-01

    LNG storage tank design and response to selected release scenarios were reviewed. The selection of the scenarios was based on an investigation of potential hazards as cited in the literature. A review of the structure of specific LNG storage facilities is given. Scenarios initially addressed included those that most likely emerge from the tank facility itself: conditions of overfill and overflow as related to liquid LNG content levels; over/underpressurization at respective tank vapor pressure boundaries; subsidence of bearing soil below tank foundations; and crack propagation in tank walls due to possible exposure of structural material to cryogenic temperatures. Additional scenarios addressed include those that result from external events: tornado induced winds and pressure drops; exterior tank missile impact with tornado winds and rotating machinery being the investigated mode of generation; thermal response due to adjacent fire conditions; and tank response due to intense seismic activity. Applicability of each scenario depended heavily on the specific tank configurations and material types selected. (PSB)

  18. Nippon Kokan technical report No. 42, December 1984: overseas. LNG technology special issue

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Contents INCLUDE: fracture toughness of 9% Ni steel and safety of LNG storage tank; fatigue strength and safety assessment of membrane components; comparison of LNG carriers of membrane tank system and spherical tank system; diesel-driven LNG carrier with reliquefaction plant; construction of TGZ MK I system LNG carrier model tank and its cryogenic tests; vacuum insulation test using LNG model tank; estimation of impact pressure and hydrodynamic force due to sloshing in LNG carrier; Higashi-Ohgishima LNG receiving facility for the Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc.; design of LNG receiving facility; receiving and circulation control system of Higashi-Ohgishima LNG terminal; welding procedure of LNG pipelines; the design method of inground LNG storage tank; the design method of aboveground LNG storage tank; various applications of LNG tank roll-over simulation program ROSP.

  19. Investigation of low-cost LNG vehicle fuel tank concepts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, J.E.; Siahpush, A.

    1998-02-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate development of a low-cost liquid natural gas (LNG) vehicle fuel storage tank with low fuel boil-off, low tank pressure, and high safety margin. One of the largest contributors to the cost of converting a vehicle to LNG is the cost of the LNG fuel tank. To minimize heat leak from the surroundings into the low-temperature fuel, these tanks are designed as cryogenic dewars with double walls separated by an evacuated insulation space containing multi-layer insulation. The cost of these fuel tanks is driven by this double-walled construction, both in terms of materials and labor. The primary focus of the analysis was to try to devise a fuel tank concept that would allow for the elimination of the double-wall requirement. Results of this study have validated the benefit of vacuum/MLI insulation for LNG fuel tanks and the difficulty in identifying viable alternatives. The thickness of a non-vacuum insulation layer would have to be unreasonably large to achieve an acceptable non-venting hold time. Reasonable hold times could be achieved by using an auxiliary tank to accept boil-off vapor from a non-vacuum insulated primary tank, if the vapor in the auxiliary tank can be stored at high pressure. The primary focus of the analysis was to try to devise a fuel tank concept that allowed for the elimination of the double-wall requirement. Thermodynamic relations were developed for analyzing the fuel tank transient response to heat transfer, venting of vapor, and out-flow of either vapor or liquid. One of the major costs associated with conversion of a vehicle to LNG fuel is the cost of the LNG fuel tank. The cost of these tanks is driven by the cryogenic nature of the fuel and by the fundamental design requirements of long non-venting hold times and low storage pressure.

  20. Therapeutic use of the LNG IUS, and counseling.

    PubMed

    Pakarinen, P; Toivonen, J; Luukkainen, T

    2001-12-01

    The intrauterine release of levonorgestrel (LNG) alters the function of the endometrium. This phenomenon offers special health benefits for users and a manner of local intrauterine therapy. In this review we discuss use of LNG-releasing intrauterine system (LNG IUS) in treatment and prevention of anemia and in the therapy of menorrhagia and dysmenorrhea. The antiproliferative effect of the LNG IUS on the endometrium offers targeted therapy against the proliferative action of estrogen on the endometrium during hormone replacement therapy. The LNG IUS as an alternative to sterilization is also discussed. There are also promising therapeutic fields such as use of the LNG IUS in the treatment of endometriosis and in the protection of endometrium exposed to tamoxifen during breast cancer treatment. Special attention is paid to counseling because successful use of the LNG IUS requires good training of the providers and extensive counseling of users.

  1. LNG imports make strong recovery in 1996; exports increase also

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, E.J.

    1998-01-19

    LNG imports to the US jumped in 1996 as Algerian base-load plants resumed operations following major revamps. Exports from Alaska to Japan grew by nearly 4% over 1995. Total LNG imports to the US in 1996 were 40.27 bcf compared to 17.92 bcf in 1995, an increase of 124.8%. Algeria supplied 35.32 bcf; Abu Dhabi, 4.95 bcf. About 82.3% of the imported LNG was received at Distrigas Corp.`s terminal north of Boston. The remaining LNG was received at the Pan National terminal in Lake Charles, LA. LNG imports during 1995 fell to such a low level not because of depressed US demand but because of limited supply. The paper discusses LNG-receiving terminals, base-load producers, LNG pricing, and exports.

  2. A structural and stochastic optimal model for projections of LNG imports and exports in Asia-Pacific.

    PubMed

    Kompas, Tom; Che, Tuong Nhu

    2016-06-01

    The Asia-Pacific region, the largest and fastest growing liquefied natural gas (LNG) market in the world, has been undergoing radical changes over the past few years. These changes include considerable additional supplies from North America and Australia, and a recent LNG price slump resulting from an oil-linked pricing mechanism and demand uncertainties. This paper develops an Asia-Pacific Gas Model (APGM), based on a structural, stochastic and optimising framework, providing a valuable tool for the projection of LNG trade in the Asia-Pacific region. With existing social-economic conditions, the model projects that Asia-Pacific LNG imports are expected to increase by 49.1 percent in 2020 and 95.7 percent in 2030, compared to 2013. Total LNG trade value is estimated to increase to US$127.2 billion in 2020 and US$199.0 billion in 2030. Future LNG trade expansion is mainly driven by emerging and large importers (i.e., China and India), and serviced, most importantly, by new supplies from Australia and the USA. The model's projected results are sensitive to changes in expected oil prices, pricing mechanisms, economic growth and energy policies, as well as unexpected geopolitical-economic events.

  3. An unusual occurrence of arsenic-bearing pyrite in the Upper Freeport coal bed, West-Central Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppert, L.F.; Minkin, J.A.; McGee, J.J.; Cecil, C.B.

    1992-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy and electron microprobe analysis were used to identify a rare type of As-bearing pyrite in selected specific gravity separates from the Pennsylvanian age Upper Freeport coal bed, west-central Pennsylvania. Arsenic was detected mainly in cell-wall replacement pyrite where concentrations ranged from nondetectable to 1.9 wt %. Although the majority of arsenic-bearing pyrite in the Upper Freeport coal bed is concentrated in massive and late diagenetic pyrite morphologies, the rarer As-bearing cell-replacement pyrite was observed in both light and heavy gravity separates from the three coal facies examined. Arsenic was occasionally detected in cell-filling replacement pyrite, but this As appears to be an artifact produced by signals from underlying and/or adjacent As-bearing cell-wall replacement pyrite. It is postulated that some plants of the Upper Freeport paleoswamp may have biomethylated As, which later could have been converted to dimethylarsine or other volatile organoarsenic compounds by either biologically or chemically driven processes. Once liberated, the arsenic may have been incorporated into pyrite during pyritization of the cell walls. The As incorporation occurred early, before significant compaction of the peat, because the pyritized cell walls are not compacted.

  4. LNG projects make progress in Oman and Yemen

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-24

    Two LNG projects in the Middle East, one in Oman and the other in Yemen, are due on stream at the turn of the century--each the largest single project ever put together in its country. Officials described their projects at a yearend 1996 conference in Paris by Institut Francais du Petrole and Petrostrategies. The Oman project develops gas reserves, does gas processing, and transports the gas 360 km to a liquefaction plant to be built on the coast. The Yemen project involves a liquefaction plant and an export terminal.

  5. LNG fleet increases in size and capabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Linser, H.J. Jr.; Drudy, M.J.; Endrizzi, F.; Urbanelli, A.A.

    1997-06-02

    The LNG fleet as of early 1997 consisted of 99 vessels with total cargo capacity of 10.7 million cu m, equivalent to approximately 4.5 million tons. One of the newest additions to the fleet, the 137,000-cu m tanker Al Zubarah, is five times the size of the original commercial vessel Methane Princess. Al Zubarah`s first loading of more than 60,000 tons occurred in December 1996 for deliver to Japanese buyers from the newly commissioned Qatargas LNG plant at Ras Laffan. That size cargo contains enough clean-burning energy to heat 60,000 homes in Japan for 1 month. Measuring nearly 1,000 ft long, the tanker is among the largest in the industry fleet and joined 70 other vessels of more than 100,000 cu m. Most LNG tankers built since 1975 have been larger-capacity vessels. The paper discusses LNG shipping requirements, containment systems, vessel design, propulsion, construction, operations and maintenance, and the future for larger vessels.

  6. LIQUID NATURAL GAS (LNG): AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FROM LANDFILL GAS (LFG) AND WASTEWATER DIGESTER GAS

    SciTech Connect

    VANDOR,D.

    1999-03-01

    This Research and Development Subcontract sought to find economic, technical and policy links between methane recovery at landfill and wastewater treatment sites in New York and Maryland, and ways to use that methane as an alternative fuel--compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) -- in centrally fueled Alternative Fueled Vehicles (AFVs).

  7. Passive seismic tomography application for cave monitoring in DOZ underground mine PT. Freeport Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Wely, Woen; Setiadi, Herlan; Riyanto, Erwin

    2015-04-01

    It is already known that tomography has a great impact for analyzing and mapping unknown objects based on inversion, travel time as well as waveform inversion. Therefore, tomography has used in wide area, not only in medical but also in petroleum as well as mining. Recently, tomography method is being applied in several mining industries. A case study of tomography imaging has been carried out in DOZ ( Deep Ore Zone ) block caving mine, Tembagapura, Papua. Many researchers are undergoing to investigate the properties of DOZ cave not only outside but also inside which is unknown. Tomography takes a part for determining this objective.The sources are natural from the seismic events that caused by mining induced seismicity and rocks deformation activity, therefore it is called as passive seismic. These microseismic travel time data are processed by Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique (SIRT). The result of the inversion can be used for DOZ cave monitoring. These information must be used for identifying weak zone inside the cave. In addition, these results of tomography can be used to determine DOZ and cave information to support mine activity in PT. Freeport Indonesia.

  8. Long-Term CO2 Sorption on Upper Freeport Coal Powder and Lumps

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, Vyacheslav; Soong, Yee

    2008-03-01

    Powder and lumps of the Argonne Premium Upper Freeport coal were compared in a 9-month-long CO2 sorption-desorption study. On the basis of the slope analysis, CO2 induced the lumps swelling by 7%. The powder swelled by 8% and then rapidly shrank by 3% on desorption. This was verified by a “single point” injection of helium and the pressure-and-density technique, which was sufficiently sensitive. Low-pressure Langmuir-fit parameters suggest that the microporous textures of the powder and lumps are similar. The samples demonstrated greatly increased sticking coefficients and a slightly larger number of the “sorption ready” sites, after the CO2-induced swelling and structural rearrangement resulted in variable degrees of the matrix shrinkage. No permanent changes in the void volume and dry mass were detected after complete desorption. The observed hysteresis in sorption-desorption behavior of both samples upon the approach to the CO2 density fluctuation ridge is interpreted as a contribution of condensation and coalescence of CO2 clusters in mesopores. The differences between the two samples in the magnitude of the enhanced capillary condensation, with or without dissolution, demonstrate the importance of changes in mesoporous texture caused by grinding of coal lumps into powder.

  9. Long-Term CO2 Sorption on Upper Freeport Coal Powder and Lumps

    SciTech Connect

    Romanov, V; Soong, Y

    2008-03-01

    Powder and lumps of the Argonne Premium Upper Freeport coal were compared in a 9-month-long CO2 sorption-desorption study. On the basis of the slope analysis, CO2 induced the lumps swelling by 7%. The powder swelled by 8% and then rapidly shrank by 3% on desorption. This was verified by a "single point" injection of helium and the pressure-and-density technique, which was sufficiently sensitive. Low-pressure Langmuir-fit parameters suggest that the microporous textures of the powder and lumps are similar. The samples demonstrated greatly increased sticking coefficients and a slightly larger number of the "sorption ready" sites, after the CO2-induced swelling and structural rearrangement resulted in variable degrees of the matrix shrinkage. No permanent changes in the void volume and dry mass were detected after complete desorption. The observed hysteresis in sorption-desorption behavior of both samples upon the approach to the CO2 density fluctuation ridge is interpreted as a contribution of condensation and coalescence of CO2 clusters in mesopores. The differences between the two samples in the magnitude of the enhanced capillary condensation, with or without dissolution, demonstrate the importance of changes in mesoporous texture caused by grinding of coal lumps into powder.

  10. Long-term CO{sub 2} sorption on Upper Freeport coal powder and lumps

    SciTech Connect

    Vyacheslav Romanov; Yee Soong

    2008-03-15

    Powder and lumps of the Argonne Premium Upper Freeport coal were compared in a 9-month-long CO{sub 2} sorption-desorption study. On the basis of the slope analysis, CO{sub 2} induced the lumps swelling by 7%. The powder swelled by 8% and then rapidly shrank by 3% on desorption. This was verified by a 'single point' injection of helium and the pressure-and-density technique, which was sufficiently sensitive. Low-pressure Langmuir-fit parameters suggest that the microporous textures of the powder and lumps are similar. The samples demonstrated greatly increased sticking coefficients and a slightly larger number of the 'sorption ready' sites, after the CO{sub 2}-induced swelling and structural rearrangement resulted in variable degrees of the matrix shrinkage. No permanent changes in the void volume and dry mass were detected after complete desorption. The observed hysteresis in sorption-desorption behavior of both samples upon the approach to the CO{sub 2} density fluctuation ridge is interpreted as a contribution of condensation and coalescence of CO{sub 2} clusters in mesopores. The differences between the two samples in the magnitude of the enhanced capillary condensation, with or without dissolution, demonstrate the importance of changes in mesoporous texture caused by grinding of coal lumps into powder. 15 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Passive seismic tomography application for cave monitoring in DOZ underground mine PT. Freeport Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Nurhandoko, Bagus Endar B.; Wely, Woen; Setiadi, Herlan; Riyanto, Erwin

    2015-04-16

    It is already known that tomography has a great impact for analyzing and mapping unknown objects based on inversion, travel time as well as waveform inversion. Therefore, tomography has used in wide area, not only in medical but also in petroleum as well as mining. Recently, tomography method is being applied in several mining industries. A case study of tomography imaging has been carried out in DOZ ( Deep Ore Zone ) block caving mine, Tembagapura, Papua. Many researchers are undergoing to investigate the properties of DOZ cave not only outside but also inside which is unknown. Tomography takes a part for determining this objective.The sources are natural from the seismic events that caused by mining induced seismicity and rocks deformation activity, therefore it is called as passive seismic. These microseismic travel time data are processed by Simultaneous Iterative Reconstruction Technique (SIRT). The result of the inversion can be used for DOZ cave monitoring. These information must be used for identifying weak zone inside the cave. In addition, these results of tomography can be used to determine DOZ and cave information to support mine activity in PT. Freeport Indonesia.

  12. Landfill Gas Conversion to LNG and LCO{sub 2}. Phase II Final Report for January 25, 1999 - April 30, 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, W. R.; Cook, W. J.; Siwajek, L. A.

    2000-10-20

    This report summarizes work on the development of a process to produce LNG (liquefied methane) for heavy vehicle use from landfill gas (LFG) using Acrion's CO{sub 2} wash process for contaminant removal and CO{sub 2} recovery.

  13. Beauty of Simplicity: Phillips Optimized Cascade LNG Liquefaction Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andress, D. L.; Watkins, R. J.

    2004-06-01

    Paper describes how use of single component refrigerants yields an LNG liquefaction process that is safe, simple to operate, easy to understand, and robust in reliability. The 34-year operating history of Kenai LNG has proven the inherent advantages of the Phillips Optimized Cascade LNG Process. The paper is written from an operational point of view, and describes basic design parameters and operation of the processes.

  14. Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Import Terminals: Siting, Safety and Regulation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-27

    Regulation Summary Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is a hazardous fuel frequently shipped in large tankers to U.S. ports from overseas. While LNG has... gas (LNG) has long played a role in U.S. energy markets, but concerns about rising natural gas prices, current price volatility, and the possibility of...changes in U.S. energy policy legislation to reduce the nation’s demand for natural gas . Scope and Limitations This report focuses on industry and

  15. Potential for long-term LNG supply. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Moncrieff, T.I.; Goldman, D.P.; Jeffries, E.F.; Sherff, J.L.; Wood-Collins, J.C.

    1991-08-01

    Limited foreign liquefaction and U.S. LNG terminal capacity exists before 1993, after which time re-opening of the Cove Point and, later, Elba Island terminals, together with the refurbishment of inefficient Algerian liquefaction plant, permits a major expansion in U.S.-North African LNG trade. Towards 2000 expansion of all four U.S. LNG receiving terminals is technically possible, providing appropriate market, regulatory and environmental signals are received. These expansions will be necessary in order to absorb LNG supply from new sources such as Venezuela and Nigeria.

  16. LPG-recovery processes for baseload LNG plants examined

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, C.H.

    1997-11-24

    With demand on the rise, LPG produced from a baseload LNG plant becomes more attractive as a revenue-earning product similar to LNG. Efficient use of gas expanders in baseload LNG plants for LPG production therefore becomes more important. Several process variations for LPG recovery in baseload LNG plants are reviewed here. Exergy analysis (based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics) is applied to three cases to compare energy efficiency resulting from integration with the main liquefaction process. The paper discusses extraction in a baseload plant, extraction requirements, process recovery parameters, extraction process variations, and exergy analysis.

  17. Cost estimate for a proposed GDF Suez LNG testing program

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchat, Thomas K.; Brady, Patrick Dennis; Jernigan, Dann A.; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Nissen, Mark R.; Lopez, Carlos; Vermillion, Nancy; Hightower, Marion Michael

    2014-02-01

    At the request of GDF Suez, a Rough Order of Magnitude (ROM) cost estimate was prepared for the design, construction, testing, and data analysis for an experimental series of large-scale (Liquefied Natural Gas) LNG spills on land and water that would result in the largest pool fires and vapor dispersion events ever conducted. Due to the expected cost of this large, multi-year program, the authors utilized Sandia's structured cost estimating methodology. This methodology insures that the efforts identified can be performed for the cost proposed at a plus or minus 30 percent confidence. The scale of the LNG spill, fire, and vapor dispersion tests proposed by GDF could produce hazard distances and testing safety issues that need to be fully explored. Based on our evaluations, Sandia can utilize much of our existing fire testing infrastructure for the large fire tests and some small dispersion tests (with some modifications) in Albuquerque, but we propose to develop a new dispersion testing site at our remote test area in Nevada because of the large hazard distances. While this might impact some testing logistics, the safety aspects warrant this approach. In addition, we have included a proposal to study cryogenic liquid spills on water and subsequent vaporization in the presence of waves. Sandia is working with DOE on applications that provide infrastructure pertinent to wave production. We present an approach to conduct repeatable wave/spill interaction testing that could utilize such infrastructure.

  18. In-situ strain monitoring in liquid containers of LNG transporting carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Min-Cheol; Seo, Jun-Kyu; Kim, Kyung-Jo; Lee, Sang-Min; Kim, Myung-Hyun

    2008-08-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) transport carriers are exposed to a risk by the repeated bump in the LNG container during the vessel traveling over the wave in ocean. The liquid inside the container, especially when it was not fully contained, make a strong bump onto the insulation panel of the tank wall. The insulation panel consists of several layers of thick polyurethane foam (PUF) to maintain the LNG below the cryogenic temperature, -162°C. Due to the repeated shock on the PUF, a crack could be developed on the tank wall causing a tremendous disaster for LNG carriers. To prevent the accidental crack on the tank, a continuous monitoring of the strain imposed on the PUF is recommended. In this work, a fiber-optic Bragg grating was imbedded inside the PUF for monitoring the strain parallel to the impact direction. The optical fiber sensor with a small diameter of 125 μm was suitable to be inserted in the PUF through a small hole drilled after the PUF was cured. In-situ monitoring of the strain producing the change of Bragg reflection wavelength, a high speed wavelength interrogation method was employed by using an arrayed waveguide grating. By dropping a heavy mass on the PUF, we measured the strain imposed on the insulation panel.

  19. Structural health monitoring for insulation panels of LNG carriers using fiber optic sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Myung Hyun; Son, Young Joo; Kang, Sung Won; Lee, Jae Myung; Na, Sung Soo

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate dynamic failure initiation and failure modes of insulation panels of LNG carriers. Insulation panels of LNG cargo tanks may include mechanical failures such as cracks as well as delaminations within the layers due to impact sloshing loads and fatigue loadings, and these failures cause a significant decrease of structural integrity. In this study, a structural health monitoring system, employing fiber optic sensors is developed for monitoring various failures that can occur in LNG insulation panels. Fiber optic sensors have the advantage of being embedded inside of insulation panels. The signal of embedded fiber optic sensors is used to calculate the strain of insulation panels and is processed by digital filtering to identify damage initiations. It has been observed that the presence of defects and delaminations produce noticeable changes in the strain measurement in a predictable manner. In addition, fiber optic sensors are used to measure static and dynamic strain variations of insulation panels with and without damage. It is expected that this study will be used as a fundamental study for the safety assessment of the LNG insulation panels.

  20. High efficiency Brayton cycles using LNG

    DOEpatents

    Morrow, Charles W.

    2006-04-18

    A modified, closed-loop Brayton cycle power conversion system that uses liquefied natural gas as the cold heat sink media. When combined with a helium gas cooled nuclear reactor, achievable efficiency can approach 68 76% (as compared to 35% for conventional steam cycle power cooled by air or water). A superheater heat exchanger can be used to exchange heat from a side-stream of hot helium gas split-off from the primary helium coolant loop to post-heat vaporized natural gas exiting from low and high-pressure coolers. The superheater raises the exit temperature of the natural gas to close to room temperature, which makes the gas more attractive to sell on the open market. An additional benefit is significantly reduced costs of a LNG revaporization plant, since the nuclear reactor provides the heat for vaporization instead of burning a portion of the LNG to provide the heat.

  1. LNG pump anti-slam device

    SciTech Connect

    Tornay, E.G.

    1980-05-27

    In pumping LNG (liquefied natural gas) from one receiver to another, eg., from a vessel's tank to a shore installation, it is conventional to use a submerged pump, a riser pipe connecting the pump to a stop valve and flexible joint connecting the stop valve to a header. If a pocket of gaseous lng is present in the riser pipe, when the pump commences its operation, the advancing column of liquid in the riser pipe slams against the stop valve and may damage it. The invention provides the improvement of a removable or bypassable flow restrictor incorporated between the pump and the riser pipe, permitting to ensure that the riser pipe is completely liquid-filled, before the pump commences to operate.

  2. Thermal radiation from LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) trench fires. Volume 1. Main report. Final report, September 1982-September 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Croce, P.A.; Mudan, K.S.; Moorhouse, J.

    1984-09-01

    The current federal regulations for LNG facilities require a thermal radiation exclusion zone for public safety around spill impoundment systems. The size of this zone is determined by applying a thermal radiation model that was developed for large circular or near circular pool fires. Since trench (elongated pool) fires behave differently from circular pool fires, an experimental test program was conducted to monitor the fire behavior and thermal radiation from large-scale LNG trench fires. The data in general showed that significantly less distance was required according to measurements than what the code specified as a safe separation distance. Based upon the large-scale fire data, a simple model has been developed for predicting radiation fluxes as a function of distance from LNG trench fires.

  3. GRI workshop on LNG vehicle technology, economics, and safety issues: Focus-group recommendations summary. Topical report, April 29 and 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-07

    GRI organized and conducted the Workshop on LNG Vehicle Technology, Economics, and Safety Issues on April 29 and 30, 1992, in Houston, Texas. The workshop included various presentations, a tour of Houston Metro (LNG bus project) facilities, and focus group discussions. The report documents the recommendations generated by the focus group. There were five separate focus groups with an average of ten members each. They met for 2-1/2 hours to discuss LNG vehicle issues and evolve recommendations for GRI R and D. Fifty-three recommendations were generated and prioritized (through voting) by the focus groups. The report consolidates these recommendations. Recommendations relative to the LNG fuel composition issue received the most votes, followed by consolidated recommendations pertaining to gas venting elimination, safety codes, and odorants or leak detectors. Component development recommendations (in order of votes) included the refueling nozzle, fuel level gage, refueling pump and meter, vehicle pump/regulator/vaporizer, and vehicle tank.

  4. 76 FR 53425 - Pivotal LNG, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Pivotal LNG, Inc.; Notice of Application Take notice that on August 8, 2011, Pivotal LNG, Inc. (Pivotal), Ten Peachtree Place, Suite 1000, Atlanta, Georgia 30309, filed with the... transportation of natural gas as a by-product of the operation of non-jurisdictional liquefied natural gas...

  5. 49 CFR 193.2623 - Inspecting LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Inspecting LNG storage tanks. 193.2623 Section 193.2623 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2623 Inspecting LNG storage tanks. Each...

  6. 49 CFR 193.2623 - Inspecting LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Inspecting LNG storage tanks. 193.2623 Section 193.2623 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2623 Inspecting LNG storage tanks. Each...

  7. 49 CFR 193.2623 - Inspecting LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Inspecting LNG storage tanks. 193.2623 Section 193.2623 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... GAS FACILITIES: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2623 Inspecting LNG storage tanks. Each...

  8. 33 CFR 127.105 - Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... transfer area for LNG. 127.105 Section 127.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. (a) LNG impounding spaces must be located so that the heat flux from a fire over the impounding spaces does not cause structural damage to an LNG vessel moored...

  9. 77 FR 76013 - Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-26

    ... LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Previously Imported Liquefied... application (Application), filed on October 26, 2012, by Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC (Sempra LNG Marketing), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) that previously had been imported...

  10. 78 FR 20312 - Downeast LNG, Inc., Downeast Pipeline, LLC.; Notice of Availability of the Supplemental Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Downeast LNG, Inc., Downeast Pipeline, LLC.; Notice of Availability of the Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed Downeast LNG Project The staff of the... Impact Statement (EIS) for the Downeast LNG Project, proposed by Downeast LNG, Inc. and Downeast...

  11. 78 FR 933 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Cameron Interstate Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Applications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-07

    ...-000 and Docket No. PF12-12-000] Cameron LNG, LLC; Cameron Interstate Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Applications Take notice that on December 7, 2012, Cameron LNG, LLC (Cameron LNG), 101 Ash Street, San Diego... on file with the Commission and open to public inspection. Specifically, Cameron LNG...

  12. 75 FR 51989 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application August 16, 2010. Take notice that on August 4, 2010, Southern LNG Company, L.L.C. (Southern LNG), Post Office Box 2563... with certain facilities located at its liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal on Elba Island,...

  13. 49 CFR 191.22 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators...-RELATED CONDITION REPORTS § 191.22 National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators. (a) OPID Request. Effective January 1, 2012, each operator of a gas pipeline, gas pipeline facility, LNG plant or LNG...

  14. 33 CFR 127.105 - Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... transfer area for LNG. 127.105 Section 127.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. (a) LNG impounding spaces must be located so that the heat flux from a fire over the impounding spaces does not cause structural damage to an LNG vessel moored...

  15. 33 CFR 127.105 - Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... transfer area for LNG. 127.105 Section 127.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. (a) LNG impounding spaces must be located so that the heat flux from a fire over the impounding spaces does not cause structural damage to an LNG vessel moored...

  16. 49 CFR 191.22 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators...-RELATED CONDITION REPORTS § 191.22 National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators. (a) OPID Request. Effective January 1, 2012, each operator of a gas pipeline, gas pipeline facility, LNG plant or LNG...

  17. 33 CFR 127.105 - Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... transfer area for LNG. 127.105 Section 127.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. (a) LNG impounding spaces must be located so that the heat flux from a fire over the impounding spaces does not cause structural damage to an LNG vessel moored...

  18. 49 CFR 191.22 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators...-RELATED CONDITION REPORTS § 191.22 National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators. (a) OPID Request. Effective January 1, 2012, each operator of a gas pipeline, gas pipeline facility, LNG plant or LNG...

  19. 49 CFR 191.22 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators...-RELATED CONDITION REPORTS § 191.22 National Registry of Pipeline and LNG operators. (a) OPID Request. Effective January 1, 2012, each operator of a gas pipeline, gas pipeline facility, LNG plant or LNG...

  20. 33 CFR 127.105 - Layout and spacing of marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... transfer area for LNG. 127.105 Section 127.105 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... spacing of marine transfer area for LNG. (a) LNG impounding spaces must be located so that the heat flux from a fire over the impounding spaces does not cause structural damage to an LNG vessel moored...

  1. The Conceptual Design Algorithm of Inland LNG Barges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łozowicka, Dorota; Kaup, Magdalena

    2017-03-01

    The article concerns the problem of inland waterways transport of LNG. Its aim is to present the algorithm of conceptual design of inland barges for LNG transport, intended for exploitation on European waterways. The article describes the areas where LNG barges exist, depending on the allowable operating parameters on the waterways. It presents existing architectural and construction solutions of barges for inland LNG transport, as well as the necessary equipment, due to the nature of cargo. Then the article presents the procedure of the conceptual design of LNG barges, including navigation restrictions and functional and economic criteria. The conceptual design algorithm of LGN barges, presented in the article, allows to preliminary design calculations, on the basis of which, are obtained the main dimensions and parameters of unit, depending on the transport task and the class of inland waterways, on which the transport will be realized.

  2. Spread of large LNG pools on the sea.

    PubMed

    Fay, J A

    2007-02-20

    A review of the standard model of LNG pool spreading on water, comparing it with the model and experiments on oil pool spread from which the LNG model is extrapolated, raises questions about the validity of the former as applied to spills from marine tankers. These questions arise from the difference in fluid density ratios, in the multi-dimensional flow at the pool edge, in the effects of LNG pool boiling at the LNG-water interface, and in the model and experimental initial conditions compared with the inflow conditions from a marine tanker spill. An alternate supercritical flow model is proposed that avoids these difficulties; it predicts significant increase in the maximum pool radius compared with the standard model and is partially corroborated by tests of LNG pool fires on water. Wind driven ocean wave interaction has little effect on either spread model.

  3. Union Pacific Railroad`s LNG locomotive test program

    SciTech Connect

    Grimaila, B.

    1995-12-31

    Union Pacific Railroad is testing LNG in six locomotives through 1997 to determine if the liquefied natural gas technology is right for them. Two of the six LNG test locomotives are switch, or yard, locomotives. These 1,350 horsepower locomotives are the industry`s first locomotives totally fueled by natural gas. They`re being tested in the yard in the Los Angeles area. The other four locomotives are long-haul locomotives fueled by two tenders. These units are duel-fueled, operating on a mixture of LNG and diesel and are being tested primarily on the Los Angeles to North Platte, Nebraska corridor. All the information concerning locomotive emissions, locomotive performance, maintenance requirements, the overall LNG system design and the economic feasibility of the project will be analyzed to determine if UPR should expand, or abandon, the LNG technology.

  4. Research on energy efficiency design index for sea-going LNG carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yan; Yu, Yanyun; Guan, Guan

    2014-12-01

    This paper describes the characteristics of liquefied natural gas (LNG) carriers briefly. The LNG carrier includes power plant selection, vapor treatment, liquid cargo tank type, etc. Two parameters—fuel substitution rate and recovery of boil of gas (BOG) volume to energy efficiency design index (EEDI) formula are added, and EEDI formula of LNG carriers is established based on ship EEDI formula. Then, based on steam turbine propulsion device of LNG carriers, mathematical models of LNG carriers' reference line value are established in this paper. By verification, the EEDI formula of LNG carriers described in this paper can provide a reference for LNG carrier EEDI calculation and green shipbuilding.

  5. Development of polymer concrete for dike insulation at LNG facilities: Phase 4, Low cost materials. Final report, September 1, 1987--April 30, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Kukacka, L.E.

    1991-01-01

    Earlier GRI-sponsored work at Brookhaven National Laboratory has resulted in the development and utilization of insulating polymer concrete composites (IPC) as a means of reducing the evaporation rate of liquified natural gas in the event of a spill into a containment dike, thereby improving the safety at these sites. Although all of the required properties can be attained with the IPC, it was estimated that a low-cost replacement for the expensive organic binder would be necessary before use of the material would be cost-effective. In the current program, several latex modified cement formulations were evaluated and the most promising one identified. A mixture of two carboxylated styrene-butadiene latexes was selected for use in detailed laboratory property characterizations and a subsequent field evaluation. When compared to the properties of IPC, the latex-modified insulating materials display somewhat higher thermal conductivities, greater permeability to water, and reduced strength. However, these properties still meet most of the performance criteria, and the unit cost of the material is less than one-fifth that of IPC made with epoxy binders. When installed as a 0.75-in. thick overlay, material costs are estimated to be $1.00/ft{sup 2}.

  6. LNGFIRE: A thermal-radiation model for LNG fires. Topical report, October 25, 1988-June 29, 1990. documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Atallah, S.; Shah, J.N.

    1990-06-29

    The Federal Code Model for predicting exclusion distances from Liquified Natural Gas (LNG) fires (49 CFR 193.2057) was critically evaluated. The results of LNG fire tests carried out to date were reviewed, and an improved model for predicting exclusion distances was developed and verified. The model assumes that the flame takes the shape of a cylinder or a parallellepiped, depending on whether the fuel impoundment area is circular or rectangular in shape. It allows for flame drag and tilt in the presence of wind.

  7. The use of long acting subcutaneous levonorgestrel (LNG) gel depot as an effective contraceptive option for cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus).

    PubMed

    Wheaton, C J; Savage, A; Shukla, A; Neiffer, D; Qu, W; Sun, Y; Lasley, B L

    2011-01-01

    Cotton-top tamarins (Saguinus oedipus) are a critically endangered species that have been bred successfully in captivity for many years. For two decades, the Cotton-top Tamarin SSP(©) has been challenged with a high rate of reproduction combined with a history of contraceptive failures and nonrecommended births using the current Depo Provera(®) (medroxyprogesterone acetate) injection followed by MGA (melengestrol acetate) implant contraception combination. To address these issues we have developed and tested the use of levonorgestrel (LNG) as an effective contraception option for cotton-top tamarins. LNG was delivered in an injectable, gel matrix consisting of polylactic-co-glycolic acid, triethyl citrate and N-methylpyrrolidone. This gel matrix forms a biodegradable depot at the subcutaneous injection site providing slow release of the active ingredient. Gel matrix composition and LNG concentration were adjusted in four gel formulations to maximize the duration of contraceptive efficacy while minimizing immediate post-injection increases in fecal LNG concentration. LNG treatment (68.44 ± 8.61 mg/kg) successfully eliminated ovarian cycles (fecal pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PdG) and estrone conjugates (E(1) C)) for 198.8 ± 70.3 days (formulation four; range 19-50 weeks). It was demonstrated that subcutaneous LNG depot injection was an effective, reversible contraceptive option for the management of cotton-top tamarins in captivity.

  8. 40 CFR Table W - 6 of Subpart W-Default Methane Emission Factors for LNG Import and Export Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emission Factors for LNG Import and Export Equipment W Table W Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Emission Factors for LNG Import and Export Equipment LNG import and export equipment Emission factor (scf/hour/component) Leaker Emission Factors—LNG Terminals Components, LNG Service Valve 1.19 Pump Seal...

  9. Effects of detrital influx in the Pennsylvanian Upper Freeport peat swamp

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruppert, L.F.; Stanton, R.W.; Blaine, Cecil C.; Eble, C.F.; Dulong, F.T.

    1991-01-01

    Quartz cathodoluminescence properties and mineralogy of three sets of samples and vegetal and/ or miospore data from two sets of samples from the Upper Freeport coal bed, west-central Pennsylvania, show that detrital influence from a penecontemporaneous channel is limited to an area less than three km from the channel. The sets of samples examined include localities of the coal bed where (1) the coal is thin, split by partings, and near a penecontemporaneous fluvial channel, (2) the coal is relatively thick and located approximately three km from the channel, and (3) the coal is thick and located approximately 12 km from the channel. Samples from locality 1 (nearest the channel) have relatively high-ash yields (low-temperature ash average = 27.3% on a pyrite- and calcite-free basis) and high proportions of quartz and clay minerals. The quartz is primarily detrital, as determined by cathodoluminescent properties, and the ratio of kaolinite to illite is low. In addition, most of the plant remains and miospores indicate peat-forming plants that required low nutrient levels for growth. In contrast, samples from localities 2 and 3, from the more interior parts of the bed, contained predominantly authigenic quartz grains nd yielded low-temperature ash values of less than 14% on a pyrite- and calcite-free basis. The low-temperature ash contains low concentrations of quartz and clay minerals and the ratio of kaolinite to illite is relatively high. Although intact core was not available for paleobotanical analyses, another core collected within 1 km from locality 3 contained plant types interpreted to have required high nutrient levels for growth. These data indicate that mineral formation is dominated by authigenic processes in interior parts of the coal body. Some of the authigenic quartz may have been derived from herbaceous ferns as indicated by patterns in the palynological and paleobotanical data. In contrast, detrital processes appeared to be limited to in areas

  10. Particle- and Gaseous Emissions from an LNG Powered Ship.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Maria; Salo, Kent; Fridell, Erik

    2015-10-20

    Measurements of particle number and mass concentrations and number size distribution of particles from a ship running on liquefied natural gas (LNG) were made on-board a ship with dual-fuel engines installed. Today there is a large interest in LNG as a marine fuel, as a means to comply with sulfur and NOX regulations. Particles were studied in a wide size range together with measurements of other exhaust gases under different engine loads and different mixtures of LNG and marine gas oil. Results from these measurements show that emissions of particles, NOX, and CO2 are considerably lower for LNG compared to present marine fuel oils. Emitted particles were mainly of volatile character and mainly had diameters below 50 nm. Number size distribution for LNG showed a distinct peak at 9-10 nm and a part of a peak at diameter 6 nm and below. Emissions of total hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide are higher for LNG compared to present marine fuel oils, which points to the importance of considering the methane slip from combustion of LNG.

  11. Thrust-ridge paleodepositional model for the Upper Freeport coal bed and associated clastic facies, Upper Potomac coal field, Appalachian Basin, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belt, E.S.; Lyons, P.C.

    1990-01-01

    Two differential depositional sequences are recognized within a 37-m-thick lowermost section of the Conemaugh Group of Late Pennsylvanian (Westphalian D) age in the southern part of the Upper Potomac coal field (panhandle of Maryland and adjacent West Virginia). The first sequence is dominated by the Upper Freeport coal bed and zone (UF); the UF consists of a complex of interfingered thick coal beds and mudrocks. The UF underlies the entire 500 km2 study area (approximately 40 km in a NE-SW direction). The second sequence is dominated by medium- to coarse-grained sandstone and pebbly sandstone. They were deposited in channel belts that cut into and interfingered laterally with mudrock and fine- to medium-grained sandstone facies of floodbasin and crevasse-lobe origin. Thin lenticular coals occur in the second sequence. Nowhere in the study area does coarse-grained sandstone similar to the sandstone of the channel belts of the second sequence occur within the UF. However, 20 km north of the study area, coarse channel belts are found that are apparently synchronous with the UF (Lyons et al., 1984). The southeastern margin of the study are is bounded by the Allegheny Front. Between it and the North Mountain thrust (75 km to the southeast), lie at least eight other thrusts of unknown extent (Wilson, 1887). All these thrusts are oriented northwest; Devonian and older strata are exposed at the surface between the Allegheny Front and the North Mountain thrust. A blind-thrust ridge model is proposed to explain the relation of the two markedly depositional sequences to the thrusts that lie to the southeast of the Upper Potomac coal field. This model indicates that thrust ridges diverted coarse clastics from entering the swamp during a period when the thick Upper Freeport peat accumulated. Anticlinal thrust ridges and associated depressions are envisioned to have developed parallel to the Appalachian orogen during Middle and early Late Pennsylvanian time. A blind thrust

  12. Model of spills and fires from LNG and oil tankers.

    PubMed

    Fay, J A

    2003-01-31

    A comprehensive model for predicting the dynamics of spills from LNG and oil product tankers is constructed from fluid mechanics principles and empirical properties of oil and LNG spills on water. The analysis utilizes the significant tanker hold and discharge flow area dimensions to specify the cargo liquid outflow history and the ensuing pool characteristics, including the establishment of a pool fire. The pool fire area, duration, and heat release rate are determined as functions of the tanker cargo variables. Examples of an LNG and gasoline spill show that for likely discharge flow areas these spills may be regarded as instantaneous, simplifying the evaluation of risk consequences.

  13. A dispersion safety factor for LNG vapor clouds.

    PubMed

    Vílchez, Juan A; Villafañe, Diana; Casal, Joaquim

    2013-02-15

    The growing importance of liquefied natural gas (LNG) to global energy demand has increased interest in the possible hazards associated with its storage and transportation. Concerning the event of an LNG spill, a study was performed on the relationship between the distance at which the lower flammability limit (LFL) concentration occurs and that corresponding to the visible contour of LNG vapor clouds. A parameter called the dispersion safety factor (DSF) has been defined as the ratio between these two lengths, and two expressions are proposed to estimate it. During an emergency, the DSF can be a helpful parameter to indicate the danger of cloud ignition and flash fire.

  14. Theoretical and computational analyses of LNG evaporator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chidambaram, Palani Kumar; Jo, Yang Myung; Kim, Heuy Dong

    2017-04-01

    Theoretical and numerical analysis on the fluid flow and heat transfer inside a LNG evaporator is conducted in this work. Methane is used instead of LNG as the operating fluid. This is because; methane constitutes over 80% of natural gas. The analytical calculations are performed using simple mass and energy balance equations. The analytical calculations are made to assess the pressure and temperature variations in the steam tube. Multiphase numerical simulations are performed by solving the governing equations (basic flow equations of continuity, momentum and energy equations) in a portion of the evaporator domain consisting of a single steam pipe. The flow equations are solved along with equations of species transport. Multiphase modeling is incorporated using VOF method. Liquid methane is the primary phase. It vaporizes into the secondary phase gaseous methane. Steam is another secondary phase which flows through the heating coils. Turbulence is modeled by a two equation turbulence model. Both the theoretical and numerical predictions are seen to match well with each other. Further parametric studies are planned based on the current research.

  15. U.S. LNG imports 1996--1997 should recover from low 1995 levels

    SciTech Connect

    Swain, E.J.

    1997-01-27

    Imports of LNG into the US in 1995 were the lowest since 1988, when 17.5 billion cu ft were imported. Total 1995 LNG imported from Algeria was 17.92 bcf compared to 50.78 in 1994, a decrease of 64.7%. About 72% of imported Algerian LNG was received at the Distrigas Corp. terminal north of Boston. The remaining LNG was received at the Trunkline LNG CO. terminal, Lake Charles, La., which was reopened in December 1989. The dramatic decline in LNG imports over the past 2 years (78%) can largely be attributed to Sonatrach`s multiyear renovation project to restore its LNG plants to their original capacities. This major renovation project has resulted in LNG export curtailments to all of its customers. The paper discusses US terminals, base-load producers, LNG pricing, and exports.

  16. LNGFIRE: A thermal radiation model for LNG fires. Topical report, June 29, 1990. Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Atallah, S.; Shah, J.N.

    1990-06-29

    The Federal Code Model for predicting exclusion distances from LNG fires (49 CFR 193.2057) was critically evaluated. The results of LNG fire tests carried out to date were reviewed and an improved model for predicting exclusion distances was developed and verified. This model assumes that the flame takes the shape of a cylinder or a parallellepiped, depending on whether the fuel impoundment area is circular or rectangular in shape. It allows for flame drag and tilt in the presence of wind. Based on experimental data, the maximum surface emissive power and the flame attenuation coefficient were estimated at 190 kw/sq m (60,267 Btu/hr sq ft) and 0.3/m (0.09/ft), respectively.

  17. Mechanical Characteristics of 9% Ni Steel Welded Joint for Lng Storage Tank at Cryogenic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Yong-Keun; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Shim, Kyu-Taek; Kim, Young-Kyun

    To confirm the safety performance of LNG storage tank, the change in fatigue crack growth rate and fracture toughness within X-grooved weld heat-affected zone (HAZ) of newly developed 9% Ni steel, which was SMAW welded, was investigated. These materials were produced by QT (quenching, tempering) heat treatment. The weld metal specimens were prepared by taking the same weld procedure applied in actual inner shell of LNG storage tank. All tests were performed in the temperature ranging from R.T. and -162°C. The fatigue crack growth behavior was carried out using CT specimen. Investigation has been carried out to study the influence of temperature and weld effect on fatigue crack growth behavior. Also, Fracture surfaces after tests were observe by scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  18. Thermal radiation from LNG trench fires. Volume 2. Data. Final report, September 1982-September 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Moorhouse, J.; Croce, P.A.

    1984-09-01

    The current federal regulations for LNG facilities require a thermal radiation exclusion zone for public safety around spill-impoundment systems. The size of this zone is determined by applying a thermal-radiation model that was developed for large circular or near-circular pool fires. Since trench (elongated pool) fires behave differently from circular pool fires, an experimental test program was conducted to monitor the fire behavior and thermal radiation from large-scale LNG trench fires. This volume presents all of the data obtained from the trench fire experiments. Details of each experiment, the various types of instrumentation employed, their method of calibration, and data analysis techniques are described in Volume I of this report, along with a discussion of project results, including a new trench fire radiation model.

  19. 77 FR 48145 - Cameron Interstate Pipeline, LLC, Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Cameron Interstate Pipeline, LLC, Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Intent To... LNG Liquefaction Project, Request for Comments on Environmental Issues, and Notice of Public Scoping... Natural Gas (LNG) Liquefaction Project (collectively Cameron Liquefaction Project or Project) planned...

  20. The northern and central Appalachian basin coal region -- The Upper Freeport and Pond Creek coal bed assessments

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppert, L.; Tewalt, S.; Bragg, L.; Wallack, R.; Freeman, P.; Tully, J.

    1999-07-01

    The Upper Freeport and Pond Creek coal beds are two of six coal beds being assessed by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in the northern and central Appalachian basin coal region. The coal resource assessments were designed to provide up-to-date, concise data on the location, quantity, and quality of US coals for Federal agencies, the public, industry and academia. Assessment products are fully digital and include original and remaining resource estimates; maps depicting areal extent, mined areas, geologic structure contour, isopach, overburden thickness, ash yield, sulfur content, calorific value, and selected trace-element contents; and public domain geochemical and stratigraphic databases. The assessment methodology and a few results are presented.

  1. Lng weathering effects: Theoretical and empirical. Topical report, March-August 1992. [LNG (Liquified Natural Gas)

    SciTech Connect

    Acker, G.H.; Moulton, S.D.

    1992-12-01

    The report details the composition change of LNG as it weathers in a vehicle size tank. The composition methane number and stoichiometric air-fuel ratios each change with composition. The results show that the factor controlling weathering is the tank heat leak rate. Weathering occurs at a constant rate when plotted against tank volume, that is composition change is primarily a function of tank volume and the percentage of initial fill boiled off. Heat leak defines the rate at which weathering occurs.

  2. Topsides equipment, operating flexibility key floating LNG design

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, K.; Lopez, R.; Mok, J.

    1998-03-09

    Use of a large-scale floating liquefied natural gas (LNG) plant is an economical alternative to an onshore plant for producing from an offshore field. Mobil Technology Co., Dallas, has advanced a design for such a plant that is technically feasible, economical, safe, and reliable. Presented were descriptions of the general design basis, hull modeling and testing, topsides and storage layouts, and LNG offloading. But such a design also presents challenges for designing topsides equipment in an offshore environment and for including flexibility and safety. These are covered in this second article. Mobil`s floating LNG plant design calls for a square concrete barge with a moon-pool in the center. It is designed to produce 6 million tons/year of LNG with up to 55,000 b/d of condensate from 1 bcfd of raw feed gas.

  3. Norcal Prototype LNG Truck Fleet: Final Data Report

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Proc, K.

    2005-02-01

    U.S. DOE and National Renewable Energy Laboratory evaluated Norcal Waste Systems liquefied natural gas (LNG) waste transfer trucks. Trucks had prototype Cummins Westport ISXG engines. Report gives final data.

  4. Dimethyl ether fuel proposed as an alternative to LNG

    SciTech Connect

    Kikkawa, Yoshitsugi; Aoki, Ichizo

    1998-04-06

    To cope with the emerging energy demand in Asia, alternative fuels to LNG must be considered. Alternative measures, which convert the natural gas to liquid fuel, include the Fischer-Tropsch conversion, methanol synthesis, and dimethyl ether (DME) synthesis. Comparisons are evaluated based on both transportation cost and feed-gas cost. The analysis will show that DME, one alternative to LNG as transportation fuel, will be more economical for longer distances between the natural-gas source and the consumer. LNG requires a costly tanker and receiving terminal. The break-even distance will be around 5,000--7,000 km and vary depending on the transported volume. There will be risk, however, since there has never been a DME plant the size of an LNG-equivalent plant [6 million metric tons/year (mty)].

  5. Future world LNG trade looks good - part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P.J.

    1982-12-01

    Projects to deliver gas to Japan will increase Japan's volume of LNG by two-thirds while the share of projects directed toward Europe and the U.S. will decrease proportionately. Tables showing base-load LNG import projects under construction and possible projects are presented (e.g. Australia-Japan; Canada-Japan; Nigeria-Europe/US; Cameroons-Europe; Canadian Arctic-Europe), each of which is briefly discussed.

  6. The Phoenix series large scale LNG pool fire experiments.

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, Richard B.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Demosthenous, Byron; Luketa, Anay Josephine; Ricks, Allen Joseph; Hightower, Marion Michael; Blanchat, Thomas K.; Helmick, Paul H.; Tieszen, Sheldon Robert; Deola, Regina Anne; Mercier, Jeffrey Alan; Suo-Anttila, Jill Marie; Miller, Timothy J.

    2010-12-01

    The increasing demand for natural gas could increase the number and frequency of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tanker deliveries to ports across the United States. Because of the increasing number of shipments and the number of possible new facilities, concerns about the potential safety of the public and property from an accidental, and even more importantly intentional spills, have increased. While improvements have been made over the past decade in assessing hazards from LNG spills, the existing experimental data is much smaller in size and scale than many postulated large accidental and intentional spills. Since the physics and hazards from a fire change with fire size, there are concerns about the adequacy of current hazard prediction techniques for large LNG spills and fires. To address these concerns, Congress funded the Department of Energy (DOE) in 2008 to conduct a series of laboratory and large-scale LNG pool fire experiments at Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) in Albuquerque, New Mexico. This report presents the test data and results of both sets of fire experiments. A series of five reduced-scale (gas burner) tests (yielding 27 sets of data) were conducted in 2007 and 2008 at Sandia's Thermal Test Complex (TTC) to assess flame height to fire diameter ratios as a function of nondimensional heat release rates for extrapolation to large-scale LNG fires. The large-scale LNG pool fire experiments were conducted in a 120 m diameter pond specially designed and constructed in Sandia's Area III large-scale test complex. Two fire tests of LNG spills of 21 and 81 m in diameter were conducted in 2009 to improve the understanding of flame height, smoke production, and burn rate and therefore the physics and hazards of large LNG spills and fires.

  7. Hydrodynamic optimization of twin-skeg LNG ships by CFD and model testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Keunjae; Tillig, Fabian; Bathfield, Nicolas; Liljenberg, Hans

    2014-06-01

    SSPA experiences a growing interest in twin skeg ships as one attractive green ship solution. The twin skeg concept is well proven with obvious advantages for the design of ships with full hull forms, restricted draft or highly loaded propellers. SSPA has conducted extensive hull optimizations studies of LNG ships of different size based on an extensive hull data base with over 7,000 models tested, including over 400 twin skeg hull forms. Main hull dimensions and different hull concepts such as twin skeg and single screw were of main interest in the studies. In the present paper, one twin skeg and one single screw 170 K LNG ship were designed for optimally selected main dimension parameters. The twin skeg hull was further optimized and evaluated using SHIPFLOW FRIENDSHIP design package by performing parameter variation in order to modify the shape and positions of the skegs. The finally optimized models were then built and tested in order to confirm the lower power demand of twin skeg designed compaed with the signle screw design. This paper is a full description of one of the design developments of a LNG twin skeg hull, from early dimensional parameter study, through design optimization phase towards the confirmation by model tests.

  8. Offshore LNG (liquefied natural gas) production and storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Barden, J.K.

    1982-01-01

    A barge, outfitted with gas liquefaction processing equipment and liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tanks, is suggested as a possible way to exploit remote offshore gas production. A similar study with a barge-mounted methanol plant was conducted several years ago, also using remote offshore feed gas. This barge-mounted, LNG system is bow-moored to a single point mooring through which feed gas is piped via seafloor pipeline from a nearby gas production facility. The barge is arranged with personnel accommodation forward, LNG storage midships, and gas liquefaction processing equipment aft. A flare boom is cantilevered off the barge's stern. The basis of design stipulates feed gas properties, area environmental data, gas liquefaction process, LNG storage tank type plus other parameters desirable in a floating process plant. The latter were concerned with safety, low maintenance characteristics, and the fact that the process barge also would serve as an offshore port where LNG export tankers would moor periodically. A brief summary of results for a barge-mounted methanol plant from an earlier study is followed then by a comparison of LNG and methanol alternatives.

  9. Does an intraabdominally placed LNG-IUS have an adverse effect on fertility? A case report.

    PubMed

    Doris, Nadine; Shabib, Gihad; Corbett, Shannon; Leader, Arthur; Black, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    This case of secondary infertility with an associated intraabdominal levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) demonstrates the importance of adequate imaging in women with a missing intrauterine contraceptive device and the possible fertility implications of an extrauterine LNG-IUS.

  10. 75 FR 60095 - Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... LNG Marketing, LLC; Application for Blanket Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas AGENCY..., by Sempra LNG Marketing, LLC (Sempra), requesting blanket authorization to export up to a total of..., Louisiana. Sempra is engaged in the business of purchasing and marketing supplies of LNG. Sempra is...

  11. 33 CFR 127.703 - Access to the marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... area for LNG. 127.703 Section 127.703 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Access to the marine transfer area for LNG. The operator shall ensure that— (a) Access to the marine transfer area for LNG from the shoreside and the waterside is limited to— (1) Personnel who work at...

  12. 77 FR 788 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Application Take notice that on December 15, 2011, Southern LNG Company, L.L.C. (SLNG), 569 Brookwood Village, Suite 501, Birmingham... compressor unit at its liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal located at Elba Island, Georgia...

  13. 76 FR 4417 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Maritime Administration Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License.... Liberty Deepwater Port would receive and transfer natural gas from purpose-built LNG regasification... equipped to vaporize LNG cargo to natural gas through onboard closed loop vaporization systems and...

  14. 75 FR 54025 - Revision of LNG and LHG Waterfront Facility General Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-03

    ...-27022] RIN 1625-AB13 Revision of LNG and LHG Waterfront Facility General Requirements AGENCY: Coast...) requirements for liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquefied hazardous gas (LHG) facilities. The amendment... entitled ``Revision of LNG and LHG Waterfront Facility General Requirements'' (75 FR 29420) amending...

  15. 77 FR 70886 - Reconsideration of Letters of Recommendation for Waterfront Facilities Handling LNG and LHG

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-28

    ... Waterfront Facilities Handling LNG and LHG AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This final... Captain of the Port regarding the suitability of a waterway for liquefied natural gas (LNG) or liquefied... Commission FR Federal Register LHG Liquefied hazardous gas LNG Liquefied natural gas LOI Letter of Intent...

  16. 75 FR 70350 - Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Maritime Administration Liberty Natural Gas LLC, Liberty Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Deepwater Port License... receive and transfer natural gas from purpose-build LNG regasification vessels (LNGRVs) with a total cargo tank capacity of approximately 145,000 m\\3\\. The vessels would be equipped to vaporize LNG cargo...

  17. 75 FR 53688 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ...] Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Notice of Technical Conference August 25, 2010. Take notice that Commission... Commission, 888 First Street, NE., Washington, DC 20426. On June 7, 2010, Southern LNG Company, L.L.C. (Southern LNG) filed a tariff sheet to revise its tariff with respect to gas quality and...

  18. 33 CFR 165.751 - Security Zone: LNG mooring slip, Savannah River, Savannah, Georgia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Security Zone: LNG mooring slip... § 165.751 Security Zone: LNG mooring slip, Savannah River, Savannah, Georgia. (a) Security zone. The... security zone; or (4) Actively engaged in escort, maneuvering, or support duties for an LNG tankship....

  19. 75 FR 74029 - Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application November 22, 2010. Take notice that on November 12, 2010, Sabine Pass LNG, L.P. (Sabine Pass), 700 Milam Street, Suite 800, Houston... a redundant high pressure boil off gas compressor at its existing Sabine Pass LNG Terminal,...

  20. 78 FR 23552 - Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Notice of Application Take notice that on April 1, 2013, Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP (Dominion Cove Point), 120 Tredegar Street, Richmond, Virginia... for the export at its existing Cove Point LNG terminal in Calvert County, Maryland....

  1. 77 FR 10732 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Domestically Produced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... LNG, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Domestically Produced Liquefied Natural... notice of receipt of an application (Application), filed on December 21, 2011, by Cameron LNG, LLC... annum (mtpa) of domestically produced liquefied natural gas (LNG) (equivalent to approximately...

  2. 75 FR 29420 - Revision of LNG and LHG Waterfront Facility General Requirements

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-26

    ... No. USCG-2007-27022] RIN 1625-AB13 Revision of LNG and LHG Waterfront Facility General Requirements... requirements for waterfront facilities handling liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquefied hazardous gas (LHG... harmonize the Coast Guard's regulations for LNG with those established by the Federal Energy...

  3. 75 FR 2126 - Calais Pipeline Company, LLC; Calais LNG Project Company, LLC; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Calais Pipeline Company, LLC; Calais LNG Project Company, LLC; Notice of Application January 6, 2010. Take notice that on December 18, 2009, Calais LNG Project Company, LLC (Calais LNG) and Calais Pipeline Company, LLC (Calais Pipeline) 142 ] Main Street, P.O. Box 133, Calais,...

  4. 76 FR 58488 - Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Application for Blanket Authorization to Export Previously Imported...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Application for Blanket Authorization to Export Previously Imported Liquefied... (Application), filed on August 8, 2011, by Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP (DCP), requesting blanket authorization to export liquefied natural gas (LNG) that previously had been imported into the United States...

  5. 76 FR 31326 - Gulf LNG Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Gulf LNG Pipeline, LLC; Notice of Request Under Blanket Authorization Take notice that on May 18, 2011, Gulf LNG Pipeline, LLC (GLNG Pipeline), Colonial Brookwood Center, 569... to Margaret G. Coffman, Counsel, Gulf LNG Pipeline Company, LLC, Colonial Brookwood Center,...

  6. 49 CFR 195.64 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators... Reporting § 195.64 National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators. (a) OPID Request. Effective January 1... Pipeline and LNG Operators in accordance with § 195.58. (b) OPID validation. An operator who has...

  7. 49 CFR 195.64 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators... Reporting § 195.64 National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators. (a) OPID Request. Effective January 1... Pipeline and LNG Operators in accordance with § 195.58. (b) OPID validation. An operator who has...

  8. 33 CFR 127.703 - Access to the marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... area for LNG. 127.703 Section 127.703 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Access to the marine transfer area for LNG. The operator shall ensure that— (a) Access to the marine transfer area for LNG from the shoreside and the waterside is limited to— (1) Personnel who work at...

  9. 33 CFR 127.703 - Access to the marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... area for LNG. 127.703 Section 127.703 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Access to the marine transfer area for LNG. The operator shall ensure that— (a) Access to the marine transfer area for LNG from the shoreside and the waterside is limited to— (1) Personnel who work at...

  10. 49 CFR 195.64 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators... Reporting § 195.64 National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators. (a) OPID Request. Effective January 1... Pipeline and LNG Operators in accordance with § 195.58. (b) OPID validation. An operator who has...

  11. 49 CFR 195.64 - National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators... Reporting § 195.64 National Registry of Pipeline and LNG Operators. (a) OPID Request. Effective January 1... Pipeline and LNG Operators in accordance with § 195.58. (b) OPID validation. An operator who has...

  12. 33 CFR 127.703 - Access to the marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... area for LNG. 127.703 Section 127.703 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Access to the marine transfer area for LNG. The operator shall ensure that— (a) Access to the marine transfer area for LNG from the shoreside and the waterside is limited to— (1) Personnel who work at...

  13. 33 CFR 127.703 - Access to the marine transfer area for LNG.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... area for LNG. 127.703 Section 127.703 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Access to the marine transfer area for LNG. The operator shall ensure that— (a) Access to the marine transfer area for LNG from the shoreside and the waterside is limited to— (1) Personnel who work at...

  14. 75 FR 20591 - AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC and Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC; Notice of Final General Conformity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-20

    ... General Conformity Determination for Pennsylvania for the Proposed Sparrows Point LNG Terminal and... liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal and natural gas pipeline proposed by AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC... quality impacts from the construction and operation of the following LNG terminal and natural gas...

  15. 77 FR 63806 - Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... Southern LNG Company, L.L.C.; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas... on August 31, 2012, by Southern LNG Company, L.L.C. (Southern LNG), requesting long-term, multi-contract authorization to export up to 4 million tons per annum (mtpa) of liquefied natural gas (LNG),...

  16. 75 FR 57766 - Notice of Petition To Amend Authorizations Under Section 3 of the Natural Gas Act; Cameron LNG, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-22

    ... Gas Act; Cameron LNG, LLC September 15, 2010. Take notice that on September 3, 2010, Cameron LNG, LLC... liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal facility located in Cameron Parish, Louisiana, for the additional purpose of exporting foreign- sourced LNG. This filing is available for review at the Commission in...

  17. 76 FR 77814 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed BOG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment... construction and operation of facilities by Cameron LNG, LLC (Cameron LNG) in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. This... encourage them to comment on their areas of concern. Summary of the Proposed Project Cameron LNG plans...

  18. 78 FR 75339 - Barca LNG LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... LNG LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced From..., by Barca LNG LLC (Barca), requesting long-term, multi- contract authorization to export LNG produced...) of natural gas, or 1.6 Bcf per day (Bcf/d). Barca seeks authorization to export the LNG for a...

  19. 78 FR 35625 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction Expansion, LLC; Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ..., LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Cheniere Creole Trail Pipeline, L.P.: Notice of Intent To Prepare an... Sabine Pass Liquefaction Expansion, LLC; Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P... metric tonnes of liquefied natural gas (LNG) per annum (mtpa) via LNG carriers. Trains 5 and 6...

  20. 78 FR 75337 - Eos LNG LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Eos LNG... Eos LNG LLC (Eos), requesting long-term, multi- contract authorization to export LNG produced from... natural gas, or 1.6 Bcf per day (Bcf/d). Eos seeks authorization to export the LNG for a 25-year term...

  1. Guidance on Risk Analysis and Safety Implications of a Large Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Spill Over Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    35 Figure 5. Anatomy of an LNG Spill on Water ..............................................................................36...Figure 5. Anatomy of an LNG Spill on Water For LNG cargo tank designs, a realistic estimate of tanker losses (i.e., the fraction of the...SOURCE TYPE NUMBER OF TESTS COMPLEX EFFECTS Burro Field LNG Pool 8 fast aerosol evaporation Desert Tortoise Field Ammonia Jet 4 Aerosol FLADIS

  2. Industry will pay most of Algeria LNG price hike

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J.

    1980-01-14

    Industrial users will pay most of the fivefold incremental price increase in Algerian liquefied natural gas (LNG) recently approved by the Economic Regulatory Administration (ERA). The three affected gas-importing companies - Columbia LNG Corp., Consolidated LNG corp., and Southern Energy Co. - are major suppliers for eastern and southern states. They will be paying $1.94 per million Btu (mmBtu) (increase of about 80 cents) and will be allowed to charge $3.64 per mmBtu. Additional increases will be tied to the cost of imported oil for the next 23 years and will allow LNG to compete with residual fuel oil and future gas imports from Canada and Mexico. The price increase will be passed on immediatley to consumers, but the major impact will be felt in November when Phase II takes effect and more users become eligible for incremental pricing. ERA argues that LNG will be too heavily subsidized by domestic fuels if the price continues to be rolled-in with other pipeline supplies and this will delay conversion to alternative fuels. (DCK)

  3. The diseconomics of long-haul LNG trading

    SciTech Connect

    Stauffer, T.R.

    1995-12-31

    Long-haul liquefied natural gas (LNG) exports yield little or no economic rent. Trades, such as Borneo to Japan, are economical, but government takes otherwise are minimal. Today, the price of LNG is capped by the technical option of modifying gas turbines to bum liquid fuels. The maximum premium for LNG is less than 50 cents per thousand cubic feet (/Mcf), and buyers are resisting any price above oil parity. Costs of LNG are high and increase with distance. The netback value is zero or even negative for the longer-distance trades. The value of extracted co-products (natural gas liquids) is 50 cents to $1/Mcf. These credits are the principal source of profit, especially for foreign partners because natural gas liquids are taxed at low {open_quotes}industrial{close_quotes} rates. Returns are even less when the gas supply is nonassociated so that the project must {open_quotes}pay{close_quotes} the production costs as well. Some exporting countries profit; but the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries as a whole looses because low-revenue LNG energy displaces at the margin fully taxed oil.

  4. The theoretical analysis of the Fog removal in the LNG Ambient Vaporizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, T.; Lee, D.; Jeong, H.; Chung, H.

    2015-09-01

    The fog removal process is one of the important process in LNG Ambient Vaporizer. In this study we carried out theoretical study of the fog removal process in LNG Ambient Vaporizer. The LNG Ambient Vaporizer in Incheon area was used in our study. The fog temperature and the required energy produced from air fan to remove fog in LNG Ambient Vaporizer were calculated using average temperature of Incheon area in 2012 by Psychometruc Chart method. As a result we can be remove fog in LNG Ambient Vaporizer using Enthalpy[kW] energy in summer season and Enthalpy[kW] in winter season respectively.

  5. Semi-quantitative ion microprobe mass analyses of mineral-rich particles from the upper freeport coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.; Simons, D.S.; Dulong, F.T.; Steel, E.B.

    1984-01-01

    An ion microprobe mass analyzer (IMMA) has been used to analyze semi-quantitatively mineral-rich coal particles from two separate facies of the Upper Freeport coal bed. Accuracy is estimated to be ??? 20% for those elements making up more than 0.1 wt.% of the particles and ??? 50% for elements making up less than 0.1 wt.%. Using IMMA data, we found statistically significant differences between the two samples for five (Fe, Ca, Mn, Li, Ce) of the 25 elements detected. For Li and Mn the differences between the mineral-rich particles within samples were similar to differences found between samples on a whole-coal basis. For Ca and Fe, the differences are attributed to different modes of occurrence, and for Ce, the differences are probably due to an irregular distribution of an inorganic phase. We conclude that the IMMA can be used to obtain semi-quantitative data that may provide insight into the distribution and mode of occurrence of some of the elements in coal. ?? 1984.

  6. A summary of some experimental data on LNG safety.

    PubMed

    Cleaver, Phil; Johnson, Mike; Ho, Ben

    2007-02-20

    In a recent paper, Luketa-Hanlin reviewed the information in the public domain related to LNG safety. The purpose of this paper is to supplement that work by providing a summary of the experimental information that Advantica has collected on LNG behaviour over the course of the last 30 years. This summary includes previously unpublished information obtained as a result of a number of collaborative projects. Subjective comments are also made on the status of modelling for each of the topic areas and, in a discussion, views are provided on those areas where there are currently gaps that may have a major impact on evaluating the individual or societal risks associated with LNG operations.

  7. Hawaii energy strategy project 2: Fossil energy review. Task 3 -- Greenfield options: Prospects for LNG use

    SciTech Connect

    Breazeale, K.; Fesharaki, F.; Fridley, D.; Pezeshki, S.; Wu, K.

    1993-12-01

    This paper begins with an overview of the Asia-Pacific LNG market, its major players, and the likely availability of LNG supplies in the region. The discussion then examines the possibilities for the economic supply of LNG to Hawaii, the potential Hawaiian market, and the viability of an LNG project on Oahu. This survey is far from a complete technical assessment or an actual engineering/feasibility study. The economics alone cannot justify LNG`s introduction. The debate may continue as to whether fuel diversification and environmental reasons can outweigh the higher costs. Several points are made. LNG is not a spot commodity. Switching to LNG in Hawaii would require a massive, long-term commitment and substantial investments. LNG supplies are growing very tight in the Asia-Pacific region. Some of the environmental benefits of LNG are not entirely relevant in Hawaii because Hawaii`s air quality is generally excellent. Any air quality benefits may be more than counterbalanced by the environmental hazards connected with large-scale coastal zone construction, and by the safety hazards of LNG carriers, pipelines, etc. Lastly, LNG is not suitable for all energy uses, and is likely to be entirely unsuitable for neighbor island energy needs.

  8. Potential for long-term LNG supplies to the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) has been a component of the US gas supply mix since 1970. Between 1970 and 1981 LNG terminals were constructed that have the current capability of receiving annual LNG shipments equivalent to about 700 Bcf. Additional terminal capacity was proposed and sites were under consideration in 1985 when reduced demand for natural gas and softening of gas prices resulted in the termination of plans for new capacity and suspension of contracts for imports. In the 1990s, however, shipments of LNG are again being received, and it is expected that imports of LNG by seaborne trade will play a significant role in meeting the growing US requirements for natural gas supply. It is expected that all existing US terminals will be operational by the mid-1990s, and the existing terminal capacity would be fully utilized by the year 2000. The report summarizes the analysis of the LNG terminal capacity aimed at identifying future LNG liquefaction and transportation needs.

  9. 40 CFR Table W - 6 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Methane Emission Factors for LNG Import and Export Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Methane Emission Factors for LNG Import and Export Equipment W Table W Protection of Environment...—Default Methane Emission Factors for LNG Import and Export Equipment LNG import and export equipment Emission factor (scf/hour/component) Leaker Emission Factors—LNG Terminals Components, LNG Service Valve...

  10. 40 CFR Table W - 6 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Methane Emission Factors for LNG Import and Export Equipment

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Methane Emission Factors for LNG Import and Export Equipment W Table W Protection of Environment...—Default Methane Emission Factors for LNG Import and Export Equipment LNG import and export equipment Emission factor (scf/hour/component) Leaker Emission Factors—LNG Terminals Components, LNG Service Valve...

  11. Monitoring, safety systems for LNG and LPG operators

    SciTech Connect

    True, W.R.

    1998-11-16

    Operators in Korea and Australia have chosen monitoring and control systems in recent contracts for LNG and LPG storage. Korea Gas Corp. (Kogas) has hired Whessoe Varec, Calais, to provide monitoring systems for four LNG storage tanks being built at Kogas` Inchon terminal. For Elgas Ltd., Port Botany, Australia, Whessoe Varec has already shipped a safety valve-shutdown system to a new LPG cavern-storage facility under construction. The paper describes the systems, terminal monitoring, dynamic approach to tank management, and meeting the growing demand for LPG.

  12. Comparison of CNG and LNG technologies for transportation applications

    SciTech Connect

    Sinor, J.E. Consultants, Inc., Niwot, CO )

    1992-01-01

    This report provides a head-to-head comparison of compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) supplied to heavy-duty vehicles. The comparison includes an assessment of the overall efficiency of the fuel delivery system, the cost of the fuel supply system, the efficiency of use in heavy-duty vehicles, and the environmental impact of each technology. The report concludes that there are applications in which CNG will have the advantage, and applications in which LNG will be preferred.

  13. Analysis of LNG peakshaving-facility release-prevention systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pelto, P.J.; Baker, E.G.; Powers, T.B.; Schreiber, A.M.; Hobbs, J.M.; Daling, P.M.

    1982-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide an analysis of release prevention systems for a reference LNG peakshaving facility. An overview assessment of the reference peakshaving facility, which preceeded this effort, identified 14 release scenarios which are typical of the potential hazards involved in the operation of LNG peakshaving facilities. These scenarios formed the basis for this more detailed study. Failure modes and effects analysis and fault tree analysis were used to estimate the expected frequency of each release scenario for the reference peakshaving facility. In addition, the effectiveness of release prevention, release detection, and release control systems were evaluated.

  14. Shrimp and redfish studies, bryan mound brine disposal site off Freeport, Texas, 1979-1981. Volume IV. Interview sampling survey of shrimp catch and effort. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.F.

    1981-06-01

    An interview sampling survey of shrimp catch and fishing effort was conducted at specified ports along the Texas coast to strengthen the information base required to determine the effect of the disposal of brine from the Bryan Mound salt dome off Freeport, Texas on commercial brown shrimp (Penaeus aztecus) and white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus) populations in the Gulf of Mexico. The data recorded included port number, vessel name, official vessel number, shrimp dealer number, date of landing, area fished, depth of capture, days fished, and pounds of shrimp caught by species and size categories.

  15. Rapid response calculation of LNG cargo containment system under sloshing load using wavelet transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yooil

    2013-06-01

    Reliable strength assessment of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) cargo containment system under the sloshing impact load is very difficult task due to the complexity of the physics involved in, both in terms of the hydrodynamics and structural mechanics. Out of all those complexities, the proper selection of the design sloshing load which is applied to the structural model of the LNG cargo containment system, is one of the most challenging one due to its inherent randomness as well as the statistical analysis which is tightly linked to the design sloshing load selection. In this study, the response based strength assessment procedure of LNG cargo containment system has been developed and proposed as an alternative design methodology. Sloshing pressure time history, measured from the model test, is decomposed into wavelet basis function targeting the minimization of the number of the basis function together with the maximization of the numerical efficiency. Then the response of the structure is obtained using the finite element method under each wavelet basis function of different scale. Finally, the response of the structure under entire sloshing impact time history is rapidly calculated by synthesizing the structural response under wavelet basis function. Through this analysis, more realistic response of the system under sloshing impact pressure can be obtained without missing the details of pressure time history such as rising pattern, oscillation due to air entrapment and decay pattern and so on. The strength assessment of the cargo containment system is then performed based on the statistical analysis of the stress peaks selected out of the obtained stress time history.

  16. An LNG release, transport, and fate model system for marine spills.

    PubMed

    Spaulding, Malcolm L; Swanson, J Craig; Jayko, Kathy; Whittier, Nicole

    2007-02-20

    LNGMAP, a fully integrated, geographic information based modular system, has been developed to predict the fate and transport of marine spills of LNG. The model is organized as a discrete set of linked algorithms that represent the processes (time dependent release rate, spreading, transport on the water surface, evaporation from the water surface, transport and dispersion in the atmosphere, and, if ignited, burning and associated radiated heat fields) affecting LNG once it is released into the environment. A particle-based approach is employed in which discrete masses of LNG released from the source are modeled as individual masses of LNG or spillets. The model is designed to predict the gas mass balance as a function of time and to display the spatial and temporal evolution of the gas (and radiated energy field). LNGMAP has been validated by comparisons to predictions of models developed by ABS Consulting and Sandia for time dependent point releases from a draining tank, with and without burning. Simulations were in excellent agreement with those performed by ABS Consulting and consistent with Sandia's steady state results. To illustrate the model predictive capability for realistic emergency scenarios, simulations were performed for a tanker entering Block Island Sound. Three hypothetical cases were studied: the first assumes the vessel continues on course after the spill starts, the second that the vessel stops as soon as practical after the release begins (3 min), and the third that the vessel grounds at the closest site practical. The model shows that the areas of the surface pool and the incident thermal radiation field (with burning) are minimized and dispersed vapor cloud area (without burning) maximized if the vessel continues on course. For this case the surface pool area, with burning, is substantially smaller than for the without burning case because of the higher mass loss rate from the surface pool due to burning. Since the vessel speed substantially

  17. Fire performance of LNG carriers insulated with polystyrene foam.

    PubMed

    Havens, Jerry; Venart, James

    2008-10-30

    Analysis of the response of a liquid-full Moss Sphere LNG tank insulated with polystyrene foam to an engulfing LNG fire indicates that current regulatory requirements for pressure relief capacity sufficient to prevent tank rupture are inadequate. The inadequacy of the current requirements stems primarily from two factors. Firstly, the area of the Moss Sphere protruding above what would be the nominal deck on a conventional carrier, which is protected only by a steel weather cover from exposure to heat from a tank-engulfing fire, is being underestimated. Secondly, aluminum foil-covered polystyrene foam insulation applied to the exterior of the LNG tank is protected above the deck only by the steel weather cover under which the insulation could begin to melt in as little as 1-3 min, and could completely liquefy in as few as 10 min. U.S. and International Regulations require that the insulations on the above-deck portion of tanks have approved fire proofing and stability under fire exposure. Polystyrene foam, as currently installed on LNG carriers, does not appear to meet these criteria. As a result of these findings, but giving no consideration to the significant potential for further damage if the polystyrene should burn, the boil-off rate is predicted to be an order-of-magnitude higher than provided for by current PRV sizing requirements.

  18. Soot-Free Combustion Of Methane And LNG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bossard, John

    1992-01-01

    Neither methane nor liquefied natural gas (LNG) produces soot when burned in turbine simulator with liquid oxygen under conditions like those in gas-generator section of rocket engine. Experiments conducted to determine if these fuels behave similarly to other hydrocarbon fuels, which give off soot coating turbomachinery and reducing performance.

  19. 49 CFR 193.2181 - Impoundment capacity: LNG storage tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... minimum volumetric liquid impoundment capacity of: (a) 110 percent of the LNG tank's maximum liquid capacity for an impoundment serving a single tank; (b) 100 percent of all tanks or 110 percent of the largest tank's maximum liquid capacity, whichever is greater, for the impoundment serving more than...

  20. A predictive model for rollover in stratified LNG tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Heestand, J.; Meader, J.W.; Shipman, C.W.

    1983-03-01

    The incubation period preceding ''rollover'' within a stratified LNG tank involves intensive heat and mass transfers between layers. Numerical integration of equations describing these processes leads to predicted time-history and boil-off characteristics which are in excellent agreement with Sarsten's (1972) documentation of the LaSpezia rollover incident.

  1. LNG storage: safety analysis. Annual report for 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.C.; Smith, K.A.; Virk, P.S.

    1980-01-01

    Progress is summarized on four projects in the area of LNG safety: (1) Rapid phase transformations in cryogens. An apparatus is described for experiments in which LNG will suddenly be subjected to a shock wave delivered from above. It is anticipated that cessation of boiling, followed by a very rapid delayed phase transformation, may occur. (2) Rollover phenomena. An apparatus is described for experiments which will examine the rates of heat and mass transfer across a density stabilized interface between two miscible strata. Preliminary data show that the apparatus is capable of producing data of the required accuracy. (3) Simultaneous boiling and spreading of cryogenic liquids. An apparatus is described for a study of the subject topic. Data obtained in this apparatus for the case of spreading without boiling are given and are shown to agree with available theories. (4) Modelling of LNG tank dynamics. A vessel containing saturated liquid nitrogen has been subjected to a variety of step changes in the imposed pressure in order to simulate experimentally the events which occur when an LNG tank is subjected to variations in atmospheric pressure. The results are compared with a mathematical model of tank behavior.

  2. Price and policy cast cloud on U. S. imports of LNG

    SciTech Connect

    Jennrich, J.

    1980-07-21

    LNG use in the U.S. may be less than previously anticipated, due to a U.S. Government policy which de-emphasizes reliance on imported fuels and to price disputes with suppliers, notably Algeria. According to the American Gas Association, the U.S. could be importing 3 trillion cu ft/yr of LNG by 2000, compared with the 1.8 trillion cu ft/yr in pipeline exports expected from Canada and Mexico. Of the three existing LNG import projects, the two run by El Paso Natural Gas Co. are suspended, due to a dispute with Algeria on whether the LNG price should match the price of crude oil at the point of shipment, or be set equivalent to the price of alternative fuels at the point of use. Distrigas Corp., Everett, Mass., continues to import LNG. The attitude of some U.S. agencies on LNG imports, factors, including Canadian and Mexican gas pricing, which enter into the LNG pricing dispute, and safety and investment decisions required if LNG imports are increased are discussed, and a checklist of LNG import projects in the U.S., with information on company, terminal, contract, delivery, number of ships, investment, and LNG cost is given.

  3. Field experiments on high expansion (HEX) foam application for controlling LNG pool fire.

    PubMed

    Suardin, Jaffee A; Wang, Yanjun; Willson, Mike; Mannan, M Sam

    2009-06-15

    Previous research suggests that high expansion foam with an expansion ratio of 500 to 1 is one of the best options for controlling liquefied natural gas (LNG) pool fire on land. However, its effectiveness heavily depends on the foam application rate, foam generator location, and the design of LNG spill containment dike. Examination of these factors is necessary to achieve the maximum benefit for applying HEX on LNG pool fires. While theoretical study of the effects of foam on LNG fires is important, the complicated phenomena involved in LNG pool fire and foam application increase the need for LNG field experimentation. Therefore, five LNG experiments were conducted at Texas A&M University's Brayton Fire Training Field. ANGUS FIRE provided Expandol solution to form 500 to 1 high expansion foam (HEX) and its latest LNG Turbex Fixed High Expansion Foam Generators. In this paper, data collected during five experiments are presented and analyzed. The effectiveness of high expansion foam for controlling LNG pool fires with various application rates at two different types of containment pits is discussed. LNG fire behaviors and the effects of dike wall height are also presented and discussed.

  4. Anti-aliasing filters for deriving high-accuracy DEMs from TLS data: A case study from Freeport, Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Lin.; Wang, Guoquan; Wessel, Paul

    2017-03-01

    Terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), also known as ground-based Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), has been frequently applied to build bare-earth digital elevation models (DEMs) for high-accuracy geomorphology studies. The point clouds acquired from TLS often achieve a spatial resolution at fingerprint (e.g., 3 cm×3 cm) to handprint (e.g., 10 cm×10 cm) level. A downsampling process has to be applied to decimate the massive point clouds and obtain manageable DEMs. It is well known that downsampling can result in aliasing that causes different signal components to become indistinguishable when the signal is reconstructed from the datasets with a lower sampling rate. Conventional DEMs are mainly the results of upsampling of sparse elevation measurements from land surveying, satellite remote sensing, and aerial photography. As a consequence, the effects of aliasing caused by downsampling have not been fully investigated in the open literature of DEMs. This study aims to investigate the spatial aliasing problem of regridding dense TLS data. The TLS data collected from the beach and dune area near Freeport, Texas in the summer of 2015 are used for this study. The core idea of the anti-aliasing procedure is to apply a low-pass spatial filter prior to conducting downsampling. This article describes the successful use of a fourth-order Butterworth low-pass spatial filter employed in the Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) software package as an anti-aliasing filter. The filter can be applied as an isotropic filter with a single cutoff wavelength or as an anisotropic filter with two different cutoff wavelengths in the X and Y directions. The cutoff wavelength for the isotropic filter is recommended to be three times the grid size of the target DEM.

  5. Investigation of propulsion system for large LNG ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, R. P.; Nik, Wan Mohd Norsani Wan

    2012-09-01

    Requirements to move away from coal for power generation has made LNG as the most sought after fuel source, raising steep demands on its supply and production. Added to this scenario is the gradual depletion of the offshore oil and gas fields which is pushing future explorations and production activities far away into the hostile environment of deep sea. Production of gas in such environment has great technical and commercial impacts on gas business. For instance, laying gas pipes from deep sea to distant receiving terminals will be technically and economically challenging. Alternative to laying gas pipes will require installing re-liquefaction unit on board FPSOs to convert gas into liquid for transportation by sea. But, then because of increased distance between gas source and receiving terminals the current medium size LNG ships will no longer remain economical to operate. Recognizing this business scenario shipowners are making huge investments in the acquisition of large LNG ships. As power need of large LNG ships is very different from the current small ones, a variety of propulsion derivatives such as UST, DFDE, 2-Stroke DRL and Combined cycle GT have been proposed by leading engine manufacturers. Since, propulsion system constitutes major element of the ship's capital and life cycle cost, which of these options is most suited for large LNG ships is currently a major concern of the shipping industry and must be thoroughly assessed. In this paper the authors investigate relative merits of these propulsion options against the benchmark performance criteria of BOG disposal, fuel consumption, gas emissions, plant availability and overall life cycle cost.

  6. Analysis of LNG import terminal release prevention systems

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, E G

    1982-04-01

    The release prevention systems of liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal were analyzed. A series of potential release scenarios were analyzed to determine the frequency of the release events, the probability these releases are not stopped or isolated by emergency shutdown systems, the estimated release quantities, and the critical components of the system. The two plant areas identified as being most significant with respect to safety are the unloading system and the storage system. Rupture of the main transfer line and gross failure of the storage tanks are the two release scenarios of primary safety interest. Reducing the rate of failure by improved design, better maintenance and testing, or adding redundancy of the critical system components for these plant areas and release scenarios will result in improved safety. Several design alternatives which have the potential to significantly reduce the probability of a large release of LNG occurring at an import terminal are identified. These design alternatives would reduce the probability of a large release of LNG by reducing the expected number of failures which could cause a release or by reducing the magnitude of releases that do occur. All of these alternatives are technically feasible and have been used or considered for use in at least one LNG facility. A more rigorous analysis of the absolute risk of LNG import terminal operation is necessary before the benefits of these design alternatives can be determined. In addition, an economic evaluation of these alternatives must be made so the costs and benefits can be compared. It is concludd that for remotely located facilities many of these alternatives are probably not justified; however, for facilities located in highly populated areas, these alternatives deserve serious consideration.

  7. Theoretical and experimental validation study on automotive air-conditioning based on heat pipe and LNG cold energy for LNG-fueled heavy vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Dong; Cheng, Jiang-ping; Zhang, Sheng-chang; Ge, Fang-gen

    2017-03-01

    As a clean fuel, LNG has been used in heavy vehicles widely in China. Before reaching the engine for combustion, LNG store in a high vacuum multi-layer thermal insulation tank and need to be evaporated from its cryogenic state to natural gas. During the evaporation, the available cold energy of LNG has been calculated. The concept has been proposed that the separated type heat pipe technology is employed to utilize the available cold energy for automotive air-conditioning. The experiment has been conducted to validate the proposal. It is found that it is feasible to use the separated type heat pipe to convey the cold energy from LNG to automotive air-conditioning. And the cooling capacity of the automotive air-conditioning increase with the LNG consumption and air flow rate increasing.

  8. Interim qualitative risk assessment for an LNG refueling station and review of relevant safety issues

    SciTech Connect

    Siu, N.; Herring, S.; Cadwallader, L.; Reece, W.; Byers, J.

    1997-07-01

    This report is a qualitative assessment of the public and worker risk involved with the operation of a liquefied natural (LNG) vehicle refueling facility. This study includes facility maintenance and operations, tanker truck delivers and end-use vehicle fueling; it does not treat the risks of LNG vehicles on roadways. Accident initiating events are identified by using a Master Logic Diagram, a Failure Modes and Effects analysis and historical operating experiences. The event trees were drawn to depict possible sequences of mitigating events following the initiating events. The phenomenology of LNG and other vehicle fuels is discussed to characterize the hazard posed by LNG usage. Based on the risk modeling and analysis, recommendations are given to improve the safety of LNG refueling stations in the areas of procedures and training, station design, and the dissemination of best practice information throughout the LNG community.

  9. Qualitative Risk Assessment for an LNG Refueling Station and Review of Relevant Safety Issues

    SciTech Connect

    Siu, N.; Herring, J.S.; Cadwallader, L.; Reece, W.; Byers, J.

    1998-02-01

    This report is a qualitative assessment of the public and worker risk involved with the operation of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle refueling facility. This study includes facility maintenance and operations, tank truck deliveries, and end-use vehicle fueling; it does not treat the risks of LNG vehicles on roadways. Accident initiating events are identified by using a Master Logic Diagram, a Failure Modes and Effects Analysis, and historical operating experiences. The event trees were drawn to depict possible sequences of mitigating events following the initiating events. The phenomenology of LNG and other vehicle fuels is discussed to characterize the hazard posed by LNG usage. Based on the risk modeling and analysis, recommendations are given to improve the safety of LNG refueling stations in the areas of procedures and training, station design, and the dissemination of ``best practice`` information throughout the LNG community.

  10. A review of large-scale LNG spills: experiments and modeling.

    PubMed

    Luketa-Hanlin, Anay

    2006-05-20

    The prediction of the possible hazards associated with the storage and transportation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) by ship has motivated a substantial number of experimental and analytical studies. This paper reviews the experimental and analytical work performed to date on large-scale spills of LNG. Specifically, experiments on the dispersion of LNG, as well as experiments of LNG fires from spills on water and land are reviewed. Explosion, pool boiling, and rapid phase transition (RPT) explosion studies are described and discussed, as well as models used to predict dispersion and thermal hazard distances. Although there have been significant advances in understanding the behavior of LNG spills, technical knowledge gaps to improve hazard prediction are identified. Some of these gaps can be addressed with current modeling and testing capabilities. A discussion of the state of knowledge and recommendations to further improve the understanding of the behavior of LNG spills on water is provided.

  11. A review of large-scale LNG spills : experiment and modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine

    2005-04-01

    The prediction of the possible hazards associated with the storage and transportation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) by ship has motivated a substantial number of experimental and analytical studies. This paper reviews the experimental and analytical work performed to date on large-scale spills of LNG. Specifically, experiments on the dispersion of LNG, as well as experiments of LNG fires from spills on water and land are reviewed. Explosion, pool boiling, and rapid phase transition (RPT) explosion studies are described and discussed, as well as models used to predict dispersion and thermal hazard distances. Although there have been significant advances in understanding the behavior of LNG spills, technical knowledge gaps to improve hazard prediction are identified. Some of these gaps can be addressed with current modeling and testing capabilities. A discussion of the state of knowledge and recommendations to further improve the understanding of the behavior of LNG spills on water is provided.

  12. Insulating LNG (liquified natural gas) storage tank containment dikes with a lightweight polymer concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Fontana, J.J.

    1987-08-01

    The natural gas industry has always been concerned ith accidental spills of liquified natural gas (LNG) from storage tanks into surrounding containment dikes. The LNG that is leaked to the dike area boils off and the vapors mix with the atmosphere forming a hazardous explsoive mixture within the dike walls. These hazardous mixtures can travel long distances into industrial or residential areas surroungind LNG storage facilities. Studies by the natural gas industry indicate that the hazards associated with accidental spills of LNG from storage tanks can be makedly reduced by insulating the diked areas surrounding these tanks. In this manner, the heat transfer from the dike surface to the LNG is reduced. The insulating composite is used to construct a thermal barrier between the walls and floor of the dike an the spilled LNG. The thermal conductivity, porosity, and compression strength of a concrete, polymer composite insulating material is discussed. 6 refs., 8 figs., 5 tbs.

  13. Service experience with 125,000-m/sup 3/ LNG vessels of spherical-tank design

    SciTech Connect

    Cuneo, J.J.; Gilmore, G.A.; Tornay, E.G.

    1980-01-01

    Serving the Indonesia-Japan LNG project - the largest now in operation - are eight spherical-tank-design vessels (seven dedicated) with capacities of 125,000 m/sup 3/ carrying over 8 million tons of LNG annually. Details are presented on the project's development and start-up, the vessels' construction and design, the preparations involved in placing the ships in service (including extensive crew training and proper outfitting), the gas-trials procedures used, the voyage characteristics, and the improvements made to the vessels based on their service experience (including the relocation of the discharge-line check valves, extension of the tank fill lines, modification of the pump motor insulations, and several other changes made to the cargo and ballast system components, the main reduction-gear lube-oil spray system, and the boilers' internal components). The cargo control-system design and the reliability of the electronic control systems have proved to be the most critical factors affecting the LNG tankers' performance.

  14. LANDFILL GAS CONVERSION TO LNG AND LCO{sub 2}. PHASE 1, FINAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD MARCH 1998-FEBRUARY 1999

    SciTech Connect

    COOK,W.J.; NEYMAN,M.; SIWAJEK,L.A.; BROWN,W.R.; VAN HAUWAERT,P.M.; CURREN,E.D.

    1998-02-25

    Process designs and economics were developed to produce LNG and liquid carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from landfill gas (LFG) using the Acrion CO{sub 2} wash process. The patented Acrion CO{sub 2} wash process uses liquid CO{sub 2} to absorb contaminants from the LFG. The process steps are compression, drying, CO{sub 2} wash contaminant removal and CO{sub 2} recovery, residual CO{sub 2} removal and methane liquefaction. Three flowsheets were developed using different residual CO{sub 2} removal schemes. These included physical solvent absorption (methanol), membranes and molecular sieves. The capital and operating costs of the flowsheets were very similar. The LNG production cost was around ten cents per gallon. In parallel with process flowsheet development, the business aspects of an eventual commercial project have been explored. The process was found to have significant potential commercial application. The business plan effort investigated the economics of LNG transportation, fueling, vehicle conversion, and markets. The commercial value of liquid CO{sub 2} was also investigated. This Phase 1 work, March 1998 through February 1999, was funded under Brookhaven National laboratory contract 725089 under the research program entitled ``Liquefied Natural Gas as a Heavy Vehicle Fuel.'' The Phase 2 effort will develop flowsheets for the following: (1) CO{sub 2} and pipeline gas production, with the pipeline methane being liquefied at a peak shaving site, (2) sewage digester gas as an alternate feedstock to LFG and (3) the use of mixed refrigerants for process cooling. Phase 2 will also study the modification of Acrion's process demonstration unit for the production of LNG and a market site for LNG production.

  15. Investigation of the Feasibility of a Superconducting Self-Healing DC Grid on a LNG Carrier

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-21

    Investigation of the feasibility of a Superconducting “self-healing” DC Grid on a LNG Carrier P. Katsiroumpas, D. Spathis, S. Dallas & J...implementation of superconducting (SC) Direct Current Power Distribution on the power grid of a LNG Carrier. In the first part of the paper, the state of the...Liquefied Natural Gas ( LNG ) Carriers has evolved to the recognition of the favorable characteristics of the Superconducting Direct Current (DC

  16. Cove Point: A step back into the LNG business

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, M.G.

    1995-12-31

    In 1978, ships began unloading LNG from Algeria at Cove Point`s berthing facilities 1.25 miles offshore. An underwater pipeline transported the LNG to land, where it was stored in the terminal`s four 140-foot-high cryogenic storage tanks. When the LNG was needed, the terminals 10 vaporizers converted it back to gas for send out via an 87-mile-long, 36-inch-diameter pipeline linking the terminal with interstate pipelines of CNG Transmission Corp. and Columbia Gas Transmission Corp. in Loudon County, Va. But Cove Point handled only about 80 shiploads of LNG before shutting down in December 1980, after a dispute about gas prices between US customers and Algeria. The plant sat dormant until the natural gas industry`s deregulation under Order 636. Deregulation resulted in major pipelines abandoning their sales service, and gas distributors and large customers found it was now their obligation to ensure that they had adequate gas supplies during winter peak-demand periods. Enter Cove Point`s peaking capabilities. They had to add the liquefaction unit and recommission other parts of the plant, but the timing was right. Cove Point`s new liquefaction unit is liquefying about 15 million cubic feet (MMcf) of LNG per day of domestic gas. It chills the gas to {minus}260 degrees Fahrenheit to turn it into a liquid for injection and storage in one of the facility`s double-walled insulated tanks. During its initial injection season, which ends Dec. 15, Cove Point is expected to produce enough LNG to almost fill one tank, which can store up to 1.25 billion cubic feet (Bcf). Were the gas not intended for peak-shaving purposes, it would be enough to supply 14,000 homes for a year. As it is, most of the gas will be returned as pipeline gas, during next January and February`s expected cold snaps, to the utilities and users who supplied it. Cove Point`s initial daily sendout capacity is about 400 MMcf.

  17. The role of consequence modeling in LNG facility siting.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Dennis W

    2007-04-11

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) project modeling focuses on two primary issues, facility siting and the physical layout of element spacing. Modeling often begins with an analysis of these issues, while ensuring code compliance and sound engineering practice. The most commonly performed analysis involves verifying compliance with the siting provisions of NFPA 59A, which primarily concern property-line spacing (offsite hazard impacts). If the facility is located in the US, compliance with 49 CFR 193 is also required. Other consequence modeling is often performed to determine the spacing of elements within the facility (onsite hazard impacts). Often, many issues concerning in-plant spacing are addressed with the guidance provided in Europe's LNG standard, EN-1473. Spacing of plant buildings in relation to process areas is also a concern as analyzed using the approach given in API RP 752. Studies may also include probabilistic analysis, depending on the perceived risk and cost of mitigation.

  18. Users, utilities ask rejection of high-cost Algerian LNG

    SciTech Connect

    Galvin, C.

    1982-09-13

    Recent purchases of expensive Algerian liquefied natural gas (LNG) by the Panhandle Eastern Pipeline Co. will increase rates for industrial customers 8 to 25%. Four midwest utilities protested to federal regulatory agencies and expressed their concerns that the new rate increases will lead to additional fuel switching, and argued that the Algerian gas is not needed. While originally supportive of the Algerian purchase, the utilities argue that the timing is wrong now because of adequate supplies. (DCK)

  19. CFD Modeling of LNG Spill: Humidity Effect on Vapor Dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannissi, S. G.; Venetsanos, A. G.; Markatos, N.

    2015-09-01

    The risks entailed by an accidental spill of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) should be indentified and evaluated, in order to design measures for prevention and mitigation in LNG terminals. For this purpose, simulations are considered a useful tool to study LNG spills and to understand the mechanisms that influence the vapor dispersion. In the present study, the ADREA-HF CFD code is employed to simulate the TEEX1 experiment. The experiment was carried out at the Brayton Fire Training Field, which is affiliated with the Texas A&M University system and involves LNG release and dispersion over water surface in open- obstructed environment. In the simulation the source was modeled as a two-phase jet enabling the prediction of both the vapor dispersion and the liquid pool spreading. The conservation equations for the mixture are solved along with the mass fraction for natural gas. Due to the low prevailing temperatures during the spill ambient humidity condenses and this might affect the vapor dispersion. This effect was examined in this work by solving an additional conservation equation for the water mass fraction. Two different models were tested: the hydrodynamic equilibrium model which assumes kinetic equilibrium between the phases and the non hydrodynamic equilibrium model, in order to assess the effect of slip velocity on the prediction. The slip velocity is defined as the difference between the liquid phase and the vapor phase and is calculated using the algebraic slip model. Constant droplet diameter of three different sizes and a lognormal distribution of the droplet diameter were applied and the results are discussed and compared with the measurements.

  20. Comparison of hypothetical LNG and fuel oil fires on water.

    PubMed

    Lehr, William; Simecek-Beatty, Debra

    2004-02-27

    Large spills of refined petroleum products have been an occasional occurrence over the past few decades. This has not been true for large spills of liquefied natural gas (LNG). This paper compares the likely similarities and differences between accidental releases from a ship of sizable quantities of these different hydrocarbon fuels, their subsequent spreading, and possible pool-fire behavior. Quantitative estimates are made of the spread rate and maximum slick size, burn rate, and duration; effective thermal radiation; and subsequent soot generation.

  1. United states regulations for siting LNG terminals: problems and potential.

    PubMed

    Havens, Jerry; Spicer, Tom

    2007-02-20

    The regulations being applied to liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal siting in the United States are reviewed. There are no requirements for exclusion zones to protect the public from LNG spills onto water. Serious problems with current practices used to determine exclusion zones on the land-based part of the facility are identified. Many of the questions that are considered relate to the use of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models, which appear to offer the best potential for realistic modeling to determine vapor cloud exclusion zones that result from LNG spills into impounded areas with or without dispersion in the presence of other obstacles to the wind flow. Failure to use CFD models, which are already approved by the regulation, and continued use of practices which have been demonstrated to be in error, raises important questions of credibility as well as denies the applicant full use of scientific tools that are available to optimize the design of such facilities so as to best provide for safety of the public.

  2. 75 FR 353 - AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC and Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-05

    ... Final General Conformity Determination for Maryland for the Proposed Sparrows Point LNG Terminal and...) import terminal and natural gas pipeline proposed by AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC and Mid-Atlantic Express... following LNG terminal and natural gas pipeline facilities: A ship unloading facility, with two...

  3. 75 FR 11169 - AES Sparrows Point LNG, LLC; Mid-Atlantic Express, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Revised...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Sparrows Point LNG Terminal and Pipeline Project March 1, 2010. The staff of the Federal Energy Regulatory... operation of a liquefied natural gas (LNG) import terminal and natural gas pipeline proposed by AES Sparrows... LNG terminal and natural gas pipeline facilities: A ship unloading facility, with two berths,...

  4. 77 FR 32962 - Gulf Coast LNG Export, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Domestically...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... Coast LNG Export, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Domestically Produced Liquefied... application (Application), filed on January 10, 2012, by Gulf Coast LNG Export, LLC (Gulf Coast), requesting long-term, multi-contract authorization to export domestically produced liquefied natural gas (LNG)...

  5. 18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas facilities prior to filing of... review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas facilities prior to filing of applications. (a) LNG terminal facilities and related jurisdictional natural gas facilities. A...

  6. 33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165.1709 Section...: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a... navigable waters within a 1000-yard radius of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) tankers during their...

  7. 78 FR 17189 - Trunkline LNG Export, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization to Export Liquefied Natural...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-20

    ... Trunkline LNG Export, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization to Export Liquefied Natural Gas Produced... January 10, 2013, by Trunkline LNG Export, LLC (TLNG Export), requesting long-term, multi-contract authorization to export domestically produced liquefied natural gas (LNG) in an amount up to of 15...

  8. 77 FR 277 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P; Notice of Availability of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P; Notice of... Sabine Pass LNG, L.P. (collectively referred to as Sabine Pass) in the above-referenced docket. Sabine... exportation of natural gas at the existing Sabine Pass LNG Import Terminal in Cameron Parish, Louisiana....

  9. 78 FR 38024 - Magnolia LNG, LLC; Liquefied Natural Gas Limited; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Magnolia LNG, LLC; Liquefied Natural Gas Limited; Notice of Intent To...) that will discuss the environmental impacts of the Magnolia Liquefied Natural Gas Project (Magnolia LNG Project) involving construction and operation of facilities by Magnolia LNG, LLC (Magnolia) in...

  10. 78 FR 66909 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application to Amend...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-07

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application... Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P. (collectively, Sabine Pass), 700 Milam Street... No. CP13-2 on August 2, 2013, in order to increase the total LNG production capacity of...

  11. 78 FR 62344 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction Expansion, LLC, Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC, and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-18

    ... Sabine Pass LNG, L.P., Cheniere Creole Trail Pipeline, L.P.; Notice of Application Take notice that on... LNG, L.P. (collectively referred to as Sabine Pass) filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory..., construct, and operate additional liquefied natural gas (LNG) export facilities at the Sabine Pass...

  12. 76 FR 76698 - Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Application To Export Domestic Liquefied Natural Gas to Non-Free...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ...] [FR Doc No: 2011-31518] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY [FE Docket No. 11-128-LNG] Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP..., by Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP (DCP), requesting long- term, multi-contract authorization to export up to 7.82 million metric tons per year of domestically produced liquefied natural gas...

  13. 77 FR 65546 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Petition To Amend Authorizations...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Petition To... Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P. (collectively, Sabine Pass), 700 Milam Street, Suite... and operate certain related facilities (Modification Project) at the existing Sabine Pass LNG...

  14. 78 FR 47691 - UGI, Inc.; Notice of Intent to Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Temple LNG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... Proposed Temple LNG Liquefaction Upgrade and Request for Comments on Environmental Issues The staff of the...) that will discuss the environmental impacts of the Temple LNG Liquefaction Upgrade involving construction and operation of facilities by UGI, Inc. (UGI) at its Temple liquefied natural gas (LNG)...

  15. 78 FR 42587 - Deepwater Port License: Amendment of the Neptune LNG LLC Deepwater Port License and Temporary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... Maritime Administration Deepwater Port License: Amendment of the Neptune LNG LLC Deepwater Port License and Temporary Suspension of Operations at the Neptune LNG Deepwater Port AGENCY: Maritime Administration... Administration (MarAd) provides public notice of its decision to approve the request of Neptune LNG LLC...

  16. 76 FR 9573 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Application Take notice that on January 31, 2011, Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P... (Liquefaction Project) at the existing Sabine Pass LNG Terminal, located in Cameron Parish, Louisiana....

  17. 75 FR 57269 - Southern LNG Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Southern LNG Company, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed LNG Truck Loading Project and Request for Comments on Environmental Issues, and... environmental impacts of the LNG Truck Loading Project involving construction and operation of facilities...

  18. 77 FR 59601 - Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental... and operation of facilities by Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP (Dominion) in Maryland and Virginia. This... 717b, DOE would authorize the export of natural gas, including liquefied natural gas (LNG),...

  19. 78 FR 25432 - Sabine Pass LNG, L.P., Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Notice of Availability of the Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass LNG, L.P., Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC; Notice of Availability... Sabine Pass Sabine Pass LNG, L.P. and Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC (Sabine Pass) in the above-referenced... construction at the existing Sabine Pass LNG terminal in Cameron Parish, Louisiana. The EA assesses...

  20. 75 FR 61475 - Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Cameron LNG, LLC; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Cameron LNG Export Project and Request for Comments on Environmental Issues September... environmental assessment (EA) that will discuss the environmental impacts of the Cameron LNG Export...

  1. 40 CFR Table W - 5 of Subpart W-Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage W Table W Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-5 Table W-5 of Subpart W—Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage LNG storage Emission factor...

  2. 33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165.1709 Section...: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a... and outbound transits through Cook Inlet, Alaska between the Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40′43″...

  3. 33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165.1709 Section...: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a... and outbound transits through Cook Inlet, Alaska between the Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40′43″...

  4. 33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165.1709 Section...: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a... and outbound transits through Cook Inlet, Alaska between the Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40′43″...

  5. 33 CFR 165.1709 - Security Zones: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. 165.1709 Section...: Liquefied Natural Gas Tanker Transits and Operations at Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, Cook Inlet, AK. (a... and outbound transits through Cook Inlet, Alaska between the Phillips Petroleum LNG Pier, 60°40′43″...

  6. 76 FR 78188 - Reconsideration of Letters of Recommendation for Waterfront Facilities Handling LNG and LHG

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Waterfront Facilities Handling LNG and LHG AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking... natural gas (LNG) or liquefied hazardous gas (LHG) marine traffic. It also proposes a separate process for... the Port DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register LHG Liquefied hazardous gas...

  7. 76 FR 40723 - Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Notice of Technical Conference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP; Notice of Technical Conference On May 27, 2011, pursuant to section 4 of the Natural Gas Act (NGA), Dominion Cove Point LNG, LP (Cove Point) filed...

  8. High-expansion foam for LNG vapor mitigation. Topical report, September 1987-December 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Atallah, S.; Shah, J.N.; Peterlinz, M.E.

    1990-05-01

    One of the purposes of these high expansion foam systems is to reduce the extent of the hazardous vapor cloud generated during an accidental LNG release. Should the LNG ignite, these systems serve the additional function of controlling the LNG fire and minimizing its radiation to the surroundings. Foam generators have been installed along the tops of dike walls surrounding some LNG storage tanks, and around other fenced containment areas where LNG may be accidentally released, such as LNG pump pits and pipe rack trenches. To date there are no technically justifiable guidelines for the design and installation of these systems. Furthermore, there are no models that may be used describe the vapor source so as to be able to predict the reduction in the hazardous vapor cloud zone when high expansion foam is applied to an LNG spill. Information is essential not only for the optimal design of high expansion foam systems, but also for comparing the cost effectiveness of alternative LNG vapor mitigation measures.

  9. Alternative Fuel Transit Buses: DART's (Dallas Area Rapid Transit) LNG Bus Fleet Final Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chandler, K.; Norton, P.; Clark, N.

    2000-11-07

    In 1998, Dallas Area Rapid Transit, a public transit agency in Dallas, Texas, began operating a large fleet of heavy-duty buses powered by liquefied natural gas. As part of a $16 million commitment to alternative fuels, DART operates 139 LNG buses serviced by two new LNG fueling stations.

  10. The potential for LNG as a railroad fuel in the U.S.

    SciTech Connect

    Fritz, S.G.

    2000-01-01

    Freight railroad operations in the US represent a substantial opportunity for liquefied natural gas (LNG) to displace diesel fuel. With the promise of achieving an overwhelming economic advantage over diesel fuel, this paper presents some discussion to the question, ``Why is the application of LNG for railroad use in the US moving so slowly?'' A brief overview of the freight railroad operations in the US is given, along with a summary of several railroad LNG demonstration projects. US Environmental Protection Agency and California Air Resources Board exhaust emission regulations may cause the railroad industry to move from small-scale LNG demonstration projects to using LNG as a primary freight railroad transportation fuel in selected regions or route-specific applications.

  11. Isotopic evidence for the source of sulfur in the Upper Freeport coal bed (west-central Pennsylvania, U.S.A.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spiker, E. C.; Pierce, B.S.; Bates, A.L.; Stanton, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Sulfur isotopic variations were used to determine the sources of sulfur in a medium-sulfur coal (???2 wt%S) that lacked marine influence, which is often cited as a major source of sulfur in coal. Variations in the amount and isotopic composition of the organic and pyritic sulfur among the coal-bed facies of the Upper Freeport coal bed (Middle Pennsylvanian) are attributed to differential incorporation of syngenetic and epigenetic sulfur. These variations reflect varying environmental conditions during paleopeat formation, porosity and permeability, and the availability of sulfate and iron. A large increase in the abundance and sulfur isotopic value of pyritic sulfur in the upper facies of the coal bed, in proximity to the overlying lacustrine shale, corresponds to an increase in massive and irregular forms of pyrite. This relationship is attributed to at least two stages of epigenetic pyrite incorporation. An early stage of epigenetic pyrite, moderately enriched in 34S, apparently formed during the fluvial-lacustrine period immediately following peat accumulation. A late stage of epigenetic pyrite, highly enriched in 34S, formed after compaction of the original peat as cleat- and fracture-filling pyrite; this sulfur was probably derived from bacterial reduction of dissolved sulfate in groundwater. Isotopic mass-balance calculations indicate that this late-stage epigenetic pyrite may account for up to ???50% of the pyritic sulfur in some upper facies of the coal bed. These results suggest that most of the pyritic sulfur in the Upper Freeport coal bed may be epigenetic, incorporated either soon after peat accumulation or later during coalification. ?? 1994.

  12. The expression of Longus type 4 pilus of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli is regulated by LngR and LngS and by H-NS, CpxR and CRP global regulators.

    PubMed

    De la Cruz, Miguel A; Ruiz-Tagle, Alejandro; Ares, Miguel A; Pacheco, Sabino; Yáñez, Jorge A; Cedillo, Lilia; Torres, Javier; Girón, Jorge A

    2016-12-10

    Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli produces a long type 4 pilus called Longus. The regulatory elements and the environmental signals controlling the expression of Longus-encoding genes are unknown. We identified two genes lngR and lngS in the Longus operon, whose predicted products share homology with transcriptional regulators. Isogenic lngR and lngS mutants were considerably affected in transcription of lngA pilin gene. The expression of lngA, lngR and lngS genes was optimally expressed at 37°C at pH 7.5. The presence of glucose and sodium chloride had a positive effect on Longus expression. The presence of divalent ions, particularly calcium, appears to be an important stimulus for Longus production. In addition, we studied H-NS, CpxR and CRP global regulators, on Longus expression. The response regulator CpxR appears to function as a positive regulator of lng genes as the cpxR mutant showed reduced levels of lngRSA expression. In contrast, H-NS and CRP function as negative regulators since expression of lngA was up-regulated in isogenic hns and crp mutants. H-NS and CRP were required for salt- and glucose-mediated regulation of Longus. Our data suggest the existence of a complex regulatory network controlling Longus expression, involving both local and global regulators in response to different environmental signals.

  13. Feasibility study on Thailand LNG project. Final report. Volume 2. Appendix. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This study, conducted by Bechtel, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report specifically addresses an LNG terminal and associated gas pipeline, the crude oil pipeline component of the Southern Seaboard project, in addition to a power plant which uses a portion of the gas. Volume II contains the Appendix and is divided into the following sections: (1.0) PTT Data; (2.0) Design Criteria; (3.0) Khao Bo Ya Soils Data; (4.0) Khao Bo Ya Oceanographic Data; (5.0) Thailand Seismic Data; (6.0) Risk Assessment; (7.0) Equipment Lists; (8.0) Equipment Data Sheets; (9.0) Drawings; (10.0) Cost Data; (11.0) Calculations; (12.0) Terms of Reference.

  14. Emerging indications for the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS).

    PubMed

    Heikinheimo, Oskari; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    The levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS), originally designed for long-term contraceptive use, has been on the Scandinavian market for approximately 20 years. Novel clinical indications for the LNG-IUS, derived mainly from investigator-initiated studies, are emerging. These include heavy menstrual bleeding associated with uterine fibroids, endometriosis, adenomyosis, as well as endometrial hyperplasia. In both cohort and randomized studies, the LNG-IUS is effective in decreasing heavy menstrual bleeding, also in women diagnosed with uterine fibroids. In randomized studies the LNG-IUS has shown comparable clinical efficacy to GnRH analogues or progestins for the symptomatic treatment of endometriosis. Experience with LNG-IUS in adenomyosis is based on prospective cohort studies. Dysmenorrhea has been reported to decrease in all women, and uterine volume was seen to diminish in some of these studies. In the treatment of endometrial hyperplasias, including atypical hyperplasia, the LNG-IUS is equal or superior to treatment with systemic progestins. Further studies are needed to examine the full potential of the LNG-IUS in such common clinical situations.

  15. Modeling the release, spreading, and burning of LNG, LPG, and gasoline on water.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David W; Cornwell, John B

    2007-02-20

    Current interest in the shipment of liquefied natural gas (LNG) has renewed the debate about the safety of shipping large volumes of flammable fuels. The size of a spreading pool following a release of LNG from an LNG tank ship has been the subject of numerous papers and studies dating back to the mid-1970s. Several papers have presented idealized views of how the LNG would be released and spread across a quiescent water surface. There is a considerable amount of publicly available material describing these idealized releases, but little discussion of how other flammable fuels would behave if released from similar sized ships. The purpose of this paper is to determine whether the models currently available from the United States Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) can be used to simulate the release, spreading, vaporization, and pool fire impacts for materials other than LNG, and if so, identify which material-specific parameters are required. The review of the basic equations and principles in FERC's LNG release, spreading, and burning models did not reveal a critical fault that would prevent their use in evaluating the consequences of other flammable fluid releases. With the correct physical data, the models can be used with the same level of confidence for materials such as LPG and gasoline as they are for LNG.

  16. Thermodynamic and heat transfer analysis of LNG energy recovery for power production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, A.; Casarosa, C.

    2014-11-01

    An important option to transport the gas is to convert it into liquid natural gas (LNG) and convey it using insulated LNG tankers. At receiving terminals, the LNG is offloaded into storage tanks and then pumped at the required pressure and vaporized for final transmission to the pipeline. The LNG production process consumes a considerable amount of energy, while the cold availability, as also known as cold energy, has been stored in LNG. At a receiving terminal, LNG needs to be evaporated into gas at environmental temperature before fed into the gas distribution system. Seawater is commonly used for the regasification process of the LNG. In the present paper, after a general analysis of the perspectives of the various thermodynamic schemes proposed for power production from the regasification, a detailed analysis of enhanced direct expansion system is carried out in order to identify the upper level of the energy that can be recovered. The analysis outlines that power production typical of optimized ORC plant configurations (120 kJ/kg) can be obtained with direct expansion solutions.

  17. The effects of refueling system operating pressure on LNG and CNG economics

    SciTech Connect

    Corless, A.J.; Barclay, J.A.

    1996-12-31

    Natural gas (NG) liquefaction and compression are energy intensive processes which make up a significant portion of the overall delivered price of liquefied NG (LNG) and compressed NG (CNG). Increases in system efficiency and/or process changes which reduce the required amount of work will improve the overall economics of NG as a vehicle fuel. This paper describes a method of reducing the delivered cost of LNG by liquefying the gas above ambient pressures. Higher pressure LNG is desirable because OEM NG engine manufacturers would like NG delivered to the engine intake manifold at elevated pressures to avoid compromising engine performance. Producing LNG at higher pressures reduces the amount of work required for liquefaction but it is only practical when the LNG is liquefied on-site. Using a thermo-economic approach, it is shown that NG fuel costs can be reduced by as much as 10% when producing LNG at higher pressures. A reduction in the delivered cost is also demonstrated for CNG produced on-site from high pressure LNG.

  18. Enabling a viable technique for the optimization of LNG carrier cargo operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alaba, Onakoya Rasheed; Nwaoha, T. C.; Okwu, M. O.

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we optimize the loading and discharging operations of the Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) carrier. First, we identify the required precautions for LNG carrier cargo operations. Next, we prioritize these precautions using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) and experts' judgments, in order to optimize the operational loading and discharging exercises of the LNG carrier, prevent system failure and human error, and reduce the risk of marine accidents. Thus, the objective of our study is to increase the level of safety during cargo operations.

  19. Analysis of crack propagation and arrest in welded LNG (liquefied natural gas) storage tanks. Final report, March 1984-October 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Kanninen, M.F.; Dexter, R.J.; Polch, E.Z.; Popelar, C.H.

    1986-12-31

    The extensive safe-operating experience that has been accumulated in LNG storage tanks is strongly indicative of a high degree of structural integrity. Nevertheless, concern has arisen with regard to the presence of weld-induced fabrication flaws in these tanks. When such flaws exist, it may not be possible to preclude the initiation of unstable crack growth during operation. However, if it can be shown that the material has the ability to arrest a running crack, an adequate margin of safety can still be demonstrated. A comprehensive program of experimentation was undertaken in companion programs to develop the crack-arrest properties that are needed for such a demonstration. But, because the 9% nickel steel used for LNG tank materials is very ductile and tough, its fracture properties are not well characterized by the quasi-static linear elastic-fracture-mechanics techniques available to these researchers. The research was therefore aimed at assisting the experimental work by providing more-realistic dynamic and nonlinear fracture-mechanics analyses. These analyses were intended to enhance the experimental program and to help insure that the results of the research are appropriate for the assessment of LNG storage-tank integrity. Specifically, the application of these advanced analysis techniques has demonstrated the mildly anticonservative nature of conventional fracture-mechanics treatments for the materials and structural geometry of interest. Nevertheless, provided a defected region in a storage tank is not overly large, the tank materials examined in this research possess high-enough-crack arrest toughness values to preclude complete tank rupture.

  20. LNG costs reflect changes in economy and technology

    SciTech Connect

    DiNapoli, R.N.

    1983-04-01

    Compared with 1975 data, the economics and technology of today's baseload liquefaction plants call for sharply higher capital costs due to worldwide inflation and design changes. Two major trends are evident in process design: increased liquefaction train capacity reduces the capital investment while more efficient refrigeration and power generation cycles cut plant fuel consumption. Safety devices in storage tank design have had the biggest economic impact. Both the double integrity and spherical tank designs increased installed storage costs by 100% or more over the cost of older single-containment, double-wall tanks. Other safety and design features, such as full hydrostatic testing of the inner tank and the use of intank pumps, further added to the installed tank cost. New concepts in plant design philosophy involve floating and bargemounted plants as a means of reducing costs associated with field construction in remote and hostile environments. Coupling the updated cost data with new information for LNG shipping permits rapid estimation of total facility costs (liquefaction, shipping, and regasification) for an entire baseload LNG project.

  1. Steady-state and dynamic simulation study on boil-off gas minimization and recovery strategies at LNG exporting terminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurle, Yogesh

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) is becoming one of the prominent clean energy sources with its abundance, high calorific value, low emission, and price. Vapors generated from LNG due to heat leak are called boil-off gas (BOG). As world-wide LNG productions are increasing fast, BOG generation and handling problems are becoming more critical. Also, due to stringent environmental regulations, flaring of BOG is not a viable option. In this study, typical Propane-and-Mixed-Refrigerant (C3-MR) process, storage facilities, and loading facilities are modeled and simulated to study BOG generation at LNG exporting terminals, including LNG processing, storage, and berth loading areas. Factors causing BOG are presented, and quantities of BOG generated due to each factor at each location are calculated under different LNG temperatures. Various strategies to minimize, recover, and reuse BOG are also studied for their feasibility and energy requirements. Rate of BOG generation during LNG loading---Jetty BOG (JBOG)---changes significantly with loading time. In this study, LNG vessel loading is simulated using dynamic process simulation software to obtain JBOG generation profile and to study JBOG recovery strategies. Also, fuel requirements for LNG plant to run steam-turbine driven compressors and gas-turbine driven compressors are calculated. Handling of JBOG generated from multiple loadings is also considered. The study would help proper handling of BOG problems in terms of minimizing flaring at LNG exporting terminals, and thus reducing waste, saving energy, and protecting surrounding environments.

  2. Effects of fabrication flaws on crack initiation and arrest properties of 9% nickel steel used in LNG (liquefied natural gas) storage tanks. Final report, March 1982-December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, C.R.; Marschall, C.; Nakagaki, M.; Wilkowski, G.; Smith, R.

    1986-03-01

    During LNG tank construction, weld discontinuities (flaws) are sometimes unintentionally produced within welded joints. The project was part of an international effort to assess the effects of these discontinuities upon crack-initiation propagation, and arrest in 9 percent nickel steel. This was undertaken because doubt persists regarding whether sufficient testing of 9% nickel has been carried out to assure LNG tank safety. In order to accomplish the goals of the project, the research included (1) the preparation of a bibliography detailing the discontinuities commonly associated with welding, (2) conducting parent plate characterization tests, (3) development of methods for the laboratory production of weld flaws, (4) performance of crack arrest tests, and (5) an assessment of the effect of different weld heat inputs on the fracture energy of standard Charpy V-notch specimens.

  3. Guidance on Biogas used to Produce CNG or LNG under the Renewable Fuel Standard Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    provides guidance on biogas quailty and RIN generation when biogas is injected into a commercial pipeline for use in producing renewable compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) under the Renewable Fuel Standard.

  4. Conversion of Coal Mine Gas to LNG

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2016-02-05

    This project evolved from a 1995, DOE-NETL competitive solicitation for practical CMM capture and utilization concepts. Appalachian Pacific was one of three companies selected to proceed with the construction and operation of a cost-shared demonstration plant. In the course of trying to proceed with this demonstration plant, AP examined several liquefaction technologies, discussed obtaining rights to coal mine methane with a number of coal companies, explored marketing potential with a wide variety of customers in many sections of the United States, studied in great detail the impact of a carbon credit exchange, and developed a suite of analytical tools with which to evaluate possible project options. In the end, the newness of the product, reluctance on the part of the coal companies to venture away from time tested practices, difficulty with obtaining financing, the failure of a carbon credit market to develop and the emergence of shale derived gas production prevented a demonstration plant from being built.

  5. Effects of LNG-IUS on nerve growth factor and its receptors expression in patients with adenomyosis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young Sik; Cho, Sihyun; Lim, Kyung Jin; Jeon, Young Eun; Yang, Hyo In; Lee, Kyung Eun; Heena, Kamdar; Seo, Seok Kyo; Kim, Hye Yeon; Lee, Byung Seok

    2010-12-01

    The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) is effective in the treatment of dysmenorrhea associated with adenomyosis. However, the mechanism of pain relief of LNG-IUS in patients with adenomyosis is unclear. We aimed to investigate the effects of LNG-IUS on the expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) and its receptors, NGFR p75 and TrkA in patients with adenomyosis. Endometrial and myometrial tissues were prepared from 17 LNG-IUS-treated patients and 15 hormonally untreated patients who had undergone hysterectomies for adenomyosis. Immunohistochemistry with antibodies against NGF, NGFR p75, and TrkA, was performed. The expression of NGF, NGFR p75, and TrkA in endometrium and myometrium of LNG-IUS-treated patients was significantly decreased compared to those of hormonally untreated patients. Our findings may indicate that the suppression of NGF and its receptors by LNG-IUS is another possible mechanism of relieving pain in patients with adenomyosis.

  6. Best available practices for lng fueling of fleet vehicles. Topical report, March-November 1995, tasks 85 and 86

    SciTech Connect

    Midgett, D.E.

    1996-02-01

    The report provides essential information on the design and operation of liquefied natural gas (LNG) fueling stations for fleet vehicles. The report serves to evaluate current practices in LNG fleet vehicle fueling station designs, and provide fleet operators with a tool for use in discussions with permitting agencies, engineering firms, fabricators, and contractors who permit, design, or construct LNG fueling stations. Representative sites (i.e., LNG fueling stations) were evaluated for technical feasibility, customer satisfaction, economics, operating and maintenance history, problems encountered/overcome, and regulatory environment. The compiled information in this report reveals that LNG fueling stations have advanced to the point where LNG is a viable alternative to gasoline and/or diesel fuel.

  7. Ultrasound Location of Misplaced Levonorgestrel Releasing Intrauterine System (LNG-IUS) - is it easy?

    PubMed

    Gowri, Vaidyanathan; Mathew, Mariam

    2009-01-01

    The Levonorgestrel intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) is a hormone-containing device licensed for treatment of menorrhagia and contraception. Though complications such as perforation have been reported similar to other non-hormonal intrauterine devices, the diagnosis of such complications is difficult with this device because the LNG-IUD has a different ultrasound appearance compared to copper devices and these case reports are intended to emphasize this point.

  8. The influence of ice formation on vaporization of LNG on water surfaces.

    PubMed

    Vesovic, V

    2007-02-20

    The spillage of LNG on water surfaces can lead, under certain circumstances, to a decrease in the surface temperature of water and subsequent freezing. A model for heat transfer from water to LNG is proposed and used to calculate the surface temperature of water and examine its influence on the vaporization rate of LNG. For this purpose LNG was modeled based on the properties of pure methane. It was concluded that when LNG spills on a confined, shallow-water surface the surface temperature of water will decrease rapidly leading to ice formation. The formation of an ice layer, that will continue to grow for the duration of the spill, will have a profound effect upon the vaporization rate. The decreasing surface temperature of ice will decrease the temperature differential between LNG and ice that drives the heat transfer and will lead to a change of the boiling regime. The overall effect would be that the vaporization flux would first decrease during the film boiling; followed by an increase during the transition boiling and a steady decrease during the nucleate boiling.

  9. Comparison of LNG, CNG, and diesel transit bus economics. Topical report, July 1992-September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Powars, C.A.; Moyer, C.B.; Luscher, D.R.; Lowell, D.D.; Pera, C.J.

    1993-10-20

    The purpose of the report is to compare the expected costs of operating a transit bus fleet on liquefied natural gas (LNG), compressed natural gas (CNG), and diesel fuel. The special report is being published prior to the overall project final report in response to the current high level of interest in LNG transit buses. It focuses exclusively on the economics of LNG buses as compared with CNG and diesel buses. The reader is referred to the anticipated final report, or to a previously published 'White Paper' report (Reference 1), for information regarding LNG vehicle and refueling system technology and/or the economics of other LNG vehicles. The LNG/CNG/diesel transit bus economics comparison is based on total life-cycle costs considering all applicable capital and operating costs. The costs considered are those normally borne by the transit property, i.e., the entity facing the bus purchase decision. These costs account for the portion normally paid by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) Federal Transit Administration (FTA). Transit property net costs also recognize the sale of emissions reduction credits generated by using natural gas (NG) engines which are certified to levels below standards (particularly for NOX).

  10. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Iraj A. Salehi; Jerry Havens; Tom Spicer

    2005-10-01

    Work has continued to address numerical problems experienced with simulation of low-wind-speed, stable, atmospheric conditions with FEM3A. Steps 1 through 8 in the plan outlined in the first Quarterly report have been satisfied. Researchers at the University of Arkansas have all indications that the important problems related to stability of the simulations at regulatory conditions of low wind speed and stable atmospheric conditions have been resolved. This quarterly report for DE-FG26-04NT42030 covers a period from July 1, 2005 to September 31, 2005. GTI's activities during the report quarter were limited to administrative work. The work at the University of Arkansas continued in line with the initial scope of work and identified the questions regarding surface to cloud heat transfer as being largely responsible for the instability problems previously encountered. A brief summary of results is included in this section and the complete report from University of Arkansas is attached as Appendix A.

  11. LNG Safety Research FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Iraj A. Salehi; Jerry Havens; Tom Spicer

    2006-02-02

    This quarterly report for DE-FG26-04NT42030 covers a period from October 1, 2005 to December 31, 2005. GTI's activities during the report quarter were limited to administrative work. The work at the University of Arkansas continued in line with the initial scope of work and identified the questions regarding surface to cloud heat transfer as being largely responsible for the instability problems previously encountered. A brief summary of results is included in this section and the complete report from University of Arkansas is attached as Appendix A.

  12. LNG Safety Research: FEM3A Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Iraj A Salehi; Jerry Havens; Tom Spicer

    2006-05-01

    Work continued to address numerical problems experienced with simulation of low-wind-speed, stable, atmospheric conditions with FEM3A. Steps 1 through 8 in the plan outlined in the first Quarterly report have been completed successfully for the FEM3A model utilizing the Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) turbulence closure model. Researchers at the University of Arkansas have solved the problems related to stability of the simulations at regulatory conditions of low wind speed and stable atmospheric conditions with FEM3A using the PBL model, and are continuing our program to verify the operation of the model using an updated, verified, version of the k-epsilon turbulence closure model which has been modified to handle dense gas dispersion effects. This quarterly report for DE-FG26-04NT42030 covers a period from January 1, 2006 to March 31, 2006. GTI's activities during the report quarter were limited to administrative work. The work at the University of Arkansas continued in line with the initial scope of work and the identified questions regarding surface to cloud heat transfer as being largely responsible for the instability problems previously encountered. A brief summary of results is discussed in this section and the complete report from University of Arkansas is attached.

  13. Fatigue crack growth properties of the base metal and weld metal of a 9% Ni steel for LNG storage tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Shim, Kyu-Taek; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2009-07-01

    Newly developed heavy thick plates of 9% Ni steel for large capacity of LNG tank were fabricated to conduct a fatigue crack growth test. The weld metal specimens were also fabricated by taking the same weld procedures which are applied to actual LNG storage tank inner shell. The effect of changes in load ratio, R, and test temperature on the fatigue crack growth rate has been investigated. Separate fatigue crack growth experiments were performed at load ratio of 0.1 and 0.5 at -162°C and compared to the behavior at room temperature. The fatigue crack growth rates of weld metal were nearly the same as those of the base metal irrespective of load ratio change at room temperature. A decrease in temperature decreased the fatigue crack growth rates of base metal but in the case of weld metal only small scatters appeared in the fatigue crack growth rate compared with those of base metals. The fatigue crack growth rates were dominated by residual stress due to welding processes rather than temperature effects.

  14. Thermodynamic Processes Involving Liquefied Natural Gas at the LNG Receiving Terminals / Procesy termodynamiczne z wykorzystaniem skroplonego gazu ziemnego w terminalach odbiorczych LNG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Łaciak, Mariusz

    2013-06-01

    The increase in demand for natural gas in the world, cause that the production of liquefied natural gas (LNG) and in consequences its regasification becoming more common process related to its transportation. Liquefied gas is transported in the tanks at a temperature of about 111K at atmospheric pressure. The process required to convert LNG from a liquid to a gas phase for further pipeline transport, allows the use of exergy of LNG to various applications, including for electricity generation. Exergy analysis is a well known technique for analyzing irreversible losses in a separate process. It allows to specify the distribution, the source and size of the irreversible losses in energy systems, and thus provide guidelines for energy efficiency. Because both the LNG regasification and liquefaction of natural gas are energy intensive, exergy analysis process is essential for designing highly efficient cryogenic installations. Wzrost zapotrzebowania na gaz ziemny na świecie powoduje, że produkcja skroplonego gazu ziemnego (LNG), a w konsekwencji jego regazyfikacja, staje się coraz bardziej powszechnym procesem związanym z jego transportem. Skroplony gaz transportowany jest w zbiornikach w temperaturze około 111K pod ciśnieniem atmosferycznym. Przebieg procesu regazyfikacji niezbędny do zamiany LNG z fazy ciekłej w gazową dla dalszego transportu w sieci, umożliwia wykorzystanie egzergii LNG do różnych zastosowań, między innymi do produkcji energii elektrycznej. Analiza egzergii jest znaną techniką analizowania nieodwracalnych strat w wydzielonym procesie. Pozwala na określenie dystrybucji, źródła i wielkości nieodwracalnych strat w systemach energetycznych, a więc ustalić wytyczne dotyczące efektywnego zużycia energii. Ponieważ zarówno regazyfikacja LNG jak i skraplanie gazu ziemnego są energochłonne, proces analizy egzergii jest niezbędny do projektowania wysoce wydajnych instalacji kriogenicznych.

  15. Optimization and testing of the Beck Engineering free-piston cryogenic pump for LNG systems on heavy vehicles. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, Douglas S.

    2003-01-10

    Task 7 was completed by reaching Milestone 7: Test free piston cryogenic pump (FPCP) in Integrated LNG System. Task 4: Alternative Pump Design was also completed. The type of performance of the prototype LNG system is consistent with requirements of fuel systems for heavy vehicles; however, the maximum flow capacity of the prototype LNG system is significantly less than the total flow requirement. The flow capacity of the prototype LNG system is determined by a cavitation limit for the FPCP.

  16. 78 FR 25074 - Elba Liquefaction Company, L.L.C., Southern LNG Company, L.L.C., Elba Express Company, L.L.C...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Elba Liquefaction Company, L.L.C., Southern LNG Company, L.L.C., Elba... operation of facilities in Georgia by Elba Liquefaction Company, LLC (ELC); Southern LNG Company, LLC (SLNG... authorize the export of natural gas, including liquefied natural gas (LNG), to countries with which...

  17. 40 CFR Table W - 5 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage W Table W Protection of Environment... Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-5 Table W-5 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage LNG storage Emission factor...

  18. 40 CFR Table W - 5 of Subpart W of Part 98-Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage W Table W Protection of Environment... Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems Definitions. Pt. 98, Subpt. W, Table W-5 Table W-5 of Subpart W of Part 98—Default Methane Emission Factors for Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Storage LNG storage Emission factor...

  19. Effect of oxidation on the removal CU{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+} and Mn (VII) from dilute aqueous solutions by Upper Freeport bituminous coal. Quarterly report, June--August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Bodine, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    Upper Freeport bituminous coal was able to remove Mn (VII) from dilute aqueous solution by concurrent adsorption and reduction of the manganese to lower valence, less toxic states. This type of reaction indicated the potential of using coal to remove oxidizing contaminants from effluents. Since oxidizing anions can degrade ion exchange resins and membranes, coal may be a viable alternative for detoxification. On analysis of the kinetics of copper and cadmium uptake from dilute aqueous solution, adsorption equilibria and functional groups analyses, it was apparent that the different oxidative pre-treatments affected both the surfaces and pore structure of Upper Freeport coal. The large amount of carboxyl and phenolic functional groups remaining after contact with copper and cadmium solutions, as determined by functional groups analyses, indicated the low affinity of the surface acid groups for these cations. Furthermore, there was almost no metal ion removal at low solution pH`s, which precludes the use of Upper Freeport for treating acidic wastes and effluents such as acid mine drainage. The coal surface functional groups are indeed able to exchange with cations, since the amount of these groups are measured by ion exchange with Na{sup +} and Ba{sup 2+}, however, it may be more difficult to displace the waters of hydration around Cu{sup 2+} and Cd{sup 2+}, to allow their uptake on the coal surface functional groups. Improved metal ion removal might be obtained using a lower rank coal, such as a subbituminous coal, which would be more susceptible to oxidation.

  20. 77 FR 66454 - Gulf LNG Liquefaction Company, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-05

    ... additional LNG exports from other projects as well as an aggressive increase in natural gas demand due to the..., which assumes 6.2 Bcf/d of LNG exports in addition to GLLC's requested 1.5 Bcf/d and makes aggressive... aggressive growth in demand for natural gas vehicles. Third, GLLC states that natural gas to be exported...

  1. 78 FR 13330 - Pangea LNG (North America) Holdings, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ...-term, multi-contract authorization to export domestically produced liquefied natural gas (LNG) in an... ancillary facilities required to receive and liquefy natural gas, and to store and deliver LNG. Pangea... Natural Gas Produced From Domestic Natural Gas Resources to Non-Free Trade Agreement Countries for a...

  2. 75 FR 68347 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction LLC, and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-05

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass Liquefaction LLC, and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Intent To... facilities by Sabine Pass Liquefaction LLC, and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P. (collectively referred to as Sabine... responsibilities. DOE proposes to authorize Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC to export liquefied natural gas...

  3. 78 FR 1851 - Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Sabine Pass Liquefaction, LLC and Sabine Pass LNG, L.P.; Notice of Intent To... facilities for Sabine Pass Liquefaction LLC and Sabine Pass LNG (Sabine Pass) in Cameron County, Louisiana... HRU, condensate storage, and metering facilities would be located within the existing Sabine Pass...

  4. [The preparation, characterization and ultraviolet photodegradation of LNG-HP-beta-CD].

    PubMed

    Wang, Da-wei; Liu, Qi; Liu, Ming; Liu, Xiao-hui

    2011-03-01

    The characteristics of levonorgestrel (LNG), low solubility and the quick degradation under ultraviolet, limited its study and application in rodent contraception. The inclusion complex of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) with LNG was investigated in present study. The inclusion complex was prepared by solution method and characterized by ultraviolet absorption spectrum and infrared spectrum spectra. And the stability was evaluated by being exposed to ultraviolet. The authors' results showed that the accurate and simple method of quantitative determination for LNG was established by ultraviolet spectrum, the molar ratio of the complex was 1:1 calculated from the phase solubility diagram, the stability constant was 187.3 L x mol(-1) at 25 degrees C, and the formation of the inclusion complex was validated by UV-Vis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Moreover, the degradation rate of the inclusion complex was less than 5%, which was slower than the LNG monomer. The present study indicated that HP-beta-CD could be formed inclusion complexes with LNG and the solubility, and stability were obviously enhanced.

  5. Seismic analysis of a LNG storage tank isolated by a multiple friction pendulum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ruifu; Weng, Dagen; Ren, Xiaosong

    2011-06-01

    The seismic response of an isolated vertical, cylindrical, extra-large liquefied natural gas (LNG) tank by a multiple friction pendulum system (MFPS) is analyzed. Most of the extra-large LNG tanks have a fundamental frequency which involves a range of resonance of most earthquake ground motions. It is an effective way to decrease the response of an isolation system used for extra-large LNG storage tanks under a strong earthquake. However, it is difficult to implement in practice with common isolation bearings due to issues such as low temperature, soft site and other severe environment factors. The extra-large LNG tank isolated by a MFPS is presented in this study to address these problems. A MFPS is appropriate for large displacements induced by earthquakes with long predominant periods. A simplified finite element model by Malhotra and Dunkerley is used to determine the usefulness of the isolation system. Data reported and statistically sorted include pile shear, wave height, impulsive acceleration, convective acceleration and outer tank acceleration. The results show that the isolation system has excellent adaptability for different liquid levels and is very effective in controlling the seismic response of extra-large LNG tanks.

  6. Freeze desalination of seawater using LNG cold energy.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jian; Zuo, Jian; Lu, Kang-Jia; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2016-10-01

    With the aid of cold energy from regasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG), freeze desalination (FD) is an emerging technology for seawater desalination because of its low energy characteristics and insensitivities to fouling problems. This work aims to investigate the major operating parameters of FD such as coolant temperature, freezing duration, supercooling, seeding, agitation, crystallizer material and subsequent washing procedure on ice production and water quality. It was found that the optimal freezing duration per batch was 1 h for an iron crystallizer and 1.5 h for a glass crystallizer. The optimal coolant temperature should be around -8 °C. The optimal amount of washing water to clean the raw ice was about 50 wt% of the raw ice. Over 50 wt% of the feed could be recovered as raw ice within 1 h, which means an overall ice recovery rate of higher than 25% (of the original seawater), considering the consumption of washing water. Both artificial and real seawater were tested under the optimized conditions. The total dissolved solid in the product ice was around 300 ppm, which met the World Health Organization (WHO) potable water salinity standard of 500 ppm. Therefore, the process parameters optimized in this study can be directly used for the freeze desalination of seawater.

  7. Applications of human factors engineering to LNG release prevention and control

    SciTech Connect

    Shikiar, R.; Rankin, W.L.; Rideout, T.B.

    1982-06-01

    The results of an investigation of human factors engineering and human reliability applications to LNG release prevention and control are reported. The report includes a discussion of possible human error contributions to previous LNG accidents and incidents, and a discussion of generic HF considerations for peakshaving plants. More specific recommendations for improving HF practices at peakshaving plants are offered based on visits to six facilities. The HF aspects of the recently promulgated DOT regulations are reviewed, and recommendations are made concerning how these regulations can be implemented utilizing standard HF practices. Finally, the integration of HF considerations into overall system safety is illustrated by a presentation of human error probabilities applicable to LNG operations and by an expanded fault tree analysis which explicitly recognizes man-machine interfaces.

  8. Open-type ferry safety system design for using LNG fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagonis, D. N.; Livanos, G.; Theotokatos, G.; Peppa, S.; Themelis, N.

    2016-12-01

    In this feasibility study, we investigate the viability of using Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) fuel in an open type Ro-Ro passenger ferry and the associated potential challenges with regard to the vessel safety systems. We recommend an appropriate methodology for converting existing ships to run on LNG fuel, discuss all the necessary modifications to the ship's safety systems, and also evaluate the relevant ship evacuation procedures. We outline the basic requirements with which the ship already complies for each safety system and analyze the additional restrictions that must be taken into consideration for the use of LNG fuel. Appropriate actions are recommended. Furthermore, we carry out a hazard identification study. Overall, we clearly demonstrate the technical feasibility of the investigated scenario. Minimal modifications to the ship's safety systems are required to comply with existing safety rules for this specific type of ship.

  9. FEM3A simulations of selected LNG vapor barrier verification field tests

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, S.T.

    1990-10-01

    In order to evaluate and eventually predict the possible mitigating effects of vapor fences on the dispersion of the vapor cloud resulting from an accidental liquefied natural gas (LNG) spill in storage areas, a research program was initiated to evaluate methods for predicting LNG dispersion distances for realistic facility configurations. As part of the program, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) conducted a series of large-scale field experiments called the LNG Vapor Barrier Verification Field Trials (also referred to as the Falcon Series) at the Liquefied Gaseous Fuels Spill Test Facility (LGFSTF), Nevada. Objectives were (1) to provide a data base on LNG vapor dispersion from spill involving complex field obstacles to assist in validation of wind tunnel and mathematical models, and (2) to assess the effectiveness of vapor fences for mitigating LNG vapor dispersion hazards in the events of an accidental spill. Five spill experiments were conducted on water in order to generate vapor at rates equivalent to the liquid spill rates. In this study, the FEM3A model was applied to simulate four of the Falcon experiments. The objectives of this study were, through numerical modeling and a detailed model-data comparison: (1) to improve our understanding of LNG vapor dispersion involving vapor barriers, (2) to assess FEM3A in modeling such complex vapor dispersion scenarios, and (3) to complement the results of field and wind tunnel tests, such as providing plausible explanations for unexpected results and filling in data gaps due to instrument failure or limited array size. Toward these goals, the relevant field measurements were analyzed and several series of 2-D and 3-D simulations were carried out. 11 refs., 93 figs., 11 tabs.

  10. Simulation of a Novel Single-column Cryogenic Air Separation Process Using LNG Cold Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jieyu, Zheng; Yanzhong, Li; Guangpeng, Li; Biao, Si

    In this paper, a novel single-column air separation process is proposed with the implementation of heat pump technique and introduction of LNG coldenergy. The proposed process is verifiedand optimized through simulation on the Aspen Hysys® platform. Simulation results reveal that thepower consumption per unit mass of liquid productis around 0.218 kWh/kg, and the total exergy efficiency of the systemis 0.575. According to the latest literatures, an energy saving of 39.1% is achieved compared with those using conventional double-column air separation units.The introduction of LNG cold energy is an effective way to increase the system efficiency.

  11. Helium extraction and nitrogen removal from LNG boil-off gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, L.; Peng, N.; Liu, L.; Gong, L.

    2017-02-01

    The helium bearing boil off gas (BOG) from liquid natural gas (LNG) storage tank in LNG plant, which has a helium concentration of about 1%, has attracted the attention in China as a new helium source. As the BOG is usually reused by re-condensing to recover methane, it is likely to cause continuous accumulation of nitrogen in the unit, thus a nitrogen removal process must be integrated. This paper describes a conceptional cryogenic separation system aiming at recovering methane, helium and nitrogen from BOG based on cryogenic distillation and condensation process.

  12. Reduction of LNG operator error and equipment failure rates. Topical report, 20 April 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Atallah, S.; Shah, J.N.; Betti, M.

    1990-04-01

    Tables summarizing human error rates and equipment failure frequencies applicable to the LNG industry are presented. Improved training, better supervision, emergency response drills and improved panel design were methods recommended for reducing human error rates. Outright scheduled replacement of critical components, regular inspection and maintenance, and the use of redundant components were reviewed as means for reducing equipment failure rates. The effect of reducing human error and equipment failure rates on the frequency of overfilling an LNG tank were examined. In addition, guidelines for estimating the cost and benefits of these mitigation measures were considered.

  13. Comparison of CNG and LNG technologies for transportation applications. Final subcontract report, June 1991--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Sinor, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    This report provides a head-to-head comparison of compressed natural gas (CNG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) supplied to heavy-duty vehicles. The comparison includes an assessment of the overall efficiency of the fuel delivery system, the cost of the fuel supply system, the efficiency of use in heavy-duty vehicles, and the environmental impact of each technology. The report concludes that there are applications in which CNG will have the advantage, and applications in which LNG will be preferred.

  14. Influence of mid-point temperature of heavy hydrocarbons separator to the liquefaction process for small LNG plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakim, H. A.; Indarto, A.

    2016-11-01

    In liquefied natural gas (LNG) process production, one of the important units is heavy hydrocarbon removal unit to prevent freezing during liquefaction. For small scale of LNG plant, this unit is usually integrated with main heat exchanger. Feed is obtained from main heat exchanger then flows to separator to separate liquid from gas. The separator operating condition is called as Midpoint condition. Selecting Midpoint conditions have impact to light hydrocarbon losses, Specific Brake Horse Power (SBHP) process, and heating value of LNG. Hence understanding of selecting this condition and its effect to light hydrocarbon losses, SBHP process, and HHV of LNG will help to design more efficient LNG plant. According to study, the lower of Mid-Point temperature will result in lower SBHP, lower of light hydrocarbon losses, and increase LNG of HHV value. Meanwhile, the higher Mid-Point pressure will result in lower SBHP, higher light hydrocarbon losses, and lower LNG of HHV value. The change of Mid-Point pressures have more impact to light hydrocarbon losses than SBHP process.

  15. Implications of the US-Algerian liquefied natural gas price dispute and LNG imports

    SciTech Connect

    Staats, E.B.

    1980-12-16

    In early 1980 Algeria demanded a 200% increase in the price of its liquefied natural gas. When the US company involved refused to pay this price, Algeria stopped LNG deliveries. The Energy Department, which is now the primary US negotiator with Algeria, says it will not agree to the price demand. If it did Canada and Mexico, at least in the long run, would probably request equivalent prices for their gas. If their price requests were met, US natural gas import bills, at present import levels, would increase by about 79%, or $3.5 billion. However, as the prices increased, demand for imported gas would probably drop substantially. GAO does not believe importing large amounts of LNG from OPEC countries is in the national interest. LNG imports generally trade oil dependence for gas dependence. It makes little sense to increase US dependence on gas at a time when extraordinary steps are being taken to reduce dependence on oil. Current indications are, however, that not many more proposals for LNG from OPEC countries will be forthcoming in the next few years.

  16. Potential effects of LNG trade shift on transfer of ballast water and biota by ships.

    PubMed

    Holzer, Kimberly K; Muirhead, Jim R; Minton, Mark S; Carney, Katharine J; Miller, A Whitman; Ruiz, Gregory M

    2017-02-15

    As the US natural gas surplus grows, so does the prospect of establishing new trade partnerships with buyers abroad, a process that has major consequences for global ship movement and ballast water delivery. Since US annual imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG) peaked in 2004-2007, the country is rapidly transitioning from net importer to net exporter of LNG. Combining multiple datasets, we estimated changes in the associated flux of ships' ballast water to the US during 2015-2040, using existing scenarios for projected exports of domestic LNG by ships. Our analysis of the current market (2015) scenario predicts an approximate 90-fold annual increase in LNG-related ballast water discharge to the US by 2040 (42millionm(3)), with the potential to be even greater under high oil prices. We also described changes in geographic connectivity related to trade direction. These findings highlight how 21(st) century global energy markets could dramatically alter opportunities for seaborne introductions and invasions by nonnative species.

  17. LNG fires: a review of experimental results, models and hazard prediction challenges.

    PubMed

    Raj, Phani K

    2007-02-20

    A number of experimental investigations of LNG fires (of sizes 35 m diameter and smaller) were undertaken, world wide, during the 1970s and 1980s to study their physical and radiative characteristics. This paper reviews the published data from several of these tests including from the largest test to date, the 35 m, Montoir tests. Also reviewed in this paper is the state of the art in modeling LNG pool and vapor fires, including thermal radiation hazard modeling. The review is limited to considering the integral and semi-empirical models (solid flame and point source); CFD models are not reviewed. Several aspects of modeling LNG fires are reviewed including, the physical characteristics, such as the (visible) fire size and shape, tilt and drag in windy conditions, smoke production, radiant thermal output, etc., and the consideration of experimental data in the models. Comparisons of model results with experimental data are indicated and current deficiencies in modeling are discussed. The requirements in the US and European regulations related to LNG fire hazard assessment are reviewed, in brief, in the light of model inaccuracies, criteria for hazards to people and structures, and the effects of mitigating circumstances. The paper identifies: (i) critical parameters for which there exist no data, (ii) uncertainties and unknowns in modeling and (iii) deficiencies and gaps in current regulatory recipes for predicting hazards.

  18. Blanketing effect of expansion foam on liquefied natural gas (LNG) spillage pool.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yi; Olewski, Tomasz; Vechot, Luc; Mannan, M Sam

    2014-09-15

    With increasing consumption of natural gas, the safety of liquefied natural gas (LNG) utilization has become an issue that requires a comprehensive study on the risk of LNG spillage in facilities with mitigation measures. The immediate hazard associated with an LNG spill is the vapor hazard, i.e., a flammable vapor cloud at the ground level, due to rapid vaporization and dense gas behavior. It was believed that high expansion foam mitigated LNG vapor hazard through warming effect (raising vapor buoyancy), but the boil-off effect increased vaporization rate due to the heat from water drainage of foam. This work reveals the existence of blocking effect (blocking convection and radiation to the pool) to reduce vaporization rate. The blanketing effect on source term (vaporization rate) is a combination of boil-off and blocking effect, which was quantitatively studied through seven tests conducted in a wind tunnel with liquid nitrogen. Since the blocking effect reduces more heat to the pool than the boil-off effect adds, the blanketing effect contributes to the net reduction of heat convection and radiation to the pool by 70%. Water drainage rate of high expansion foam is essential to determine the effectiveness of blanketing effect, since water provides the boil-off effect.

  19. Selection of an acid-gas removal process for an LNG plant

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, J.B.; Jones, G.N.; Denton, R.D.

    1996-12-31

    Acid gas contaminants, such as, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S and mercaptans, must be removed to a very low level from a feed natural gas before it is liquefied. CO{sub 2} is typically removed to a level of about 100 ppm to prevent freezing during LNG processing. Sulfur compounds are removed to levels required by the eventual consumer of the gas. Acid-gas removal processes can be broadly classified as: solvent-based, adsorption, cryogenic or physical separation. The advantages and disadvantages of these processes will be discussed along with design and operating considerations. This paper will also discuss the important considerations affecting the choice of the best acid-gas removal process for LNG plants. Some of these considerations are: the remoteness of the LNG plant from the resource; the cost of the feed gas and the economics of minimizing capital expenditures; the ultimate disposition of the acid gas; potential for energy integration; and the composition, including LPG and conditions of the feed gas. The example of the selection of the acid-gas removal process for an LNG plant.

  20. DETERMINATION OF MODE OF OCCURRENCE OF TRACE ELEMENTS IN THE UPPER FREEPORT COAL BED USING SIZE AND DENSITY SEPARATION PROCEDURES.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palmer, C.A.; Filby, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    A procedure has been developed using low temperature ashing, followed by size and sink-float separation of the ash, X-ray diffraction analysis, and instrumental neutron activation analysis to give both qualitative and quantitative information for major, minor and trace minerals and their associated trace elements in coal.

  1. Feasibility of methods and systems for reducng LNG tanker fire hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    In this program concepts for reducing fire hazards that may result from LNG tanker collisions are identified and their technical feasibility evaluated. Concepts considered include modifications to the shipborne LNG containers so that in the event of a container rupture less of the contents would spill and/or the contents would spill at a reduced rate. Changes in the cargo itself, including making the LNG into a gel, solidifying it, converting it to methanol, and adding flame suppressants are also evaluated. The relative effectiveness and the costs of implementing these methods in terms of increased cost of gas at the receiving terminal, are explained. The vulnerability of an LNG tanker and its crew to the thermal effects of a large pool fire caused by a collision spill is estimated and methods of protecting the crew are considered. It is shown that the protection of ship and crew so that further deterioration of a damaged ship might be ameliorated, would require the design and installation of extraordinary insulation systems and life support assistance for the crew. Methods of salvaging or disposing of cargo from a damaged and disabled ship are evaluated, and it is concluded that if the cargo cannot be transferred to another (empty) LNG tanker because of lack of availability, then the burning of the cargo at a location somewhat distant from the disabled tanker appears to be a promising approach. Finally, the likelihood of the vapors from a spill being ignited due to the frictional impact of the colliding ships was examined. It is found that the heating of metal sufficient to ignite flammable vapors would occur during a collision, but it is questionable whether flammable vapor and air will, in fact, come in contact with the hot metal surfaces.

  2. Guidance on risk analysis and safety implications of a large liquefied natural gas (LNG) spill over water.

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Gerald William; Melof, Brian Matthew; Luketa-Hanlin, Anay Josephine; Hightower, Marion Michael; Covan, John Morgan; Gritzo, Louis Alan; Irwin, Michael James; Kaneshige, Michael Jiro; Morrow, Charles W.

    2004-12-01

    While recognized standards exist for the systematic safety analysis of potential spills or releases from LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) storage terminals and facilities on land, no equivalent set of standards or guidance exists for the evaluation of the safety or consequences from LNG spills over water. Heightened security awareness and energy surety issues have increased industry's and the public's attention to these activities. The report reviews several existing studies of LNG spills with respect to their assumptions, inputs, models, and experimental data. Based on this review and further analysis, the report provides guidance on the appropriateness of models, assumptions, and risk management to address public safety and property relative to a potential LNG spill over water.

  3. Assessment of the effects of release variables on the consequences of LNG spillage onto water using FERC models.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yuanhua; West, Harry H; Mannan, M Sam; Johnson, David W; Cornwell, John B

    2006-03-17

    Liquefied natural gas (LNG) release, spread, evaporation, and dispersion processes are illustrated using the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission models in this paper. The spillage consequences are dependent upon the tank conditions, release scenarios, and the environmental conditions. The effects of the contributing variables, including the tank configuration, breach hole size, ullage pressure, wind speed and stability class, and surface roughness, on the consequence of LNG spillage onto water are evaluated using the models. The sensitivities of the consequences to those variables are discussed.

  4. Hydrogen Production by Steam Reforming of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Over Nickel-Phosphorus-Alumina Xerogel Catalyst Prepared by a Carbon-Templating Epoxide-Driven Sol-Gel Method.

    PubMed

    Bang, Yongju; Park, Seungwon; Han, Seung Ju; Yoo, Jaekyeong; Choi, Jung Ho; Kang, Tae Hun; Lee, Jinwon; Song, In Kyu

    2016-05-01

    A nickel-phosphorus-alumina xerogel catalyst was prepared by a carbon-templating epoxide-driven sol-gel method (denoted as CNPA catalyst), and it was applied to the hydrogen production by steam reforming of liquefied natural gas (LNG). For comparison, a nickel-phosphorus-alumina xerogel catalyst was also prepared by a similar method in the absence of carbon template (denoted as NPA catalyst). The effect of carbon template addition on the physicochemical properties and catalytic activities of the catalysts in the steam reforming of LNG was investigated. Both CNPA and NPA catalysts showed excellent textural properties with well-developed mesoporous structure. However, CNPA catalyst retained a more reducible nickel aluminate phase than NPA catalyst. XRD analysis of the reduced CNPA and NPA catalysts revealed that nickel sintering on the CNPA catalyst was suppressed compared to that on the NPA catalyst. From H2-TPD and CH4-TPD measurements of the reduced CNPA and NPA catalysts, it was also revealed that CNPA catalyst with large amount of hydrogen uptake and strong hydrogen-binding sites showed larger amount of methane adsorption than NPA catalyst. In the hydrogen production by steam reforming of LNG, CNPA catalyst with large methane adsorption capacity showed a better catalytic activity than NPA catalyst.

  5. Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for electricity generation.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Paulina; Griffin, W Michael; Matthews, H Scott

    2007-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that in the coming decades the United States' natural gas (NG) demand for electricity generation will increase. Estimates also suggest that NG supply will increasingly come from imported liquefied natural gas (LNG). Additional supplies of NG could come domestically from the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) via coal gasification-methanation. The objective of this study is to compare greenhouse gas (GHG), SOx, and NOx life-cycle emissions of electricity generated with NG/LNG/SNG and coal. This life-cycle comparison of air emissions from different fuels can help us better understand the advantages and disadvantages of using coal versus globally sourced NG for electricity generation. Our estimates suggest that with the current fleet of power plants, a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have lower GHG emissions than coal. If advanced technologies with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) are used, however, coal and a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have very similar life-cycle GHG emissions. For SOx and NOx we find there are significant emissions in the upstream stages of the NG/ LNG life-cycles, which contribute to a larger range in SOx and NOx emissions for NG/LNG than for coal and SNG.

  6. Evaluation of sloshing resistance performance for LNG carrier insulation system based on fluid-structure interaction analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Chi-Seung; Cho, Jin-Rae; Kim, Wha-Soo; Noh, Byeong-Jae; Kim, Myung-Hyun; Lee, Jae-Myung

    2013-03-01

    In the present paper, the sloshing resistance performance of a huge-size LNG carrier's insulation system is evaluated by the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) analysis. To do this, the global-local analysis which is based on the arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) method is adopted to accurately calculate the structural behavior induced by internal LNG sloshing of a KC-1 type LNG carrier insulation system. During the global analysis, the sloshing flow and hydrodynamic pressure of internal LNG are analyzed by postulating the flexible insulation system as a rigid body. In addition, during the local analysis, the local hydroelastic response of the LNG carrier insulation system is computed by solving the local hydroelastic model where the entire and flexible insulation system is adopted and the numerical analysis results of the global analysis such as initial and boundary conditions are implemented into the local finite element model. The proposed novel analysis techniques can potentially be used to evaluate the structural integrity of LNG carrier insulation systems.

  7. Comparative life-cycle air emissions of coal, domestic natural gas, LNG, and SNG for electricity generation

    SciTech Connect

    Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews

    2007-09-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that in the coming decades the United States' natural gas (NG) demand for electricity generation will increase. Estimates also suggest that NG supply will increasingly come from imported liquefied natural gas (LNG). Additional supplies of NG could come domestically from the production of synthetic natural gas (SNG) via coal gasification-methanation. The objective of this study is to compare greenhouse gas (GHG), SOx, and NOx life-cycle emissions of electricity generated with NG/LNG/SNG and coal. This life-cycle comparison of air emissions from different fuels can help us better understand the advantages and disadvantages of using coal versus globally sourced NG for electricity generation. Our estimates suggest that with the current fleet of power plants, a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have lower GHG emissions than coal. If advanced technologies with carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) are used, however, coal and a mix of domestic NG, LNG, and SNG would have very similar life-cycle GHG emissions. For SOx and NOx we find there are significant emissions in the upstream stages of the NG/LNG life-cycles, which contribute to a larger range in SOx and NOx emissions for NG/LNG than for coal and SNG. 38 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. A conceptual demonstration of freeze desalination-membrane distillation (FD-MD) hybrid desalination process utilizing liquefied natural gas (LNG) cold energy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Chung, Tai-Shung

    2012-09-01

    The severe global water scarcity and record-high fossil oil price have greatly stimulated the research interests on new desalination technologies which can be driven by renewable energy or waste energy. In this study, a hybrid desalination process comprising freeze desalination and membrane distillation (FD-MD) processes was developed and explored in an attempt to utilize the waste cold energy released from re-gasification of liquefied natural gas (LNG). The concept of this technology was demonstrated using indirect-contact freeze desalination (ICFD) and direct-contact membrane distillation (DCMD) configurations. By optimizing the ICFD operation parameters, namely, the usage of nucleate seeds, operation duration and feed concentration, high quality drinkable water with a low salinity ∼0.144 g/L was produced in the ICFD process. At the same time, using the optimized hollow fiber module length and packing density in the DCMD process, ultra pure water with a low salinity of 0.062 g/L was attained at a condition of high energy efficiency (EE). Overall, by combining FD and MD processes and adopting the optimized operation parameters, the hybrid FD-MD system has been successfully demonstrated. A high total water recovery of 71.5% was achieved, and the water quality obtained met the standard for drinkable water. In addition, with results from specific energy calculation, it was proven that the hybrid process is an energy-saving process and utilization of LNG cold energy could greatly reduce the total energy consumption.

  9. Integrated Cryogenic System for CO2 Separation and Lng Production from Landfill Gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, H. M.; Chung, M. J.; Park, S. B.

    2010-04-01

    An integrated cryogenic system to separate carbon dioxide (CO2) and produce LNG from landfill gas is investigated and designed. The main objective of this design is to eliminate the requirement of a standard CO2 removal process in the liquefaction system such distillation or (temperature or pressure) swing adsorption, and to directly separate carbon dioxide as frost at the liquefying channel of methane. Two identical sets of heat exchangers are installed in parallel and switched alternatively with a time period so that one is in separation-liquefaction mode while the other is in CO2 clean-up mode. A thermal regeneration scheme is presented for the purpose of saving energy and avoiding the stoppage of LNG production followed by the flow switching. The switching period is determined from results of a combined heat and mass transfer analysis on the CO2 freeze-out process.

  10. Northern Adriatic LNG receiving terminal: Pre-feasibility study. Part 1. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-19

    The study evaluated 2 potential sites as the location for a Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) receiving terminal. The study assumed that the LNG will be obtained in Algeria and transported, via liquefied gas carriers, to either Koper or Omisalj, located on the Northern Adriatic coast of Yugoslavia. The proposed terminal will provide natural gas, via pipeline, to Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary and Yugoslavia. The goal of the study was to determine specific transportation and processing costs, per cubic meter of gas, at each delivery station in Yugoslavia and at the respective custody transfer points. Consideration has been given to the overall costs for construction, maintenance and operation, as well as marine transport for the gas and capital equipment of the system.

  11. Survey of fire-protection systems at LNG facilities. Topical report, July-November 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Atallah, S.; Borows, K.A.

    1991-04-05

    The objectives of the study were to collect and analyze data relating to the types, costs, and operational problems of gas leak and fire detection devices and of fire prevention and suppression systems used at LNG facilities operating in the United States. Data from 39 LNG facilities, which accounted for 45% of the total U.S. storage capacity, were collected. The report provides information relating to equipment manufacturers, site applications, operational problems, initial installation costs, annual operational costs, and equipment lifetime. Equipment of interest included fixed gas leak, fire and cryogenic detection systems, water deluge and barrier systems, thermal radiation walls and protective coatings, and fixed high expansion foam, dry chemical, carbon dioxide and halon fire suppression systems. In addition, internal fire fighting capabilities were reviewed.

  12. Second Stage Intercooling Using LNG for Turbocharged Heavy Duty Road Vehicles Phase I Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-21

    It is well documented in engine performance literature that reduced engine inlet air temperature increases power output and reduces NO, emissions for both diesel and spark ignited (SI) engines. In addition, reduced inlet temperature increases the knock resistance of SI engines. In that most HD natural gas engines are SI derivatives of diesel engines it is appropriate to evaluate the benefits of reduced engine air temperature through LNG fuel. This project investigated the ''real world'' possibilities of a patented process for utilizing the ''cold'' in LNG to chill engine inlet air. The results support the conclusion that doing so is a practical means to increase engine power and reduce engine-out NO{sub x}.

  13. LNG vapor mitigation by doubling tank-wall integrity. Topical report, September 1987-March 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Atallah, S.; Shah, J.N.

    1990-04-16

    A review of the results of numerous experimental studies on the crack arrest capabilities of 9% nickel-steels and the heat-affected zone has confirmed the excellent historical experience with these materials when used for LNG and other cryogenic liquid storage. In the absence of any actual unzippering tank wall failures involving 9% nickel-steels, the historical data can only suggest that the failure rate of such tanks is much less than 5 x 10(-4) per year. The capability of a second external 9% nickel-steel wall to withstand the asymmetric load and thermal shock resulting from a catastrophic failure of the inner wall was questioned. A concrete wall built around an existing LNG tank, buttressed by an earthen berm is one of several alternative means for reducing the extent of a vapor cloud should the existing tank fail. Guidelines for estimating the initial and annual costs of such a structure are given.

  14. LNG storage: safety analysis. Annual report for January-December 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.A.; Virk, P.S.

    1983-06-01

    Progress is summarized for two projects in the area of LNG safety: (1) Rollover Phenomena: A nonlinear evolutionary model was used to study heat- and mass-transfer processes between two homogeneous layers with an initial step change in temperature and concentration across the interface. Two types of behavior were discovered: at low stability ratios, a steady state characterized by an antisymmetric velocity profile was reached whereas, at higher stability ratios, the velocity profile oscillated. In the former case, the buoyancy flux was proportional to the stability ratio while in the latter it was independent of it. (2) LNG Tank Dynamics. New experimental results were obtained to delineate the effect of liquid height (L/D) upon tank dynamics. From these it was possible to isolate the effects of side- and bottom-wall heat leaks, the latter having an appreciable influence. The excess-boiloff data were in substantial accord with an earlier, single time constant, theoretical model.

  15. Development of an animal experimental model to study the effects of levonorgestrel on the human endometrium

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez Gonzalez, M.-L.; Galant, C.; Frankenne, F.; Nisolle, M.; Labied, S.; Foidart, J.-M.; Marbaix, E.; Béliard, A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND This study was designed to develop an animal model to test the response of endometrium to local progestin delivery. METHODS Proliferative human endometrium was subcutaneously grafted in two groups of SCID mice that received, 2 days before, a subcutaneous estradiol (E2) pellet and, for half of them, an additional implant of levonorgestrel (LNG). Mice were sacrificed 1, 2, 3 or 4 weeks after endometrial implantation and grafts were histologically analysed. Proliferation, steroid hormone receptors, blood vessels and stromal decidualization in both groups (E2 and LNG) were immunohistologically evaluated and compared with proliferative endometrium and endometrium from women with an LNG intrauterine device. RESULTS Grafts presented normal morphological endometrial characteristics. The expression of progesterone receptors was significantly decreased in glands and stroma of the LNG group as compared with the E2 group at all times. A significant decrease was also observed in the stromal expression of estrogen receptor-α in the LNG group. At 4 weeks, the mean cross-sectional area of vessels was significantly higher after LNG treatment. CONCLUSIONS These morphological and immunohistochemical characteristics are similar to those observed in women treated with local LNG. This mouse model might facilitate further investigations needed to understand the mechanisms responsible for the breakthrough bleeding frequently observed in progestin users. PMID:19095670

  16. Who knew? looks like we're in for an LNG glut

    SciTech Connect

    2009-04-15

    U.S. domestic production of natural gas has grown considerably in the recent past, especially from unconventional domestic resources. Recession has reduced demand. Further, the U.S. may end up on the receiving end of much of the excess global production and transportation capacity because of its massive storage capacity. Charts of U.S. natural gas production and LNG imports are given.

  17. Process study and exergy analysis of a novel air separation process cooled by LNG cold energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wendong; Duan, Jiao; Mao, Wenjun

    2014-02-01

    In order to resolve the problems of the current air separation process such as the complex process, cumbersome operation and high operating costs, a novel air separation process cooled by LNG cold energy is proposed in this paper, which is based on high-efficiency heat exchanger network and chemical packing separation technology. The operating temperature range of LNG cold energy is widened from 133K-203K to 113K-283K by high-efficiency heat exchanger network and air separation pressure is declined from 0.5MPa to about 0.35MPa due to packing separation technology, thereby greatly improve the energy efficiency. Both the traditional and novel air separation processes are simulated with air handling capacity of 20t·h-1. Comparing with the traditional process, the LNG consumption is reduced by 44.2%, power consumption decrease is 211.5 kWh per hour, which means the annual benefit will be up to 1.218 million CNY. And the exergy efficiency is also improved by 42.5%.

  18. Evaluation of decommissioned LNG storage tanks at Chula Vista, California. Final report, April 1990-June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.P.

    1992-06-01

    An inspection and evaluation was made of the design, structural condition, and performance of two San Diego Gas and Electric LNG storage tanks, which were dismantled 25 years and 19 years respectively after construction. Inspection emphasis was placed on identification of factors which could limit the safe operating life of LNG facilities. Inspection showed no design, structural, or operational inherently life limiting factors. Metallurgical and structural evaluation of the LNG tanks indicated a more or less indefinite life, given adequate external maintenance. Protection of the external tank surfaces and stability of the foundation are the more apparent life limiting factors. No in-service corrosion was found on inner tank surfaces, only slight corrosion was found on external tank surfaces. Deterioration of the load bearing insulation under the bearing pad was found due to lack of use of a load transfer material between the concrete bearing pad and the load bearing insulation. Recommendations are made for research in improved understanding of techniques for installation of load bearing insulation and fitness-for-service guidelines.

  19. 78 FR 53750 - EcoEléctrica, L.P.; Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Assessment for the Proposed LNG...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... for the Proposed LNG Supply Pipeline Project and Request for Comments on Environmental Issues The... assessment (EA) that will discuss the environmental impacts of the LNG Supply Pipeline Project involving construction and operation of facilities by EcoEl ctrica, L.P. (EcoEl ctrica) at its liquefied natural gas...

  20. Comparison between reverse Brayton and Kapitza based LNG boil-off gas reliquefaction system using exergy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochunni, Sarun Kumar; Chowdhury, Kanchan

    2017-02-01

    LNG boil-off gas (BOG) reliquefaction systems in LNG carrier ships uses refrigeration devices which are based on reverse Brayton, Claude, Kapitza (modified Claude) or Cascade cycles. Some of these refrigeration devices use nitrogen as the refrigerants and hence nitrogen storage vessels or nitrogen generators needs to be installed in LNG carrier ships which consume space and add weight to the carrier. In the present work, a new configuration based on Kapitza liquefaction cycle which uses BOG itself as working fluid is proposed and has been compared with Reverse Brayton Cycle (RBC) on sizes of heat exchangers and compressor operating parameters. Exergy analysis is done after simulating at steady state with Aspen Hysys 8.6® and the comparison between RBC and Kapitza may help designers to choose reliquefaction system with appropriate process parameters and sizes of equipment. With comparable exergetic efficiency as that of an RBC, a Kaptiza system needs only BOG compressor without any need of nitrogen gas.

  1. A case of endometrial carcinoma in a long-term Levonorgestrel Intrauterine System (LNG 52 mg-IUS) user.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Melisa; Briggs, Paula

    2017-03-01

    This report describes a 50-year-old woman who presented to a community gynaecology clinic complaining of persistent heavy vaginal bleeding with an LNG 52 mg-IUS in situ. She was subsequently found to have stage 1 grade 1a endometrioid carcinoma. From the literature, we have identified five similar cases. This case highlights the possibility of endometrial carcinoma despite treatment with an LNG 52 mg-IUS and reinforces the importance of investigating women who present with unusual persistent or heavy vaginal bleeding.

  2. Designing Optimal LNG Station Network for U.S. Heavy-Duty Freight Trucks using Temporally and Spatially Explicit Supply Chain Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Allen

    The recent natural gas boom has opened much discussion about the potential of natural gas and specifically Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) in the United States transportation sector. The switch from diesel to natural gas vehicles would reduce foreign dependence on oil, spur domestic economic growth, and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions. LNG provides the most potential for the medium to heavy-duty vehicle market partially due to unstable oil prices and stagnant natural gas prices. As long as the abundance of unconventional gas in the United States remains cheap, fuel switching to natural gas could provide significant cost savings for long haul freight industry. Amid a growing LNG station network and ever increasing demand for freight movement, LNG heavy-duty truck sales are less than anticipated and the industry as a whole is less economic than expected. In spite of much existing and mature natural gas infrastructure, the supply chain for LNG is different and requires explicit and careful planning. This thesis proposes research to explore the claim that the largest obstacle to widespread LNG market penetration is sub-optimal infrastructure planning. No other study we are aware of has explicitly explored the LNG transportation fuel supply chain for heavy-duty freight trucks. This thesis presents a novel methodology that links a network infrastructure optimization model (represents supply side) with a vehicle stock and economic payback model (represents demand side). The model characterizes both a temporal and spatial optimization model of future LNG transportation fuel supply chains in the United States. The principal research goal is to assess the economic feasibility of the current LNG transportation fuel industry and to determine an optimal pathway to achieve ubiquitous commercialization of LNG vehicles in the heavy-duty transport sector. The results indicate that LNG is not economic as a heavy-duty truck fuel until 2030 under current market conditions

  3. Application of CFD (Fluent) to LNG spills into geometrically complex environments.

    PubMed

    Gavelli, Filippo; Bullister, Edward; Kytomaa, Harri

    2008-11-15

    Recent discussions on the fate of LNG spills into impoundments have suggested that the commonly used combination of SOURCE5 and DEGADIS to predict the flammable vapor dispersion distances is not accurate, as it does not account for vapor entrainment by wind. SOURCE5 assumes the vapor layer to grow upward uniformly in the form of a quiescent saturated gas cloud that ultimately spills over impoundment walls. The rate of spillage is then used as the source term for DEGADIS. A more rigorous approach to predict the flammable vapor dispersion distance is to use a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. CFD codes can take into account the physical phenomena that govern the fate of LNG spills into impoundments, such as the mixing between air and the evaporated gas. Before a CFD code can be proposed as an alternate method for the prediction of flammable vapor cloud distances, it has to be validated with proper experimental data. This paper describes the use of Fluent, a widely-used commercial CFD code, to simulate one of the tests in the "Falcon" series of LNG spill tests. The "Falcon" test series was the only series that specifically addressed the effects of impoundment walls and construction obstructions on the behavior and dispersion of the vapor cloud. Most other tests, such as the Coyote and the Burro series, involved spills onto water and relatively flat ground. The paper discusses the critical parameters necessary for a CFD model to accurately predict the behavior of a cryogenic spill in a geometrically complex domain, and presents comparisons between the gas concentrations measured during the Falcon-1 test and those predicted using Fluent. Finally, the paper discusses the effect vapor barriers have in containing part of the spill thereby shortening the ignitable vapor cloud and therefore the required hazard area. This issue was addressed by comparing the Falcon-1 simulation (spill into the impoundment) with the simulation of an identical spill without any

  4. The synthetic gestagen Levonorgestrel disrupts sexual development in Xenopus laevis by affecting gene expression of pituitary gonadotropins and gonadal steroidogenic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Claudia; Contardo-Jara, Valeska; Trubiroha, Achim; Krüger, Angela; Viehmann, Viola; Wiegand, Claudia; Pflugmacher, Stephan; Nützmann, Gunnar; Lutz, Ilka; Kloas, Werner

    2011-12-01

    In the present study, Xenopus laevis tadpoles were chronically exposed to four concentrations of the synthetic gestagen Levonorgestrel (LNG; 10(-11), 10(-10), 10(-9), and 10(-8)M) starting at Nieuwkoop and Faber (NF) stage 48 until completion of metamorphosis. At NF 58 and 66, brain-pituitary and gonad samples were taken for gene expression analyses of gonadotropins and gonadal steroidogenic enzymes. Exposure to 10(-9) and 10(-8)M LNG until NF 58 repressed messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of luteinizing hormone (LH) β in both genders. This decrease was persistent after further treatment until NF 66 in the 10(-8)M LNG treatment. Expression of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) β was affected sex-specifically. No effect was present in NF 58 females, whereas LNG at 10(-9) and 10(-8)M significantly increased FSHβ mRNA levels in males. In NF 66 females, 10(-9)M LNG treatment increased FSHβ gene expression, whereas a decrease was observed in NF 66 males exposed to 10(-8)M LNG. In gonads, expression of steroid-5-alpha-reductase was affected sex-specifically with increased mRNA levels in females but repressed levels in males. Gene expression of further gonadal steroidogenic factors was decreased by 10(-8)M LNG in both genders at NF 66. Assessment of gonad gross morphology and histology revealed poorly developed testes in the 10(-8)M LNG treatment. Our results reveal considerable effects of chronic LNG exposure on sexual development of amphibians. The persistent inhibition of LHβ expression concomitant with decreased mRNA levels of gonadal steroidogenic enzymes is suggested to result in the disruption of reproduction in adult amphibians.

  5. CFD Investigation of Pollutant Emission in Can-Type Combustor Firing Natural Gas, LNG and Syngas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasini, H.; Fadhil, SSA; Mat Zian, N.; Om, NI

    2016-03-01

    CFD investigation of flow, combustion process and pollutant emission using natural gas, liquefied natural gas and syngas of different composition is carried out. The combustor is a can-type combustor commonly used in thermal power plant gas turbine. The investigation emphasis on the comparison of pollutant emission such in particular CO2, and NOx between different fuels. The numerical calculation for basic flow and combustion process is done using the framework of ANSYS Fluent with appropriate model assumptions. Prediction of pollutant species concentration at combustor exit shows significant reduction of CO2 and NOx for syngas combustion compared to conventional natural gas and LNG combustion.

  6. Optimized simulation of vortex jet mill in waste rubber grinding technology by LNG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Yuemei

    2015-07-01

    Frozen rubber powder has excellent qualities and application value, and it can be achieved from waste rubber after being crushed at low temperature used liquefied natural gas (LNG) as cryogen. Vortex jet mill was the key equipment to further crush the rubber particles which the pressure-air was jet into in the basic LNG technological process. After confirming the structure and size of the jet nozzle, the Height (H) between the nozzle and the bottom of the mill, the incident angle α and the initial size of the rubber particles were changed then the continuous phase and the track of single particle were optimized in order to gain more excellent crushing effect. The results showed: the jetting gas were spiral rising in the mill and the speed of it was reduced, so the particle was graded by the gas. The impact and collision could reduce the particle diameter and crush them but the result was influenced by the initial size of the particle. The size of the original rubber particles must not be more than 110μm. The simulation was helpful and leading for the experiment.

  7. 18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas facilities prior to filing of... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC... and Approving Abandonment under Section 7 of the Natural Gas Act, as Amended, Concerning Any...

  8. 18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas facilities prior to filing of... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC... and Approving Abandonment under Section 7 of the Natural Gas Act, as Amended, Concerning Any...

  9. 18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas facilities prior to filing of... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC... and Approving Abandonment under Section 7 of the Natural Gas Act, as Amended, Concerning Any...

  10. 18 CFR 157.21 - Pre-filing procedures and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... and review process for LNG terminal facilities and other natural gas facilities prior to filing of... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT APPLICATIONS FOR CERTIFICATES OF PUBLIC... and Approving Abandonment under Section 7 of the Natural Gas Act, as Amended, Concerning Any...

  11. U.S. LNG Markets and Uses 2003

    EIA Publications

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the different aspects of liquefied natural gas markets and uses, paying particular attention to marine terminal operations, peak-shaving storage facilities, and developing niche markets.

  12. Public Hearing and Comment Period Documents for the Northeast Gateway Energy Bridge Deepwater, Federal Waters of Massachusetts Bay (Modification to Existing Permit LNG Regasification Vessel/DWP Project)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    List of public hearing & comment period document(s) for the Northeast Gateway Energy Bridge Deepwater Port, Federal Waters of Massachusetts Bay (Modification to Existing Permit LNG Regasification Vessel/DWP Project).

  13. Draft Permit & Supporting Documentation for the Northeast Gateway Energy Bridge Deepwater Port, Federal Waters of Massachusetts Bay (Modification to Existing Permit LNG Regasification Vessel/DWP Project)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    List of draft permit & supporting documentation for the Northeast Gateway Energy Bridge Deepwater Port, Federal Waters of Massachusetts Bay (Modification to Existing Permit LNG Regasification Vessel/DWP Project).

  14. [Changes of menstruation patterns and adverse effects during the treatment of LNG-IUS for symptomatic adenomyosis].

    PubMed

    Li, L; Leng, J H; Zhang, J J; Jia, S Z; Li, X Y; Shi, J H; Dai, Y; Zhang, J R; Li, T; Xu, X X; Liu, Z Z; You, S S; Chang, X Y; Lang, J H

    2016-09-25

    Objective: To investigate the changes of mestruation patterns and adverse effects during the treatment of levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system(LNG-IUS)for symptomatic adenomyosis in a prospective cohort study. Methods: From December, 2006 to December, 2014, patients of symptomatic adenomyosis diagnosed by transvaginal ultrasound in Peking Union Medical College Hospital were given LNG-IUS. Before and after placement of IUS, all patients' parameters were recorded, including carrying status of IUS, symptoms and scores of dysmenorrhea, menstruation scores, biochemical indicators, physical parameters, menstruation patterns and adverse effects. Risk factors for changes of menstruation patterns and adverse effects, and their impact on treatment effects were analyzed. Results: Totally 1 100 cases met inclusion criteria, with median age 36 years(range 20-44 years), median follow-up 35 months(range 1 -108 months). During follow-up changes of menstruation patterns increased significantly with amenorrhea and shortened-menstruation being the most common manifestations. On 3, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 60 months after the placement of LNG-IUS, 0, 5.8%(43/744), 6.9%(47/682), 10.1%(60/595), 17.3%(87/502), 27.2%(104/383)and 29.6%(82/277)patients achieved amenorrhea respectively(P<0.01). Total and subclassification of adverse effects decreased significantly(P<0.01). Within 12 months and >12 months after placement, abdominal pain and body weight increasing ≥5 kg/year were the most common adverse effects. Changes of menstruation patterns, total and subclassifications of adverse effects were neither dependent on patient parameters, treatment modes and treatment effects, nor could predict future LNG-IUS carrying status(all P> 0.05). After taking out of LNG-IUS, most changes of menstruation and adverse effects disappeared. Conclusions: During the treatment of LNG-IUS for symptomatic adenomyosis, changes of menstruation patterns increase gradually with amenorrhea and shortened

  15. Numerical study on mixing of sprayed liquid in an LNG storage tank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uchida, Hiroyuki; Arai, Tatsuya; Sugihara, Makoto; Nakayama, Mariko

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical method to simulate the mixing of heavier LNG sprayed on lighter layer. Numerical results for evolutions of flow field and density field are obtained in a rectangular computational domain which includes the vicinity of the liquid surface. At the surface boundary, uniform distributions of the fluid velocity and the density are assumed. Detail structure of flow caused by impingements of liquid drops are neglected. But, to trigger a realistic motion, a series of random numbers is employed. It is used as an initial distribution of the density near the surface. This method successfully gives a realistic simulation of the mixing process. Numerical results for mixing velocity shows good agreement with experimental data.

  16. Experimental study on flow boiling heat transfer of LNG in a vertical smooth tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dongsheng; Shi, Yumei

    2013-10-01

    An experimental apparatus is set up in this work to study the upward flow boiling heat transfer characteristics of LNG (liquefied natural gas) in vertical smooth tubes with inner diameters of 8 mm and 14 mm. The experiments were performed at various inlet pressures from 0.3 to 0.7 MPa. The results were obtained over the mass flux range from 16 to 200 kg m-2 s-1 and heat fluxes ranging from 8.0 to 32 kW m-2. The influences of quality, heat flux and mass flux, tube diameter on the heat transfer characteristic are examined and discussed. The comparisons of the experimental heat transfer coefficients with the predicted values from the existing correlations are analyzed. The correlation by Zou et al. [16] shows the best accuracy with the RMS deviation of 31.7% in comparison with the experimental data.

  17. Performance analysis of liquid air energy storage utilizing LNG cold energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luyao, Li; Sixian, Wang; Zhang, Deng; Luwei, Yang; Yuan, Zhou; Junjie, Wang

    2017-02-01

    As the high energy density and can be stored in a long period, the liquid air is regarded as the potential energy storage medium. In the liquid air energy storage (LAES) system, liquid air is produced in the liquefaction processes by using the renewable energy or off-peak energy. The compressor is used to supply and recycle the air in liquefaction processes. In this paper, a LAES model is established, and the impact of compressor on LAES system is analysed theoretically. Liquid air energy storage (LAES) system utilizing LNG cold energy is also described. The results show that the round trip energy efficiency is enhanced and the utilizing has promising application prospect for large scale energy storage.

  18. Numerical study on mixing of sprayed liquid in an LNG storage tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Hiroyuki; Arai, Tatsuya; Sugihara, Makoto; Nakayama, Mariko

    This paper presents a numerical method to simulate the mixing of heavier LNG sprayed on lighter layer. Numerical results for evolutions of flow field and density field are obtained in a rectangular computational domain which includes the vicinity of the liquid surface. At the surface boundary, uniform distributions of the fluid velocity and the density are assumed. Detail structure of flow caused by impingements of liquid drops are neglected. But, to trigger a realistic motion, a series of random numbers is employed. It is used as an initial distribution of the density near the surface. This method successfully gives a realistic simulation of the mixing process. Numerical results for mixing velocity shows good agreement with experimental data.

  19. Pressure Build-Up in LNG and LH2 Vehicular Cryogenic Storage Tanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barclay, J. A.; Rowe, A. M.; Barclay, M. A.

    2004-06-01

    The use of LNG and LH2 as fuels in heavy duty vehicles is increasing steadily because cryogenic liquids provides superior volumetric and gravimetric energy densities compared to other means of on-board storage. Although several sizes and types of tanks exist, a typical vehicular storage tank has a volume of ˜400 liters (˜100 gallons). The pressure in the ullage space of a tank freshly filled is usually ˜0.25 MPa but may vary during use from ˜0.25 MPa (˜20 psig) to ˜0.92 MPa (˜120 psig). Cryogenic vehicular tanks are typically dual-walled, stainless steel vessels with vacuum and superinsulation isolation between the inner and outer vessel walls. The heat leaks into such tanks are measured as a percentage boil-off per day. For a storage tank of vehicular size range, the boil-off may be ˜ 1 % day, depending upon the cryogen and the quality of the tank. The corresponding heat leak into the cryogenic liquid vaporizes a certain amount of liquid that in turn increases the pressure in the tank which in turn significantly influences the properties of the cryogens. We have used a novel approach to calculate the increase in pressure of LNG and LH2 in a closed cryogenic vessel with a fixed heat leak as a function of time using real equations of state for the properties of the cryogens. The method and results for the time it takes for a freshly filled tank to increase in pressure from the filling pressure of ˜0.25 MPa to a venting pressure of ˜1.73 MPa are presented.

  20. Development and validation of sensitive LC/MS/MS method for quantitative bioanalysis of levonorgestrel in rat plasma and application to pharmacokinetics study.

    PubMed

    Ananthula, Suryatheja; Janagam, Dileep R; Jamalapuram, Seshulatha; Johnson, James R; Mandrell, Timothy D; Lowe, Tao L

    2015-10-15

    Rapid, sensitive, selective and accurate LC/MS/MS method was developed for quantitative determination of levonorgestrel (LNG) in rat plasma and further validated for specificity, linearity, accuracy, precision, sensitivity, matrix effect, recovery efficiency and stability. Liquid-liquid extraction procedure using hexane:ethyl acetate mixture at 80:20 v:v ratio was employed to efficiently extract LNG from rat plasma. Reversed phase Luna column C18(2) (50×2.0mm i.d., 3μM) installed on a AB SCIEX Triple Quad™ 4500 LC/MS/MS system was used to perform chromatographic separation. LNG was identified within 2min with high specificity. Linear calibration curve was drawn within 0.5-50ng·mL(-1) concentration range. The developed method was validated for intra-day and inter-day accuracy and precision whose values fell in the acceptable limits. Matrix effect was found to be minimal. Recovery efficiency at three quality control (QC) concentrations 0.5 (low), 5 (medium) and 50 (high) ng·mL(-1) was found to be >90%. Stability of LNG at various stages of experiment including storage, extraction and analysis was evaluated using QC samples, and the results showed that LNG was stable at all the conditions. This validated method was successfully used to study the pharmacokinetics of LNG in rats after SubQ injection, providing its applicability in relevant preclinical studies.

  1. Cost-benefit analysis of alternative LNG vapor-mitigation measures. Topical report, September 14, 1987-January 15, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Atallah, S.

    1992-06-25

    A generalized methodology is presented for comparing the costs and safety benefits of alternative hazard mitigation measures for a large LNG vapor release. The procedure involves the quantification of the risk to the public before and after the application of LNG vapor mitigation measures. In the study, risk was defined as the product of the annual accident frequency, estimated from a fault tree analysis, and the severity of the accident. Severity was measured in terms of the number of people who may be exposed to 2.5% or higher concentration. The ratios of the annual costs of the various mitigation measures to their safety benefits (as determined by the differences between the risk before and after mitigation measure implementation), were then used to identify the most cost-effective approaches to vapor cloud mitigation.

  2. Suggested method for evaluating the safety and durability of vehicle LNG containment systems. Final report, December 1992-December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Ripling, E.J.; Crosley, P.B.; Geiger, R.J.

    1994-05-01

    The report describes a series of tests that could be conducted which will indicate an ability of an LNG vehicle tank to withstand forces encountered in (1) over-the-road operations, (2) truck coupling, (3) denting, and (4) 30 mph impact. These operating conditions are the ones thought by the NFPA 57 committee to be the ones of greatest concern, from a safety viewpoint.

  3. Prognostic significance of estrogen and progesterone receptor expression in LNG-IUS (Mirena) treatment of endometrial hyperplasia: an immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Akesson, Emelie; Gallos, Ioannis D; Ganesan, Raji; Varma, Rajesh; Gupta, Janesh K

    2010-03-01

    We performed immunohistochemical analysis of estrogen (ERalpha) and progesterone receptors (PRA and PRB), phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) and aromatase in endometrial hyperplasia treated with Mirena (levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system; LNG-IUS) and explored their prognostic significance. The baseline pre-treatment endometrial hyperplasia of a selected prospective cohort was analyzed [complex (n = 29) and atypical (n = 5)]. Study participants were categorized into those that showed endometrial regression (responders, n = 28) and those that showed non-regression or histological progression to atypia or malignancy (non-responders, n = 6). Immunohistochemical expression was expressed as a histological score (HS). Responders compared to non-responders showed significantly higher HSs for estrogen and progesterone receptors. Absence of estrogen and progesterone receptors predicted non-responder status with likelihood ratios of 9.33 (95% CI 2.19-39.81) and 2.92 (95% CI 1.47-5.79), respectively. Neither PTEN nor aromatase expression were associated with LNG-IUS therapy responsiveness. Responsiveness of endometrial hyperplasia to LNG-IUS therapy may be determined through analysis of baseline estrogen and progesterone receptors, but these exploratory findings require confirmation in a larger dataset.

  4. Adapting British gas LNG facilities to varying gas compositions: The SELEXOL {reg_sign} process and cryogenic separation

    SciTech Connect

    Dewing, R.A.; Waring, S.; Burns, D.

    1996-12-31

    The original design of the UK National Transmission System (NTS) included five peak shave LNG storage sites strategically located around the country. They now form part of the Storage business that offers gas services to gas transportation companies-these include non British Gas companies as well as other parts of British Gas itself. At these sites, natural gas can be taken from the NTS at the request of the gas transportation companies, treated to cryogenic specifications, and liquefied for storage. LNG can then be re-vaporized and re-injected into the NTS or local mains as required. In this way the whole NTS does not have to be sized for peak rates and increases in demand can be met very quickly. Each peak-shave site was originally designed to handle natural gas with CO{sub 2} levels of up to 1 mol% and with ethane and higher hydrocarbon (C{sub 2}+) levels that needed only limited reduction. However, as different natural gas reservoirs came on stream in the early 1990`s the level of CO{sub 2} and C{sub 2}+ in the NTS network began to rise, and significant modifications were required at four of the five LNG sites. 3 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. LNG (liquefied natural gas) as a fuel and refrigerant for diesel powered shrimp boats

    SciTech Connect

    Acker, G. Jr.; Brett, C.E.; Schaetzle, W.J.; Song, Y.K.

    1988-01-01

    A 3406-B Caterpillar and a 4.236 Perkins have been converted from their standard diesel configuration to dual-fuel engines. These engines operate using an aspirated charge of natural gas and a pilot charge of diesel fuel. The pilot is injected for combustion initiation, performing the same task as a spark plug in a spark ignition engine. Natural gas supplies 80% of the total heat addition at full load for both engines. The diesel fuel provides ignition, performs the function of idling the engine, and acts as a coolant for the injector tips. The diesel pilot setting remains constant throughout the operating range and provides a regular repeatable idle for the engine during no-load operation. A shrimp boat is being used to evaluate the dual-fuel system. The vessel normally carries 16000 1 of diesel fuel giving it a trip length of 14-21 days. To operate on natural gas with similar trip length requires liquification and cryogenic storage at -163/sup 0/C. This type of storage provides the necessary energy density needed for on board fuel storage. A 22 m shrimp boat will carry approximately 17000 1 of LNG in insulated tanks. Urethane insulation is used as both an insulator against heat leak and as a partial tank support structure.

  6. 355-nm high spectral resolution airborne lidar LNG: system description and first results.

    PubMed

    Bruneau, D; Pelon, J; Blouzon, F; Spatazza, J; Genau, P; Buchholtz, G; Amarouche, N; Abchiche, A; Aouji, O

    2015-10-10

    A high spectral resolution (HSR) measurement capability in the ultraviolet has been added to the 3-wavelength-2-polarization-backscatter lidar LNG (lidar aerosols nouvelle génération) and tested during several flights. The system includes a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) as a spectral discriminator and does not require any frequency locking between the emitter and the interferometer. Results obtained during test flights show that the backscatter and extinction coefficients at 355 nm can be measured with a relative precision of 10% for 60 m and 240 m vertical resolution, respectively, in aerosol layers of 10-6  m-1 sr-1 backscatter coefficient with a 30-km horizontal resolution. The same relative precision is obtained in cirrus clouds of a 2×10-5  m-1 sr-1 backscatter coefficient for the same vertical resolution and a horizontal resolution reduced to 5 km. The capacity of the system to perform wind velocity measurements is also demonstrated with precisions in the range of 1 to 2  ms-1. Particle-to-total backscatter ratio and line-of-sight speed measurements have been performed on ground echoes; averaged data show biases less than 1% and 0.15  ms-1, respectively.

  7. Aqueous exposure to the progestin, levonorgestrel, alters anal fin development and reproductive behavior in the eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki).

    PubMed

    Frankel, Tyler E; Meyer, Michael T; Orlando, Edward F

    2016-08-01

    Endogenous progestogens are important regulators of vertebrate reproduction. Synthetic progestins are components of human contraceptive and hormone replacement pharmaceuticals. Both progestogens and progestins enter the environment through a number of sources, and have been shown to cause profound effects on reproductive health in various aquatic vertebrates. Progestins are designed to bind human progesterone receptors, but they also have been shown to strongly activate androgen receptors in fish. Levonorgestrel (LNG) activates fish androgen receptors and induces development of male secondary sex characteristics in females of other species. Although behavior has been postulated to be a sensitive early indicator of exposure to certain environmental contaminants, no such research on the reproductive behavior of gestagen-exposed fish has been conducted to date. The goal of our study was to examine the exposure effects of a human contraceptive progestin, LNG, on the reproductive development and behavior of the viviparous eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki). Internal fertilization is a requisite characteristic of viviparous species, and is enabled by an androgen driven elongation of the anal fin into the male gonopodium (i.e., phallus). In this study, we exposed adult mosquitofish to ethanol (EtOH control), 10ng/L, and 100ng/L LNG for 8d using a static replacement exposure design. After 8d, a subset of males and females from each treatment were examined for differences in the 4:6 anal fin ratio. In addition, paired social interaction trials were performed using individual control males and control females or females treated 10ng/L or 100ng/L LNG. Female mosquitofish exposed to LNG were masculinized as evidenced by the elongation of the anal fin rays, a feature normal to males and abnormal to females. LNG caused significant increases in the 4:6 anal fin ratios of female mosquitofish in both the 10ng/L and 100ng/L treatments, although these differences were not

  8. Efficacy of the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) in the prevention of the atypical endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial cancer: retrospective data from selected obese menopausal symptomatic women.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Michele; Di Cello, Annalisa; Venturella, Roberta; Mocciaro, Rita; D'Alessandro, Pietro; Zullo, Fulvio

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of levonorgestrel intrauterine system-releasing (LNG-IUS) insertion in preventing atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AH) and endometrial cancer (EC) in symptomatic postmenopausal overweight/obese women. A total of 34 overweight/obese postmenopausal women, presenting abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) and endometrial hyperplasia (EH), and who were submitted to LNG-IUS insertion, were identified from registry data. Endometrial histology at LNG-IUS insertion showed simple EH in 20 cases (58.8%), complex EH in 14 cases (41.2%). At 36 months, 91% of patients showed no recurrence of AUB and a significant reduction in the mean endometrial thickness (from 8.2 ± 2.2 to 3.2 ± 1.5 mm, p < 0.05) was observed. Histologic regression of EH was observed in 27 (79.4%) and 33 (97.5%) cases at 12 and 36 months, respectively. None of the women in which EH persisted, reported cellular atypia or cancer progression at 12 and 36 months of follow-up. LNG-IUS represents an effective treatment option to manage postmenopausal obese women affected by AUB and EH. The device seems to be able to prevent the onset of AH and EC in women at high risk. Further prospective controlled studies in a well selected group of women are needed.

  9. Stress analysis and fatigue evaluation of shell-to-footer plate joint in liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage tanks. Final topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, J.P.; Outtrim, P.A.; Tong, R.T.

    1996-09-01

    The life extension efforts were initiated to gather, evaluate, and provide LNG facility operators and storage tank designers with information that will help support assurances for long-term structural integrity. For this specific effort, the evaluation of a critical tank element, i.e. the shell-to-footer plate weld was conducted.

  10. Two-phase heat transfer and pressure drop of LNG during saturated flow boiling in a horizontal tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Dongsheng; Shi, Yumei

    2013-12-01

    Two-phase heat transfer and pressure drop of LNG (liquefied natural gas) have been measured in a horizontal smooth tube with an inner diameter of 8 mm. The experiments were conducted at inlet pressures from 0.3 to 0.7 MPa with a heat flux of 8-36 kW m-2, and mass flux of 49.2-201.8 kg m-2 s-1. The effect of vapor quality, inlet pressure, heat flux and mass flux on the heat transfer characteristic are discussed. The comparisons of the experimental data with the predicted value by existing correlations are analyzed. Zou et al. (2010) correlation shows the best accuracy with 24.1% RMS deviation among them. Moreover four frictional pressure drop methods are also chosen to compare with the experimental database.

  11. Use of a frameless LNG-IUS as conservative treatment for a pre-malignant uterine polyp in a premenopausal woman - a case report.

    PubMed

    Janssens, D; Verbeeck, G; Wildemeersch, D

    2015-12-28

    Prevention of progression to invasive carcinoma in patients with a premalignant endometrial lesion using longterm treatment with levonorgestrel (LNG) releasing intrauterine systems (IUS) remains controversial, especially when manifest cellular atypia has been found in the endometrial biopsy specimen. We present a case of a 44-year old premenopausal woman with a premalignant uterine polyp who declined hysterectomy and was followed-up for more than 12 years after the first LNG-IUS was inserted. Endometrial atrophy installed, no pathology was detected and hysterectomy was thereby successfully avoided. The positive experience in this case should encourage further studies as literature data indicate that conservative treatment of premalignant endometrial pathology is a real option with a high success rate for women who have a contra-indication for surgery, refuse the classical approach for personal reasons or want to preserve their fertility.

  12. Field tests on human tolerance to (LNG) fire radiant heat exposure, and attenuation effects of clothing and other objects.

    PubMed

    Raj, Phani K

    2008-09-15

    A series of field tests exposing mannequins clothed with civilian clothing to a 3m x 3m square liquefied natural gas (LNG) pool fire was conducted. Both single layer clothing and double layer clothing were used. The radiant heat flux incident outside the clothing and incident on the skin covered by clothing were measured using wide-angle radiometers, for durations of 100-200 s (per test). The levels of heat flux incident on the clothing were close to 5 kW/m(2). The magnitude of the radiant heat attenuation factor (AF) across the thickness was determined. AF varies between 2 and higher for cotton and polyester clothing (thickness 0.286-1.347 mm); AF value of 6 was measured for 1.347 mm thickness. Single sheet newspaper held about 5 cm in front of mannequins and exposed to incident flux of 5 kW/m(2) resulted in AF of 5, and AF of 8 with double sheets. AF decreases linearly with increasing heat flux values and linearly increases with thickness. The author exposed himself, in normal civilian clothing (of full sleeve cotton/polyester shirt and jean pants), to radiant heat from a LNG fire. The exposure was for several tens of seconds to heat flux levels ranging from 3.5 kW/m(2) to 5(+) kW/m(2) (exposure times from 25s to 97 s at average heat flux values in the 4 kW/m(2) and 5 kW/m(2)range). Occasionally, he was exposed to (as high as) 7 kW/m(2) for durations of several seconds. He did not suffer any unbearable or even severe pain nor did he experience blisters or burns or any other injury on the unprotected skin of his body. The incident heat fluxes on the author were measured by a hand-held radiometer (with digital display) as well as by strapped on wide-angle radiometers connected to a computer. He could withstand the US regulatory criterion of 5 kW/m(2) (for 30 s) without suffering any damage or burns. Temperature measured on author's skin covered by clothing did not rise above the normal body temperature even after 200 s of exposure to 4 kW/m(2) average heat flux.

  13. Performance analysis of different ORC configurations for thermal energy and LNG cold energy hybrid power generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhixin; Wang, Feng; Wang, Shujia; Xu, Fuquan; Lin, Kui

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a thermal energy and Liquefied natural gas (LNG) cold energy hybrid power generation system. Performances of four different Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) configurations (the basic, the regenerative, the reheat and the regenerative-reheat ORCs) are studied based on the first and the second law of thermodynamics. Dry organic fluid R245fa is selected as the typical working fluid. Parameter analysis is also conducted in this paper. The results show that regeneration could not increase the thermal efficiency of the thermal and cold energy hybrid power generation system. ORC with the reheat process could produce more specific net power output but it may also reduce the system thermal efficiency. The basic and the regenerative ORCs produce higher thermal efficiency while the regenerative-reheat ORC performs best in the exergy efficiency. A preheater is necessary for the thermal and cold energy hybrid power generation system. And due to the presence of the preheater, there will be a step change of the system performance as the turbine inlet pressure rises.

  14. Safety, efficacy and patient acceptability of the contraceptive and non-contraceptive uses of the LNG-IUS.

    PubMed

    Bednarek, Paula H; Jensen, Jeffrey T

    2010-08-09

    Intrauterine devices (IUDs) provide highly effective, long-term, safe, reversible contraception, and are the most widely used reversible contraceptive method worldwide. The levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) is a T-shaped IUD with a steroid reservoir containing 52 mg of levonorgestrel that is released at an initial rate of 20 μg daily. It is highly effective, with a typical-use first year pregnancy rate of 0.1% - similar to surgical tubal occlusion. It is approved for 5 years of contraceptive use, and there is evidence that it can be effective for up to 7 years of continuous use. After removal, there is rapid return to fertility, with 1-year life-table pregnancy rates of 89 per 100 for women less than 30 years of age. Most users experience a dramatic reduction in menstrual bleeding, and about 15% to 20% of women become amenorrheic 1 year after insertion. The device's strong local effects on the endometrium benefit women with various benign gynecological conditions such as menorrhagia, dysmenorrhea, leiomyomata, adenomyosis, and endometriosis. There is also evidence to support its role in endometrial protection during postmenopausal estrogen replacement therapy, and in the treatment of endometrial hyperplasia.

  15. Study of the tank systems of 125,000 cu m MRV type LNG carrier (loads and stress analysis)

    SciTech Connect

    Nagomoto, R.; Ushijima, M.; Sakai, D.; Hagiwara, K.; Takahashi, T.; Kuramoto, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental analyses of ship motion, wave load, and stress induced in the hull and tank system of a 125,000-m/sup 3/ Moss-Rosenberg Verft A/S (MRV) LNG carrier found that the roll-damping coefficient of a moving ship is 4-5 times greater than that of a ship at rest. MHI improved the methods of calculating rolling motion by accounting for the effect of the liquid motion in the tank. The results of bench tests using a 2.7-ft diam spherical tank permitted estimating the hydrodynamic pressure acting on the tank shell, the liquid velocity, and the dynamic force on the pipe tower. MHI found close agreement between its computer calculations and the results of structural tests on a 13.8-ft long hull model. Three-dimensional stress analysis determined the boundary-force distribution for the hold (including the tank cover). The axisymmetrical computer program CYLAN and the equator-zooming technique accurately estimated the tank-system induced stress. The results of these analyses indicate that the MRV tank design is safe and strong.

  16. Engineering development of advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies - froth flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, D.D.; Bencho, J.R.

    1995-11-01

    In 1988, ICF Kaiser Engineers was awarded DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-88PC88881 to research, develop, engineer and design a commercially acceptable advanced froth flotation coal cleaning technology. The DOE initiative is in support of the continued utilization of our most abundant energy resource. Besides the goal of commercialability, coal cleaning performance and product quality goals were established by the DOE for this and similar projects. primary among these were the goals of 85 percent energy recovery and 85 percent pyrite rejection. Three nationally important coal resources were used for this project: the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, the Upper Freeport coal, and the Illinois No. 6 coal. Following is a summary of the key findings of this project.

  17. Development of a Liquid to Compressed Natural Gas (LCNG) Fueling Station. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, J. A.

    1999-06-30

    The program objective was the development of equipment and processes to produce compressed natural gas (CNG) from liquified natural gas (LNG) for heavy duty vehicular applications. The interest for this technology is a result of the increased use of alternative fuels for the reduction of emissions and dependency of foreign energy. Technology of the type developed under this program is critical for establishing natural gas as an economical alternative fuel.

  18. Predictability of LNG Vapor Dispersion from Catastrophic Spills Onto Water: An Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-04-01

    and M. Teske , "Turbulence Modeling and its Application to Atmospheric Diffusion, Part I: Recent Program Development Verification, and Application...34 EPA Report No. 600/4-75-016 a,(December 1975). 37. Lewellen, W. S. and M. Teske , "Turbulence Modeling and its Application to Atmospheric Diffusion

  19. LNG: Clean affordable energy for power and town gas in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, M.F.; Grant, C.W.; King, N.

    1998-02-01

    Some Asian countries such as Myanmar, Vietnam, and Indonesia are still at very low electricity consumption rates per capita, while others, such as Malaysia and Taiwan, are at much higher rates. What all Asian countries have in common is rapid growth in the demand for electricity. If the rising demand for additional electricity is not met, economic growth will be curtailed. However, all Asian countries face a major challenge in funding and constructing the required additional generating capacity fast enough to meet demand. Finding this amount of new capital is not going to be easy, and there will be much competition for scarce funds. The environmental challenge may be even greater than the financing hurdle. To date, most generation capacity in Asia has been coal based, and a significant amount of that is low technology and without flue gas desulfurization. The effect on the environment is already apparent. One argument has been that developing countries cannot afford the same standards of environmental performance as developed countries. With the levels of pollution that exist today, the question should be, can they afford not to? It has been estimated that pollution in China costs US$100 billion/a and that US$20 billion has to be spent over the next decade just to prevent worsening of pollution.

  20. Environmental harm assessment of a wastewater discharge from Hammerfest LNG: a study with biomarkers in mussels (Mytilus sp.) and Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua).

    PubMed

    Beyer, Jonny; Aarab, Nadia; Tandberg, Anne Helene; Ingvarsdottir, Anna; Bamber, Shaw; Børseth, Jan Fredrik; Camus, Lionel; Velvin, Roger

    2013-04-15

    Biologically treated wastewater (WW) from the Hammerfest LNG (liquefied natural gas) plant is discharged to the sea. A study using biomarkers in mussels and Atlantic cod was performed to examine whether this discharge meets a zero harmful emission requirement. Caging of mussels close to the outfall and exposure of mussels and fish to WW in the laboratory were conducted, and a suite of contaminant responsive markers was assessed in exposed animals. In mussels the markers included chemical contaminant levels, haemocyte lysosomal instability and nucleus integrity, cellular energy allocation, digestive gland and gonad histopathology and shell-opening behaviour. In fish, biliary PAH metabolites and gill histopathology biomarkers were measured. A consistent cause-effect relationship between WW treatments and markers measured in test animals was not found. The results therefore indicate that the WW emission is unlikely to represent a significant stress factor for the local marine environment under the conditions studied.

  1. Development of the LICADO coal cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-31

    Development of the liquid carbon dioxide process for the cleaning of coal was performed in batch, variable volume (semi-continuous), and continuous tests. Continuous operation at feed rates up to 4.5 kg/hr (10-lb/hr) was achieved with the Continuous System. Coals tested included Upper Freeport, Pittsburgh, Illinois No. 6, and Middle Kittanning seams. Results showed that the ash and pyrite rejections agreed closely with washability data for each coal at the particle size tested (-200 mesh). A 0.91 metric ton (1-ton) per hour Proof-of-Concept Plant was conceptually designed. A 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and a 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour plant were sized sufficiently to estimate costs for economic analyses. The processing costs for the 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour were estimated to be $18.96 per metric ton ($17.20 per ton) and $11.47 per metric ton ($10.40 per ton), respectively for these size plants. The costs for the 45 metric ton per hour plant are lower because it is assumed to be a fines recovery plant which does not require a grinding circuit of complex waste handling system.

  2. [Clinical study of high intensity focused ultrasound ablation combined with GnRH-a and LNG-IUS for the treatment of adenomyosis].

    PubMed

    Ye, M Z; Deng, X L; Zhu, X G; Xue, M

    2016-09-25

    Objective: To investigate the clinical effect of dysmenorrhea in patients with adenomyosis treated by high intensity focused ultrasound(HIFU)ablation combined with gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist(GnRH-a)and levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system(LNG-IUS). Methods: From April 2012 to December 2015, 477 cases of adenomyosis patients with dysmenorrhea were treated by HIFU in the Third Xiangya Hospital. Among them, some patients were treated with HIFU alone, some of them were treated with HIFU combined with GnRH-a and(or)LNG-IUS, thus were classified as H group, H+G group, H+M group and H+G+M group. The improvements of clinical results were compared among the four groups and the influencing factors of HIFU treatment for adenomyosis were also analyzed. Results: During the follow-up period, the overall effective rates of the treatment decreased with time, 3 months 89.4%(345/386), 12 months 84.0%(221/263), 24 months 74.2%(98/132), and the overall recurrence rate was 12.9%(39/303). The significant difference in the curative at 3 months[H group 83.7%(170/203), H+M group 95.0%(95/100), H+G group 100.0%(43/43), H+G+M group 96.8%(30/31)], 12 months[H group 79.4%(123/155), H+M group 93.2%(69/74), H+G group 11/12, H+G+M group 15/17], and 24 months[H group 68.0%(51/75), H+M group 96.4%(27/28), H+G group 6/12, H+G+M group 15/15]after HIFU treatment and recurrence rate[H group 19.0%(29/153), H+M group 3.3%(3/90), H+G group 19.4%(6/31), H+G+M group 4.5%(1/22)]were observed among the four groups(P<0.05). Pairwise comparison further showed that, in 3 months after the treatment, the effect of H group was significantly lower than those of H+M group and H+G group(P= 0.003, P=0.005); in 12 months after the treatment, the effect of H group was significantly lower than that of H+M group(P=0.006); while in 24 months after treatment, the effect of H group was significantly lower than that of H+G+M group(P=0.005), and the effect of H+G group was lower than that of H+G+M group(P= 0

  3. On the Necessity of Changes in the Strategy of Utilization Ship Boiler Technical Condition Maintenance in the Aspect of LNG Applied as Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamkiewicz, Andrzej; Zeńczak, Wojciech

    2017-03-01

    Heavy oils (HFO fuels) used on ships play a part in degradation of technical condition of heat exchange surfaces of utilization boilers especially on the exhaust gas side. Presence of sulphur in these fuels is the main factor favouring degradation. The upper limit for sulphur content in the fuel used outside the SECA areas equal to 3.5% is currently in force, at least until the year 2020 or 2025. The recommended by classification societies overhauls of utilization boilers are, therefore characterized by a specially chosen strategy thanks to which it is possible to maintain their appropriate technical condition. The requirement to use fuels with low sulphur content (LSFO), which are significantly more expensive than MDO fuels, in the areas of controlled sulphur emissions also led to a further introduction of alternative fuels, such as methanol and above all liquefied natural gas (LNG), onto ships. That is especially valid for the ship owners whose vessels e.g. ferries sail mainly within SCECA This article analyses the consequences of the introduced fuel change on utilization boiler maintenance. A change in the technical condition maintenance strategy for utilization boilers has been suggested.

  4. Optimization of UA of heat exchangers and BOG compressor exit pressure of LNG boil-off gas reliquefaction system using exergy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochunni, Sarun Kumar; Ghosh, Parthasarathi; Chowdhury, Kanchan

    2015-12-01

    Boil-off gas (BOG) generation and its handling are important issues in Liquefied natural gas (LNG) value chain because of economic, environment and safety reasons. Several variants of reliquefaction systems of BOG have been proposed by researchers. Thermodynamic analyses help to configure them and size their components for improving performance. In this paper, exergy analysis of reliquefaction system based on nitrogen-driven reverse Brayton cycle is carried out through simulation using Aspen Hysys 8.6®, a process simulator and the effects of heat exchanger size with and without related pressure drop and BOG compressor exit pressure are evaluated. Nondimensionalization of parameters with respect to the BOG load allows one to scale up or down the design. The process heat exchanger (PHX) requires much higher surface area than that of BOG condenser and it helps to reduce the quantity of methane vented out to atmosphere. As pressure drop destroys exergy, optimum UA of PHX decreases for highest system performance if pressure drop is taken into account. Again, for fixed sizes of heat exchangers, as there is a range of discharge pressures of BOG compressor at which the loss of methane in vent minimizes, the designer should consider choosing the pressure at lower value.

  5. Development of a Gas-Promoted Oil Agglomeration Process

    SciTech Connect

    C. Nelson; F. Zhang; J. Drzymala; M. Shen; R. Abbott; T. D. Wheelock

    1997-11-01

    The preliminary laboratory-scale development of a gas-promoted, oil agglomeration process for cleaning coal was carried out with scale model mixing systems in which aqueous suspensions of ultrafine coal particles were treated with a liquid hydrocarbon and a small amount of air. The resulting agglomerates were recovered by screening. During a batch agglomeration test the progress of agglomeration was monitored by observing changes in agitator torque in the case of concentrated suspensions or by observing changes in turbidity in the case of dilute suspensions. Dilute suspensions were employed for investigating the kinetics of agglomeration, whereas concentrated suspensions were used for determining parameters that characterize the process of agglomeration. A key parameter turned out to be the minimum time te required to produce compact spherical agglomerates. Other important parameters included the projected area mean particle diameter of the agglomerates recovered at the end of a test as well as the ash content and yield of agglomerates. Batch agglomeration tests were conducted with geometrically similar mixing tanks which ranged in volume from 0.346 to 11.07 liters. Each tank was enclosed to control the amount of air present. A variable speed agitator fitted with a six blade turbine impeller was used for agitation. Tests were conducted with moderately hydrophobic Pittsburgh No. 8 coal and with more hydrophobic Upper Freeport coal using either n-heptane, i-octane, or hexadecane as an agglomerant.

  6. Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research Phase II: N+4 Advanced Concept Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Marty K.; Droney, Christopher K.

    2012-01-01

    This final report documents the work of the Boeing Subsonic Ultra Green Aircraft Research (SUGAR) team on Task 1 of the Phase II effort. The team consisted of Boeing Research and Technology, Boeing Commercial Airplanes, General Electric, and Georgia Tech. Using a quantitative workshop process, the following technologies, appropriate to aircraft operational in the N+4 2040 timeframe, were identified: Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG), Hydrogen, fuel cell hybrids, battery electric hybrids, Low Energy Nuclear (LENR), boundary layer ingestion propulsion (BLI), unducted fans and advanced propellers, and combinations. Technology development plans were developed.

  7. Development of the LICADO coal cleaning process. Final report, October 1, 1987--April 2, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-31

    Development of the liquid carbon dioxide process for the cleaning of coal was performed in batch, variable volume (semi-continuous), and continuous tests. Continuous operation at feed rates up to 4.5 kg/hr (10-lb/hr) was achieved with the Continuous System. Coals tested included Upper Freeport, Pittsburgh, Illinois No. 6, and Middle Kittanning seams. Results showed that the ash and pyrite rejections agreed closely with washability data for each coal at the particle size tested (-200 mesh). A 0.91 metric ton (1-ton) per hour Proof-of-Concept Plant was conceptually designed. A 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and a 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour plant were sized sufficiently to estimate costs for economic analyses. The processing costs for the 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour were estimated to be $18.96 per metric ton ($17.20 per ton) and $11.47 per metric ton ($10.40 per ton), respectively for these size plants. The costs for the 45 metric ton per hour plant are lower because it is assumed to be a fines recovery plant which does not require a grinding circuit of complex waste handling system.

  8. 77 FR 33446 - Jordan Cove Energy Project, L.P.; Application for Long-Term Authorization to Export Liquefied...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ..., multi-contract authorization to export as liquefied natural gas (LNG) both natural gas produced... the date the requested authorization is granted. The LNG would be exported from the proposed LNG... natural gas, (2) which has developed or in the future develops the capacity to import LNG via...

  9. Piling underwater noise impact on migrating salmon fish during Lithuanian LNG terminal construction (Curonian Lagoon, Eastern Baltic Sea Coast).

    PubMed

    Bagočius, Donatas

    2015-03-15

    Development of human activities in the Klaipėda strait generates a wide spectrum of underwater noise. In the fall of 2013, at the liquid natural gas terminal construction site in the shallow Curonian Lagoon area, an assessment of possible negative impacts on migrating salmon fish caused by pile driving noise was made. It is well known that impact hammer pile driving generates pulses with extremely high underwater noise levels. The obtained results proved that the pile hammering into the lagoon bottom generated pulses with a sound exposure level of 218 dB re 1 μPa(2) s @1m thus posing a risk to the migrating fish.

  10. Several synthetic progestins disrupt the glial cell specific-brain aromatase expression in developing zebra fish.

    PubMed

    Cano-Nicolau, Joel; Garoche, Clémentine; Hinfray, Nathalie; Pellegrini, Elisabeth; Boujrad, Noureddine; Pakdel, Farzad; Kah, Olivier; Brion, François

    2016-08-15

    The effects of some progestins on fish reproduction have been recently reported revealing the hazard of this class of steroidal pharmaceuticals. However, their effects at the central nervous system level have been poorly studied until now. Notwithstanding, progesterone, although still widely considered primarily a sex hormone, is an important agent affecting many central nervous system functions. Herein, we investigated the effects of a large set of synthetic ligands of the nuclear progesterone receptor on the glial-specific expression of the zebrafish brain aromatase (cyp19a1b) using zebrafish mechanism-based assays. Progesterone and 24 progestins were first screened on transgenic cyp19a1b-GFP zebrafish embryos. We showed that progesterone, dydrogesterone, drospirenone and all the progesterone-derived progestins had no effect on GFP expression. Conversely, all progestins derived from 19-nortesterone induced GFP in a concentration-dependent manner with EC50 ranging from the low nM range to hundreds nM. The 19-nortestosterone derived progestins levonorgestrel (LNG) and norethindrone (NET) were further tested in a radial glial cell context using U251-MG cells co-transfected with zebrafish ER subtypes (zfERα, zfERβ1 or zfERβ2) and cyp19a1b promoter linked to luciferase. Progesterone had no effect on luciferase activity while NET and LNG induced luciferase activity that was blocked by ICI 182,780. Zebrafish-ERs competition assays showed that NET and LNG were unable to bind to ERs, suggesting that the effects of these compounds on cyp19a1b require metabolic activation prior to elicit estrogenic activity. Overall, we demonstrate that 19-nortestosterone derived progestins elicit estrogenic activity by inducing cyp19a1b expression in radial glial cells. Given the crucial role of radial glial cells and neuro-estrogens in early development of brain, the consequences of exposure of fish to these compounds require further investigation.

  11. Optimization of a large integrated area development of gas fields offshore Sarawak, Malaysia

    SciTech Connect

    Inyang, S.E.; Tak, A.N.H.; Costello, G.

    1995-10-01

    Optimizations of field development plans are routine in the industry. The size, schedule and nature of the upstream gas supply project to the second Malaysia LNG (MLNG Dua) plant in Bintulu, Sarawak made the need for extensive optimizations critical to realizing a robust and cost effective development scheme, and makes the work of more general interest. The project comprises the upstream development of 11 offshore fields for gas supply to MLNG Dua plant at an initial plateau production of 7.8 million tons per year of LNG. The gas fields span a large geographical area in medium water depths (up to 440 ft), and contain gas reserves of a distinctly variable gas quality. This paper describes the project optimization efforts aimed to ensure an upstream gas supply system effectiveness of over 99% throughout the project life while maintaining high safety and environmental standards and also achieving an economic development in an era of low hydrocarbon prices. Fifty percent of the first of the three phases of this gas supply project has already been completed and the first gas from these fields is scheduled to be available by the end of 1995.

  12. Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childress, Dana C.; Raver, Sharon A.; Michalek, Anne M. P.; Wilson, Corinne L.

    2013-01-01

    All eligible infants and toddlers who receive early intervention services under Part C of Individuals with Disabilities Education Act are entitled to service coordination. To examine the effectiveness of one state's service coordination training and its impact on knowledge and skill development, a pretest--posttest design with follow-up survey was…

  13. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordin, P. M.

    1977-01-01

    Bibliography, assembled from computer search of NASA Aerospace Safety Data Bank, including title of report, author, abstract, source, description of figures, key references, and key words or subject terms. Publication is indexed by key subjects and by authors. Items are relevant to design engineers and safety specialists.

  14. Hawaii Energy Strategy Project 2: Fossil Energy Review. Task IV. Scenario development and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, N.D.; Breazeale, K.

    1993-12-01

    The Hawaii Energy Strategy (HES) Program is a seven-project effort led by the State of Hawaii Department of Business, Economic Development & Tourism (DBEDT) to investigate a wide spectrum of Hawaii energy issues. The East-West Center`s Program on Resources: Energy and Minerals, has been assigned HES Project 2, Fossil Energy Review, which focuses on fossil energy use in Hawaii and the greater regional and global markets. HES Project 2 has four parts: Task I (World and Regional Fossil Energy Dynamics) covers petroleum, natural gas, and coal in global and regional contexts, along with a discussion of energy and the environment. Task II (Fossil Energy in Hawaii) focuses more closely on fossil energy use in Hawaii: current utilization and trends, the structure of imports, possible future sources of supply, fuel substitutability, and energy security. Task III`s emphasis is Greenfield Options; that is, fossil energy sources not yet used in Hawaii. This task is divided into two sections: first, an in-depth {open_quotes}Assessment of Coal Technology Options and Implications for the State of Hawaii,{close_quotes} along with a spreadsheet analysis model, which was subcontracted to the Environmental Assessment and Information Sciences Division of Argonne National Laboratory; and second, a chapter on liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the Asia-Pacific market and the issues surrounding possible introduction of LNG into the Hawaii market.

  15. Development of enhanced sulfur rejection processes. Final technical progress report: Seventh quarter, April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.; Adel, G.; Richardson, P.E.

    1994-09-29

    Research at Virginia Tech led to the development of two complementary concepts for improving the removal of inorganic sulfur from many eastern US coals. These concepts are referred to as Electrochemically Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (EESR) and Polymer Enhanced Sulfur Rejection (PESR). The EESR process uses electrochemical techniques to suppress the formation of hydrophobic oxidation products believed to be responsible for the floatability of coal pyrite. The PESR process uses polymeric reagents that react with pyrite and convert floatable middlings, i.e., composite particles composed of pyrite with coal inclusions, into hydrophilic particles. These new pyritic-sulfur rejection processes do not require significant modifications to existing coal preparation facilities, thereby enhancing their adoptability by the coal industry. It is believed that these processes can be used simultaneously to maximize the rejection of both well-liberated pyrite and composite coal-pyrite particles. The project was initiated on October 1, 1992, and a detailed work plan and work schedule (Task 1) were developed. During the current reporting period (April 1, 1994 to June 30, 1994), characterization of coal samples from Upper Freeport (subtask 2.1) and SEM-IPS analysis of feed samples of Illinois No. 6 and Pittsburgh No. 8 (subtask 2.2) were continued. In addition, an experimental design for research on the last phases of this research was developed, submitted to PETC`s COR, and approved, as required in the work plan. This research will employ a 3/4-inch column flotation cell for testing of both the EESR (Task 5) and the PESR (Task 6) processes.

  16. Theoretical Formability. Volume 1. Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1961-08-01

    I-i Joggling ......................................... 1 -9 Dimpling ......................................... 1-17 Rubber Shrink...11-16 Joggling ......................... ................ 11-20 Dim~l~lng ......................................... 11-23...0 ...0. .. 111-7 Joggling *o..... .............. ..... 111-8 Linear Stretch . ..*of*.. ................ 111-9 Rubber Press Stretch Flanges

  17. Industrial-hygiene survey report of Dow Chemical USA SB (styrene butadiene) Latex Facility, Freeport, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Fajen, J.M.; Krishnan, E.R.

    1986-03-01

    The purpose of the survey was to obtain information on the SB latex production process and assess the potential for occupational exposure to 1,3-butadiene at the SB latex facility. The information will be used in determining the suitability of including the plant in an in-depth survey.

  18. 77 FR 54891 - Reorganization of Foreign-Trade Zone 149 Under Alternative Site Framework Freeport, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... Border Protection port of entry, FTZ 149's existing Sites 1, 3 and 10 would be categorized as magnet... provision for magnet sites that would terminate authority for Sites 3 and 10 if not activated by August...

  19. 33 CFR 100.106 - Freeport Grand Prix, Long Beach, NY.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) miles south of Long Beach and three and one quarter (31/4) miles north of the northern boundary of...) Southeast Corner. southwest of Jones Inlet Approch Buoy (R “2”; Light List Number 685) at coordinates 40-31-45 North; 073-36-19 West. (3) Southwest Corner. east of East Rockaway Approach Buoy (R “4”;...

  20. Integrated management of multiple reservoir field developments

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, S.L.; Chan, H.M.; Harper, J.L.; Boyett, B.A.; Dowson, P.R.; Bette, S.

    1995-10-01

    This paper consists of two sections. The authors first describe the coupling of a pipeline network model to a reservoir simulator and then the application of this new simulator to optimize the production strategy of two Mobil field developments. Mobil`s PEGASUS simulator is an integrated all purpose reservoir simulator that handles black-oil, compositional, faulted and naturally fractured reservoirs. The authors have extended the simulator to simultaneously model multiple reservoirs coupled with surface pipeline networks and processes. This allows them to account for the effects of geology, well placement, and surface production facilities on well deliverability in a fully integrated fashion. They have also developed a gas contract allocation system that takes the user-specified constraints, target rates and swing factors and automatically assigns rates to the individual wells of each reservoir. This algorithm calculates the overall deliverability and automatically reduces the user-specified target rates to meet the deliverability constraints. The algorithm and solution technique are described. This enhanced simulator has been applied to model a Mobil field development in the Southern Gas Basin, offshore United Kingdom, which consists of three separate gas reservoirs connected via a pipeline network. The simulator allowed the authors to accurately determine the impact on individual reservoir and total field performance by varying the development timing of these reservoirs. Several development scenarios are shown to illustrate the capabilities of PEGASUS. Another application of this technology is in the field developments in North Sumatra, Indonesia. Here the objective is to economically optimize the development of multiple fields to feed the PT Arun LNG facility. Consideration of a range of gas compositions, well productivity`s, and facilities constraints in an integrated fashion results in improved management of these assets. Model specifics are discussed.

  1. 78 FR 30295 - Constellation Energy Commoditiesgroup, Inc., ENI USA Gas Marketing LLC, Sequent Energy Canada...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-22

    ..., and 13-32-LNG] Constellation Energy Commoditiesgroup, Inc., ENI USA Gas Marketing LLC, Sequent Energy... Marketing, LLC, Trunkline LNG Export, LLC, Gasfin Development USA LLC, Louis Dreyfus Energy Services L.P. Fortisbc Energy Inc., Gazprom Marketing & Trading USA, Inc., Liquiline LNG Solutions Corporation, El...

  2. 77 FR 64964 - Cheniere Marketing, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export Liquefied Natural Gas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... export up to 782 million MMBtu per year of LNG, equivalent to approximately 767 Bcf per year of natural... the date the authorization is granted by DOE/FE. The LNG would be exported from the proposed Corpus... national treatment for trade in natural gas and LNG; that has, or in the future develops, the capacity...

  3. 77 FR 72843 - Excelerate Liquefaction Solutions I, LLC; Application for Long-Term Authorization To Export...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... produced liquefied natural gas (LNG), equivalent to approximately 502 million MMBtu of natural gas per year... seeks authorization to export this LNG by vessel from the terminal it intends to construct, own, and...) requiring national treatment for trade in natural gas and LNG that has, or in the future develops,...

  4. Bibliography on Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ordin, P. M.

    1976-01-01

    Approximately 600 citations concerning safety of liquefied natural gas and liquid methane are presented. Each entry includes the title, author, abstract, source, description of figures, key references, and major descriptors for retrieving the document. An author index is provided as well as an index of descriptors.

  5. LNG delivery system for gas powered vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Nesser, T.A.; Hedegard, K.W.

    1992-07-07

    This patent describes a natural gas delivery system. It comprises a first vehicle mounted tank for storing liquid natural gas and natural gas vapor; a second vehicle mounted tank for storing liquid natural gas and natural gas vapor; a use line connected to the first and second tanks for receiving natural gas from the first and second tanks and delivering natural gas vapor to the use device on the vehicle and means for pressurizing the natural gas in the use line; means for selecting one of the first or second tanks to deliver natural gas to the use line; and means for overriding the selecting means to deliver natural gas vapor to the use line from either of the tanks in response to detecting a pressure rise therein which exceeds a preselected maximum.

  6. Developing a Defense Sector Assessment Rating Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    kms/details.cfm?ord279=title&q279=Public+Oversight&lng=en&id=95396 & nav1 = 5 “Conducting an Assessment,” in Coleen Rausch, ed., Combating Serious Crimes... 5 Section One: Characteristics of the Defense Sector... 5 Section Two: Assessment of Defense Institutions and Processes

  7. Development of a security vulnerability assessment process for the RAMCAP chemical sector.

    PubMed

    Moore, David A; Fuller, Brad; Hazzan, Michael; Jones, J William

    2007-04-11

    The Department of Homeland Security (DHS), Directorate of Information Analysis & Infrastructure Protection (IAIP), Protective Services Division (PSD), contracted the American Society of Mechanical Engineers Innovative Technologies Institute, LLC (ASME ITI, LLC) to develop guidance on Risk Analysis and Management for Critical Asset Protection (RAMCAP). AcuTech Consulting Group (AcuTech) has been contracted by ASME ITI, LLC, to provide assistance by facilitating the development of sector-specific guidance on vulnerability analysis and management for critical asset protection for the chemical manufacturing, petroleum refining, and liquefied natural gas (LNG) sectors. This activity involves two key tasks for these three sectors: Development of a screening to supplement DHS understanding of the assets that are important to protect against terrorist attack and to prioritize the activities. Development of a standard security vulnerability analysis (SVA) framework for the analysis of consequences, vulnerabilities, and threats. This project involves the cooperative effort of numerous leading industrial companies, industry trade associations, professional societies, and security and safety consultants representative of those sectors. Since RAMCAP is a voluntary program for ongoing risk management for homeland security, sector coordinating councils are being asked to assist in communicating the goals of the program and in encouraging participation. The RAMCAP project will have a profound and positive impact on all sectors as it is fully developed, rolled-out and implemented. It will help define the facilities and operations of national and regional interest for the threat of terrorism, define standardized methods for analyzing consequences, vulnerabilities, and threats, and describe best security practices of the industry. This paper will describe the results of the security vulnerability analysis process that was developed and field tested for the chemical manufacturing

  8. Development of an Atmospheric Dispersion Model for Heavier-Than-Air Gas Mixtures. Volume 1.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    of Energy Burro and Coyote LNG Releases on Water 103 IV.5 Shell Research LNG and LPG Releases on Water at Maplin Sands i1 IV.6 British Health and...102 IV.16 DEGADIS-Predicted Centerline Maximum Concentration vs. Maximum Measured Concentration-- Burro 3 105 IV.17 DEGADIS-Predicted Centerline Maximum...Concentration vs. Maximum Measured Concentration-- Burro 7 106 IV.18 DEGADIS-Predicted Centerline Maximum Concentration vs. Maximum Measured

  9. Latest design features and operational history of LNG inground tanks at the Negishi LNG receiving terminal

    SciTech Connect

    Hiro-oka, T.

    1982-01-01

    The status of liquified natural gas inground tank construction is studied, specifically those of Tokyo Gas Company, Fourteen are compared in table form. Latest design features are described in terms of soil conditions and concrete structure design, soil freezing and heater design, membrane design, verification of membrane stability, and earthquake resistant design. The operational history is presented in terms of special test before start-up, start-up operation, boil-off ratio, and soil freezing and heater operation. The latter is illustrated schematically. Conclusions include ecological considerations and proposal for future work. Subsequent recorded discussion concerned evaporation instabilities, which have not been experienced; apparently instable evaporation does not occur during long storage periods.

  10. Sandburg Environmental Education Teacher Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeport School District 145, IL.

    Learning activities, teaching materials, and lesson plans are contained in this guide, developed by six teachers at the Carl Sandburg Middle School in Freeport, Illinois; it suggests ways to integrate environmental study into the existing curriculum for art, science, English, mathematics, and social studies. Activities for classroom learning and…

  11. City of Freeport, Florida, State Road 20 Water Main Installation, Final Environmental Assessment, Eglin Air Force Base, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    1-5 1.4.2 Potential Issues Studied in Detail .................................................................................................1-6...and Species Occurring Within or Adjacent to the Proposed Action Sites ...............3-13 Figure 3-7. Existing Roads in the Proposed Action Study ...Area (View 1 to 4) .......................................................3-20 Figure 3-8. Existing Roads in the Proposed Action Study Area (View 5

  12. 77 FR 21081 - Foreign-Trade Zone 149-Freeport, TX, Application for Reorganization Under Alternative Site Framework

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... authority to reorganize its zone project to include existing Sites 1, 3 and 10 as ``magnet'' sites. The ASF allows for the possible exemption of one magnet site from the ``sunset'' time limits that generally apply... requesting that Sites 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 11 and 12 be removed from the zone project. No new magnet or...

  13. Safety aspects of liquefied natural gas in the marine environment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    This study evaluates the safety issues associated with the marine transportation, handling, and storage of LNG. The panel concluded that the first concern should be the prevention of an accident that would lead to a large, uncontrolled release of LNG in or near populated areas. This concern was addressed by reviewing the design principles of LNG transportation systems, the operational principles involved in the shipment of LNG, and other factors that might reasonably be expected to improve further the safety of the system. The panel concluded that the second concern was the development of ways to mitigate the consequences of potentially hazardous LNG releases in the event that, contrary to all expectations, measures to maintain tank integrity should fail. Development of these methods requires an understanding of the underlying physical and chemical principles governing large LNG release, including spill dynamics, dispersion on water as well as on land, ignition, and resulting fire and blast effects.

  14. Adolescent development

    MedlinePlus

    Development - adolescent; Growth and development - adolescent ... During adolescence, children develop the ability to: Understand abstract ideas. These include grasping higher math concepts, and developing moral ...

  15. Evaluation of Liquid Dynamic Loads in Slack LNG Cargo Tanks

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    Syjateno Cmwr.~ d U. S. Geohogioal Survey MW. W. N. HANNAN W. C. J. ITFSTCOhE Vio. Pr. dent Chief Engineer American Bu au of Shipping Mlitary SeaZift C...CDR J. C. CARD MR. T. V. CHAPMN CDRJ. A. SAZAL JR. MR. A. B. STAVOVY (Chaiman) CDR W. N. SItEPSOk. JR. MR. D . STEIN NAVAL SEA SYSTEMS COMMAND U. S...0. NAWR DR. D . I, DR. W. M4CLIAN MR. I. L. STIN MW. F. SEBOLD Mr. N. TOULA N40NAL ACADEfY OF SCIENCES INTURNATIONAL SHIr STRUCTURES CONGRESS SHIP

  16. Copper IUD and LNG IUS compared with tubal occlusion.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Diana

    2007-06-01

    This article will cover current contraceptive use around the world, then examine the advantages and disadvantages of female sterilization, the hormonal intrauterine system and the copper intrauterine device. Finally, the need for contraceptive choice will be discussed along with a discussion on the cost-effectiveness of these methods.

  17. Brain Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... developed the f… Series Healthy Minds: Nurturing Your Child's Development Each of these age-based handouts are based ... report from the National Academy of Sciences on child and brain development. Podcast Nurturing Brain Development From Birth to Three ...

  18. Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics. Technical progress report, September 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, F.M.

    1992-12-31

    The objective of this research is to develop a mechanistic understanding of the oxidation of coal and coal pyrite, and to correlate the intrinsic physical and chemical properties of these minerals, along with changes resulting from oxidation, with those surface properties that influence the behavior in physical cleaning processes. The results will provide fundamental insight into oxidation, in terms of the bulk and surface chemistry, the microstructure, and the semiconductor properties of the pyrite. During the eighth quarter, wet chemical and dry oxidation tests were done on Upper Freeport coal from the Troutville {number_sign}2 Mine, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania. In addition electrochemical experiments were done on electrodes prepared from Upper Freeport coal pyrite and Pittsburgh coal pyrite samples provided by the US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh Research Center, Pennsylvania.

  19. Oxidation of coal and coal pyrite mechanisms and influence on surface characteristics. [Coal pyrite electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop a mechanistic understanding of the oxidation of coal and coal pyrite, and to correlate the intrinsic physical and chemical properties of these minerals, along with changes resulting from oxidation, with those surface properties that influence the behavior in physical cleaning processes. The results will provide fundamental insight into oxidation, in terms of the bulk and surface chemistry, the microstructure, and the semiconductor properties of the pyrite. During the eighth quarter, wet chemical and dry oxidation tests were done on Upper Freeport coal from the Troutville [number sign]2 Mine, Clearfield County, Pennsylvania. In addition electrochemical experiments were done on electrodes prepared from Upper Freeport coal pyrite and Pittsburgh coal pyrite samples provided by the US Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh Research Center, Pennsylvania.

  20. Development of a direct-injected natural gas engine system for heavy-duty vehicles: Final report phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, G.B.; DelVecchio, K.A.; Hays, W.J.; Hiltner, J.D.; Nagaraj, R.; Emmer, C.

    2000-03-02

    This report summarizes the results of Phase 2 of this contract. The authors completed four tasks under this phase of the subcontract. (1) They developed a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of a 3500 direct injected natural gas (DING) engine gas injection/combustion system and used it to identify DING ignition/combustion system improvements. The results were a 20% improvement in efficiency compared to Phase 1 testing. (2) The authors designed and procured the components for a 3126 DING engine (300 hp) and finished assembling it. During preliminary testing, the engine ran successfully at low loads for approximately 2 hours before injector tip and check failures terminated the test. The problems are solvable; however, this phase of the program was terminated. (3) They developed a Decision & Risk Analysis model to compare DING engine technology with various other engine technologies in a number of commercial applications. The model shows the most likely commercial applications for DING technology and can also be used to identify the sensitivity of variables that impact commercial viability. (4) MVE, Inc., completed a preliminary design concept study that examines the major design issues involved in making a reliable and durable 3,000 psi LNG pump. A primary concern is the life of pump seals and piston rings. Plans for the next phase of this program (Phase 3) have been put on indefinite hold. Caterpillar has decided not to fund further DING work at this time due to limited current market potential for the DING engine. However, based on results from this program, the authors believe that DI natural gas technology is viable for allowing a natural gas-fueled engine to achieve diesel power density and thermal efficiency for both the near and long terms.