Science.gov

Sample records for freight documents

  1. 41 CFR 102-117.180 - What transportation documents must I use to ship freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... documents must I use to ship freight? 102-117.180 Section 102-117.180 Public Contracts and Property... TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Shipping Freight § 102-117.180 What transportation documents must I use to ship freight? To ship freight: (a) By land (domestic shipments), use a bill of lading; (b)...

  2. 41 CFR 102-117.180 - What transportation documents must I use to ship freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... documents must I use to ship freight? 102-117.180 Section 102-117.180 Public Contracts and Property... TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Shipping Freight § 102-117.180 What transportation documents must I use to ship freight? To ship freight: (a) By land (domestic shipments), use a bill of lading; (b)...

  3. 41 CFR 102-117.180 - What transportation documents must I use to ship freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... documents must I use to ship freight? 102-117.180 Section 102-117.180 Public Contracts and Property... TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Shipping Freight § 102-117.180 What transportation documents must I use to ship freight? To ship freight: (a) By land (domestic shipments), use a bill of lading; (b)...

  4. 41 CFR 102-117.180 - What transportation documents must I use to ship freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... documents must I use to ship freight? 102-117.180 Section 102-117.180 Public Contracts and Property... TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Shipping Freight § 102-117.180 What transportation documents must I use to ship freight? To ship freight: (a) By land (domestic shipments), use a bill of lading; (b)...

  5. 41 CFR 102-117.180 - What transportation documents must I use to ship freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... documents must I use to ship freight? 102-117.180 Section 102-117.180 Public Contracts and Property... TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Shipping Freight § 102-117.180 What transportation documents must I use to ship freight? To ship freight: (a) By land (domestic shipments), use a bill of lading; (b)...

  6. 41 CFR 102-117.95 - What transportation documents must I use to acquire freight, household goods or other related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... documents must I use to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? 102-117... acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? (a) Bills of lading and purchase orders are the transportation documents you use to acquire freight, household goods shipments,...

  7. 41 CFR 102-117.95 - What transportation documents must I use to acquire freight, household goods or other related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... documents must I use to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? 102-117... acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? (a) Bills of lading and purchase orders are the transportation documents you use to acquire freight, household goods shipments,...

  8. 41 CFR 102-117.95 - What transportation documents must I use to acquire freight, household goods or other related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... documents must I use to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? 102-117... acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? (a) Bills of lading and purchase orders are the transportation documents you use to acquire freight, household goods shipments,...

  9. 41 CFR 102-117.95 - What transportation documents must I use to acquire freight, household goods or other related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... documents must I use to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? 102-117... acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? (a) Bills of lading and purchase orders are the transportation documents you use to acquire freight, household goods shipments,...

  10. 49 CFR 377.207 - Effect of mailing freight bills or payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Effect of mailing freight bills or payments. 377... Common Carriers, and Household Goods Freight Forwarders § 377.207 Effect of mailing freight bills or... used in this paragraph, includes both paper documents and billing by use of electronic media such...

  11. 49 CFR 377.207 - Effect of mailing freight bills or payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Effect of mailing freight bills or payments. 377... Common Carriers, and Household Goods Freight Forwarders § 377.207 Effect of mailing freight bills or... used in this paragraph, includes both paper documents and billing by use of electronic media such...

  12. FREIGHT CONTAINER LIFTING STANDARD

    SciTech Connect

    POWERS DJ; SCOTT MA; MACKEY TC

    2010-01-13

    This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

  13. Pneumatic freight pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, P.B.

    1994-12-31

    There is a great deal of technology and experience in and from the Pneumatic Tube System industry that must be tapped because it is directly and/or indirectly applicable to the Pneumatic Freight Pipeline industry. Otherwise a great deal of time will be spent re-inventing the wheel.

  14. Overview of the FAF3 Freight Flow Matrix Construction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Sprung, Michael J; Southworth, Frank; Davidson, Diane; Hwang, Ho-Ling; Peterson, Bruce E; Chin, Shih-Miao; Vogt, David P; Li, Jan-Mou

    2011-01-01

    PROJECT DESCRIPTION The FAF3 is a FHWA freight data product which provides a national O-D matrix of commodity flows to, from, and within the United States. FAF3 freight flows are reported in terms of both annual tons and annual dollars of freight moved by mode of transportation. Based largely on the 2007 CFS, FAF3 utilizes domestic freight flow characteristics, geographic regions, and the SCTG commodity coding system from CFS. However, many freight flows were not captured by the 2007 CFS due to scope and sample size limitations. Approximately 100,000 establishments were sampled out of some 754,000 freight moving establishments in 2007 and imports are out of scope entirely. To estimate missing data values, the approach taken in FAF3 was to use a combination of a novel Log-linear modeling approach (LLM) with an iterative proportional fitting (IPF) routine that also uses additional data inputs to fill in the missing pieces. The complete FAF3 O-D Commodity Mode database is made up of 131 Origins x 131 Destinations x 43 Commodity Classes x 8 Modal categories, for annual tons and dollars. This poster illustrates how the 2007 CFS data were integrated with several additional data sources using LLM and IPF to create a comprehensive FAF3 national freight flow matrix. More detailed documentation on the sources and methods utilized in the development of FAF3 are available from the FHWA website at the following website: http://www.ops.fhwa.dot. gov/freight/freight_analysis/faf/index.htm.

  15. 78 FR 11727 - National Freight Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... Freight Strategic Plan; (4) development of strategies to help States implement State Freight Advisory... transportation; (6) development of freight transportation investment, data, and planning tools; and (7... Departments of Transportation; State, local, and tribal elected officials; local planning offices;...

  16. 49 CFR 377.207 - Effect of mailing freight bills or payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... payments. (a) Presentation of freight bills by mail. When carriers present freight bills by mail, the time... used in this paragraph, includes both paper documents and billing by use of electronic media such as computer tapes or disks, when the mails are used to transmit them. (b) Payment by mail. Wnen shippers...

  17. Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Sean; Bigatel, Patrick

    2004-10-17

    Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by this DOE category one Inventions and Innovations grant to successfully research, develop, test, patent, market, and sell innovative fuel and emissions saving aerodynamic attachments for the trucking industry. A great deal of past scientific research has demonstrated that streamlining box shaped semi-trailers can significantly reduce a truck's fuel consumption. However, significant design challenges have prevented past concepts from meeting industry needs. Market research early in this project revealed the demands of truck fleet operators regarding aerodynamic attachments. Products must not only save fuel, but cannot interfere with the operation of the truck, require significant maintenance, add significant weight, and must be extremely durable. Furthermore, SAE/TMC J1321 tests performed by a respected independent laboratory are necessary for large fleets to even consider purchase. Freight Wing used this information to create a system of three practical aerodynamic attachments for the front, rear and undercarriage of standard semi trailers. SAE/TMC J1321 Type II tests preformed by the Transportation Research Center (TRC) demonstrated a 7% improvement to fuel economy with all three products. If Freight Wing is successful in its continued efforts to gain market penetration, the energy and environmental savings would be considerable. Each truck outfitted saves approximately 1,100 gallons of fuel every 100,000 miles, which prevents over 12 tons of CO2 from entering the atmosphere. If all applicable trailers used the technology, the country could save approximately 1.8 billion gallons of diesel fuel, 18 million tons of emissions and 3.6 billion dollars annually.

  18. Dynamics of railway freight vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwnicki, S. D.; Stichel, S.; Orlova, A.; Hecht, M.

    2015-07-01

    This paper summarises the historical development of railway freight vehicles and how vehicle designers have tackled the difficult challenges of producing running gear which can accommodate the very high tare to laden mass of typical freight wagons whilst maintaining stable running at the maximum required speed and good curving performance. The most common current freight bogies are described in detail and recent improvements in techniques used to simulate the dynamic behaviour of railway vehicles are summarised and examples of how these have been used to improve freight vehicle dynamic behaviour are included. A number of recent developments and innovative components and sub systems are outlined and finally two new developments are presented in more detail: the LEILA bogie and the SUSTRAIL bogie.

  19. 21. Providence & Worchester RR: Freight house. Providence, Providence Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Providence & Worchester RR: Freight house. Providence, Providence Co., RI. Sec. 4119, mp 185.66 (See HAER no. RI-3 for further documentation on this site.) - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between CT & MA state lines, Providence, Providence County, RI

  20. 78 FR 10249 - Establishment of the National Freight Network

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Establishment of the National Freight Network Correction In notice document 2013-02580 appearing on pages 8686-8689, in the issue of Wednesday, February 6, 2013, make...

  1. 78 FR 8686 - Establishment of the National Freight Network

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... copy of this document may also be downloaded from Office of the Federal Register's home page at: http... Secretary, provides efficient, cost- effective, sustainable, and intermodal connectivity to a defined region... policy, strategies to improve system performance on the national freight network should consider...

  2. Suborbital freight delivery concept exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, D.; Paris, S.; Rubeck, M.

    1997-01-01

    Suborbital Freight, sometimes called Fast Freight, is delivery of high priority packages over intercontinental distances in periods of approximately one hour. The vehicles required are usually rocket-powered and have total ideal velocities of around 7.5 km/second. Analysis of this market indicates that there are niches where commercial operations are possible and might even be profitable using today{close_quote}s state-of-the-art technologies. The key requirements to capture this market are low nonrecurring costs, quick turnaround ({lt}9hours), and high reliability (0.999). This draft is a report on work in progress. The Fast Freight study will be completed before the STAIF-97 conference and results will be presented at that time. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  3. Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Lorna; Lewandowski, Carol

    This workbook, designed for workplace literacy courses, contains materials for a course on documentation. The six sessions of the course cover the following topics: (1) general principles of procedure writing; (2) principles of clear communication (clarity, audience, visuals) and identification of systems types, accounts, and customer requests;…

  4. NEMS Freight Transportation Module Improvement Study

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) contracted with IHS Global, Inc. (IHS) to analyze the relationship between the value of industrial output, physical output, and freight movement in the United States for use in updating analytic assumptions and modeling structure within the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) freight transportation module, including forecasting methodologies and processes to identify possible alternative approaches that would improve multi-modal freight flow and fuel consumption estimation.

  5. 49 CFR 377.205 - Presentation of freight bills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Presentation of freight bills. 377.205 Section 377... Household Goods Freight Forwarders § 377.205 Presentation of freight bills. (a) “To be prepaid” shipments. (1) On “to be prepaid” shipments, the carrier shall present its freight bill for all...

  6. 49 CFR 377.205 - Presentation of freight bills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Presentation of freight bills. 377.205 Section 377... Household Goods Freight Forwarders § 377.205 Presentation of freight bills. (a) “To be prepaid” shipments. (1) On “to be prepaid” shipments, the carrier shall present its freight bill for all...

  7. 49 CFR 377.205 - Presentation of freight bills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Presentation of freight bills. 377.205 Section 377... Household Goods Freight Forwarders § 377.205 Presentation of freight bills. (a) “To be prepaid” shipments. (1) On “to be prepaid” shipments, the carrier shall present its freight bill for all...

  8. 49 CFR 377.205 - Presentation of freight bills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Presentation of freight bills. 377.205 Section 377... Household Goods Freight Forwarders § 377.205 Presentation of freight bills. (a) “To be prepaid” shipments. (1) On “to be prepaid” shipments, the carrier shall present its freight bill for all...

  9. 49 CFR 377.205 - Presentation of freight bills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Presentation of freight bills. 377.205 Section 377... Household Goods Freight Forwarders § 377.205 Presentation of freight bills. (a) “To be prepaid” shipments. (1) On “to be prepaid” shipments, the carrier shall present its freight bill for all...

  10. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service...

  11. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service...

  12. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service...

  13. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service...

  14. 41 CFR 102-117.160 - What is freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is freight? 102-117.160 Section 102-117.160 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Shipping Freight § 102-117.160 What is freight? Freight is property or goods transported as cargo....

  15. 41 CFR 102-117.160 - What is freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What is freight? 102-117.160 Section 102-117.160 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Shipping Freight § 102-117.160 What is freight? Freight is property or goods transported as cargo....

  16. 41 CFR 102-117.160 - What is freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What is freight? 102-117.160 Section 102-117.160 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Shipping Freight § 102-117.160 What is freight? Freight is property or goods transported as cargo....

  17. 41 CFR 102-117.160 - What is freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What is freight? 102-117.160 Section 102-117.160 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Shipping Freight § 102-117.160 What is freight? Freight is property or goods transported as cargo....

  18. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service...

  19. Air freight demand models: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dajani, J. S.; Bernstein, G. W.

    1978-01-01

    A survey is presented of some of the approaches which have been considered in freight demand estimation. The few existing continuous time computer simulations of aviation systems are reviewed, with a view toward the assessment of this approach as a tool for structuring air freight studies and for relating the different components of the air freight system. The variety of available data types and sources, without which the calibration, validation and the testing of both modal split and simulation models would be impossible are also reviewed.

  20. US Advanced Freight and Passenger MAGLEV System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morena, John J.; Danby, Gordon; Powell, James

    1996-01-01

    Japan and Germany will operate first generation Maglev passenger systems commercially shortly after 2000 A.D. The United States Maglev systems will require sophisticated freight and passenger carrying capability. The U.S. freight market is larger than passenger transport. A proposed advanced freight and passenger Maglev Project in Brevard County Florida is described. Present Maglev systems cost 30 million dollars or more per mile. Described is an advanced third generation Maglev system with technology improvements that will result in a cost of 10 million dollars per mile.

  1. 77 FR 62596 - Interim Guidance on State Freight Plans and State Freight Advisory Committees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78), or you may visit http://www.dot.gov... freight mobility issues, such as truck bottlenecks, within the State, and a description of the strategies... identification of bottlenecks in the ] freight transportation system that cause delays and unreliability...

  2. 22 CFR 202.7 - Documentation required for reimbursement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 202.7 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS SHIPMENTS OF SUPPLIES BY... reimbursement of freight charges must be supported by the following documents: (a) Voucher SF 1034. “Public... prepared by the agency requesting reimbursement of freight charges. (b) Bills of lading—(1) To ports...

  3. 48 CFR 52.247-53 - Freight Classification Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Freight Classification....247-53 Freight Classification Description. As prescribed in 47.305-9(b)(1), insert the following... modifications of previously shipped items, and different freight classifications may apply:...

  4. 48 CFR 52.247-53 - Freight Classification Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Freight Classification....247-53 Freight Classification Description. As prescribed in 47.305-9(b)(1), insert the following... modifications of previously shipped items, and different freight classifications may apply:...

  5. 46 CFR 515.32 - Freight forwarder duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Freight forwarder duties. 515.32 Section 515.32 Shipping... Commission § 515.32 Freight forwarder duties. (a) Notice of shipper affiliation. When a licensed freight forwarder is a shipper or seller of goods in international commerce or affiliated with such an entity,...

  6. 46 CFR 515.32 - Freight forwarder duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight forwarder duties. 515.32 Section 515.32 Shipping... Commission § 515.32 Freight forwarder duties. (a) Notice of shipper affiliation. When a licensed freight forwarder is a shipper or seller of goods in international commerce or affiliated with such an entity,...

  7. 48 CFR 47.404 - Air freight forwarders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Agencies may use air freight forwarders that are engaged in international air transportation (49 U.S.C... expenditures in 47.403-3(a) applies also to the air carriers used by these international air freight forwarders. (b) Agency personnel shall inform international air freight forwarders that to facilitate...

  8. 46 CFR 515.32 - Freight forwarder duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Freight forwarder duties. 515.32 Section 515.32 Shipping... Commission § 515.32 Freight forwarder duties. (a) Notice of shipper affiliation. When a licensed freight forwarder is a shipper or seller of goods in international commerce or affiliated with such an entity,...

  9. 48 CFR 47.404 - Air freight forwarders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Agencies may use air freight forwarders that are engaged in international air transportation (49 U.S.C... expenditures in 47.403-3(a) applies also to the air carriers used by these international air freight forwarders. (b) Agency personnel shall inform international air freight forwarders that to facilitate...

  10. 22 CFR 201.67 - Maximum freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Maximum freight charges. 201.67 Section 201.67 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID Price Provisions § 201.67 Maximum freight charges. (a) Ocean freight...

  11. 22 CFR 201.67 - Maximum freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Maximum freight charges. 201.67 Section 201.67 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY TRANSACTIONS FINANCED BY USAID Price Provisions § 201.67 Maximum freight charges. (a) Ocean freight...

  12. 48 CFR 47.404 - Air freight forwarders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) Agencies may use air freight forwarders that are engaged in international air transportation (49 U.S.C... expenditures in 47.403-3(a) applies also to the air carriers used by these international air freight forwarders. (b) Agency personnel shall inform international air freight forwarders that to facilitate...

  13. 48 CFR 47.404 - Air freight forwarders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Agencies may use air freight forwarders that are engaged in international air transportation (49 U.S.C... expenditures in 47.403-3(a) applies also to the air carriers used by these international air freight forwarders. (b) Agency personnel shall inform international air freight forwarders that to facilitate...

  14. 46 CFR 515.32 - Freight forwarder duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Freight forwarder duties. 515.32 Section 515.32 Shipping... Commission § 515.32 Freight forwarder duties. (a) Notice of shipper affiliation. When a licensed freight forwarder is a shipper or seller of goods in international commerce or affiliated with such an entity,...

  15. 48 CFR 47.404 - Air freight forwarders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) Agencies may use air freight forwarders that are engaged in international air transportation (49 U.S.C... expenditures in 47.403-3(a) applies also to the air carriers used by these international air freight forwarders. (b) Agency personnel shall inform international air freight forwarders that to facilitate...

  16. 46 CFR 515.32 - Freight forwarder duties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Freight forwarder duties. 515.32 Section 515.32 Shipping... Commission § 515.32 Freight forwarder duties. (a) Notice of shipper affiliation. When a licensed freight forwarder is a shipper or seller of goods in international commerce or affiliated with such an entity,...

  17. 78 FR 69520 - Designation of the Primary Freight Network

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    ... 6, 2013 (78 FR 8686), introduced the process for designation of the highway PFN, NFN, and CRFCs... Freight Network The DOT recognizes that many highway freight bottlenecks and chokepoints are located in... designation; the adequacy of the network to identify bottlenecks and other freight infrastructure...

  18. 48 CFR 52.247-53 - Freight Classification Description.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight Classification....247-53 Freight Classification Description. As prescribed in 47.305-9(b)(1), insert the following... modifications of previously shipped items, and different freight classifications may apply:...

  19. Assessing the future of air freight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dajani, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    The role of air cargo in the current transportation system in the United States is explored. Methods for assessing the future role of this mode of transportation include the use of continuous-time recursive systems modeling for the simulation of different components of the air freight system, as well as for the development of alternative future scenarios which may result from different policy actions. A basic conceptual framework for conducting such a dynamic simulation is presented within the context of the air freight industry. Some research needs are identified and recommended for further research. The benefits, limitations, pitfalls, and problems usually associated with large scale systems models are examined.

  20. Carbon dioxide emissions from international air freight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howitt, Oliver J. A.; Carruthers, Michael A.; Smith, Inga J.; Rodger, Craig J.

    2011-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from international air transport were excluded from reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol, partly because of difficulties with quantifying and apportioning such emissions. Although there has been a great deal of recent research into calculating emissions from aeroplane operations globally, publicly available emissions factors for air freight emissions are scarce. This paper presents a methodology to calculate the amount of fuel burnt and the resulting CO 2 emissions from New Zealand's internationally air freighted imports and exports in 2007. This methodology could be applied to other nations and/or regions. Using data on fuel uplift, air freight and air craft movements, and assumptions on mean passenger loadings and the mass of passengers and air freight, CO 2 emissions factors of 0.82 kg CO 2 per t-km and 0.69 kg CO 2 per t-km for short-haul and long-haul journeys, respectively, were calculated. The total amount of fuel consumed for the international air transport of New Zealand's imports and exports was calculated to be 0.21 Mt and 0.17 Mt respectively, with corresponding CO 2 emissions of 0.67 Mt and 0.53 Mt.

  1. 49 CFR 377.207 - Effect of mailing freight bills or payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Effect of mailing freight bills or payments. 377... Common Carriers, and Household Goods Freight Forwarders § 377.207 Effect of mailing freight bills or payments. (a) Presentation of freight bills by mail. When carriers present freight bills by mail, the...

  2. 49 CFR 377.207 - Effect of mailing freight bills or payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Effect of mailing freight bills or payments. 377... Common Carriers, and Household Goods Freight Forwarders § 377.207 Effect of mailing freight bills or payments. (a) Presentation of freight bills by mail. When carriers present freight bills by mail, the...

  3. Freight from Space: Evaluating Freight Activity and Emissions Trends from Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickford, E.; Holloway, T.; Oberman, J.; Janssen, M.

    2012-12-01

    Heavy duty diesel freight trucks are the fastest growing source of highway emissions in the U.S., with domestic freight tonnage projected to double by 2050. Highway diesel vehicles currently account for 42% of on-road emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), 58% of on-road fine particulate (PM2.5) emissions, and 21% of on-road carbon dioxide emissions. Because most surface air quality monitors are located in densely populated areas and not rural highways, it is difficult to use ground-based observations to validate spatial trends in transportation emissions. Therefore, we have employed satellite retrievals from the OMI instrument to inform surface freight transportation inventory estimates by validating modeled tropospheric vertical column total nitrogen dioxide (NO2) against satellite observations. For this research we built a roadway-by-roadway bottom-up diesel truck emissions inventory using GIS, the U.S. Federal Highway Administration's Freight Analysis Framework (FAF) activity dataset, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's MOVES emissions model. We use freight rail emissions from the Eastern Regional Technical Advisory Committee (ERTAC), inventory emissions from the Lake Michigan's Air Directors Consortium (LADCO) and the EPA's Community Multiscale Air Qualiy (CMAQ) model to simulate ground-level and tropospheric column concentrations of NO2. We also use the combination of models and satellite data to evaluate weekday-weekend patterns of NO2 concentrations and the relative contributions of highway diesel vehicles, highway gasoline vehicles, and freight rail to transportation-related pollution. This research presents the first evaluation of surface freight transport from space-based observations. We find satellite retrievals of surface pollutants provide a useful data tool for evaluating air quality models and constraining emissions sources.

  4. Computer-aided strength analysis of the modernized freight wagon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Płaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Baier, A.

    2015-11-01

    In the paper results of computer-aided strength analysis of the modernized freight wagon based on Finite Element Method are presented. CAD model of the considered freight wagon was created and its strength was analysed in agreement with norms described the way of such kind of freight wagons testing. Then, the model of the analysed freight wagon was modernized by adding composite panels covering the inner surface of the vehicle body. Strength analysis was carried out once again and obtained results were juxtaposed. This work was carried out in order to verify the influence of composite panels on the strength of the freight car body and to estimate the possibility of reducing the steel shell thickness of the box in order to reduce weight of the freight wagon.

  5. 77 FR 22768 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Freight Classification Description

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Freight Classification Description AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DOD... approved information collection requirement concerning freight classification description. Public comments... comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0055, Freight Classification Description, by any of...

  6. Ground vibrations from heavy freight trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawn, T. M.

    1983-03-01

    Ground vibration from heavy freight trains on good quality welded track are found to have only a weak dependence on train speed above 30 km/h. At the site on which these tests were carried out a critical speed was found at which the vibration reached a peak. The frequencies of vibration produced appear to be functions of track and vehicle dimensions and the critical speed occurs at the coincidence of sleeper passage frequency and the total vehicle on track resonance frequency.

  7. 22 CFR 202.3 - Freight reimbursement limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Freight reimbursement limitations. 202.3 Section 202.3 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS SHIPMENTS OF SUPPLIES BY VOLUNTARY NON-PROFIT RELIEF AGENCIES § 202.3 Freight reimbursement limitations. Economic utilization of...

  8. 22 CFR 202.3 - Freight reimbursement limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Freight reimbursement limitations. 202.3 Section 202.3 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS SHIPMENTS OF SUPPLIES BY VOLUNTARY NON-PROFIT RELIEF AGENCIES § 202.3 Freight reimbursement limitations. Economic utilization of...

  9. 22 CFR 202.3 - Freight reimbursement limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Freight reimbursement limitations. 202.3 Section 202.3 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS SHIPMENTS OF SUPPLIES BY VOLUNTARY NON-PROFIT RELIEF AGENCIES § 202.3 Freight reimbursement limitations. Economic utilization of...

  10. 22 CFR 202.3 - Freight reimbursement limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Freight reimbursement limitations. 202.3 Section 202.3 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS SHIPMENTS OF SUPPLIES BY VOLUNTARY NON-PROFIT RELIEF AGENCIES § 202.3 Freight reimbursement limitations. Economic utilization of...

  11. 22 CFR 202.3 - Freight reimbursement limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Freight reimbursement limitations. 202.3 Section 202.3 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS SHIPMENTS OF SUPPLIES BY VOLUNTARY NON-PROFIT RELIEF AGENCIES § 202.3 Freight reimbursement limitations. Economic utilization of...

  12. 49 CFR 1248.1 - Freight commodity statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight commodity statistics. 1248.1 Section 1248... STATISTICS § 1248.1 Freight commodity statistics. All class I railroads, as described in § 1240.1 of this... statistics on the basis of the commodity codes named in § 1248.101. Carriers shall report quarterly on...

  13. 49 CFR 1248.1 - Freight commodity statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Freight commodity statistics. 1248.1 Section 1248... STATISTICS § 1248.1 Freight commodity statistics. All class I railroads, as described in § 1240.1 of this... statistics on the basis of the commodity codes named in § 1248.101. Carriers shall report quarterly on...

  14. 49 CFR 1248.1 - Freight commodity statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Freight commodity statistics. 1248.1 Section 1248... STATISTICS § 1248.1 Freight commodity statistics. All class I railroads, as described in § 1240.1 of this... statistics on the basis of the commodity codes named in § 1248.101. Carriers shall report quarterly on...

  15. 49 CFR 1248.1 - Freight commodity statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Freight commodity statistics. 1248.1 Section 1248... STATISTICS § 1248.1 Freight commodity statistics. All class I railroads, as described in § 1240.1 of this... statistics on the basis of the commodity codes named in § 1248.101. Carriers shall report quarterly on...

  16. 49 CFR 1248.1 - Freight commodity statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Freight commodity statistics. 1248.1 Section 1248... STATISTICS § 1248.1 Freight commodity statistics. All class I railroads, as described in § 1240.1 of this... statistics on the basis of the commodity codes named in § 1248.101. Carriers shall report quarterly on...

  17. 49 CFR 373.201 - Receipts and bills of lading for freight forwarders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Receipts and bills of lading for freight... REGULATIONS RECEIPTS AND BILLS Freight Forwarders; Bills of Lading § 373.201 Receipts and bills of lading for freight forwarders. Each freight forwarder must issue the shipper a receipt or through bill of...

  18. 49 CFR 373.201 - Receipts and bills of lading for freight forwarders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Receipts and bills of lading for freight... REGULATIONS RECEIPTS AND BILLS Freight Forwarders; Bills of Lading § 373.201 Receipts and bills of lading for freight forwarders. Each freight forwarder must issue the shipper a receipt or through bill of...

  19. 49 CFR 373.201 - Receipts and bills of lading for freight forwarders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Receipts and bills of lading for freight... REGULATIONS RECEIPTS AND BILLS Freight Forwarders; Bills of Lading § 373.201 Receipts and bills of lading for freight forwarders. Each freight forwarder must issue the shipper a receipt or through bill of...

  20. 49 CFR 373.201 - Receipts and bills of lading for freight forwarders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Receipts and bills of lading for freight... REGULATIONS RECEIPTS AND BILLS Freight Forwarders; Bills of Lading § 373.201 Receipts and bills of lading for freight forwarders. Each freight forwarder must issue the shipper a receipt or through bill of...

  1. 49 CFR 373.201 - Receipts and bills of lading for freight forwarders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Receipts and bills of lading for freight... REGULATIONS RECEIPTS AND BILLS Freight Forwarders; Bills of Lading § 373.201 Receipts and bills of lading for freight forwarders. Each freight forwarder must issue the shipper a receipt or through bill of...

  2. 41 CFR 102-117.165 - What shipping process must I use for freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... must I use for freight? 102-117.165 Section 102-117.165 Public Contracts and Property Management... 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Shipping Freight § 102-117.165 What shipping process must I use for freight? Use the following shipping process for freight: (a) For domestic shipments you must: (1)...

  3. 41 CFR 102-117.165 - What shipping process must I use for freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... must I use for freight? 102-117.165 Section 102-117.165 Public Contracts and Property Management... 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Shipping Freight § 102-117.165 What shipping process must I use for freight? Use the following shipping process for freight: (a) For domestic shipments you must: (1)...

  4. 41 CFR 102-117.165 - What shipping process must I use for freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... must I use for freight? 102-117.165 Section 102-117.165 Public Contracts and Property Management... 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Shipping Freight § 102-117.165 What shipping process must I use for freight? Use the following shipping process for freight: (a) For domestic shipments you must: (1)...

  5. 41 CFR 102-117.165 - What shipping process must I use for freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... must I use for freight? 102-117.165 Section 102-117.165 Public Contracts and Property Management... 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Shipping Freight § 102-117.165 What shipping process must I use for freight? Use the following shipping process for freight: (a) For domestic shipments you must: (1)...

  6. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  7. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  8. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  9. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  10. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  11. 14 CFR 297.5 - Foreign air freight forwarder as agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Foreign air freight forwarder as agent. 297... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS FOREIGN AIR FREIGHT FORWARDERS AND FOREIGN COOPERATIVE SHIPPERS ASSOCIATIONS General § 297.5 Foreign air freight forwarder as agent. A foreign air freight forwarder may act...

  12. Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sean Graham

    2007-10-31

    Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by a DOE category two Inventions and Innovations grant to commercialize and improve upon aerodynamic technology for semi-tuck trailers, capable of decreasing heavy vehicle fuel consumption, related environmental damage, and U.S. consumption of foreign oil. Major project goals included the demonstration of aerodynamic trailer technology in trucking fleet operations, and the development and testing of second generation products. A great deal of past scientific research has demonstrated that streamlining box shaped semi-trailers can significantly reduce a truck’s fuel consumption. However, significant design challenges have prevented past concepts from meeting industry needs. Freight Wing utilized a 2003 category one Inventions and Innovations grant to develop practical solutions to trailer aerodynamics. Fairings developed for the front, rear, and bottom of standard semi-trailers together demonstrated a 7% improvement to fuel economy in scientific tests conducted by the Transportation Research Center (TRC). Operational tests with major trucking fleets proved the functionality of the products, which were subsequently brought to market. This category two grant enabled Freight Wing to further develop, test and commercialize its products, resulting in greatly increased understanding and acceptance of aerodynamic trailer technology. Commercialization was stimulated by offering trucking fleets 50% cost sharing on trial implementations of Freight Wing products for testing and evaluation purposes. Over 230 fairings were implemented through the program with 35 trucking fleets including industry leaders such as Wal-Mart, Frito Lay and Whole Foods. The feedback from these testing partnerships was quite positive with product performance exceeding fleet expectations in many cases. Fleet feedback also was also valuable from a product development standpoint and assisted the design of several second generation products

  13. Three-dimensional derailment analysis of crashed freight trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hechao; Zhang, Jimin; Hecht, Markus

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, the collision-induced derailment of freight trains was investigated. The collision between two identical freight trains occurring on a curved path rather than along a straight line was investigated. This is because from the point of view of safety against derailment this collision scenario is thought to be more critical than the scenarios defined in the European standard EN 15227. In this work, one of the trains is stationary and the other moving train collides at 36 km/h. Two kinds of container wagons were simulated. One is the two-axle freight wagon Kls 442. Another is the freight wagon Rmms 662 with two Y25 bogies. Simulation results demonstrate that in terms of safety against derailment the bogie wagon Rmms 662 was found to have better behaviour than the two-axle wagon Kls 442. In addition, this study points out that there are many contributory factors to the responses of freight wagons during a collision, such as curve radius, distance between bogie pivots and loading mass. The derailment phenomenon is less likely to occur, when freight trains collide on the curve with a larger radius. Besides that the characteristics of freight wagons with large axle loads, low centre of gravity of car body and appropriate static strength are favourable for the collided wagons in reducing the risk of derailment.

  14. FTFc52 - freight train fuel consumption computer program. Software

    SciTech Connect

    Koper, J.; Muhlenberg, J.D.

    1980-09-01

    This tape contains a copy of a computer program for the prediction of fuel consumption of a freight train operated over track with known characteristics. The program is written in FORTRAN for the IBM VM/370 computer.

  15. View of small freight door in the original storage area ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of small freight door in the original storage area in the southeast corner of the interior of the Bayside Cannery, facing southeast. - Bayside Cannery, 1290 Hope Street, Alviso, Santa Clara County, CA

  16. Freight Shuttle System: Cross-Border Movement of Goods

    SciTech Connect

    2011-05-31

    The Freight Shuttle System (FSS) is designed to provide freight transportation services between those short and intermediate distance locations (within 600 miles) that are currently handling large volumes of freight traffic. Much like trucks, the FSS's transporters are autonomous: each transporter has its own propulsion and travels independently of other transporters. Inspired by railroads, each FSS transporter has steel wheels operating on a steel running surface and can carry either a standardsize freight container or an over-the-road truck trailer. However, unlike either rail or trucks, the FSS runs on an elevated, dedicated guideway to avoid the interference of other transportation systems. The objective of this report is to examine the potential viability for an alternative transportation system for trailers and containers in a multi-national, cross-border setting. The El Paso-Ciudad Juarez region serves as the environment of this analysis.

  17. North view; Canopy detail and platformlevel freight elevator North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North view; Canopy detail and platform-level freight elevator - North Philadelphia Station, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. Emissions and Air Quality Impacts of Freight Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickford, Erica

    Diesel freight vehicles (trucks + trains) are responsible for 20% of all U.S. nitrogen oxide (NOx) and 3% of fine particulate (PM2.5) emissions - pollutants that are harmful to human health. Freight tonnage is also projected to double over the next several decades, reaching 30 billion tons by 2050, increasing freight transport activity. Air quality impacts from increased activity, trade-offs between activity and vehicle technology improvements, as well as where to make infrastructure investments that encourage sustainable freight growth, are important considerations for transportation and air quality managers. To address these questions, we build a bottom-up roadway-by-roadway freight truck inventory (WIFE) and employ it to quantify emissions impacts of swapping biodiesel blends into the Midwest diesel freight truck fleet, and investigate emissions and air quality impacts of truck-to-rail freight modal shifts in the Midwest. We also evaluate the spatial and seasonal freight performance of WIFE modeled in a regional photochemical model (CMAQ) against satellite retrievals of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Results show that spatial and seasonal distribution of biodiesel affects regional emissions impacts. Summer high-blend deployment yields a larger annual emissions reduction than year-round low-blend deployment, however, technological improvements in vehicle emissions controls between 2009 and 2018 dwarf the impacts of biodiesel. Truck-to-rail modal shift analysis found 40% of daily freight truck VMT could be shifted to rail freight, causing a 26% net reduction in NOx emissions, and 31% less carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Despite significant emissions impacts, air quality modeling results showed mostly localized near roadway air quality improvements, with small regional net changes; yet, federal regulation of CO2 emissions and/or rising costs of diesel fuel could motivate shifting freight to more fuel efficient rail. Evaluation of

  19. To left of center is freight elevator used to move ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    To left of center is freight elevator used to move materials to the upper floors of the building. This elevator is also powered via the belts and drive shafts which operate the machine tools. Sign on elevator reads 'For Mr. Edison's Personal Use Only;' according to rumor, Edison was encouraged to use the elevator as he grew older, but refused. The elevator is designed for freight only. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 5, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  20. Testing and analysis of a modernized freight wagon's elements flammability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Płaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Baier, A.

    2016-08-01

    Paper concerns an issue of freight wagon modernization using composite materials. The goal of the project is to elongate the period between repairs (by better corrosion protection) and improve conditions of exploitation of modernized freight wagons (for example easier unloading during winter conditions - no freezes of the charge to the freight wagon body shell). Application of the composite panels to the freight wagon's body shell was proposed as the solution that can solve mentioned problems. The composite panels composed of fiberglass and epoxy resin were proposed. They will be mounted on the body shell using rivet nuts. What is more the body shell of the modernized freight wagon will be painted using an anti-corrosion agent. In this paper the analysis of a flammability of the proposed composition (the composite plate made of fiberglass and epoxy resin mounted to the steel sheet with additional anticorrosion agent) is presented. In the paper results of laboratory tests conducted according to international standards are presented. A series of samples of elements of modernized freight wagons was tested using the created laboratory stand. Obtained results were averaged and the proposed material was assigned to the one of the class of materials for their combustibility.

  1. Prediction of Ground Vibration from Freight Trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. J. C.; Block, J. R.

    1996-05-01

    Heavy freight trains emit ground vibration with predominant frequency components in the range 4-30 Hz. If the amplitude is sufficient, this may be felt by lineside residents, giving rise to disturbance and concern over possible damage to their property. In order to establish the influence of parameters of the track and rolling stock and thereby enable the design of a low vibration railway, a theoretical model of both the generation and propagation of vibration is required. The vibration is generated as a combination of the effects of dynamic forces, due to the unevenness of the track, and the effects of the track deformation under successive axle loads. A prediction scheme, which combines these effects, has been produced. A vehicle model is used to predict the dynamic forces at the wheels. This includes the non-linear effects of friction damped suspensions. The loaded track profile is measured by using a track recording coach. The dynamic loading and the effects of the moving axles are combined in a track response model. The predicted track vibration is compared to measurements. The transfer functions from the track to a point in the ground can be calculated by using a coupled track and a three-dimensional layered ground model. The propagation effects of the ground layers are important but the computation of the transfer function from each sleeper, which would be required for a phase coherent summation of the vibration in the ground, would be prohibitive. A compromise summation is used and results are compared with measurements.

  2. 25 CFR 142.10 - How is freight to be prepared?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OPERATION § 142.10 How is freight to be prepared? All freight must be prepared in accordance with industry..., sorting, consolidating, packaging, crating, boxing, containerizing, and marking that may be...

  3. 25 CFR 142.10 - How is freight to be prepared?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OPERATION § 142.10 How is freight to be prepared? All freight must be prepared in accordance with industry..., sorting, consolidating, packaging, crating, boxing, containerizing, and marking that may be...

  4. 75 FR 60436 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Reference: Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publications (MFTURP) No....

  5. 75 FR 15420 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: References: Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publications (MFTURP) No....

  6. 49 CFR 375.803 - How must I present my freight or expense bill?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How must I present my freight or expense bill? 375... Collection of Charges § 375.803 How must I present my freight or expense bill? You must present your freight or expense bill in accordance with § 375.807 of this subpart....

  7. 49 CFR 1133.1 - Freight bill filing requirement under modified procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Freight bill filing requirement under modified... Freight bill filing requirement under modified procedure. If, under modified procedure (for general rules... paid freight bills or properly certified copies with its statement when there are not more than...

  8. 49 CFR 375.803 - How must I present my freight or expense bill?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false How must I present my freight or expense bill? 375... Collection of Charges § 375.803 How must I present my freight or expense bill? You must present your freight or expense bill in accordance with § 375.807 of this subpart....

  9. 49 CFR 1133.1 - Freight bill filing requirement under modified procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Freight bill filing requirement under modified... Freight bill filing requirement under modified procedure. If, under modified procedure (for general rules... paid freight bills or properly certified copies with its statement when there are not more than...

  10. 49 CFR 1133.1 - Freight bill filing requirement under modified procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Freight bill filing requirement under modified... Freight bill filing requirement under modified procedure. If, under modified procedure (for general rules... paid freight bills or properly certified copies with its statement when there are not more than...

  11. 49 CFR 375.803 - How must I present my freight or expense bill?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false How must I present my freight or expense bill? 375... Collection of Charges § 375.803 How must I present my freight or expense bill? You must present your freight or expense bill in accordance with § 375.807 of this subpart....

  12. 49 CFR 1133.1 - Freight bill filing requirement under modified procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Freight bill filing requirement under modified... Freight bill filing requirement under modified procedure. If, under modified procedure (for general rules... paid freight bills or properly certified copies with its statement when there are not more than...

  13. 49 CFR 375.803 - How must I present my freight or expense bill?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How must I present my freight or expense bill? 375... Collection of Charges § 375.803 How must I present my freight or expense bill? You must present your freight or expense bill in accordance with § 375.807 of this subpart....

  14. 49 CFR 375.803 - How must I present my freight or expense bill?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false How must I present my freight or expense bill? 375... Collection of Charges § 375.803 How must I present my freight or expense bill? You must present your freight or expense bill in accordance with § 375.807 of this subpart....

  15. 49 CFR 1133.1 - Freight bill filing requirement under modified procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight bill filing requirement under modified... Freight bill filing requirement under modified procedure. If, under modified procedure (for general rules... paid freight bills or properly certified copies with its statement when there are not more than...

  16. 19 CFR 351.515 - Internal transport and freight charges for export shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Internal transport and freight charges for export... Internal transport and freight charges for export shipments. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case of internal transport and freight charges on export shipments, a benefit exists to the extent that the...

  17. 49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Structural serviceability of freight containers... serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials on ships. (a) Except for Division 1.4 materials, a freight container may not be offered for the carriage of Class 1...

  18. 49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Structural serviceability of freight containers... serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials on ships. (a) Except for Division 1.4 materials, a freight container may not be offered for the carriage of Class 1...

  19. 49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Structural serviceability of freight containers... serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials on ships. (a) Except for Division 1.4 materials, a freight container may not be offered for the carriage of Class 1...

  20. 48 CFR 52.247-58 - Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. 52.247-58 Section 52.247-58 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-58 Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. As... be shipped in carload lots by rail: Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments (APR...

  1. 48 CFR 52.247-58 - Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. 52.247-58 Section 52.247-58 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-58 Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. As... be shipped in carload lots by rail: Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments (APR...

  2. 48 CFR 52.247-58 - Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. 52.247-58 Section 52.247-58 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-58 Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. As... be shipped in carload lots by rail: Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments (APR...

  3. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 215 - Railroad Freight Car Components

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Railroad Freight Car Components A Appendix A to... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. A Appendix A to Part 215—Railroad Freight Car Components List of components whose use is restricted by § 215.203...

  4. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 215 - Railroad Freight Car Components

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad Freight Car Components A Appendix A to... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. A Appendix A to Part 215—Railroad Freight Car Components List of components whose use is restricted by § 215.203...

  5. 48 CFR 52.247-58 - Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. 52.247-58 Section 52.247-58 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-58 Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. As... be shipped in carload lots by rail: Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments (APR...

  6. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... section, not including 49 CFR part 387, a rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer in which the... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight container... freight container. For domestic transportation, a hazard warning label authorized by EPA under 40 CFR...

  7. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... section, not including 49 CFR part 387, a rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer in which the... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight container... freight container. For domestic transportation, a hazard warning label authorized by EPA under 40 CFR...

  8. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... section, not including 49 CFR part 387, a rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer in which the... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight container... freight container. For domestic transportation, a hazard warning label authorized by EPA under 40 CFR...

  9. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... section, not including 49 CFR part 387, a rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer in which the... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight container... freight container. For domestic transportation, a hazard warning label authorized by EPA under 40 CFR...

  10. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... section, not including 49 CFR part 387, a rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer in which the... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight container... freight container. For domestic transportation, a hazard warning label authorized by EPA under 40 CFR...

  11. 48 CFR 52.247-58 - Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. 52.247-58 Section 52.247-58 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-58 Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. As... be shipped in carload lots by rail: Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments (APR...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 215 - Railroad Freight Car Components

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Railroad Freight Car Components A Appendix A to... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. A Appendix A to Part 215—Railroad Freight Car Components List of components whose use is restricted by § 215.203...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code C Appendix C... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. C Appendix C to Part 215—FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code The following defect code has been established for...

  14. Could Expanded Freight Rail Reduce Air Pollution from Trucks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickford, E. E.; Holloway, T.; Johnston, M.

    2010-12-01

    Cars, trucks and trains are a significant source of emissions that impact both climate and air quality on regional to global scales. Diesel vehicles, most used for freight transport, account for 42% of on-road nitrogen oxide emissions, 58% of on-road fine particulate emissions, and 21% of on-road carbon dioxide emissions. With freight tonnage projected to increase 28% by 2018, and freight trucks the fastest growing source of transportation emissions, we evaluate the potential for increased rail capacity to reduce the environmental impacts of trucks. Most widely available mobile source emissions inventories contain insufficient spatial detail to quantify realistic emission scenario options, and none to date have been linked with commodity flow information in a manner appropriate to consider the true potential of rail substitution. To support a truck-to-rail analysis, and other policy assessments requiring roadway-by-roadway analysis, we have developed a freight emissions inventory for the Upper Midwest based on the Federal Highway Administration’s Freight Analysis Framework version 2.2 and the Environmental Protection Agency’s on-road emissions model, Mobile6.2. Using a Geographical Information System (GIS), we developed emissions scenarios for truck-to-rail modal shifts where 95% of freight tonnage on trips longer than 400 miles is shifted off of trucks and onto railways. Scenarios will be analyzed with the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) regional model to assess air quality impacts of associated changes. By using well-respected transportation data and realistic assumptions, results from this study have the potential to inform decisions on transportation sustainability, carbon management, public health, and air quality.

  15. 49 CFR 375.807 - What actions may I take to collect the charges upon my freight bill?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... upon my freight bill? 375.807 Section 375.807 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... freight bill? (a) You must present a freight bill within 15 days (excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and... calendar days for any shipper who has not paid your freight bill within the 7-day period. However,...

  16. 49 CFR 375.807 - What actions may I take to collect the charges upon my freight bill?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... upon my freight bill? 375.807 Section 375.807 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... freight bill? (a) You must present a freight bill within 15 days (excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and... calendar days for any shipper who has not paid your freight bill within the 7-day period. However,...

  17. 49 CFR 375.807 - What actions may I take to collect the charges upon my freight bill?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... upon my freight bill? 375.807 Section 375.807 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... freight bill? (a) You must present a freight bill within 15 days (excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and... calendar days for any shipper who has not paid your freight bill within the 7-day period. However,...

  18. 49 CFR 375.807 - What actions may I take to collect the charges upon my freight bill?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... upon my freight bill? 375.807 Section 375.807 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... freight bill? (a) You must present a freight bill within 15 days (excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and... calendar days for any shipper who has not paid your freight bill within the 7-day period. However,...

  19. 49 CFR 375.807 - What actions may I take to collect the charges upon my freight bill?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... upon my freight bill? 375.807 Section 375.807 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... freight bill? (a) You must present a freight bill within 15 days (excluding Saturdays, Sundays, and... calendar days for any shipper who has not paid your freight bill within the 7-day period. However,...

  20. 49 CFR Table 2 of Subpart B to... - Minimum Quantity Requirement for Retroreflective Sheeting on Freight Rolling Stock

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Sheeting on Freight Rolling Stock 2 Table 2 of Subpart B to Part 224 Transportation Other Regulations... REFLECTORIZATION OF RAIL FREIGHT ROLLING STOCK Pt. 224, Subpt. B, Table 2 Table 2 of Subpart B to Part 224—Minimum Quantity Requirement for Retroreflective Sheeting on Freight Rolling Stock Freight car or locomotive...

  1. Development of analytic intermodal freight networks for use within a GIS

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, F.; Xiong, D.; Middendorf, D.

    1997-05-01

    The paper discusses the practical issues involved in constructing intermodal freight networks that can be used within GIS platforms to support inter-regional freight routing and subsequent (for example, commodity flow) analysis. The procedures described can be used to create freight-routable and traffic flowable interstate and intermodal networks using some combination of highway, rail, water and air freight transportation. Keys to realistic freight routing are the identification of intermodal transfer locations and associated terminal functions, a proper handling of carrier-owned and operated sub-networks within each of the primary modes of transport, and the ability to model the types of carrier services being offered.

  2. 22 CFR 201.67 - Maximum freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum freight charges. 201.67 Section 201.67 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY... for similar shipments, recognized sources of charter market rate information will be consulted and,...

  3. 46 CFR 535.803 - Ocean freight forwarder compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ocean freight forwarder compensation. 535.803 Section 535.803 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF...

  4. 46 CFR 535.803 - Ocean freight forwarder compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ocean freight forwarder compensation. 535.803 Section 535.803 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF...

  5. 46 CFR 535.803 - Ocean freight forwarder compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean freight forwarder compensation. 535.803 Section 535.803 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF...

  6. 46 CFR 535.803 - Ocean freight forwarder compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ocean freight forwarder compensation. 535.803 Section 535.803 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF...

  7. 46 CFR 535.803 - Ocean freight forwarder compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ocean freight forwarder compensation. 535.803 Section 535.803 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF...

  8. Price Analysis of Railway Freight Transport under Marketing Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ying; Fang, Xiaoping; Chen, Zhiya

    Regarding the problems in the reform of the railway tariff system and the pricing of the transport, by means of assaying the influence of the price elasticity on the artifice used for price, this article proposed multiple regressive model which analyzed price elasticity quantitatively. This model conclude multi-factors which influences on the price elasticity, such as the averagely railway freight charge, the averagely freight haulage of proximate supersede transportation mode, the GDP per capita in the point of origin, and a series of dummy variable which can reflect the features of some productive and consume demesne. It can calculate the price elasticity of different classes in different domains, and predict the freight traffic volume on different rate levels. It can calculate confidence-level, and evaluate the relevance of each parameter to get rid of irrelevant or little relevant variables. It supplied a good theoretical basis for directing the pricing of transport enterprises in market economic conditions, which is suitable for railway freight, passenger traffic and other transportation manner as well. SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) software was used to calculate and analysis the example. This article realized the calculation by HYFX system(Ministry of Railways fund).

  9. Recent progress in 3-D imaging of sea freight containers

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, Theobald Schön, Tobias Sukowski, Frank; Dittmann, Jonas; Hanke, Randolf

    2015-03-31

    The inspection of very large objects like sea freight containers with X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is an emerging technology. A complete 3-D CT scan of a see-freight container takes several hours. Of course, this is too slow to apply it to a large number of containers. However, the benefits of a 3-D CT for sealed freight are obvious: detection of potential threats or illicit cargo without being confronted with legal complications or high time consumption and risks for the security personnel during a manual inspection. Recently distinct progress was made in the field of reconstruction of projections with only a relatively low number of angular positions. Instead of today’s 500 to 1000 rotational steps, as needed for conventional CT reconstruction techniques, this new class of algorithms provides the potential to reduce the number of projection angles approximately by a factor of 10. The main drawback of these advanced iterative methods is the high consumption for numerical processing. But as computational power is getting steadily cheaper, there will be practical applications of these complex algorithms in a foreseeable future. In this paper, we discuss the properties of iterative image reconstruction algorithms and show results of their application to CT of extremely large objects scanning a sea-freight container. A specific test specimen is used to quantitatively evaluate the image quality in terms of spatial and contrast resolution and depending on different number of projections.

  10. 78 FR 75442 - Designation of the Primary Freight Network

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ...) notice, which was published on November 19, 2013, at 78 FR 69520. The original comment period is set to..., except Federal holidays. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background On November 19, 2013, at 78 FR 69520, the... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Designation of the Primary Freight Network AGENCY: Federal...

  11. Why is energy use rising in the freight sector

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, M.; Vyas, A.D.

    1991-01-01

    Trends in transportation sector energy use and carbon dioxide emissions are analyzed with an emphasis on three freight modes -- rail, truck, and marine. A recent set of energy use projections is presented and freight mode energy characteristics are discussed. Transportation sector energy use, which nearly doubled between 1960 and 1985, is projected to grow more slowly during the period 1985{endash}2010. Most of the growth is projected to come from non-personal modes (freight and commercial air). Trends in freight mode energy intensities are discussed and a variety of factors behind these trends are analyzed. Rail and marine modes improved their energy intensities during sudden fuel price rises of the 1970s. Though there is room for further technological improvement, long power plant life cycles preclude rapid penetration of new technologies. Thus, energy intensities in these modes are more likely to improve through operational changes. Because of relatively stable fuel prices, the energy share of truck operating expenses is likely to remain low. Coupled with increasing labor costs, this portends only modest improvements in truck energy efficiency over the next two decades.

  12. Why is energy use rising in the freight sector?

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, M.; Vyas, A.D.

    1991-12-31

    Trends in transportation sector energy use and carbon dioxide emissions are analyzed with an emphasis on three freight modes -- rail, truck, and marine. A recent set of energy use projections is presented and freight mode energy characteristics are discussed. Transportation sector energy use, which nearly doubled between 1960 and 1985, is projected to grow more slowly during the period 1985{endash}2010. Most of the growth is projected to come from non-personal modes (freight and commercial air). Trends in freight mode energy intensities are discussed and a variety of factors behind these trends are analyzed. Rail and marine modes improved their energy intensities during sudden fuel price rises of the 1970s. Though there is room for further technological improvement, long power plant life cycles preclude rapid penetration of new technologies. Thus, energy intensities in these modes are more likely to improve through operational changes. Because of relatively stable fuel prices, the energy share of truck operating expenses is likely to remain low. Coupled with increasing labor costs, this portends only modest improvements in truck energy efficiency over the next two decades.

  13. Recent progress in 3-D imaging of sea freight containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Theobald; Schön, Tobias; Dittmann, Jonas; Sukowski, Frank; Hanke, Randolf

    2015-03-01

    The inspection of very large objects like sea freight containers with X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is an emerging technology. A complete 3-D CT scan of a see-freight container takes several hours. Of course, this is too slow to apply it to a large number of containers. However, the benefits of a 3-D CT for sealed freight are obvious: detection of potential threats or illicit cargo without being confronted with legal complications or high time consumption and risks for the security personnel during a manual inspection. Recently distinct progress was made in the field of reconstruction of projections with only a relatively low number of angular positions. Instead of today's 500 to 1000 rotational steps, as needed for conventional CT reconstruction techniques, this new class of algorithms provides the potential to reduce the number of projection angles approximately by a factor of 10. The main drawback of these advanced iterative methods is the high consumption for numerical processing. But as computational power is getting steadily cheaper, there will be practical applications of these complex algorithms in a foreseeable future. In this paper, we discuss the properties of iterative image reconstruction algorithms and show results of their application to CT of extremely large objects scanning a sea-freight container. A specific test specimen is used to quantitatively evaluate the image quality in terms of spatial and contrast resolution and depending on different number of projections.

  14. Vibration from freight trains fragments sleep: A polysomnographic study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael G.; Croy, Ilona; Hammar, Oscar; Persson Waye, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    As the number of freight trains on railway networks increases, so does the potential for vibration exposure in dwellings nearby to freight railway lines. Nocturnal trains in particular are of particular importance since night-time exposure may interfere with sleep. The present work investigates the impact of vibration and noise from night-time freight trains on human sleep. In an experimental polysomnographic laboratory study, 24 young healthy volunteers with normal hearing were exposed to simulated freight pass-bys with vibration amplitudes of 0.7 and 1.4 mm/s either 20 or 36 times during the night. Stronger vibrations were associated with higher probabilities of event-related arousals and awakenings (p < 0.001), and sleep stage changes (p < 0.05). Sleep macrostructure was most affected in high vibration nights with 36 events, with increased wakefulness (p < 0.05), reduced continual slow wave sleep (p < 0.05), earlier awakenings (p < 0.05) and an overall increase in sleep stage changes (p < 0.05). Subjects reported sleep disturbance due to vibration (F(4,92) = 25.9, p < 0.001) and noise (F(4,92) = 25.9, p < 0.001), with the number of trains having an effect only for the 0.7 mm/s condition (p < 0.05). The findings show that combined vibration and noise from railway freight affects the natural rhythm of sleep, but extrapolation of significance for health outcomes should be approached with caution. PMID:27090401

  15. International rail freight transportation in south Texas: Decreasing fuel consumption, roadway damage, and hazardous materials movement on Texas roadways. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Roop, S.S.; Dickinson, R.W.

    1995-07-01

    The objectives of the research were to examine impediments to the greater use of rail in the transport of freight, and to document projected reductions in congestion, roadway damage, hazards, and energy usage resulting from such a modal shift. In pursuing these objectives, an examination was made of the roles that are performed by decision-making agencies at the federal, state, and local levels. The findings of this examination are discussed in terms of how these roles interfere with the adoption of increased use of intermodal transportation. Additionally, the logistics associated with cross-border freight transportation are described, documenting the institutional and governmental inefficiencies hindering smooth flow of trade across the border. The balance of the research concerns itself with the potential of rail transportation to mitigate the negative impacts associated with truck transportation.

  16. Assessing air quality and climate impacts of future ground freight choice in United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Bond, T. C.; Smith, S.; Lee, B.; Ouyang, Y.; Hwang, T.; Barkan, C.; Lee, S.; Daenzer, K.

    2013-12-01

    The demand for freight transportation has continued to increase due to the growth of domestic and international trade. Emissions from ground freight (truck and railways) account for around 7% of the greenhouse gas emissions, 4% of the primary particulate matter emission and 25% of the NOx emissions in the U.S. Freight railways are generally more fuel efficient than trucks and cause less congestion. Freight demand and emissions are affected by many factors, including economic activity, the spatial distribution of demand, freight modal choice and routing decision, and the technology used in each modal type. This work links these four critical aspects of freight emission system to project the spatial distribution of emissions and pollutant concentration from ground freight transport in the U.S. between 2010 and 2050. Macroeconomic scenarios are used to forecast economic activities. Future spatial structure of employment and commodity demand in major metropolitan areas are estimated using spatial models and a shift-share model, respectively. Freight flow concentration and congestion patterns in inter-regional transportation networks are predicted from a four-step freight demand forecasting model. An asymptotic vehicle routing model is also developed to estimate delivery ton-miles for intra-regional freight shipment in metropolitan areas. Projected freight activities are then converted into impacts on air quality and climate. CO2 emissions are determined using a simple model of freight activity and fuel efficiency, and compared with the projected CO2 emissions from the Second Generation Model. Emissions of air pollutants including PM, NOx and CO are calculated with a vehicle fleet model SPEW-Trend, which incorporates the dynamic change of technologies. Emissions are projected under three economic scenarios to represent different plausible futures. Pollutant concentrations are then estimated using tagged chemical tracers in an atmospheric model with the emissions serving

  17. Carrying freight on high-speed rail lines

    SciTech Connect

    Plotkin, D.

    1997-05-01

    Under the current economic climate it is expected that any new high-speed rail line in the US would be constructed as a public/private partnership, requiring substantial private investment, and thus the expectation of reasonable profits. To date, proposed high-speed rail lines have failed to attract sufficient investment to create any new starts, in great part due to the conclusion that these systems would not likely cover their capital and operating costs and also provide reasonable profit for investors. Studies of the economic potential of US high-speed rail lines have commonly considered them as passenger carriers only, depending solely on ridership as a source of revenue. Yet is likely that significant revenue potential exists for carrying higher value freight as well--perhaps enough to substantially improve the economic viability of certain high-speed operations. Some basic technical aspects of carrying freight on high-speed rail lines are presented, along with an analysis to estimate the quantity of freight that may be technically practical, and thus potentially economically viable, for a high-speed train to carry.

  18. Implementing the retrofitting plan for the European rail freight fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vos, P. H.; Bergendorff, M.; Brennan, M.; van der Zijpp, F.

    2006-06-01

    In 1998, the International Union of Railways (UIC) agreed on an Action Plan, proposing the retrofitting of the complete European rail freight fleet. Early 2003 the European Commission, Directorate General for Transport and Energy, commissioned the study reported here. The scope of the study was to supply an independent assessment of the conclusions of the UIC Action Plan and elaborate on implementation scenarios and funding options. The retrofitting of existing wagons, by an exchange of cast iron brake blocks with composition blocks, is the preferred option to achieve a substantial noise reduction. K-blocks have been homologated by UIC in 2003, but they require an expensive modification of the wagon. The opportunities for LL-blocks, an economically attractive alternative, are still being investigated to date. The retrofitting reflects some 600,000 wagons and, with an expected reduction of 10 dB(A), probably represents the largest single operation for traffic noise reduction ever. The process could best be combined with the maintenance cycle of freight wagons. In that case the process would require up to 10 years. Through a combination of funding options, the financial burden for wagons owners and freight operators could be softened.

  19. NorthEast view; Platform, canopy, and freight elevator North Philadelphia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North-East view; Platform, canopy, and freight elevator - North Philadelphia Station, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. 48 CFR 252.247-7028 - Application for U.S. Government Shipping Documentation/Instructions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... available for shipment requests, use service/agency systems (e.g., Navy's Global Freight Management.... Government Shipping Documentation/Instructions. 252.247-7028 Section 252.247-7028 Federal Acquisition.... Government Shipping Documentation/Instructions. As prescribed in 247.207, use the following...

  1. 27 CFR 28.252 - Air express or freight bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... bills of lading. 28.252 Section 28.252 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Export Bills of Lading § 28.252 Air express or freight bills of lading. Where the exportation is made by air express or air freight, a bill of lading issued by the conveying airline is considered for...

  2. 27 CFR 28.252 - Air express or freight bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... bills of lading. 28.252 Section 28.252 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Export Bills of Lading § 28.252 Air express or freight bills of lading. Where the exportation is made by air express or air freight, a bill of lading issued by the conveying airline is considered for...

  3. 27 CFR 28.252 - Air express or freight bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... bills of lading. 28.252 Section 28.252 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Export Bills of Lading § 28.252 Air express or freight bills of lading. Where the exportation is made by air express or air freight, a bill of lading issued by the conveying airline is considered for...

  4. 27 CFR 28.252 - Air express or freight bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... bills of lading. 28.252 Section 28.252 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Export Bills of Lading § 28.252 Air express or freight bills of lading. Where the exportation is made by air express or air freight, a bill of lading issued by the conveying airline is considered for...

  5. 27 CFR 28.252 - Air express or freight bills of lading.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... bills of lading. 28.252 Section 28.252 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Export Bills of Lading § 28.252 Air express or freight bills of lading. Where the exportation is made by air express or air freight, a bill of lading issued by the conveying airline is considered for...

  6. 48 CFR 52.247-10 - Net Weight-General Freight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net Weight-General Freight....247-10 Net Weight—General Freight. As prescribed in 47.207-4(a)(2), insert the following clause in... the contractor is responsible for determining the net weight of the shipments: Net...

  7. 22 CFR 202.6 - Application for reimbursement of freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Application for reimbursement of freight charges. 202.6 Section 202.6 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS SHIPMENTS OF SUPPLIES BY VOLUNTARY NON-PROFIT RELIEF AGENCIES § 202.6 Application for reimbursement of freight...

  8. 19 CFR 351.515 - Internal transport and freight charges for export shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Internal transport and freight charges for export shipments. 351.515 Section 351.515 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Internal transport and freight charges for export shipments. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case...

  9. 22 CFR 202.6 - Application for reimbursement of freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Application for reimbursement of freight charges. 202.6 Section 202.6 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS SHIPMENTS OF SUPPLIES BY VOLUNTARY NON-PROFIT RELIEF AGENCIES § 202.6 Application for reimbursement of freight...

  10. 19 CFR 351.515 - Internal transport and freight charges for export shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Internal transport and freight charges for export shipments. 351.515 Section 351.515 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Internal transport and freight charges for export shipments. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case...

  11. 19 CFR 351.515 - Internal transport and freight charges for export shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Internal transport and freight charges for export shipments. 351.515 Section 351.515 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Internal transport and freight charges for export shipments. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case...

  12. 22 CFR 202.6 - Application for reimbursement of freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Application for reimbursement of freight charges. 202.6 Section 202.6 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS SHIPMENTS OF SUPPLIES BY VOLUNTARY NON-PROFIT RELIEF AGENCIES § 202.6 Application for reimbursement of freight...

  13. 19 CFR 351.515 - Internal transport and freight charges for export shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Internal transport and freight charges for export shipments. 351.515 Section 351.515 Customs Duties INTERNATIONAL TRADE ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... Internal transport and freight charges for export shipments. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case...

  14. 22 CFR 202.6 - Application for reimbursement of freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Application for reimbursement of freight charges. 202.6 Section 202.6 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS SHIPMENTS OF SUPPLIES BY VOLUNTARY NON-PROFIT RELIEF AGENCIES § 202.6 Application for reimbursement of freight...

  15. 49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials on ships. 176.172 Section 176.172 Transportation... serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials on ships. (a) Except for...) Before a freight container or transport vehicle is packed with Class 1 (explosive) materials, it must...

  16. 49 CFR 231.31 - Drawbars for freight cars; standard height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drawbars for freight cars; standard height. 231.31... cars; standard height. (a) Except on cars specified in paragraph (b) of this section— (1) On standard gage (561/2-inch gage) railroads, the maximum height of drawbars for freight cars...

  17. 49 CFR 231.31 - Drawbars for freight cars; standard height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drawbars for freight cars; standard height. 231.31... cars; standard height. (a) Except on cars specified in paragraph (b) of this section— (1) On standard gage (561/2-inch gage) railroads, the maximum height of drawbars for freight cars...

  18. 49 CFR 231.31 - Drawbars for freight cars; standard height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drawbars for freight cars; standard height. 231.31... cars; standard height. (a) Except on cars specified in paragraph (b) of this section— (1) On standard gage (561/2-inch gage) railroads, the maximum height of drawbars for freight cars...

  19. 46 CFR 545.2 - Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges. 545.2 Section 545.2 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN... Act of 1984—Unpaid ocean freight charges. Section 10(a)(1) of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46...

  20. 46 CFR 545.2 - Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges. 545.2 Section 545.2 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN... Act of 1984—Unpaid ocean freight charges. Section 10(a)(1) of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46...

  1. 46 CFR 545.2 - Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges. 545.2 Section 545.2 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN... Act of 1984—Unpaid ocean freight charges. Section 10(a)(1) of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46...

  2. 46 CFR 545.2 - Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges. 545.2 Section 545.2 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN... Act of 1984—Unpaid ocean freight charges. Section 10(a)(1) of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46...

  3. 46 CFR 545.2 - Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges. 545.2 Section 545.2 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN... Act of 1984—Unpaid ocean freight charges. Section 10(a)(1) of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46...

  4. 22 CFR 202.6 - Application for reimbursement of freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for reimbursement of freight charges. 202.6 Section 202.6 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS SHIPMENTS OF SUPPLIES BY VOLUNTARY NON-PROFIT RELIEF AGENCIES § 202.6 Application for reimbursement of freight...

  5. 49 CFR 1242.23 - Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25). 1242.23 Section 1242.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE... Structures § 1242.23 Shop buildings—freight cars (account XX-13-25). These accounts pertain solely to...

  6. 49 CFR 1242.23 - Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25). 1242.23 Section 1242.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE... Structures § 1242.23 Shop buildings—freight cars (account XX-13-25). These accounts pertain solely to...

  7. 49 CFR 1242.23 - Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25). 1242.23 Section 1242.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE... Structures § 1242.23 Shop buildings—freight cars (account XX-13-25). These accounts pertain solely to...

  8. 49 CFR 231.31 - Drawbars for freight cars; standard height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drawbars for freight cars; standard height. 231.31... cars; standard height. (a) Except on cars specified in paragraph (b) of this section— (1) On standard gage (561/2-inch gage) railroads, the maximum height of drawbars for freight cars...

  9. 49 CFR 1242.23 - Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25). 1242.23 Section 1242.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE... Structures § 1242.23 Shop buildings—freight cars (account XX-13-25). These accounts pertain solely to...

  10. 48 CFR 52.247-31 - F.o.b. Origin, Freight Allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Motor Carrier Safety Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372; and (2... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false F.o.b. Origin, Freight....247-31 F.o.b. Origin, Freight Allowed. As prescribed in 47.303-3(c), insert the following clause:...

  11. 48 CFR 52.247-32 - F.o.b. Origin, Freight Prepaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false F.o.b. Origin, Freight....247-32 F.o.b. Origin, Freight Prepaid. As prescribed in 47.303-4(c), insert the following clause:...

  12. 48 CFR 47.303-3 - F.o.b. origin, freight allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) An allowance for freight... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-3 F.o.b. origin,...

  13. 75 FR 60436 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No... INFORMATION: Reference: Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publications (MFTURP) No. 1. Background:...

  14. 48 CFR 52.247-31 - F.o.b. Origin, Freight Allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Motor Carrier Safety Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372; and (2... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false F.o.b. Origin, Freight....247-31 F.o.b. Origin, Freight Allowed. As prescribed in 47.303-3(c), insert the following clause:...

  15. 48 CFR 47.303-3 - F.o.b. origin, freight allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) An allowance for freight... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-3 F.o.b. origin,...

  16. 48 CFR 47.303-3 - F.o.b. origin, freight allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) An allowance for freight... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-3 F.o.b. origin,...

  17. 48 CFR 52.247-31 - F.o.b. Origin, Freight Allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Motor Carrier Safety Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372; and (2... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false F.o.b. Origin, Freight....247-31 F.o.b. Origin, Freight Allowed. As prescribed in 47.303-3(c), insert the following clause:...

  18. 48 CFR 52.247-31 - F.o.b. Origin, Freight Allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Motor Carrier Safety Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372; and (2... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false F.o.b. Origin, Freight....247-31 F.o.b. Origin, Freight Allowed. As prescribed in 47.303-3(c), insert the following clause:...

  19. 48 CFR 52.247-32 - F.o.b. Origin, Freight Prepaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false F.o.b. Origin, Freight....247-32 F.o.b. Origin, Freight Prepaid. As prescribed in 47.303-4(c), insert the following clause:...

  20. 48 CFR 52.247-32 - F.o.b. Origin, Freight Prepaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false F.o.b. Origin, Freight....247-32 F.o.b. Origin, Freight Prepaid. As prescribed in 47.303-4(c), insert the following clause:...

  1. 48 CFR 52.247-32 - F.o.b. Origin, Freight Prepaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false F.o.b. Origin, Freight....247-32 F.o.b. Origin, Freight Prepaid. As prescribed in 47.303-4(c), insert the following clause:...

  2. 48 CFR 47.303-3 - F.o.b. origin, freight allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) An allowance for freight... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-3 F.o.b. origin,...

  3. 48 CFR 52.247-32 - F.o.b. Origin, Freight Prepaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false F.o.b. Origin, Freight....247-32 F.o.b. Origin, Freight Prepaid. As prescribed in 47.303-4(c), insert the following clause:...

  4. 48 CFR 52.247-31 - F.o.b. Origin, Freight Allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Motor Carrier Safety Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372; and (2... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false F.o.b. Origin, Freight....247-31 F.o.b. Origin, Freight Allowed. As prescribed in 47.303-3(c), insert the following clause:...

  5. 48 CFR 47.303-3 - F.o.b. origin, freight allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) An allowance for freight... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-3 F.o.b. origin,...

  6. 49 CFR 1242.23 - Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25). 1242.23 Section 1242.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE... Structures § 1242.23 Shop buildings—freight cars (account XX-13-25). These accounts pertain solely to...

  7. 49 CFR 231.31 - Drawbars for freight cars; standard height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drawbars for freight cars; standard height. 231.31... cars; standard height. (a) Except on cars specified in paragraph (b) of this section— (1) On standard gage (561/2-inch gage) railroads, the maximum height of drawbars for freight cars...

  8. 49 CFR 176.192 - Cargo handling equipment for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo handling equipment for freight containers...) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.192 Cargo handling equipment for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials. (a) Except in an emergency, only cargo handling...

  9. 49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials on ships. 176.172 Section 176.172 Transportation... serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials on ships. (a) Except for...) Before a freight container or transport vehicle is packed with Class 1 (explosive) materials, it must...

  10. 75 FR 1070 - Cargo Securing Methods for Packages in Transport Vehicles or Freight Containers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Cargo Securing Methods for Packages in Transport Vehicles or Freight Containers AGENCY... the public on methods for securing cargo in transport vehicles and freight containers in order to... cargo. Cargo must be secured to prevent shifting in any direction during transport. Packages...

  11. 75 FR 25309 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Expanded Intermodal Freight Terminal in Michigan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... Freight Terminal in Michigan AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... Yard, also known as the Detroit Intermodal Freight Terminal (DIFT) and associated external-to-terminal... following expansion project in the State of Michigan: Detroit Intermodal Freight Terminal. The...

  12. Recovery Act--Class 8 Truck Freight Efficiency Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    Trucks, Daimler

    2015-07-26

    Daimler Trucks North America completed a five year, $79.6M project to develop and demonstrate a concept vehicle with at least 50% freight efficiency improvement over a weighted average of several drive cycles relative to a 2009 best-in-class baseline vehicle. DTNA chose a very fuel efficient baseline vehicle, the 2009 Freightliner Cascadia with a DD15 engine, yet successfully demonstrated a 115% freight efficiency improvement. DTNA learned a great deal about the various technologies that were incorporated into Super Truck and those that, through down-selection, were discarded. Some of the technologies competed with each other for efficiency, and notably some of the technologies complemented each other. For example, we found that Super Truck’s improved aerodynamic drag resulted in improved fuel savings from eCoast, relative to a similar vehicle with worse aerodynamic drag. However, some technologies were in direct competition with each other, namely the predictive technologies which use GPS and 3D digital maps to efficiently manage the vehicles kinetic energy through controls and software, versus hybrid which is a much costlier technology that essentially targets the same inefficiency. Furthermore, the benefits of a comprehensive, integrated powertrain/vehicle approach was proven, in which vast improvements in vehicle efficiency (e.g. lower aero drag and driveline losses) enabled engine strategies such as downrating and downspeeding. The joint engine and vehicle developments proved to be a multiplier-effect which resulted in large freight efficiency improvements. Although a large number of technologies made the selection process and were used on the Super Truck demonstrator vehicle, some of the technologies proved not feasible for series production.

  13. Intelligent transportation systems and intermodal freight transportation. Final report, May-December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Aylward, A.D.

    1996-12-01

    This paper describes the various advanced technologies already in use in the intermodal freight transportation industry and addresses the opportunity for improved communication between the public and private sector regarding technology applications to the freight transportation system that could enhance the capacity of the system as a whole. The current public interest in freight transportation policy creates an opportunity to develop a shared vision of the future needs of international intermodal freight transportation in the United States. The Federal government can impact this vision by taking action in the following areas: Provide Infrastructure Funding to Support Efficiency and Global Competitiveness; Support Regional and Corridor Efforts; Understand the Freight Sector and Develop a Shared Vision of Technology Benefits; Lead Transportation Technology Efforts of Federal Agencies; and Maintain Commitment to Open ITS Architecture.

  14. Wireless sensor node for detection of freight train derailment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Andrea; Milani, Damiano; Resta, Ferruccio; Tomasini, Gisella

    2016-04-01

    The target of the research activity presented in this paper is to design, to realize and to test an autonomous sensor node able to measure the accelerations in correspondence of the axle box of a freight train. The final goal of the sensor is to identify the derailment conditions by observing the variations in the spectra of the box accelerations, around the frequencies associated to the wheel revolution and its multiples. The sensor node embeds an accelerometer, a microprocessor, a transmission system, a piezoelectric bimorph energy harvester and an integrated circuit for managing the power distribution to each component of the node. In particular, a mechanical filter to be applied to the node was specifically designed to increment the energy recovered by the harvester and to filter out the high frequency components of the axle-box acceleration, allowing the use of a more sensitive accelerometer. The harvesting system was setup by means of laboratory tests carried out with an electromechanical shaker and the sensor node was finally tested through field tests on freight trains.

  15. Specific climate impact of passenger and freight transport.

    PubMed

    Borken-Kleefeld, Jens; Berntsen, Terje; Fuglestvedt, Jan

    2010-08-01

    Emissions of short-lived species contribute significantly to the climate impact of transportation. The magnitude of the effects varies over time for each transport mode. This paper compares first the absolute climate impacts of current passenger and freight transportation. Second, the impacts are normalized with the transport work performed and modes are compared. Calculations are performed for the integrated radiative forcing and mean temperature change, for different time horizons and various measures of transport work. An unambiguous ranking of the specific climate impact can be established for freight transportation, with shipping and rail having lowest and light trucks and air transport having highest specific impact for all cases calculated. Passenger travel with rail, coach or two- and three-wheelers has on average the lowest specific climate impact also on short time horizons. Air travel has the highest specific impact on short-term warming, while on long-term warming car travel has an equal or higher impact per passenger-kilometer.

  16. Sloshing effects and running safety in railway freight vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Gialleonardo, Egidio; Premoli, Antonio; Gallazzi, Stefano; Bruni, Stefano

    2013-10-01

    This paper deals with the study of running dynamic effects for a partially filled railway tank vehicle. A computational fluid dynamics model in 2D is established and used to define the motion of the sloshing fluid and the forces generated on the tank, for curving conditions typical of railway freight transport. From these results, an equivalent mechanical model is identified which is able to correctly reproduce the forces generated on the tank. Finally, a mathematical model is defined for the entire freight car, including the bogies with primary suspensions, the tank and a discrete number of equivalent models positioned at different places along the longitudinal axis of the tank. This model is used to simulate the dynamics of the tank for a variety of curve geometries, train speeds and fill levels. By these simulations, derailment and rollover risks are evaluated and the most critical conditions for running safety are defined. Results show that sloshing can increase significantly the risk of tank rollover whereas its influence on the risk of derailment is minor.

  17. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Demand: Energy-Efficient Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    SciTech Connect

    Grenzeback, L. R.; Brown, A.; Fischer, M. J.; Hutson, N.; Lamm, C. R.; Pei, Y. L.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Vyas, A. D.; Winebrake, J. J.

    2013-03-01

    Freight transportation demand is projected to grow to 27.5 billion tons in 2040, and to nearly 30.2 billion tons in 2050. This report describes the current and future demand for freight transportation in terms of tons and ton-miles of commodities moved by truck, rail, water, pipeline, and air freight carriers. It outlines the economic, logistics, transportation, and policy and regulatory factors that shape freight demand, the trends and 2050 outlook for these factors, and their anticipated effect on freight demand. After describing federal policy actions that could influence future freight demand, the report then summarizes the capabilities of available analytical models for forecasting freight demand. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  18. 49 CFR 176.170 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... purposes of this subpart, may be regarded as a magazine but not as a separate compartment. (b) Freight...) materials for which magazine stowage type A is required must have a floor consisting of tightly...

  19. 49 CFR 176.170 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... purposes of this subpart, may be regarded as a magazine but not as a separate compartment. (b) Freight...) materials for which magazine stowage type A is required must have a floor consisting of tightly...

  20. Progress in rapid compaction of coal logs for freight pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Gunnink, B.; Li, Wei

    1998-04-01

    The Capsule Pipeline Research Center (CPRC) at the University of Missouri-Columbia is devoted to performing research in capsule pipelines. Since its inception in 1991, the CPRC has focused on research related to the development and rapid commercialization of coal log pipeline technology. Coal log pipelines are freight pipelines that will transport compacted coal through a water filled pipeline. To fully develop this technology and make it ready for commercial use it is necessary to investigate means for fabricating coal logs. This paper describes research progress on the rapid compaction of coal logs for coal log pipeline transport. Economic studies conducted by the CPRC indicate that the cost of producing coal logs and thus the economic competitiveness of coal log pipelines is directly related to the compaction the necessary to make the coal logs. Previous research has demonstrated the ability to make laboratory scale coal logs with a 5 second compaction times. It was also observed that for rapidly compacted coal logs, coal log circulation performance (resistance to abrasion in a commercial pipeline) is maximized, if the logs are compacted from a coal mixture at an optimal moisture content. For the bituminous Mettiki coal that has been studied, this optimal moisture content is about 9%, if the compaction time is 5 seconds. The practical application of this is that if stockpiled coal is wetter than optimum, it would require drying of the coal to compact it at the optimum moisture content. Obviously, this would effect the cost of coal log fabrication.

  1. An analysis of the possibility of Macro Fiber Composite transducers application in modernized freight wagon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Płaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Buchacz, A.

    2016-08-01

    Paper presents an analysis of the possibility of application of piezoelectric foils - Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) in modernized freight wagons. It was verified if they can be successfully applied as sensors in developed system for structural health monitoring and in energy harvesting system. It is a part of a research project that aim is to develop a technology of freight wagons modernization. The goal of the project is to elongate the period between periodic repairs (by better corrosion protection) and improve conditions of exploitation of modernized wagons (easier unloading during winter conditions - no freezes of the charge to the freight wagon body shell). The additional aim is to develop system for structural health monitoring of the modernized body of the freight wagon as well as the system supporting management of a fleet of wagons using GPS system with power supply based on the energy recovered by MFC's from the wagon's vibrations during its exploitation. Results of laboratory tests as well as results of measurements on the real freight wagon during observed driving of the wagon are presented. At the same time measurements of the electric voltage generated by the MFC transducers excited by low frequencies harmonic excitation were verified.

  2. 49 CFR 1242.68 - Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00). 1242.68 Section 1242.68 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.68 Freight lost or damaged—solely related (to...

  3. 77 FR 31013 - Notice of Inquiry; Solicitation of Views on Requests To Develop and Release Container Freight...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ... Indices for U.S. Agricultural Exports Based on a Sampling of Service Contracts Filed With the FMC AGENCY... parties on (1) Whether and to what extent the shipping public would find targeted U.S. export rate indices... publication, these include the China Containerized Freight Index (CCFI, 1998), Drewry Freight Insight...

  4. 41 CFR 102-118.185 - When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false When buying freight....185 When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on... tender when buying transportation on a bill of lading (including GBLs). However, the...

  5. 41 CFR 102-118.185 - When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false When buying freight....185 When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on... tender when buying transportation on a bill of lading (including GBLs). However, the...

  6. 41 CFR 102-118.185 - When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When buying freight....185 When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on... tender when buying transportation on a bill of lading (including GBLs). However, the...

  7. 41 CFR 102-118.185 - When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false When buying freight....185 When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on... tender when buying transportation on a bill of lading (including GBLs). However, the...

  8. 41 CFR 102-118.185 - When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When buying freight....185 When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on... tender when buying transportation on a bill of lading (including GBLs). However, the...

  9. 49 CFR 1242.68 - Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00). 1242.68 Section 1242.68 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.68 Freight lost or damaged—solely related (to...

  10. 49 CFR 1242.68 - Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00). 1242.68 Section 1242.68 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.68 Freight lost or damaged—solely related (to...

  11. 49 CFR 1242.68 - Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00). 1242.68 Section 1242.68 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.68 Freight lost or damaged—solely related (to...

  12. 49 CFR 1242.68 - Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00). 1242.68 Section 1242.68 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.68 Freight lost or damaged—solely related (to...

  13. 41 CFR 102-118.460 - What is the time limit for my agency to file a court claim with a TSP for freight charges...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for my agency to file a court claim with a TSP for freight charges, reparations, and loss or damage to....460 What is the time limit for my agency to file a court claim with a TSP for freight charges... service involved and may involve freight charges. The following tables list the time limits: (a)...

  14. 41 CFR 102-118.460 - What is the time limit for my agency to file a court claim with a TSP for freight charges...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... for my agency to file a court claim with a TSP for freight charges, reparations, and loss or damage to....460 What is the time limit for my agency to file a court claim with a TSP for freight charges... service involved and may involve freight charges. The following tables list the time limits: (a)...

  15. 41 CFR 102-118.460 - What is the time limit for my agency to file a court claim with a TSP for freight charges...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... for my agency to file a court claim with a TSP for freight charges, reparations, and loss or damage to....460 What is the time limit for my agency to file a court claim with a TSP for freight charges... service involved and may involve freight charges. The following tables list the time limits: (a)...

  16. 41 CFR 102-118.460 - What is the time limit for my agency to file a court claim with a TSP for freight charges...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... for my agency to file a court claim with a TSP for freight charges, reparations, and loss or damage to....460 What is the time limit for my agency to file a court claim with a TSP for freight charges... service involved and may involve freight charges. The following tables list the time limits: (a)...

  17. 49 CFR Table 3 of Subpart B to... - Alternative Schedule for Application of Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION REFLECTORIZATION OF RAIL FREIGHT ROLLING STOCK Pt. 224, Subpt. B, Table 3 Table... freight rolling stock owner shall submit to FRA an updated Reflectorization Implementation Compliance... requirements of this section have not been met— (1) The freight rolling stock owner shall be considered...

  18. Wear simulation for the centre plate arrangement of a freight car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olshevskiy, Alexander; Kim, Chang-Wan; Yang, Hyun-Ik; Olshevskiy, Alexey

    2015-06-01

    The bodies of many railway freight cars in many countries of the world are coupled to the running gear by means of a body centre plate that makes a friction pair with a centre bowl. During motion, the bogie is rotated and moved with respect to the car body. This leads to wear on the contact surfaces. Lubrication is inexpedient in this case because the friction forces damp the vibrations (so-called bogie hunting) during motion. Usually, centre plates exhibit noticeable wear after two years of operation. Reducing wear requires knowing details of the wear process which, in turn, requires computer simulation of freight car motion for an operation period of 10-15 years. The purpose of this paper is to develop a universal method for wear simulation of friction pairs that could be used, in particular, for the centre plate of a freight car.

  19. Robust Optimization Model and Algorithm for Railway Freight Center Location Problem in Uncertain Environment

    PubMed Central

    He, Shi-wei; Song, Rui; Sun, Yang; Li, Hao-dong

    2014-01-01

    Railway freight center location problem is an important issue in railway freight transport programming. This paper focuses on the railway freight center location problem in uncertain environment. Seeing that the expected value model ignores the negative influence of disadvantageous scenarios, a robust optimization model was proposed. The robust optimization model takes expected cost and deviation value of the scenarios as the objective. A cloud adaptive clonal selection algorithm (C-ACSA) was presented. It combines adaptive clonal selection algorithm with Cloud Model which can improve the convergence rate. Design of the code and progress of the algorithm were proposed. Result of the example demonstrates the model and algorithm are effective. Compared with the expected value cases, the amount of disadvantageous scenarios in robust model reduces from 163 to 21, which prove the result of robust model is more reliable. PMID:25435867

  20. Streamlining Transportation Corridor Planning Processess: Freight and Traffic Information

    SciTech Connect

    Franzese, Oscar

    2010-08-01

    The traffic investigation is one of the most important parts of an Environmental Impact Statement of projects involving the construction of new roadway facilities and/or the improvement of existing ones. The focus of the traffic analysis is on the determination of anticipated traffic flow characteristics of the proposed project, by the application of analytical methods that can be grouped under the umbrella of capacity analysis methodologies. In general, the main traffic parameter used in EISs to describe the quality of traffic flow is the Level of Service (LOS). The current state of the practice in terms of the traffic investigations for EISs has two main shortcomings. The first one is related to the information that is necessary to conduct the traffic analysis, and specifically to the lack of integration among the different transportation models and the sources of information that, in general, reside in GIS databases. A discussion of the benefits of integrating CRS&SI technologies and the transportation models used in the EIS traffic investigation is included. The second shortcoming is in the presentation of the results, both in terms of the appearance and formatting, as well as content. The presentation of traffic results (current and proposed) is discussed. This chapter also addresses the need of additional data, in terms of content and coverage. Regarding the former, other traffic parameters (e.g., delays) that are more meaningful to non-transportation experts than LOS, as well as additional information (e.g., freight flows) that can impact traffic conditions and safety are discussed. Spatial information technologies can decrease the negative effects of, and even eliminate, these shortcomings by making the relevant information that is input to the models more complete and readily available, and by providing the means to communicate the results in a more clear and efficient manner. The benefits that the application and use of CRS&SI technologies can provide to

  1. Termination Documentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Mike; Hill, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined 11 workplaces to determine how they handle termination documentation, an empirically unexplored area in technical communication and rhetoric. We found that the use of termination documentation is context dependent while following a basic pattern of infraction, investigation, intervention, and termination. Furthermore,…

  2. Declassified Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Karen M.

    Journalists and other investigators are daily using declassified government documents to shed light on historical and current events, but few have discovered how to tap the wealth of documents once classified but now in the public realm. An executive order from President Reagan eliminating declassification procedures and allowing released…

  3. Emissions and air quality impacts of truck-to-rail freight modal shifts in the Midwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Bickford, Erica; Holloway, Tracey; Karambelas, Alexandra; Johnston, Matt; Adams, Teresa; Janssen, Mark; Moberg, Claus

    2014-01-01

    We present an examination of the potential emissions and air quality benefits of shifting freight from truck to rail in the upper Midwestern United States. Using a novel, freight-specific emissions inventory (the Wisconsin Inventory of Freight Emissions, WIFE) and a three-dimensional Eulerian photochemical transport model (the Community Multiscale Air Quality Model, CMAQ), we quantify how specific freight mode choices impact ambient air pollution concentrations. Using WIFE, we developed two modal shift scenarios: one focusing on intraregional freight movements within the Midwest and a second on through-freight movements through the region. Freight truck and rail emissions inventories for each scenario were gridded to a 12 km × 12 km horizontal resolution as input to CMAQ, along with emissions from all other major sectors, and three-dimensional time-varying meteorology from the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF). The through-freight scenario reduced monthly mean (January and July) localized concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) by 28% (-2.33 ppbV) in highway grid cells, and reduced elemental carbon (EC) by 16% (-0.05 μg/m(3)) in highway grid cells. There were corresponding localized increases in railway grid cells of 25% (+0.83 ppbV) for NO2, and 22% (+0.05 μg/m(3)) for EC. The through-freight scenario reduced CO2 emissions 31% compared to baseline trucking. The through-freight scenario yields a July mean change in ground-level ambient PM2.5 and O3 over the central and eastern part of the domain (up to -3%).

  4. An approach to market analysis for lighter than air transportation of freight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, P. O.; Marcus, H. S.; Pollock, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    An approach is presented to marketing analysis for lighter than air vehicles in a commercial freight market. After a discussion of key characteristics of supply and demand factors, a three-phase approach to marketing analysis is described. The existing transportation systems are quantitatively defined and possible roles for lighter than air vehicles within this framework are postulated. The marketing analysis views the situation from the perspective of both the shipper and the carrier. A demand for freight service is assumed and the resulting supply characteristics are determined. Then, these supply characteristics are used to establish the demand for competing modes. The process is then iterated to arrive at the market solution.

  5. Document control and document management.

    PubMed

    Djemal, K K

    1999-12-01

    Most schemes for the accreditation (e.g. United Kingdom Accreditation Service) and certification (e.g. BS EN ISO 9002) of laboratories include a requirement to establish and maintain procedures for the management and control of documents generated internally. Such documents include policy statements, procedures, specifications, and some notices and memoranda. Organisations benefit from using agreed and approved information and from knowing that staff are using agreed and approved methods in their operating procedures. Document control systems are likely to become compulsory as accreditation schemes, such as Clinical Pathology Accreditation (CPA) for clinical microbiology laboratories, align with international standards. The Technical Services Division (TSD) in PHLS Headquarters has been developing a control system for various documents that it issues to the PHLS and control of documentation that forms the TSD quality system. The document control system has recently developed into a document management system that provides a mechanism for managing all documents generated or received by the division. TSD's approach is described here to provide laboratories and other organisations with ideas for how they could set up or develop their own document management system to improve accessibility to information. PMID:10598395

  6. Progress in rapid compaction of coal logs for freight pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Gunnink, B.; Li, W.

    1998-07-01

    The Capsule Pipeline Research Center (CPRC) at the University of Missouri-Columbia is devoted to performing research in capsule pipelines. Since its inception in 1991, the CPRC has focused on research related to the development and rapid commercialization of coal log pipeline technology. Coal log pipelines are freight pipelines that will transport compacted coal through a water filled pipeline. To fully develop this technology and make it ready for commercial use it is necessary to investigate means for fabricating coal logs. This paper describes research progress on the rapid compaction of coal logs for coal log pipeline transport. Economic studies conducted by the CPRC indicate that the cost of producing coal logs and thus the economic competitiveness of coal log pipelines is directly related to the compaction time necessary to make the coal logs. Previous research has demonstrated the ability to make laboratory scale coal logs with a 5 second compaction times. It was also observed that for rapidly compacted coal logs, coal log circulation performance (resistance to abrasion in a commercial pipeline) is maximized, if the logs are compacted from a coal mixture at an optimal moisture content (Gunnink and Yang, 1997). For the bituminous Mettiki coal that has been studied, this optimal moisture content is about 9%, if the compaction time is 5 seconds. The practical application of this is that if stockpiled coal is wetter than optimum, it would require drying of the coal to compact it at the optimum moisture content. Obviously, this would effect the cost of coal log fabrication. The authors hypothesize that an alternative to drying coal exists. If the coal logs are to be made at mix moisture contents that are above the optimum value, then coal log quality can be maintained if the compaction time is increased. In fact, the authors believe that if compaction time is increased such that the bulk density and moisture content of the compacted coal logs are the same, then

  7. Interoperable Documentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habermann, T.

    2011-12-01

    Documentation provides the context that adds understanding and knowledge to data. The ISO Standards for documenting data (19115, 19115-2), and services (19119) extend the range of standard documentation considerably beyond previously available approaches. They include increased utilization of technologies like UML, XML and linking and content areas like data quality and processing history. These extensions can build an emerging foundation of data interoperability into an infrastructure for interoperable understanding. This process will involve active collaboration between many environmental data providers and archives all over the world that are currently in the process of adopting and understanding how to effectively use the ISO Standards. I will describe ISO capabilities in the context of parallels between metadata tools and data interoperability approaches currently used by scientists and decision-makers. I will demonstrate how directories shared over the web, transport standards, and community conventions build the foundation for documentation access and data understanding. I will also demonstrate crosswalks and connections between ISO, THREDDS, and NetCDF documentation and some ideas and approaches to improving documentation across the entire spectrum of environmental data and products.

  8. Task Analysis for the Jobs of Freight Train Conductor and Brakeman. RDTR No. 263.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Mark S.; And Others

    The principal tasks performed by conductors, rear brakemen, and head brakemen during over-the-road freight operations are identified and described in the report. Forty-four tasks and subtasks are analyzed and grouped into six categories: basic handling tasks, prerun preparation and starting off tasks, over-the-road tasks, terminating tasks,…

  9. 49 CFR 174.61 - Transport vehicles and freight containers on flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CARRIAGE BY RAIL General Handling and Loading Requirements § 174.61 Transport vehicles and freight... that it cannot permanently change position during transit. Packages of hazardous materials contained... part of a joint rail highway movement. The heating or refrigerating equipment is considered to be...

  10. 49 CFR 174.61 - Transport vehicles and freight containers on flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CARRIAGE BY RAIL General Handling and Loading Requirements § 174.61 Transport vehicles and freight... that it cannot permanently change position during transit. Packages of hazardous materials contained... part of a joint rail highway movement. The heating or refrigerating equipment is considered to be...

  11. View of CSX freight passing over the B&O's Potomac Crossing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of CSX freight passing over the B&O's Potomac Crossing from the deck of the Bridge No. 1396, Fourth Potomac and Second B&O Crossing, looking southeast. - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  12. 22 CFR 202.2 - Shipments eligible for reimbursement of freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Shipments eligible for reimbursement of freight charges. 202.2 Section 202.2 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS SHIPMENTS OF SUPPLIES BY VOLUNTARY NON-PROFIT RELIEF AGENCIES § 202.2 Shipments eligible for reimbursement of...

  13. 22 CFR 202.2 - Shipments eligible for reimbursement of freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shipments eligible for reimbursement of freight charges. 202.2 Section 202.2 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS SHIPMENTS OF SUPPLIES BY VOLUNTARY NON-PROFIT RELIEF AGENCIES § 202.2 Shipments eligible for reimbursement of...

  14. Continuous Vocational Training in the Road Freight and Passenger Transport Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education, Training, and Youth.

    Continuous vocational training (CVT) in the road freight and passenger transport sectors in the member states of the European Community (EC) was examined to identify exemplary and significant practices across the EC and determine the extent of the transferability of the identified exemplary training between and among the member states. In all,…

  15. Preliminary studies concerning the application of different braking arrangements on Italian freight trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugi, Luca; Rindi, Andrea; Ercole, Andrea Giuseppe; Palazzolo, Alessandro; Auciello, Jury; Fioravanti, Duccio; Ignesti, Mirko

    2011-08-01

    Freight wagons are usually equipped with the standard Union Internationale des Chemins de Fer pneumatic brake. On long trains, the propagation of the pneumatic signals along the pipe and different braking/loading conditions may produce delays and/or differences in the application of the braking effort along the train. This phenomenon may cause heavy longitudinal forces exchanged between wagons through buffers and draw gear. In particular, the workgroup n.6 (freight trains composition) of the Italcertifer committee has performed some preliminary studies concerning the application of LL braking operative conditions on freight wagons trains travelling on Italian lines. Partners have cooperated in this workgroup; however, in this paper, the attention is focused on methodologies and results concerning the contribution of University of Florence. The results of this activity, coordinated by RFI-CESIFER have been used to emanate the 20/07 rule of the RFI ('Modifiche alla Prefazione Generale all'Orario di Servizio') which modify the composition criterion rules of freight trains on the Italian Railways in order to introduce and discipline the application of the LL braking operative condition.

  16. 22 CFR 202.2 - Shipments eligible for reimbursement of freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Shipments eligible for reimbursement of freight charges. 202.2 Section 202.2 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS SHIPMENTS OF SUPPLIES BY VOLUNTARY NON-PROFIT RELIEF AGENCIES § 202.2 Shipments eligible for reimbursement of...

  17. 77 FR 73455 - Change to the Military Freight Carrier Registration Program (FCRP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Department of the Army Change to the Military Freight Carrier Registration Program (FCRP) AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ] SUMMARY: The Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command (SDDC) is..., and household goods TSPs. This update will be included in the next release of the Military...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of the code is to establish a uniform language among FRA, States, and the railroad industry that will... Freight Car Truck. Car Bodies 215.121Defective Car Body. Draft System 215.123Defective Couplers. 215.... 215.121Defective car body. (A) Improper clearance—less than 21/2″ from top of rail. (B) Center sill...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of the code is to establish a uniform language among FRA, States, and the railroad industry that will... Freight Car Truck. Car Bodies 215.121Defective Car Body. Draft System 215.123Defective Couplers. 215.... 215.121Defective car body. (A) Improper clearance—less than 21/2″ from top of rail. (B) Center sill...

  20. 22 CFR 202.2 - Shipments eligible for reimbursement of freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shipments eligible for reimbursement of freight charges. 202.2 Section 202.2 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT OVERSEAS SHIPMENTS OF SUPPLIES BY VOLUNTARY NON-PROFIT RELIEF AGENCIES § 202.2 Shipments eligible for reimbursement of...

  1. 49 CFR 174.61 - Transport vehicles and freight containers on flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... cars. 174.61 Section 174.61 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... containers on flat cars. (a) A transport vehicle, freight container, or package containing a hazardous... has fuel or any article classed as a hazardous material may be loaded and transported on a flat car...

  2. 19 CFR 141.112 - Liens for freight, charges, or contribution in general average.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... general average. 141.112 Section 141.112 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF....112 Liens for freight, charges, or contribution in general average. (a) Definitions. The following are... connected with the transportation of the goods. (3) General average. “General average” means the...

  3. 48 CFR 47.303-4 - F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) The cost of transportation... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-4 F.o.b. origin,...

  4. 76 FR 776 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO. 1 AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. SUMMARY: The Military Surface Deployment and Distribution... sent by e-mail to: chad.t.privett@us.army.mil or george.alie@us.army.mil . FOR FURTHER...

  5. 75 FR 24667 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1 AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. SUMMARY: The Military Surface Deployment and Distribution... information may be sent by e-mail to: tony.mayo@us.army.mil or jessica.c.hamilton@us.army.mil . FOR...

  6. 76 FR 59119 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1 AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. SUMMARY: The Military Surface Deployment and Distribution.... Request for additional information may be sent by e-mail to: chad.t.privett@us.army.mil or...

  7. 75 FR 36643 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1 AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Military Surface Deployment and....privett@us.army.mil or george.alie@us.army.mil . FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Chad Privett,...

  8. 48 CFR 47.303-4 - F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) The cost of transportation... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-4 F.o.b. origin,...

  9. 48 CFR 47.303-4 - F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) The cost of transportation... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-4 F.o.b. origin,...

  10. 48 CFR 47.303-4 - F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) The cost of transportation... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-4 F.o.b. origin,...

  11. 48 CFR 47.303-4 - F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) The cost of transportation... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-4 F.o.b. origin,...

  12. 48 CFR 470.201 - Acquisition of commodities and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... requirements and on an overall (foreign and U.S. flag) basis for the remaining portion of the commodities being... determination. (b) Multiple offers or delivery points. If more than one offer for the sale of commodities is...; (iii) Provide the same deadline for receipt of written freight offers from both U.S. flag vessel...

  13. 49 CFR 174.61 - Transport vehicles and freight containers on flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... cars. 174.61 Section 174.61 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... containers on flat cars. (a) A transport vehicle, freight container, or package containing a hazardous... has fuel or any article classed as a hazardous material may be loaded and transported on a flat car...

  14. CargoCBM - Feature Generation and Classification for a Condition Monitoring System for Freight Wagons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gericke, C.; Hecht, M.

    2012-05-01

    Despite the fact that rail freight transport is one of the most environmentally friendly matters of transport, its growth has been far behind the growth of freight transport in general. Studies showed that a competitive disadvantage is caused by a low availability of rolling stock, especially freight wagons. Changing from a time based to a condition based maintenance strategy is believed to decrease down times by at least one third. To make condition based maintenance for freight wagons possible the TU Berlin and five industry partners started the research project CargoCBM. One task in this project is to develop algorithms for the automatic on-board diagnosis of wheel flats. The focus of the work is on the process of feature generation and feature selection as well as the application of different classifiers to automatically evaluate the data. Based on the results of measured data, features were selected and tested with different classifiers. Thought advanced classifiers such as neural networks have been analysed in accordance to their classification accuracy. It can be shown that with carefully constructed and selected features comparatively simple classifiers can lead to excellent results.

  15. 21 CFR 1301.77 - Security controls for freight forwarding facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Security controls for freight forwarding facilities. 1301.77 Section 1301.77 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Security...

  16. 21 CFR 1301.77 - Security controls for freight forwarding facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Security controls for freight forwarding facilities. 1301.77 Section 1301.77 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Security...

  17. 21 CFR 1301.77 - Security controls for freight forwarding facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Security controls for freight forwarding facilities. 1301.77 Section 1301.77 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Security...

  18. 21 CFR 1301.77 - Security controls for freight forwarding facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Security controls for freight forwarding facilities. 1301.77 Section 1301.77 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Security...

  19. 21 CFR 1301.77 - Security controls for freight forwarding facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security controls for freight forwarding facilities. 1301.77 Section 1301.77 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Security...

  20. Spring and Lincoln looking northwest to shops…Freight house and wood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Spring and Lincoln looking northwest to shops…Freight house and wood shantes foreground (roundhouse visible in near distance is the second roadhouse built at aurora, 1868-1872) Photograph taken between 1874 and 1878 - Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, Roundhouse & Shops, Broadway & Spring Streets, Aurora, Kane County, IL

  1. 49 CFR 1242.01 - Expenses solely related to freight service and passenger service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Expenses solely related to freight service and passenger service. 1242.01 Section 1242.01 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... System of Accounts for Railroad Companies (49 CFR part 1201) requires that carriers assign directly...

  2. Document Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The charters of Freedom Monitoring System will periodically assess the physical condition of the U.S. Constitution, Declaration of Independence and Bill of Rights. Although protected in helium filled glass cases, the documents are subject to damage from light vibration and humidity. The photometer is a CCD detector used as the electronic film for the camera system's scanning camera which mechanically scans the document line by line and acquires a series of images, each representing a one square inch portion of the document. Perkin-Elmer Corporation's photometer is capable of detecting changes in contrast, shape or other indicators of degradation with 5 to 10 times the sensitivity of the human eye. A Vicom image processing computer receives the data from the photometer stores it and manipulates it, allowing comparison of electronic images over time to detect changes.

  3. Performance Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Paula

    2002-01-01

    Presents an interview with experts on performance documentation. Suggests that educators should strive to represent performance appraisal writing to students in a way that reflects the way it is perceived and evaluated in the workplace. Concludes that educators can enrich their pedagogy with practice by helping students understand the importance…

  4. Video document

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Bob; Lienhart, Rainer W.; Yeo, Boon-Lock

    1999-08-01

    The metaphor of film and TV permeates the design of software to support video on the PC. Simply transplanting the non- interactive, sequential experience of film to the PC fails to exploit the virtues of the new context. Video ont eh PC should be interactive and non-sequential. This paper experiments with a variety of tools for using video on the PC that exploits the new content of the PC. Some feature are more successful than others. Applications that use these tools are explored, including primarily the home video archive but also streaming video servers on the Internet. The ability to browse, edit, abstract and index large volumes of video content such as home video and corporate video is a problem without appropriate solution in today's market. The current tools available are complex, unfriendly video editors, requiring hours of work to prepare a short home video, far more work that a typical home user can be expected to provide. Our proposed solution treats video like a text document, providing functionality similar to a text editor. Users can browse, interact, edit and compose one or more video sequences with the same ease and convenience as handling text documents. With this level of text-like composition, we call what is normally a sequential medium a 'video document'. An important component of the proposed solution is shot detection, the ability to detect when a short started or stopped. When combined with a spreadsheet of key frames, the host become a grid of pictures that can be manipulated and viewed in the same way that a spreadsheet can be edited. Multiple video documents may be viewed, joined, manipulated, and seamlessly played back. Abstracts of unedited video content can be produce automatically to create novel video content for export to other venues. Edited and raw video content can be published to the net or burned to a CD-ROM with a self-installing viewer for Windows 98 and Windows NT 4.0.

  5. Methodology for Estimating ton-Miles of Goods Movements for U.S. Freight Mulitimodal Network System

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira Neto, Francisco Moraes; Chin, Shih-Miao; Hwang, Ho-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Ton-miles is a commonly used measure of freight transportation output. Estimation of ton-miles in the U.S. transportation system requires freight flow data at disaggregated level (either by link flow, path flows or origin-destination flows between small geographic areas). However, the sheer magnitude of the freight data system as well as industrial confidentiality concerns in Census survey, limit the freight data which is made available to the public. Through the years, the Center for Transportation Analysis (CTA) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been working in the development of comprehensive national and regional freight databases and network flow models. One of the main products of this effort is the Freight Analysis Framework (FAF), a public database released by the ORNL. FAF provides to the general public a multidimensional matrix of freight flows (weight and dollar value) on the U.S. transportation system between states, major metropolitan areas, and remainder of states. Recently, the CTA research team has developed a methodology to estimate ton-miles by mode of transportation between the 2007 FAF regions. This paper describes the data disaggregation methodology. The method relies on the estimation of disaggregation factors that are related to measures of production, attractiveness and average shipments distances by mode service. Production and attractiveness of counties are captured by the total employment payroll. Likely mileages for shipments between counties are calculated by using a geographic database, i.e. the CTA multimodal network system. Results of validation experiments demonstrate the validity of the method. Moreover, 2007 FAF ton-miles estimates are consistent with the major freight data programs for rail and water movements.

  6. Exposure-response relationships for annoyance due to freight and passenger railway vibration exposure in residential environments.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Calum; Woodcock, James; Sica, Gennaro; Peris, Eulalia; Moorhouse, Andrew T; Waddington, David C

    2014-01-01

    In this work, exposure-response relationships for annoyance due to freight and passenger railway vibration exposure in residential environments are developed, so as to better understand the differences in human response to these two sources of environmental vibration. Data for this research come from a field study comprising interviews with respondents and measurements of their vibration exposure (N = 752). A logistic regression model is able to accurately classify 96% of these measured railway vibration signals as freight or passenger based on two signal properties that quantify the duration and low frequency content of each signal. Exposure-response relationships are then determined using ordinal probit modeling with fixed thresholds. The results indicate that people are able to distinguish between freight and passenger railway vibration, and that the annoyance response due to freight railway vibration is significantly higher than that due to passenger railway vibration, even for equal levels of exposure. In terms of a community tolerance level, the population studied is 15 dB (re 10(-6) m s(-2)) more tolerant to passenger railway vibration than freight railway vibration. These results have implications for the expansion of freight traffic on rail, or for policies to promote passenger railway.

  7. Marine vessels as substitutes for heavy-duty trucks in Great Lakes freight transportation.

    PubMed

    Comer, Bryan; Corbett, James J; Hawker, J Scott; Korfmacher, Karl; Lee, Earl E; Prokop, Chris; Winebrake, James J

    2010-07-01

    This paper applies a geospatial network optimization model to explore environmental, economic, and time-of-delivery tradeoffs associated with the application of marine vessels as substitutes for heavy-duty trucks operating in the Great Lakes region. The geospatial model integrates U.S. and Canadian highway, rail, and waterway networks to create an intermodal network and characterizes this network using temporal, economic, and environmental attributes (including emissions of carbon dioxide, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, volatile organic compounds, and nitrogen oxides). A case study evaluates tradeoffs associated with containerized traffic flow in the Great Lakes region, demonstrating how choice of freight mode affects the environmental performance of movement of goods. These results suggest opportunities to improve the environmental performance of freight transport through infrastructure development, technology implementation, and economic incentives.

  8. Design study to simulate the development of a commercial freight transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batill, Stephen M.; Costello, Kevin; Pinkelman, Jim

    1992-01-01

    The Notre Dame Aerospace Engineering senior class was divided into six design teams. A request for proposals (RFP) asking for the design of a remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) was given to the class, and each design team was responsible for designing, developing, producing, and presenting an RPV concept. The RFP called for the design of commercial freight transport RPV. The RFP provided a description of a fictitious world called 'Aeroworld'. Aeroworld's characteristics were scaled to provide the same types of challenges for RPV design that the real world market provides for the design of commercial aircraft. Fuel efficiency, range and payload capabilities, production and maintenance costs, and profitability are a few of the challenges that were addressed in this course. Each design team completed their project over the course of a semester by designing and flight testing a prototype, freight-carrying remotely piloted vehicle.

  9. Do not blame the driver: a systems analysis of the causes of road freight crashes.

    PubMed

    Newnam, Sharon; Goode, Natassia

    2015-03-01

    Although many have advocated a systems approach in road transportation, this view has not meaningfully penetrated road safety research, practice or policy. In this study, a systems theory-based approach, Rasmussens's (1997) risk management framework and associated Accimap technique, is applied to the analysis of road freight transportation crashes. Twenty-seven highway crash investigation reports were downloaded from the National Transport Safety Bureau website. Thematic analysis was used to identify the complex system of contributory factors, and relationships, identified within the reports. The Accimap technique was then used to represent the linkages and dependencies within and across system levels in the road freight transportation industry and to identify common factors and interactions across multiple crashes. The results demonstrate how a systems approach can increase knowledge in this safety critical domain, while the findings can be used to guide prevention efforts and the development of system-based investigation processes for the heavy vehicle industry. A research agenda for developing an investigation technique to better support the application of the Accimap technique by practitioners in road freight transportation industry is proposed.

  10. IntelligentFreight: A Tracking 2.0 Prototype for Global Supply Chain Transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Randy M.; Shankar, Mallikarjun; Gorman, Bryan L.

    2009-01-01

    Imagine a world where boxes talk to containers, containers talk to trucks and trucks talk to forklifts that talk to people. Each box would be smart, carrying all the information about its contents, its shipping history, its handling instructions, and where it is supposed to be. This world is within our reach as a result of Web 2.0 innovations on the Internet. While technologies such as RFID, GPS, cellular phones and barcodes have become ever more prevalent in the freight supply chain, there is still an invisible curtain blocking information flow between proprietary and legacy enterprise systems. Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are working with academia, the U.S. Government, and commercial companies to apply Web 2.0 technologies to the challenge of tracking and monitoring hazardous materials and nuclear sources in the international supply chain. Under the rubric of Tracking 2.0, a term for the use of Web 2.0 technologies for tracking applications, ORNL is developing a prototype called IntelligentFreight. IntelligentFreight interfaces sensors, legacy databases, and proprietary commercial tracking systems. The prototype combines Web 2.0 s social networking and tagging concepts with a classical faceted classification (a way of describing the same object in multiple ways) model to track a shipment across incompatible enterprise systems.

  11. Effect of a sudden fuel shortage on freight transport in the United States: an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Hooker, J N

    1980-01-01

    A survey was made of the potential effects of a sudden reduction of fuel supplies on freight transport via truck, rail, water, and pipeline. After a brief discussion of the energy characteristics of each of these modes of transport, short-term strategies for making better use of fuel in a crisis are investigated. Short-term is taken to mean something on the order of six months, and a crisis is taken to be the result of something on the order of a 20% drop in available fuel. Although no succinct or well-established conclusions are drawn, the gist of the paper is that the potential for short-term conservation, without a serious disruption of service, exists but does not appear to be large. It is remarked that it is possible, through further study, to obtain a fairly accurate reckoning of the physical ability of the freight transport network to weather a fuel crisis, but that it is impossible to say in advance what freight carriers will in fact do with the network.

  12. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Modal Shares: Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    SciTech Connect

    Brogan, J. J.; Aeppli, A. E.; Beagan, D. F.; Brown, A.; Fischer, M. J.; Grenzeback, L. R.; McKenzie, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Vyas, A. D.; Witzke, E.

    2013-03-01

    Truck, rail, water, air, and pipeline modes each serve a distinct share of the freight transportation market. The current allocation of freight by mode is the product of technologic, economic, and regulatory frameworks, and a variety of factors -- price, speed, reliability, accessibility, visibility, security, and safety -- influence mode. Based on a comprehensive literature review, this report considers how analytical methods can be used to project future modal shares and offers insights on federal policy decisions with the potential to prompt shifts to energy-efficient, low-emission modes. There are substantial opportunities to reduce the energy used for freight transportation, but it will be difficult to shift large volumes from one mode to another without imposing considerable additional costs on businesses and consumers. This report explores federal government actions that could help trigger the shifts in modal shares needed to reduce energy consumption and emissions. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  13. Emission Projections for Long-Haul Freight Trucks and Rail in the United States through 2050.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang; Hwang, Taesung; Lee, Sungwon; Ouyang, Yanfeng; Lee, Bumsoo; Smith, Steven J; Yan, Fang; Daenzer, Kathryn; Bond, Tami C

    2015-10-01

    This work develops an integrated model approach for estimating emissions from long-haul freight truck and rail transport in the United States between 2010 and 2050. We connect models of macroeconomic activity, freight demand by commodity, transportation networks, and emission technology to represent different pathways of future freight emissions. Emissions of particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and total hydrocarbon (THC) decrease by 60%-70% from 2010 to 2030, as older vehicles built to less-stringent emission standards retire. Climate policy, in the form of carbon tax that increases apparent fuel prices, causes a shift from truck to rail, resulting in a 30% reduction in fuel consumption and a 10%-28% reduction in pollutant emissions by 2050, if rail capacity is sufficient. Eliminating high-emitting conditions in the truck fleet affects air pollutants by 20% to 65%; although these estimates are highly uncertain, they indicate the importance of durability in vehicle engines and emission control systems. Future infrastructure investment will be required both to meet transport demand and to enable actions that reduce emissions of air and climate pollutants. By driving the integrated model framework with two macroeconomic scenarios, we show that the effect of carbon tax on air pollution is robust regardless of growth levels. PMID:26368392

  14. Cost Effective Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions in the Air Freight Sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blinge, Magnus

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents cost effective measures to reduce CO2 emissions in the air freight sector. One door-to-door transport chain is studied in detail from a Scandinavian city to a city in southern Europe. The transport chain was selected by a group of representatives from the air freight sector in order to encompass general characteristics within the sector. Three different ways of shipping air cargo are studied, i.e., by air freighter, as belly freight (in passenger aircrafts) and trucking. CO2 emissions are calculated for each part of the transport chain and its relative importance towards the total amount CO2 emitted during the whole transport chain is shown. It is confirmed that the most CO2 emitting part of the transport chain is the actual flight and that it is in the take-off and climbing phases that most fuel are burned. It is also known that the technical development of aircraft implies a reduction in fuel consumption for each new generation of aircraft. Thus, the aircraft manufacturers have an important role in this development. Having confirmed these observations, this paper focuses on other factors that significantly affects the fuel consumption. Analyzed factors are, e.g., optimization of speed and altitude, traffic management, congestion on and around the airfields, tankering, "latest acceptance time" for goods and improving the load factor. The different factors relative contribution to the total emission levels for the transport chain has been estimated.

  15. Emission Projections for Long-Haul Freight Trucks and Rail in the United States through 2050.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang; Hwang, Taesung; Lee, Sungwon; Ouyang, Yanfeng; Lee, Bumsoo; Smith, Steven J; Yan, Fang; Daenzer, Kathryn; Bond, Tami C

    2015-10-01

    This work develops an integrated model approach for estimating emissions from long-haul freight truck and rail transport in the United States between 2010 and 2050. We connect models of macroeconomic activity, freight demand by commodity, transportation networks, and emission technology to represent different pathways of future freight emissions. Emissions of particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and total hydrocarbon (THC) decrease by 60%-70% from 2010 to 2030, as older vehicles built to less-stringent emission standards retire. Climate policy, in the form of carbon tax that increases apparent fuel prices, causes a shift from truck to rail, resulting in a 30% reduction in fuel consumption and a 10%-28% reduction in pollutant emissions by 2050, if rail capacity is sufficient. Eliminating high-emitting conditions in the truck fleet affects air pollutants by 20% to 65%; although these estimates are highly uncertain, they indicate the importance of durability in vehicle engines and emission control systems. Future infrastructure investment will be required both to meet transport demand and to enable actions that reduce emissions of air and climate pollutants. By driving the integrated model framework with two macroeconomic scenarios, we show that the effect of carbon tax on air pollution is robust regardless of growth levels.

  16. Orbitmpi Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa L. Lowe

    2000-10-05

    Orbitmpi is a parallelized version of Roscoe White's Orbit code. The code has been parallelized using MPI, which makes it portable to many types of machines. The guidelines used for the parallelization were to increase code performance with minimal changes to the code's original structure. This document gives a general description of how the parallel sections of the code run. It discusses the changes made to the original code and comments on the general procedure for future additions to Orbitmpi, as well as describing the effects of a parallelized random number generator on the code's output. Finally, the scaling results from Hecate and from Puffin are presented. Hecate is a 64-processor Origin 2000 machine, with MIPS R12000 processors and 16GB of memory, and Puffin is a PC cluster with 9 dual-processor 450 MHz Pentium III (18 processors max.), with 100Mbits ethernet communication.

  17. Omega documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Howerton, R.J.; Dye, R.E.; Giles, P.C.; Kimlinger, J.R.; Perkins, S.T.; Plechaty, E.F.

    1983-08-01

    OMEGA is a CRAY I computer program that controls nine codes used by LLNL Physical Data Group for: 1) updating the libraries of evaluated data maintained by the group (UPDATE); 2) calculating average values of energy deposited in secondary particles and residual nuclei (ENDEP); 3) checking the libraries for internal consistency, especially for energy conservation (GAMCHK); 4) producing listings, indexes and plots of the library data (UTILITY); 5) producing calculational constants such as group averaged cross sections and transfer matrices for diffusion and Sn transport codes (CLYDE); 6) producing and updating standard files of the calculational constants used by LLNL Sn and diffusion transport codes (NDFL); 7) producing calculational constants for Monte Carlo transport codes that use group-averaged cross sections and continuous energy for particles (CTART); 8) producing and updating standard files used by the LLNL Monte Carlo transport codes (TRTL); and 9) producing standard files used by the LANL pointwise Monte Carlo transport code MCNP (MCPOINT). The first four of these functions and codes deal with the libraries of evaluated data and the last five with various aspects of producing calculational constants for use by transport codes. In 1970 a series, called PD memos, of internal and informal memoranda was begun. These were intended to be circulated among the group for comment and then to provide documentation for later reference whenever questions arose about the subject matter of the memos. They have served this purpose and now will be drawn upon as source material for this more comprehensive report that deals with most of the matters covered in those memos.

  18. Shippers and freight operators perceptions of sustainable initiatives.

    PubMed

    Vieira, José Geraldo Vidal; Mendes, Juliana Veiga; Suyama, Suzi Sanae

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to document the extent to which Brazilian companies in retail channels have committed to adopting environmental sustainability measures, goals and strategies for waste disposal in the evaluation and planning of sustainable transportation. This paper also aims to examine the different viewpoints of sustainability issues and the preventive actions taken by companies in terms of controlling carbon dioxide emissions and proper disposal of tires, lubricant oils, accessories and spare parts. Finally, taking the perspective of these companies, this paper examines their difficulties in meeting environmental regulations. The research involved a survey completed by 185 representatives of different types of companies, including shippers (represented by manufacturers), LSPs (logistics service providers) and carriers. The non-linear canonical correlation was calculated to verify the opinions of these representatives from different companies regarding issues that impact on the environment, the preventive actions they adopt to reduce their environmental impact and their difficulties in meeting environmental regulations. The results show that shippers and LSPs have the same perceptions regarding these sustainability issues and preventive actions. In addition, the companies perceive high costs and the lack of training for their partners as the major challenges experienced in addressing these issues and undertaking preventive actions. Therefore they need to plan their transportation activities. PMID:26227446

  19. Shippers and freight operators perceptions of sustainable initiatives.

    PubMed

    Vieira, José Geraldo Vidal; Mendes, Juliana Veiga; Suyama, Suzi Sanae

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to document the extent to which Brazilian companies in retail channels have committed to adopting environmental sustainability measures, goals and strategies for waste disposal in the evaluation and planning of sustainable transportation. This paper also aims to examine the different viewpoints of sustainability issues and the preventive actions taken by companies in terms of controlling carbon dioxide emissions and proper disposal of tires, lubricant oils, accessories and spare parts. Finally, taking the perspective of these companies, this paper examines their difficulties in meeting environmental regulations. The research involved a survey completed by 185 representatives of different types of companies, including shippers (represented by manufacturers), LSPs (logistics service providers) and carriers. The non-linear canonical correlation was calculated to verify the opinions of these representatives from different companies regarding issues that impact on the environment, the preventive actions they adopt to reduce their environmental impact and their difficulties in meeting environmental regulations. The results show that shippers and LSPs have the same perceptions regarding these sustainability issues and preventive actions. In addition, the companies perceive high costs and the lack of training for their partners as the major challenges experienced in addressing these issues and undertaking preventive actions. Therefore they need to plan their transportation activities.

  20. 41 CFR 102-117.90 - May I use a U.S. Government bill of lading (GBL) to acquire freight, household goods or other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Government bill of lading (GBL) to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services...) to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? You may use the Government bill of lading (GBL) only for international shipments (including domestic offshore shipments)....

  1. 41 CFR 102-117.90 - May I use a U.S. Government bill of lading (GBL) to acquire freight, household goods or other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Government bill of lading (GBL) to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services...) to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? You may use the Government bill of lading (GBL) only for international shipments (including domestic offshore shipments)....

  2. 41 CFR 102-117.90 - May I use a U.S. Government bill of lading (GBL) to acquire freight, household goods or other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Government bill of lading (GBL) to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services...) to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? You may use the Government bill of lading (GBL) only for international shipments (including domestic offshore shipments)....

  3. 41 CFR 102-117.90 - May I use a U.S. Government bill of lading (GBL) to acquire freight, household goods or other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Government bill of lading (GBL) to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services...) to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? You may use the Government bill of lading (GBL) only for international shipments (including domestic offshore shipments)....

  4. Characterization of the near-source population around five candidate ports on the Eastern Seaboard and Gulf Coast using a multi-modal freight transport perspective

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many ports are currently preparing for increased freight traffic, which may result in elevated local air pollution in areas near the port and freight transportation corridors. In this study, a geographical information system (GIS) analysis of areas surrounding five ports – Port o...

  5. 49 CFR 1242.73 - Cleaning car interiors and freight lost and damaged-all other (accounts XX-53-70 and 51-53-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cleaning car interiors and freight lost and damaged-all other (accounts XX-53-70 and 51-53-00). 1242.73 Section 1242.73 Transportation Other... freight lost and damaged—all other (accounts XX-53-70 and 51-53-00). Separate common expenses on basis...

  6. 49 CFR 1242.73 - Cleaning car interiors and freight lost and damaged-all other (accounts XX-53-70 and 51-53-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning car interiors and freight lost and damaged-all other (accounts XX-53-70 and 51-53-00). 1242.73 Section 1242.73 Transportation Other... freight lost and damaged—all other (accounts XX-53-70 and 51-53-00). Separate common expenses on basis...

  7. 49 CFR 1242.73 - Cleaning car interiors and freight lost and damaged-all other (accounts XX-53-70 and 51-53-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cleaning car interiors and freight lost and damaged-all other (accounts XX-53-70 and 51-53-00). 1242.73 Section 1242.73 Transportation Other... freight lost and damaged—all other (accounts XX-53-70 and 51-53-00). Separate common expenses on basis...

  8. 49 CFR 1242.73 - Cleaning car interiors and freight lost and damaged-all other (accounts XX-53-70 and 51-53-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cleaning car interiors and freight lost and damaged-all other (accounts XX-53-70 and 51-53-00). 1242.73 Section 1242.73 Transportation Other... freight lost and damaged—all other (accounts XX-53-70 and 51-53-00). Separate common expenses on basis...

  9. 49 CFR 1242.73 - Cleaning car interiors and freight lost and damaged-all other (accounts XX-53-70 and 51-53-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cleaning car interiors and freight lost and damaged-all other (accounts XX-53-70 and 51-53-00). 1242.73 Section 1242.73 Transportation Other... freight lost and damaged—all other (accounts XX-53-70 and 51-53-00). Separate common expenses on basis...

  10. 48 CFR 847.303-70 - F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid, transportation charges to be included on the invoice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... Transportation in Supply Contracts 847.303-70 F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid, transportation charges to be included on the invoice. (a) The delivery terms will be stated as “f.o.b. origin, transportation...

  11. Characterization of the near-source population around five candidate ports on the Eastern Seaboard and Gulf Coast using a multi-modal freight transport perspective

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many ports are currently preparing for increased freight traffic, which may result in elevated local air pollution in areas near the port and freight transportation corridors. In this study, a geographical information system (GIS) analysis of areas surrounding five ports – ...

  12. The FTA Method And A Possibility Of Its Application In The Area Of Road Freight Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poliaková, Adela

    2015-06-01

    The Fault Tree process utilizes logic diagrams to portray and analyse potentially hazardous events. Three basic symbols (logic gates) are adequate for diagramming any fault tree. However, additional recently developed symbols can be used to reduce the time and effort required for analysis. A fault tree is a graphical representation of the relationship between certain specific events and the ultimate undesired event (2). This paper deals to method of Fault Tree Analysis basic description and provides a practical view on possibility of application by quality improvement in road freight transport company.

  13. Transportation statistics annual report 1998: Long-distance travel and freight

    SciTech Connect

    Fenn, M.

    1998-12-01

    This is the fifth annual report prepared by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS). As in prior years, the report brings together under one cover information about how the transportation system is used, how well it works, its economic contributions and costs, and its unintended consequences for safety, energy import dependency, and the environment. This year`s report also contains a detailed analysis of long-distance passenger travel and freight activity, drawing on the American Travel Survey and the Commodity Flow Survey conducted by BTS in cooperation with the US Census Bureau.

  14. Advanced cargo aircraft may offer a potential renaissance in freight transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Shelby J.; Sawyer, Wallace C.

    1993-01-01

    The increasing demand for air freight transportation has prompted studies of large, aerodynamically efficient cargo-optimized aircraft capable of carrying intermodal containers, which are typically 8 x 8 x 20 ft. Studies have accordingly been conducted within NASA to ascertain the specifications and projected operating costs of such a vehicle, as well as to identify critical, development-pacing technologies. Attention is here given not only to the rather conventional, 10-turbofan engined configuration thus arrived at, but numerous innovative configurations featuring such concepts as spanloading, removable cargo pods, and ground effect.

  15. Fatigue test of a fiberglass based composite panel. Increasing the lifetime of freight wagon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobek, M.; Baier, A.; Grabowski, Ł.; Majzner, M.

    2016-08-01

    In the XXI century transportation of goods plays a key role in the economy. Due to a good logistics the economy is able to grow fluently. Although land transportation is carried out mainly through trucks for the last several years there has been noted an increase in the percentage share of rail transport in the freight transport. The main goods transported by railways are mineral fuels, mining and quarrying products. They constitute the greater part of 70% of total transported goods. Transportation of material of such high weight, high hardness and with different shapes involves increased and accelerated wear and tear of the cargo space of the wagon. This process is also magnified by substances used to prevent overheating or goods theft. Usually they are in the form of chemical compounds powder, eg. Calcium. A very large impact on the wear of the freight wagons hull is made because of mechanical damage. Their source comes mostly from loading cargo with impetus and using heavy machines during unloading. A large number of cycles of loading and unloading during the working period causes abrasion of body and as a result after several years a wagon car qualifies for a major maintenance. Possibility of application composite panels in the process of renovating the wagons body could reduce the weight of whole train and prolong the service life between mandatory technical inspection. The Paper "Fatigue test of a fiberglass based composite panel. Increasing the lifetime of freight wagon" presents the research process and the results of the endurance test of the composite panel samples fixed to a metal plate. As a fixing method a stainless steel rivet nut and a stainless steel button head socket screws were chosen. Cyclic and multiple load were applied to test samples using a pneumatic cylinder. Such a methodology simulated the forces resulting from loading and unloading of the wagon and movement of the cargo during transport. In the study a dedicated stand equipped with a

  16. A weighted min-max model for balanced freight train routing problem with fuzzy information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lixing; Gao, Ziyou; Li, Xiang; Li, Keping

    2011-12-01

    A multi-objective freight train routing problem with fuzzy information is investigated in this article. To handle the fuzziness in the railway transportation system, the measure ℳλ (i.e. the convex combination of a possibility measure and a necessity measure) is first introduced. Then, a min-max chance-constrained programming model is constructed to obtain optimal train routing plans. In order to solve the model, a potential route algorithm, fuzzy simulation and tabu search algorithm are integrated as a hybrid algorithm. Finally, some numerical experiments are performed to show the applications of the model and the algorithm.

  17. Phase 1: Definition of intercity transportation comparison framework. Volume 1: Summary. [operations research of passenger and freight transporatation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A unified framework for comparing intercity passenger and freight transportation systems is presented. Composite measures for cost, service/demand, energy, and environmental impact were determined. A set of 14 basic measures were articulated to form the foundation for computing the composite measures. A parameter dependency diagram, constructed to explicitly interrelate the composite and basic measures is discussed. Ground rules and methodology for developing the values of the basic measures are provided and the use of the framework with existing cost and service data is illustrated for various freight systems.

  18. Model documentation report: Transportation sector model of the National Energy Modeling System

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    Over the past year, several modifications have been made to the NEMS Transportation Model, incorporating greater levels of detail and analysis in modules previously represented in the aggregate or under a profusion of simplifying assumptions. This document is intended to amend those sections of the Model Documentation Report (MDR) which describe these superseded modules. Significant changes have been implemented in the LDV Fuel Economy Model, the Alternative Fuel Vehicle Model, the LDV Fleet Module, and the Highway Freight Model. The relevant sections of the MDR have been extracted from the original document, amended, and are presented in the following pages. A brief summary of the modifications follows: In the Fuel Economy Model, modifications have been made which permit the user to employ more optimistic assumptions about the commercial viability and impact of selected technological improvements. This model also explicitly calculates the fuel economy of an array of alternative fuel vehicles (AFV`s) which are subsequently used in the estimation of vehicle sales. In the Alternative Fuel Vehicle Model, the results of the Fuel Economy Model have been incorporated, and the program flows have been modified to reflect that fact. In the Light Duty Vehicle Fleet Module, the sales of vehicles to fleets of various size are endogenously calculated in order to provide a more detailed estimate of the impacts of EPACT legislation on the sales of AFV`s to fleets. In the Highway Freight Model, the previous aggregate estimation has been replaced by a detailed Freight Truck Stock Model, where travel patterns, efficiencies, and energy intensities are estimated by industrial grouping. Several appendices are provided at the end of this document, containing data tables and supplementary descriptions of the model development process which are not integral to an understanding of the overall model structure.

  19. Simulation of longitudinal dynamics of long freight trains in positioning operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhaohui; Huang, Zhihao; Kong, Xianchao

    2012-09-01

    Positioning operations are performed in a railway goods yard, in which the freight train is pulled precisely at a specific point by a positioner. The positioner moves strictly according to the predesigned speed and provides all the traction and braking forces which are highly dependent on the longitudinal dynamic response. In order to improve the efficiency and protect the wagons from damage during positioning operations, the design speed of the positioner has to be optimised based on the simulation of longitudinal train dynamics. However, traditional models of longitudinal train dynamics are not accurate enough in some aspects. In this study, we make some changes in the traditional theory to make it suitable for the study of long freight trains in positioning operations. In the proposed method, instead of the traction force on the train, the motion of the positioner is assumed to be known; more importantly, the traditional draft gear model with nonlinear spring and linear damping is replaced by a more detailed model based on the achievement of contact and impact mechanics; the switching effects of the resistance and the coupler slack are also taken into consideration. Numerical examples that deal with positioning operations on the straight lines, slope lines and curving lines are given.

  20. Freight on a Low-Carbon Diet: Accessibility, Freightsheds, and Commodities.

    PubMed

    Taptich, Michael N; Horvath, Arpad

    2015-10-01

    The freight infrastructure network (e.g., roads, railways, waterways, etc.) is the backbone of nearly all trade partnerships in the United States and abroad. The manner in which the individual portions of its constituent parts are interrelated or arranged plays an important role for determining the environmental footprint of goods moved within the network. Herein, we compare the spatial distribution of potential consumer-producer exchanges (i.e., accessibility) under varying greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets or preferences for minimal transportation-related GHG emissions. We conduct case studies using two freight modes (truck and intermodal rail) for two representative commodities: meat/seafood and paper articles. Results across all counties in the United States indicate that the geographic area in which trade is possible, given a GHG budget, varies by transportation mode, location, and commodity. Our results suggest that intermodal terminal availability is an important determinant of low-GHG accessibility. Since only a fraction of road-to-rail terminals accommodate meat/seafood (4.9%) and paper (0.7%), the United States could increase its expected GHG savings associated with truck-to-rail mode-switching policies by 70% (+20 kg CO2,e/ton for meat/seafood) and 310% (+30 kg CO2,e/ton for paper) by upgrading current terminals to allow the exchange of all types of goods. PMID:26339921

  1. Evaluation of life-cycle air emission factors of freight transportation.

    PubMed

    Facanha, Cristiano; Horvath, Arpad

    2007-10-15

    Life-cycle air emission factors associated with road, rail, and air transportation of freight in the United States are analyzed. All life-cycle phases of vehicles, infrastructure, and fuels are accounted for in a hybrid life-cycle assessment (LCA). It includes not only fuel combustion, but also emissions from vehicle manufacturing, maintenance, and end of life, infrastructure construction, operation, maintenance, and end of life, and petroleum exploration, refining, and fuel distribution. Results indicate that total life-cycle emissions of freight transportation modes are underestimated if only tailpipe emissions are accounted for. In the case of CO2 and NOx, tailpipe emissions underestimate total emissions by up to 38%, depending on the mode. Total life-cycle emissions of CO and SO2 are up to seven times higher than tailpipe emissions. Sensitivity analysis considers the effects of vehicle type, geography, and mode efficiency on the final results. Policy implications of this analysis are also discussed. For example, while it is widely assumed that currently proposed regulations will result in substantial reductions in emissions, we find that this is true for NOx, emissions, because fuel combustion is the main cause, and to a lesser extent for SO2, but not for PM10 emissions, which are significantly affected by the other life-cycle phases.

  2. Freight on a Low-Carbon Diet: Accessibility, Freightsheds, and Commodities.

    PubMed

    Taptich, Michael N; Horvath, Arpad

    2015-10-01

    The freight infrastructure network (e.g., roads, railways, waterways, etc.) is the backbone of nearly all trade partnerships in the United States and abroad. The manner in which the individual portions of its constituent parts are interrelated or arranged plays an important role for determining the environmental footprint of goods moved within the network. Herein, we compare the spatial distribution of potential consumer-producer exchanges (i.e., accessibility) under varying greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets or preferences for minimal transportation-related GHG emissions. We conduct case studies using two freight modes (truck and intermodal rail) for two representative commodities: meat/seafood and paper articles. Results across all counties in the United States indicate that the geographic area in which trade is possible, given a GHG budget, varies by transportation mode, location, and commodity. Our results suggest that intermodal terminal availability is an important determinant of low-GHG accessibility. Since only a fraction of road-to-rail terminals accommodate meat/seafood (4.9%) and paper (0.7%), the United States could increase its expected GHG savings associated with truck-to-rail mode-switching policies by 70% (+20 kg CO2,e/ton for meat/seafood) and 310% (+30 kg CO2,e/ton for paper) by upgrading current terminals to allow the exchange of all types of goods.

  3. A real-time visual inspection method of fastening bolts in freight car operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Guo; Yao, JunEn

    2015-10-01

    A real-time inspection of the key components is necessary for ensuring safe operation of freight car. While traditional inspection depends on the trained human inspectors, which is time-consuming and lower efficient. With the development of machine vision, vision-based inspection methods get more railway on-spot applications. The cross rod end fastening bolts are important components on both sides of the train body that fixing locking plates together with the freight car main structure. In our experiment, we get the images containing fastening bolt components, and accurately locate the locking plate position using a linear Support Vector Machine (SVM) locating model trained with Histograms of Oriented Gradients (HOG) features. Then we extract the straight line segment using the Line Segment Detector (LSD) and encoding them in a range, which constitute a straight line segment dataset. Lastly we determine the locking plate's working state by the linear pattern. The experiment result shows that the localization accurate rate is over 99%, the fault detection rate is over 95%, and the module implementation time is 2f/s. The overall performance can completely meet the practical railway safety assurance application.

  4. Document Update and Compare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoch, C. F.; Caldwell, D. C.; Caldwell, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    Document Update and Compare programs provide simple computerized documentmaintenance system on Data General NOVA 840 computer. Document Update program allows user to update document either by batch or terminal input. Documents are modified and lists of modifications printed out.

  5. Characterization of road freight transportation and its impact on the national emission inventory in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. F.; Liu, H.; Man, H. Y.; He, K. B.

    2014-06-01

    Mobile source emission inventories serve as critical input for atmospheric chemical transport models, which are used to simulate air quality and understand the role of mobile source emissions. The significance of mobile sources is even more important in China because the country has the largest vehicle population in the world, and that population continues to grow rapidly. Estimating emissions from diesel trucks is a critical work in mobile source emission inventories due to the importance and difficulties associated with estimating emissions from diesel trucks. Although diesel trucks are major contributors of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and primary particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), there are still more obstacles on the existing estimation of diesel truck emissions compared with that of cars; long-range freight transportation activities are complicated, and much of the basic data remain unclear. Most of existing inventories were based on local registration number. However, according to our research, a large number of trucks are conducting long-distance inter-city or inter province transportation. Instead of the local registration number based approach, a road emission intensity-based (REIB) approach is introduced in this research. To provide efficient data for the REIB approach, 1060 questionnaire responses and approximately 1.7 million valid seconds of onboard GPS monitoring data were collected. Both the questionnaire answers and GPS monitoring results indicated that the driving conditions on different types of road have significant impacts on the emission levels of freight trucks. We present estimated emissions of NOx and primary PM2.5 from diesel freight trucks for China in 2011. Using the REIB approach, the activity level and distribution data are obtained from the questionnaire answers. Emission factors are calculated with the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model that interpolated local on-board measurement results in China according to the GPS

  6. Railroad freight transportation. January 1981-September 1988 (Citations from the NTIS data base). Report for January 1981-September 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-10-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning economic aspects, intermodal systems, energy studies, scheduling, accident studies, and regional characterizations pertaining to railroad operations. Freight-car design aspects, engineering analyses, and testing programs are also discussed. (This updated bibliography contains 290 citations, 25 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  7. 78 FR 5168 - BE-30: Survey of Ocean Freight Revenues and Foreign Expenses of United States Carriers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ... Bureau of Economic Analysis XRIN 0691-XC005 BE-30: Survey of Ocean Freight Revenues and Foreign Expenses of United States Carriers AGENCY: Bureau of Economic Analysis, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of reporting requirements. SUMMARY: By this Notice, the Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA), Department of Commerce,...

  8. Freight transportation and the potential for invasions of exotic insects in urban and periurban forests of the United States.

    PubMed

    Colunga-Garcia, Manuel; Haack, Robert A; Adelaja, Adesoji O

    2009-02-01

    Freight transportation is an important pathway for the introduction and dissemination of exotic forest insects (EFI). Identifying the final destination of imports is critical in determining the likelihood of EFI establishment. We analyzed the use of regional freight transport information to characterize risk of urban and periurban areas to EFI introductions. Specific objectives were to 1) approximate the final distribution of selected imports among urban areas of the United States, 2) characterize the final distribution of imports in terms of their spatial aggregation and dominant world region of origin, and 3) assess the effect of the final distribution of imports on the level of risk to urban and periurban forests from EFI. Freight pattern analyses were conducted for three categories of imports whose products or packaging materials are associated with EFI: wood products, nonmetallic mineral products, and machinery. The final distribution of wood products was the most evenly distributed of the three selected imports, whereas machinery was most spatially concentrated. We found that the type of import and the world region of origin greatly influence the final distribution of imported products. Risk assessment models were built based on the amount of forestland and imports for each urban area The model indicated that 84-88% of the imported tonnage went to only 4-6% of the urban areas in the contiguous United States. We concluded that freight movement information is critical for proper risk assessment of EFI. Implications of our findings and future research needs are discussed.

  9. 49 CFR 174.84 - Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers or bulk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers or bulk packagings when accompanied by guards or technical escorts. 174.84 Section 174.84 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...

  10. 49 CFR 174.82 - General requirements for the handling of placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General requirements for the handling of placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packages. 174.82 Section 174.82 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION...

  11. 49 CFR 174.85 - Position in train of placarded cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Position in train of placarded cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packagings. 174.85 Section 174.85 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  12. 75 FR 38128 - Ceva Freight, LLC, Dell Logistics Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Prologistix and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ..., LLC, Dell Logistics Division, including on-site leased workers from Prologistix, Winston-Salem, North Carolina. The notice was published in the Federal Register on April 23, 2010 (75 FR 21357). At the request... Employment and Training Administration Ceva Freight, LLC, Dell Logistics Division, Including On-Site...

  13. 76 FR 27366 - CEVA Freight, LLC, Dell Logistics Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Prologistix...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... Carolina. The notice was published in the Federal Register on April 23, 2010 (75 FR 21357). The notice was... notice was published in the Federal Register on July 1, 2010 (75 FR 38128-38129). At the request of the... Employment and Training Administration CEVA Freight, LLC, Dell Logistics Division, Including On-Site...

  14. Characterization of road freight transportation and its impact on the national emission inventory in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. F.; Liu, H.; Man, H. Y.; He, K. B.

    2015-02-01

    Diesel trucks are major contributors of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and primary particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) in the transportation sector. However, there are more obstacles to existing estimations of diesel-truck emissions compared with those of cars. The obstacles include both inappropriate methodology and missing basic data in China. According to our research, a large number of trucks are conducting long-distance intercity or interprovincial transportation. Thus, the method used by most existing inventories, based on local registration number, is inappropriate. A road emission intensity-based (REIB) approach is introduced in this research instead of registration-population-based approach. To provide efficient data for the REIB approach, 1060 questionnaire responses and approximately 1.7 million valid seconds of onboard GPS monitoring data were collected in China. The estimated NOx and PM2.5 emissions from diesel freight trucks in China were 5.0 (4.8-7.2) million tonnes and 0.20 (0.17-0.22) million tonnes, respectively, in 2011. The province-based emission inventory is also established using the REIB approach. It was found that the driving conditions on different types of road have significant impacts on the emission levels of freight trucks. The largest differences among the emission factors (in g km-1) on different roads exceed 70 and 50% for NOx and PM2.5, respectively. A region with more intercity freeways or national roads tends to have more NOx emissions, while urban streets play a more important role in primary PM2.5 emissions from freight trucks. Compared with the inventory of the Ministry of Environment Protection, which allocates emissions according to local truck registration number and neglects interregional long-distance transport trips, the differences for NOx and PM2.5 are +28 and -57%, respectively. The REIB approach matches better with traffic statistical data on a provincial level. Furthermore, the different driving conditions on the

  15. 21st century trucking: A trajectory for ergonomics and road freight.

    PubMed

    Bedinger, M; Walker, G H; Piecyk, M; Greening, P

    2016-03-01

    Over the past decade there has been significant pressure to minimise emissions and safety risks related to commercial driving. This pressure to meet the triple bottom line of cost, environment, and society has often resulted in the rapid application of vehicle technologies designed to mitigate undesired effects. Often the cognitive and behavioural effects of technologies on the commercial driver have not received in-depth analysis to determine comprehensive viability. As such, this paper aims to identify a timescale for implementation for future technologies for UK road freight, and likely associated human factors issues, improving upon the currently employed 'trial-and-error' approach to implementation which may carry high economic, environmental, safety-related risk. Thought experiments are carried out to broadly explore these future systems. Furthermore, this work aims to examine whether technology alone will be enough to meet future CO2 reduction targets, and assess the role of behavioural and systems interventions for future research. PMID:26130420

  16. 21st century trucking: A trajectory for ergonomics and road freight.

    PubMed

    Bedinger, M; Walker, G H; Piecyk, M; Greening, P

    2016-03-01

    Over the past decade there has been significant pressure to minimise emissions and safety risks related to commercial driving. This pressure to meet the triple bottom line of cost, environment, and society has often resulted in the rapid application of vehicle technologies designed to mitigate undesired effects. Often the cognitive and behavioural effects of technologies on the commercial driver have not received in-depth analysis to determine comprehensive viability. As such, this paper aims to identify a timescale for implementation for future technologies for UK road freight, and likely associated human factors issues, improving upon the currently employed 'trial-and-error' approach to implementation which may carry high economic, environmental, safety-related risk. Thought experiments are carried out to broadly explore these future systems. Furthermore, this work aims to examine whether technology alone will be enough to meet future CO2 reduction targets, and assess the role of behavioural and systems interventions for future research.

  17. Generic safety documentation model

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A.

    1994-04-01

    This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ``core`` upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information.

  18. Computer software documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comella, P. A.

    1973-01-01

    A tutorial in the documentation of computer software is presented. It presents a methodology for achieving an adequate level of documentation as a natural outgrowth of the total programming effort commencing with the initial problem statement and definition and terminating with the final verification of code. It discusses the content of adequate documentation, the necessity for such documentation and the problems impeding achievement of adequate documentation.

  19. Documentation and knowledge acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochowiak, Daniel; Moseley, Warren

    1990-01-01

    Traditional approaches to knowledge acquisition have focused on interviews. An alternative focuses on the documentation associated with a domain. Adopting a documentation approach provides some advantages during familiarization. A knowledge management tool was constructed to gain these advantages.

  20. Intranet Document Management Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, H. Joseph; Yen, David C.; Lin, Binshan

    1998-01-01

    Explains how intranets facilitate documentation availability within a company at substantial cost savings. Topics include intranet document management systems (IDMS); publication costs for printed materials; hardware and software specifications; performance; and security. (Author/LRW)

  1. Web document engineering

    SciTech Connect

    White, B.

    1996-05-01

    This tutorial provides an overview of several document engineering techniques which are applicable to the authoring of World Wide Web documents. It illustrates how pre-WWW hypertext research is applicable to the development of WWW information resources.

  2. JSC document index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) document index is intended to provide a single source listing of all published JSC-numbered documents their authors, and the designated offices of prime responsibility (OPR's) by mail code at the time of publication. The index contains documents which have been received and processed by the JSC Technical Library as of January 13, 1988. Other JSC-numbered documents which are controlled but not available through the JSC Library are also listed.

  3. The standardised freight container: vector of vectors and vector-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Reiter, P

    2010-04-01

    The standardised freight container was one of the most important innovations of the 20th Century. Containerised cargoes travel from their point of origin to their destination by ship, road and rail as part of a single journey, without unpacking. This simple concept is the key element in cheap, rapid transport by land and sea, and has led to a phenomenal growth in global trade. Likewise, containerised air cargo has led to a remarkable increase in the inter-continental transportation of goods, particularly perishable items such as flowers, fresh vegetables and live animals. In both cases, containerisation offers great advantages in speed and security, but reduces the opportunity to inspect cargoes in transit. An inevitable consequence is the globalisation of undesirable species of animals, plants and pathogens. Moreover, cheap passenger flights offer worldwide travel for viral and parasitic pathogens in infected humans. The continued emergence of exotic pests, vectors and pathogens throughout the world is an unavoidable consequence of these advances in transportation technology.

  4. UPDATING THE FREIGHT TRUCK STOCK ADJUSTMENT MODEL: 1997 VEHICLE INVENTORY AND USE SURVEY DATA

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.C.

    2000-11-16

    The Energy Information Administration's (EIA's) National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Freight Truck Stock Adjustment Model (FTSAM) was created in 1995 relying heavily on input data from the 1992 Economic Census, Truck Inventory and Use Survey (TIUS). The FTSAM is part of the NEMS Transportation Sector Model, which provides baseline energy projections and analyzes the impacts of various technology scenarios on consumption, efficiency, and carbon emissions. The base data for the FTSAM can be updated every five years as new Economic Census information is released. Because of expertise in using the TIUS database, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was asked to assist the EIA when the new Economic Census data were available. ORNL provided the necessary base data from the 1997 Vehicle Inventory and Use Survey (VIUS) and other sources to update the FTSAM. The next Economic Census will be in the year 2002. When those data become available, the EIA will again want to update the FTSAM using the VIUS. This report, which details the methodology of estimating and extracting data from the 1997 VIUS Microdata File, should be used as a guide for generating the data from the next VIUS so that the new data will be as compatible as possible with the data in the model.

  5. Effects of Wind on Background Particle Concentrations at Truck Freight Terminals

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Ronald; Hart, Jaime E; Davis, Mary E; Reaser, Paul; Natkin, Jonathan; Laden, Francine; Garshick, Eric; Smith, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Truck freight terminals are predominantly located near highways and industrial facilities. This proximity to pollution sources, coupled with meteorological conditions and wind patterns, may affect occupational exposures to particles at these work locations. In order to understand this process, data from an environmental sampling study of particles at US trucking terminals, along with weather and geographic maps, were analyzed to determine the extent to which the transportation of particles from local pollutant sources elevated observed occupational exposures at these locations. To help identify potential upwind sources, wind direction weighted averages and speed measurements were used to construct wind roses, which were superimposed on overhead photos of the terminal and examined for upwind source activity. Statistical tests were performed on these “source” and “non-source” directions to determine whether there were significant differences in observed particle levels between the two groups. Our results provide evidence that nearby upwind pollution sources significantly elevated background concentrations at only a few of the locations sampled, while the majority provided little to no evidence of a significant upwind source effect. PMID:17162479

  6. Effects of wind on background particle concentrations at truck freight terminals.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Ronald; Hart, Jaime E; Davis, Mary E; Reaser, Paul; Natkin, Jonathan; Laden, Francine; Garshick, Eric; Smith, Thomas J

    2007-01-01

    Truck freight terminals are predominantly located near highways and industrial facilities. This proximity to pollution sources, coupled with meteorological conditions and wind patterns, may affect occupational exposures to particles at these work locations. To understand this process, data from an environmental sampling study of particles at U.S. trucking terminals, along with weather and geographic maps, were analyzed to determine the extent to which the transportation of particles from local pollutant sources elevated observed occupational exposures at these locations. To help identify potential upwind sources, wind direction weighted averages and speed measurements were used to construct wind roses that were superimposed on overhead photos of the terminal and examined for upwind source activity. Statistical tests were performed on these "source" and "nonsource" directions to determine whether there were significant differences in observed particle levels between the two groups. Our results provide evidence that nearby upwind pollution sources significantly elevated background concentrations at only a few of the locations sampled, whereas the majority provided little to no evidence of a significant upwind source effect.

  7. The standardised freight container: vector of vectors and vector-borne diseases.

    PubMed

    Reiter, P

    2010-04-01

    The standardised freight container was one of the most important innovations of the 20th Century. Containerised cargoes travel from their point of origin to their destination by ship, road and rail as part of a single journey, without unpacking. This simple concept is the key element in cheap, rapid transport by land and sea, and has led to a phenomenal growth in global trade. Likewise, containerised air cargo has led to a remarkable increase in the inter-continental transportation of goods, particularly perishable items such as flowers, fresh vegetables and live animals. In both cases, containerisation offers great advantages in speed and security, but reduces the opportunity to inspect cargoes in transit. An inevitable consequence is the globalisation of undesirable species of animals, plants and pathogens. Moreover, cheap passenger flights offer worldwide travel for viral and parasitic pathogens in infected humans. The continued emergence of exotic pests, vectors and pathogens throughout the world is an unavoidable consequence of these advances in transportation technology. PMID:20617647

  8. Longitudinal review of state-level accident statistics for carriers of interstate freight

    SciTech Connect

    Saricks, C.; Kvitek, T.

    1994-03-01

    State-level accident rates by mode of freight transport have been developed and refined for application to the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) environmental mitigation program, which may involve large-quantity shipments of hazardous and mixed wastes from DOE facilities. These rates reflect multi-year data for interstate-registered highway earners, American Association of Railroads member carriers, and coastal and internal waterway barge traffic. Adjustments have been made to account for the share of highway combination-truck traffic actually attributable to interstate-registered carriers and for duplicate or otherwise inaccurate entries in the public-use accident data files used. State-to-state variation in rates is discussed, as is the stability of rates over time. Computed highway rates have been verified with actual carriers of high- and low-level nuclear materials, and the most recent truck accident data have been used, to ensure that the results are of the correct order of magnitude. Study conclusions suggest that DOE use the computed rates for the three modes until (1) improved estimation techniques for highway combination-truck miles by state become available; (2) continued evolution of the railroad industry significantly increases the consolidation of interstate rail traffic onto fewer high-capacity trunk lines; or (3) a large-scale off-site waste shipment campaign is imminent.

  9. Analysis of the nonlinear dynamics of a 2-axle freight wagon in curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Gialleonardo, Egidio; Bruni, Stefano; True, Hans

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the study of the nonlinear dynamic behaviour of 2-axle freight wagons in curves, considering the case of one single wagon (neglecting inter-car coupling forces) and of multiple wagons interacting through the buffers and the couplers. A multi-body model of a single wagon and of a three-car assembly is introduced, paying particular attention to the nonlinear and nonsmooth modelling of the suspensions and of the inter-car coupling elements. Using this model, a numerical analysis of the steady-state solution reached after the negotiation of curve transition is presented and bifurcations are identified for some particular values of the curve radius. For the single car case, it is shown that depending on the curve radius and the vehicle speed the carbody may experience severe periodic oscillations at speeds lying in the operating range of the vehicle. For the car-assembly case, it is shown that the coupling forces exchanged by the wagons significantly affect their dynamics in a curve, reducing the amplitude of vibration.

  10. TECHNICAL AND REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS IN USING FREIGHT CONTAINERS AS INDUSTRIAL PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Opperman, E; Mark Hawk, M; Ron Natali, R

    2007-10-16

    The United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM), is actively pursuing activities to reduce the radiological risk and clean up the environmental legacy of the nation's nuclear weapons programs. EM has made significant progress in recent years in the clean-up and closure of sites and is also focusing on longer-term activities necessary for the completion of the clean-up program. The packaging and transportation of contaminated demolition debris and low-level waste (LLW) materials in a safe and cost-effective manner are essential in completing this mission. Toward this end, the US Department of Transportation's (DOT) Final Rule on Hazardous Materials Regulation Final Rule issued January 26, 2004, included a new provision authorizing the use of Freight Containers (e.g., 20 and 40-foot ISO Containers) as Industrial Packages Type 1, 2, or 3 (IP-1, IP-2, and IP-3). This paper will discuss the technical and regulatory considerations in using these newly authorized and large packages for the packaging and transportation of LLW materials.

  11. Automated Management Of Documents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boy, Guy

    1995-01-01

    Report presents main technical issues involved in computer-integrated documentation. Problems associated with automation of management and maintenance of documents analyzed from perspectives of artificial intelligence and human factors. Technologies that may prove useful in computer-integrated documentation reviewed: these include conventional approaches to indexing and retrieval of information, use of hypertext, and knowledge-based artificial-intelligence systems.

  12. Program analysis for documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lolmaugh, G. H.

    1970-01-01

    A program analysis for documentation (PAD) written in FORTRAN has three steps: listing the variables, describing the structure and writing the program specifications. Technical notes on editing criteria for reviewing program documentation, technical notes for PAD, and FORTRAN program analyzer for documentation are appended.

  13. Document Flowdown Tool

    SciTech Connect

    2010-12-31

    DFTool performs the following: • A tool to conduct, capture, document, and manage a systematic review and flowdown of contractual requirements/documents to the site, facility, and project-level implementing documents. • Ability to alert/email document owners to impending changes/updates and impacts to upper-level linked documents. • Custom ability to generate reports and/or include custom functionalities based on other needs or consideration for site use. • Ability to be accessed by all personnel (particularly document owners). • Shows both document flow-up and flow-down. • Provides visibility where links/flowdown does not currently exist or is incorrect so it can be changed/updated (no visibility currently exists). • Ability to capture requirements and ultimately link to an existing/proven requirements-based commitment tracking system which can be used (electively) at the facility/organizational-level

  14. Document Flowdown Tool

    2010-12-31

    DFTool performs the following: • A tool to conduct, capture, document, and manage a systematic review and flowdown of contractual requirements/documents to the site, facility, and project-level implementing documents. • Ability to alert/email document owners to impending changes/updates and impacts to upper-level linked documents. • Custom ability to generate reports and/or include custom functionalities based on other needs or consideration for site use. • Ability to be accessed by all personnel (particularly document owners). •more » Shows both document flow-up and flow-down. • Provides visibility where links/flowdown does not currently exist or is incorrect so it can be changed/updated (no visibility currently exists). • Ability to capture requirements and ultimately link to an existing/proven requirements-based commitment tracking system which can be used (electively) at the facility/organizational-level« less

  15. Toward Parallel Document Clustering

    SciTech Connect

    Mogill, Jace A.; Haglin, David J.

    2011-09-01

    A key challenge to automated clustering of documents in large text corpora is the high cost of comparing documents in a multimillion dimensional document space. The Anchors Hierarchy is a fast data structure and algorithm for localizing data based on a triangle inequality obeying distance metric, the algorithm strives to minimize the number of distance calculations needed to cluster the documents into “anchors” around reference documents called “pivots”. We extend the original algorithm to increase the amount of available parallelism and consider two implementations: a complex data structure which affords efficient searching, and a simple data structure which requires repeated sorting. The sorting implementation is integrated with a text corpora “Bag of Words” program and initial performance results of end-to-end a document processing workflow are reported.

  16. Tobacco documents research methodology.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Stacey J; McCandless, Phyra M; Klausner, Kim; Taketa, Rachel; Yerger, Valerie B

    2011-05-01

    Tobacco documents research has developed into a thriving academic enterprise since its inception in 1995. The technology supporting tobacco documents archiving, searching and retrieval has improved greatly since that time, and consequently tobacco documents researchers have considerably more access to resources than was the case when researchers had to travel to physical archives and/or electronically search poorly and incompletely indexed documents. The authors of the papers presented in this supplement all followed the same basic research methodology. Rather than leave the reader of the supplement to read the same discussion of methods in each individual paper, presented here is an overview of the methods all authors followed. In the individual articles that follow in this supplement, the authors present the additional methodological information specific to their topics. This brief discussion also highlights technological capabilities in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and updates methods for organising internal tobacco documents data and findings.

  17. Tracking personal exposure to particulate diesel exhaust in a diesel freight terminal using organic tracer analysis

    PubMed Central

    SHEESLEY, REBECCA J.; SCHAUER, JAMES J.; GARSHICK, ERIC; LADEN, FRANCINE; SMITH, THOMAS J.; BLICHARZ, ANDREW P.; DEMINTER, JEFFREY T.

    2008-01-01

    Personal exposure to particle-phase molecular markers was measured at a trucking terminal in St Louis, MO, as part of a larger epidemiologic project aimed at assessing carbonaceous fine particulate matter (PM) exposure in this occupational setting. The integration of parallel personal exposure, ambient worksite area and ambient urban background (St Louis Supersite) measurements provided a unique opportunity to track the work-related exposure to carbonaceous fine PM in a freight terminal. The data were used to test the proposed personal exposure model in this occupational setting: Personal exposure=urban background+work site background+personal activity To accurately assess the impact of PM emission sources, particularly motor vehicle exhaust, and organic elemental carbon (OCEC) analysis and nonpolar organic molecular marker analysis by thermal desorption-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD-GCMS) were conducted on all of the PM samples. EC has been used as a tracer for diesel exhaust in urban areas, however, the emission profile for diesel exhaust is dependent upon the operating conditions of the vehicle and can vary considerably within a fleet. Hopanes, steranes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkanes were measured by TD-GCMS. Hopanes are source-specific organic molecular markers for lubricating oil present in motor vehicle exhaust. The concentrations of OC, EC and the organic tracers were averaged to obtain average profiles to assess differences in the personal, worksite area and urban background samples, and were also correlated individually by sample time to evaluate the exposure model presented above. Finally, a chemical mass balance model was used to apportion the motor vehicle and cigarette-smoke components of the measured OC and EC for the average personal exposure, worksite area and urban background samples. PMID:18322451

  18. Tobacco document research reporting

    PubMed Central

    Carter, S

    2005-01-01

    Design: Interpretive analysis of published research. Sample: 173 papers indexed in Medline between 1995 and 2004 that cited tobacco industry documents. Analysis: Information about year published, journal and author, and a set of codes relating to methods reporting, were managed in N*Vivo. This coding formed the basis of an interpretation of tobacco document research reporting. Results: Two types of papers were identified. The first used tobacco documents as the primary data source (A-papers). The second was dedicated to another purpose but cited a small number of documents (B-papers). In B-papers documents were used either to provide a specific example or to support an expansive contention. A-papers contained information about purpose, sources, searching, analysis, and limitations that differed by author and journal and over time. A-papers had no clear methodological context, but used words from three major traditions—interpretive research, positivist research, and history—to describe analysis. Interpretation: A descriptive mainstream form of tobacco document reporting is proposed, initially typical but decreasing, and a continuum of positioning of the researcher, from conduit to constructor. Reporting practices, particularly from experienced researchers, appeared to evolve towards researcher as constructor, with later papers showing more complex purposes, diverse sources, and detail of searching and analysis. Tobacco document research could learn from existing research traditions: a model for planning and evaluating tobacco document research is presented. PMID:16319359

  19. Bibliography, Documentation, Terminology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coudert-Schklowski, C., Ed.

    1974-01-01

    Published periodically by the United Nations Education, Social, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Department of Documentation, Libraries, and Archives, this edition contains information on: (1) recent meetings and publications relating to international documentation and library conventions; (2) an update of the information contained in the…

  20. NASA Software Documentation Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Software Documentation Standard (hereinafter referred to as "Standard") is designed to support the documentation of all software developed for NASA; its goal is to provide a framework and model for recording the essential information needed throughout the development life cycle and maintenance of a software system. The NASA Software Documentation Standard can be applied to the documentation of all NASA software. The Standard is limited to documentation format and content requirements. It does not mandate specific management, engineering, or assurance standards or techniques. This Standard defines the format and content of documentation for software acquisition, development, and sustaining engineering. Format requirements address where information shall be recorded and content requirements address what information shall be recorded. This Standard provides a framework to allow consistency of documentation across NASA and visibility into the completeness of project documentation. The basic framework consists of four major sections (or volumes). The Management Plan contains all planning and business aspects of a software project, including engineering and assurance planning. The Product Specification contains all technical engineering information, including software requirements and design. The Assurance and Test Procedures contains all technical assurance information, including Test, Quality Assurance (QA), and Verification and Validation (V&V). The Management, Engineering, and Assurance Reports is the library and/or listing of all project reports.

  1. System Documentation Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semmel, Melvyn I.; Olson, Jerry

    The document is a system documentation manual of the Computer-Assisted Teacher Training System (CATTS) developed by the Center for Innovation in Teaching the Handicapped (Indiana University). CATTS is characterized as a system capable of providing continuous, instantaneous, and/or delayed feedback of relevant teacher-student interaction data to a…

  2. Retrieving Product Documentation Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Racine, Sam J.; Crandall, Irving B.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses demands users face when searching for information in online libraries of product documentation. Demonstrates how physical libraries provide a helpful metaphor for design. Offers heuristics and a conceptual prototype for facilitating electronic document retrieval. Argues that the search form itself should communicate the way materials are…

  3. IDC System Specification Document.

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, David J.

    2014-12-01

    This document contains the system specifications derived to satisfy the system requirements found in the IDC System Requirements Document for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 project. Revisions Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 IDC Reengineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris

  4. Electronic Document Supply Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cawkell, A. E.

    1991-01-01

    Describes electronic document delivery systems used by libraries and document image processing systems used for business purposes. Topics discussed include technical specifications; analogue read-only laser videodiscs; compact discs and CD-ROM; WORM; facsimile; ADONIS (Article Delivery over Network Information System); DOCDEL; and systems at the…

  5. Galloping-based piezo-aeroelastic energy harvester for wireless sensors to be installed on freight trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomasini, Gisella; Giappino, Stefano; Costa, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Energy harvesting from galloping oscillations of a bluff body can be used to supply power to a wireless sensor. In this paper we investigate the possibility to use a galloping-based piezo-aeroelastic energy harvester to supply power to a wireless sensors network installed on a freight train to measure the accelerations in correspondence of axle boxes. The monitoring system will be used to detect possible deteriorations of the running conditions that, in the worst cases, can lead to the vehicle derailment. Unlike other applications in this case the air speed relative to the body is due to the train motion and, for typical freight trains and standard running conditions, is equal to about 20 m/s. In the paper we discuss the design of the harvester on the basis of the constrains due to the application. Preliminary aerodynamic tests shows the limitation of the classical quasi-steady theory of galloping as a consequence of the interaction with the vortex shedding phenomenon.

  6. NACA documents database project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Ruth S.

    1991-01-01

    The plan to get all the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) collection online, with quality records, led to the NACA Documents Data base Project. The project has a two fold purpose: (1) to develop the definitive bibliography of NACA produced and/or held documents; and (2) to make that bibliography and the associated documents available to the aerospace community. This study supports the first objective by providing an analysis of the NACA collection and its bibliographic records, and supports the second objective by defining the NACA archive and recommending methodologies for meeting the project objectives.

  7. Controlled Document Tracking Software

    1992-08-24

    MANTRACK is an automated, controlled document tracking system which does the following and reduces staff time required to perform these tasks: generates transmittal letters/receipts for every controlled copy issued (merged from a current distribution list), tracks the return of transmittal receipts, facilitates the check-in of the large number of transmittal receipts returned (using a barcode reader), generates a reminder list which prompts the cyclic review and evaluation of existing documents, generates overdue reminders for themore » return of past-due transmittal receipts, tracks the number of Procedure Change Directives (PCD) currently in effect for each procedure, generates and maintains current distribution lists for each document, generates a current table of contents when updates to the document (usually a procedure manual) are made.« less

  8. Controlled Document Tracking Software

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, Roswitha T.

    1992-08-24

    MANTRACK is an automated, controlled document tracking system which does the following and reduces staff time required to perform these tasks: generates transmittal letters/receipts for every controlled copy issued (merged from a current distribution list), tracks the return of transmittal receipts, facilitates the check-in of the large number of transmittal receipts returned (using a barcode reader), generates a reminder list which prompts the cyclic review and evaluation of existing documents, generates overdue reminders for the return of past-due transmittal receipts, tracks the number of Procedure Change Directives (PCD) currently in effect for each procedure, generates and maintains current distribution lists for each document, generates a current table of contents when updates to the document (usually a procedure manual) are made.

  9. Geochemistry Technical Basis Document

    SciTech Connect

    Benedict, Jr, F Christopher; Rose, Timothy P; Thomas, James M; Waddell, Richard; Jacobson, Roger

    2004-03-18

    This document presents a methodology whereby geochemical data can more effectively contribute to the development , calibration, and verification of groundwater flow and slute transport models for the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project.

  10. Transportation System Requirements Document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification.

  11. Computerized classified document accountability

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, C.B.; Lewin, R.

    1988-08-01

    This step-by-step procedure was established as a guideline to be used with the Savvy PC Database Program for the accountability of classified documents. Its purpose is to eventually phase out the use of logbooks for classified document tracking. The program runs on an IBM PC or compatible computer using a Bernoulli Box, a Hewlett Packard 71B Bar Code Reader, an IOMEGA Host Adapter Board for creating mirror images of data for backup purposes, and the Disk Operating System (DOS). The DOS batch files ''IN'' and ''OUT'' invoke the Savvy Databases for either entering incoming or outgoing documents. The main files are DESTRUCTION, INLOG, OUTLOG, and NAME-NUMBER. The fields in the files are Adding/Changing, Routing, Destroying, Search-Print by document identification, Search/Print Audit by bar code number, Print Holdings of a person, and Print Inventory of an office.

  12. LCS Content Document Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstadt, Jake

    2011-01-01

    My project at KSC during my spring 2011 internship was to develop a Ruby on Rails application to manage Content Documents..A Content Document is a collection of documents and information that describes what software is installed on a Launch Control System Computer. It's important for us to make sure the tools we use everyday are secure, up-to-date, and properly licensed. Previously, keeping track of the information was done by Excel and Word files between different personnel. The goal of the new application is to be able to manage and access the Content Documents through a single database backed web application. Our LCS team will benefit greatly with this app. Admin's will be able to login securely to keep track and update the software installed on each computer in a timely manner. We also included exportability such as attaching additional documents that can be downloaded from the web application. The finished application will ease the process of managing Content Documents while streamlining the procedure. Ruby on Rails is a very powerful programming language and I am grateful to have the opportunity to build this application.

  13. 46 CFR Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q... - Application for Refund or Waiver of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... to Tariff or Quoting Error No. Exhibit No. 1 to Subpart Q of Part 502 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME... of Freight Charges Due to Tariff or Quoting Error Federal Maritime Commission Special Docket No... on the date the intended rate would have become effective and ending on the day before the...

  14. Document Concurrence System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muhsin, Mansour; Walters, Ian

    2004-01-01

    The Document Concurrence System is a combination of software modules for routing users expressions of concurrence with documents. This system enables determination of the current status of concurrences and eliminates the need for the prior practice of manually delivering paper documents to all persons whose approvals were required. This system runs on a server, and participants gain access via personal computers equipped with Web-browser and electronic-mail software. A user can begin a concurrence routing process by logging onto an administration module, naming the approvers and stating the sequence for routing among them, and attaching documents. The server then sends a message to the first person on the list. Upon concurrence by the first person, the system sends a message to the second person, and so forth. A person on the list indicates approval, places the documents on hold, or indicates disapproval, via a Web-based module. When the last person on the list has concurred, a message is sent to the initiator, who can then finalize the process through the administration module. A background process running on the server identifies concurrence processes that are overdue and sends reminders to the appropriate persons.

  15. System Documentation: A Symposium on Printer Documentation for Computer Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Denise, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This symposium on printed documentation covers (1) Tacoma Public Library's documentation (Lare Mischo); (2) characteristics of bad documentation (Linda Bills); (3) GEAC manuals (Joe Matthews); (4) Personal Bibliographic Software manuals (Victor Rosenberg); (5) DIALOG documentation (Barbara E. Anderson); (6) documentation problems and improvements…

  16. Computer integrated documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boy, Guy

    1991-01-01

    The main technical issues of the Computer Integrated Documentation (CID) project are presented. The problem of automation of documents management and maintenance is analyzed both from an artificial intelligence viewpoint and from a human factors viewpoint. Possible technologies for CID are reviewed: conventional approaches to indexing and information retrieval; hypertext; and knowledge based systems. A particular effort was made to provide an appropriate representation for contextual knowledge. This representation is used to generate context on hypertext links. Thus, indexing in CID is context sensitive. The implementation of the current version of CID is described. It includes a hypertext data base, a knowledge based management and maintenance system, and a user interface. A series is also presented of theoretical considerations as navigation in hyperspace, acquisition of indexing knowledge, generation and maintenance of a large documentation, and relation to other work.

  17. Hazard baseline documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    This DOE limited technical standard establishes uniform Office of Environmental Management (EM) guidance on hazards baseline documents that identify and control radiological and nonradiological hazards for all EM facilities. It provides a road map to the safety and health hazard identification and control requirements contained in the Department`s orders and provides EM guidance on the applicability and integration of these requirements. This includes a definition of four classes of facilities (nuclear, non-nuclear, radiological, and other industrial); the thresholds for facility hazard classification; and applicable safety and health hazard identification, controls, and documentation. The standard applies to the classification, development, review, and approval of hazard identification and control documentation for EM facilities.

  18. Related environmental documents

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This portion of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report is a listing of related environmental documents used in the drafting of this report. Specifically, the documents are the final environmental impact statements for: (1) Bellefonte Nuclear Plant 1 & 2, (2) Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant 1, 2, & 3, (3) Sequoyah Nuclear Plant 1 & 2, (4) Watts Bar Nuclear Plant 1 & 2, (5) Raccoon Mountain Pumped Storage Facility, (6) Policies relating to rates, (7) Tennessee River and reservoir system operation and planning, (8) Policies related to the use of coal.

  19. An Automated FORTRAN documenter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, T.

    1982-01-01

    A set of programs designed to help R&D programmers document their FORTRAN programs more effectively were written. The central program reads FORTRAN source code and asks the programmer questions about things it has not heard of before. It inserts the answers to these questions as comments into the FORTRAN code. The comments, as well as extensive cross-reference information, are also written to an unformatted file. Other programs read this file to produce printed information or to act as an interactive document.

  20. Customer Communication Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    This procedure communicates to the Customers of the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division (AR&SD) Dynamics Systems Test Branch (DSTB) how to obtain services of the Six-Degrees-Of-Freedom Dynamic Test System (SDTS). The scope includes the major communication documents between the SDTS and its Customer. It established the initial communication and contact points as well as provides the initial documentation in electronic media for the customer. Contact the SDTS Manager (SM) for the names of numbers of the current contact points.

  1. Document clustering methods, document cluster label disambiguation methods, document clustering apparatuses, and articles of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Sanfilippo, Antonio; Calapristi, Augustin J.; Crow, Vernon L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2009-12-22

    Document clustering methods, document cluster label disambiguation methods, document clustering apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described. In one aspect, a document clustering method includes providing a document set comprising a plurality of documents, providing a cluster comprising a subset of the documents of the document set, using a plurality of terms of the documents, providing a cluster label indicative of subject matter content of the documents of the cluster, wherein the cluster label comprises a plurality of word senses, and selecting one of the word senses of the cluster label.

  2. Extremely secure identification documents

    SciTech Connect

    Tolk, K.M.; Bell, M.

    1997-09-01

    The technology developed in this project uses biometric information printed on the document and public key cryptography to ensure that an adversary cannot issue identification documents to unauthorized individuals or alter existing documents to allow their use by unauthorized individuals. This process can be used to produce many types of identification documents with much higher security than any currently in use. The system is demonstrated using a security badge as an example. This project focused on the technologies requiring development in order to make the approach viable with existing badge printing and laminating technologies. By far the most difficult was the image processing required to verify that the picture on the badge had not been altered. Another area that required considerable work was the high density printed data storage required to get sufficient data on the badge for verification of the picture. The image processing process was successfully tested, and recommendations are included to refine the badge system to ensure high reliability. A two dimensional data array suitable for printing the required data on the badge was proposed, but testing of the readability of the array had to be abandoned due to reallocation of the budgeted funds by the LDRD office.

  3. Discussion Documents as Neonarratives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Don

    1992-01-01

    Following a brief examination of postmodernism as an emerging framework of social life, this paper examines linkages among postmodern theory, bureaucracy, professional practice, and official documents. These elements are presented as interconnected, with each making demands and responding to one another. Such interactions constitute the framework…

  4. Client Oriented Management Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limaye, Mohan R.; Hightower, Rick

    Noting that accounting reports, including management advisory service (MAS) studies, reports on internal control, and tax memoranda, often appear rather dense and heavy in style--partly because of the legal environment's demand for careful expression and partly because such documents convey very complex information--this paper presents four…

  5. Automating clinical dietetics documentation.

    PubMed

    Grace-Farfaglia, P; Rosow, P

    1995-06-01

    A review of commonly used charting formats discussed in the dietetics literature revealed that the subjective, objective assessment and planning (SOAP) approach is most frequently used by dietitians. Formats reported in the nursing literature were charting by exception (CBE); problem, intervention, evaluation (PIE); and focus/data, action, response (Focus/DAR). The strengths and weaknesses of the charting styles as they apply to the needs of clinical dietetic specialists were reviewed. We then decided to test in house the Focus/DAR format by assessing chart entries for adherence to style, brevity, and physician response. Dietitians pilot tested all the methods, but found them time consuming to use. The consensus was that SOAP could be adapted to the documentation needs of the individual situation and required little additional staff training. Often because of time limitations, a narrative summary was most appropriate. Chart entry length was reduced as much as 200% when staff were given brief clinical communication as a goal, and a further reduction when line limits were imposed. The physician response was positive, with recommendations followed in 50% of charts, compared with 34% in a previous audit. A nutrition documentation system was developed by the researchers by reviewing medical chart structure, documentation standards, methods of risk identification, and terminology for clinical documentation style. The resulting system affected the decision making of physicians, who could now scan notes more quickly and implement nutrition recommendations in a more timely fashion.

  6. Document Delivery Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Computers in Libraries, 1992

    1992-01-01

    Describes new products that relate to document delivery, including a wireless electronic mail connection; multivendor office integration software to exchange electronic mail; analog film recorders; an electronic messaging system for personal computer local area networks; software for transferring data files; voice message delivery systems; and…

  7. The Iranian Documentation Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, John F.

    The purpose of the Iranian Documentation Centr (Irandoc) was to collect that portion of the world's literature which was pertinent to Iran's research interests, to organize that material, and to promote its use by Iranian researchers. Stated more succinctly, Irandoc's purpose was to obtain ready access to the world's scientific literature in order…

  8. Electronic document interchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erwin, Jim

    1993-01-01

    The operational impact of various storage formats related to electronic publishing of documents in the NASA Scientific and Technical Information (STI) Program is discussed. Questions are raised about the development of full text, surrogate, and hybrid storage formats. It appears that the eventual configuration will contain a mix of storage formats based on user demand.

  9. Multimedia Document Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozkarahan, Esen

    1995-01-01

    This study develops an integrated conceptual representation scheme for multimedia documents that are viewed to comprise an object-oriented database; the necessary abstractions for the conceptual model and extensions to the relational model used as the search structure; a retrieval model that includes associative, semantic and media-specific…

  10. Using Primary Source Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Explores the use of primary sources when teaching about U.S. slavery. Includes primary sources from the Gilder Lehrman Documents Collection (New York Historical Society) to teach about the role of slaves in the Revolutionary War, such as a proclamation from Lord Dunmore offering freedom to slaves who joined his army. (CMK)

  11. Technical approach document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs.

  12. Evolution of document networks.

    PubMed

    Menczer, Filippo

    2004-04-01

    How does a network of documents grow without centralized control? This question is becoming crucial as we try to explain the emergent scale-free topology of the World Wide Web and use link analysis to identify important information resources. Existing models of growing information networks have focused on the structure of links but neglected the content of nodes. Here I show that the current models fail to reproduce a critical characteristic of information networks, namely the distribution of textual similarity among linked documents. I propose a more realistic model that generates links by using both popularity and content. This model yields remarkably accurate predictions of both degree and similarity distributions in networks of web pages and scientific literature.

  13. SANSMIC design document.

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Paula D.; Rudeen, David Keith

    2015-07-01

    The United States Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) maintains an underground storage system consisting of caverns that were leached or solution mined in four salt domes located near the Gulf of Mexico in Texas and Louisiana. The SPR comprises more than 60 active caverns containing approximately 700 million barrels of crude oil. Sandia National Labo- ratories (SNL) is the geotechnical advisor to the SPR. As the most pressing need at the inception of the SPR was to create and fill storage volume with oil, the decision was made to leach the caverns and fill them simultaneously (leach-fill). Therefore, A.J. Russo developed SANSMIC in the early 1980s which allows for a transient oil-brine interface (OBI) making it possible to model leach-fill and withdrawal operations. As the majority of caverns are currently filled to storage capacity, the primary uses of SANSMIC at this time are related to the effects of small and large withdrawals, expansion of existing caverns, and projecting future pillar to diameter ratios. SANSMIC was identified by SNL as a priority candidate for qualification. This report continues the quality assurance (QA) process by documenting the "as built" mathematical and numerical models that comprise this document. The pro- gram flow is outlined and the models are discussed in detail. Code features that were added later or were not documented previously have been expounded. No changes in the code's physics have occurred since the original documentation (Russo, 1981, 1983) although recent experiments may yield improvements to the temperature and plume methods in the future.

  14. Content Documents Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muniz, R.; Hochstadt, J.; Boelke J.; Dalton, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Content Documents are created and managed under the System Software group with. Launch Control System (LCS) project. The System Software product group is lead by NASA Engineering Control and Data Systems branch (NEC3) at Kennedy Space Center. The team is working on creating Operating System Images (OSI) for different platforms (i.e. AIX, Linux, Solaris and Windows). Before the OSI can be created, the team must create a Content Document which provides the information of a workstation or server, with the list of all the software that is to be installed on it and also the set where the hardware belongs. This can be for example in the LDS, the ADS or the FR-l. The objective of this project is to create a User Interface Web application that can manage the information of the Content Documents, with all the correct validations and filters for administrator purposes. For this project we used one of the most excellent tools in agile development applications called Ruby on Rails. This tool helps pragmatic programmers develop Web applications with Rails framework and Ruby programming language. It is very amazing to see how a student can learn about OOP features with the Ruby language, manage the user interface with HTML and CSS, create associations and queries with gems, manage databases and run a server with MYSQL, run shell commands with command prompt and create Web frameworks with Rails. All of this in a real world project and in just fifteen weeks!

  15. [Techniques of iconographic documentation].

    PubMed

    Motta, G; Valentino, G; Di Lorenzo, G

    1996-04-01

    The Authors describe modalities of photography and videorecording that should be used in stapes surgery and report the solutions they adopted to get iconographic documentation of high quality standard. As regards videorecording systems, the authors used both S-VHS and U-Matic equipment; with both types high fidelity shootings are obtained in the active documentation of each phase of the operation. Moreover, U-Matic master copying guarantees a final copy of higher quality. Technical difficulties that the authors met in videorecording are connected to the restricted field of view, limited by the speculum, which may itself cause dazzling phenomena or light refraction. A 2/3 inch CCD Sony camera, with a modified ELC(Electronic Light Control), was used to get round these problems, so as to eliminate the reflection of surgical instruments. In order to build up a photographic archive, it is also possible to get slides from single pictures of the recorded tapes, although their definition quality is lower than the one obtained foff photos; these, however, must be taken with reference to precise optical parameters and in particular: for shooting view pictures low enlargements (1,6x) were used with an intermediate aperture (f44), while, to better visualize details(footplate hole, stapedial tendon), it was considered right to u se restricted frames (2,5x) and a low aperture (f22). Such a technical solution, in fact, gives a better relation between depth of field and brightness. Finally the Authors underline that the constant use of the intraoperative videorecording system allows: greater participation of every member of the team in the operation; a delayed critical revision of th e operation; medico-legal documentation of possible intraoperative complications; iconographic material available both for scientific and didactic purposes.

  16. [Techniques of iconographic documentation].

    PubMed

    Motta, G; Valentino, G; Di Lorenzo, G

    1996-04-01

    The Authors describe modalities of photography and videorecording that should be used in stapes surgery and report the solutions they adopted to get iconographic documentation of high quality standard. As regards videorecording systems, the authors used both S-VHS and U-Matic equipment; with both types high fidelity shootings are obtained in the active documentation of each phase of the operation. Moreover, U-Matic master copying guarantees a final copy of higher quality. Technical difficulties that the authors met in videorecording are connected to the restricted field of view, limited by the speculum, which may itself cause dazzling phenomena or light refraction. A 2/3 inch CCD Sony camera, with a modified ELC(Electronic Light Control), was used to get round these problems, so as to eliminate the reflection of surgical instruments. In order to build up a photographic archive, it is also possible to get slides from single pictures of the recorded tapes, although their definition quality is lower than the one obtained foff photos; these, however, must be taken with reference to precise optical parameters and in particular: for shooting view pictures low enlargements (1,6x) were used with an intermediate aperture (f44), while, to better visualize details(footplate hole, stapedial tendon), it was considered right to u se restricted frames (2,5x) and a low aperture (f22). Such a technical solution, in fact, gives a better relation between depth of field and brightness. Finally the Authors underline that the constant use of the intraoperative videorecording system allows: greater participation of every member of the team in the operation; a delayed critical revision of th e operation; medico-legal documentation of possible intraoperative complications; iconographic material available both for scientific and didactic purposes. PMID:8928672

  17. SSC Safety Review Document

    SciTech Connect

    Toohig, T.E.

    1988-11-01

    The safety strategy of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Central Design Group (CDG) is to mitigate potential hazards to personnel, as far as possible, through appropriate measures in the design and engineering of the facility. The Safety Review Document identifies, on the basis of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR) and related studies, potential hazards inherent in the SSC project independent of its site. Mitigative measures in the design of facilities and in the structuring of laboratory operations are described for each of the hazards identified.

  18. Regulatory guidance document

    SciTech Connect

    1994-05-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program Management System Manual requires preparation of the OCRWM Regulatory Guidance Document (RGD) that addresses licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance. The document provides: regulatory compliance policy; guidance to OCRWM organizational elements to ensure a consistent approach when complying with regulatory requirements; strategies to achieve policy objectives; organizational responsibilities for regulatory compliance; guidance with regard to Program compliance oversight; and guidance on the contents of a project-level Regulatory Compliance Plan. The scope of the RGD includes site suitability evaluation, licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance, in accordance with the direction provided by Section 4.6.3 of the PMS Manual. Site suitability evaluation and regulatory compliance during site characterization are significant activities, particularly with regard to the YW MSA. OCRWM`s evaluation of whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development must precede its submittal of a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Accordingly, site suitability evaluation is discussed in Chapter 4, and the general statements of policy regarding site suitability evaluation are discussed in Section 2.1. Although much of the data and analyses may initially be similar, the licensing process is discussed separately in Chapter 5. Environmental compliance is discussed in Chapter 6. Safety and Health compliance is discussed in Chapter 7.

  19. Managing Documents in the Wider Area: Intelligent Document Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bittleston, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Discusses techniques for managing documents in wide area networks, reviews technique limitations, and offers recommendations to database designers. Presented techniques include: increasing bandwidth, reducing data traffic, synchronizing documentation, partial synchronization, audit trials, navigation, and distribution control and security. Two…

  20. Online NASTRAN documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Horace Q.; Harper, David F.

    1991-01-01

    The distribution of NASTRAN User Manual information has been difficult because of the delay in printing and difficulty in identification of all the users. This has caused many users not to have the current information for the release of NASTRAN that could be available to them. The User Manual updates have been supplied with the NASTRAN Releases, but distribution within organizations was not coordinated with access to releases. The Executive Control, Case Control, and Bulk Data sections are supplied in machine readable format with the 91 Release of NASTRAN. This information is supplied on the release tapes in ASCII format, and a FORTRAN program to access this information is supplied on the release tapes. This will allow each user to have immediate access to User Manual level documentation with the release. The sections on utilities, plotting, and substructures are expected to be prepared for the 92 Release.

  1. Computerized documentation in home health.

    PubMed

    Noone, C; Cavanaugh, J; McKillip, C

    1995-01-01

    Computerized documentation in community health nursing is only now receiving the attention it deserves. The authors explain one agency's experience with adapting a computerized clinical documentation system to visiting nurses' needs and the nurses' responses to the process.

  2. Residential Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Model Documentation - Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code.

  3. DOCUMENT: an interactive, online solution to four documentation problems

    SciTech Connect

    Girill, T.R.; Luk, C.H.

    1983-05-01

    An adequate delivery system for user documentation addresses the problems of easy access, versatile publication, convenient administration, and good document quality. At the National Magnetic Fusion Energy Computer Center the DOCUMENT program helps solve these problems by providing a high level of service through strategies that can readily be exported to other contexts. Dividing machine-readable documents into keyword windows permits fully online, subject-oriented access to all passages. An adaptive, three-tier user interface extends flexible viewing control to novices and experts alike. DOCUMENT also supports online subject, title, and date catalogs, and provides on-demand output of hard-copy and microfiche. Several other document delivery systems are compared with DOCUMENT, and all have more rigid human interfaces, more structural display units for text, or more cumbersome output options.

  4. The Practicalities of Document Conversion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galbraith, Ian

    1993-01-01

    Describes steps involved in the conversion of source documents to scanned digital image format. Topics addressed include document preparation, including photographs and oversized material; indexing procedures, including automatic indexing possibilities; scanning documents, including resolution and throughput; quality control; backfile conversion;…

  5. Software design and documentation language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleine, H.

    1977-01-01

    A communications medium to support the design and documentation of complex software applications is studied. The medium also provides the following: (1) a processor which can convert design specifications into an intelligible, informative machine reproducible document; (2) a design and documentation language with forms and syntax that are simple, unrestrictive, and communicative; and (3) methodology for effective use of the language and processor.

  6. TREC Document Database: Disk 4

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST TREC Document Database: Disk 4 (PC database for purchase)   NIST TREC Document Databases (Special Database 22) are distributed for the development and testing of information retrieval (IR) systems and related natural language processing research. The document collections consist of the full text of various newspaper and newswire articles plus government proceedings.

  7. TREC Document Database: Disk 5

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST TREC Document Database: Disk 5 (PC database for purchase)   NIST TREC Document Databases (Special Database 23) are distributed for the development and testing of information retrieval (IR) systems and related natural language processing research. The document collections consist of the full text of various newspaper and newswire articles plus government proceedings.

  8. Language Documentation in the Americas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franchetto, Bruna; Rice, Keren

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, the documentation of endangered languages has advanced greatly in the Americas. In this paper we survey the role that international funding programs have played in advancing documentation in this part of the world, with a particular focus on the growth of documentation in Brazil, and we examine some of the major opportunities…

  9. Tool Gear Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    May, J; Gyllenhaal, J

    2002-04-03

    Tool Gear is designed to allow tool developers to insert instrumentation code into target programs using the DPCL library. This code can gather data and send it back to the Client for display or analysis. Tools can use the Tool Gear client without using the DPCL Collector. Any collector using the right protocols can send data to the Client for display and analysis. However, this document will focus on how to gather data with the DPCL Collector. There are three parts to the task of using Tool Gear to gather data through DPCL: (1) Write the instrumentation code that will be loaded and run in the target program. The code should be in the form of one or more functions, which can pass data structures back to the Client by way of DPCL. The collections of functions is compiled into a library, as described in this report. (2) Write the code that tells the DPCL Collector about the instrumentation and how to forward data back to the Client. (3) Extend the client to accept data from the Collector and display it in a useful way. The rest of this report describes how to carry out each of these steps.

  10. Robust document image binarization technique for degraded document images.

    PubMed

    Su, Bolan; Lu, Shijian; Tan, Chew Lim

    2013-04-01

    Segmentation of text from badly degraded document images is a very challenging task due to the high inter/intra-variation between the document background and the foreground text of different document images. In this paper, we propose a novel document image binarization technique that addresses these issues by using adaptive image contrast. The adaptive image contrast is a combination of the local image contrast and the local image gradient that is tolerant to text and background variation caused by different types of document degradations. In the proposed technique, an adaptive contrast map is first constructed for an input degraded document image. The contrast map is then binarized and combined with Canny's edge map to identify the text stroke edge pixels. The document text is further segmented by a local threshold that is estimated based on the intensities of detected text stroke edge pixels within a local window. The proposed method is simple, robust, and involves minimum parameter tuning. It has been tested on three public datasets that are used in the recent document image binarization contest (DIBCO) 2009 & 2011 and handwritten-DIBCO 2010 and achieves accuracies of 93.5%, 87.8%, and 92.03%, respectively, that are significantly higher than or close to that of the best-performing methods reported in the three contests. Experiments on the Bickley diary dataset that consists of several challenging bad quality document images also show the superior performance of our proposed method, compared with other techniques. PMID:23221822

  11. a Decade of Improvement in Whole-Body Vibration and Low Back Pain for Freight Container Tractor Drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, K.; Taoda, K.; Kitahara, T.

    1998-08-01

    The authors' study in 1983 revealed that the whole-body vibration of the tractor units of freight containers was most hazardous in the back-to-chest directions (x-axis). The allowable exposure time was considerably shorter than that for heavy duty trucks. The low back pain (LBP) among the drivers seemed to be due to the long working hours and the ergonomically unsound tractor design, as well as the vibration. A preventative measure was the introduction of a tractor cab suspended by an air spring instead of a steel spring. In 1992, a follow-up field study was conducted. A personal vibration exposure meter developed by us measured the whole-body vibration on eight tractors. Eighty-nine triplets matched with the age and the years of driving tractors answered a questionnaire evaluation of the ergonomics of their tractor units.The comparison of the newest steel suspension vehicles to the old ones produced by the same motor company revealed that in thex-axis the vibration level had decreased by as much as 4 to 9 dB. Some tractors showed an increase in vibration in the buttocks-to-head direction (z-axis). However, such adverse changes seemed not to affect evaluations according to the fatigue-decreased proficiency boundary (FDP) and the exposure limit (EL) recommended in ISO 2631-1978. The present models, regardless of the type of suspension, changed the direction of the most hazardous vibration from thex-axis to thez-axis. However, the effect of the air-suspension was not so remarkable as expected. Among 40% of drivers seemed to exceed the FDP boundary during a day.The questionnaire study showed an improvement in the ergonomic evaluation of the tractors. The air suspension models seemed to induce less LBP than the steel suspension models.

  12. Government Documents Departmental Operations Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, John S.; And Others

    This manual for the operation and maintenance of the Government Documents Department at Baylor University's Moody Memorial Library is divided into 13 topical sections. The guide opens with the collection development policy statement, which covers the general collection, the maps division, and weeding government documents. Technical processing…

  13. Documents and Symbols of Democracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond. Div. of Humanities and Secondary Administration.

    A three-part handbook for Virginia K-12 social studies teachers presents methods for introducing students to documents and symbols which reflect the principles and ideals of the American democratic system. Although a portion of the material focuses on resources specific to the state of Virginia, information on national documents and symbols can be…

  14. Scientific and Technical Document Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Scientific and Technical Document Database (PC database for purchase)   The images in NIST Special Database 20 contain a very rich set of graphic elements from scientific and technical documents, such as graphs, tables, equations, two column text, maps, pictures, footnotes, annotations, and arrays of such elements.

  15. Document Organization Using Kohonen's Algorithm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerrero Bote, Vicente P.; Moya Anegon, Felix de; Herrero Solana, Victor

    2002-01-01

    Discussion of the classification of documents from bibliographic databases focuses on a method of vectorizing reference documents from LISA (Library and Information Science Abstracts) which permits their topological organization using Kohonen's algorithm. Analyzes possibilities of this type of neural network with respect to the development of…

  16. SRS ecology: Environmental information document

    SciTech Connect

    Wike, L.D.; Shipley, R.W.; Bowers, J.A.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this Document is to provide a source of ecological information based on the exiting knowledge gained from research conducted at the Savannah River Site. This document provides a summary and synthesis of ecological research in the three main ecosystem types found at SRS and information on the threatened and endangered species residing there.

  17. Document Delivery over the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Mary E.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses three innovative Internet-based electronic document delivery systems: Ariel, developed by the Research Libraries Group; Digitized Document Transmission Project, developed by North Carolina State University; and Network Fax Project, developed by Ohio State University. System are compared in terms of equipment, operation, advantages and…

  18. Teaching with Documents: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Karen

    This bibliography of government documents for use in classroom instruction is meant to aid teachers and students, from upper elementary through secondary levels, in identifying resources from two primary providers: National Archives and Records Administration and the publishing company SIRS, Inc. The bibliographic entries point to documents that…

  19. Document Retrieval: A Structural Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Xin

    1990-01-01

    Describes the development of a structural model of document retrieval based on lexical-semantic relationships between index terms. An algorithm that uses tree-to-tree distance to measure structural closeness between a document and a query statement is explained, and the proposed model is compared to a vector retrieval model. (18 references) (LRW)

  20. Expert Systems and Document Handling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Ernest

    1987-01-01

    Describes significant attributes of expert systems, contrasts them to conventional computer systems, and provides an overview of the R1 expert system used by Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) to put together operational systems that meet customers' requirements. Document handling, particularly pictures and images in documents, is also briefly…

  1. Documentation: The Reggio Emilia Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Lilian G.; Chard, Sylvia C.

    1997-01-01

    Notes the municipal preprimary schools of Reggio Emilia, Italy, are attracting worldwide attention for extensively documenting children's experience, memories, thoughts, and ideas. Suggest this type of documentation contributes to early-childhood-program quality by enhancing learning, taking children's ideas and work seriously, providing…

  2. Standard classification of software documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    General conceptual requirements for standard levels of documentation and for application of these requirements to intended usages. These standards encourage the policy to produce only those forms of documentation that are needed and adequate for the purpose. Documentation standards are defined with respect to detail and format quality. Classes A through D range, in order, from the most definitive down to the least definitive, and categories 1 through 4 range, in order, from high-quality typeset down to handwritten material. Criteria for each of the classes and categories, as well as suggested selection guidelines for each are given.

  3. Grants Document-Generation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hairell, Terri; Kreymer, Lev; Martin, Greg; Sheridan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    The Grants Document-Generation System (GDGS) software allows the generation of official grants documents for distribution to the appropriate parties. The documents are created after the selection and entry of specific data elements and clauses. GDGS is written in Cold Fusion that resides on an SQL2000 database and is housed on-site at Goddard Space Flight Center. It includes access security written around GSFC's (Goddard Space Flight Center's) LIST system, and allows for the entry of Procurement Request information necessary for the generation of the resulting Grant Award.

  4. Efficacy of pH elevation as a bactericidal strategy for treating ballast water of freight carriers.

    PubMed

    Starliper, Clifford E; Watten, Barnaby J; Iwanowicz, Deborah D; Green, Phyllis A; Bassett, Noel L; Adams, Cynthia R

    2015-05-01

    Treatment of ship ballast water with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is one method currently being developed to minimize the risk to introduce aquatic invasive species. The bactericidal capability of sodium hydroxide was determined for 148 bacterial strains from ballast water collected in 2009 and 2010 from the M/V Indiana Harbor, a bulk-freight carrier plying the Laurentian Great Lakes, USA. Primary culture of bacteria was done using brain heart infusion agar and a developmental medium. Strains were characterized based on PCR amplification and sequencing of a portion of the 16S rRNA gene. Sequence similarities (99+ %) were determined by comparison with the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) GenBank catalog. Flavobacterium spp. were the most prevalent bacteria characterized in 2009, comprising 51.1% (24/47) of the total, and Pseudomonas spp. (62/101; 61.4%) and Brevundimonas spp. (22/101; 21.8%) were the predominate bacteria recovered in 2010; together, comprising 83.2% (84/101) of the total. Testing was done in tryptic soy broth (TSB) medium adjusted with 5 N NaOH. Growth of each strain was evaluated at pH 10.0, pH 11.0 and pH 12.0, and 4 h up to 72 h. The median cell count at 0 h for 148 cultures was 5.20 × 10(6) cfu/mL with a range 1.02 × 10(5)-1.60 × 10(8) cfu/mL. The TSB adjusted to pH 10.0 and incubation for less than 24 h was bactericidal to 52 (35.1%) strains. Growth in pH 11.0 TSB for less than 4 h was bactericidal to 131 (88.5%) strains and pH 11.0 within 12 h was bactericidal to 141 (95.3%). One strain, Bacillus horikoshii, survived the harshest treatment, pH 12.0 for 72 h. PMID:26257948

  5. Efficacy of pH elevation as a bactericidal strategy for treating ballast water of freight carriers

    PubMed Central

    Starliper, Clifford E.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Iwanowicz, Deborah D.; Green, Phyllis A.; Bassett, Noel L.; Adams, Cynthia R.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of ship ballast water with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is one method currently being developed to minimize the risk to introduce aquatic invasive species. The bactericidal capability of sodium hydroxide was determined for 148 bacterial strains from ballast water collected in 2009 and 2010 from the M/V Indiana Harbor, a bulk-freight carrier plying the Laurentian Great Lakes, USA. Primary culture of bacteria was done using brain heart infusion agar and a developmental medium. Strains were characterized based on PCR amplification and sequencing of a portion of the 16S rRNA gene. Sequence similarities (99+ %) were determined by comparison with the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) GenBank catalog. Flavobacterium spp. were the most prevalent bacteria characterized in 2009, comprising 51.1% (24/47) of the total, and Pseudomonas spp. (62/101; 61.4%) and Brevundimonas spp. (22/101; 21.8%) were the predominate bacteria recovered in 2010; together, comprising 83.2% (84/101) of the total. Testing was done in tryptic soy broth (TSB) medium adjusted with 5 N NaOH. Growth of each strain was evaluated at pH 10.0, pH 11.0 and pH 12.0, and 4 h up to 72 h. The median cell count at 0 h for 148 cultures was 5.20 × 106 cfu/mL with a range 1.02 × 105–1.60 × 108 cfu/mL. The TSB adjusted to pH 10.0 and incubation for less than 24 h was bactericidal to 52 (35.1%) strains. Growth in pH 11.0 TSB for less than 4 h was bactericidal to 131 (88.5%) strains and pH 11.0 within 12 h was bactericidal to 141 (95.3%). One strain, Bacillus horikoshii, survived the harshest treatment, pH 12.0 for 72 h. PMID:26257948

  6. Efficacy of pH elevation as a bactericidal strategy for treating ballast water of freight carriers.

    PubMed

    Starliper, Clifford E; Watten, Barnaby J; Iwanowicz, Deborah D; Green, Phyllis A; Bassett, Noel L; Adams, Cynthia R

    2015-05-01

    Treatment of ship ballast water with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is one method currently being developed to minimize the risk to introduce aquatic invasive species. The bactericidal capability of sodium hydroxide was determined for 148 bacterial strains from ballast water collected in 2009 and 2010 from the M/V Indiana Harbor, a bulk-freight carrier plying the Laurentian Great Lakes, USA. Primary culture of bacteria was done using brain heart infusion agar and a developmental medium. Strains were characterized based on PCR amplification and sequencing of a portion of the 16S rRNA gene. Sequence similarities (99+ %) were determined by comparison with the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) GenBank catalog. Flavobacterium spp. were the most prevalent bacteria characterized in 2009, comprising 51.1% (24/47) of the total, and Pseudomonas spp. (62/101; 61.4%) and Brevundimonas spp. (22/101; 21.8%) were the predominate bacteria recovered in 2010; together, comprising 83.2% (84/101) of the total. Testing was done in tryptic soy broth (TSB) medium adjusted with 5 N NaOH. Growth of each strain was evaluated at pH 10.0, pH 11.0 and pH 12.0, and 4 h up to 72 h. The median cell count at 0 h for 148 cultures was 5.20 × 10(6) cfu/mL with a range 1.02 × 10(5)-1.60 × 10(8) cfu/mL. The TSB adjusted to pH 10.0 and incubation for less than 24 h was bactericidal to 52 (35.1%) strains. Growth in pH 11.0 TSB for less than 4 h was bactericidal to 131 (88.5%) strains and pH 11.0 within 12 h was bactericidal to 141 (95.3%). One strain, Bacillus horikoshii, survived the harshest treatment, pH 12.0 for 72 h.

  7. Reactor operation environmental information document

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, L.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Hunter, C.H.; Marter, W.L.; Moyer, R.A.

    1989-12-01

    This volume is a reactor operation environmental information document for the Savannah River Plant. Topics include meteorology, surface hydrology, transport, environmental impacts, and radiation effects. 48 figs., 56 tabs. (KD)

  8. Vietnamese Document Representation and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Giang-Son; Gao, Xiaoying; Andreae, Peter

    Vietnamese is very different from English and little research has been done on Vietnamese document classification, or indeed, on any kind of Vietnamese language processing, and only a few small corpora are available for research. We created a large Vietnamese text corpus with about 18000 documents, and manually classified them based on different criteria such as topics and styles, giving several classification tasks of different difficulty levels. This paper introduces a new syllable-based document representation at the morphological level of the language for efficient classification. We tested the representation on our corpus with different classification tasks using six classification algorithms and two feature selection techniques. Our experiments show that the new representation is effective for Vietnamese categorization, and suggest that best performance can be achieved using syllable-pair document representation, an SVM with a polynomial kernel as the learning algorithm, and using Information gain and an external dictionary for feature selection.

  9. Planning a Multimedia Documentation Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockley, Ann

    1994-01-01

    Outlines the process of planning and developing a multimedia documentation project. Discusses audience, task, and information analysis; selection of the most appropriate media; effective design; establishment of the development team; hardware and software requirements; costs; and project planning. (SR)

  10. Verifiable and redactable medical documents.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jordan; Blough, Douglas M

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers how to verify provenance and integrity of data in medical documents that are exchanged in a distributed system of health IT services. Provenance refers to the sources of health information within the document and integrity means that the information was not modified after generation by the source. Our approach allows intermediate parties to redact the document by removing information that they do not wish to reveal. For example, patients can store verifiable health information and provide subsets of it to third parties, while redacting sensitive information that they do not wish employers, insurers, or others to receive. Our method uses a cryptographic primitive known as a redactable signature. We study practical issues and performance impacts of building, redacting, and verifying Continuity of Care Documents (CCDs) that are protected with redactable signatures. Results show that manipulating redactable CCDs provides superior security and privacy with little computational overhead.

  11. Industrial Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  12. Transportation Sector Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Transportation Model (TRAN). The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated by the model.

  13. Renewable Fuels Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the Annual Energy Outlook forecasts.

  14. Quarantine document system indexing procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Quarantine Document System (QDS) is described including the indexing procedures and thesaurus of indexing terms. The QDS consists of these functional elements: acquisition, cataloging, indexing, storage, and retrieval. A complete listing of the collection, and the thesaurus are included.

  15. EA Shuttle Document Retention Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the effort of code EA at Johnson Space Center (JSC) to identify and acquire databases and documents from the space shuttle program that are adjudged important for retention after the retirement of the space shuttle.

  16. Human Research Program Requirements Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieger, Gabe

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to define, document, and allocate the Human Research Program (HRP) requirements to the HRP Program elements. It establishes the flow-down of requirements from Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) and Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer (OCHMO) to the various Program Elements of the HRP to ensure that human research and technology countermeasure investments are made to insure the delivery of countermeasures and technologies that satisfy ESMD s and OCHMO's exploration mission requirements.

  17. Text documents as social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balinsky, Helen; Balinsky, Alexander; Simske, Steven J.

    2012-03-01

    The extraction of keywords and features is a fundamental problem in text data mining. Document processing applications directly depend on the quality and speed of the identification of salient terms and phrases. Applications as disparate as automatic document classification, information visualization, filtering and security policy enforcement all rely on the quality of automatically extracted keywords. Recently, a novel approach to rapid change detection in data streams and documents has been developed. It is based on ideas from image processing and in particular on the Helmholtz Principle from the Gestalt Theory of human perception. By modeling a document as a one-parameter family of graphs with its sentences or paragraphs defining the vertex set and with edges defined by Helmholtz's principle, we demonstrated that for some range of the parameters, the resulting graph becomes a small-world network. In this article we investigate the natural orientation of edges in such small world networks. For two connected sentences, we can say which one is the first and which one is the second, according to their position in a document. This will make such a graph look like a small WWW-type network and PageRank type algorithms will produce interesting ranking of nodes in such a document.

  18. Designing Optimal LNG Station Network for U.S. Heavy-Duty Freight Trucks using Temporally and Spatially Explicit Supply Chain Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Allen

    The recent natural gas boom has opened much discussion about the potential of natural gas and specifically Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) in the United States transportation sector. The switch from diesel to natural gas vehicles would reduce foreign dependence on oil, spur domestic economic growth, and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions. LNG provides the most potential for the medium to heavy-duty vehicle market partially due to unstable oil prices and stagnant natural gas prices. As long as the abundance of unconventional gas in the United States remains cheap, fuel switching to natural gas could provide significant cost savings for long haul freight industry. Amid a growing LNG station network and ever increasing demand for freight movement, LNG heavy-duty truck sales are less than anticipated and the industry as a whole is less economic than expected. In spite of much existing and mature natural gas infrastructure, the supply chain for LNG is different and requires explicit and careful planning. This thesis proposes research to explore the claim that the largest obstacle to widespread LNG market penetration is sub-optimal infrastructure planning. No other study we are aware of has explicitly explored the LNG transportation fuel supply chain for heavy-duty freight trucks. This thesis presents a novel methodology that links a network infrastructure optimization model (represents supply side) with a vehicle stock and economic payback model (represents demand side). The model characterizes both a temporal and spatial optimization model of future LNG transportation fuel supply chains in the United States. The principal research goal is to assess the economic feasibility of the current LNG transportation fuel industry and to determine an optimal pathway to achieve ubiquitous commercialization of LNG vehicles in the heavy-duty transport sector. The results indicate that LNG is not economic as a heavy-duty truck fuel until 2030 under current market conditions

  19. Unesco Integrated Documentation Network; Computerized Documentation System (CDS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Dept. of Documentation, Libraries, and Archives.

    Intended for use by the Computerized Documentation System (CDS), the Unesco version of ISIS (Integrated Set of Information Systems)--originally developed by the International Labour Organization--was developed in 1975 and named CDS/ISIS. This system has a comprehensive collection of programs for input, management, and output, running in batch or…

  20. AIR QUALITY CRITERIA DOCUMENT(S) FOR LEAD

    EPA Science Inventory

    This collection of documents intend to assess the latest scientific information on the health and environmental fate and effects of lead to provide scientific bases for periodic review and possible revision of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for lead.

  1. Reactor operation environmental information document

    SciTech Connect

    Haselow, J.S.; Price, V.; Stephenson, D.E.; Bledsoe, H.W.; Looney, B.B.

    1989-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) produces nuclear materials, primarily plutonium and tritium, to meet the requirements of the Department of Defense. These products have been formed in nuclear reactors that were built during 1950--1955 at the SRS. K, L, and P reactors are three of five reactors that have been used in the past to produce the nuclear materials. All three of these reactors discontinued operation in 1988. Currently, intense efforts are being extended to prepare these three reactors for restart in a manner that protects human health and the environment. To document that restarting the reactors will have minimal impacts to human health and the environment, a three-volume Reactor Operations Environmental Impact Document has been prepared. The document focuses on the impacts of restarting the K, L, and P reactors on both the SRS and surrounding areas. This volume discusses the geology, seismology, and subsurface hydrology. 195 refs., 101 figs., 16 tabs.

  2. ELECTRICAL POWER SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    M. Maniyar

    2004-06-22

    The purpose of this revision of the System Description Document (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the electrical power system and their bases to allow the design effort to proceed to License Application. This SDD is a living document that will be revised at strategic points as the design matures over time. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design as they exist at this time, with emphasis on those attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD has been developed to be an engineering tool for design control. Accordingly, the primary audience are design engineers. This type of SDD leads and follows the design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential to performing the design process. This SDD follows the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD is a reflection of the results of the design process to date. Functional and operational requirements applicable to this system are obtained from ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F&OR) (Siddoway, 2003). Other requirements to support the design process have been taken from higher level requirements documents such as ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (Doraswamy 2004), the fire hazards analyses, and the preclosure safety analysis. The above mentioned low-level documents address ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canori and Leitner 2003) requirements. This SDD includes several appendices with supporting information. Appendix B lists key system charts, diagrams, drawings, and lists; and Appendix C is a list of system procedures.

  3. Accurate documentation and wound measurement.

    PubMed

    Hampton, Sylvie

    This article, part 4 in a series on wound management, addresses the sometimes routine yet crucial task of documentation. Clear and accurate records of a wound enable its progress to be determined so the appropriate treatment can be applied. Thorough records mean any practitioner picking up a patient's notes will know when the wound was last checked, how it looked and what dressing and/or treatment was applied, ensuring continuity of care. Documenting every assessment also has legal implications, demonstrating due consideration and care of the patient and the rationale for any treatment carried out. Part 5 in the series discusses wound dressing characteristics and selection.

  4. Transportation control measure information documents

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    The document, sponsored by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, is intended to provide information on Transportation Control Measures (TCMs) to transportation planning and air quality planning management and staff at all government levels. The document provides descriptions and examples of the TCMs listed in Section 108(f) of the Clean Air Act. Each TCM is described in terms of its objectives, variation in the ways it may be applied, expected transportation and emissions impacts, and other important implementation and policy considerations that State, regional, and local decision-making agencies will face.

  5. NASA visual thesaurus maintenance documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The following document is presented in six sections: (1) introduction; (2) a diagram showing how the various routines are grouped together into functional modules; (3) a printout of all the layouts in the system along with their associated layout procedures; (4) listings of all the global procedures in the system; (5) a cross-reference of all identifiers used in the system; and (6) descriptions of the external procedures used in the system. The document was prepared at the Project ICON Image Scaling Laboratory.

  6. Document segmentation via oblique cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svendsen, Jeremy; Branzan-Albu, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel solution for the layout segmentation of graphical elements in Business Intelligence documents. We propose a generalization of the recursive X-Y cut algorithm, which allows for cutting along arbitrary oblique directions. An intermediate processing step consisting of line and solid region removal is also necessary due to presence of decorative elements. The output of the proposed segmentation is a hierarchical structure which allows for the identification of primitives in pie and bar charts. The algorithm was tested on a database composed of charts from business documents. Results are very promising.

  7. Refining the parameters of Archard's wear model for calculating wear of wheels applied for 25 t per axle freight wagons on Russian railways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saidova, Alina; Orlova, Anna

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the research is for a reasonable choice of wear coefficients for severe and mild phases in Archard's abrasive wear theory and friction coefficients for wheel flange and tread that correspond to conditions of Russian track for wheel profile wear modelling using dynamic models of wagons. This paper considers the gondola wagon on bogies model 18-9855 that are of the three-piece Barber S-2-R design. The wagon running test results on Experimental Loop Track in Scherbinka, the results of hardness measurements of wheel flange/tread and of wheel profile wear modelling are presented in this paper. In conclusion, a comparison of wheels wear of two freight wagons' bogies (with friction and elastic-friction links of wheel sets with side frames) on the basis of specified wear model was carried out.

  8. Guide to the CIAC-2300 series documents

    SciTech Connect

    Orvis, W.J.

    1993-12-13

    The Computer Incident Advisory Capability (CIAC) creates public information documents for the Dept. of Energy (DOE) related to computer security. These documents, known as the CIAC-2300 Series documents, are primarily concerned with information on security threats and methods for protecting systems from those threats. This document is a compilation of the abstracts of these documents.

  9. Document creation, linking, and maintenance system

    DOEpatents

    Claghorn, Ronald

    2011-02-15

    A document creation and citation system designed to maintain a database of reference documents. The content of a selected document may be automatically scanned and indexed by the system. The selected documents may also be manually indexed by a user prior to the upload. The indexed documents may be uploaded and stored within a database for later use. The system allows a user to generate new documents by selecting content within the reference documents stored within the database and inserting the selected content into a new document. The system allows the user to customize and augment the content of the new document. The system also generates citations to the selected content retrieved from the reference documents. The citations may be inserted into the new document in the appropriate location and format, as directed by the user. The new document may be uploaded into the database and included with the other reference documents. The system also maintains the database of reference documents so that when changes are made to a reference document, the author of a document referencing the changed document will be alerted to make appropriate changes to his document. The system also allows visual comparison of documents so that the user may see differences in the text of the documents.

  10. 43 CFR 4.22 - Documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Relating to Procedures and Practice § 4.22 Documents. (a) Filing of documents. A document is filed in the office where the filing is required only when the document is received in that office during its regular business hours and by a person authorized to receive it. A document received after the office's...

  11. 43 CFR 4.22 - Documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Relating to Procedures and Practice § 4.22 Documents. (a) Filing of documents. A document is filed in the Office where the filing is required only when the document is received in that office during the office hours when filing is permitted and the document is received by a person authorized to receive it....

  12. 43 CFR 4.22 - Documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Relating to Procedures and Practice § 4.22 Documents. (a) Filing of documents. A document is filed in the office where the filing is required only when the document is received in that office during its regular business hours and by a person authorized to receive it. A document received after the office's...

  13. 43 CFR 4.22 - Documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Relating to Procedures and Practice § 4.22 Documents. (a) Filing of documents. A document is filed in the office where the filing is required only when the document is received in that office during its regular business hours and by a person authorized to receive it. A document received after the office's...

  14. THE STRESSOR IDENTIFICATION GUIDANCE DOCUMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE STRESSOR IDENTIFICATION GUIDANCE DOCUMENT

    Susan M. Cormier, ORD/NRMRL, Susan B. Norton, ORD/NCEA, Glenn W. Suter, II ORD/NCEA, William Swietlik, OW lOST

    Science Question(s):

    MYP Science Question: How can multiple and possibly related causes of biological ...

  15. An Interactive Document Retrieval System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, D.E.; And Others

    The document retrieval system at Coordinated Science Laboratory is implemented on a Control Data 1604 computer system. Recorded information from each source article includes 1) conventional bibliographic data such as authorship, author affiliation, title, year of publication, etc., 2) detailed bibliographic data from each of the cited references,…

  16. Melter Disposal Strategic Planning Document

    SciTech Connect

    BURBANK, D.A.

    2000-09-25

    This document describes the proposed strategy for disposal of spent and failed melters from the tank waste treatment plant to be built by the Office of River Protection at the Hanford site in Washington. It describes program management activities, disposal and transportation systems, leachate management, permitting, and safety authorization basis approvals needed to execute the strategy.

  17. Topology of Document Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everett, Daniel M.; Cater, Steven C.

    1992-01-01

    Explains the use of a topological structure to examine the closeness between documents in retrieval systems and analyzes the topological structure of a vector-space model, a fuzzy-set model, an extended Boolean model, a probabilistic model, and a TIRS (Topological Information Retrieval System) model. Proofs for the results are appended. (17…

  18. FES Documentation - Cancer Imaging Program

    Cancer.gov

    The FES documentation files are presented in Adobe Acrobat or Word files, either in executable or ZIP format to be maximally compatible with the computer system being downloaded into. The files are large in any format and should be downloaded with a fast Internet link.

  19. Physical Science Curriculum Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Carolyn C.; Brown, Tim; Harris, Jeff; Lovin, Pamela

    2004-01-01

    This document was developed in response to the expressed need of physical science teachers for materials designed to facilitate and enhance the teaching of the 1999 North Carolina Standard Course of Study for Physical Science. The materials provide a guide to translating the goals and objectives of the Physical Science curriculum into good…

  20. Storing and Viewing Electronic Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Howard

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the conversion of fragile library materials to computer storage and retrieval to extend the life of the items and to improve accessibility through the World Wide Web. Highlights include entering the images, including scanning; optical character recognition; full text and manual indexing; and available document- and image-management…

  1. The Darfur Atrocities Documentation Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Samuel

    2004-01-01

    One of the many important aspects of the Darfur Atrocities Documentation Project was that it set a precedent for what the U.S. and/or other nations can, and should do, when future cases of potential genocide arise. Far too often in the recent past, the international community (the United Nations, individual governments, many nongovernmental…

  2. Technical Documentation and Legal Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caher, John M.

    1995-01-01

    States that litigation over the interpretation and sufficiency of technical documentation is increasingly common as a number of suits have been filed in state and federal courts. Describes the case of "Martin versus Hacker," a recent case in which New York's highest court analyzed a technical writer's prose in the context of a lawsuit over a…

  3. Researching in English: Document Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    In this article I argue for the defining importance of document study for researchers in curriculum. Two examples of previous analyses are provided, one demonstrating an approach to language analysis of the "Australian Curriculum: English" from the Literature strand, the other a study of the relationship of curricula to each other in…

  4. XTOD - XES Interface Control Document

    SciTech Connect

    Trent, J

    2005-09-07

    This document describes the interface between the LCLS XTOD System (WBS No.1.5) and the LCLS XES (WBS No.1.6). The interface locations ranging from the beam dump to the far experimental hall are identified. Subsystems that connect at or cross the boundary are identified.

  5. Adaptive Clustering of Hypermedia Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Andrew; Fotouhi, Farshad

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of hypermedia systems focuses on a comparison of two types of adaptive algorithm (genetic algorithm and neural network) in clustering hypermedia documents. These clusters allow the user to index into the nodes to find needed information more quickly, since clustering is "personalized" based on the user's paths rather than representing…

  6. Coal Market Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives and the conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the National Energy Modeling System's (NEMS) Coal Market Module (CMM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook 2014 (AEO2014). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of CMM's two submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS) and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS).

  7. La Documentacion Automatica (Automated Documentation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levery, Francis

    1971-01-01

    Documentation centers are needed to handle the vast amount of scientific and technical information currently being issued. Such centers should be concerned both with handling inquiries in a particular field and with producing a general catalog of current information. Automatic analysis of texts by computers will be the best way to handle material,…

  8. Space Documentation Services: Operations Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raitt, D. I.

    A description of the system used by Space Documentation Service (SDS) to disseminate combined and accumulated knowledge, as widely as possible, throughout Europe is given. The RECON network, with the full support of NASA, has gradually been extended so that centers in Member States, may, by installing their own terminals, have direct access to the…

  9. Interactive Video Disc Orientation Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, William J.; And Others

    This report provides the documentation for a proposed interactive videodisk to be produced for use in orienting freshman students to the Harvey A. Andruss Library of Bloomsburg University (Pennsylvania). A rationale for the project and a plan of action are followed by a production time line and tentative program outline. An outline of the library…

  10. Save Our History: Our Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Libby Haight; Gordon, Sarah; Suisman, David

    2003-01-01

    The Fall 2003 Idea Book features: "Save Our History Study Guide: Our Documents"; "History International Study Guide: Pyramids"; "The History Channel Study Guide: Lewis and Clark" (Ideas from Our Teachers Contest Rules; Ideas from Our Teachers Context Winners); "A&E Classroom Study Guide: Post Impressionists"; and "The Biography Channel Study…

  11. Government Documents Go to School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Sandra Q.

    2005-01-01

    In the fall of 2002, the author conducted brief surveys of the teacher and teacher-librarians in her graduate cataloging class and in a colleage's media selection class to learn whether and how government documents are used in the schools where these students were employed. The schools included in the surveys were in several central Minnesota…

  12. Commercial Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Commercial Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components.

  13. Macroeconomic Activity Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Macroeconomic Activity Module (MAM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook for 2016 (AEO2016). The report catalogues and describes the module assumptions, computations, methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and mainframe source code

  14. ELECTRICAL SUPPORT SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    S. Roy

    2004-06-24

    The purpose of this revision of the System Design Description (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the electrical support system and their bases to allow the design effort to proceed to License Application. This SDD is a living document that will be revised at strategic points as the design matures over time. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design as they exist at this time, with emphasis on those attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD has been developed to be an engineering tool for design control. Accordingly, the primary audience/users are design engineers. This type of SDD both ''leads'' and ''trails'' the design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The SDD trails the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD is a reflection of the results of the design process to date. Functional and operational requirements applicable to electrical support systems are obtained from the ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F&OR) (Siddoway 2003). Other requirements to support the design process have been taken from higher-level requirements documents such as the ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (Doraswamy 2004), and fire hazards analyses. The above-mentioned low-level documents address ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canon and Leitner 2003) requirements. This SDD contains several appendices that include supporting information. Appendix B lists key system charts, diagrams, drawings, and lists, and Appendix C includes a list of system procedures.

  15. SNF AGING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    L.L. Swanson

    2005-04-06

    The purpose of this system description document (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) aging system and associated bases, which will allow the design effort to proceed. This SDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This SDD is part of an iterative design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The SDD follows the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD reflects the current results of the design process. Throughout this SDD, the term aging cask applies to vertical site-specific casks and to horizontal aging modules. The term overpack is a vertical site-specific cask that contains a dual-purpose canister (DPC) or a disposable canister. Functional and operational requirements applicable to this system were obtained from ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F&OR) (Curry 2004 [DIRS 170557]). Other requirements that support the design process were taken from documents such as ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (BSC 2004 [DES 171599]), ''Site Fire Hazards Analyses'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172174]), and ''Nuclear Safety Design Bases for License Application'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 171512]). The documents address requirements in the ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canori and Leitner 2003 [DIRS 166275]). This SDD includes several appendices. Appendix A is a Glossary; Appendix B is a list of key system charts, diagrams, drawings, lists and additional supporting information; and Appendix C is a list of

  16. Mars Transportation Environment Definition Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, M. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This document provides a compilation of environments knowledge about the planet Mars. Information is divided into three catagories: (1) interplanetary space environments (environments required by the technical community to travel to and from Mars); (2) atmospheric environments (environments needed to aerocapture, aerobrake, or use aeroassist for precision trajectories down to the surface); and (3) surface environments (environments needed to have robots or explorers survive and work on the surface).

  17. Annex II technical documentation assessed.

    PubMed

    van Drongelen, A W; Roszek, B; van Tienhoven, E A E; Geertsma, R E; Boumans, R T; Kraus, J J A M

    2005-12-01

    Annex II of the Medical Device Directive (MDD) is used frequently by manufacturers to obtain CE-marking. This procedure relies on a full quality assurance system and does not require an assessment of the individual medical device by a Notified Body. An investigation into the availability and the quality of technical documentation for Annex II devices revealed severe shortcomings, which are reported here. PMID:16419921

  18. On Tangut Historical Documents Recognition*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Changqing

    As the Tangut studies have made progress, a considerable number of Tangut historical documents' copies have been published. It is of great importance to carry out digitalization and domestication of these copies. The paper firstly makes an initial processing of images by global threshold, then dissect the photocopies by scanning. Finally adopts the recognition approach of principal component analysis. The experiment shows that a better recognition can be achieved by calculation without extra time.

  19. Supplemental information source document : socioeconomics.

    SciTech Connect

    Sedore, Lora Jeannette

    2010-08-01

    This document provides information on expenditures and staffing levels at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). This report is based on the best available information obtained from Sandia Corporation for Fiscal Years 2008 and 2009, and was prepared in support of future analyses, including those that may be performed as part of the SNL/NM Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement.

  20. Flammable Gas Technical Basis Document

    SciTech Connect

    CARRO, C.A.

    2003-07-30

    This document qualitatively evaluates the frequency and consequences of DST and SST representative flammable gas accidents and associated represented hazardous conditions without controls. Based on the evaluation, it was determined that safety-significant SSCs and/or TSRs were required to prevent or mitigate flammable gas accidents. Controls were selected and the accidents re-evaluated taking credit for the controls. Revision 1 incorporates comments received from ORP.

  1. Documentation: No Substitute for Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strickland, John

    2005-01-01

    SO WHAT IS AN RFI? IT WAS ONE OF THE FIRST THINGS I learned about back when I started my project management career with my first large construction firm. I learned how to use these forms as a convenient and effective means of documenting the many legitimate clarifications needed on a major project. However, like most other young engineers, I also learned to use the RFI as a weapon in the ongoing battle between owners. or their designer and the construction contractors. Recently, our project team has done a few simple things to greatly reduce the waste and frustration that comes from this type of battle. The RFI form can be a great tool if used properly, and I certainly don t recommend that they be eliminated entirely. The RFI form was created to document the many clarifications that are commonly required on projects. Typically, the contractor uses the top half of the form to clarify-or request permission to vary from-the contract documents. The bottom half of the form is used to record the answer. But this seemingly simple process is plagued by a number of problems. From the contractor s perspective, RFIs are needed to secure information that should have been in the contract documents in the first place. The missing information keeps their crews from working effectively, and it makes hitting already demanding cost and schedule targets even more difficult. Owners, or their design firms, often view the RFI as a means of harassment. Both sides of the issue have legitimate complaints, and both sides cause most of their own pain.

  2. Document image cleanup and binarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Victor; Manmatha, Raghaven

    1998-04-01

    Image binarization is a difficult task for documents with text over textured or shaded backgrounds, poor contrast, and/or considerable noise. Current optical character recognition (OCR) and document analysis technology do not handle such documents well. We have developed a simple yet effective algorithm for document image clean-up and binarization. The algorithm consists of two basic steps. In the first step, the input image is smoothed using a low-pass filter. The smoothing operation enhances the text relative to any background texture. This is because background texture normally has higher frequency than text does. The smoothing operation also removes speckle noise. In the second step, the intensity histogram of the smoothed image is computed and a threshold automatically selected as follows. For black text, the first peak of the histogram corresponds to text. Thresholding the image at the value of the valley between the first and second peaks of the histogram binarizes the image well. In order to reliably identify the valley, the histogram is smoothed by a low-pass filter before the threshold is computed. The algorithm has been applied to some 50 images from a wide variety of source: digitized video frames, photos, newspapers, advertisements in magazines or sales flyers, personal checks, etc. There are 21820 characters and 4406 words in these images. 91 percent of the characters and 86 percent of the words are successfully cleaned up and binarized. A commercial OCR was applied to the binarized text when it consisted of fonts which were OCR recognizable. The recognition rate was 84 percent for the characters and 77 percent for the words.

  3. Electricity Market Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Documents the Electricity Market Module as it was used for the Annual Energy Outlook 2013. The Electricity Market Module (EMM) is the electricity supply component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). The EMM represents the generation, transmission, and pricing of electricity. It consists of four submodules: the Electricity Capacity Planning (ECP) Submodule, the Electricity Fuel Dispatch (EFD) Submodule, the Electricity Finance and Pricing (EFP) Submodule, and the Electricity Load and Demand (ELD) Submodule.

  4. Mixed waste characterization reference document

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Waste characterization and monitoring are major activities in the management of waste from generation through storage and treatment to disposal. Adequate waste characterization is necessary to ensure safe storage, selection of appropriate and effective treatment, and adherence to disposal standards. For some wastes characterization objectives can be difficult and costly to achieve. The purpose of this document is to evaluate costs of characterizing one such waste type, mixed (hazardous and radioactive) waste. For the purpose of this document, waste characterization includes treatment system monitoring, where monitoring is a supplement or substitute for waste characterization. This document establishes a cost baseline for mixed waste characterization and treatment system monitoring requirements from which to evaluate alternatives. The cost baseline established as part of this work includes costs for a thermal treatment technology (i.e., a rotary kiln incinerator), a nonthermal treatment process (i.e., waste sorting, macronencapsulation, and catalytic wet oxidation), and no treatment (i.e., disposal of waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)). The analysis of improvement over the baseline includes assessment of promising areas for technology development in front-end waste characterization, process equipment, off gas controls, and monitoring. Based on this assessment, an ideal characterization and monitoring configuration is described that minimizes costs and optimizes resources required for waste characterization.

  5. Decal Process Document and Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Decal Process Document and Catalog, JSC 27260 is the standard flight decal catalog, complete with illustrations and part numbers. As hardware developers identify labels that have common applicability across end items, these labels can be evaluated for "standard decal classification" and entered into the decal catalog for general use. The hardware developer must have a label design that meets current, applicable labeling requirements, and submit to the Decal Design and Production Facility (DDPF) as a standard label candidate. Upon approval, the label will be added to the decal catalog. The Decal Process Document and Catalog provides a selection of decals from which the NASA and NASA contractor customers can easily order. The decals shown in the catalog have been previously produced and have released engineering/fabrication drawings on file in the (DDPF). A released drawing is required before a decal can be produced or placed into the catalog. Some decals included in the catalog have a common applicability and are used in various NASA vehicles/habitats. It is the intent of the DDPF to maintain this catalog as a "living document" to which decals/placards can be added as they are repeatedly used. The advantage of identifYing flight decals in this catalog is that a released drawing is already in place, and the products will be flight certified.

  6. 21 CFR 820.40 - Document controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Document controls. 820.40 Section 820.40 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Document Controls § 820.40 Document controls. Each manufacturer shall establish and maintain procedures to control all documents that are required by this part. The procedures...

  7. 21 CFR 820.40 - Document controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Document controls. 820.40 Section 820.40 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Document Controls § 820.40 Document controls. Each manufacturer shall establish and maintain procedures to control all documents that are required by this part. The procedures...

  8. 21 CFR 820.40 - Document controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Document controls. 820.40 Section 820.40 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Document Controls § 820.40 Document controls. Each manufacturer shall establish and maintain procedures to control all documents that are required by this part. The procedures...

  9. 40 CFR 1508.10 - Environmental document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Environmental document. 1508.10 Section 1508.10 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.10 Environmental document. Environmental document includes the documents specified in § 1508.9...

  10. 40 CFR 1508.10 - Environmental document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Environmental document. 1508.10 Section 1508.10 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.10 Environmental document. Environmental document includes the documents specified in § 1508.9...

  11. 47 CFR 61.16 - Base documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Base documents. 61.16 Section 61.16... for Electronic Filing § 61.16 Base documents. (a) The Base Document is a complete tariff which incorporates all effective revisions, as of the last day of the preceding month. The Base Document should...

  12. 47 CFR 61.16 - Base documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Base documents. 61.16 Section 61.16... for Electronic Filing § 61.16 Base documents. (a) The Base Document is a complete tariff which incorporates all effective revisions, as of the last day of the preceding month. The Base Document should...

  13. 47 CFR 61.16 - Base documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Base documents. 61.16 Section 61.16... for Electronic Filing § 61.16 Base documents. (a) The Base Document is a complete tariff which incorporates all effective revisions, as of the last day of the preceding month. The Base Document should...

  14. 47 CFR 61.16 - Base documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Base documents. 61.16 Section 61.16... for Electronic Filing § 61.16 Base documents. (a) The Base Document is a complete tariff which incorporates all effective revisions, as of the last day of the preceding month. The Base Document should...

  15. 47 CFR 61.16 - Base documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Base documents. 61.16 Section 61.16... for Electronic Filing § 61.16 Base documents. (a) The Base Document is a complete tariff which incorporates all effective revisions, as of the last day of the preceding month. The Base Document should...

  16. 21 CFR 820.40 - Document controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Document controls. 820.40 Section 820.40 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Document Controls § 820.40 Document controls. Each manufacturer shall establish and maintain procedures to control all documents that are required by this part. The procedures...

  17. Documentation: Motivation and training or automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouton, M. L.

    1970-01-01

    The road blocks and mental blocks in areas where automation is not taking care of basic documentation problems are discussed. Original project documentation, documentation for project maintenance, and comparison of preliminary and final documentation are described. The use of flow charts is also mentioned.

  18. Duplicate document detection in DocBrowse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalana, Vikram; Bruce, Andrew G.; Nguyen, Thien

    1998-04-01

    Duplicate documents are frequently found in large databases of digital documents, such as those found in digital libraries or in the government declassification effort. Efficient duplicate document detection is important not only to allow querying for similar documents, but also to filter out redundant information in large document databases. We have designed three different algorithm to identify duplicate documents. The first algorithm is based on features extracted from the textual content of a document, the second algorithm is based on wavelet features extracted from the document image itself, and the third algorithm is a combination of the first two. These algorithms are integrated within the DocBrowse system for information retrieval from document images which is currently under development at MathSoft. DocBrowse supports duplicate document detection by allowing (1) automatic filtering to hide duplicate documents, and (2) ad hoc querying for similar or duplicate documents. We have tested the duplicate document detection algorithms on 171 documents and found that text-based method has an average 11-point precision of 97.7 percent while the image-based method has an average 11- point precision of 98.9 percent. However, in general, the text-based method performs better when the document contains enough high-quality machine printed text while the image- based method performs better when the document contains little or no quality machine readable text.

  19. 7 CFR 1739.18 - Grant documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grant documents. 1739.18 Section 1739.18 Agriculture... BROADBAND GRANT PROGRAM Community Connect Grant Program § 1739.18 Grant documents. The terms and conditions of grants shall be set forth in grant documents prepared by the Agency. The documents shall...

  20. 7 CFR 1739.18 - Grant documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grant documents. 1739.18 Section 1739.18 Agriculture... BROADBAND GRANT PROGRAM Community Connect Grant Program § 1739.18 Grant documents. The terms and conditions of grants shall be set forth in grant documents prepared by the Agency. The documents shall...