Science.gov

Sample records for freight documents

  1. 41 CFR 102-117.180 - What transportation documents must I use to ship freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Shipping Freight § 102-117.180 What transportation documents must I... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What transportation documents must I use to ship freight? 102-117.180 Section 102-117.180 Public Contracts and...

  2. 41 CFR 102-117.180 - What transportation documents must I use to ship freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Shipping Freight § 102-117.180 What transportation documents must I... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What transportation documents must I use to ship freight? 102-117.180 Section 102-117.180 Public Contracts and...

  3. 41 CFR 102-117.95 - What transportation documents must I use to acquire freight, household goods or other related...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... documents must I use to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? 102-117... acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? (a) Bills of lading and purchase orders are the transportation documents you use to acquire freight, household goods shipments,...

  4. FREIGHT CONTAINER LIFTING STANDARD

    SciTech Connect

    POWERS DJ; SCOTT MA; MACKEY TC

    2010-01-13

    This standard details the correct methods of lifting and handling Series 1 freight containers following ISO-3874 and ISO-1496. The changes within RPP-40736 will allow better reading comprehension, as well as correcting editorial errors.

  5. Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Sean; Bigatel, Patrick

    2004-10-17

    Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by this DOE category one Inventions and Innovations grant to successfully research, develop, test, patent, market, and sell innovative fuel and emissions saving aerodynamic attachments for the trucking industry. A great deal of past scientific research has demonstrated that streamlining box shaped semi-trailers can significantly reduce a truck's fuel consumption. However, significant design challenges have prevented past concepts from meeting industry needs. Market research early in this project revealed the demands of truck fleet operators regarding aerodynamic attachments. Products must not only save fuel, but cannot interfere with the operation of the truck, require significant maintenance, add significant weight, and must be extremely durable. Furthermore, SAE/TMC J1321 tests performed by a respected independent laboratory are necessary for large fleets to even consider purchase. Freight Wing used this information to create a system of three practical aerodynamic attachments for the front, rear and undercarriage of standard semi trailers. SAE/TMC J1321 Type II tests preformed by the Transportation Research Center (TRC) demonstrated a 7% improvement to fuel economy with all three products. If Freight Wing is successful in its continued efforts to gain market penetration, the energy and environmental savings would be considerable. Each truck outfitted saves approximately 1,100 gallons of fuel every 100,000 miles, which prevents over 12 tons of CO2 from entering the atmosphere. If all applicable trailers used the technology, the country could save approximately 1.8 billion gallons of diesel fuel, 18 million tons of emissions and 3.6 billion dollars annually.

  6. 77 FR 62596 - Interim Guidance on State Freight Plans and State Freight Advisory Committees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-15

    ... other strategic goals, including safety, state of good repair, livability, and environmental sustainability. State Freight Plans can also identify freight transportation facilities that are critical to... accountability in operating and maintaining the freight transportation system; Reducing adverse environmental...

  7. 13. Edgemoor Freight Yard. Wilmington, Newcastle Co., DE. Sec. 1201, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Edgemoor Freight Yard. Wilmington, Newcastle Co., DE. Sec. 1201, MP 25.00. (See HAER No. DE-12 & 12A for further documentation on this site). - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between Maryland/Delaware & Delaware/Pennsylvania State Lines, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  8. 12. Edgemoor Freight Yard. Wilmington, Newcastle Co., DE. Sec. 1201, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Edgemoor Freight Yard. Wilmington, Newcastle Co., DE. Sec. 1201, MP 25.00. (See HAER No. DE-12 & 12A for further documentation on this site). - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between Maryland/Delaware & Delaware/Pennsylvania State Lines, Wilmington, New Castle County, DE

  9. 21. Providence & Worchester RR: Freight house. Providence, Providence Co., ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Providence & Worchester RR: Freight house. Providence, Providence Co., RI. Sec. 4119, mp 185.66 (See HAER no. RI-3 for further documentation on this site.) - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between CT & MA state lines, Providence, Providence County, RI

  10. Developing a Global Green Freight Action Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Climate and Clean Air Coalition (CCAC) presentation gives an overview of the Global Green Freight Action Plan to improve the energy efficiency and environmental performance of freight operations worldwide along with developing an action plan.

  11. 78 FR 11727 - National Freight Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ..., Code of Federal Regulations, Section 102-3.65, and following consultation with the Committee Management... Freight Strategic Plan; (4) development of strategies to help States implement State Freight...

  12. 41 CFR 102-117.95 - After the GBLs retire for domestic shipments, what transportation documents must I use to acquire...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for domestic shipments, what transportation documents must I use to acquire freight, household goods... GBLs retire for domestic shipments, what transportation documents must I use to acquire freight... documents you use to acquire freight, household goods and other transportation services after the...

  13. NEMS Freight Transportation Module Improvement Study

    EIA Publications

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) contracted with IHS Global, Inc. (IHS) to analyze the relationship between the value of industrial output, physical output, and freight movement in the United States for use in updating analytic assumptions and modeling structure within the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) freight transportation module, including forecasting methodologies and processes to identify possible alternative approaches that would improve multi-modal freight flow and fuel consumption estimation.

  14. 41 CFR 102-117.160 - What is freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What is freight? 102-117.160 Section 102-117.160 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Shipping Freight § 102-117.160 What is freight? Freight is property or goods transported as cargo....

  15. 41 CFR 102-117.160 - What is freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is freight? 102-117.160 Section 102-117.160 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Shipping Freight § 102-117.160 What is freight? Freight is property or goods transported as cargo....

  16. 41 CFR 102-117.160 - What is freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What is freight? 102-117.160 Section 102-117.160 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management... Shipping Freight § 102-117.160 What is freight? Freight is property or goods transported as cargo....

  17. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service...

  18. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service...

  19. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service...

  20. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service...

  1. 49 CFR 215.119 - Defective freight car truck.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Defective freight car truck. 215.119 Section 215... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Freight Car Components Suspension System § 215.119 Defective freight car truck. A railroad may not place or continue in service...

  2. US Advanced Freight and Passenger MAGLEV System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morena, John J.; Danby, Gordon; Powell, James

    1996-01-01

    Japan and Germany will operate first generation Maglev passenger systems commercially shortly after 2000 A.D. The United States Maglev systems will require sophisticated freight and passenger carrying capability. The U.S. freight market is larger than passenger transport. A proposed advanced freight and passenger Maglev Project in Brevard County Florida is described. Present Maglev systems cost 30 million dollars or more per mile. Described is an advanced third generation Maglev system with technology improvements that will result in a cost of 10 million dollars per mile.

  3. Air freight demand models: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dajani, J. S.; Bernstein, G. W.

    1978-01-01

    A survey is presented of some of the approaches which have been considered in freight demand estimation. The few existing continuous time computer simulations of aviation systems are reviewed, with a view toward the assessment of this approach as a tool for structuring air freight studies and for relating the different components of the air freight system. The variety of available data types and sources, without which the calibration, validation and the testing of both modal split and simulation models would be impossible are also reviewed.

  4. 48 CFR 47.404 - Air freight forwarders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Air freight forwarders. 47... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Air Transportation by U.S.-Flag Carriers 47.404 Air freight forwarders. (a) Agencies may use air freight forwarders that are engaged in international air transportation (49...

  5. 49 CFR 377.205 - Presentation of freight bills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Presentation of freight bills. 377.205 Section 377.205 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER... Household Goods Freight Forwarders § 377.205 Presentation of freight bills. (a) “To be prepaid”...

  6. Freight--the Role Played in a Textbook Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Paul

    1977-01-01

    Freight is examined as a significant variable in the difference between selling price and cost price. Consideration is given to the store viewpoint, the publisher viewpoint, guidelines on freight information, postal service analysis, distribution procedures, extraneous costs, freight rate structure, and sharing cost-saving ideas. (LBH)

  7. Assessing the future of air freight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dajani, J. S.

    1977-01-01

    The role of air cargo in the current transportation system in the United States is explored. Methods for assessing the future role of this mode of transportation include the use of continuous-time recursive systems modeling for the simulation of different components of the air freight system, as well as for the development of alternative future scenarios which may result from different policy actions. A basic conceptual framework for conducting such a dynamic simulation is presented within the context of the air freight industry. Some research needs are identified and recommended for further research. The benefits, limitations, pitfalls, and problems usually associated with large scale systems models are examined.

  8. Carbon dioxide emissions from international air freight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howitt, Oliver J. A.; Carruthers, Michael A.; Smith, Inga J.; Rodger, Craig J.

    2011-12-01

    Greenhouse gas emissions from international air transport were excluded from reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol, partly because of difficulties with quantifying and apportioning such emissions. Although there has been a great deal of recent research into calculating emissions from aeroplane operations globally, publicly available emissions factors for air freight emissions are scarce. This paper presents a methodology to calculate the amount of fuel burnt and the resulting CO 2 emissions from New Zealand's internationally air freighted imports and exports in 2007. This methodology could be applied to other nations and/or regions. Using data on fuel uplift, air freight and air craft movements, and assumptions on mean passenger loadings and the mass of passengers and air freight, CO 2 emissions factors of 0.82 kg CO 2 per t-km and 0.69 kg CO 2 per t-km for short-haul and long-haul journeys, respectively, were calculated. The total amount of fuel consumed for the international air transport of New Zealand's imports and exports was calculated to be 0.21 Mt and 0.17 Mt respectively, with corresponding CO 2 emissions of 0.67 Mt and 0.53 Mt.

  9. 49 CFR 1248.1 - Freight commodity statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Freight commodity statistics. 1248.1 Section 1248... STATISTICS § 1248.1 Freight commodity statistics. All class I railroads, as described in § 1240.1 of this... statistics on the basis of the commodity codes named in § 1248.101. Carriers shall report quarterly on...

  10. 49 CFR 1248.1 - Freight commodity statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Freight commodity statistics. 1248.1 Section 1248... STATISTICS § 1248.1 Freight commodity statistics. All class I railroads, as described in § 1240.1 of this... statistics on the basis of the commodity codes named in § 1248.101. Carriers shall report quarterly on...

  11. 49 CFR 1248.1 - Freight commodity statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight commodity statistics. 1248.1 Section 1248... STATISTICS § 1248.1 Freight commodity statistics. All class I railroads, as described in § 1240.1 of this... statistics on the basis of the commodity codes named in § 1248.101. Carriers shall report quarterly on...

  12. 49 CFR 1248.1 - Freight commodity statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Freight commodity statistics. 1248.1 Section 1248... STATISTICS § 1248.1 Freight commodity statistics. All class I railroads, as described in § 1240.1 of this... statistics on the basis of the commodity codes named in § 1248.101. Carriers shall report quarterly on...

  13. 49 CFR 1248.1 - Freight commodity statistics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Freight commodity statistics. 1248.1 Section 1248... STATISTICS § 1248.1 Freight commodity statistics. All class I railroads, as described in § 1240.1 of this... statistics on the basis of the commodity codes named in § 1248.101. Carriers shall report quarterly on...

  14. 78 FR 75442 - Designation of the Primary Freight Network

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Designation of the Primary Freight Network AGENCY: Federal Highway... extending the deadline and comment period for the Designation of the highway Primary Freight Network (PFN...: West Building Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Ave. SE., between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m.,...

  15. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  16. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  17. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car...—railroad freight car. (a) When an FRA Motive Power and Equipment Inspector or a State Equipment Inspector determines that a railroad freight car is not in conformity with the requirements of the FRA Freight...

  18. Freight Wing Trailer Aerodynamics Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Sean Graham

    2007-10-31

    Freight Wing Incorporated utilized the opportunity presented by a DOE category two Inventions and Innovations grant to commercialize and improve upon aerodynamic technology for semi-tuck trailers, capable of decreasing heavy vehicle fuel consumption, related environmental damage, and U.S. consumption of foreign oil. Major project goals included the demonstration of aerodynamic trailer technology in trucking fleet operations, and the development and testing of second generation products. A great deal of past scientific research has demonstrated that streamlining box shaped semi-trailers can significantly reduce a truck’s fuel consumption. However, significant design challenges have prevented past concepts from meeting industry needs. Freight Wing utilized a 2003 category one Inventions and Innovations grant to develop practical solutions to trailer aerodynamics. Fairings developed for the front, rear, and bottom of standard semi-trailers together demonstrated a 7% improvement to fuel economy in scientific tests conducted by the Transportation Research Center (TRC). Operational tests with major trucking fleets proved the functionality of the products, which were subsequently brought to market. This category two grant enabled Freight Wing to further develop, test and commercialize its products, resulting in greatly increased understanding and acceptance of aerodynamic trailer technology. Commercialization was stimulated by offering trucking fleets 50% cost sharing on trial implementations of Freight Wing products for testing and evaluation purposes. Over 230 fairings were implemented through the program with 35 trucking fleets including industry leaders such as Wal-Mart, Frito Lay and Whole Foods. The feedback from these testing partnerships was quite positive with product performance exceeding fleet expectations in many cases. Fleet feedback also was also valuable from a product development standpoint and assisted the design of several second generation products

  19. Three-dimensional derailment analysis of crashed freight trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hechao; Zhang, Jimin; Hecht, Markus

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, the collision-induced derailment of freight trains was investigated. The collision between two identical freight trains occurring on a curved path rather than along a straight line was investigated. This is because from the point of view of safety against derailment this collision scenario is thought to be more critical than the scenarios defined in the European standard EN 15227. In this work, one of the trains is stationary and the other moving train collides at 36 km/h. Two kinds of container wagons were simulated. One is the two-axle freight wagon Kls 442. Another is the freight wagon Rmms 662 with two Y25 bogies. Simulation results demonstrate that in terms of safety against derailment the bogie wagon Rmms 662 was found to have better behaviour than the two-axle wagon Kls 442. In addition, this study points out that there are many contributory factors to the responses of freight wagons during a collision, such as curve radius, distance between bogie pivots and loading mass. The derailment phenomenon is less likely to occur, when freight trains collide on the curve with a larger radius. Besides that the characteristics of freight wagons with large axle loads, low centre of gravity of car body and appropriate static strength are favourable for the collided wagons in reducing the risk of derailment.

  20. 22 CFR 202.3 - Freight reimbursement limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... VOLUNTARY NON-PROFIT RELIEF AGENCIES § 202.3 Freight reimbursement limitations. Economic utilization of AID... carrier either in accordance with its applicable tariff for delivery to the discharge port or...

  1. 22 CFR 202.3 - Freight reimbursement limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... VOLUNTARY NON-PROFIT RELIEF AGENCIES § 202.3 Freight reimbursement limitations. Economic utilization of AID... carrier either in accordance with its applicable tariff for delivery to the discharge port or...

  2. 78 FR 8686 - Establishment of the National Freight Network

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... to: supply chain/distribution network considerations including flows of key commodities; connections... Federal Highway Administration Establishment of the National Freight Network AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice defines the planned process for the...

  3. 47. CRANE AND FREIGHT ELEVATOR DOOR, NORTHWEST CORNER OF SECOND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. CRANE AND FREIGHT ELEVATOR DOOR, NORTHWEST CORNER OF SECOND FLOOR WAREHOUSE. VIEW TO NORTHWEST. - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. North view; Canopy detail and platformlevel freight elevator North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North view; Canopy detail and platform-level freight elevator - North Philadelphia Station, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  5. Freight Shuttle System: Cross-Border Movement of Goods

    SciTech Connect

    Levien, Mary

    2011-05-31

    The Freight Shuttle System (FSS) is designed to provide freight transportation services between those short and intermediate distance locations (within 600 miles) that are currently handling large volumes of freight traffic. Much like trucks, the FSS's transporters are autonomous: each transporter has its own propulsion and travels independently of other transporters. Inspired by railroads, each FSS transporter has steel wheels operating on a steel running surface and can carry either a standardsize freight container or an over-the-road truck trailer. However, unlike either rail or trucks, the FSS runs on an elevated, dedicated guideway to avoid the interference of other transportation systems. The objective of this report is to examine the potential viability for an alternative transportation system for trailers and containers in a multi-national, cross-border setting. The El Paso-Ciudad Juarez region serves as the environment of this analysis.

  6. How Sustainable Freight Creates a More Efficient Supply Chain

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This EPA presentation focuses on the challenges in achieving sustainable freight transport in the supply chain, spotlighting Mondelez International and C.H. Robinson, their sustainability efforts, and how SmartWay helps.

  7. 78 FR 69520 - Designation of the Primary Freight Network

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-19

    .... Access to energy exploration, development, installation, or production areas; 7. Population centers; and... domestic and international supply chains. Although Federal law provides a mechanism to enable connectivity... freight transfer facilities. However, DOT recognizes that cities, Metropolitan Planning Organizations,...

  8. Emissions and Air Quality Impacts of Freight Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickford, Erica

    Diesel freight vehicles (trucks + trains) are responsible for 20% of all U.S. nitrogen oxide (NOx) and 3% of fine particulate (PM2.5) emissions - pollutants that are harmful to human health. Freight tonnage is also projected to double over the next several decades, reaching 30 billion tons by 2050, increasing freight transport activity. Air quality impacts from increased activity, trade-offs between activity and vehicle technology improvements, as well as where to make infrastructure investments that encourage sustainable freight growth, are important considerations for transportation and air quality managers. To address these questions, we build a bottom-up roadway-by-roadway freight truck inventory (WIFE) and employ it to quantify emissions impacts of swapping biodiesel blends into the Midwest diesel freight truck fleet, and investigate emissions and air quality impacts of truck-to-rail freight modal shifts in the Midwest. We also evaluate the spatial and seasonal freight performance of WIFE modeled in a regional photochemical model (CMAQ) against satellite retrievals of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Results show that spatial and seasonal distribution of biodiesel affects regional emissions impacts. Summer high-blend deployment yields a larger annual emissions reduction than year-round low-blend deployment, however, technological improvements in vehicle emissions controls between 2009 and 2018 dwarf the impacts of biodiesel. Truck-to-rail modal shift analysis found 40% of daily freight truck VMT could be shifted to rail freight, causing a 26% net reduction in NOx emissions, and 31% less carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions. Despite significant emissions impacts, air quality modeling results showed mostly localized near roadway air quality improvements, with small regional net changes; yet, federal regulation of CO2 emissions and/or rising costs of diesel fuel could motivate shifting freight to more fuel efficient rail. Evaluation of

  9. Fuel consumption of freight trains hauled by diesel electric locomotives

    SciTech Connect

    Radford, R.W.

    1983-05-01

    The cost of railway diesel fuel has become an increasingly high proportion of railway operating expenses. The paper analyzes the generation and utilization of rail horsepower in freight train operations. The effects on fuel consumption of variations in several parameters including train consist, car weight, gradient, average speed, meet strategy, throttle control, locomotive axle arrangement, and train marshalling are examined. Estimates are made of the value, in terms of fuel cost, of weight reduction of freight cars and of selective train marshalling.

  10. To left of center is freight elevator used to move ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    To left of center is freight elevator used to move materials to the upper floors of the building. This elevator is also powered via the belts and drive shafts which operate the machine tools. Sign on elevator reads 'For Mr. Edison's Personal Use Only;' according to rumor, Edison was encouraged to use the elevator as he grew older, but refused. The elevator is designed for freight only. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 5, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  11. Freight Containers in Intermodal and Land Bridge Commerce.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    r AD-AB95 861 NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA FI 15/5 FREIGHT CONTAINERS IN INTER DAL AND LAND BRIDGE COMMERCE .(U) UNCLASSIFIED SE G... COMMERCE by *James Stephen Walters September 1980 4 .4 Thesis Advisor: Dan C. Boger Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 81 29 SECURITY...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited Freight Containers in Intermodal and Land Bridge Commerce by James Stephen Walters Lieutenant

  12. Testing and analysis of a modernized freight wagon's elements flammability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Płaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Baier, A.

    2016-08-01

    Paper concerns an issue of freight wagon modernization using composite materials. The goal of the project is to elongate the period between repairs (by better corrosion protection) and improve conditions of exploitation of modernized freight wagons (for example easier unloading during winter conditions - no freezes of the charge to the freight wagon body shell). Application of the composite panels to the freight wagon's body shell was proposed as the solution that can solve mentioned problems. The composite panels composed of fiberglass and epoxy resin were proposed. They will be mounted on the body shell using rivet nuts. What is more the body shell of the modernized freight wagon will be painted using an anti-corrosion agent. In this paper the analysis of a flammability of the proposed composition (the composite plate made of fiberglass and epoxy resin mounted to the steel sheet with additional anticorrosion agent) is presented. In the paper results of laboratory tests conducted according to international standards are presented. A series of samples of elements of modernized freight wagons was tested using the created laboratory stand. Obtained results were averaged and the proposed material was assigned to the one of the class of materials for their combustibility.

  13. Prediction of Ground Vibration from Freight Trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. J. C.; Block, J. R.

    1996-05-01

    Heavy freight trains emit ground vibration with predominant frequency components in the range 4-30 Hz. If the amplitude is sufficient, this may be felt by lineside residents, giving rise to disturbance and concern over possible damage to their property. In order to establish the influence of parameters of the track and rolling stock and thereby enable the design of a low vibration railway, a theoretical model of both the generation and propagation of vibration is required. The vibration is generated as a combination of the effects of dynamic forces, due to the unevenness of the track, and the effects of the track deformation under successive axle loads. A prediction scheme, which combines these effects, has been produced. A vehicle model is used to predict the dynamic forces at the wheels. This includes the non-linear effects of friction damped suspensions. The loaded track profile is measured by using a track recording coach. The dynamic loading and the effects of the moving axles are combined in a track response model. The predicted track vibration is compared to measurements. The transfer functions from the track to a point in the ground can be calculated by using a coupled track and a three-dimensional layered ground model. The propagation effects of the ground layers are important but the computation of the transfer function from each sleeper, which would be required for a phase coherent summation of the vibration in the ground, would be prohibitive. A compromise summation is used and results are compared with measurements.

  14. 19 CFR 351.515 - Internal transport and freight charges for export shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Internal transport and freight charges for export... Internal transport and freight charges for export shipments. (a) Benefit—(1) In general. In the case of internal transport and freight charges on export shipments, a benefit exists to the extent that the...

  15. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... section, not including 49 CFR part 387, a rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer in which the... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight container... rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer the FUMIGANT marking specified in paragraph (e)...

  16. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... section, not including 49 CFR part 387, a rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer in which the... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight container... rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer the FUMIGANT marking specified in paragraph (e)...

  17. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... section, not including 49 CFR part 387, a rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer in which the... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight container... rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer the FUMIGANT marking specified in paragraph (e)...

  18. 41 CFR 102-117.170 - What reference materials are available to ship freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Shipping Freight § 102-117.170 What reference materials are...: (1) U.S. Government Freight Transportation Handbook; (2) Limited Authority to Use Commercial Forms... are available to ship freight? 102-117.170 Section 102-117.170 Public Contracts and...

  19. 41 CFR 102-117.170 - What reference materials are available to ship freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Shipping Freight § 102-117.170 What reference materials are...: (1) U.S. Government Freight Transportation Handbook; (2) Limited Authority to Use Commercial Forms... are available to ship freight? 102-117.170 Section 102-117.170 Public Contracts and...

  20. 49 CFR 377.207 - Effect of mailing freight bills or payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Effect of mailing freight bills or payments. 377... Common Carriers, and Household Goods Freight Forwarders § 377.207 Effect of mailing freight bills or... computer tapes or disks, when the mails are used to transmit them. (b) Payment by mail. Wnen shippers...

  1. 48 CFR 52.247-58 - Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. 52.247-58 Section 52.247-58 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-58 Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. As... be shipped in carload lots by rail: Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments (APR...

  2. 48 CFR 47.303-4 - F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-4 F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid. (a) Explanation of delivery term. F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid means— (1) Free of expense...

  3. 48 CFR 47.303-3 - F.o.b. origin, freight allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-3 F.o.b. origin, freight allowed. (a) Explanation of delivery term. F.o.b. origin, freight allowed means— (1) Free of expense...

  4. 48 CFR 47.303-4 - F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-4 F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid. (a) Explanation of delivery term. F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid means— (1) Free of expense...

  5. 48 CFR 47.303-3 - F.o.b. origin, freight allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.303-3 F.o.b. origin, freight allowed. (a) Explanation of delivery term. F.o.b. origin, freight allowed means— (1) Free of expense...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code C Appendix C... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. C Appendix C to Part 215—FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code The following defect code has been established for...

  7. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code C Appendix C... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. C Appendix C to Part 215—FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code The following defect code has been established for...

  8. 48 CFR 52.247-58 - Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. 52.247-58 Section 52.247-58 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-58 Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. As... be shipped in carload lots by rail: Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments (APR...

  9. 48 CFR 52.247-58 - Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. 52.247-58 Section 52.247-58 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-58 Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. As... be shipped in carload lots by rail: Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments (APR...

  10. 48 CFR 52.247-58 - Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. 52.247-58 Section 52.247-58 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-58 Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. As... be shipped in carload lots by rail: Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments (APR...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 215 - FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code C Appendix C... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. C Appendix C to Part 215—FRA Freight Car Standards Defect Code The following defect code has been established for...

  12. 48 CFR 52.247-58 - Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. 52.247-58 Section 52.247-58 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.247-58 Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments. As... be shipped in carload lots by rail: Loading, Blocking, and Bracing of Freight Car Shipments (APR...

  13. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... section, not including 49 CFR part 387, a rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer in which the... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight container... rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer the FUMIGANT marking specified in paragraph (e)...

  14. 49 CFR 173.9 - Transport vehicles or freight containers containing lading which has been fumigated.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... section, not including 49 CFR part 387, a rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer in which the... hazardous material. (b) No person may offer for transportation or transport a rail car, freight container... rail car, freight container, truck body, or trailer the FUMIGANT marking specified in paragraph (e)...

  15. 41 CFR 102-117.185 - Where must I send a copy of the transportation documents?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Shipping Freight § 102-117.185 Where must I send a copy of the transportation documents? (a) You must forward an original copy of all transportation documents to: General... of the transportation documents? 102-117.185 Section 102-117.185 Public Contracts and...

  16. A concept of technology for freight wagons modernization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pɫaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Buchacz, A.

    2016-11-01

    Rail transport is a very important part of the modern economy, one of the components determining its dynamic development. It is therefore important to conduct research and taking action aimed at the development and refinement of this branch of industry. Such actions directly translate into an increase in its effectiveness, safety, reduction of burden on the environment and society. Nowadays numerous studies are conducted, aimed at introducing new technologies and solutions, both in terms of railway infrastructure and logistics management systems, as well as in traction vehicles themselves. Introduction of modern technology helps eliminate or reduce nuisance problems associated with the implementation of any kind of transport or the operation of the used technical means. Presented paper concerns an issue of freight wagon modernization using composite materials. It presents a part of a research project that aim is to develop a technology of freight wagons modernization during their periodic repair. The main problem during exploitation of concerned types of freight wagons designed for coal transport is corrosion of the wagon's body shell. The goal of the project is to elongate the period between periodic repairs (by better corrosion protection) and improve conditions of exploitation of modernized freight wagons (for example easier unloading during winter conditions - no freezes of the charge to the freight wagon body shell). One of elements of the project is also to develop a system for diagnosing the technical condition of the modernized shell of wagon body during operation. For this purpose the use of non-destructive testing methods of technical state of constructions will be used, including methods that use the analysis of dynamic response of the object. Application of the composite panels to the freight wagon's body shell was proposed as the solution that can solve mentioned problems during exploitation of freight wagons. The composite panels composed of

  17. Inbound freight: an untapped resource for saving money.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Kurt

    2007-12-01

    With all the responsibilities placed on materials managers, it is not surprising that some processes such as shipping are overlooked when it comes to cutting costs. But by taking a closer look at inbound freight costs, materials managers might discover an untapped resource for saving thousands, and in some cases millions, of dollars. Finding out how costs vary among vendors for shipping the same type of item can eliminate unnecessary freight charges. Initially, the process takes time, but the bottom line will be better for it.

  18. Development of analytic intermodal freight networks for use within a GIS

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, F.; Xiong, D.; Middendorf, D.

    1997-05-01

    The paper discusses the practical issues involved in constructing intermodal freight networks that can be used within GIS platforms to support inter-regional freight routing and subsequent (for example, commodity flow) analysis. The procedures described can be used to create freight-routable and traffic flowable interstate and intermodal networks using some combination of highway, rail, water and air freight transportation. Keys to realistic freight routing are the identification of intermodal transfer locations and associated terminal functions, a proper handling of carrier-owned and operated sub-networks within each of the primary modes of transport, and the ability to model the types of carrier services being offered.

  19. Recent progress in 3-D imaging of sea freight containers

    SciTech Connect

    Fuchs, Theobald Schön, Tobias Sukowski, Frank; Dittmann, Jonas; Hanke, Randolf

    2015-03-31

    The inspection of very large objects like sea freight containers with X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is an emerging technology. A complete 3-D CT scan of a see-freight container takes several hours. Of course, this is too slow to apply it to a large number of containers. However, the benefits of a 3-D CT for sealed freight are obvious: detection of potential threats or illicit cargo without being confronted with legal complications or high time consumption and risks for the security personnel during a manual inspection. Recently distinct progress was made in the field of reconstruction of projections with only a relatively low number of angular positions. Instead of today’s 500 to 1000 rotational steps, as needed for conventional CT reconstruction techniques, this new class of algorithms provides the potential to reduce the number of projection angles approximately by a factor of 10. The main drawback of these advanced iterative methods is the high consumption for numerical processing. But as computational power is getting steadily cheaper, there will be practical applications of these complex algorithms in a foreseeable future. In this paper, we discuss the properties of iterative image reconstruction algorithms and show results of their application to CT of extremely large objects scanning a sea-freight container. A specific test specimen is used to quantitatively evaluate the image quality in terms of spatial and contrast resolution and depending on different number of projections.

  20. 46 CFR 535.803 - Ocean freight forwarder compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ocean freight forwarder compensation. 535.803 Section 535.803 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF...

  1. 46 CFR 535.803 - Ocean freight forwarder compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ocean freight forwarder compensation. 535.803 Section 535.803 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF...

  2. 46 CFR 535.803 - Ocean freight forwarder compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ocean freight forwarder compensation. 535.803 Section 535.803 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF...

  3. Detail of freight elevator, located between loading dock section and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of freight elevator, located between loading dock section and American Railway Express Room on main floor, and traveling between the basement of the loading dock and first floor. View is to east - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  4. 11. FREIGHT YARDS AT KEYSER. TRAIN SHED AND B & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. FREIGHT YARDS AT KEYSER. TRAIN SHED AND B & O STORAGE FACILITY ARE VISIBLE AT LEFT. TURNTABLE LIES OUT OF VIEW BEHIND TRAIN SHED. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Keyser Machine Shop, State Route 46 Northwest of Spring Street, Keyser, Mineral County, WV

  5. Why is energy use rising in the freight sector

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, M.; Vyas, A.D.

    1991-01-01

    Trends in transportation sector energy use and carbon dioxide emissions are analyzed with an emphasis on three freight modes -- rail, truck, and marine. A recent set of energy use projections is presented and freight mode energy characteristics are discussed. Transportation sector energy use, which nearly doubled between 1960 and 1985, is projected to grow more slowly during the period 1985{endash}2010. Most of the growth is projected to come from non-personal modes (freight and commercial air). Trends in freight mode energy intensities are discussed and a variety of factors behind these trends are analyzed. Rail and marine modes improved their energy intensities during sudden fuel price rises of the 1970s. Though there is room for further technological improvement, long power plant life cycles preclude rapid penetration of new technologies. Thus, energy intensities in these modes are more likely to improve through operational changes. Because of relatively stable fuel prices, the energy share of truck operating expenses is likely to remain low. Coupled with increasing labor costs, this portends only modest improvements in truck energy efficiency over the next two decades.

  6. Why is energy use rising in the freight sector?

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, M.; Vyas, A.D.

    1991-12-31

    Trends in transportation sector energy use and carbon dioxide emissions are analyzed with an emphasis on three freight modes -- rail, truck, and marine. A recent set of energy use projections is presented and freight mode energy characteristics are discussed. Transportation sector energy use, which nearly doubled between 1960 and 1985, is projected to grow more slowly during the period 1985{endash}2010. Most of the growth is projected to come from non-personal modes (freight and commercial air). Trends in freight mode energy intensities are discussed and a variety of factors behind these trends are analyzed. Rail and marine modes improved their energy intensities during sudden fuel price rises of the 1970s. Though there is room for further technological improvement, long power plant life cycles preclude rapid penetration of new technologies. Thus, energy intensities in these modes are more likely to improve through operational changes. Because of relatively stable fuel prices, the energy share of truck operating expenses is likely to remain low. Coupled with increasing labor costs, this portends only modest improvements in truck energy efficiency over the next two decades.

  7. Price Analysis of Railway Freight Transport under Marketing Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ying; Fang, Xiaoping; Chen, Zhiya

    Regarding the problems in the reform of the railway tariff system and the pricing of the transport, by means of assaying the influence of the price elasticity on the artifice used for price, this article proposed multiple regressive model which analyzed price elasticity quantitatively. This model conclude multi-factors which influences on the price elasticity, such as the averagely railway freight charge, the averagely freight haulage of proximate supersede transportation mode, the GDP per capita in the point of origin, and a series of dummy variable which can reflect the features of some productive and consume demesne. It can calculate the price elasticity of different classes in different domains, and predict the freight traffic volume on different rate levels. It can calculate confidence-level, and evaluate the relevance of each parameter to get rid of irrelevant or little relevant variables. It supplied a good theoretical basis for directing the pricing of transport enterprises in market economic conditions, which is suitable for railway freight, passenger traffic and other transportation manner as well. SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) software was used to calculate and analysis the example. This article realized the calculation by HYFX system(Ministry of Railways fund).

  8. 46 CFR 535.803 - Ocean freight forwarder compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ocean freight forwarder compensation. 535.803 Section 535.803 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF...

  9. 46 CFR 535.803 - Ocean freight forwarder compensation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ocean freight forwarder compensation. 535.803 Section 535.803 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN SHIPPING IN FOREIGN COMMERCE OCEAN COMMON CARRIER AND MARINE TERMINAL OPERATOR AGREEMENTS SUBJECT TO THE SHIPPING ACT OF...

  10. 22 CFR 201.67 - Maximum freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maximum freight charges. 201.67 Section 201.67 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT RULES AND PROCEDURES APPLICABLE TO COMMODITY... identity of the shipper or the circumstance that the shipment is or is not financed by the Government...

  11. Vibration from freight trains fragments sleep: A polysomnographic study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael G.; Croy, Ilona; Hammar, Oscar; Persson Waye, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    As the number of freight trains on railway networks increases, so does the potential for vibration exposure in dwellings nearby to freight railway lines. Nocturnal trains in particular are of particular importance since night-time exposure may interfere with sleep. The present work investigates the impact of vibration and noise from night-time freight trains on human sleep. In an experimental polysomnographic laboratory study, 24 young healthy volunteers with normal hearing were exposed to simulated freight pass-bys with vibration amplitudes of 0.7 and 1.4 mm/s either 20 or 36 times during the night. Stronger vibrations were associated with higher probabilities of event-related arousals and awakenings (p < 0.001), and sleep stage changes (p < 0.05). Sleep macrostructure was most affected in high vibration nights with 36 events, with increased wakefulness (p < 0.05), reduced continual slow wave sleep (p < 0.05), earlier awakenings (p < 0.05) and an overall increase in sleep stage changes (p < 0.05). Subjects reported sleep disturbance due to vibration (F(4,92) = 25.9, p < 0.001) and noise (F(4,92) = 25.9, p < 0.001), with the number of trains having an effect only for the 0.7 mm/s condition (p < 0.05). The findings show that combined vibration and noise from railway freight affects the natural rhythm of sleep, but extrapolation of significance for health outcomes should be approached with caution. PMID:27090401

  12. Vibration from freight trains fragments sleep: A polysomnographic study.

    PubMed

    Smith, Michael G; Croy, Ilona; Hammar, Oscar; Persson Waye, Kerstin

    2016-04-19

    As the number of freight trains on railway networks increases, so does the potential for vibration exposure in dwellings nearby to freight railway lines. Nocturnal trains in particular are of particular importance since night-time exposure may interfere with sleep. The present work investigates the impact of vibration and noise from night-time freight trains on human sleep. In an experimental polysomnographic laboratory study, 24 young healthy volunteers with normal hearing were exposed to simulated freight pass-bys with vibration amplitudes of 0.7 and 1.4 mm/s either 20 or 36 times during the night. Stronger vibrations were associated with higher probabilities of event-related arousals and awakenings (p < 0.001), and sleep stage changes (p < 0.05). Sleep macrostructure was most affected in high vibration nights with 36 events, with increased wakefulness (p < 0.05), reduced continual slow wave sleep (p < 0.05), earlier awakenings (p < 0.05) and an overall increase in sleep stage changes (p < 0.05). Subjects reported sleep disturbance due to vibration (F(4,92) = 25.9, p < 0.001) and noise (F(4,92) = 25.9, p < 0.001), with the number of trains having an effect only for the 0.7 mm/s condition (p < 0.05). The findings show that combined vibration and noise from railway freight affects the natural rhythm of sleep, but extrapolation of significance for health outcomes should be approached with caution.

  13. Accelerator based X-ray facilities applied to freight control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaillard, G.

    1996-06-01

    The first accelerator based X-ray facility dedicated to freight control, in this case air-freight pallets, became operational at Roissy-Charles-de-Gaulle airport in 1991. Since then, five other facilities have been built, three in Europe and the other two in China, for the control of trucks and sea-containers. In order to be able to see through these very large and dense objects, X-ray energies of several MeV are necessary. Two types of electron accelerators are used for the production of the X-ray beams: linear accelerators and electrostatic accelerators (Van de Graff or Pelletrons), depending on the beam quality requirements which depend on the technology used for the detection of X-rays. A brief description of the functioning of the X-ray inspection facilities is presented in this article as well as an estimation of their global cost and of their profitability.

  14. Assessing air quality and climate impacts of future ground freight choice in United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Bond, T. C.; Smith, S.; Lee, B.; Ouyang, Y.; Hwang, T.; Barkan, C.; Lee, S.; Daenzer, K.

    2013-12-01

    The demand for freight transportation has continued to increase due to the growth of domestic and international trade. Emissions from ground freight (truck and railways) account for around 7% of the greenhouse gas emissions, 4% of the primary particulate matter emission and 25% of the NOx emissions in the U.S. Freight railways are generally more fuel efficient than trucks and cause less congestion. Freight demand and emissions are affected by many factors, including economic activity, the spatial distribution of demand, freight modal choice and routing decision, and the technology used in each modal type. This work links these four critical aspects of freight emission system to project the spatial distribution of emissions and pollutant concentration from ground freight transport in the U.S. between 2010 and 2050. Macroeconomic scenarios are used to forecast economic activities. Future spatial structure of employment and commodity demand in major metropolitan areas are estimated using spatial models and a shift-share model, respectively. Freight flow concentration and congestion patterns in inter-regional transportation networks are predicted from a four-step freight demand forecasting model. An asymptotic vehicle routing model is also developed to estimate delivery ton-miles for intra-regional freight shipment in metropolitan areas. Projected freight activities are then converted into impacts on air quality and climate. CO2 emissions are determined using a simple model of freight activity and fuel efficiency, and compared with the projected CO2 emissions from the Second Generation Model. Emissions of air pollutants including PM, NOx and CO are calculated with a vehicle fleet model SPEW-Trend, which incorporates the dynamic change of technologies. Emissions are projected under three economic scenarios to represent different plausible futures. Pollutant concentrations are then estimated using tagged chemical tracers in an atmospheric model with the emissions serving

  15. Role of the Freight Sector in Future Climate Change Mitigation Scenarios.

    PubMed

    Muratori, Matteo; Smith, Steven J; Kyle, Page; Link, Robert; Mignone, Bryan K; Kheshgi, Haroon S

    2017-03-21

    The freight sector's role is examined using the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) for a range of climate change mitigation scenarios and future freight demand assumptions. Energy usage and CO2 emissions from freight have historically grown with a correlation to GDP, and there is limited evidence of near-term global decoupling of freight demand from GDP. Over the 21(st) century, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from freight are projected to grow faster than passenger transportation or other major end-use sectors, with the magnitude of growth dependent on the assumed extent of long-term decoupling. In climate change mitigation scenarios that apply a price to GHG emissions, mitigation of freight emissions (including the effects of demand elasticity, mode and technology shifting, and fuel substitution) is more limited than for other demand sectors. In such scenarios, shifting to less-emitting transportation modes and technologies is projected to play a relatively small role in reducing freight emissions in GCAM. By contrast, changes in the supply chain of liquid fuels that reduce the fuel carbon intensity, especially deriving from large-scale use of biofuels coupled to carbon capture and storage technologies, are responsible for the majority of freight emissions mitigation, followed by price-induced reduction in freight demand services.

  16. Transportation Energy Futures: Freight Transportation Modal Shares: Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    SciTech Connect

    Brogan, J. J.; Aeppli, A. E.; Brown, D. F.; Fischer, M. J.; Grenzeback, L. R.; McKenzie, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Vyas, A. D.; Witzke, E.

    2013-03-01

    Freight transportation modes—truck, rail, water, air, and pipeline—each serve a distinct share of the freight transportation market. A variety of factors influence the modes chosen by shippers, carriers, and others involved in freight supply chains. Analytical methods can be used to project future modal shares, and federal policy actions could influence future freight mode choices. This report considers how these topics have been addressed in existing literature and offers insights on federal policy decisions with the potential to prompt mode choices that reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions.

  17. NorthEast view; Platform, canopy, and freight elevator North Philadelphia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North-East view; Platform, canopy, and freight elevator - North Philadelphia Station, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. 49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials on ships. 176.172 Section 176.172 Transportation... serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials on ships. (a) Except for...) Before a freight container or transport vehicle is packed with Class 1 (explosive) materials, it must...

  19. 49 CFR 1242.23 - Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25). 1242.23 Section 1242.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE... Structures § 1242.23 Shop buildings—freight cars (account XX-13-25). These accounts pertain solely to...

  20. 46 CFR 545.2 - Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges. 545.2 Section 545.2 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN... Act of 1984—Unpaid ocean freight charges. Section 10(a)(1) of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46...

  1. 46 CFR 545.2 - Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges. 545.2 Section 545.2 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN... Act of 1984—Unpaid ocean freight charges. Section 10(a)(1) of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46...

  2. 46 CFR 545.2 - Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges. 545.2 Section 545.2 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN... Act of 1984—Unpaid ocean freight charges. Section 10(a)(1) of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46...

  3. 75 FR 1070 - Cargo Securing Methods for Packages in Transport Vehicles or Freight Containers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-08

    ...] Cargo Securing Methods for Packages in Transport Vehicles or Freight Containers AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... methods for securing cargo in transport vehicles and freight containers in order to determine if a... must be braced and dunnaged within a container so that they are not likely to be pierced or crushed...

  4. 78 FR 54720 - Registration and Financial Security Requirements for Brokers of Property and Freight Forwarders

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-05

    ... the Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21) concerning persons acting as a broker or a freight forwarder. Section 32915 of MAP-21 requires anyone acting as a broker or a freight... President signed MAP-21 (Pub. L. 112-141, 126 Stat. 405 (2012)) into law, which included a number...

  5. 48 CFR 52.247-31 - F.o.b. Origin, Freight Allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... port area having water transportation service) or the carrier's freight station; (iii) To a U.S. Postal...) An allowance for freight, based on applicable published tariff rates (or Government rate tenders...) Lengths and capacities of cars or trucks ordered and furnished; (iv) Other pertinent information...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 215 - Railroad Freight Car Components

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Railroad Freight Car Components A Appendix A to Part 215 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. A Appendix A...

  7. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 215 - Railroad Freight Car Components

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Railroad Freight Car Components A Appendix A to Part 215 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. A Appendix A...

  8. 49 CFR 176.192 - Cargo handling equipment for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo handling equipment for freight containers...) Materials Handling Class 1 (explosive) Materials in Port § 176.192 Cargo handling equipment for freight containers carrying Class 1 (explosive) materials. (a) Except in an emergency, only cargo handling...

  9. 48 CFR 52.247-10 - Net Weight-General Freight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Net Weight-General Freight....247-10 Net Weight—General Freight. As prescribed in 47.207-4(a)(2), insert the following clause in... the contractor is responsible for determining the net weight of the shipments: Net...

  10. 48 CFR 52.247-10 - Net Weight-General Freight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Net Weight-General Freight....247-10 Net Weight—General Freight. As prescribed in 47.207-4(a)(2), insert the following clause in... the contractor is responsible for determining the net weight of the shipments: Net...

  11. 48 CFR 52.247-10 - Net Weight-General Freight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Net Weight-General Freight....247-10 Net Weight—General Freight. As prescribed in 47.207-4(a)(2), insert the following clause in... the contractor is responsible for determining the net weight of the shipments: Net...

  12. 48 CFR 52.247-10 - Net Weight-General Freight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Net Weight-General Freight....247-10 Net Weight—General Freight. As prescribed in 47.207-4(a)(2), insert the following clause in... the contractor is responsible for determining the net weight of the shipments: Net...

  13. 75 FR 60436 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Reference: Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publications (MFTURP) No. 1... accessible only using the contractor's software. When contracts are rebid, the former contractor is tasked...

  14. 41 CFR 102-117.165 - What shipping process must I use for freight?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... must I use for freight? 102-117.165 Section 102-117.165 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION MANAGEMENT Shipping Freight § 102-117.165 What shipping process must I use...

  15. 46 CFR 545.2 - Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges. 545.2 Section 545.2 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN... Act of 1984—Unpaid ocean freight charges. Section 10(a)(1) of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46...

  16. 46 CFR 545.2 - Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interpretation of Shipping Act of 1984-Unpaid ocean freight charges. 545.2 Section 545.2 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION REGULATIONS AFFECTING OCEAN... Act of 1984—Unpaid ocean freight charges. Section 10(a)(1) of the Shipping Act of 1984 (46...

  17. 48 CFR 470.201 - Acquisition of commodities and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs. 470.201 Section 470.201 Federal....201 Acquisition of commodities and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs. (a... this section, in contracts for the Foreign Agricultural Service for commodities and related...

  18. 48 CFR 470.201 - Acquisition of commodities and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs. 470.201 Section 470.201 Federal....201 Acquisition of commodities and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs. (a... this section, in contracts for the Foreign Agricultural Service for commodities and related...

  19. 48 CFR 470.201 - Acquisition of commodities and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs. 470.201 Section 470.201 Federal....201 Acquisition of commodities and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs. (a... this section, in contracts for the Foreign Agricultural Service for commodities and related...

  20. 48 CFR 470.201 - Acquisition of commodities and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs. 470.201 Section 470.201 Federal....201 Acquisition of commodities and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs. (a... this section, in contracts for the Foreign Agricultural Service for commodities and related...

  1. 48 CFR 470.201 - Acquisition of commodities and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs. 470.201 Section 470.201 Federal....201 Acquisition of commodities and freight shipment for Foreign Agricultural Service programs. (a... this section, in contracts for the Foreign Agricultural Service for commodities and related...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 215 - Railroad Freight Car Components

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    .... Dresser (Symington) Birdsboro Lenoir car works 21183-B BO 5234 1458 CS-184. 1468 21183-N BO 5263 1471 CS... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Railroad Freight Car Components A Appendix A to... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. A Appendix A...

  3. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 215 - Railroad Freight Car Components

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Dresser (Symington) Birdsboro Lenoir car works 21183-B BO 5234 1458 CS-184. 1468 21183-N BO 5263 1471 CS... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Railroad Freight Car Components A Appendix A to... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. A Appendix A...

  4. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 215 - Railroad Freight Car Components

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    .... Dresser (Symington) Birdsboro Lenoir car works 21183-B BO 5234 1458 CS-184. 1468 21183-N BO 5263 1471 CS... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Railroad Freight Car Components A Appendix A to... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD FREIGHT CAR SAFETY STANDARDS Pt. 215, App. A Appendix A...

  5. 49 CFR 1242.23 - Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25). 1242.23 Section 1242.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE... Structures § 1242.23 Shop buildings—freight cars (account XX-13-25). These accounts pertain solely to...

  6. 49 CFR 231.31 - Drawbars for freight cars; standard height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Drawbars for freight cars; standard height. 231.31... cars; standard height. (a) Except on cars specified in paragraph (b) of this section— (1) On standard gage (561/2-inch gage) railroads, the maximum height of drawbars for freight cars...

  7. 49 CFR 231.31 - Drawbars for freight cars; standard height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Drawbars for freight cars; standard height. 231.31... cars; standard height. (a) Except on cars specified in paragraph (b) of this section— (1) On standard gage (561/2-inch gage) railroads, the maximum height of drawbars for freight cars...

  8. 49 CFR 231.31 - Drawbars for freight cars; standard height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Drawbars for freight cars; standard height. 231.31... cars; standard height. (a) Except on cars specified in paragraph (b) of this section— (1) On standard gage (561/2-inch gage) railroads, the maximum height of drawbars for freight cars...

  9. On potentiality of brake rigging unification for freight cars with separate braking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinitsyn, V. V.; Kobishchanov, V. V.

    2017-02-01

    A possibility of unified rigging use with a brake cylinder (BC) in bogie areas or on a bogie in a freight car is defined. Two ranges of transmission ratios were obtained for freight cars with pressure control in cylinders with the aid of the automated mode. To change transmission ratios, two openings are supposed to be used in rigging.

  10. 49 CFR 231.31 - Drawbars for freight cars; standard height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Drawbars for freight cars; standard height. 231.31... cars; standard height. (a) Except on cars specified in paragraph (b) of this section— (1) On standard gage (561/2-inch gage) railroads, the maximum height of drawbars for freight cars...

  11. 49 CFR 1242.23 - Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25). 1242.23 Section 1242.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE... Structures § 1242.23 Shop buildings—freight cars (account XX-13-25). These accounts pertain solely to...

  12. 49 CFR 1242.23 - Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25). 1242.23 Section 1242.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE... Structures § 1242.23 Shop buildings—freight cars (account XX-13-25). These accounts pertain solely to...

  13. 49 CFR 231.31 - Drawbars for freight cars; standard height.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Drawbars for freight cars; standard height. 231.31... cars; standard height. (a) Except on cars specified in paragraph (b) of this section— (1) On standard gage (561/2-inch gage) railroads, the maximum height of drawbars for freight cars...

  14. 49 CFR 1242.23 - Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shop buildings-freight cars (account XX-13-25). 1242.23 Section 1242.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE... Structures § 1242.23 Shop buildings—freight cars (account XX-13-25). These accounts pertain solely to...

  15. Recovery Act--Class 8 Truck Freight Efficiency Improvement Project

    SciTech Connect

    Trucks, Daimler

    2015-07-26

    Daimler Trucks North America completed a five year, $79.6M project to develop and demonstrate a concept vehicle with at least 50% freight efficiency improvement over a weighted average of several drive cycles relative to a 2009 best-in-class baseline vehicle. DTNA chose a very fuel efficient baseline vehicle, the 2009 Freightliner Cascadia with a DD15 engine, yet successfully demonstrated a 115% freight efficiency improvement. DTNA learned a great deal about the various technologies that were incorporated into Super Truck and those that, through down-selection, were discarded. Some of the technologies competed with each other for efficiency, and notably some of the technologies complemented each other. For example, we found that Super Truck’s improved aerodynamic drag resulted in improved fuel savings from eCoast, relative to a similar vehicle with worse aerodynamic drag. However, some technologies were in direct competition with each other, namely the predictive technologies which use GPS and 3D digital maps to efficiently manage the vehicles kinetic energy through controls and software, versus hybrid which is a much costlier technology that essentially targets the same inefficiency. Furthermore, the benefits of a comprehensive, integrated powertrain/vehicle approach was proven, in which vast improvements in vehicle efficiency (e.g. lower aero drag and driveline losses) enabled engine strategies such as downrating and downspeeding. The joint engine and vehicle developments proved to be a multiplier-effect which resulted in large freight efficiency improvements. Although a large number of technologies made the selection process and were used on the Super Truck demonstrator vehicle, some of the technologies proved not feasible for series production.

  16. 62 FR 11198 - Ever Freight International Ltd., Sigma Express Inc., and Mario F. Chavarria dba Transcargo Intl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    1997-03-11

    ... Ever Freight International Ltd., Sigma Express Inc., and Mario F. Chavarria dba Transcargo Intl... from Hong Kong to the U.S., in concert with U.S. consignees Sigma Express Inc. and Mario F. Chavarria d... Freight. Respondent Mario F. Chavarria is a licensed ocean freight forwarder (FMC license No. 4175) and...

  17. 75 FR 25309 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on Proposed Expanded Intermodal Freight Terminal in Michigan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... Freight Terminal in Michigan AGENCY: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of... Yard, also known as the Detroit Intermodal Freight Terminal (DIFT) and associated external-to-terminal... following expansion project in the State of Michigan: Detroit Intermodal Freight Terminal. The...

  18. Freight train scheduling on a single line corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, Amirah; Froyland, Gary

    2014-09-01

    Most of the world's freight rail network consists of single track lines with sidings where interactions between trains occur (meet, pass). The goal is to generate a schedule where the trains spend as little time as possible traversing between loading and unloading stations while ensuring that the interactions happen safely. Currently, scheduling is a manual operation performed by train controllers or dispatchers. The complexity of the problem makes it a demanding and highly time consuming task. We present an integer program formulation and results obtained from numerical experiments.

  19. Intelligent transportation systems and intermodal freight transportation. Final report, May-December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Aylward, A.D.

    1996-12-01

    This paper describes the various advanced technologies already in use in the intermodal freight transportation industry and addresses the opportunity for improved communication between the public and private sector regarding technology applications to the freight transportation system that could enhance the capacity of the system as a whole. The current public interest in freight transportation policy creates an opportunity to develop a shared vision of the future needs of international intermodal freight transportation in the United States. The Federal government can impact this vision by taking action in the following areas: Provide Infrastructure Funding to Support Efficiency and Global Competitiveness; Support Regional and Corridor Efforts; Understand the Freight Sector and Develop a Shared Vision of Technology Benefits; Lead Transportation Technology Efforts of Federal Agencies; and Maintain Commitment to Open ITS Architecture.

  20. Wireless sensor node for detection of freight train derailment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Andrea; Milani, Damiano; Resta, Ferruccio; Tomasini, Gisella

    2016-04-01

    The target of the research activity presented in this paper is to design, to realize and to test an autonomous sensor node able to measure the accelerations in correspondence of the axle box of a freight train. The final goal of the sensor is to identify the derailment conditions by observing the variations in the spectra of the box accelerations, around the frequencies associated to the wheel revolution and its multiples. The sensor node embeds an accelerometer, a microprocessor, a transmission system, a piezoelectric bimorph energy harvester and an integrated circuit for managing the power distribution to each component of the node. In particular, a mechanical filter to be applied to the node was specifically designed to increment the energy recovered by the harvester and to filter out the high frequency components of the axle-box acceleration, allowing the use of a more sensitive accelerometer. The harvesting system was setup by means of laboratory tests carried out with an electromechanical shaker and the sensor node was finally tested through field tests on freight trains.

  1. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Demand: Energy-Efficient Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    SciTech Connect

    Grenzeback, L. R.; Brown, A.; Fischer, M. J.; Hutson, N.; Lamm, C. R.; Pei, Y. L.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Vyas, A. D.; Winebrake, J. J.

    2013-03-01

    Freight transportation demand is projected to grow to 27.5 billion tons in 2040, and by extrapolation, to nearly 30.2 billion tons in 2050, requiring ever-greater amounts of energy. This report describes the current and future demand for freight transportation in terms of tons and ton-miles of commodities moved by truck, rail, water, pipeline, and air freight carriers. It outlines the economic, logistics, transportation, and policy and regulatory factors that shape freight demand; the possible trends and 2050 outlook for these factors, and their anticipated effect on freight demand and related energy use. After describing federal policy actions that could influence freight demand, the report then summarizes the available analytical models for forecasting freight demand, and identifies possible areas for future action.

  2. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Demand: Energy-Efficient Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    SciTech Connect

    Grenzeback, L. R.; Brown, A.; Fischer, M. J.; Hutson, N.; Lamm, C. R.; Pei, Y. L.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Vyas, A. D.; Winebrake, J. J.

    2013-03-01

    Freight transportation demand is projected to grow to 27.5 billion tons in 2040, and to nearly 30.2 billion tons in 2050. This report describes the current and future demand for freight transportation in terms of tons and ton-miles of commodities moved by truck, rail, water, pipeline, and air freight carriers. It outlines the economic, logistics, transportation, and policy and regulatory factors that shape freight demand, the trends and 2050 outlook for these factors, and their anticipated effect on freight demand. After describing federal policy actions that could influence future freight demand, the report then summarizes the capabilities of available analytical models for forecasting freight demand. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  3. Reforming the road freight transportation system using systems thinking: An investigation of Coronial inquests in Australia.

    PubMed

    Newnam, Sharon; Goode, Natassia; Salmon, Paul; Stevenson, Mark

    2017-04-01

    Road freight transport is considered to be one of the most dangerous industries in Australia, accounting for over 30% of all work fatalities. Whilst system reform (i.e., change to policy and practice) is needed, it is not clear what this reform should be, or what approaches should be used to drive it. This article argues that road freight transportation reform should be underpinned by a systems thinking approach. Efforts to understand crash causation should be focused beyond the driver and identify contributing factors at other levels with the road freight system. Accordingly, we present the findings from a study that examined whether Australian Coronial investigations into road freight crashes reflect support appropriate system reform. Content analysis was used to identify the contributing factors and interrelations implicated in the road freight crashes described in publicly available Australian Coroner's inquest reports from the last 10 years (2004-2014; n=21). The results found evidence to suggest that the Coronial inquests provide some understanding of the complex system of factors influencing road freight transportation crashes in Australia. However, there was a lack of evidence to suggest an understanding of system-based reform based on the identification of reductionist-focused recommendations. It is concluded that researchers and practitioners (ie., government and industry) need to work together to develop prevention efforts focused on system reforms. Systems thinking based data collection and analysis frameworks are urgently required to help develop this understanding in road freight transportation.

  4. An Efficient Cloud Computing-Based Architecture for Freight System Application in China Railway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Baopeng; Zhang, Ning; Li, Honghui; Liu, Feng; Miao, Kai

    Cloud computing is a new network computing paradigm of distributed application environment. It utilizes the computing resource and storage resource to dynamically provide on-demand service for users. The distribution and parallel characters of cloud computing can leverage the railway freight system. We implement a cloud computing-based architecture for freight system application, which explores the Tashi and Hadoop for virtual resource management and MapReduce-based search technology. We propose the semantic model and setup configuration parameter by experiment, and develop the prototype system for freight search and tracking.

  5. 78 FR 33888 - National Freight Advisory Committee: Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... transportation, including implementation of the Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act (MAP-21... the freight transportation requirements of the Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century Act...

  6. 49 CFR 176.170 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... purposes of this subpart, may be regarded as a magazine but not as a separate compartment. (b) Freight...) materials for which magazine stowage type A is required must have a floor consisting of tightly...

  7. Termination Documentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Mike; Hill, Jillian

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we examined 11 workplaces to determine how they handle termination documentation, an empirically unexplored area in technical communication and rhetoric. We found that the use of termination documentation is context dependent while following a basic pattern of infraction, investigation, intervention, and termination. Furthermore,…

  8. Declassified Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Karen M.

    Journalists and other investigators are daily using declassified government documents to shed light on historical and current events, but few have discovered how to tap the wealth of documents once classified but now in the public realm. An executive order from President Reagan eliminating declassification procedures and allowing released…

  9. Assessing Temporal Effect of Economic Activity on Freight Volumes with Two-Period Cross-Sectional Data

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira Neto, Francisco Moraes; Chin, Shih-Miao; Hwang, Ho-Ling

    2012-01-01

    The most comprehensive publicly available freight databases are the Commodity Flow Survey (CFS) and the FHWA s Freight Analysis Framework (FAF). These two sources contain dollar value and weight of freight movements at high geographic levels, such as state or metropolitan areas. Due to the difficulty in obtaining freight data at lower geographies various practitioners and researchers have been suggesting to estimate freight models based on aggregate data. Following these recent practices, a methodology to estimate a nationwide production and attraction models for U.S. domestic trade of goods is presented. To this end, a CFS s data set provided by U.S. Census Bureau and composed of two-nonconsecutive year period (2002 and 2007) of movements of goods between U.S. states for 27 industry sectors was used. The state payroll by industry sector, obtained from the County Business Patterns of the U.S. Census, was the variable used to estimate freight generation models. The main objective of this paper is to analyze the temporal stability and predictability of the proposed aggregate models. The results indicate that the payroll alone explains a significant portion of the freight production and attraction at the state level. However, such simplification in the model process did not result in reasonable predictions of freight for a future year horizon. It is recommended that time-dependent factors (e.g. variables related to changes industry productivity) affecting freight demand should be considered in the modeling process.

  10. Preliminary analysis of hub and spoke air freight distribution system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    A brief analysis is made of the hub and spoke air freight distribution system which would employ less than 15 hub centers world wide with very large advanced distributed-load freighters providing the line-haul delivery between hubs. This system is compared to a more conventional network using conventionally-designed long-haul freighters which travel between numerous major airports. The analysis calculates all of the transportation costs, including handling charges and pickup and delivery costs. The results show that the economics of the hub/spoke system are severely compromised by the extensive use of feeder aircraft to deliver cargo into and from the large freighter terminals. Not only are the higher costs for the smaller feeder airplanes disadvantageous, but their use implies an additional exchange of cargo between modes compared to truck delivery. The conventional system uses far fewer feeder airplanes, and in many cases, none at all. When feeder aircraft are eliminated from the hub/spoke system, however, that system is universally more economical than any conventional system employing smaller line-haul aircraft.

  11. Shared Freight Transportation and Energy Commodities Phase One: Coal, Crude Petroleum, & Natural Gas Flows

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, Shih-Miao; Hwang, Ho-Ling; Davidson, Diane

    2016-07-01

    The Freight Analysis Framework (FAF) integrates data from a variety of sources to create a comprehensive picture of nationwide freight movements among states and major metropolitan areas for all modes of transportation. It provides a national picture of current freight flows to, from, and within the United States, assigns selected flows to the transportation network, and projects freight flow patterns into the future. The latest release of FAF is known as FAF4 with a base year of 2012. The FAF4 origin-destination-commodity-mode (ODCM) matrix is provided at national, state, major metropolitan areas, and major gateways with significant freight activities (e.g., El Paso, Texas). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is interested in using FAF4 database for its strategic planning and policy analysis, particularly in association with the transportation of energy commodities. However, the geographic specification that DOE requires is a county-level ODCM matrix. Unfortunately, the geographic regions in the FAF4 database were not available at the DOE desired detail. Due to this limitation, DOE tasked Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to assist in generating estimates of county-level flows for selected energy commodities by mode of transportation.

  12. An analysis of the possibility of Macro Fiber Composite transducers application in modernized freight wagon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Płaczek, M.; Wróbel, A.; Buchacz, A.

    2016-08-01

    Paper presents an analysis of the possibility of application of piezoelectric foils - Macro Fiber Composite (MFC) in modernized freight wagons. It was verified if they can be successfully applied as sensors in developed system for structural health monitoring and in energy harvesting system. It is a part of a research project that aim is to develop a technology of freight wagons modernization. The goal of the project is to elongate the period between periodic repairs (by better corrosion protection) and improve conditions of exploitation of modernized wagons (easier unloading during winter conditions - no freezes of the charge to the freight wagon body shell). The additional aim is to develop system for structural health monitoring of the modernized body of the freight wagon as well as the system supporting management of a fleet of wagons using GPS system with power supply based on the energy recovered by MFC's from the wagon's vibrations during its exploitation. Results of laboratory tests as well as results of measurements on the real freight wagon during observed driving of the wagon are presented. At the same time measurements of the electric voltage generated by the MFC transducers excited by low frequencies harmonic excitation were verified.

  13. 41 CFR 102-117.90 - May I use a U.S. Government bill of lading (GBL) to acquire freight, household goods or other...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    .... Government bill of lading (GBL) to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services...) to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? You may use the... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 117-TRANSPORTATION...

  14. 49 CFR 174.82 - General requirements for the handling of placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... materials, Class 9 materials, or ORM-D materials. (b) A placarded rail car, transport vehicle, freight... rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packages. 174.82 Section 174.82 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  15. 49 CFR 174.82 - General requirements for the handling of placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... materials, Class 9 materials, or ORM-D materials. (b) A placarded rail car, transport vehicle, freight... rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packages. 174.82 Section 174.82 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  16. 49 CFR 174.82 - General requirements for the handling of placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... materials, Class 9 materials, or ORM-D materials. (b) A placarded rail car, transport vehicle, freight... rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packages. 174.82 Section 174.82 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  17. 49 CFR 174.82 - General requirements for the handling of placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... materials, Class 9 materials, or ORM-D materials. (b) A placarded rail car, transport vehicle, freight... rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packages. 174.82 Section 174.82 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  18. 49 CFR 174.82 - General requirements for the handling of placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... materials, Class 9 materials, or ORM-D materials. (b) A placarded rail car, transport vehicle, freight... rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packages. 174.82 Section 174.82 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS...

  19. 49 CFR 174.84 - Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers or bulk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars... CARRIAGE BY RAIL Handling of Placarded Rail Cars, Transport Vehicles and Freight Containers § 174.84 Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers or bulk...

  20. 49 CFR 174.84 - Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers or bulk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars... CARRIAGE BY RAIL Handling of Placarded Rail Cars, Transport Vehicles and Freight Containers § 174.84 Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers or bulk...

  1. 49 CFR 174.84 - Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers or bulk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars... CARRIAGE BY RAIL Handling of Placarded Rail Cars, Transport Vehicles and Freight Containers § 174.84 Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers or bulk...

  2. 49 CFR 174.84 - Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers or bulk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars... CARRIAGE BY RAIL Handling of Placarded Rail Cars, Transport Vehicles and Freight Containers § 174.84 Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers or bulk...

  3. 49 CFR 174.84 - Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers or bulk...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars... CARRIAGE BY RAIL Handling of Placarded Rail Cars, Transport Vehicles and Freight Containers § 174.84 Position in train of loaded placarded rail cars, transport vehicles, freight containers or bulk...

  4. 49 CFR 1242.68 - Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight lost or damaged-solely related (to yard) (account 51-52-00). 1242.68 Section 1242.68 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Transportation § 1242.68 Freight lost or damaged—solely related (to...

  5. 41 CFR 102-118.185 - When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....185 When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on the bill of lading (including a...

  6. 77 FR 50090 - Update to the 26 September 2011 Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... surface freight transportation in the Continental United States (CONUS) by DoD using Federal Acquisition... Department of the Army Update to the 26 September 2011 Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication... INFORMATION CONTACT: Mr. Chad Privett, (618) 220-6901. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Reference: Military...

  7. 41 CFR 102-118.185 - When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....185 When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false When buying freight transportation, must my agency reference the applicable contract or tender on the bill of lading (including a...

  8. Streamlining Transportation Corridor Planning Processess: Freight and Traffic Information

    SciTech Connect

    Franzese, Oscar

    2010-08-01

    The traffic investigation is one of the most important parts of an Environmental Impact Statement of projects involving the construction of new roadway facilities and/or the improvement of existing ones. The focus of the traffic analysis is on the determination of anticipated traffic flow characteristics of the proposed project, by the application of analytical methods that can be grouped under the umbrella of capacity analysis methodologies. In general, the main traffic parameter used in EISs to describe the quality of traffic flow is the Level of Service (LOS). The current state of the practice in terms of the traffic investigations for EISs has two main shortcomings. The first one is related to the information that is necessary to conduct the traffic analysis, and specifically to the lack of integration among the different transportation models and the sources of information that, in general, reside in GIS databases. A discussion of the benefits of integrating CRS&SI technologies and the transportation models used in the EIS traffic investigation is included. The second shortcoming is in the presentation of the results, both in terms of the appearance and formatting, as well as content. The presentation of traffic results (current and proposed) is discussed. This chapter also addresses the need of additional data, in terms of content and coverage. Regarding the former, other traffic parameters (e.g., delays) that are more meaningful to non-transportation experts than LOS, as well as additional information (e.g., freight flows) that can impact traffic conditions and safety are discussed. Spatial information technologies can decrease the negative effects of, and even eliminate, these shortcomings by making the relevant information that is input to the models more complete and readily available, and by providing the means to communicate the results in a more clear and efficient manner. The benefits that the application and use of CRS&SI technologies can provide to

  9. Document Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The charters of Freedom Monitoring System will periodically assess the physical condition of the U.S. Constitution, Declaration of Independence and Bill of Rights. Although protected in helium filled glass cases, the documents are subject to damage from light vibration and humidity. The photometer is a CCD detector used as the electronic film for the camera system's scanning camera which mechanically scans the document line by line and acquires a series of images, each representing a one square inch portion of the document. Perkin-Elmer Corporation's photometer is capable of detecting changes in contrast, shape or other indicators of degradation with 5 to 10 times the sensitivity of the human eye. A Vicom image processing computer receives the data from the photometer stores it and manipulates it, allowing comparison of electronic images over time to detect changes.

  10. Robust Optimization Model and Algorithm for Railway Freight Center Location Problem in Uncertain Environment

    PubMed Central

    He, Shi-wei; Song, Rui; Sun, Yang; Li, Hao-dong

    2014-01-01

    Railway freight center location problem is an important issue in railway freight transport programming. This paper focuses on the railway freight center location problem in uncertain environment. Seeing that the expected value model ignores the negative influence of disadvantageous scenarios, a robust optimization model was proposed. The robust optimization model takes expected cost and deviation value of the scenarios as the objective. A cloud adaptive clonal selection algorithm (C-ACSA) was presented. It combines adaptive clonal selection algorithm with Cloud Model which can improve the convergence rate. Design of the code and progress of the algorithm were proposed. Result of the example demonstrates the model and algorithm are effective. Compared with the expected value cases, the amount of disadvantageous scenarios in robust model reduces from 163 to 21, which prove the result of robust model is more reliable. PMID:25435867

  11. Robust optimization model and algorithm for railway freight center location problem in uncertain environment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing-Cai; He, Shi-Wei; Song, Rui; Sun, Yang; Li, Hao-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Railway freight center location problem is an important issue in railway freight transport programming. This paper focuses on the railway freight center location problem in uncertain environment. Seeing that the expected value model ignores the negative influence of disadvantageous scenarios, a robust optimization model was proposed. The robust optimization model takes expected cost and deviation value of the scenarios as the objective. A cloud adaptive clonal selection algorithm (C-ACSA) was presented. It combines adaptive clonal selection algorithm with Cloud Model which can improve the convergence rate. Design of the code and progress of the algorithm were proposed. Result of the example demonstrates the model and algorithm are effective. Compared with the expected value cases, the amount of disadvantageous scenarios in robust model reduces from 163 to 21, which prove the result of robust model is more reliable.

  12. Wear simulation for the centre plate arrangement of a freight car

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olshevskiy, Alexander; Kim, Chang-Wan; Yang, Hyun-Ik; Olshevskiy, Alexey

    2015-06-01

    The bodies of many railway freight cars in many countries of the world are coupled to the running gear by means of a body centre plate that makes a friction pair with a centre bowl. During motion, the bogie is rotated and moved with respect to the car body. This leads to wear on the contact surfaces. Lubrication is inexpedient in this case because the friction forces damp the vibrations (so-called bogie hunting) during motion. Usually, centre plates exhibit noticeable wear after two years of operation. Reducing wear requires knowing details of the wear process which, in turn, requires computer simulation of freight car motion for an operation period of 10-15 years. The purpose of this paper is to develop a universal method for wear simulation of friction pairs that could be used, in particular, for the centre plate of a freight car.

  13. 49 CFR Table 3 of Subpart B to... - Alternative Schedule for Application of Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a)(2)(ii) 3 Table 3 of Subpart B to Part 224... Freight Cars per § 224.107(a)(2)(ii) (A) 1 (B)(percent) November 28, 2007 20 November 28, 2008 30 November... of an owner's freight cars specified in column (B) must be equipped with retroreflective...

  14. 49 CFR Table 3 of Subpart B to... - Alternative Schedule for Application of Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a)(2)(ii) 3 Table 3 of Subpart B to Part 224... Freight Cars per § 224.107(a)(2)(ii) (A) 1 (B)(percent) November 28, 2007 20 November 28, 2008 30 November... of an owner's freight cars specified in column (B) must be equipped with retroreflective...

  15. 49 CFR Table 3 of Subpart B to... - Alternative Schedule for Application of Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a)(2)(ii) 3 Table 3 of Subpart B to Part 224... Freight Cars per § 224.107(a)(2)(ii) (A) 1 (B)(percent) November 28, 2007 20 November 28, 2008 30 November... of an owner's freight cars specified in column (B) must be equipped with retroreflective...

  16. "Notable Documents."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Government Publications Review, 1990

    1990-01-01

    This annotated bibliography lists 569 documents from local, state, provincial, and national governments and from international organizations that have been selected on the basis of their reference value and/or subject coverage. Topics covered include health sciences, business and economics, government and politics, social problems, education,…

  17. Scientific Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieper, Gail W.

    1980-01-01

    Describes how scientific documentation is taught in three 50-minute sessions in a technical writing course. Tells how session one distinguishes between in-text notes, footnotes, and reference entries; session two discusses the author-year system of citing references; and session three is concerned with the author-number system of reference…

  18. An approach to market analysis for lighter than air transportation of freight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, P. O.; Marcus, H. S.; Pollock, J. H.

    1975-01-01

    An approach is presented to marketing analysis for lighter than air vehicles in a commercial freight market. After a discussion of key characteristics of supply and demand factors, a three-phase approach to marketing analysis is described. The existing transportation systems are quantitatively defined and possible roles for lighter than air vehicles within this framework are postulated. The marketing analysis views the situation from the perspective of both the shipper and the carrier. A demand for freight service is assumed and the resulting supply characteristics are determined. Then, these supply characteristics are used to establish the demand for competing modes. The process is then iterated to arrive at the market solution.

  19. CargoCBM - Feature Generation and Classification for a Condition Monitoring System for Freight Wagons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gericke, C.; Hecht, M.

    2012-05-01

    Despite the fact that rail freight transport is one of the most environmentally friendly matters of transport, its growth has been far behind the growth of freight transport in general. Studies showed that a competitive disadvantage is caused by a low availability of rolling stock, especially freight wagons. Changing from a time based to a condition based maintenance strategy is believed to decrease down times by at least one third. To make condition based maintenance for freight wagons possible the TU Berlin and five industry partners started the research project CargoCBM. One task in this project is to develop algorithms for the automatic on-board diagnosis of wheel flats. The focus of the work is on the process of feature generation and feature selection as well as the application of different classifiers to automatically evaluate the data. Based on the results of measured data, features were selected and tested with different classifiers. Thought advanced classifiers such as neural networks have been analysed in accordance to their classification accuracy. It can be shown that with carefully constructed and selected features comparatively simple classifiers can lead to excellent results.

  20. Demonstrating the Use of Spatial Optimising Techniques by Means of a Freight Distribution Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnon, Alan C.

    1984-01-01

    College seniors in a geography of marketing and distribution course learn about spatial optimizing techniques by participating in a freight distribution game. Students plan the distribution of confectionery from two factories in England to 20 wholesale and retail customers in Scotland. The team that designs the lowest cost system wins. (RM)

  1. 77 FR 73455 - Change to the Military Freight Carrier Registration Program (FCRP)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-10

    ... Department of the Army Change to the Military Freight Carrier Registration Program (FCRP) AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ] SUMMARY: The Military Surface Deployment and Distribution Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it will, effective 1 December 2012, only accept domestic motor transportation...

  2. 49 CFR 176.170 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers. 176.170 Section 176.170 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS...

  3. 49 CFR 176.170 - Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Transport of Class 1 (explosive) materials in freight containers. 176.170 Section 176.170 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS...

  4. 75 FR 10476 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No... Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it released an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1 on February 17, 2010. The interim change removes Motor Surveillance Service (MVS) from Item 107 and replaces Item...

  5. 76 FR 17841 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1 AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. SUMMARY: The Military Surface Deployment and...

  6. 75 FR 24667 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No... Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it released an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1 on April 26, 2010. The interim change adds safety requirements for Motor Carriers authorized to provide...

  7. 75 FR 60436 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No... Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it is releasing an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1 on October 1, 2010. The interim change updates Section B, Item 21, Detention: Vehicles With Power Units...

  8. 75 FR 15420 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO... Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it will release an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1 on March 29, 2010. The interim change updates Section A, Paragraph N, Fuel Surcharge, in accordance with Section...

  9. 76 FR 776 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) NO... Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it is releasing an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1 that will become effective January 1, 2011. The interim change updates the personnel security requirements for...

  10. 76 FR 59119 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No... Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it has released an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1. The...

  11. 75 FR 36643 - Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No. 1

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... Department of the Army Interim Change to the Military Freight Traffic Unified Rules Publication (MFTURP) No... Distribution Command (SDDC) is providing notice that it will release an interim change to the MFTURP No. 1 on Monday, June 28, 2010. The interim change updates Section A, Part VI, Paragraph A, Advancing Charges...

  12. 48 CFR 52.247-31 - F.o.b. Origin, Freight Allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52... the same city or commercial zone as the f.o.b. origin point specified in the contract the Federal... agency for commercial bills of lading; e.g., “This shipment is the property of, and the freight...

  13. 48 CFR 52.247-31 - F.o.b. Origin, Freight Allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52... the same city or commercial zone as the f.o.b. origin point specified in the contract the Federal... agency for commercial bills of lading; e.g., “This shipment is the property of, and the freight...

  14. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SPECIAL NOTICE AND EMERGENCY ORDER PROCEDURES: RAILROAD TRACK, LOCOMOTIVE AND EQUIPMENT Special Notice for Repairs § 216.11 Special notice for...

  15. 49 CFR 216.11 - Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special notice for repairs-railroad freight car... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SPECIAL NOTICE AND EMERGENCY ORDER PROCEDURES: RAILROAD TRACK, LOCOMOTIVE AND EQUIPMENT Special Notice for Repairs § 216.11 Special notice for...

  16. 21 CFR 1301.77 - Security controls for freight forwarding facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Security controls for freight forwarding facilities. 1301.77 Section 1301.77 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Security...

  17. 21 CFR 1301.77 - Security controls for freight forwarding facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Security controls for freight forwarding facilities. 1301.77 Section 1301.77 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Security...

  18. 21 CFR 1301.77 - Security controls for freight forwarding facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Security controls for freight forwarding facilities. 1301.77 Section 1301.77 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Security...

  19. 21 CFR 1301.77 - Security controls for freight forwarding facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Security controls for freight forwarding facilities. 1301.77 Section 1301.77 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Security...

  20. 21 CFR 1301.77 - Security controls for freight forwarding facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Security controls for freight forwarding facilities. 1301.77 Section 1301.77 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Security...

  1. 48 CFR 47.303-3 - F.o.b. origin, freight allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... allowed. (a) Explanation of delivery term. F.o.b. origin, freight allowed means— (1) Free of expense to... zone as the f.o.b. origin point specified in the contract (the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) An allowance for...

  2. 48 CFR 47.303-4 - F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... prepaid. (a) Explanation of delivery term. F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid means— (1) Free of expense to... zone as the f.o.b. origin point specified in the contract (the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) The cost of...

  3. 48 CFR 47.303-3 - F.o.b. origin, freight allowed.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... allowed. (a) Explanation of delivery term. F.o.b. origin, freight allowed means— (1) Free of expense to... zone as the f.o.b. origin point specified in the contract (the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) An allowance for...

  4. 48 CFR 47.303-4 - F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... prepaid. (a) Explanation of delivery term. F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid means— (1) Free of expense to... zone as the f.o.b. origin point specified in the contract (the Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration prescribes commercial zones at Subpart B of 49 CFR part 372); and (2) The cost of...

  5. 49 CFR 172.512 - Freight containers and aircraft unit load devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... container or aircraft unit load device: (1) Is labeled in accordance with subpart E of this part, including... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Freight containers and aircraft unit load devices... unit load devices. (a) Capacity of 640 cubic feet or more. Each person who offers for...

  6. 49 CFR 172.512 - Freight containers and aircraft unit load devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... container or aircraft unit load device: (i) Is labeled in accordance with subpart E of this part, including... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Freight containers and aircraft unit load devices... unit load devices. (a) Capacity of 640 cubic feet or more. Each person who offers for...

  7. MTR, TRA603. WEST ELEVATION. HOOD VENT. FREIGHT ELEVATOR. SECTION THROUGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    MTR, TRA-603. WEST ELEVATION. HOOD VENT. FREIGHT ELEVATOR. SECTION THROUGH SECOND AND THIRD FLOORS. BLAW-KNOX 3150-803-8, 7/1950. INL INDEX NO. 531-0603-00-098-100567, REV. 5. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  8. 49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Division 1.4 materials, a freight container may not be offered for the carriage of Class 1 (explosive... equipment, mounting and securing chassis or vehicle, or insertion into ships' cells. (3) In addition... those in Division 1.4 (explosive) must be accompanied by a statement, which may appear on the...

  9. 49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Division 1.4 materials, a freight container may not be offered for the carriage of Class 1 (explosive... equipment, mounting and securing chassis or vehicle, or insertion into ships' cells. (3) In addition... those in Division 1.4 (explosive) must be accompanied by a statement, which may appear on the...

  10. 49 CFR 176.172 - Structural serviceability of freight containers and vehicles carrying Class 1 (explosive...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Division 1.4 materials, a freight container may not be offered for the carriage of Class 1 (explosive... equipment, mounting and securing chassis or vehicle, or insertion into ships' cells. (3) In addition... those in Division 1.4 (explosive) must be accompanied by a statement, which may appear on the...

  11. Continuous Vocational Training in the Road Freight and Passenger Transport Sectors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education, Training, and Youth.

    Continuous vocational training (CVT) in the road freight and passenger transport sectors in the member states of the European Community (EC) was examined to identify exemplary and significant practices across the EC and determine the extent of the transferability of the identified exemplary training between and among the member states. In all,…

  12. Task Analysis for the Jobs of Freight Train Conductor and Brakeman. RDTR No. 263.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Mark S.; And Others

    The principal tasks performed by conductors, rear brakemen, and head brakemen during over-the-road freight operations are identified and described in the report. Forty-four tasks and subtasks are analyzed and grouped into six categories: basic handling tasks, prerun preparation and starting off tasks, over-the-road tasks, terminating tasks,…

  13. Preliminary studies concerning the application of different braking arrangements on Italian freight trains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pugi, Luca; Rindi, Andrea; Ercole, Andrea Giuseppe; Palazzolo, Alessandro; Auciello, Jury; Fioravanti, Duccio; Ignesti, Mirko

    2011-08-01

    Freight wagons are usually equipped with the standard Union Internationale des Chemins de Fer pneumatic brake. On long trains, the propagation of the pneumatic signals along the pipe and different braking/loading conditions may produce delays and/or differences in the application of the braking effort along the train. This phenomenon may cause heavy longitudinal forces exchanged between wagons through buffers and draw gear. In particular, the workgroup n.6 (freight trains composition) of the Italcertifer committee has performed some preliminary studies concerning the application of LL braking operative conditions on freight wagons trains travelling on Italian lines. Partners have cooperated in this workgroup; however, in this paper, the attention is focused on methodologies and results concerning the contribution of University of Florence. The results of this activity, coordinated by RFI-CESIFER have been used to emanate the 20/07 rule of the RFI ('Modifiche alla Prefazione Generale all'Orario di Servizio') which modify the composition criterion rules of freight trains on the Italian Railways in order to introduce and discipline the application of the LL braking operative condition.

  14. Spring and Lincoln looking northwest to shops…Freight house and wood ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Spring and Lincoln looking northwest to shops…Freight house and wood shantes foreground (roundhouse visible in near distance is the second roadhouse built at aurora, 1868-1872) Photograph taken between 1874 and 1878 - Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, Roundhouse & Shops, Broadway & Spring Streets, Aurora, Kane County, IL

  15. 49 CFR 174.61 - Transport vehicles and freight containers on flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... cars. 174.61 Section 174.61 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... containers on flat cars. (a) A transport vehicle, freight container, or package containing a hazardous... has fuel or any article classed as a hazardous material may be loaded and transported on a flat car...

  16. 49 CFR 174.61 - Transport vehicles and freight containers on flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... cars. 174.61 Section 174.61 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... containers on flat cars. (a) A transport vehicle, freight container, or package containing a hazardous... has fuel or any article classed as a hazardous material may be loaded and transported on a flat car...

  17. 49 CFR 174.61 - Transport vehicles and freight containers on flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... cars. 174.61 Section 174.61 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... containers on flat cars. (a) A transport vehicle, freight container, or package containing a hazardous... has fuel or any article classed as a hazardous material may be loaded and transported on a flat car...

  18. 49 CFR 174.61 - Transport vehicles and freight containers on flat cars.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... cars. 174.61 Section 174.61 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND... containers on flat cars. (a) A transport vehicle, freight container, or package containing a hazardous... has fuel or any article classed as a hazardous material may be loaded and transported on a flat car...

  19. Orbitmpi Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Lisa L. Lowe

    2000-10-05

    Orbitmpi is a parallelized version of Roscoe White's Orbit code. The code has been parallelized using MPI, which makes it portable to many types of machines. The guidelines used for the parallelization were to increase code performance with minimal changes to the code's original structure. This document gives a general description of how the parallel sections of the code run. It discusses the changes made to the original code and comments on the general procedure for future additions to Orbitmpi, as well as describing the effects of a parallelized random number generator on the code's output. Finally, the scaling results from Hecate and from Puffin are presented. Hecate is a 64-processor Origin 2000 machine, with MIPS R12000 processors and 16GB of memory, and Puffin is a PC cluster with 9 dual-processor 450 MHz Pentium III (18 processors max.), with 100Mbits ethernet communication.

  20. 41 CFR 102-118.55 - What administrative procedures must my agency establish for payment of freight, household goods...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... procedures must my agency establish for payment of freight, household goods, or other transportation services... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Ordering and Paying for Transportation and Transportation Services § 102-118.55...

  1. 41 CFR 102-118.55 - What administrative procedures must my agency establish for payment of freight, household goods...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... procedures must my agency establish for payment of freight, household goods, or other transportation services... Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION TRANSPORTATION 118-TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT AND AUDIT Ordering and Paying for Transportation and Transportation Services § 102-118.55...

  2. Methodology for Estimating ton-Miles of Goods Movements for U.S. Freight Mulitimodal Network System

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira Neto, Francisco Moraes; Chin, Shih-Miao; Hwang, Ho-Ling

    2013-01-01

    Ton-miles is a commonly used measure of freight transportation output. Estimation of ton-miles in the U.S. transportation system requires freight flow data at disaggregated level (either by link flow, path flows or origin-destination flows between small geographic areas). However, the sheer magnitude of the freight data system as well as industrial confidentiality concerns in Census survey, limit the freight data which is made available to the public. Through the years, the Center for Transportation Analysis (CTA) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been working in the development of comprehensive national and regional freight databases and network flow models. One of the main products of this effort is the Freight Analysis Framework (FAF), a public database released by the ORNL. FAF provides to the general public a multidimensional matrix of freight flows (weight and dollar value) on the U.S. transportation system between states, major metropolitan areas, and remainder of states. Recently, the CTA research team has developed a methodology to estimate ton-miles by mode of transportation between the 2007 FAF regions. This paper describes the data disaggregation methodology. The method relies on the estimation of disaggregation factors that are related to measures of production, attractiveness and average shipments distances by mode service. Production and attractiveness of counties are captured by the total employment payroll. Likely mileages for shipments between counties are calculated by using a geographic database, i.e. the CTA multimodal network system. Results of validation experiments demonstrate the validity of the method. Moreover, 2007 FAF ton-miles estimates are consistent with the major freight data programs for rail and water movements.

  3. Omega documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Howerton, R.J.; Dye, R.E.; Giles, P.C.; Kimlinger, J.R.; Perkins, S.T.; Plechaty, E.F.

    1983-08-01

    OMEGA is a CRAY I computer program that controls nine codes used by LLNL Physical Data Group for: 1) updating the libraries of evaluated data maintained by the group (UPDATE); 2) calculating average values of energy deposited in secondary particles and residual nuclei (ENDEP); 3) checking the libraries for internal consistency, especially for energy conservation (GAMCHK); 4) producing listings, indexes and plots of the library data (UTILITY); 5) producing calculational constants such as group averaged cross sections and transfer matrices for diffusion and Sn transport codes (CLYDE); 6) producing and updating standard files of the calculational constants used by LLNL Sn and diffusion transport codes (NDFL); 7) producing calculational constants for Monte Carlo transport codes that use group-averaged cross sections and continuous energy for particles (CTART); 8) producing and updating standard files used by the LLNL Monte Carlo transport codes (TRTL); and 9) producing standard files used by the LANL pointwise Monte Carlo transport code MCNP (MCPOINT). The first four of these functions and codes deal with the libraries of evaluated data and the last five with various aspects of producing calculational constants for use by transport codes. In 1970 a series, called PD memos, of internal and informal memoranda was begun. These were intended to be circulated among the group for comment and then to provide documentation for later reference whenever questions arose about the subject matter of the memos. They have served this purpose and now will be drawn upon as source material for this more comprehensive report that deals with most of the matters covered in those memos.

  4. Exposure-response relationships for annoyance due to freight and passenger railway vibration exposure in residential environments.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Calum; Woodcock, James; Sica, Gennaro; Peris, Eulalia; Moorhouse, Andrew T; Waddington, David C

    2014-01-01

    In this work, exposure-response relationships for annoyance due to freight and passenger railway vibration exposure in residential environments are developed, so as to better understand the differences in human response to these two sources of environmental vibration. Data for this research come from a field study comprising interviews with respondents and measurements of their vibration exposure (N = 752). A logistic regression model is able to accurately classify 96% of these measured railway vibration signals as freight or passenger based on two signal properties that quantify the duration and low frequency content of each signal. Exposure-response relationships are then determined using ordinal probit modeling with fixed thresholds. The results indicate that people are able to distinguish between freight and passenger railway vibration, and that the annoyance response due to freight railway vibration is significantly higher than that due to passenger railway vibration, even for equal levels of exposure. In terms of a community tolerance level, the population studied is 15 dB (re 10(-6) m s(-2)) more tolerant to passenger railway vibration than freight railway vibration. These results have implications for the expansion of freight traffic on rail, or for policies to promote passenger railway.

  5. Marine vessels as substitutes for heavy-duty trucks in Great Lakes freight transportation.

    PubMed

    Comer, Bryan; Corbett, James J; Hawker, J Scott; Korfmacher, Karl; Lee, Earl E; Prokop, Chris; Winebrake, James J

    2010-07-01

    This paper applies a geospatial network optimization model to explore environmental, economic, and time-of-delivery tradeoffs associated with the application of marine vessels as substitutes for heavy-duty trucks operating in the Great Lakes region. The geospatial model integrates U.S. and Canadian highway, rail, and waterway networks to create an intermodal network and characterizes this network using temporal, economic, and environmental attributes (including emissions of carbon dioxide, particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, volatile organic compounds, and nitrogen oxides). A case study evaluates tradeoffs associated with containerized traffic flow in the Great Lakes region, demonstrating how choice of freight mode affects the environmental performance of movement of goods. These results suggest opportunities to improve the environmental performance of freight transport through infrastructure development, technology implementation, and economic incentives.

  6. Design study to simulate the development of a commercial freight transportation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batill, Stephen M.; Costello, Kevin; Pinkelman, Jim

    1992-01-01

    The Notre Dame Aerospace Engineering senior class was divided into six design teams. A request for proposals (RFP) asking for the design of a remotely piloted vehicle (RPV) was given to the class, and each design team was responsible for designing, developing, producing, and presenting an RPV concept. The RFP called for the design of commercial freight transport RPV. The RFP provided a description of a fictitious world called 'Aeroworld'. Aeroworld's characteristics were scaled to provide the same types of challenges for RPV design that the real world market provides for the design of commercial aircraft. Fuel efficiency, range and payload capabilities, production and maintenance costs, and profitability are a few of the challenges that were addressed in this course. Each design team completed their project over the course of a semester by designing and flight testing a prototype, freight-carrying remotely piloted vehicle.

  7. IntelligentFreight: A Tracking 2.0 Prototype for Global Supply Chain Transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Randy M.; Shankar, Mallikarjun; Gorman, Bryan L.

    2009-01-01

    Imagine a world where boxes talk to containers, containers talk to trucks and trucks talk to forklifts that talk to people. Each box would be smart, carrying all the information about its contents, its shipping history, its handling instructions, and where it is supposed to be. This world is within our reach as a result of Web 2.0 innovations on the Internet. While technologies such as RFID, GPS, cellular phones and barcodes have become ever more prevalent in the freight supply chain, there is still an invisible curtain blocking information flow between proprietary and legacy enterprise systems. Researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are working with academia, the U.S. Government, and commercial companies to apply Web 2.0 technologies to the challenge of tracking and monitoring hazardous materials and nuclear sources in the international supply chain. Under the rubric of Tracking 2.0, a term for the use of Web 2.0 technologies for tracking applications, ORNL is developing a prototype called IntelligentFreight. IntelligentFreight interfaces sensors, legacy databases, and proprietary commercial tracking systems. The prototype combines Web 2.0 s social networking and tagging concepts with a classical faceted classification (a way of describing the same object in multiple ways) model to track a shipment across incompatible enterprise systems.

  8. Do not blame the driver: a systems analysis of the causes of road freight crashes.

    PubMed

    Newnam, Sharon; Goode, Natassia

    2015-03-01

    Although many have advocated a systems approach in road transportation, this view has not meaningfully penetrated road safety research, practice or policy. In this study, a systems theory-based approach, Rasmussens's (1997) risk management framework and associated Accimap technique, is applied to the analysis of road freight transportation crashes. Twenty-seven highway crash investigation reports were downloaded from the National Transport Safety Bureau website. Thematic analysis was used to identify the complex system of contributory factors, and relationships, identified within the reports. The Accimap technique was then used to represent the linkages and dependencies within and across system levels in the road freight transportation industry and to identify common factors and interactions across multiple crashes. The results demonstrate how a systems approach can increase knowledge in this safety critical domain, while the findings can be used to guide prevention efforts and the development of system-based investigation processes for the heavy vehicle industry. A research agenda for developing an investigation technique to better support the application of the Accimap technique by practitioners in road freight transportation industry is proposed.

  9. Research on Linear Wireless Sensor Networks Used for Online Monitoring of Rolling Bearing in Freight Train

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Wang; Qingfeng, Meng; Bin, Zheng; Tong, Li; Qinghai, Ma

    2011-07-01

    This paper presents a Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) technique for the purpose of on-line monitoring of rolling bearing in freight train. A new technical scheme including the arrangements of sensors, the design of sensor nodes and base station, routing protocols, signal acquirement, processing and transmission is described, and an on-line monitoring system is established. Considering the approximately linear arrangements of cars and the running state of freight train, a linear topology structure of WSNs is adopted and five linear routing protocols are discussed in detail as to obtain the desired minimum energy consumption of WSNs. By analysing the simulation results, an optimal multi-hop routing protocol named sub-section routing protocol according to equal distance is adopted, in which all sensor nodes are divided into different groups according to the equal transmission distance, the optimal transmission distance and number of hops of routing protocol are also studied. We know that the communication consumes significant power in WSNs, so, in order to save the limit power supply of WSNs, the data compression and coding scheme based on lifting integer wavelet and embedded zerotree wavelet (EZW) algorithms is studied to reduce the amounts of data transmitted. The experimental results of rolling bearing have been given at last to verify the effectiveness of data compression algorithm. The on-line monitoring system of rolling bearing in freight train will be applied to actual application in the near future.

  10. Emission Projections for Long-Haul Freight Trucks and Rail in the United States through 2050.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang; Hwang, Taesung; Lee, Sungwon; Ouyang, Yanfeng; Lee, Bumsoo; Smith, Steven J; Yan, Fang; Daenzer, Kathryn; Bond, Tami C

    2015-10-06

    This work develops an integrated model approach for estimating emissions from long-haul freight truck and rail transport in the United States between 2010 and 2050. We connect models of macroeconomic activity, freight demand by commodity, transportation networks, and emission technology to represent different pathways of future freight emissions. Emissions of particulate matter (PM), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and total hydrocarbon (THC) decrease by 60%-70% from 2010 to 2030, as older vehicles built to less-stringent emission standards retire. Climate policy, in the form of carbon tax that increases apparent fuel prices, causes a shift from truck to rail, resulting in a 30% reduction in fuel consumption and a 10%-28% reduction in pollutant emissions by 2050, if rail capacity is sufficient. Eliminating high-emitting conditions in the truck fleet affects air pollutants by 20% to 65%; although these estimates are highly uncertain, they indicate the importance of durability in vehicle engines and emission control systems. Future infrastructure investment will be required both to meet transport demand and to enable actions that reduce emissions of air and climate pollutants. By driving the integrated model framework with two macroeconomic scenarios, we show that the effect of carbon tax on air pollution is robust regardless of growth levels.

  11. Cost Effective Measures to Reduce CO2 Emissions in the Air Freight Sector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blinge, Magnus

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents cost effective measures to reduce CO2 emissions in the air freight sector. One door-to-door transport chain is studied in detail from a Scandinavian city to a city in southern Europe. The transport chain was selected by a group of representatives from the air freight sector in order to encompass general characteristics within the sector. Three different ways of shipping air cargo are studied, i.e., by air freighter, as belly freight (in passenger aircrafts) and trucking. CO2 emissions are calculated for each part of the transport chain and its relative importance towards the total amount CO2 emitted during the whole transport chain is shown. It is confirmed that the most CO2 emitting part of the transport chain is the actual flight and that it is in the take-off and climbing phases that most fuel are burned. It is also known that the technical development of aircraft implies a reduction in fuel consumption for each new generation of aircraft. Thus, the aircraft manufacturers have an important role in this development. Having confirmed these observations, this paper focuses on other factors that significantly affects the fuel consumption. Analyzed factors are, e.g., optimization of speed and altitude, traffic management, congestion on and around the airfields, tankering, "latest acceptance time" for goods and improving the load factor. The different factors relative contribution to the total emission levels for the transport chain has been estimated.

  12. Effect of a sudden fuel shortage on freight transport in the United States: an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Hooker, J N

    1980-01-01

    A survey was made of the potential effects of a sudden reduction of fuel supplies on freight transport via truck, rail, water, and pipeline. After a brief discussion of the energy characteristics of each of these modes of transport, short-term strategies for making better use of fuel in a crisis are investigated. Short-term is taken to mean something on the order of six months, and a crisis is taken to be the result of something on the order of a 20% drop in available fuel. Although no succinct or well-established conclusions are drawn, the gist of the paper is that the potential for short-term conservation, without a serious disruption of service, exists but does not appear to be large. It is remarked that it is possible, through further study, to obtain a fairly accurate reckoning of the physical ability of the freight transport network to weather a fuel crisis, but that it is impossible to say in advance what freight carriers will in fact do with the network.

  13. Transportation Energy Futures Series: Freight Transportation Modal Shares: Scenarios for a Low-Carbon Future

    SciTech Connect

    Brogan, J. J.; Aeppli, A. E.; Beagan, D. F.; Brown, A.; Fischer, M. J.; Grenzeback, L. R.; McKenzie, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Vyas, A. D.; Witzke, E.

    2013-03-01

    Truck, rail, water, air, and pipeline modes each serve a distinct share of the freight transportation market. The current allocation of freight by mode is the product of technologic, economic, and regulatory frameworks, and a variety of factors -- price, speed, reliability, accessibility, visibility, security, and safety -- influence mode. Based on a comprehensive literature review, this report considers how analytical methods can be used to project future modal shares and offers insights on federal policy decisions with the potential to prompt shifts to energy-efficient, low-emission modes. There are substantial opportunities to reduce the energy used for freight transportation, but it will be difficult to shift large volumes from one mode to another without imposing considerable additional costs on businesses and consumers. This report explores federal government actions that could help trigger the shifts in modal shares needed to reduce energy consumption and emissions. This is one in a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency effort to pinpoint underexplored strategies for reducing GHGs and petroleum dependence related to transportation.

  14. Document Update and Compare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knoch, C. F.; Caldwell, D. C.; Caldwell, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    Document Update and Compare programs provide simple computerized documentmaintenance system on Data General NOVA 840 computer. Document Update program allows user to update document either by batch or terminal input. Documents are modified and lists of modifications printed out.

  15. Shippers and freight operators perceptions of sustainable initiatives.

    PubMed

    Vieira, José Geraldo Vidal; Mendes, Juliana Veiga; Suyama, Suzi Sanae

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this paper is to document the extent to which Brazilian companies in retail channels have committed to adopting environmental sustainability measures, goals and strategies for waste disposal in the evaluation and planning of sustainable transportation. This paper also aims to examine the different viewpoints of sustainability issues and the preventive actions taken by companies in terms of controlling carbon dioxide emissions and proper disposal of tires, lubricant oils, accessories and spare parts. Finally, taking the perspective of these companies, this paper examines their difficulties in meeting environmental regulations. The research involved a survey completed by 185 representatives of different types of companies, including shippers (represented by manufacturers), LSPs (logistics service providers) and carriers. The non-linear canonical correlation was calculated to verify the opinions of these representatives from different companies regarding issues that impact on the environment, the preventive actions they adopt to reduce their environmental impact and their difficulties in meeting environmental regulations. The results show that shippers and LSPs have the same perceptions regarding these sustainability issues and preventive actions. In addition, the companies perceive high costs and the lack of training for their partners as the major challenges experienced in addressing these issues and undertaking preventive actions. Therefore they need to plan their transportation activities.

  16. 49 CFR Table 3 to Subpart B of... - Alternative Schedule for Application of Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... owner shall take such additional action as may be necessary to achieve future compliance. (D) Cars to be... Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a)(2)(ii) 3 Table 3 to Subpart B of Part 224...—Alternative Schedule for Application of Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a)(2)(ii) (A)...

  17. 49 CFR Table 3 to Subpart B of... - Alternative Schedule for Application of Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... owner shall take such additional action as may be necessary to achieve future compliance. (D) Cars to be... Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a)(2)(ii) 3 Table 3 to Subpart B of Part 224...—Alternative Schedule for Application of Retroreflective Material to Freight Cars per § 224.107(a)(2)(ii) (A)...

  18. Characterization of the near-source population around five candidate ports on the Eastern Seaboard and Gulf Coast using a multi-modal freight transport perspective

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many ports are currently preparing for increased freight traffic, which may result in elevated local air pollution in areas near the port and freight transportation corridors. In this study, a geographical information system (GIS) analysis of areas surrounding five ports – Port o...

  19. 48 CFR 847.303-70 - F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid, transportation charges to be included on the invoice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... Transportation in Supply Contracts 847.303-70 F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid, transportation charges to be included on the invoice. (a) The delivery terms will be stated as “f.o.b. origin, transportation...

  20. 48 CFR 847.303-70 - F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid, transportation charges to be included on the invoice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false F.o.b. origin, freight... Transportation in Supply Contracts 847.303-70 F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid, transportation charges to be included on the invoice. (a) The delivery terms will be stated as “f.o.b. origin, transportation...

  1. High frequency of fumigants and other toxic gases in imported freight containers--an underestimated occupational and community health risk.

    PubMed

    Baur, Xaver; Poschadel, Bernd; Budnik, Lygia Therese

    2010-03-01

    Residues of pesticide fumigants and toxic industrial chemicals in freight containers represent a health hazard to employees and consumers, especially since freight containers are sealed for transport and distributed widely throughout the importing countries before being opened for unloading. We investigated 2113 freight containers arriving at the second largest container terminal in Europe, Hamburg, Germany, over a 10-week period in 2006. The countries of origin, type of contents and the pesticide fumigation history declared on labels attached to the container were recorded. We determined that 1478 (70%) containers were contaminated with toxic chemicals above chronic reference exposure levels; 761 (36%) even exceeded the higher acute reference exposure level thresholds. Benzene and/or formaldehyde contamination was 4-times greater than for fumigants. Our findings indicate a health risk for dockworkers, container unloaders and even end-consumers, especially as many of the cancerogenic or toxic gases elude subjective detection.

  2. Centrality based Document Ranking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    approach. We model the documents to be ranked as nodes in a graph and place edges between documents based on their similarity. Given a query, we compute...similarity of the query with respect to every document in the graph . Based on these similarity values, documents are ranked for a given query...clinical documents using centrality based approach. We model the documents to be ranked as nodes in a graph and place edges between documents based on their

  3. Advanced cargo aircraft may offer a potential renaissance in freight transportation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Shelby J.; Sawyer, Wallace C.

    1993-01-01

    The increasing demand for air freight transportation has prompted studies of large, aerodynamically efficient cargo-optimized aircraft capable of carrying intermodal containers, which are typically 8 x 8 x 20 ft. Studies have accordingly been conducted within NASA to ascertain the specifications and projected operating costs of such a vehicle, as well as to identify critical, development-pacing technologies. Attention is here given not only to the rather conventional, 10-turbofan engined configuration thus arrived at, but numerous innovative configurations featuring such concepts as spanloading, removable cargo pods, and ground effect.

  4. Fatigue test of a fiberglass based composite panel. Increasing the lifetime of freight wagon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobek, M.; Baier, A.; Grabowski, Ł.; Majzner, M.

    2016-08-01

    In the XXI century transportation of goods plays a key role in the economy. Due to a good logistics the economy is able to grow fluently. Although land transportation is carried out mainly through trucks for the last several years there has been noted an increase in the percentage share of rail transport in the freight transport. The main goods transported by railways are mineral fuels, mining and quarrying products. They constitute the greater part of 70% of total transported goods. Transportation of material of such high weight, high hardness and with different shapes involves increased and accelerated wear and tear of the cargo space of the wagon. This process is also magnified by substances used to prevent overheating or goods theft. Usually they are in the form of chemical compounds powder, eg. Calcium. A very large impact on the wear of the freight wagons hull is made because of mechanical damage. Their source comes mostly from loading cargo with impetus and using heavy machines during unloading. A large number of cycles of loading and unloading during the working period causes abrasion of body and as a result after several years a wagon car qualifies for a major maintenance. Possibility of application composite panels in the process of renovating the wagons body could reduce the weight of whole train and prolong the service life between mandatory technical inspection. The Paper "Fatigue test of a fiberglass based composite panel. Increasing the lifetime of freight wagon" presents the research process and the results of the endurance test of the composite panel samples fixed to a metal plate. As a fixing method a stainless steel rivet nut and a stainless steel button head socket screws were chosen. Cyclic and multiple load were applied to test samples using a pneumatic cylinder. Such a methodology simulated the forces resulting from loading and unloading of the wagon and movement of the cargo during transport. In the study a dedicated stand equipped with a

  5. Phase 1: Definition of intercity transportation comparison framework. Volume 1: Summary. [operations research of passenger and freight transporatation systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A unified framework for comparing intercity passenger and freight transportation systems is presented. Composite measures for cost, service/demand, energy, and environmental impact were determined. A set of 14 basic measures were articulated to form the foundation for computing the composite measures. A parameter dependency diagram, constructed to explicitly interrelate the composite and basic measures is discussed. Ground rules and methodology for developing the values of the basic measures are provided and the use of the framework with existing cost and service data is illustrated for various freight systems.

  6. Simulation of longitudinal dynamics of long freight trains in positioning operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhaohui; Huang, Zhihao; Kong, Xianchao

    2012-09-01

    Positioning operations are performed in a railway goods yard, in which the freight train is pulled precisely at a specific point by a positioner. The positioner moves strictly according to the predesigned speed and provides all the traction and braking forces which are highly dependent on the longitudinal dynamic response. In order to improve the efficiency and protect the wagons from damage during positioning operations, the design speed of the positioner has to be optimised based on the simulation of longitudinal train dynamics. However, traditional models of longitudinal train dynamics are not accurate enough in some aspects. In this study, we make some changes in the traditional theory to make it suitable for the study of long freight trains in positioning operations. In the proposed method, instead of the traction force on the train, the motion of the positioner is assumed to be known; more importantly, the traditional draft gear model with nonlinear spring and linear damping is replaced by a more detailed model based on the achievement of contact and impact mechanics; the switching effects of the resistance and the coupler slack are also taken into consideration. Numerical examples that deal with positioning operations on the straight lines, slope lines and curving lines are given.

  7. A real-time visual inspection method of fastening bolts in freight car operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Guo; Yao, JunEn

    2015-10-01

    A real-time inspection of the key components is necessary for ensuring safe operation of freight car. While traditional inspection depends on the trained human inspectors, which is time-consuming and lower efficient. With the development of machine vision, vision-based inspection methods get more railway on-spot applications. The cross rod end fastening bolts are important components on both sides of the train body that fixing locking plates together with the freight car main structure. In our experiment, we get the images containing fastening bolt components, and accurately locate the locking plate position using a linear Support Vector Machine (SVM) locating model trained with Histograms of Oriented Gradients (HOG) features. Then we extract the straight line segment using the Line Segment Detector (LSD) and encoding them in a range, which constitute a straight line segment dataset. Lastly we determine the locking plate's working state by the linear pattern. The experiment result shows that the localization accurate rate is over 99%, the fault detection rate is over 95%, and the module implementation time is 2f/s. The overall performance can completely meet the practical railway safety assurance application.

  8. Generic safety documentation model

    SciTech Connect

    Mahn, J.A.

    1994-04-01

    This document is intended to be a resource for preparers of safety documentation for Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico facilities. It provides standardized discussions of some topics that are generic to most, if not all, Sandia/NM facilities safety documents. The material provides a ``core`` upon which to develop facility-specific safety documentation. The use of the information in this document will reduce the cost of safety document preparation and improve consistency of information.

  9. Characterization of road freight transportation and its impact on the national emission inventory in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. F.; Liu, H.; Man, H. Y.; He, K. B.

    2014-06-01

    Mobile source emission inventories serve as critical input for atmospheric chemical transport models, which are used to simulate air quality and understand the role of mobile source emissions. The significance of mobile sources is even more important in China because the country has the largest vehicle population in the world, and that population continues to grow rapidly. Estimating emissions from diesel trucks is a critical work in mobile source emission inventories due to the importance and difficulties associated with estimating emissions from diesel trucks. Although diesel trucks are major contributors of nitrogen oxide (NOx) and primary particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), there are still more obstacles on the existing estimation of diesel truck emissions compared with that of cars; long-range freight transportation activities are complicated, and much of the basic data remain unclear. Most of existing inventories were based on local registration number. However, according to our research, a large number of trucks are conducting long-distance inter-city or inter province transportation. Instead of the local registration number based approach, a road emission intensity-based (REIB) approach is introduced in this research. To provide efficient data for the REIB approach, 1060 questionnaire responses and approximately 1.7 million valid seconds of onboard GPS monitoring data were collected. Both the questionnaire answers and GPS monitoring results indicated that the driving conditions on different types of road have significant impacts on the emission levels of freight trucks. We present estimated emissions of NOx and primary PM2.5 from diesel freight trucks for China in 2011. Using the REIB approach, the activity level and distribution data are obtained from the questionnaire answers. Emission factors are calculated with the International Vehicle Emission (IVE) model that interpolated local on-board measurement results in China according to the GPS

  10. Automated document analysis system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, Jeffrey D.; Dietzel, Robert; Hartnett, David

    2002-08-01

    A software application has been developed to aid law enforcement and government intelligence gathering organizations in the translation and analysis of foreign language documents with potential intelligence content. The Automated Document Analysis System (ADAS) provides the capability to search (data or text mine) documents in English and the most commonly encountered foreign languages, including Arabic. Hardcopy documents are scanned by a high-speed scanner and are optical character recognized (OCR). Documents obtained in an electronic format bypass the OCR and are copied directly to a working directory. For translation and analysis, the script and the language of the documents are first determined. If the document is not in English, the document is machine translated to English. The documents are searched for keywords and key features in either the native language or translated English. The user can quickly review the document to determine if it has any intelligence content and whether detailed, verbatim human translation is required. The documents and document content are cataloged for potential future analysis. The system allows non-linguists to evaluate foreign language documents and allows for the quick analysis of a large quantity of documents. All document processing can be performed manually or automatically on a single document or a batch of documents.

  11. EPA SmartWay Honors Old Dominion Freight Line in Thomasville, N.C., for Superior Supply Chain Efficiency

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ATLANTA - Today, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recognized Old Dominion Freight Line, Inc in Thomasville, N.C., with a SmartWay® Excellence Award. Awardees are environmentally responsible carriers that move more goods more miles with lo

  12. 76 FR 27366 - CEVA Freight, LLC, Dell Logistics Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Prologistix...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... Employment and Training Administration CEVA Freight, LLC, Dell Logistics Division, Including On-Site Leased..., LLC, Dell Logistics Division, including on-site leased workers from Prologistix, Winston-Salem, North... Logistics Division, Winston-Salem, North Carolina who were adversely affected as a supplier of...

  13. 75 FR 38128 - Ceva Freight, LLC, Dell Logistics Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Prologistix and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Employment and Training Administration Ceva Freight, LLC, Dell Logistics Division, Including On-Site Leased..., LLC, Dell Logistics Division, including on-site leased workers from Prologistix, Winston-Salem, North..., Dell Logistics Division. The Department has determined that these workers were sufficiently under...

  14. 49 CFR 174.85 - Position in train of placarded cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Position in train of placarded cars, transport... TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY RAIL Handling of Placarded Rail Cars, Transport Vehicles and Freight Containers § 174.85 Position in train of placarded cars, transport vehicles,...

  15. 49 CFR 174.85 - Position in train of placarded cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Position in train of placarded cars, transport... TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY RAIL Handling of Placarded Rail Cars, Transport Vehicles and Freight Containers § 174.85 Position in train of placarded cars, transport vehicles,...

  16. 49 CFR 174.85 - Position in train of placarded cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Position in train of placarded cars, transport... TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY RAIL Handling of Placarded Rail Cars, Transport Vehicles and Freight Containers § 174.85 Position in train of placarded cars, transport vehicles,...

  17. 49 CFR 174.85 - Position in train of placarded cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Position in train of placarded cars, transport... TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY RAIL Handling of Placarded Rail Cars, Transport Vehicles and Freight Containers § 174.85 Position in train of placarded cars, transport vehicles,...

  18. 49 CFR 174.85 - Position in train of placarded cars, transport vehicles, freight containers, and bulk packagings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Position in train of placarded cars, transport... TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY RAIL Handling of Placarded Rail Cars, Transport Vehicles and Freight Containers § 174.85 Position in train of placarded cars, transport vehicles,...

  19. Report on the Audit of Routing of DoD Freight Shipments by the Military Traffic Management Command

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    total freight transportation cost), was required to be routed by the Military Traffic Management Command ( MTMC ). The remaining 1.13 million shipments...single manager operating agency for military traffic, land transportation, and common-user ocean terminals, MTMC is responsible for directing

  20. Freight transportation and the potential for invasions of exotic insects in urban and periurban forests of the United States.

    PubMed

    Colunga-Garcia, Manuel; Haack, Robert A; Adelaja, Adesoji O

    2009-02-01

    Freight transportation is an important pathway for the introduction and dissemination of exotic forest insects (EFI). Identifying the final destination of imports is critical in determining the likelihood of EFI establishment. We analyzed the use of regional freight transport information to characterize risk of urban and periurban areas to EFI introductions. Specific objectives were to 1) approximate the final distribution of selected imports among urban areas of the United States, 2) characterize the final distribution of imports in terms of their spatial aggregation and dominant world region of origin, and 3) assess the effect of the final distribution of imports on the level of risk to urban and periurban forests from EFI. Freight pattern analyses were conducted for three categories of imports whose products or packaging materials are associated with EFI: wood products, nonmetallic mineral products, and machinery. The final distribution of wood products was the most evenly distributed of the three selected imports, whereas machinery was most spatially concentrated. We found that the type of import and the world region of origin greatly influence the final distribution of imported products. Risk assessment models were built based on the amount of forestland and imports for each urban area The model indicated that 84-88% of the imported tonnage went to only 4-6% of the urban areas in the contiguous United States. We concluded that freight movement information is critical for proper risk assessment of EFI. Implications of our findings and future research needs are discussed.

  1. 49 CFR Table 2 of Subpart B to... - Minimum Quantity Requirement for Retroreflective Sheeting on Freight Rolling Stock

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Minimum Quantity Requirement for Retroreflective Sheeting on Freight Rolling Stock 2 Table 2 of Subpart B to Part 224 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. 49 CFR 385.14 - Motor carriers, brokers, and freight forwarders delinquent in paying civil penalties: prohibition...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Motor carriers, brokers, and freight forwarders delinquent in paying civil penalties: prohibition on transportation. 385.14 Section 385.14 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY...

  3. 49 CFR 385.14 - Motor carriers, brokers, and freight forwarders delinquent in paying civil penalties: prohibition...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Motor carriers, brokers, and freight forwarders delinquent in paying civil penalties: prohibition on transportation. 385.14 Section 385.14 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY...

  4. 49 CFR Table 2 of Subpart B to... - Minimum Quantity Requirement for Retroreflective Sheeting on Freight Rolling Stock

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Minimum Quantity Requirement for Retroreflective Sheeting on Freight Rolling Stock 2 Table 2 of Subpart B to Part 224 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  5. 77 FR 77183 - Union Pacific Railroad Company-Abandonment of Freight Easement Exemption-in Alameda County, Cal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board [Docket No. AB 33 (Sub-No. 309X); Docket No. AB 980 (Sub-No. 2X)] Union Pacific Railroad Company--Abandonment of Freight Easement Exemption--in Alameda County, Cal. (San...

  6. Computer software documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comella, P. A.

    1973-01-01

    A tutorial in the documentation of computer software is presented. It presents a methodology for achieving an adequate level of documentation as a natural outgrowth of the total programming effort commencing with the initial problem statement and definition and terminating with the final verification of code. It discusses the content of adequate documentation, the necessity for such documentation and the problems impeding achievement of adequate documentation.

  7. Characterization of road freight transportation and its impact on the national emission inventory in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. F.; Liu, H.; Man, H. Y.; He, K. B.

    2015-02-01

    Diesel trucks are major contributors of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and primary particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) in the transportation sector. However, there are more obstacles to existing estimations of diesel-truck emissions compared with those of cars. The obstacles include both inappropriate methodology and missing basic data in China. According to our research, a large number of trucks are conducting long-distance intercity or interprovincial transportation. Thus, the method used by most existing inventories, based on local registration number, is inappropriate. A road emission intensity-based (REIB) approach is introduced in this research instead of registration-population-based approach. To provide efficient data for the REIB approach, 1060 questionnaire responses and approximately 1.7 million valid seconds of onboard GPS monitoring data were collected in China. The estimated NOx and PM2.5 emissions from diesel freight trucks in China were 5.0 (4.8-7.2) million tonnes and 0.20 (0.17-0.22) million tonnes, respectively, in 2011. The province-based emission inventory is also established using the REIB approach. It was found that the driving conditions on different types of road have significant impacts on the emission levels of freight trucks. The largest differences among the emission factors (in g km-1) on different roads exceed 70 and 50% for NOx and PM2.5, respectively. A region with more intercity freeways or national roads tends to have more NOx emissions, while urban streets play a more important role in primary PM2.5 emissions from freight trucks. Compared with the inventory of the Ministry of Environment Protection, which allocates emissions according to local truck registration number and neglects interregional long-distance transport trips, the differences for NOx and PM2.5 are +28 and -57%, respectively. The REIB approach matches better with traffic statistical data on a provincial level. Furthermore, the different driving conditions on the

  8. Degraded document image enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agam, G.; Bal, G.; Frieder, G.; Frieder, O.

    2007-01-01

    Poor quality documents are obtained in various situations such as historical document collections, legal archives, security investigations, and documents found in clandestine locations. Such documents are often scanned for automated analysis, further processing, and archiving. Due to the nature of such documents, degraded document images are often hard to read, have low contrast, and are corrupted by various artifacts. We describe a novel approach for the enhancement of such documents based on probabilistic models which increases the contrast, and thus, readability of such documents under various degradations. The enhancement produced by the proposed approach can be viewed under different viewing conditions if desired. The proposed approach was evaluated qualitatively and compared to standard enhancement techniques on a subset of historical documents obtained from the Yad Vashem Holocaust museum. In addition, quantitative performance was evaluated based on synthetically generated data corrupted under various degradation models. Preliminary results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  9. Work inside ocean freight containers--personal exposure to off-gassing chemicals.

    PubMed

    Svedberg, Urban; Johanson, Gunnar

    2013-11-01

    More than 500 million ocean freight container units are shipped annually between countries and continents. Residual levels of fumigants, as well as naturally occurring off-gassing chemicals emanating from the goods, constitute safety risks, which may affect uniformed workers upon entering the container. The aim of this study was to assess workers' exposure during stripping of containers and is the first study of its kind. First, an experimental tracer gas method was investigated to determine its usefulness to approximate real exposures from gaseous fumigants and off-gassing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Nitrous oxide was injected and left to distribute in the closed containers. The distribution of the tracer gas and initial (arrival) concentrations of off-gassing volatiles were measured prior to opening the containers. Second, personal exposure (breathing zone) and work zone air monitoring of both tracer gas and VOCs were carried out during stripping. Adsorbent tubes, bag samples, and direct-readings instruments (photoionization detector and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry) were used. The distribution studies with nitrous oxide, and the high correlation between the former and VOCs (r(2) ~ 0.8) during stripping, showed that the tracer gas method may well be used to approximate real exposures in containers. The average breathing zone and work zone concentrations during stripping of naturally ventilated 40-foot containers were 1-7% of the arrival concentrations; however, peaks up to 70% were seen during opening. Even if average exposures during stripping are significantly lower than arrival concentrations, they may still represent serious violations of occupational exposure limits in high-risk containers. The results from this and previous studies illustrate the need to establish practices for the safe handling of ocean freight containers. Until comprehensive recommendations are in place, personnel that need to enter such containers should, in addition to

  10. Work Inside Ocean Freight Containers—Personal Exposure to Off-Gassing Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Svedberg, Urban

    2013-01-01

    More than 500 million ocean freight container units are shipped annually between countries and continents. Residual levels of fumigants, as well as naturally occurring off-gassing chemicals emanating from the goods, constitute safety risks, which may affect uniformed workers upon entering the container. The aim of this study was to assess workers’ exposure during stripping of containers and is the first study of its kind. First, an experimental tracer gas method was investigated to determine its usefulness to approximate real exposures from gaseous fumigants and off-gassing volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Nitrous oxide was injected and left to distribute in the closed containers. The distribution of the tracer gas and initial (arrival) concentrations of off-gassing volatiles were measured prior to opening the containers. Second, personal exposure (breathing zone) and work zone air monitoring of both tracer gas and VOCs were carried out during stripping. Adsorbent tubes, bag samples, and direct-readings instruments (photoionization detector and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry) were used. The distribution studies with nitrous oxide, and the high correlation between the former and VOCs (r 2 ~ 0.8) during stripping, showed that the tracer gas method may well be used to approximate real exposures in containers. The average breathing zone and work zone concentrations during stripping of naturally ventilated 40-foot containers were 1–7% of the arrival concentrations; however, peaks up to 70% were seen during opening. Even if average exposures during stripping are significantly lower than arrival concentrations, they may still represent serious violations of occupational exposure limits in high-risk containers. The results from this and previous studies illustrate the need to establish practices for the safe handling of ocean freight containers. Until comprehensive recommendations are in place, personnel that need to enter such containers should, in addition

  11. Documentation and knowledge acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rochowiak, Daniel; Moseley, Warren

    1990-01-01

    Traditional approaches to knowledge acquisition have focused on interviews. An alternative focuses on the documentation associated with a domain. Adopting a documentation approach provides some advantages during familiarization. A knowledge management tool was constructed to gain these advantages.

  12. JSC document index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Johnson Space Center (JSC) document index is intended to provide a single source listing of all published JSC-numbered documents their authors, and the designated offices of prime responsibility (OPR's) by mail code at the time of publication. The index contains documents which have been received and processed by the JSC Technical Library as of January 13, 1988. Other JSC-numbered documents which are controlled but not available through the JSC Library are also listed.

  13. The Freight Analysis Framework Verson 4 (FAF4) - Building the FAF4 Regional Database: Data Sources and Estimation Methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Ho-Ling; Hargrove, Stephanie; Chin, Shih-Miao; Wilson, Daniel W.; Lim, Hyeonsup; Chen, Jiaoli; Taylor, Rob; Peterson, Bruce; Davidson, Diane

    2016-09-01

    The Freight Analysis Framework (FAF) integrates data from a variety of sources to create a comprehensive national picture of freight movements among states and major metropolitan areas by all modes of transportation. It provides a national picture of current freight flows to, from, and within the United States, assigns the flows to the transportation network, and projects freight flow patterns into the future. The FAF4 is the fourth database of its kind, FAF1 provided estimates for truck, rail, and water tonnage for calendar year 1998, FAF2 provided a more complete picture based on the 2002 Commodity Flow Survey (CFS) and FAF3 made further improvements building on the 2007 CFS. Since the first FAF effort, a number of changes in both data sources and products have taken place. The FAF4 flow matrix described in this report is used as the base-year data to forecast future freight activities, projecting shipment weights and values from year 2020 to 2045 in five-year intervals. It also provides the basis for annual estimates to the FAF4 flow matrix, aiming to provide users with the timeliest data. Furthermore, FAF4 truck freight is routed on the national highway network to produce the FAF4 network database and flow assignments for truck. This report details the data sources and methodologies applied to develop the base year 2012 FAF4 database. An overview of the FAF4 components is briefly discussed in Section 2. Effects on FAF4 from the changes in the 2012 CFS are highlighted in Section 3. Section 4 provides a general discussion on the process used in filling data gaps within the domestic CFS matrix, specifically on the estimation of CFS suppressed/unpublished cells. Over a dozen CFS OOS components of FAF4 are then addressed in Section 5 through Section 11 of this report. This includes discussions of farm-based agricultural shipments in Section 5, shipments from fishery and logging sectors in Section 6. Shipments of municipal solid wastes and debris from construction

  14. Guidelines for Document Designers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felker, Daniel B.; And Others

    Intended to improve the quality of public documents by making them clearer to the people who use them, this book contains document design principles concerned with writing documents that are visually distinct, attractive, and easily understood. Following an introduction, the major portion of the book presents the 25 principles, each of which…

  15. Documenting Employee Conduct

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Jason

    2009-01-01

    One of the best ways for a child care program to lose an employment-related lawsuit is failure to document the performance of its employees. Documentation of an employee's performance can provide evidence of an employment-related decision such as discipline, promotion, or discharge. When properly implemented, documentation of employee performance…

  16. Program analysis for documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lolmaugh, G. H.

    1970-01-01

    A program analysis for documentation (PAD) written in FORTRAN has three steps: listing the variables, describing the structure and writing the program specifications. Technical notes on editing criteria for reviewing program documentation, technical notes for PAD, and FORTRAN program analyzer for documentation are appended.

  17. Automated Management Of Documents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boy, Guy

    1995-01-01

    Report presents main technical issues involved in computer-integrated documentation. Problems associated with automation of management and maintenance of documents analyzed from perspectives of artificial intelligence and human factors. Technologies that may prove useful in computer-integrated documentation reviewed: these include conventional approaches to indexing and retrieval of information, use of hypertext, and knowledge-based artificial-intelligence systems.

  18. Documents and Civic Duties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2005-01-01

    All of the documents featured in this article come from the holdings of the National Archives and Records Administration. Primary source documents illustrate what is meant by responsible citizenship. The people who create documents as well as those who are featured in them can serve as models of civic behavior--both appropriate and…

  19. Starlink Document Styles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawden, M. D.

    This document describes the various styles which are recommended for Starlink documents. It also explains how to use the templates which are provided by Starlink to help authors create documents in a standard style. This paper is concerned mainly with conveying the ``look and feel" of the various styles of Starlink document rather than describing the technical details of how to produce them. Other Starlink papers give recommendations for the detailed aspects of document production, design, layout, and typography. The only style that is likely to be used by most Starlink authors is the Standard style.

  20. PSD Guidance Document

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  1. Toward Parallel Document Clustering

    SciTech Connect

    Mogill, Jace A.; Haglin, David J.

    2011-09-01

    A key challenge to automated clustering of documents in large text corpora is the high cost of comparing documents in a multimillion dimensional document space. The Anchors Hierarchy is a fast data structure and algorithm for localizing data based on a triangle inequality obeying distance metric, the algorithm strives to minimize the number of distance calculations needed to cluster the documents into “anchors” around reference documents called “pivots”. We extend the original algorithm to increase the amount of available parallelism and consider two implementations: a complex data structure which affords efficient searching, and a simple data structure which requires repeated sorting. The sorting implementation is integrated with a text corpora “Bag of Words” program and initial performance results of end-to-end a document processing workflow are reported.

  2. Tobacco documents research methodology

    PubMed Central

    McCandless, Phyra M; Klausner, Kim; Taketa, Rachel; Yerger, Valerie B

    2011-01-01

    Tobacco documents research has developed into a thriving academic enterprise since its inception in 1995. The technology supporting tobacco documents archiving, searching and retrieval has improved greatly since that time, and consequently tobacco documents researchers have considerably more access to resources than was the case when researchers had to travel to physical archives and/or electronically search poorly and incompletely indexed documents. The authors of the papers presented in this supplement all followed the same basic research methodology. Rather than leave the reader of the supplement to read the same discussion of methods in each individual paper, presented here is an overview of the methods all authors followed. In the individual articles that follow in this supplement, the authors present the additional methodological information specific to their topics. This brief discussion also highlights technological capabilities in the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library and updates methods for organising internal tobacco documents data and findings. PMID:21504933

  3. System Documentation Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semmel, Melvyn I.; Olson, Jerry

    The document is a system documentation manual of the Computer-Assisted Teacher Training System (CATTS) developed by the Center for Innovation in Teaching the Handicapped (Indiana University). CATTS is characterized as a system capable of providing continuous, instantaneous, and/or delayed feedback of relevant teacher-student interaction data to a…

  4. IDC System Specification Document.

    SciTech Connect

    Clifford, David J.

    2014-12-01

    This document contains the system specifications derived to satisfy the system requirements found in the IDC System Requirements Document for the IDC Reengineering Phase 2 project. Revisions Version Date Author/Team Revision Description Authorized by V1.0 12/2014 IDC Reengineering Project Team Initial delivery M. Harris

  5. Document Design: Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Deborah C., Ed.; Dyrud, Marilyn, Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Presents four articles that provide suggestions for teaching document design: (1) "Teaching the Rhetoric of Document Design" (Michael J. Hassett); (2) "Teaching by Example: Suggestions for Assignment Design" (Marilyn A. Dyrud); (3) "Teaching the Page as a Visual Unit" (Bill Hart-Davidson); and (4) "Designing a…

  6. NASA Software Documentation Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The NASA Software Documentation Standard (hereinafter referred to as "Standard") is designed to support the documentation of all software developed for NASA; its goal is to provide a framework and model for recording the essential information needed throughout the development life cycle and maintenance of a software system. The NASA Software Documentation Standard can be applied to the documentation of all NASA software. The Standard is limited to documentation format and content requirements. It does not mandate specific management, engineering, or assurance standards or techniques. This Standard defines the format and content of documentation for software acquisition, development, and sustaining engineering. Format requirements address where information shall be recorded and content requirements address what information shall be recorded. This Standard provides a framework to allow consistency of documentation across NASA and visibility into the completeness of project documentation. The basic framework consists of four major sections (or volumes). The Management Plan contains all planning and business aspects of a software project, including engineering and assurance planning. The Product Specification contains all technical engineering information, including software requirements and design. The Assurance and Test Procedures contains all technical assurance information, including Test, Quality Assurance (QA), and Verification and Validation (V&V). The Management, Engineering, and Assurance Reports is the library and/or listing of all project reports.

  7. Freight-train derailment rates for railroad safety and risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Rapik Saat, M; Barkan, Christopher P L

    2017-01-01

    Derailments are the most common type of train accident in the United States. They cause damage to infrastructure, rolling stock and lading, disrupt service, and have the potential to cause casualties, and harm the environment. Train safety and risk analysis relies on accurate assessment of derailment likelihood. Derailment rate - the number of derailments normalized by traffic exposure - is a useful statistic to estimate the likelihood of a derailment. Despite its importance, derailment rate analysis using multiple factors has not been previously developed. In this paper, we present an analysis of derailment rates on Class I railroad mainlines based on data from the U.S. Federal Railroad Administration and the major freight railroads. The point estimator and confidence interval of train and car derailment rates are developed by FRA track class, method of operation and annual traffic density. The analysis shows that signaled track with higher FRA track class and higher traffic density is associated with a lower derailment rate. The new accident rates have important implications for safety and risk management decisions, such as the routing of hazardous materials.

  8. Longitudinal review of state-level accident statistics for carriers of interstate freight

    SciTech Connect

    Saricks, C.; Kvitek, T.

    1994-03-01

    State-level accident rates by mode of freight transport have been developed and refined for application to the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) environmental mitigation program, which may involve large-quantity shipments of hazardous and mixed wastes from DOE facilities. These rates reflect multi-year data for interstate-registered highway earners, American Association of Railroads member carriers, and coastal and internal waterway barge traffic. Adjustments have been made to account for the share of highway combination-truck traffic actually attributable to interstate-registered carriers and for duplicate or otherwise inaccurate entries in the public-use accident data files used. State-to-state variation in rates is discussed, as is the stability of rates over time. Computed highway rates have been verified with actual carriers of high- and low-level nuclear materials, and the most recent truck accident data have been used, to ensure that the results are of the correct order of magnitude. Study conclusions suggest that DOE use the computed rates for the three modes until (1) improved estimation techniques for highway combination-truck miles by state become available; (2) continued evolution of the railroad industry significantly increases the consolidation of interstate rail traffic onto fewer high-capacity trunk lines; or (3) a large-scale off-site waste shipment campaign is imminent.

  9. Protecting public health and global freight transportation systems during an influenza pandemic.

    PubMed

    Luke, Thomas C; Rodrigue, Jean-Paul

    2008-01-01

    The H5N1 influenza threat is resulting in global preparations for the next influenza pandemic. Pandemic influenza planners are prioritizing scarce vaccine, antivirals, and public health support for different segments of society. The freight, bulk goods, and energy transportation network comprise the maritime, rail, air, and trucking industries. It relies on small numbers of specialized workers who cannot be rapidly replaced if lost due to death, illness, or voluntary absenteeism. Because transportation networks link economies, provide critical infrastructures with working material, and supply citizens with necessary commodities, disrupted transportation systems can lead to cascading failures in social and economic systems. However, some pandemic influenza plans have assigned transportation workers a low priority for public health support, vaccine, and antivirals. The science of Transportation Geography demonstrates that transportation networks and workers are concentrated at, or funnel through, a small number of chokepoints and corridors. Chokepoints should be used to rapidly and efficiently vaccinate and prophylax the transportation worker cohort and to implement transmission prevention measures and thereby protect the ability to move goods. Nations, states, the transportation industry and unions, businesses, and other stakeholders must plan, resource, and exercise, and then conduct a transportation health assurance and security campaign for an influenza pandemic.

  10. Effects of wind on background particle concentrations at truck freight terminals.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Ronald; Hart, Jaime E; Davis, Mary E; Reaser, Paul; Natkin, Jonathan; Laden, Francine; Garshick, Eric; Smith, Thomas J

    2007-01-01

    Truck freight terminals are predominantly located near highways and industrial facilities. This proximity to pollution sources, coupled with meteorological conditions and wind patterns, may affect occupational exposures to particles at these work locations. To understand this process, data from an environmental sampling study of particles at U.S. trucking terminals, along with weather and geographic maps, were analyzed to determine the extent to which the transportation of particles from local pollutant sources elevated observed occupational exposures at these locations. To help identify potential upwind sources, wind direction weighted averages and speed measurements were used to construct wind roses that were superimposed on overhead photos of the terminal and examined for upwind source activity. Statistical tests were performed on these "source" and "nonsource" directions to determine whether there were significant differences in observed particle levels between the two groups. Our results provide evidence that nearby upwind pollution sources significantly elevated background concentrations at only a few of the locations sampled, whereas the majority provided little to no evidence of a significant upwind source effect.

  11. TECHNICAL AND REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS IN USING FREIGHT CONTAINERS AS INDUSTRIAL PACKAGES

    SciTech Connect

    Opperman, E; Mark Hawk, M; Ron Natali, R

    2007-10-16

    The United States (US) Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Environmental Management (EM), is actively pursuing activities to reduce the radiological risk and clean up the environmental legacy of the nation's nuclear weapons programs. EM has made significant progress in recent years in the clean-up and closure of sites and is also focusing on longer-term activities necessary for the completion of the clean-up program. The packaging and transportation of contaminated demolition debris and low-level waste (LLW) materials in a safe and cost-effective manner are essential in completing this mission. Toward this end, the US Department of Transportation's (DOT) Final Rule on Hazardous Materials Regulation Final Rule issued January 26, 2004, included a new provision authorizing the use of Freight Containers (e.g., 20 and 40-foot ISO Containers) as Industrial Packages Type 1, 2, or 3 (IP-1, IP-2, and IP-3). This paper will discuss the technical and regulatory considerations in using these newly authorized and large packages for the packaging and transportation of LLW materials.

  12. NACA documents database project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Ruth S.

    1991-01-01

    The plan to get all the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics (NACA) collection online, with quality records, led to the NACA Documents Data base Project. The project has a two fold purpose: (1) to develop the definitive bibliography of NACA produced and/or held documents; and (2) to make that bibliography and the associated documents available to the aerospace community. This study supports the first objective by providing an analysis of the NACA collection and its bibliographic records, and supports the second objective by defining the NACA archive and recommending methodologies for meeting the project objectives.

  13. Transportation System Requirements Document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification.

  14. Geochemistry Technical Basis Document

    SciTech Connect

    Benedict, Jr., F. Christopher; Rose, Timothy P.; Thomas, James M.; Waddell, Richard; Jacobson, Roger

    2003-12-01

    This document presents a methodology whereby geochemical data can more effectively contribute to the development , calibration, and verification of groundwater flow and slute transport models for the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project.

  15. LCS Content Document Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstadt, Jake

    2011-01-01

    My project at KSC during my spring 2011 internship was to develop a Ruby on Rails application to manage Content Documents..A Content Document is a collection of documents and information that describes what software is installed on a Launch Control System Computer. It's important for us to make sure the tools we use everyday are secure, up-to-date, and properly licensed. Previously, keeping track of the information was done by Excel and Word files between different personnel. The goal of the new application is to be able to manage and access the Content Documents through a single database backed web application. Our LCS team will benefit greatly with this app. Admin's will be able to login securely to keep track and update the software installed on each computer in a timely manner. We also included exportability such as attaching additional documents that can be downloaded from the web application. The finished application will ease the process of managing Content Documents while streamlining the procedure. Ruby on Rails is a very powerful programming language and I am grateful to have the opportunity to build this application.

  16. 22 CFR 201.52 - Required documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ocean vessel, one copy of all bill(s) of lading described in § 201.52(a)(4) has been maiIed to: Maritime... terms, or (ii) By the supplier of ocean transportation whenever USAID-finances the freight under any.... (4) Evidence of shipment. (i) A copy (or photostat) of the bill(s) of lading (ocean, charter...

  17. 22 CFR 201.52 - Required documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ocean vessel, one copy of all bill(s) of lading described in § 201.52(a)(4) has been maiIed to: Maritime... terms, or (ii) By the supplier of ocean transportation whenever USAID-finances the freight under any.... (4) Evidence of shipment. (i) A copy (or photostat) of the bill(s) of lading (ocean, charter...

  18. DoD Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Convention: ASC X12 Transaction Set 859 Generic Freight Invoice (Version 003020)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    10.2.4 930415 DEPARTMENT OF DBEFESE GENERIC FREIGHT INVOICE EDI coNvENlION 859.003020 Interchange Control Envelope Control Segments Pos Seg Req Industry ...Standards Committee X1 2 GS08 480 Version/Releasefindusty id Code M ID 1112 Code indicating the version, release, subrelease and industry identifier of the...530 PER Administrative Communications 0 3 Contact Table 2 - Detail Area PoeSe Req Industry No. I, Name Des Ue Lxp USE 10 LX Assigned Number M 1 LX/999

  19. Document Concurrence System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muhsin, Mansour; Walters, Ian

    2004-01-01

    The Document Concurrence System is a combination of software modules for routing users expressions of concurrence with documents. This system enables determination of the current status of concurrences and eliminates the need for the prior practice of manually delivering paper documents to all persons whose approvals were required. This system runs on a server, and participants gain access via personal computers equipped with Web-browser and electronic-mail software. A user can begin a concurrence routing process by logging onto an administration module, naming the approvers and stating the sequence for routing among them, and attaching documents. The server then sends a message to the first person on the list. Upon concurrence by the first person, the system sends a message to the second person, and so forth. A person on the list indicates approval, places the documents on hold, or indicates disapproval, via a Web-based module. When the last person on the list has concurred, a message is sent to the initiator, who can then finalize the process through the administration module. A background process running on the server identifies concurrence processes that are overdue and sends reminders to the appropriate persons.

  20. System Documentation: A Symposium on Printer Documentation for Computer Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Denise, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This symposium on printed documentation covers (1) Tacoma Public Library's documentation (Lare Mischo); (2) characteristics of bad documentation (Linda Bills); (3) GEAC manuals (Joe Matthews); (4) Personal Bibliographic Software manuals (Victor Rosenberg); (5) DIALOG documentation (Barbara E. Anderson); (6) documentation problems and improvements…

  1. Computer integrated documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boy, Guy

    1991-01-01

    The main technical issues of the Computer Integrated Documentation (CID) project are presented. The problem of automation of documents management and maintenance is analyzed both from an artificial intelligence viewpoint and from a human factors viewpoint. Possible technologies for CID are reviewed: conventional approaches to indexing and information retrieval; hypertext; and knowledge based systems. A particular effort was made to provide an appropriate representation for contextual knowledge. This representation is used to generate context on hypertext links. Thus, indexing in CID is context sensitive. The implementation of the current version of CID is described. It includes a hypertext data base, a knowledge based management and maintenance system, and a user interface. A series is also presented of theoretical considerations as navigation in hyperspace, acquisition of indexing knowledge, generation and maintenance of a large documentation, and relation to other work.

  2. Perceptions of document relevance

    PubMed Central

    Bruza, Peter; Chang, Vivien

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a study of how humans perceive and judge the relevance of documents. Humans are adept at making reasonably robust and quick decisions about what information is relevant to them, despite the ever increasing complexity and volume of their surrounding information environment. The literature on document relevance has identified various dimensions of relevance (e.g., topicality, novelty, etc.), however little is understood about how these dimensions may interact. We performed a crowdsourced study of how human subjects judge two relevance dimensions in relation to document snippets retrieved from an internet search engine. The order of the judgment was controlled. For those judgments exhibiting an order effect, a q–test was performed to determine whether the order effects can be explained by a quantum decision model based on incompatible decision perspectives. Some evidence of incompatibility was found which suggests incompatible decision perspectives is appropriate for explaining interacting dimensions of relevance in such instances. PMID:25071622

  3. Document clustering methods, document cluster label disambiguation methods, document clustering apparatuses, and articles of manufacture

    DOEpatents

    Sanfilippo, Antonio; Calapristi, Augustin J.; Crow, Vernon L.; Hetzler, Elizabeth G.; Turner, Alan E.

    2009-12-22

    Document clustering methods, document cluster label disambiguation methods, document clustering apparatuses, and articles of manufacture are described. In one aspect, a document clustering method includes providing a document set comprising a plurality of documents, providing a cluster comprising a subset of the documents of the document set, using a plurality of terms of the documents, providing a cluster label indicative of subject matter content of the documents of the cluster, wherein the cluster label comprises a plurality of word senses, and selecting one of the word senses of the cluster label.

  4. Customer Communication Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2009-01-01

    This procedure communicates to the Customers of the Automation, Robotics and Simulation Division (AR&SD) Dynamics Systems Test Branch (DSTB) how to obtain services of the Six-Degrees-Of-Freedom Dynamic Test System (SDTS). The scope includes the major communication documents between the SDTS and its Customer. It established the initial communication and contact points as well as provides the initial documentation in electronic media for the customer. Contact the SDTS Manager (SM) for the names of numbers of the current contact points.

  5. Related environmental documents

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This portion of the Energy Vision 2020 draft report is a listing of related environmental documents used in the drafting of this report. Specifically, the documents are the final environmental impact statements for: (1) Bellefonte Nuclear Plant 1 & 2, (2) Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant 1, 2, & 3, (3) Sequoyah Nuclear Plant 1 & 2, (4) Watts Bar Nuclear Plant 1 & 2, (5) Raccoon Mountain Pumped Storage Facility, (6) Policies relating to rates, (7) Tennessee River and reservoir system operation and planning, (8) Policies related to the use of coal.

  6. Motivation through Routine Documentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koth, Laurie J.

    2016-01-01

    This informed commentary article offers a simple, effective classroom management strategy in which the teacher uses routine documentation to motivate students both to perform academically and to behave in a manner consistent with established classroom rules and procedures. The pragmatic strategy is grounded in literature, free to implement,…

  7. Teaching America's Founding Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tucker, James

    1993-01-01

    Reflects on the author's experiences teaching a course on great documents in American history to high school students, concentrating on teaching the Declaration of Independence and the "Federalist Papers." Countering the students' tendencies toward superficial reading and encouraging deep analysis are the teacher's primary goals. (SLD)

  8. Automating clinical dietetics documentation.

    PubMed

    Grace-Farfaglia, P; Rosow, P

    1995-06-01

    A review of commonly used charting formats discussed in the dietetics literature revealed that the subjective, objective assessment and planning (SOAP) approach is most frequently used by dietitians. Formats reported in the nursing literature were charting by exception (CBE); problem, intervention, evaluation (PIE); and focus/data, action, response (Focus/DAR). The strengths and weaknesses of the charting styles as they apply to the needs of clinical dietetic specialists were reviewed. We then decided to test in house the Focus/DAR format by assessing chart entries for adherence to style, brevity, and physician response. Dietitians pilot tested all the methods, but found them time consuming to use. The consensus was that SOAP could be adapted to the documentation needs of the individual situation and required little additional staff training. Often because of time limitations, a narrative summary was most appropriate. Chart entry length was reduced as much as 200% when staff were given brief clinical communication as a goal, and a further reduction when line limits were imposed. The physician response was positive, with recommendations followed in 50% of charts, compared with 34% in a previous audit. A nutrition documentation system was developed by the researchers by reviewing medical chart structure, documentation standards, methods of risk identification, and terminology for clinical documentation style. The resulting system affected the decision making of physicians, who could now scan notes more quickly and implement nutrition recommendations in a more timely fashion.

  9. Using Primary Source Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Steven

    2003-01-01

    Explores the use of primary sources when teaching about U.S. slavery. Includes primary sources from the Gilder Lehrman Documents Collection (New York Historical Society) to teach about the role of slaves in the Revolutionary War, such as a proclamation from Lord Dunmore offering freedom to slaves who joined his army. (CMK)

  10. Extremely secure identification documents

    SciTech Connect

    Tolk, K.M.; Bell, M.

    1997-09-01

    The technology developed in this project uses biometric information printed on the document and public key cryptography to ensure that an adversary cannot issue identification documents to unauthorized individuals or alter existing documents to allow their use by unauthorized individuals. This process can be used to produce many types of identification documents with much higher security than any currently in use. The system is demonstrated using a security badge as an example. This project focused on the technologies requiring development in order to make the approach viable with existing badge printing and laminating technologies. By far the most difficult was the image processing required to verify that the picture on the badge had not been altered. Another area that required considerable work was the high density printed data storage required to get sufficient data on the badge for verification of the picture. The image processing process was successfully tested, and recommendations are included to refine the badge system to ensure high reliability. A two dimensional data array suitable for printing the required data on the badge was proposed, but testing of the readability of the array had to be abandoned due to reallocation of the budgeted funds by the LDRD office.

  11. The Iranian Documentation Centre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, John F.

    The purpose of the Iranian Documentation Centr (Irandoc) was to collect that portion of the world's literature which was pertinent to Iran's research interests, to organize that material, and to promote its use by Iranian researchers. Stated more succinctly, Irandoc's purpose was to obtain ready access to the world's scientific literature in order…

  12. ELT Documents, January 1975.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Council, London (England). English-Teaching Information Centre.

    The theme of this issue of ELT Documents is the use of the language laboratory in language learning. An article by A. Maley summarizes the conference on the use of the language laboratory for advanced learners, held in Paris, 2-4 Oct. 1974, from which two main perspectives emerged. One is critical of the structuralist audio-lingual assumptions…

  13. Documenting Early Science Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jacqueline; Courtney, Rosalea

    2002-01-01

    Three principles that guide documentation and assessment of children's early science understanding are: collect a variety of forms of evidence, collect evidence over a period of time, and collect evidence on the understanding of groups of children as well as individuals. Information and insights gained from this process help teachers plan future…

  14. Technical approach document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law 95-604 (PL95-604), grants the Secretary of Energy the authority and responsibility to perform such actions as are necessary to minimize radiation health hazards and other environmental hazards caused by inactive uranium mill sites. This Technical Approach Document (TAD) describes the general technical approaches and design criteria adopted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in order to implement remedial action plans (RAPS) and final designs that comply with EPA standards. It does not address the technical approaches necessary for aquifer restoration at processing sites; a guidance document, currently in preparation, will describe aquifer restoration concerns and technical protocols. This document is a second revision to the original document issued in May 1986; the revision has been made in response to changes to the groundwater standards of 40 CFR 192, Subparts A--C, proposed by EPA as draft standards. New sections were added to define the design approaches and designs necessary to comply with the groundwater standards. These new sections are in addition to changes made throughout the document to reflect current procedures, especially in cover design, water resources protection, and alternate site selection; only minor revisions were made to some of the sections. Sections 3.0 is a new section defining the approach taken in the design of disposal cells; Section 4.0 has been revised to include design of vegetated covers; Section 8.0 discusses design approaches necessary for compliance with the groundwater standards; and Section 9.0 is a new section dealing with nonradiological hazardous constituents. 203 refs., 18 figs., 26 tabs.

  15. Do informed consent documents matter?

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2009-03-01

    This commentary argues that, despite extensive critiques of informed consent documents, there are several ethical and legal reasons for investigators and IRB members to take these documents seriously.

  16. Sequential document visualization.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yi; Dillon, Joshua; Lebanon, Guy

    2007-01-01

    Documents and other categorical valued time series are often characterized by the frequencies of short range sequential patterns such as n-grams. This representation converts sequential data of varying lengths to high dimensional histogram vectors which are easily modeled by standard statistical models. Unfortunately, the histogram representation ignores most of the medium and long range sequential dependencies making it unsuitable for visualizing sequential data. We present a novel framework for sequential visualization of discrete categorical time series based on the idea of local statistical modeling. The framework embeds categorical time series as smooth curves in the multinomial simplex summarizing the progression of sequential trends. We discuss several visualization techniques based on the above framework and demonstrate their usefulness for document visualization.

  17. SANSMIC design document.

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, Paula D.; Rudeen, David Keith

    2015-07-01

    The United States Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) maintains an underground storage system consisting of caverns that were leached or solution mined in four salt domes located near the Gulf of Mexico in Texas and Louisiana. The SPR comprises more than 60 active caverns containing approximately 700 million barrels of crude oil. Sandia National Labo- ratories (SNL) is the geotechnical advisor to the SPR. As the most pressing need at the inception of the SPR was to create and fill storage volume with oil, the decision was made to leach the caverns and fill them simultaneously (leach-fill). Therefore, A.J. Russo developed SANSMIC in the early 1980s which allows for a transient oil-brine interface (OBI) making it possible to model leach-fill and withdrawal operations. As the majority of caverns are currently filled to storage capacity, the primary uses of SANSMIC at this time are related to the effects of small and large withdrawals, expansion of existing caverns, and projecting future pillar to diameter ratios. SANSMIC was identified by SNL as a priority candidate for qualification. This report continues the quality assurance (QA) process by documenting the "as built" mathematical and numerical models that comprise this document. The pro- gram flow is outlined and the models are discussed in detail. Code features that were added later or were not documented previously have been expounded. No changes in the code's physics have occurred since the original documentation (Russo, 1981, 1983) although recent experiments may yield improvements to the temperature and plume methods in the future.

  18. Cadmium technical support document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    This Position Document addresses the risks and benefits of pesticide products containing the subject active ingredient. The Agency has determined that the use of products containing the subject active ingredient may meet or exceed a risk criterion described in 40 CFR Part 154. Potential hazards will be examined further to determine the nature and extent of the risk, and considering the benefits of the subject active ingredient, whether such risks cause unreasonable adverse effects on the environment.

  19. 48 CFR 847.303-70 - F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid, transportation charges to be included on the invoice.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS CONTRACT MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 847.303-70 F.o.b. origin, freight prepaid, transportation charges to be... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false F.o.b. origin,...

  20. 49 CFR 1242.73 - Cleaning car interiors and freight lost and damaged-all other (accounts XX-53-70 and 51-53-00).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cleaning car interiors and freight lost and damaged-all other (accounts XX-53-70 and 51-53-00). 1242.73 Section 1242.73 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ACCOUNTS, RECORDS AND...

  1. 41 CFR 102-117.90 - May I use U.S. Government bill of lading (GBL) (Optional Forms 1103 and 1203), to acquire freight...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Government bill of lading (GBL) (Optional Forms 1103 and 1203), to acquire freight, household goods or other related transportation services? 102-117.90 Section 102-117.90 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION...

  2. Content Documents Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muniz, R.; Hochstadt, J.; Boelke J.; Dalton, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Content Documents are created and managed under the System Software group with. Launch Control System (LCS) project. The System Software product group is lead by NASA Engineering Control and Data Systems branch (NEC3) at Kennedy Space Center. The team is working on creating Operating System Images (OSI) for different platforms (i.e. AIX, Linux, Solaris and Windows). Before the OSI can be created, the team must create a Content Document which provides the information of a workstation or server, with the list of all the software that is to be installed on it and also the set where the hardware belongs. This can be for example in the LDS, the ADS or the FR-l. The objective of this project is to create a User Interface Web application that can manage the information of the Content Documents, with all the correct validations and filters for administrator purposes. For this project we used one of the most excellent tools in agile development applications called Ruby on Rails. This tool helps pragmatic programmers develop Web applications with Rails framework and Ruby programming language. It is very amazing to see how a student can learn about OOP features with the Ruby language, manage the user interface with HTML and CSS, create associations and queries with gems, manage databases and run a server with MYSQL, run shell commands with command prompt and create Web frameworks with Rails. All of this in a real world project and in just fifteen weeks!

  3. Teaching portfolios: documenting teaching.

    PubMed

    Regan-Smith, M G

    1998-01-01

    In recent years, teaching portfolios have been developed as a way teachers can document teaching scholarship and demonstrate their teaching accomplishments, skills, and strategies. Most medical schools reward good teaching, often with promotion on clinician-teacher tracks, thereby acknowledging the contributions made by clinical faculty who serve the academic mission as teachers. Teaching portfolios provide a means for teachers to demonstrate their teaching achievements and display their best work. This article gives recommendations for constructing a teaching portfolio and includes examples of what can be included.

  4. Regulatory guidance document

    SciTech Connect

    1994-05-01

    The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program Management System Manual requires preparation of the OCRWM Regulatory Guidance Document (RGD) that addresses licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance. The document provides: regulatory compliance policy; guidance to OCRWM organizational elements to ensure a consistent approach when complying with regulatory requirements; strategies to achieve policy objectives; organizational responsibilities for regulatory compliance; guidance with regard to Program compliance oversight; and guidance on the contents of a project-level Regulatory Compliance Plan. The scope of the RGD includes site suitability evaluation, licensing, environmental compliance, and safety and health compliance, in accordance with the direction provided by Section 4.6.3 of the PMS Manual. Site suitability evaluation and regulatory compliance during site characterization are significant activities, particularly with regard to the YW MSA. OCRWM`s evaluation of whether the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development must precede its submittal of a license application to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Accordingly, site suitability evaluation is discussed in Chapter 4, and the general statements of policy regarding site suitability evaluation are discussed in Section 2.1. Although much of the data and analyses may initially be similar, the licensing process is discussed separately in Chapter 5. Environmental compliance is discussed in Chapter 6. Safety and Health compliance is discussed in Chapter 7.

  5. ExactPack Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Singleton, Jr., Robert; Israel, Daniel M.; Doebling, Scott William; Woods, Charles Nathan; Kaul, Ann; Walter, Jr., John William; Rogers, Michael Lloyd

    2016-05-09

    For code verification, one compares the code output against known exact solutions. There are many standard test problems used in this capacity, such as the Noh and Sedov problems. ExactPack is a utility that integrates many of these exact solution codes into a common API (application program interface), and can be used as a stand-alone code or as a python package. ExactPack consists of python driver scripts that access a library of exact solutions written in Fortran or Python. The spatial profiles of the relevant physical quantities, such as the density, fluid velocity, sound speed, or internal energy, are returned at a time specified by the user. The solution profiles can be viewed and examined by a command line interface or a graphical user interface, and a number of analysis tools and unit tests are also provided. We have documented the physics of each problem in the solution library, and provided complete documentation on how to extend the library to include additional exact solutions. ExactPack’s code architecture makes it easy to extend the solution-code library to include additional exact solutions in a robust, reliable, and maintainable manner.

  6. A DESIGN METHOD FOR TRACKS AND ROADBEDS OF RAILROAD-CROSSING UNDER FREIGHT TRAIN LOADS AND FORKLIFT LOADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itou, Kazuki; Momoya, Yoshitsugu; Sekine, Etsuo

    In the current design method of asphalt pavement in freight container yard, a theoretical design method based on multilayered elastic analysis is applied. However, in a design of railroad-crossing existing in the yard, heavy wheel loads of forklift and viscosity of asphalt pavement is not considered. In this study, the method of identifying the stiffness coefficient of asphalt pavement with consideration on its viscoelasticity under the heavy loading, and the design of the railroad crossing corresponding to the heavy loading of the forklift are shown. The method of the new design of railroad-crossing by FEM using the stiffness coefficient set in consideration of viscoelasticity of the asphalt pavement and track structure corres ponding to traffic volume are shown.

  7. [Unpublished documents concerning Dupuytren].

    PubMed

    Boulinier, G

    1996-01-01

    In the present paper is proposed a first incursion in various archives - mainly notarial ones - concerning Dupuytren and his close relatives, investigated by the author. They will be more thoroughly dealt with in a forthcoming book. These documents give us a better knowledge of various events of Dupuytren's public and private life. They namely disclose the great challenge shown by the surgeon-in-chief of the Hôtel-Dieu in marrying his daughter Adeline in the midst of the Paris cholera epidemic in 1832. They show moreover in this unusual character the essential role continually played by some preoccupations such as nobility, power, religion and wealth, amidst a family of which he is the only member to have shown the ambition to become famous in the medical field.

  8. Wind system documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Froggatt, J.R.; Tatum, C.P.

    1993-01-15

    Atmospheric transport and diffusion models have been developed by the Environmental Technology Section (ETS) of the Savannah River Technology Center to calculate the location and concentration of toxic or radioactive materials during an accidental release at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The output from these models has been used to support initial on-site and off-site emergency response activities such as protective action decision making and field monitoring coordination. These atmospheric transport and diffusion models have been incorporated into an automated computer-based system called the (Weather Information and Display) System and linked to real-time meteorological and radiological monitoring instruments to provide timely information for these emergency response activities (Hunter, 1990). This report documents various aspects of the WIND system.

  9. Automated document content characterization for a multimedia document retrieval system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koivusaari, Maija; Sauvola, Jaakko J.; Pietikaeinen, Matti

    1997-10-01

    We propose a new approach to automate document image layout extraction for an object- oriented database feature population using rapid low level feature analysis, preclassification and predictive coding. The layout information comprised of region location and classification data is transformed into 'feature object(s)'. The information is then fed into an intelligent document image retrieval system (IDIR) to be utilized in document retrieval schemes. The IDIR system consists of user interface, object-oriented database and a variety of document image analysis algorithms. In this paper the object-oriented storage model and the database system are presented in formal and functional domains. Moreover, the graphical user interface and a visual document image browser are described. The document analysis techniques used at document characterization are also presented. In this context the documents consist of text, picture and other media data. Documents are stored in the database as document, page and region objects. Our test systems has been implemented and tested using a document database of 10,000 documents.

  10. Residential Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Model Documentation - Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Residential Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and FORTRAN source code.

  11. Language Documentation in the Americas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franchetto, Bruna; Rice, Keren

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, the documentation of endangered languages has advanced greatly in the Americas. In this paper we survey the role that international funding programs have played in advancing documentation in this part of the world, with a particular focus on the growth of documentation in Brazil, and we examine some of the major opportunities…

  12. Software design and documentation language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleine, H.

    1977-01-01

    A communications medium to support the design and documentation of complex software applications is studied. The medium also provides the following: (1) a processor which can convert design specifications into an intelligible, informative machine reproducible document; (2) a design and documentation language with forms and syntax that are simple, unrestrictive, and communicative; and (3) methodology for effective use of the language and processor.

  13. MFIX documentation theory guide

    SciTech Connect

    Syamlal, M.; Rogers, W.; O`Brien, T.J.

    1993-12-01

    This report describes the MFIX (Multiphase Flow with Interphase exchanges) computer model. MFIX is a general-purpose hydrodynamic model that describes chemical reactions and heat transfer in dense or dilute fluid-solids flows, flows typically occurring in energy conversion and chemical processing reactors. MFIX calculations give detailed information on pressure, temperature, composition, and velocity distributions in the reactors. With such information, the engineer can visualize the conditions in the reactor, conduct parametric studies and what-if experiments, and, thereby, assist in the design process. The MFIX model, developed at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), has the following capabilities: mass and momentum balance equations for gas and multiple solids phases; a gas phase and two solids phase energy equations; an arbitrary number of species balance equations for each of the phases; granular stress equations based on kinetic theory and frictional flow theory; a user-defined chemistry subroutine; three-dimensional Cartesian or cylindrical coordinate systems; nonuniform mesh size; impermeable and semi-permeable internal surfaces; user-friendly input data file; multiple, single-precision, binary, direct-access, output files that minimize disk storage and accelerate data retrieval; and extensive error reporting. This report, which is Volume 1 of the code documentation, describes the hydrodynamic theory used in the model: the conservation equations, constitutive relations, and the initial and boundary conditions. The literature on the hydrodynamic theory is briefly surveyed, and the bases for the different parts of the model are highlighted.

  14. Document Skimming Support Environment for Surveying Documents in Creative Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayama, Tessai; Kanai, Takashi; Kunifuji, Susumu

    This paper proposes a document skimming environment for surveying documents in our research. Although there are a lot of on-line documents on our surroundings, people, generally, prefer printing out on-line research papers from computer screen. For this reason, although skimming is used for reading documents in our daily life, it is difficult for us to skim documents from computer screens. Therefore, we developed a document skimming environment. The environment has a skimming support system and a recommendation system. The skimming support system supports skimming documents from computer screens by the interface, which is applied the Fisheye effect and the Overview+detail effect. Focus points of the Fisheye effect are the sentences selected by the original sentence extraction algorithm based on the value of standard distribution, and the Overview interface is displayed automatically the generated table of contents. The recommendation system generates personalized summaries by the collaborate filtering, which use users' log of the skimming support system. Furthermore, evaluation results show as follows; The value of F-measure of our sentence extraction algorithm is higher than it of the sentence extraction algorithm based on TF or Japanese lexical chaining method, the skimming support system is more effective method to skim documents from computer screen than paper, and the skimming support environment is more effective method to product research proposal documents than paper.

  15. Robust document image binarization technique for degraded document images.

    PubMed

    Su, Bolan; Lu, Shijian; Tan, Chew Lim

    2013-04-01

    Segmentation of text from badly degraded document images is a very challenging task due to the high inter/intra-variation between the document background and the foreground text of different document images. In this paper, we propose a novel document image binarization technique that addresses these issues by using adaptive image contrast. The adaptive image contrast is a combination of the local image contrast and the local image gradient that is tolerant to text and background variation caused by different types of document degradations. In the proposed technique, an adaptive contrast map is first constructed for an input degraded document image. The contrast map is then binarized and combined with Canny's edge map to identify the text stroke edge pixels. The document text is further segmented by a local threshold that is estimated based on the intensities of detected text stroke edge pixels within a local window. The proposed method is simple, robust, and involves minimum parameter tuning. It has been tested on three public datasets that are used in the recent document image binarization contest (DIBCO) 2009 & 2011 and handwritten-DIBCO 2010 and achieves accuracies of 93.5%, 87.8%, and 92.03%, respectively, that are significantly higher than or close to that of the best-performing methods reported in the three contests. Experiments on the Bickley diary dataset that consists of several challenging bad quality document images also show the superior performance of our proposed method, compared with other techniques.

  16. DOCFIND -- Starlink document index searching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bly, M. J.; Allan, P. M.

    One of the recurrent problems with Starlink is that as the volume of software grows, so does the number of documents describing it. These include project wide documents and documents which are local to other sites. It is often extremely difficult to find out which document should be consulted about a particular topic. Starlink maintains a list of currently valid project wide documents called `STARLINK DOCUMENTATION' in the file /star/docs/docs_lis. This may be printed if required. It is maintained at RAL by the Starlink Software Librarian and updated at other sites by the Starlink software update process. The current date is stated at the beginning of the file so you can see if your site is up to date by comparing your site's file with the RAL file available via the WWW. An alternative approach is to consult file /star/docs/subject_lis. This is a Key-Word index to Starlink documentation which does not rely only on document titles. Once again, it is maintained up to date at RAL but other sites may lag behind. The specified current date will tell all. /star/docs/analysis_lis is also centrally maintained. This is a list of the Starlink documents listed by which Software item is the main subject of each document. The docfind program has been developed to help users search this mass of information.

  17. Asymptotic cost in document conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blostein, Dorothea; Nagy, George

    2012-01-01

    In spite of a hundredfold decrease in the cost of relevant technologies, the role of document image processing systems is gradually declining due to the transition to an on-line world. Nevertheless, in some high-volume applications, document image processing software still saves millions of dollars by accelerating workflow, and similarly large savings could be realized by more effective automation of the multitude of low-volume personal document conversions. While potential cost savings, based on estimates of costs and values, are a driving force for new developments, quantifying such savings is difficult. The most important trend is that the cost of computing resources for DIA is becoming insignificant compared to the associated labor costs. An econometric treatment of document processing complements traditional performance evaluation, which focuses on assessing the correctness of the results produced by document conversion software. Researchers should look beyond the error rate for advancing both production and personal document conversion.

  18. Disaster documentation for the clinician.

    PubMed

    Zoraster, Richard M; Burkle, Christopher M

    2013-08-01

    Documentation of the patient encounter is a traditional component of health care practice, a requirement of various regulatory agencies and hospital oversight committees, and a necessity for reimbursement. A disaster may create unexpected challenges to documentation. If patient volume and acuity overwhelm health care providers, what is the acceptable appropriate documentation? If alterations in scope of practice and environmental or resource limitations occur, to what degree should this be documented? The conflicts arising from allocation of limited resources create unfamiliar situations in which patient competition becomes a component of the medical decision making; should that be documented, and, if so, how? In addition to these challenges, ever-present liability worries are compounded by controversies over the standards to which health care providers will be held. Little guidance is available on how or what to document. We conducted a search of the literature and found no appropriate references for disaster documentation, and no guidelines from professional organizations. We review here the challenges affecting documentation during disasters and provide a rationale for specific patient care documentation that avoids regulatory and legal pitfalls.

  19. Analysis of U.S. freight-train derailment severity using zero-truncated negative binomial regression and quantile regression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang; Saat, M Rapik; Qin, Xiao; Barkan, Christopher P L

    2013-10-01

    Derailments are the most common type of freight-train accidents in the United States. Derailments cause damage to infrastructure and rolling stock, disrupt services, and may cause casualties and harm the environment. Accordingly, derailment analysis and prevention has long been a high priority in the rail industry and government. Despite the low probability of a train derailment, the potential for severe consequences justify the need to better understand the factors influencing train derailment severity. In this paper, a zero-truncated negative binomial (ZTNB) regression model is developed to estimate the conditional mean of train derailment severity. Recognizing that the mean is not the only statistic describing data distribution, a quantile regression (QR) model is also developed to estimate derailment severity at different quantiles. The two regression models together provide a better understanding of train derailment severity distribution. Results of this work can be used to estimate train derailment severity under various operational conditions and by different accident causes. This research is intended to provide insights regarding development of cost-efficient train safety policies.

  20. A dynamic image recognition method for sleeper springs trouble of moving freight cars based on Haar features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Fuqiang; Jiang, Yuan; Zhang, Guangjun

    2006-11-01

    A novel conception of automatic recognition for free-trouble sleeper springs is proposed and Adaboost algorithm based on Haar features is applied for the sleeper springs recognition in Trouble of moving Freight car Detection System (TFDS). In the recognition system, feature set of sleeper springs is determined by Haar features and selected by Adaboost algorithm. In order to recognize and select the free-trouble sleeper springs from all the captured dynamic images, a cascade of classifier is established by searching dynamic images. The amount of detected images is drastically reduced and the recognition efficiency is improved due to the conception of free-trouble recognition. Experiments show that the proposed method is characterized by simple feature, high efficiency and robustness. It performs high robustness against noise as well as translation, rotation and scale transformations of objects and indicates high stability to images with poor quality such as low resolution, partial occlusion, poor illumination and overexposure etc. The recognition time of a 640×480 image is about 16ms, and Correct Detection Rate is high up to about 97%, while Miss Detection Rate and Error Detection Rate are very low. The proposed method can recognize sleeper springs in all-weather conditions, which advances the engineering application for TFDS.

  1. ORNL IntelligentFreight Initiative:Enhanced End-to-End Supply Chain Visibility of Security Sensitive Hazardous Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Randy M.; Shankar, Mallikarjun; Gorman, Bryan L.

    2009-01-01

    In the post September 11, 2001 (9/11) world the federal government has increased its focus on the manufacturing, distributing, warehousing, and transporting of hazardous materials. In 2002, Congress mandated that the Transportation Security Agency (TSA) designate a subset of hazardous materials that could pose a threat to the American public when transported in sufficiently large quantities. This subset of hazardous materials, which could be weaponized or subjected to a nefarious terrorist act, was designated as Security Sensitive Hazardous Materials (SSHM). Radioactive materials (RAM) were of special concern because actionable intelligence had revealed that Al Qaeda desired to develop a homemade nuclear device or a dirty bomb to use against the United States (US) or its allies.1 Because of this clear and present danger, it is today a national priority to develop and deploy technologies that will provide for visibility and real-time exception notification of SSHM and Radioactive Materials in Quantities of Concern (RAMQC) in international commerce. Over the past eight years Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing, implementing, and deploying sensor-based technologies to enhance supply chain visibility. ORNL s research into creating a model for shipments, known as IntelligentFreight, has investigated sensors and sensor integration methods at numerous testbeds throughout the national supply chain. As a result of our research, ORNL believes that most of the information needed by supply chain partners to provide shipment visibility and exceptions-based reporting already exists but is trapped in numerous proprietary or agency-centric databases.

  2. Scientific and Technical Document Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Scientific and Technical Document Database (PC database for purchase)   The images in NIST Special Database 20 contain a very rich set of graphic elements from scientific and technical documents, such as graphs, tables, equations, two column text, maps, pictures, footnotes, annotations, and arrays of such elements.

  3. Government Documents Departmental Operations Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, John S.; And Others

    This manual for the operation and maintenance of the Government Documents Department at Baylor University's Moody Memorial Library is divided into 13 topical sections. The guide opens with the collection development policy statement, which covers the general collection, the maps division, and weeding government documents. Technical processing…

  4. Document Delivery over the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Mary E.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses three innovative Internet-based electronic document delivery systems: Ariel, developed by the Research Libraries Group; Digitized Document Transmission Project, developed by North Carolina State University; and Network Fax Project, developed by Ohio State University. System are compared in terms of equipment, operation, advantages and…

  5. SRS ecology: Environmental information document

    SciTech Connect

    Wike, L.D.; Shipley, R.W.; Bowers, J.A.

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this Document is to provide a source of ecological information based on the exiting knowledge gained from research conducted at the Savannah River Site. This document provides a summary and synthesis of ecological research in the three main ecosystem types found at SRS and information on the threatened and endangered species residing there.

  6. [Law courts and clinical documentation].

    PubMed

    Jiménez Carnicero, M P; Magallón, A I; Gordillo, A

    2006-01-01

    Background. Until 2004, requests for clinical documentation proceeding from the Judicial Administration on Specialist Care of Pamplona were received in six different centres and were processed independently, with different procedures, and documents were even sent in duplicate, with the resulting work load. This article describes the procedure for processing requests for documentation proceeding from the Law Courts and analyses the requests received. Methods. A circuit was set up to channel the judicial requests that arrived at the Specialist Health Care Centres of Pamplona and at the Juridical Regime Service of the Health System of Navarra-Osasunbidea, and a Higher Technician in Health Documentation was contracted to centralise these requests. A proceedings protocol was established to unify criteria and speed up the process, and a database was designed to register the proceedings. Results. In the course of 2004, 210 requests for documentation by legal requirement were received. Of these, 24 were claims of patrimonial responsibility and 13 were requested by lawyers with the patient's authorisation. The most frequent jurisdictional order was penal (43.33%). Ninety-three point one five percent (93.15%) of the requests proceeded from law courts in the autonomous community of Navarra. The centre that received the greatest number of requests was the "Príncipe de Viana" Consultation Centre (33.73%).The most frequently requested documentation was a copy of reports (109) and a copy of the complete clinical record (39). On two occasions the original clinical record was required. The average time of response was 6.6 days. Conclusions. The centralisation of administration has brought greater agility to the process and homogeneity in the criteria of processing. Less time is involved in preparing and dispatching the documentation, the dispatch of duplicate documents is avoided, the work load has been reduced and the dispersal of documentation is avoided, a situation that

  7. Standard classification of software documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1976-01-01

    General conceptual requirements for standard levels of documentation and for application of these requirements to intended usages. These standards encourage the policy to produce only those forms of documentation that are needed and adequate for the purpose. Documentation standards are defined with respect to detail and format quality. Classes A through D range, in order, from the most definitive down to the least definitive, and categories 1 through 4 range, in order, from high-quality typeset down to handwritten material. Criteria for each of the classes and categories, as well as suggested selection guidelines for each are given.

  8. Grants Document-Generation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hairell, Terri; Kreymer, Lev; Martin, Greg; Sheridan, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    The Grants Document-Generation System (GDGS) software allows the generation of official grants documents for distribution to the appropriate parties. The documents are created after the selection and entry of specific data elements and clauses. GDGS is written in Cold Fusion that resides on an SQL2000 database and is housed on-site at Goddard Space Flight Center. It includes access security written around GSFC's (Goddard Space Flight Center's) LIST system, and allows for the entry of Procurement Request information necessary for the generation of the resulting Grant Award.

  9. Guidance Documents for Marine Fuel

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following guidance documents apply to marine fuel used in ocean-going vessels. All vessels that operate in the North American Emission Control Area (ECA) must generally use fuel with 1,000 ppm sulfur or less.

  10. Quarantine document system indexing procedure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The Quarantine Document System (QDS) is described including the indexing procedures and thesaurus of indexing terms. The QDS consists of these functional elements: acquisition, cataloging, indexing, storage, and retrieval. A complete listing of the collection, and the thesaurus are included.

  11. EA Shuttle Document Retention Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the effort of code EA at Johnson Space Center (JSC) to identify and acquire databases and documents from the space shuttle program that are adjudged important for retention after the retirement of the space shuttle.

  12. Vietnamese Document Representation and Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Giang-Son; Gao, Xiaoying; Andreae, Peter

    Vietnamese is very different from English and little research has been done on Vietnamese document classification, or indeed, on any kind of Vietnamese language processing, and only a few small corpora are available for research. We created a large Vietnamese text corpus with about 18000 documents, and manually classified them based on different criteria such as topics and styles, giving several classification tasks of different difficulty levels. This paper introduces a new syllable-based document representation at the morphological level of the language for efficient classification. We tested the representation on our corpus with different classification tasks using six classification algorithms and two feature selection techniques. Our experiments show that the new representation is effective for Vietnamese categorization, and suggest that best performance can be achieved using syllable-pair document representation, an SVM with a polynomial kernel as the learning algorithm, and using Information gain and an external dictionary for feature selection.

  13. Industrial Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Industrial Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  14. Transportation Sector Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2017-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Transportation Model (TRAN). The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated by the model.

  15. Renewable Fuels Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach, and design of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Renewable Fuels Module (RFM) as it relates to the production of the Annual Energy Outlook forecasts.

  16. Reactor operation environmental information document

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, L.R.; Hayes, D.W.; Hunter, C.H.; Marter, W.L.; Moyer, R.A.

    1989-12-01

    This volume is a reactor operation environmental information document for the Savannah River Plant. Topics include meteorology, surface hydrology, transport, environmental impacts, and radiation effects. 48 figs., 56 tabs. (KD)

  17. Human Research Program Requirements Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rieger, Gabe

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to define, document, and allocate the Human Research Program (HRP) requirements to the HRP Program elements. It establishes the flow-down of requirements from Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) and Office of the Chief Health and Medical Officer (OCHMO) to the various Program Elements of the HRP to ensure that human research and technology countermeasure investments are made to insure the delivery of countermeasures and technologies that satisfy ESMD s and OCHMO's exploration mission requirements.

  18. a Decade of Improvement in Whole-Body Vibration and Low Back Pain for Freight Container Tractor Drivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, K.; Taoda, K.; Kitahara, T.

    1998-08-01

    The authors' study in 1983 revealed that the whole-body vibration of the tractor units of freight containers was most hazardous in the back-to-chest directions (x-axis). The allowable exposure time was considerably shorter than that for heavy duty trucks. The low back pain (LBP) among the drivers seemed to be due to the long working hours and the ergonomically unsound tractor design, as well as the vibration. A preventative measure was the introduction of a tractor cab suspended by an air spring instead of a steel spring. In 1992, a follow-up field study was conducted. A personal vibration exposure meter developed by us measured the whole-body vibration on eight tractors. Eighty-nine triplets matched with the age and the years of driving tractors answered a questionnaire evaluation of the ergonomics of their tractor units.The comparison of the newest steel suspension vehicles to the old ones produced by the same motor company revealed that in thex-axis the vibration level had decreased by as much as 4 to 9 dB. Some tractors showed an increase in vibration in the buttocks-to-head direction (z-axis). However, such adverse changes seemed not to affect evaluations according to the fatigue-decreased proficiency boundary (FDP) and the exposure limit (EL) recommended in ISO 2631-1978. The present models, regardless of the type of suspension, changed the direction of the most hazardous vibration from thex-axis to thez-axis. However, the effect of the air-suspension was not so remarkable as expected. Among 40% of drivers seemed to exceed the FDP boundary during a day.The questionnaire study showed an improvement in the ergonomic evaluation of the tractors. The air suspension models seemed to induce less LBP than the steel suspension models.

  19. Text documents as social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balinsky, Helen; Balinsky, Alexander; Simske, Steven J.

    2012-03-01

    The extraction of keywords and features is a fundamental problem in text data mining. Document processing applications directly depend on the quality and speed of the identification of salient terms and phrases. Applications as disparate as automatic document classification, information visualization, filtering and security policy enforcement all rely on the quality of automatically extracted keywords. Recently, a novel approach to rapid change detection in data streams and documents has been developed. It is based on ideas from image processing and in particular on the Helmholtz Principle from the Gestalt Theory of human perception. By modeling a document as a one-parameter family of graphs with its sentences or paragraphs defining the vertex set and with edges defined by Helmholtz's principle, we demonstrated that for some range of the parameters, the resulting graph becomes a small-world network. In this article we investigate the natural orientation of edges in such small world networks. For two connected sentences, we can say which one is the first and which one is the second, according to their position in a document. This will make such a graph look like a small WWW-type network and PageRank type algorithms will produce interesting ranking of nodes in such a document.

  20. Extensible layout in functional documents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumley, John; Gimson, Roger; Rees, Owen

    2006-02-01

    Highly customised variable-data documents make automatic layout of the resulting publication hard. Architectures for defining and processing such documents can benefit if the repertoire of layout methods available can be extended smoothly and easily to accommodate new styles of customisation. The Document Description Framework incorporates a model for declarative document layout and processing where documents are treated as functional programs. A canonical XML tree contains nodes describing layout instructions which will modify and combine their children component parts to build sections of the final presentation. Leaf components such as images, vector graphic fragments and text blocks are 'rendered' to make consistent graphical atoms. These parts are then processed by layout agents, described and parameterised by their parent nodes, which can range from simple layouts like translations, flows, encapsulations and tables through to highly complex arrangements such as constraint-solution or pagination. The result then becomes a 'molecule' for processing at a higher level of the layout tree. A variable and reference mechanism is included for resolving rendering interdependency and supporting component reuse. Addition of new layout types involves definition of a new combinator node and attachment of a suitable agent.

  1. MEANS User Documentation. Appendix A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melconian, Terran

    2004-01-01

    MEANS is an acronym for the MIT Extensible Air Network Simulation. MIT is the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where MEANS was developed. MEANS models the flow of aircraft in a simulation of the US National Airspace System. It can optionally follow the flow of passengers as well. The flight model takes the form of several queues through which the aircraft pass, as well as delays at certain times; the passengers can be transported via flights. MEANS is an event-based model. This means that events are scheduled at some point in the future, and once an event has executed, the simulation t h e advances to that of the next event. This is a different approach than some simulations (particularly those of physical systems), where time is advanced in fixed increments and the state of the system is updated at each step.This documentation is a "user guide" for MEANS - it describes how to USE means, not write new modules. For programming instructions, see the programming documentation, available as a separate document.This document assumse no programming knowledge. It will describe how to run MEANS, understand the data formats, and use such utility programs as already exist. For more detailed information on the internal workings of MEANS, and how to programmatically add to it, refer to the programming documentation.

  2. Online Catalog Documentation Task Force: Onscreen Documentation Subgroup. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, John; And Others

    This report describes the work of the Onscreen Documentation Subgroup in revising screens for GALIN, the University of Georgia (UGA) Libraries new online system. The responsibilities of the Subgroup were to revise screens from the previous online catalog and to create basic help screens, primarily for the command searching mode. Responsibilities…

  3. Unesco Integrated Documentation Network; Computerized Documentation System (CDS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Dept. of Documentation, Libraries, and Archives.

    Intended for use by the Computerized Documentation System (CDS), the Unesco version of ISIS (Integrated Set of Information Systems)--originally developed by the International Labour Organization--was developed in 1975 and named CDS/ISIS. This system has a comprehensive collection of programs for input, management, and output, running in batch or…

  4. Terminologie de Base de la Documentation. (Basic Terminology of Documentation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission des Communautes Europeennes (Luxembourg). Bureau de Terminologie.

    This glossary is designed to aid non-specialists whose activities require that they have some familiarity with the terminology of the modern methods of documentation. Definitions have been assembled from various dictionaries, manuals, etc., with particular attention being given to the publications of UNESCO and the International Standards…

  5. Reactor operation environmental information document

    SciTech Connect

    Haselow, J.S.; Price, V.; Stephenson, D.E.; Bledsoe, H.W.; Looney, B.B.

    1989-12-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) produces nuclear materials, primarily plutonium and tritium, to meet the requirements of the Department of Defense. These products have been formed in nuclear reactors that were built during 1950--1955 at the SRS. K, L, and P reactors are three of five reactors that have been used in the past to produce the nuclear materials. All three of these reactors discontinued operation in 1988. Currently, intense efforts are being extended to prepare these three reactors for restart in a manner that protects human health and the environment. To document that restarting the reactors will have minimal impacts to human health and the environment, a three-volume Reactor Operations Environmental Impact Document has been prepared. The document focuses on the impacts of restarting the K, L, and P reactors on both the SRS and surrounding areas. This volume discusses the geology, seismology, and subsurface hydrology. 195 refs., 101 figs., 16 tabs.

  6. Documentation of myofascial trigger points.

    PubMed

    Fischer, A A

    1988-04-01

    Two basic diagnostic features of myofascial trigger points (TPs), namely, local tenderness and alteration of tissue consistency (such as in taut bands, muscle spasm), can be documented quantitatively by simple hand-held instruments. A pressure threshold meter (algometer) assists in location of TPs and their relative sensitivity. A side-to-side difference exceeding 2kg in comparison with normal values indicates pathologic tenderness. The effect of treatment can be quantified. Pressure tolerance, measured over normal muscles and shin bones, expresses pain sensitivity. Myopathy is suspected if muscle tolerance drops below bone tolerance. Tissue compliance measurement documents objectively and quantitatively alteration in soft tissue consistency. Muscle spasm, tension, spasticity, taut bands, scar tissues, or fibrositic nodules can be documented. The universal clinical dynamometer is used as part of a physical examination to quantify weakness. Thermography (heat imaging) demonstrates discoid shaped hot spots over TPs. Muscle activity, spasm, or contraction is visualized as increased heat emission in the shape of the active muscle.

  7. Educating educators in GLP documentation.

    PubMed

    Hopf, S B; Karpiscak, M M

    1994-12-01

    Professionals in academia usually are not trained in documenting their research activities to the extent and detail mandated under Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) regulations. To assist researchers at the University of Arizona in implementing a GLP program, the university's Quality Assurance Unit (QAU) has written procedures and checklists detailing various aspects of GLPs. Since a key to the successful implementation of GLPs is comprehensive documentation in laboratory notebooks of research activities, information and guidelines are provided in a checklist format. Training seminars are also provided to discuss the use of the checklists. Checklists in conjunction with training seminars provide an important mechanism to ensure that all appropriate information has been recorded for verifiable, reproducible, and traceable documentation of project study results.

  8. Document segmentation via oblique cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svendsen, Jeremy; Branzan-Albu, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel solution for the layout segmentation of graphical elements in Business Intelligence documents. We propose a generalization of the recursive X-Y cut algorithm, which allows for cutting along arbitrary oblique directions. An intermediate processing step consisting of line and solid region removal is also necessary due to presence of decorative elements. The output of the proposed segmentation is a hierarchical structure which allows for the identification of primitives in pie and bar charts. The algorithm was tested on a database composed of charts from business documents. Results are very promising.

  9. NASA visual thesaurus maintenance documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The following document is presented in six sections: (1) introduction; (2) a diagram showing how the various routines are grouped together into functional modules; (3) a printout of all the layouts in the system along with their associated layout procedures; (4) listings of all the global procedures in the system; (5) a cross-reference of all identifiers used in the system; and (6) descriptions of the external procedures used in the system. The document was prepared at the Project ICON Image Scaling Laboratory.

  10. On the Influence of Freight Trains on Humans: A Laboratory Investigation of the Impact of Nocturnal Low Frequency Vibration and Noise on Sleep and Heart Rate

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael G.; Croy, Ilona; Ögren, Mikael; Persson Waye, Kerstin

    2013-01-01

    Background A substantial increase in transportation of goods on railway may be hindered by public fear of increased vibration and noise leading to annoyance and sleep disturbance. As the majority of freight trains run during night time, the impact upon sleep is expected to be the most serious adverse effect. The impact of nocturnal vibration on sleep is an area currently lacking in knowledge. We experimentally investigated sleep disturbance with the aim to ascertain the impact of increasing vibration amplitude. Methodology/Principal Findings The impacts of various amplitudes of horizontal vibrations on sleep disturbance and heart rate were investigated in a laboratory study. Cardiac accelerations were assessed using a combination of polysomnography and ECG recordings. Sleep was assessed subjectively using questionnaires. Twelve young, healthy subjects slept for six nights in the sleep laboratory, with one habituation night, one control night and four nights with a variation of vibration exposures whilst maintaining the same noise exposure. With increasing vibration amplitude, we found a decrease in latency and increase in amplitude of heart rate as well as a reduction in sleep quality and increase in sleep disturbance. Conclusions/Significance We concluded that nocturnal vibration has a negative impact on sleep and that the impact increases with greater vibration amplitude. Sleep disturbance has short- and long-term health consequences. Therefore, it is necessary to define levels that protect residents against sleep disruptive vibrations that may arise from night time railway freight traffic. PMID:23409055

  11. Microbiological condition of horse meat prepared at a North American packing plant, and control of the temperatures of product air freighted to Europe.

    PubMed

    Gill, C O; Landers, C

    2005-03-01

    To obtain information about the microbiological quality of horse meat exported from North America, the microbiological conditions of hot or cold boned primal cuts and carcass quarters from horse carcasses processed at a North American packing plant were examined. In addition, temperature histories were obtained from boxes of hot boned meat during cooling, and from horse carcass quarters air freighted to Europe. The log mean numbers of aerobes recovered from horse carcasses after dressing were >2 logcfu/cm(2). Log total numbers of coliforms and Escherichia coli recovered from 25 samples from such carcasses were >2 log and <2 logcfu/2500 cm(2), respectively. Numbers of bacteria generally similar to those were recovered from cooled carcasses or hot or cold boned cuts. The cooling process for hot boned meat met with standards for hot boned beef cooling processes based on calculated growth of E. coli at box centres. The deep tissues of carcass quarters cooled and the temperatures of their surfaces rose during air freighting, but surface temperatures mostly remained below 7 °C. The microbiological condition of horse carcass quarters delivered to plants in Europe would likely be comparable with the microbiological conditions of hanging beef delivered from packing plants to distant customers within North America.

  12. Document creation, linking, and maintenance system

    DOEpatents

    Claghorn, Ronald

    2011-02-15

    A document creation and citation system designed to maintain a database of reference documents. The content of a selected document may be automatically scanned and indexed by the system. The selected documents may also be manually indexed by a user prior to the upload. The indexed documents may be uploaded and stored within a database for later use. The system allows a user to generate new documents by selecting content within the reference documents stored within the database and inserting the selected content into a new document. The system allows the user to customize and augment the content of the new document. The system also generates citations to the selected content retrieved from the reference documents. The citations may be inserted into the new document in the appropriate location and format, as directed by the user. The new document may be uploaded into the database and included with the other reference documents. The system also maintains the database of reference documents so that when changes are made to a reference document, the author of a document referencing the changed document will be alerted to make appropriate changes to his document. The system also allows visual comparison of documents so that the user may see differences in the text of the documents.

  13. Efficacy of pH elevation as a bactericidal strategy for treating ballast water of freight carriers

    PubMed Central

    Starliper, Clifford E.; Watten, Barnaby J.; Iwanowicz, Deborah D.; Green, Phyllis A.; Bassett, Noel L.; Adams, Cynthia R.

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of ship ballast water with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is one method currently being developed to minimize the risk to introduce aquatic invasive species. The bactericidal capability of sodium hydroxide was determined for 148 bacterial strains from ballast water collected in 2009 and 2010 from the M/V Indiana Harbor, a bulk-freight carrier plying the Laurentian Great Lakes, USA. Primary culture of bacteria was done using brain heart infusion agar and a developmental medium. Strains were characterized based on PCR amplification and sequencing of a portion of the 16S rRNA gene. Sequence similarities (99+ %) were determined by comparison with the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) GenBank catalog. Flavobacterium spp. were the most prevalent bacteria characterized in 2009, comprising 51.1% (24/47) of the total, and Pseudomonas spp. (62/101; 61.4%) and Brevundimonas spp. (22/101; 21.8%) were the predominate bacteria recovered in 2010; together, comprising 83.2% (84/101) of the total. Testing was done in tryptic soy broth (TSB) medium adjusted with 5 N NaOH. Growth of each strain was evaluated at pH 10.0, pH 11.0 and pH 12.0, and 4 h up to 72 h. The median cell count at 0 h for 148 cultures was 5.20 × 106 cfu/mL with a range 1.02 × 105–1.60 × 108 cfu/mL. The TSB adjusted to pH 10.0 and incubation for less than 24 h was bactericidal to 52 (35.1%) strains. Growth in pH 11.0 TSB for less than 4 h was bactericidal to 131 (88.5%) strains and pH 11.0 within 12 h was bactericidal to 141 (95.3%). One strain, Bacillus horikoshii, survived the harshest treatment, pH 12.0 for 72 h. PMID:26257948

  14. Efficacy of pH elevation as a bactericidal strategy for treating ballast water of freight carriers.

    PubMed

    Starliper, Clifford E; Watten, Barnaby J; Iwanowicz, Deborah D; Green, Phyllis A; Bassett, Noel L; Adams, Cynthia R

    2015-05-01

    Treatment of ship ballast water with sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is one method currently being developed to minimize the risk to introduce aquatic invasive species. The bactericidal capability of sodium hydroxide was determined for 148 bacterial strains from ballast water collected in 2009 and 2010 from the M/V Indiana Harbor, a bulk-freight carrier plying the Laurentian Great Lakes, USA. Primary culture of bacteria was done using brain heart infusion agar and a developmental medium. Strains were characterized based on PCR amplification and sequencing of a portion of the 16S rRNA gene. Sequence similarities (99+ %) were determined by comparison with the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) GenBank catalog. Flavobacterium spp. were the most prevalent bacteria characterized in 2009, comprising 51.1% (24/47) of the total, and Pseudomonas spp. (62/101; 61.4%) and Brevundimonas spp. (22/101; 21.8%) were the predominate bacteria recovered in 2010; together, comprising 83.2% (84/101) of the total. Testing was done in tryptic soy broth (TSB) medium adjusted with 5 N NaOH. Growth of each strain was evaluated at pH 10.0, pH 11.0 and pH 12.0, and 4 h up to 72 h. The median cell count at 0 h for 148 cultures was 5.20 × 10(6) cfu/mL with a range 1.02 × 10(5)-1.60 × 10(8) cfu/mL. The TSB adjusted to pH 10.0 and incubation for less than 24 h was bactericidal to 52 (35.1%) strains. Growth in pH 11.0 TSB for less than 4 h was bactericidal to 131 (88.5%) strains and pH 11.0 within 12 h was bactericidal to 141 (95.3%). One strain, Bacillus horikoshii, survived the harshest treatment, pH 12.0 for 72 h.

  15. Adaptive Clustering of Hypermedia Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Andrew; Fotouhi, Farshad

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of hypermedia systems focuses on a comparison of two types of adaptive algorithm (genetic algorithm and neural network) in clustering hypermedia documents. These clusters allow the user to index into the nodes to find needed information more quickly, since clustering is "personalized" based on the user's paths rather than…

  16. THE STRESSOR IDENTIFICATION GUIDANCE DOCUMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE STRESSOR IDENTIFICATION GUIDANCE DOCUMENT

    Susan M. Cormier, ORD/NRMRL, Susan B. Norton, ORD/NCEA, Glenn W. Suter, II ORD/NCEA, William Swietlik, OW lOST

    Science Question(s):

    MYP Science Question: How can multiple and possibly related causes of biological ...

  17. Physical Science Curriculum Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Carolyn C.; Brown, Tim; Harris, Jeff; Lovin, Pamela

    2004-01-01

    This document was developed in response to the expressed need of physical science teachers for materials designed to facilitate and enhance the teaching of the 1999 North Carolina Standard Course of Study for Physical Science. The materials provide a guide to translating the goals and objectives of the Physical Science curriculum into good…

  18. Documenting Dene Traditional Environmental Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Martha

    1992-01-01

    In a participatory action research project, local Dene and non-Native researchers in Fort Good Hope and Colville Lake, Northwest Territories (Canada), are documenting Dene traditional environmental knowledge and resource management systems. Problems in integrating Dene knowledge and Western science stem from incompatible world views. (SV)

  19. Interactive Video Disc Orientation Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, William J.; And Others

    This report provides the documentation for a proposed interactive videodisk to be produced for use in orienting freshman students to the Harvey A. Andruss Library of Bloomsburg University (Pennsylvania). A rationale for the project and a plan of action are followed by a production time line and tentative program outline. An outline of the library…

  20. Researching in English: Document Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Wayne

    2015-01-01

    In this article I argue for the defining importance of document study for researchers in curriculum. Two examples of previous analyses are provided, one demonstrating an approach to language analysis of the "Australian Curriculum: English" from the Literature strand, the other a study of the relationship of curricula to each other in…

  1. Population Education Documents, Reprint Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and Oceania.

    This publication contains reprints of five documents that were either published in foreign journals or released in limited numbers by author or publisher. The papers are all concerned with population education, but deal more specifically with the role of population and the schools. Among the topics discussed are population education and the school…

  2. Save Our History: Our Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connell, Libby Haight; Gordon, Sarah; Suisman, David

    2003-01-01

    The Fall 2003 Idea Book features: "Save Our History Study Guide: Our Documents"; "History International Study Guide: Pyramids"; "The History Channel Study Guide: Lewis and Clark" (Ideas from Our Teachers Contest Rules; Ideas from Our Teachers Context Winners); "A&E Classroom Study Guide: Post…

  3. Document Delivery: Evaluating the Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Suzanne M.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses options available to libraries for document delivery. Topics include users' needs; cost; copyright compliance; traditional interlibrary loan; types of suppliers; selection criteria, including customer service; new developments in interlibrary loan, including outsourcing arrangements; and the need to evaluate suppliers. (LRW)

  4. Storing and Viewing Electronic Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falk, Howard

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the conversion of fragile library materials to computer storage and retrieval to extend the life of the items and to improve accessibility through the World Wide Web. Highlights include entering the images, including scanning; optical character recognition; full text and manual indexing; and available document- and image-management…

  5. Space Documentation Services: Operations Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raitt, D. I.

    A description of the system used by Space Documentation Service (SDS) to disseminate combined and accumulated knowledge, as widely as possible, throughout Europe is given. The RECON network, with the full support of NASA, has gradually been extended so that centers in Member States, may, by installing their own terminals, have direct access to the…

  6. BASIC Instructional Program: System Documentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dageforde, Mary L.

    This report documents the BASIC Instructional Program (BIP), a "hands-on laboratory" that teaches elementary programming in the BASIC language, as implemented in the MAINSAIL language, a machine-independent revision of SAIL which should facilitate implementation of BIP on other computing systems. Eight instructional modules which make up…

  7. Testing an electronic documentation system.

    PubMed

    Bush, A M; Ebel, C A

    1996-07-01

    Testing of newly automated clinical documentation system functions in patient care areas is integral to successful automation. Trialing the new functions in the patient care environment can be accomplished by use of alpha and beta patient care areas. Throughout the trialing of functions, involvement and feedback from patient care area managers and staff is crucial for successful automation.

  8. The Darfur Atrocities Documentation Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Samuel

    2004-01-01

    One of the many important aspects of the Darfur Atrocities Documentation Project was that it set a precedent for what the U.S. and/or other nations can, and should do, when future cases of potential genocide arise. Far too often in the recent past, the international community (the United Nations, individual governments, many nongovernmental…

  9. Technical Documentation and Legal Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caher, John M.

    1995-01-01

    States that litigation over the interpretation and sufficiency of technical documentation is increasingly common as a number of suits have been filed in state and federal courts. Describes the case of "Martin versus Hacker," a recent case in which New York's highest court analyzed a technical writer's prose in the context of a lawsuit…

  10. An Interactive Document Retrieval System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, D.E.; And Others

    The document retrieval system at Coordinated Science Laboratory is implemented on a Control Data 1604 computer system. Recorded information from each source article includes 1) conventional bibliographic data such as authorship, author affiliation, title, year of publication, etc., 2) detailed bibliographic data from each of the cited references,…

  11. Macroeconomic Activity Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach, and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Macroeconomic Activity Module (MAM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook for 2016 (AEO2016). The report catalogues and describes the module assumptions, computations, methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and mainframe source code

  12. Annex II technical documentation assessed.

    PubMed

    van Drongelen, A W; Roszek, B; van Tienhoven, E A E; Geertsma, R E; Boumans, R T; Kraus, J J A M

    2005-12-01

    Annex II of the Medical Device Directive (MDD) is used frequently by manufacturers to obtain CE-marking. This procedure relies on a full quality assurance system and does not require an assessment of the individual medical device by a Notified Body. An investigation into the availability and the quality of technical documentation for Annex II devices revealed severe shortcomings, which are reported here.

  13. Melter Disposal Strategic Planning Document

    SciTech Connect

    BURBANK, D.A.

    2000-09-25

    This document describes the proposed strategy for disposal of spent and failed melters from the tank waste treatment plant to be built by the Office of River Protection at the Hanford site in Washington. It describes program management activities, disposal and transportation systems, leachate management, permitting, and safety authorization basis approvals needed to execute the strategy.

  14. Chemical Abstracts' Document Delivery Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Stephen

    1984-01-01

    The Document Delivery Service offered by Chemical Abstracts is described in terms of the DIALORDER option on the Dialog information retrieval system, mail requests, and requests transmitted through OCLC's Interlibrary Loan system. Transmission costs, success rates, delivery rates, and other considerations in utilizing the service are included.…

  15. Government Documents at the Crossroads.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Karrie; Cowell, Elizabeth; Jacobs, Jim

    2001-01-01

    Discusses problems and as-yet unresolved questions about public access to government documents raised by electronic publishing. One solution is libraries should adapt to include electronic files of government publications and include them in the growing digital collections. The way that librarians approach the struggle to maintain free and open…

  16. Helping Students Analyze Business Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devet, Bonnie

    2001-01-01

    Notes that student writers gain greater insight into the importance of audience by analyzing business documents. Discusses how business writing teachers can help students understand the rhetorical refinements of writing to an audience. Presents an assignment designed to lead writers systematically through an analysis of two advertisements. (SG)

  17. Commercial Demand Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) Commercial Sector Demand Module. The report catalogues and describes the model assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, model source code, and forecast results generated through the synthesis and scenario development based on these components.

  18. Coal Market Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Documents the objectives and the conceptual and methodological approach used in the development of the National Energy Modeling System's (NEMS) Coal Market Module (CMM) used to develop the Annual Energy Outlook 2014 (AEO2014). This report catalogues and describes the assumptions, methodology, estimation techniques, and source code of CMM's two submodules. These are the Coal Production Submodule (CPS) and the Coal Distribution Submodule (CDS).

  19. SNF AGING SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    L.L. Swanson

    2005-04-06

    The purpose of this system description document (SDD) is to establish requirements that drive the design of the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) aging system and associated bases, which will allow the design effort to proceed. This SDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This SDD identifies the requirements and describes the system design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This SDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This SDD is part of an iterative design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flow down of upper tier requirements onto the system. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The SDD follows the design with regard to the description of the system. The description provided in the SDD reflects the current results of the design process. Throughout this SDD, the term aging cask applies to vertical site-specific casks and to horizontal aging modules. The term overpack is a vertical site-specific cask that contains a dual-purpose canister (DPC) or a disposable canister. Functional and operational requirements applicable to this system were obtained from ''Project Functional and Operational Requirements'' (F&OR) (Curry 2004 [DIRS 170557]). Other requirements that support the design process were taken from documents such as ''Project Design Criteria Document'' (PDC) (BSC 2004 [DES 171599]), ''Site Fire Hazards Analyses'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 172174]), and ''Nuclear Safety Design Bases for License Application'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 171512]). The documents address requirements in the ''Project Requirements Document'' (PRD) (Canori and Leitner 2003 [DIRS 166275]). This SDD includes several appendices. Appendix A is a Glossary; Appendix B is a list of key system charts, diagrams, drawings, lists and additional supporting information; and Appendix C is a list of

  20. Documentation for the Waste Reduction Model (WARM)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page describes the WARM documentation files and provides links to all documentation files associated with EPA’s Waste Reduction Model (WARM). The page includes a brief summary of the chapters documenting the greenhouse gas emission and energy factors.

  1. Document image retrieval through word shape coding.

    PubMed

    Lu, Shijian; Li, Linlin; Tan, Chew Lim

    2008-11-01

    This paper presents a document retrieval technique that is capable of searching document images without OCR (optical character recognition). The proposed technique retrieves document images by a new word shape coding scheme, which captures the document content through annotating each word image by a word shape code. In particular, we annotate word images by using a set of topological shape features including character ascenders/descenders, character holes, and character water reservoirs. With the annotated word shape codes, document images can be retrieved by either query keywords or a query document image. Experimental results show that the proposed document image retrieval technique is fast, efficient, and tolerant to various types of document degradation.

  2. 32 CFR 555.8 - Program documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NATIONAL CEMETERIES CORPS OF ENGINEERS, RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, LABORATORY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT AND TESTS, WORK FOR OTHERS § 555.8 Program documentation. Program documentation will be submitted...

  3. Electricity Market Module - NEMS Documentation

    EIA Publications

    2014-01-01

    Documents the Electricity Market Module as it was used for the Annual Energy Outlook 2013. The Electricity Market Module (EMM) is the electricity supply component of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). The EMM represents the generation, transmission, and pricing of electricity. It consists of four submodules: the Electricity Capacity Planning (ECP) Submodule, the Electricity Fuel Dispatch (EFD) Submodule, the Electricity Finance and Pricing (EFP) Submodule, and the Electricity Load and Demand (ELD) Submodule.

  4. Document image cleanup and binarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Victor; Manmatha, Raghaven

    1998-04-01

    Image binarization is a difficult task for documents with text over textured or shaded backgrounds, poor contrast, and/or considerable noise. Current optical character recognition (OCR) and document analysis technology do not handle such documents well. We have developed a simple yet effective algorithm for document image clean-up and binarization. The algorithm consists of two basic steps. In the first step, the input image is smoothed using a low-pass filter. The smoothing operation enhances the text relative to any background texture. This is because background texture normally has higher frequency than text does. The smoothing operation also removes speckle noise. In the second step, the intensity histogram of the smoothed image is computed and a threshold automatically selected as follows. For black text, the first peak of the histogram corresponds to text. Thresholding the image at the value of the valley between the first and second peaks of the histogram binarizes the image well. In order to reliably identify the valley, the histogram is smoothed by a low-pass filter before the threshold is computed. The algorithm has been applied to some 50 images from a wide variety of source: digitized video frames, photos, newspapers, advertisements in magazines or sales flyers, personal checks, etc. There are 21820 characters and 4406 words in these images. 91 percent of the characters and 86 percent of the words are successfully cleaned up and binarized. A commercial OCR was applied to the binarized text when it consisted of fonts which were OCR recognizable. The recognition rate was 84 percent for the characters and 77 percent for the words.

  5. Supplemental information source document : socioeconomics.

    SciTech Connect

    Sedore, Lora Jeannette

    2010-08-01

    This document provides information on expenditures and staffing levels at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). This report is based on the best available information obtained from Sandia Corporation for Fiscal Years 2008 and 2009, and was prepared in support of future analyses, including those that may be performed as part of the SNL/NM Site-Wide Environmental Impact Statement.

  6. Mars Transportation Environment Definition Document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, M. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    This document provides a compilation of environments knowledge about the planet Mars. Information is divided into three catagories: (1) interplanetary space environments (environments required by the technical community to travel to and from Mars); (2) atmospheric environments (environments needed to aerocapture, aerobrake, or use aeroassist for precision trajectories down to the surface); and (3) surface environments (environments needed to have robots or explorers survive and work on the surface).

  7. Documentation: No Substitute for Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strickland, John

    2005-01-01

    SO WHAT IS AN RFI? IT WAS ONE OF THE FIRST THINGS I learned about back when I started my project management career with my first large construction firm. I learned how to use these forms as a convenient and effective means of documenting the many legitimate clarifications needed on a major project. However, like most other young engineers, I also learned to use the RFI as a weapon in the ongoing battle between owners. or their designer and the construction contractors. Recently, our project team has done a few simple things to greatly reduce the waste and frustration that comes from this type of battle. The RFI form can be a great tool if used properly, and I certainly don t recommend that they be eliminated entirely. The RFI form was created to document the many clarifications that are commonly required on projects. Typically, the contractor uses the top half of the form to clarify-or request permission to vary from-the contract documents. The bottom half of the form is used to record the answer. But this seemingly simple process is plagued by a number of problems. From the contractor s perspective, RFIs are needed to secure information that should have been in the contract documents in the first place. The missing information keeps their crews from working effectively, and it makes hitting already demanding cost and schedule targets even more difficult. Owners, or their design firms, often view the RFI as a means of harassment. Both sides of the issue have legitimate complaints, and both sides cause most of their own pain.

  8. Decal Process Document and Catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    The Decal Process Document and Catalog, JSC 27260 is the standard flight decal catalog, complete with illustrations and part numbers. As hardware developers identify labels that have common applicability across end items, these labels can be evaluated for "standard decal classification" and entered into the decal catalog for general use. The hardware developer must have a label design that meets current, applicable labeling requirements, and submit to the Decal Design and Production Facility (DDPF) as a standard label candidate. Upon approval, the label will be added to the decal catalog. The Decal Process Document and Catalog provides a selection of decals from which the NASA and NASA contractor customers can easily order. The decals shown in the catalog have been previously produced and have released engineering/fabrication drawings on file in the (DDPF). A released drawing is required before a decal can be produced or placed into the catalog. Some decals included in the catalog have a common applicability and are used in various NASA vehicles/habitats. It is the intent of the DDPF to maintain this catalog as a "living document" to which decals/placards can be added as they are repeatedly used. The advantage of identifYing flight decals in this catalog is that a released drawing is already in place, and the products will be flight certified.

  9. Locally adaptive document skew detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvola, Jaakko J.; Doermann, David S.; Pietikaeinen, Matti

    1997-04-01

    This paper proposes a new approach to the detection of local orientation and skew in document images. It is based on the observation that there are many documents where a single global estimate of the page skew is not sufficient. These documents require local adaptation to deal robustly with todays complex configurations of components on the page. The approach attempts to identify regions in the image which exhibit locally consistent physical properties and consistent physical properties and consistent orientation. To do this, we rapidly compute a coarse segmentation and delineate regions which differ with respect to layout and/or physical content. Each region is classified as text, graphics, mixed text/graphics, image or background using local features and additional features are extracted to estimate orientation. The local orientation decisions are propagated where appropriate to resolve ambiguity and to produce a global estimate of the skew for the page. The implementation of our algorithms is demonstrated on a set of images which have multiple regions with different orientations.

  10. Mixed waste characterization reference document

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Waste characterization and monitoring are major activities in the management of waste from generation through storage and treatment to disposal. Adequate waste characterization is necessary to ensure safe storage, selection of appropriate and effective treatment, and adherence to disposal standards. For some wastes characterization objectives can be difficult and costly to achieve. The purpose of this document is to evaluate costs of characterizing one such waste type, mixed (hazardous and radioactive) waste. For the purpose of this document, waste characterization includes treatment system monitoring, where monitoring is a supplement or substitute for waste characterization. This document establishes a cost baseline for mixed waste characterization and treatment system monitoring requirements from which to evaluate alternatives. The cost baseline established as part of this work includes costs for a thermal treatment technology (i.e., a rotary kiln incinerator), a nonthermal treatment process (i.e., waste sorting, macronencapsulation, and catalytic wet oxidation), and no treatment (i.e., disposal of waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP)). The analysis of improvement over the baseline includes assessment of promising areas for technology development in front-end waste characterization, process equipment, off gas controls, and monitoring. Based on this assessment, an ideal characterization and monitoring configuration is described that minimizes costs and optimizes resources required for waste characterization.

  11. Freight Efficiency Outreach Center

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The North Central Texas Council of Governments is an EPA Climate Showcase Community. EPA’s CSC Program helps local governments and tribal nations pilot innovative, cost-effective and replicable community-based greenhouse gas reduction projects.

  12. Designing Optimal LNG Station Network for U.S. Heavy-Duty Freight Trucks using Temporally and Spatially Explicit Supply Chain Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Allen

    The recent natural gas boom has opened much discussion about the potential of natural gas and specifically Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) in the United States transportation sector. The switch from diesel to natural gas vehicles would reduce foreign dependence on oil, spur domestic economic growth, and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions. LNG provides the most potential for the medium to heavy-duty vehicle market partially due to unstable oil prices and stagnant natural gas prices. As long as the abundance of unconventional gas in the United States remains cheap, fuel switching to natural gas could provide significant cost savings for long haul freight industry. Amid a growing LNG station network and ever increasing demand for freight movement, LNG heavy-duty truck sales are less than anticipated and the industry as a whole is less economic than expected. In spite of much existing and mature natural gas infrastructure, the supply chain for LNG is different and requires explicit and careful planning. This thesis proposes research to explore the claim that the largest obstacle to widespread LNG market penetration is sub-optimal infrastructure planning. No other study we are aware of has explicitly explored the LNG transportation fuel supply chain for heavy-duty freight trucks. This thesis presents a novel methodology that links a network infrastructure optimization model (represents supply side) with a vehicle stock and economic payback model (represents demand side). The model characterizes both a temporal and spatial optimization model of future LNG transportation fuel supply chains in the United States. The principal research goal is to assess the economic feasibility of the current LNG transportation fuel industry and to determine an optimal pathway to achieve ubiquitous commercialization of LNG vehicles in the heavy-duty transport sector. The results indicate that LNG is not economic as a heavy-duty truck fuel until 2030 under current market conditions

  13. 40 CFR 1508.10 - Environmental document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Environmental document. 1508.10 Section 1508.10 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.10 Environmental document. Environmental document includes the documents specified in § 1508.9...

  14. 47 CFR 61.16 - Base documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Base documents. 61.16 Section 61.16... for Electronic Filing § 61.16 Base documents. (a) The Base Document is a complete tariff which incorporates all effective revisions, as of the last day of the preceding month. The Base Document should...

  15. 47 CFR 61.16 - Base documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Base documents. 61.16 Section 61.16... for Electronic Filing § 61.16 Base documents. (a) The Base Document is a complete tariff which incorporates all effective revisions, as of the last day of the preceding month. The Base Document should...

  16. 47 CFR 61.16 - Base documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Base documents. 61.16 Section 61.16... for Electronic Filing § 61.16 Base documents. (a) The Base Document is a complete tariff which incorporates all effective revisions, as of the last day of the preceding month. The Base Document should...

  17. 47 CFR 61.16 - Base documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Base documents. 61.16 Section 61.16... for Electronic Filing § 61.16 Base documents. (a) The Base Document is a complete tariff which incorporates all effective revisions, as of the last day of the preceding month. The Base Document should...

  18. 47 CFR 61.16 - Base documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Base documents. 61.16 Section 61.16... for Electronic Filing § 61.16 Base documents. (a) The Base Document is a complete tariff which incorporates all effective revisions, as of the last day of the preceding month. The Base Document should...

  19. 40 CFR 1508.10 - Environmental document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Environmental document. 1508.10 Section 1508.10 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY TERMINOLOGY AND INDEX § 1508.10 Environmental document. Environmental document includes the documents specified in § 1508.9...

  20. 21 CFR 820.40 - Document controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Document controls. 820.40 Section 820.40 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Document Controls § 820.40 Document controls. Each manufacturer shall establish and maintain procedures to control all documents that are required by this part. The procedures...

  1. 21 CFR 820.40 - Document controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Document controls. 820.40 Section 820.40 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Document Controls § 820.40 Document controls. Each manufacturer shall establish and maintain procedures to control all documents that are required by this part. The procedures...

  2. 21 CFR 820.40 - Document controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Document controls. 820.40 Section 820.40 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Document Controls § 820.40 Document controls. Each manufacturer shall establish and maintain procedures to control all documents that are required by this part. The procedures...

  3. 21 CFR 820.40 - Document controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Document controls. 820.40 Section 820.40 Food and... QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Document Controls § 820.40 Document controls. Each manufacturer shall establish and maintain procedures to control all documents that are required by this part. The procedures...

  4. 7 CFR 1739.18 - Grant documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grant documents. 1739.18 Section 1739.18 Agriculture... BROADBAND GRANT PROGRAM Community Connect Grant Program § 1739.18 Grant documents. The terms and conditions of grants shall be set forth in grant documents prepared by the Agency. The documents shall...

  5. 7 CFR 1739.18 - Grant documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grant documents. 1739.18 Section 1739.18 Agriculture... BROADBAND GRANT PROGRAM Community Connect Grant Program § 1739.18 Grant documents. The terms and conditions of grants shall be set forth in grant documents prepared by the Agency. The documents shall...

  6. Documentation: Motivation and training or automation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouton, M. L.

    1970-01-01

    The road blocks and mental blocks in areas where automation is not taking care of basic documentation problems are discussed. Original project documentation, documentation for project maintenance, and comparison of preliminary and final documentation are described. The use of flow charts is also mentioned.

  7. Apollo 16 photographic standards documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourque, P. F.

    1972-01-01

    The activities of the Photographic Technology Division, and particularly the Photo Science Office, the Precision Processing Laboratory, and the Motion Picture Laboratory, in connection with the scientific photography of the Apollo 16 manned space mission are documented. Described are the preflight activities involved in establishing a standard process for each of the flight films, the manned in which flight films were handled upon arrival at the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas, and how the flight films were processed and duplicated. The tone reproduction method of duplication is described. The specific sensitometric and chemical process controls are not included.

  8. Standardizing Documentation of FITS Headers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hourcle, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    Although the FITS file format[1] can be self-documenting, human intervention is often needed to read the headers to write the necessary transformations to make a given instrument team's data compatible with our preferred analysis package. External documentation may be needed to determine what the values are of coded values or unfamiliar acronyms.Different communities have interpreted keywords slightly differently. This has resulted in ambiguous fields such as DATE-OBS, which could be either the start or mid-point of an observation.[2]Conventions for placing units and additional information within the comments of a FITS card exist, but they require re-writing the FITS file. This operation can be quite costly for large archives, and should not be taken lightly when dealing with issues of digital preservation.We present what we believe is needed for a machine-actionable external file describing a given collection of FITS files. We seek comments from data producers, archives, and those writing software to help develop a single, useful, implementable standard.References:[1] Pence, et.al. 2010, http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/201015362[2] Rots, et.al, (in preparation), http://hea-www.cfa.harvard.edu arots/TimeWCS/

  9. HEALTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS DOCUMENT ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Health and Environmental Effects Documents (HEEDS) are prepared for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER). This document series is intended to support listings under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as well as to provide health-related limits and goals for emergency and remedial actions under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency Program Office files are evaluated as they pertain to potential human health, aquatic life and environmental effects of hazardous waste constituents. Several quantitative estimates are presented provided sufficient data are available. For systemic toxicants, these include Reference Doses (RfDs) for chronic and subchronic exposures for both the inhalation and oral exposures. In the case of suspected carcinogens, RfDs may not be estimated. Instead, a carcinogenic potency factor, or q1*, is provided. These potency estimates are derived for both oral and inhalation exposures where possible. In addition, unit risk estimates for air and drinking water are presented based on inhalation and oral data, respectively. Reportable quantities (RQs) based on both chronic toxicity and carcinogenicity are derived. The RQ is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified under CERCLA.

  10. SRS ECOLOGY ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Wike, L; Doug Martin, D; Eric Nelson, E; Nancy Halverson, N; John Mayer, J; Michael Paller, M; Rodney Riley, R; Michael Serrato, M

    2006-03-01

    The SRS Ecology Environmental Information Document (EEID) provides a source of information on the ecology of Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS is a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)--owned property on the upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina, centered approximately 40 kilometers (25 miles) southeast of Augusta, Georgia. The entire site was designated a National Environmental Research Park in 1972 by the Atomic Energy Commission, the predecessor of DOE. This document summarizes and synthesizes ecological research and monitoring conducted on the three main types of ecosystems found at SRS: terrestrial, wetland and aquatic. It also summarizes the available information on the threatened and endangered species found on the Savannah River Site. SRS is located along the Savannah River and encompasses an area of 80,267 hectares (310 square miles) in three South Carolina counties. It contains diverse habitats, flora, and fauna. Habitats include upland terrestrial areas, wetlands, streams, reservoirs, and the adjacent Savannah River. These diverse habitats support a variety of plants and animals, including many commercially or recreationally valuable species and several rare, threatened, or endangered species. Soils are the basic terrestrial resource, influencing the development of terrestrial biological communities. Many different soils exist on the SRS, from hydric to well-drained, and from sand to clay. In general, SRS soils are predominantly well-drained loamy sands.

  11. CANISTER HANDLING FACILITY DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    J.F. Beesley

    2005-04-21

    The purpose of this facility description document (FDD) is to establish requirements and associated bases that drive the design of the Canister Handling Facility (CHF), which will allow the design effort to proceed to license application. This FDD will be revised at strategic points as the design matures. This FDD identifies the requirements and describes the facility design, as it currently exists, with emphasis on attributes of the design provided to meet the requirements. This FDD is an engineering tool for design control; accordingly, the primary audience and users are design engineers. This FDD is part of an iterative design process. It leads the design process with regard to the flowdown of upper tier requirements onto the facility. Knowledge of these requirements is essential in performing the design process. The FDD follows the design with regard to the description of the facility. The description provided in this FDD reflects the current results of the design process.

  12. 1992 Conversion Resources Supply Document

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    In recent years conservation of electric power has become an integral part of utility planning. The 1980 Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Northwest Power Act) requires that the region consider conservation potential in planning acquisitions of resources to meet load growth. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) developed its first estimates of conservation potential in 1982. Since that time BPA has updated its conservation supply analyses as a part of its Resource Program and other planning efforts. Major updates were published in 1985 and in January 1990. This 1992 document presents updated supply curves, which are estimates of the savings potential over time (cumulative savings) at different cost levels of energy conservation measures (ECMs). ECMs are devices, pieces of equipment, or actions that increase the efficiency of electricity use and reduce the amount of electricity used by end-use equipment.

  13. PORFLOW TESTING AND VERIFICATION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Aleman, S

    2007-06-18

    The PORFLOW software package is a comprehensive mathematical model for simulation of multi-phase fluid flow, heat transfer and mass transport in variably saturated porous and fractured media. PORFLOW can simulate transient or steady-state problems in Cartesian or cylindrical geometry. The porous medium may be anisotropic and heterogeneous and may contain discrete fractures or boreholes with the porous matrix. The theoretical models within the code provide a unified treatment of concepts relevant to fluid flow and transport. The main features of PORFLOW that are relevant to Performance Assessment modeling at the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) include variably saturated flow and transport of parent and progeny radionuclides. This document involves testing a relevant sample of problems in PORFLOW and comparing the outcome of the simulations to analytical solutions or other commercial codes. The testing consists of the following four groups. Group 1: Groundwater Flow; Group 2: Contaminant Transport; Group 3: Numerical Dispersion; and Group 4: Keyword Commands.

  14. PSP Program close out documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Andringa, K.; Hootman, H.E.; Ferrara, A.S.; Smith, P.K.; Congdon, J.W.; Randolph, H.W.; Young, R.H.; Driggers, F.E.; Topp, S.V.

    1985-12-31

    In December 1982 DOE-SR directed SRL to study the feasibility and impact of a program to lower the U-236 content of the Highly Enriched Uranium (HEU) stockpile used as fuel for the SRP reactors. In response to this request SRL assessed four technologies, Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS), Molecular Laser Isotope Separation (MLIS), Gas Centrifuge, and the Plasma Separation Process (PSP) for this purpose with the assistance of the Engineering Department. In April 1983 cost/benefit analyses for these processes, high spot cost estimates for production facilities, and process uncertainties were submitted to DOE-SR with a recommendation to proceed with the conceptual design and supporting development programs for a facility based on the use of the PSP process. The current program status for the PSP development program at SRL and the design and documentation of a production facility at SRP, referred to as the Fuel Improvement Demonstration Facility (FIDF), is described in this report.

  15. Automated labeling in document images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jongwoo; Le, Daniel X.; Thoma, George R.

    2000-12-01

    The National Library of Medicine (NLM) is developing an automated system to produce bibliographic records for its MEDLINER database. This system, named Medical Article Record System (MARS), employs document image analysis and understanding techniques and optical character recognition (OCR). This paper describes a key module in MARS called the Automated Labeling (AL) module, which labels all zones of interest (title, author, affiliation, and abstract) automatically. The AL algorithm is based on 120 rules that are derived from an analysis of journal page layouts and features extracted from OCR output. Experiments carried out on more than 11,000 articles in over 1,000 biomedical journals show the accuracy of this rule-based algorithm to exceed 96%.

  16. Domestic violence documentation project 2012.

    PubMed

    Nittis, Maria; Hughes, Rod; Gray, Cecile; Ashton, Mandy

    2013-08-01

    One in four women presenting to Emergency Departments in Australia have experienced domestic violence in their lives but there are no specialist services for victims of domestic violence in the state of New South Wales, population of 7.25 million. Fundamental forensic medical and nursing skills developed for the comprehensive assessment of complainants of sexual assault were utilised in the examination of victims of domestic violence in a trial project at Nepean Hospital, Sydney. The project was then reviewed via a series of qualitative patient and police interviews along with an analysis of court outcomes. Assessment by specialists in forensic documentation and interpretation of injuries with the provision of balanced expert opinions for court purposes can result in a number of benefits for the victims and the criminal justice system, including an increase in the rate of successful prosecutions.

  17. An arthroscopic hip documentation form.

    PubMed

    Gokhale, Satesh; Khan, Munir; Kuiper, Jan-Herman; Richardson, James B; Davies, Jonathan P

    2008-07-01

    Hip arthroscopy is becoming increasingly popular. A simple, precise, and practical means of recording arthroscopic findings will be useful for diagnostic, research, and audit purposes. Basic principles of cartography exist to produce two-dimensional paper representations of our spherical planet. We used the same principles to produce a two-dimensional map of the acetabulum and femoral head. The resulting hip diagram shows the acetabulum as viewed from the side and the femoral head as viewed from above. The ligamentum teres is attached to the medial margin of the head. The head-neck junction and part of the femoral neck is shown at the opposite margin of the ligamentum teres. The hip documentation form is simple, precise, and accurate. We use it to record our findings at hip arthroscopy, which we have used to assist us in our practice.

  18. [Familial combined hyperlipidemia: consensus document].

    PubMed

    Mata, Pedro; Alonso, Rodrigo; Ruíz-Garcia, Antonio; Díaz-Díaz, Jose L; González, Noemí; Gijón-Conde, Teresa; Martínez-Faedo, Ceferino; Morón, Ignacio; Arranz, Ezequiel; Aguado, Rocío; Argueso, Rosa; Perez de Isla, Leopoldo

    2014-10-01

    Familial combined hyperlipidemia (FCH) is a frequent disorder associated with premature coronary artery disease. It is transmitted in an autosomal dominant manner, although there is not a unique gene involved. The diagnosis is performed using clinical criteria, and variability in lipid phenotype and family history of hyperlipidemia are necessaries. Frequently, the disorder is associated with type2 diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension and central obesity. Patients with FCH are considered as high cardiovascular risk and the lipid target is an LDL-cholesterol <100mg/dL, and <70mg/dL if cardiovascular disease or type 2 diabetes are present. Patients with FCH require lipid lowering treatment using potent statins and sometimes, combined lipid-lowering treatment. Identification and management of other cardiovascular risk factors as type 2 diabetes and hypertension are fundamental to reduce cardiovascular disease burden. This document gives recommendations for the diagnosis and global treatment of patients with FCH directed to specialists and general practitioners.

  19. Using clustering for document reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukovich, Anna; Zacchigna, Alessandra; Ramponi, Giovanni; Schoier, Gabriella

    2006-02-01

    In the forensics and investigative science fields there may arise the need of reconstructing documents which have been destroyed by means of a shredder. In a computer-based reconstruction, the pieces are described by numerical features, which represent the visual content of the strips. Usually, the pieces of different pages have been mixed. We propose an approach for the reconstruction which performs a first clustering on the strips to ease the successive matching, be it manual (with the help of a computer) or automatic. A number of features, extracted by means of image processing algorithms, have been selected for this aim. The results show the effectiveness of the features and of the proposed clustering algorithm.

  20. Information Types in Nonmimetic Documents: A Review of Biddle's Wipe-Clean Slate (Understanding Documents).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosenthal, Peter B.; Kirsch, Irwin S.

    1991-01-01

    Describes how the 16 permanent lists used by a first grade reading teacher (and mother of 6) to manage the household represents the whole range of documents covered in the 3 major types of documents: matrix documents, graphic documents, and locative documents. Suggests class activities to clarify students' understanding of the information in…

  1. Electronic Document Management Using Inverted Files System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhartono, Derwin; Setiawan, Erwin; Irwanto, Djon

    2014-03-01

    The amount of documents increases so fast. Those documents exist not only in a paper based but also in an electronic based. It can be seen from the data sample taken by the SpringerLink publisher in 2010, which showed an increase in the number of digital document collections from 2003 to mid of 2010. Then, how to manage them well becomes an important need. This paper describes a new method in managing documents called as inverted files system. Related with the electronic based document, the inverted files system will closely used in term of its usage to document so that it can be searched over the Internet using the Search Engine. It can improve document search mechanism and document save mechanism.

  2. Hazard Ranking System (HRS) documentation record training

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    Documentation Record Training Course Agenda: Introduction; Review and organization of site information; Writing the documentation record; Overview of the NPL listing process; Quality assurance and public comment review; and Conclusion.

  3. Comparison of historical documents for writership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Gregory R.; Pu, Danjun; Stritmatter, Roger; Srihari, Sargur N.

    2010-01-01

    Over the last century forensic document science has developed progressively more sophisticated pattern recognition methodologies for ascertaining the authorship of disputed documents. These include advances not only in computer assisted stylometrics, but forensic handwriting analysis. We present a writer verification method and an evaluation of an actual historical document written by an unknown writer. The questioned document is compared against two known handwriting samples of Herman Melville, a 19th century American author who has been hypothesized to be the writer of this document. The comparison led to a high confidence result that the questioned document was written by the same writer as the known documents. Such methodology can be applied to many such questioned documents in historical writing, both in literary and legal fields.

  4. Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents

    SciTech Connect

    2009-05-01

    Utility Energy Services Contracts: Enabling Documents provides materials that clarify the authority for Federal agencies to enter into utility energy services contracts (UESCs), as well as sample documents and resources to ease utility partnership contracting.

  5. Documents about Measurement Competency Under Acquisition Agreements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These document convey EPA policy requiring that organizations generating environmental data under Agency-funded acquisitions submit documentation of their competency, which may include participation in applicable certification and/or accreditation programs

  6. Section 508 Electronic Documents: Making Word Docs

    NASA Video Gallery

    Section 508 training video for Electronic Documents on making Word documents accessible for conversion to PDF. This video is part of a series of training sessions that was delivered at Ames Researc...

  7. AgRISTARS documents tracking list report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawkins, J. L.

    1983-01-01

    A quarterly listing of documents issued and placed in the AgRISTARS tracking system is provided. The technical publications are arranged by type of documents. The reference AgRISTARS document number, title and date of publication, the issuing organization, and the National Technical Information Service reference number is given.

  8. 7 CFR 650.11 - Environmental documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Environmental documents. 650.11 Section 650.11....11 Environmental documents. (a) NRCS is to use the following documents in compliance with NEPA (see § 650.4): (1) Environmental assessments (EA) (2) Environmental impact statements (EIS) (3) Notice...

  9. 7 CFR 650.11 - Environmental documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Environmental documents. 650.11 Section 650.11....11 Environmental documents. (a) NRCS is to use the following documents in compliance with NEPA (see § 650.4): (1) Environmental assessments (EA) (2) Environmental impact statements (EIS) (3) Notice...

  10. Skill Matches to Job Requirements: Support Document

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Chris; Sinning, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    This document serves as a support paper to the "Skill Matches to Job Requirements" report. This document includes the following sections: (1) Development of scales; (2) Definition of variables; and (3) Descriptive statistics. (Contains 3 tables and 9 figures.) [Funding for this document was provided through the Australian Department of…

  11. 10 CFR 71.113 - Document control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Document control. 71.113 Section 71.113 Energy NUCLEAR....113 Document control. The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall establish measures to control the issuance of documents such as instructions, procedures, and drawings,...

  12. 10 CFR 71.113 - Document control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Document control. 71.113 Section 71.113 Energy NUCLEAR....113 Document control. The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall establish measures to control the issuance of documents such as instructions, procedures, and drawings,...

  13. 10 CFR 72.152 - Document control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Document control. 72.152 Section 72.152 Energy NUCLEAR... Document control. The licensee, applicant for a license, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall establish measures to control the issuance of documents such as instructions, procedures, and...

  14. 10 CFR 72.152 - Document control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Document control. 72.152 Section 72.152 Energy NUCLEAR... Document control. The licensee, applicant for a license, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall establish measures to control the issuance of documents such as instructions, procedures, and...

  15. Federal Register Document Image Database, Volume 1

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Federal Register Document Image Database, Volume 1 (PC database for purchase)   NIST has produced a new document image database for evaluating document analysis and recognition technologies and information retrieval systems. NIST Special Database 25 contains page images from the 1994 Federal Register and much more.

  16. 32 CFR 239.12 - Tax documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tax documentation. 239.12 Section 239.12...) MISCELLANEOUS HOMEOWNERS ASSISTANCE PROGRAM-APPLICATION PROCESSING § 239.12 Tax documentation. For disbursed funds, tax documents (if necessary) will be certified by HQUSACE Finance Center and distributed...

  17. 32 CFR 239.12 - Tax documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tax documentation. 239.12 Section 239.12...) MISCELLANEOUS HOMEOWNERS ASSISTANCE PROGRAM-APPLICATION PROCESSING § 239.12 Tax documentation. For disbursed funds, tax documents (if necessary) will be certified by HQUSACE Finance Center and distributed...

  18. 32 CFR 239.12 - Tax documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tax documentation. 239.12 Section 239.12...) MISCELLANEOUS HOMEOWNERS ASSISTANCE PROGRAM-APPLICATION PROCESSING § 239.12 Tax documentation. For disbursed funds, tax documents (if necessary) will be certified by HQUSACE Finance Center and distributed...

  19. 32 CFR 239.12 - Tax documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tax documentation. 239.12 Section 239.12...) MISCELLANEOUS HOMEOWNERS ASSISTANCE PROGRAM-APPLICATION PROCESSING § 239.12 Tax documentation. For disbursed funds, tax documents (if necessary) will be certified by HQUSACE Finance Center and distributed...

  20. 43 CFR 2711.5 - Conveyance documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SALES: FEDERAL LAND POLICY AND MANAGEMENT ACT Sales: Procedures § 2711.5 Conveyance documents. Patents and other conveyance documents issued under... may withhold issuance of a patent or other document of conveyance on lands sold under this part...

  1. 43 CFR 2711.5 - Conveyance documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND RESOURCE MANAGEMENT (2000) SALES: FEDERAL LAND POLICY AND MANAGEMENT ACT Sales: Procedures § 2711.5 Conveyance documents. Patents and other conveyance documents issued under... may withhold issuance of a patent or other document of conveyance on lands sold under this part...

  2. 10 CFR 55.27 - Documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Documentation. 55.27 Section 55.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES Medical Requirements § 55.27 Documentation. The facility licensee shall document and maintain the results of medical qualifications data, test results,...

  3. 78 FR 14053 - Vessel Documentation Renewal Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 46 CFR Part 67 RIN 1625-AB56 Vessel Documentation Renewal Fees AGENCY: Coast Guard... to separately list an annual fee for renewals of endorsements upon the Certificate of Documentation. The Coast Guard is required to establish user fees for services related to the documentation...

  4. 33 CFR 104.120 - Compliance documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance documentation. 104.120... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: VESSELS General § 104.120 Compliance documentation. (a) Each vessel owner or... maintain the documentation described in paragraphs (a)(1), (2), or (3) of this section. The letter...

  5. 23 CFR 774.7 - Documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Documentation. 774.7 Section 774.7 Highways FEDERAL..., WILDLIFE AND WATERFOWL REFUGES, AND HISTORIC SITES (SECTION 4(F)) § 774.7 Documentation. (a) A Section 4(f) evaluation prepared under § 774.3(a) shall include sufficient supporting documentation to demonstrate...

  6. 33 CFR 105.120 - Compliance documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance documentation. 105.120... SECURITY MARITIME SECURITY: FACILITIES General § 105.120 Compliance documentation. Each facility owner or... documentation are available at the facility and are made available to the Coast Guard upon request: (a)...

  7. 38 CFR 59.30 - Documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Documentation. 59.30... STATES FOR CONSTRUCTION OR ACQUISITION OF STATE HOMES § 59.30 Documentation. For a State to obtain a grant and grant funds under this part, the State must submit to VA documentation that the site of...

  8. 12 CFR 1410.7 - Documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Documentation. 1410.7 Section 1410.7 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT SYSTEM INSURANCE CORPORATION PREMIUMS § 1410.7 Documentation. Each insured bank shall... and records documentation supporting its certified statement for a period no less than 5...

  9. 5 CFR 844.203 - Supporting documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supporting documentation. 844.203 Section... § 844.203 Supporting documentation. (a) An individual or agency filing an application for disability... whatever documentation OPM requires in order to determine whether the individual meets the...

  10. 36 CFR 216.5 - Documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Documentation. 216.5 Section... PUBLIC IN THE FORMULATION OF FOREST SERVICE DIRECTIVES § 216.5 Documentation. The responsible Forest... reasons therefor, in a concise written summary. The summary may be combined with documentation required...

  11. 7 CFR 352.4 - Documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Documentation. 352.4 Section 352.4 Agriculture..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PLANT QUARANTINE SAFEGUARD REGULATIONS § 352.4 Documentation. (a) Manifest... for examination a complete manifest or other documentation from which the inspector may...

  12. 40 CFR 68.39 - Documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Documentation. 68.39 Section 68.39... ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Hazard Assessment § 68.39 Documentation. The owner or operator shall... passive mitigation that were assumed to limit the quantity that could be released. Documentation...

  13. 5 CFR 536.403 - Documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Documentation. 536.403 Section 536.403... and Miscellaneous Provisions § 536.403 Documentation. The application of the provisions of this part... minimum this documentation will include a copy of the letter described in § 536.404....

  14. 19 CFR 10.307 - Documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Documentation. 10.307 Section 10.307 Customs....307 Documentation. (a) Claims for a preference. A preference in accordance with the Agreement may be claimed by including on the entry summary, or equivalent documentation, the symbol “CA” as a prefix to...

  15. 33 CFR 106.115 - Compliance documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance documentation. 106.115... documentation. Each OCS facility owner or operator subject to this part must ensure before July 1, 2004, that copies of the following documentation are available at the OCS facility and are made available to...

  16. 19 CFR 10.24 - Documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... with United States Components § 10.24 Documentation. (a) Documents required. The following documents... abroad shall be filed in substantially the following form: I, _____, declare that to the best of my knowledge and belief the _____ were assembled in whole or in part from fabricated components listed...

  17. 21 CFR 820.40 - Document controls.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Document controls. 820.40 Section 820.40 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Document Controls § 820.40 Document controls. Each manufacturer shall...

  18. Documentation and Communication in Swedish Preschools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emilson, Anette; Pramling Samuelsson, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate communication between preschool teachers and children in documentation situations. The focus is also on what preschool teachers actually document. The research questions are: What characterizes the communication between teachers and children when these teachers are documenting at the same time? What is the…

  19. Write It Down!: The Importance of Documentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edge, Irene E.

    2006-01-01

    Documenting procedures very well is an important concern for technology educators and students alike. Good documentation--a thorough conveyance of thoughts and processes--is a skill that can set the students above others as they enter the competitive technological workforce. In this article, the author explores how writing and documenting could be…

  20. Organising European technical documentation to avoid duplication.

    PubMed

    Donawa, Maria

    2006-04-01

    The development of comprehensive accurate and well-organised technical documentation that demonstrates compliance with regulatory requirements is a resource-intensive, but critically important activity for medical device manufacturers. This article discusses guidance documents and method of organising technical documentation that may help avoid costly and time-consuming duplication.

  1. Teletex Based Electronic Document Delivery (Project HERMES).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amy, Susan J.

    1985-01-01

    Project HERMES is characterized by participation of publishers, industrial and public libraries, and national government, and by use of Teletex for both document ordering and delivery. Provision of three facilities (electronic document ordering and delivery, automatic document delivery, electronic mail) to pilot group of 60 organizations is…

  2. 40 CFR 262.84 - Tracking document.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... exported by rail. (b) The tracking document must include all information required under § 262.83 (for... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tracking document. 262.84 Section 262... Recovery within the OECD § 262.84 Tracking document. (a) All U.S. parties subject to the...

  3. 10 CFR 71.113 - Document control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Document control. 71.113 Section 71.113 Energy NUCLEAR....113 Document control. The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall establish measures to control the issuance of documents such as instructions, procedures, and drawings,...

  4. 10 CFR 72.152 - Document control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Document control. 72.152 Section 72.152 Energy NUCLEAR... Document control. The licensee, applicant for a license, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall establish measures to control the issuance of documents such as instructions, procedures, and...

  5. 12 CFR 616.6400 - Documentation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Documentation. 616.6400 Section 616.6400 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LEASING § 616.6400 Documentation. Each institution must document that any asset it leases is within its statutory authority....

  6. 10 CFR 603.1020 - File documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false File documents. 603.1020 Section 603.1020 Energy... Reporting Information About the Award § 603.1020 File documents. The award file should include an analysis..., the file must document the analysis required (see § 603.560) to set the fixed level of Federal...

  7. 22 CFR 42.65 - Supporting documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Application for Immigrant Visas § 42.65 Supporting documents. (a) Authority to... establish the alien's eligibility to receive an immigrant visa. All such documents submitted and...

  8. 22 CFR 42.65 - Supporting documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Application for Immigrant Visas § 42.65 Supporting documents. (a) Authority to... establish the alien's eligibility to receive an immigrant visa. All such documents submitted and...

  9. 22 CFR 42.65 - Supporting documents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS VISAS: DOCUMENTATION OF IMMIGRANTS UNDER THE IMMIGRATION AND NATIONALITY ACT, AS AMENDED Application for Immigrant Visas § 42.65 Supporting documents. (a) Authority to... establish the alien's eligibility to receive an immigrant visa. All such documents submitted and...

  10. Documenting Clinical Events in Adventure Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Sky; Yerkes, Rita

    1995-01-01

    Stresses the need for documenting the application and outcomes of specific adventure activities with specific client groups and documenting critical therapeutic/clinical incidents in adventure therapy programs. Overviews current trends in documentation of therapeutic adventure programs and provides recommendations from the medical and mental…

  11. Computation of term dominance in text documents

    DOEpatents

    Bauer, Travis L [Albuquerque, NM; Benz, Zachary O [Albuquerque, NM; Verzi, Stephen J [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-04-24

    An improved entropy-based term dominance metric useful for characterizing a corpus of text documents, and is useful for comparing the term dominance metrics of a first corpus of documents to a second corpus having a different number of documents.

  12. Mechanical flexible joint design document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daily, Vic

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the status of the Mechanical Flexible Joint (MFJ) Design Subtask with the intent of halting work on the design. Recommendations for future work is included in the case that the task is to be resumed. The MFJ is designed to eliminate two failure points from the current flex joint configuration, the inner 'tripod configuration' and the outer containment jacket. The MFJ will also be designed to flex 13.5 degrees and have three degrees of freedom. By having three degrees of freedom, the MFJ will allow the Low Pressure Fuel Duct to twist and remove the necessity to angulate the full 11 degrees currently required. The current flex joints are very labor intensive and very costly and a simple alternative is being sought. The MFJ is designed with a greater angular displacement, with three degrees of freedom, to reside in the same overall envelope, to meet weight constraints of the current bellows, to be compatible with cryogenic fuel and oxidizers, and also to be man-rated.

  13. Consumer Vehicle Choice Model Documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Changzheng; Greene, David L

    2012-08-01

    In response to the Fuel Economy and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions standards, automobile manufacturers will need to adopt new technologies to improve the fuel economy of their vehicles and to reduce the overall GHG emissions of their fleets. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed the Optimization Model for reducing GHGs from Automobiles (OMEGA) to estimate the costs and benefits of meeting GHG emission standards through different technology packages. However, the model does not simulate the impact that increased technology costs will have on vehicle sales or on consumer surplus. As the model documentation states, “While OMEGA incorporates functions which generally minimize the cost of meeting a specified carbon dioxide (CO2) target, it is not an economic simulation model which adjusts vehicle sales in response to the cost of the technology added to each vehicle.” Changes in the mix of vehicles sold, caused by the costs and benefits of added fuel economy technologies, could make it easier or more difficult for manufacturers to meet fuel economy and emissions standards, and impacts on consumer surplus could raise the costs or augment the benefits of the standards. Because the OMEGA model does not presently estimate such impacts, the EPA is investigating the feasibility of developing an adjunct to the OMEGA model to make such estimates. This project is an effort to develop and test a candidate model. The project statement of work spells out the key functional requirements for the new model.

  14. Fossil energy program. Summary document

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-01

    This program summary document presents a comprehensive overview of the research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) activities that will be performed in FY 1981 by the Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy (ASFE), US Department of Energy (DOE). The ASFE technology programs for the fossil resources of coal, petroleum (including oil shale) and gas have been established with the goal of making substantive contributions to the nation's future supply and efficienty use of energy. On April 29, 1977, the Administration submitted to Congress the National Energy Plan (NEP) and accompanying legislative proposals designed to establish a coherent energy policy structure for the United States. Congress passed the National Energy Act (NEA) on October 15, 1978, which allows implementation of the vital parts of the NEP. The NEP was supplemented by additional energy policy statements culminating in the President's address on July 15, 1979, presenting a program to further reduce dependence on imported petroleum. The passage of the NEA-related energy programs represent specific steps by the Administration and Congress to reorganize, redirect, and clarify the role of the Federal Government in the formulation and execution of national energy policy and programs. The energy technology RD and D prog4rams carried out by ASFE are an important part of the Federal Government's effort to provide the combination and amounts of energy resources needed to ensure national security and continued economic growth.

  15. SURFACE GEOPHYSICAL EXPLORATION - COMPENDIUM DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    RUCKER DF; MYERS DA

    2011-10-04

    This report documents the evolution of the surface geophysical exploration (SGE) program and highlights some of the most recent successes in imaging conductive targets related to past leaks within and around Hanford's tank farms. While it is noted that the SGE program consists of multiple geophysical techniques designed to (1) locate near surface infrastructure that may interfere with (2) subsurface plume mapping, the report will focus primarily on electrical resistivity acquisition and processing for plume mapping. Due to the interferences from the near surface piping network, tanks, fences, wells, etc., the results of the three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of electrical resistivity was more representative of metal than the high ionic strength plumes. Since the first deployment, the focus of the SGE program has been to acquire and model the best electrical resistivity data that minimizes the influence of buried metal objects. Toward that goal, two significant advances have occurred: (1) using the infrastructure directly in the acquisition campaign and (2) placement of electrodes beneath the infrastructure. The direct use of infrastructure was successfully demonstrated at T farm by using wells as long electrodes (Rucker et al., 2010, 'Electrical-Resistivity Characterization of an Industrial Site Using Long Electrodes'). While the method was capable of finding targets related to past releases, a loss of vertical resolution was the trade-off. The burying of electrodes below the infrastructure helped to increase the vertical resolution, as long as a sufficient number of electrodes are available for the acquisition campaign.

  16. BENCHMARK DOSE TECHNICAL GUIDANCE DOCUMENT ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The U.S. EPA conducts risk assessments for an array of health effects that may result from exposure to environmental agents, and that require an analysis of the relationship between exposure and health-related outcomes. The dose-response assessment is essentially a two-step process, the first being the definition of a point of departure (POD), and the second extrapolation from the POD to low environmentally-relevant exposure levels. The benchmark dose (BMD) approach provides a more quantitative alternative to the first step in the dose-response assessment than the current NOAEL/LOAEL process for noncancer health effects, and is similar to that for determining the POD proposed for cancer endpoints. As the Agency moves toward harmonization of approaches for human health risk assessment, the dichotomy between cancer and noncancer health effects is being replaced by consideration of mode of action and whether the effects of concern are likely to be linear or nonlinear at low doses. Thus, the purpose of this project is to provide guidance for the Agency and the outside community on the application of the BMD approach in determining the POD for all types of health effects data, whether a linear or nonlinear low dose extrapolation is used. A guidance document is being developed under the auspices of EPA's Risk Assessment Forum. The purpose of this project is to provide guidance for the Agency and the outside community on the application of the benchmark dose (BMD) appr

  17. NEMS integrating module documentation report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-14

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is a computer modeling system that produces a general equilibrium solution for energy supply and demand in the US energy markets. The model achieves a supply and demand balance in the end-use demand regions, defined as the nine Census Divisions, by solving for the prices of each energy type such that the quantities producers are willing to supply equal the quantities consumers wish to consume. The system reflects market economics, industry structure, and energy policies and regulations that influence market behavior. The NEMS Integrating Module is the central integrating component of a complex modeling system. As such, a thorough understanding of its role in the modeling process can only be achieved by placing it in the proper context with respect to the other modules. To that end, this document provides an overview of the complete NEMS model, and includes brief descriptions of the modules with which the Integrating Module interacts. The emphasis and focus, however, is on the structure and function of the Integrating Module of NEMS.

  18. Automatic system for computer program documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simmons, D. B.; Elliott, R. W.; Arseven, S.; Colunga, D.

    1972-01-01

    Work done on a project to design an automatic system for computer program documentation aids was made to determine what existing programs could be used effectively to document computer programs. Results of the study are included in the form of an extensive bibliography and working papers on appropriate operating systems, text editors, program editors, data structures, standards, decision tables, flowchart systems, and proprietary documentation aids. The preliminary design for an automated documentation system is also included. An actual program has been documented in detail to demonstrate the types of output that can be produced by the proposed system.

  19. Language and Program for Documenting Software Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleine, H.; Zepko, T. M.

    1986-01-01

    Software Design and Documentation Language (SDDL) provides effective communication medium to support design and documentation of complex software applications. SDDL supports communication among all members of software design team and provides for production of informative documentation on design effort. Use of SDDL-generated document to analyze design makes it possible to eliminate many errors not detected until coding and testing attempted. SDDL processor program translates designer's creative thinking into effective document for communication. Processor performs as many automatic functions as possible, freeing designer's energy for creative effort. SDDL processor program written in PASCAL.

  20. Automatic document processing system with learning capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuhong; Ng, Peter A.

    2000-08-01

    This automatic document processing system proceeds from scanning a given paper-document into the system, automatic recognizing the document layout structure, classifying it as a particular document type, which is characterized in terms of attributes to form a frame template, and extracting the pertinent information from the document to form its corresponding frame instance, which is an effective digital form of the original document. The key attribute of the system is that it is a general-purpose system, which can be adapted easily to any application domains. A segmentation method based on the 'logical closeness' is proposed. A novel and natural representation of document layout structure -- Labeled Directed Weighted Graph (LDWG) and a methodology of transforming document segmentation into LDWG representation are described. To classify a given document, we compare its layout structure with the sample layout structures of various document types prestored in the knowledge base and then use logical structure to verify the initial matching from the first step. There is a weight associated with each component of the layout structure. During the learning stage, the system can adjust the weights automatically based on the human being's correction. Modified Perceptron Learning Algorithm (PLA) is applied.