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Sample records for french energetic perspective

  1. Perspective view of span over French Creek and east abutment, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of span over French Creek and east abutment, looking NW. - Pennsylvania Railroad, French Creek Trestle, Spanning French Creek, north of Paradise Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  2. French pharmacovigilance: Missions, organization and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Vial, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    Pharmacovigilance aims to identify unknown adverse drug reactions once clinical development is complete, in order to promote improved use of drugs, and thus a reduction in risk for every exposed patient. We describe in this article the missions of French pharmacovigilance system, including French drug agency, Regional Centers of Pharmacovigilance, health professionals, pharmaceutical companies, patients and their associations. We also develop the French pharmacovigilance organization, its perspectives and challenges, both in French and European levels.

  3. French perspectives on psychiatric classification.

    PubMed

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the role of the French schools in the development of psychiatric nosology. Boissier de Sauvages published the first French treatise on medical nosology in 1763. Until the 1880s, French schools held a pre-eminent position in the development of psychiatric concepts. From the 1880s until World War I, German-speaking schools exerted the most influence, featuring the work of major figures such as Emil Kraepelin and Eugen Bleuler. French schools were probably hampered by excessive administrative and cultural centralization. Between the 1880s and the 1930s, French schools developed diagnostic categories that set them apart from international classifications. The main examples are Bouffée Délirante, and the complex set of chronic delusional psychoses (CDPs), including chronic hallucinatory psychosis. CDPs were distinguished from schizophrenia by the lack of cognitive deterioration during evolution. Modern French psychiatry is now coming into line with international classification, such as DSM-5 and the upcoming ICD-11.

  4. French perspectives on psychiatric classification

    PubMed Central

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the role of the French schools in the development of psychiatric nosology. Boissier de Sauvages published the first French treatise on medical nosology in 1763. Until the 1880s, French schools held a pre-eminent position in the development of psychiatric concepts. From the 1880s until World War I, German-speaking schools exerted the most influence, featuring the work of major figures such as Emil Kraepelin and Eugen Bleuler. French schools were probably hampered by excessive administrative and cultural centralization. Between the 1880s and the 1930s, French schools developed diagnostic categories that set them apart from international classifications. The main examples are Bouffée Délirante, and the complex set of chronic delusional psychoses (CDPs), including chronic hallucinatory psychosis. CDPs were distinguished from schizophrenia by the lack of cognitive deterioration during evolution. Modern French psychiatry is now coming into line with international classification, such as DSM-5 and the upcoming ICD-11. PMID:25987863

  5. Zeolite synthesis: an energetic perspective.

    PubMed

    Zwijnenburg, Martijn A; Bromley, Stefan T

    2010-11-21

    Taking |D(H(2)O)(x)|[AlSiO(4)] based materials (where D is Li, Na, K, Rb or Cs) as an archetypal aluminosilicate system, we use accurate density functional theory calculations to demonstrate how the substitution of silicon cations in silica, with pairs of aluminium and (alkali metal) cations, changes the energetic ordering of different competing structure-types. For large alkali metal cations we further show that the formation of porous aluminosilicate structures, the so-called zeolites, is energetically favored. These findings unequivocally demonstrate that zeolites can be energetic preferred reaction products, rather than being kinetically determined, and that the size of the (hydrated) cations in the pore, be it inorganic or organic, is critical for directing zeolite synthesis.

  6. Zeolite synthesis: an energetic perspective.

    PubMed

    Zwijnenburg, Martijn A; Bromley, Stefan T

    2010-11-21

    Taking |D(H(2)O)(x)|[AlSiO(4)] based materials (where D is Li, Na, K, Rb or Cs) as an archetypal aluminosilicate system, we use accurate density functional theory calculations to demonstrate how the substitution of silicon cations in silica, with pairs of aluminium and (alkali metal) cations, changes the energetic ordering of different competing structure-types. For large alkali metal cations we further show that the formation of porous aluminosilicate structures, the so-called zeolites, is energetically favored. These findings unequivocally demonstrate that zeolites can be energetic preferred reaction products, rather than being kinetically determined, and that the size of the (hydrated) cations in the pore, be it inorganic or organic, is critical for directing zeolite synthesis. PMID:20938518

  7. The French Revolution on Film: American and French Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harison, Casey

    2005-01-01

    It is not hard to locate negative or condescending images of the French Revolution in aspects of popular American culture, including film. Despite a handful of instances where nuanced or ambiguous "messages" may be identified, the number of American film interpretations of the French Revolution that might be judged historically "valid" is…

  8. Research Perspectives on Core French: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapkin, Sharon; Mady, Callie; Arnott, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the research literature on core French in three main areas: student diversity, delivery models for the core French program, and instructional approaches. These topics are put into context through a discussion of studies on community attitudes to French as a second language (FSL), dissatisfaction with core French outcomes and…

  9. The Current Energetics of Earth's Interior: A Gravitational Energy Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Jason; Rüpke, Lars; White, William

    2016-05-01

    The Earth's mantle convects to lose heat (Holmes, 1931); doing so drives plate tectonics (Turcotte and Oxburgh, 1967). Significant gravitational energy is created by the cooling of oceanic lithosphere atop hotter, less dense mantle. When slabs subduct, this gravitational energy is mostly (~86% for whole mantle flow in a PREM-like mantle) transformed into heat by viscous dissipation. Using this perspective, we reassess the energetics of Earth's mantle. We also reconsider the terrestrial abundances of heat producing elements U, Th, and K, and argue they are lower than previously considered and that consequently the heat produced by radioactive decay within the mantle is comparable to the present-day potential gravitational energy release by subducting slabs — both are roughly ~10-12 TW. We reassess possible core heat flow into the base of the mantle, and determine that the core may be still losing a significant amount of heat from its original formation, potentially more than the radioactive heat generation within the mantle. These factors are all likely to be important for Earth's current energetics, and argue that strong plume-driven upwelling is likely to exist within the convecting mantle.

  10. Parallel worlds? French and anglophone perspectives on health geography.

    PubMed

    Hoyez, Anne-Cécile; Collins, Damian; Fleuret, Sébastien

    2016-09-01

    In this short commentary, we address the following question: setting aside the issue of translation, do health geographers in France speak the same language as their English-speaking counterparts in various parts of the world? Specifically, do they have comparable empirical, theoretical and political concerns? We briefly survey the 'states of knowledge' in both fields for points of difference and similarity. We devote particular attention to the diverse contexts in which health geography is practiced. Our overarching goal is not to oppose two 'blocks'; nor is it to produce syntheses of two bodies of work. Rather, we seek to identify the diverse contexts in which geographic knowledge of health issues is produced, and to encourage reflection on what these mean for current and future collaboration across linguistic boundaries. We contend that meaningful Anglo-French comparative work will need to be particularly attentive to takes on theory that is 'the same, but different', to alternative spatial lenses (territory vs. place), and to sometimes sharply distinct perspectives on social difference.

  11. Parallel worlds? French and anglophone perspectives on health geography.

    PubMed

    Hoyez, Anne-Cécile; Collins, Damian; Fleuret, Sébastien

    2016-09-01

    In this short commentary, we address the following question: setting aside the issue of translation, do health geographers in France speak the same language as their English-speaking counterparts in various parts of the world? Specifically, do they have comparable empirical, theoretical and political concerns? We briefly survey the 'states of knowledge' in both fields for points of difference and similarity. We devote particular attention to the diverse contexts in which health geography is practiced. Our overarching goal is not to oppose two 'blocks'; nor is it to produce syntheses of two bodies of work. Rather, we seek to identify the diverse contexts in which geographic knowledge of health issues is produced, and to encourage reflection on what these mean for current and future collaboration across linguistic boundaries. We contend that meaningful Anglo-French comparative work will need to be particularly attentive to takes on theory that is 'the same, but different', to alternative spatial lenses (territory vs. place), and to sometimes sharply distinct perspectives on social difference. PMID:26879406

  12. Space Weather Research in Greece: The Solar Energetic Particle Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malandraki, Olga E.

    2015-03-01

    Space Weather Research carried out in the National Observatory of Athens (NOA), within the SEPServer and COMESEP projects under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SPACE) of the European Union (EU) is presented. Results and services that these projects provide to the whole scientific community as well as stakeholders are underlined. NOA strongly contributes in terms of crucial Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) dataset provided, data analysis and SEP catalogue items provided as well as comparative results of the various components of the project server, greatly facilitating the investigation of SEPs and their origin. SEP research highlights carried out at NOA are also presented, used to test and validate the particle SEP model developed and incorporated within the SEP forecasting tools of the COronal Mass Ejections and Solar Energetic Particles (COMESEP) Space Weather Alert System, i.e. the First European Alert System for geomagnetic storms and SEP radiation hazards.

  13. The role of research in nuclear regulation: A French perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Livolant, M.

    1997-01-01

    Roughly speaking, the French Nuclear Protection and Safety Institute`s role is similar in the French situation to the NRC administration role but with less authority role, which corresponds to another body in France. They define themselves as a technical support of the safety authorities. On the other hand, they have their own research laboratories. Among them, the most famous are the Phebus reactor and the Cabri reactor about which we have heard a lot these two days. They work on safety but also on protection of man and environment, management of accident conditions, security of transport, and safeguards. They have a relationship with utilities and with government authorities. With the utilities they have two types of technical evaluations. They make detailed technical studies of the safety reports presented to the authorities by the utility. On the research side, they participate in common research programs to resolve issues and to increase knowledge and understanding about safety related questions. With the governmental authorities, their role is to give advice on safety reports of existing or being-built installations and on more general policy questions like, for example, the safety principle to apply to the next generation of power plants. The decisions are left to the safety authorities, but they give a lot of advice and detailed studies about questions of safety.

  14. Advance directives and the family: French and American perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Arias, David; Moutel, Grégoire; Aulisio, Mark P.; Salfati, Alexandra; Coffin, Jean-Christophe; Rodríguez-Arias, J.L.; Calvo, L.; Hervé, Christian

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have explored differences between North American and European doctor-patient relationships. They have focused primarily on differences in philosophical traditions and historic and socio-economic factors between these two regions that might lead to differences in behaviour, as well as divergent concepts in and justifications of medical practice. However, few empirical intercultural studies have been carried out to identify in practice these cultural differences. This lack of standard comparative empirical studies led us to compare differences between France and the USA regarding end-of-life decision making. We tested certain assertions put forward by bioethicists concerning the impact of culture on the acceptance of advance directives in such decisions. In particular, we compared North American and French intensive care professional’s attitudes toward: 1) advance directives and 2) the role of the family in decisions to withhold or withdraw life-support. PMID:21957397

  15. Gaining Access to Late French-Immersion Programs: Class-Based Perspectives of Canadian Students in an Ottawa High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makropoulos, Josee

    2009-01-01

    The question of access to French-immersion programs has become a timely subject in Canada as a result of shifting political priorities, cutbacks, and growing concern around finding the most efficient way to teach French as a second language (FSL). While drawing on social selection and identity perspectives on school choice, this article presents…

  16. Solar Energetic Particle Research within SEPServer - a Space Weather Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malandraki, O. E.

    2012-04-01

    SEPServer is a three year collaborative project funded by the seventh framework programme (FP7-SPACE) of the European Union. One of the primary goals of the project is to lead to novel knowledge on the source, acceleration and transport of Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) during solar eruptions, a topic directly related to progress on Space Weather. This latter goal will be accomplished by both the extensive data analysis of energetic particle measurements hosted at SEPServer and the simulation-based data analysis methods capable of deconvolving the effects of interplanetary transport and solar injection from SEP observations. SEPServer focuses on the implementation of a comprehensive and up to date SEP event analysis service including scientific data driven analysis both for 1 AU and for > 1 AU using data from the SOHO/ERNE, SOHO/EPHIN, ACE/EPAM, ACE/SIS, WIND/3DP, Ulysses/HISCALE, Ulysses/COSPIN/LET, Ulysses/COSPIN/KET, STEREO/LET and STEREO/SEPT experiments. SEPServer will also provide for the first time the release of the HELIOS data set in a reasonable format and in full time resolution, thus making available data also for orbits inside 1 AU (down to 0.3 AU). During the first year of the project a novel SEP event list, including 114 cases, based on SOHO/ERNE high energy protons (~70 MeV) was produced. In parallel, the systematic scanning of electrons from SOHO/EPHIN (0.25-3.0 MeV) and ACE/EPAM (45-312 keV) was also performed for all SEP cases. The corresponding EM emissions were also delivered and catalogued. Plots of SEP fluxes for electrons and ions in different energy channels from different instruments (SOHO/ERNE, SOHO/EPHIN, ACE/EPAM), onset time determination and time shifting analysis for the identification of the solar release times of electrons from SOHO/EPHIN and ACE/EPAM, and velocity dispersion analysis of protons observed by SOHO/ERNE were performed, together with a first comparison with the associated solar electromagnetic emissions. SEPServer is

  17. An ocean drum: quasi-geostrophic energetics from a Riemann geometry perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo, José Luis

    2016-05-01

    We revisit the discussion of the energetics of quasi-geostrophic flows from a geometric perspective based on the introduction of an effective metric, built in terms of the flow stratification and the Coriolis parameter. In particular, an appropriate notion of normal modes is defined through a spectral geometry problem in the ocean basin (a compact manifold with boundary) for the associated Laplace-Beltrami scalar operator. This spectral problem can be used to systematically encode non-local aspects of stratification and topography. As examples of applications we revisit the isotropy assumption in geostrophic turbulence, identify (a patch of) the hyperbolic space {{{H}}}3 as the leading-order term in the effective geometry for the deep mesoscale ocean and, finally, discuss some diagnostic tools based on a simple statistical mechanics toy-model to be used in numerical simulations and/or observations of quasi-geostrophic flows.

  18. Cost-Effectiveness of Treatments for Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: A French Societal Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Julie; Chamoux, Catherine; Hammès, Florence; Chicoye, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The paper aimed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) at the public published price for delayed-release dimethyl fumarate versus relevant Multiple Sclerosis disease-modifying therapies available in France in June 2015. Methods The economic model was adapted to the French setting in accordance with the Haute Autorité de Santé guidelines using a model previously developed for NICE. A cohort of Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis patients was simulated over a 30-year time horizon. Twenty one health states were taken into account: Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 0–9 for Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis patients, EDSS 0–9 for Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis patients, and death. Estimates of relative treatment efficacy were determined using a mixed-treatment comparison. Probabilities of events were derived from the dimethyl fumarate pivotal clinical trials and the London Ontario Dataset. Costs and utilities were extracted from the published literature from both the payer and societal perspectives. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the robustness of the model results. Results From both perspectives, dimethyl fumarate and interferon beta-1a (IFN beta-1a) 44mcg were the two optimal treatments, as the other treatments (IFN beta-1a 30mcg, IFN beta-1b 250mcg, teriflunomide, glatiramer acetate, fingolimod) were dominated on the efficiency frontier. From the societal perspective, dimethyl fumarate versus IFN beta-1a 44mcg incurred an incremental cost of €3,684 and an incremental quality-adjusted life year (QALY) of 0.281, corresponding to an ICER of €13,110/QALY. Conclusions Despite no reference threshold for France, dimethyl fumarate can be considered as a cost-effective option as it is on the efficiency frontier. PMID:26987055

  19. What are check dams made for? An historical perspective from the French experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piton, Guillaume; Carladous, Simon; Recking, Alain

    2015-04-01

    technical and sociological reasons. The Mountain lands' conservation and restoration law of 1882 aimed to better fit local issues. The idea of the presentation is thus to highlight how evolved the historical comprehension of torrential hazards and of the usefulness of check dams in mitigation plans in a changing environment on the technical as well as on the sociological and regulatory points of view. Pioneering scientific and technical works on torrential hydraulics and check dams will be presented. Describing the global context that leads to French laws of 1860,1864 and 1882 will allow us to explain the extensive development of the works in more than a thousand of torrents and a hundred of big landslides. We then will discuss the evolution of technics during the beginning of the 20th century and the changes induced after WWII by the arrival of reinforced-concrete technics. We will conclude the presentation with a synthesis table aiming to highlight the different functions of check dams based on a description of their situations in the watershed, compare to other structures' situations and on shape criteria. This historical perspective will hopefully help people to better understand for which purposes some structures have been built in the past centuries and what lessons can be learnt from this assessment.

  20. On-Line Grammaticality Judgments in French Children and Adults: A Crosslinguistic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kail, Michele

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the on-line processing of French sentences in a grammaticality judgment experiment. Three age groups of French children (mean age: 6;8, 8;6 and 10;10 years) and a group of adults were asked to detect grammatical violations as quickly as possible. Three factors were studied: the violation type: agreement violations (number and…

  1. The French Lycees de jeunes filles in International Perspective, 1878-1910

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albisetti, James C.

    2004-01-01

    In preparing the law that established the French system of public secondary schools for girls, Camille See and his supporters conducted a major survey of female education in other countries. Yet they used the information gathered much more to demonstrate French backwardness than to provide guidelines for the new schools; with regard to the …

  2. Teaching French from a Francophone Perspective: The Inclusion of Francophone Countries Other than France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Matthew Paul

    In an effort to expand the teaching of culture related to the French language, a high school French teacher undertook a project to teach francophone culture in countries other than France. The report begins with an extensive discussion and review of literature concerning the extent and diversity of the francophone world, the role of cultural…

  3. Language Needs Analysis from a Perspective of International Professional Mobility: The Case of French Mountain Guides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wozniak, Severine

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a detailed account of an analysis carried out at the French National Skiing and Mountaineering School from August 2008 to June 2009 to assess the language needs of French mountain guides. A targeted literature review highlighted two main points to be taken into account in the design of this language needs analysis: target…

  4. Teaching Authorial Point of View: Using Film to Question the Male Perspective in French Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ponterio, Robert

    1994-01-01

    The use of cinema in a French literature class can help students become more aware of their role as receivers in the reading process. "Le retour de Martin Guerre" and "Entre Nous" helped develop students' awareness of gender's importance in a variety of literary texts. (16 references) (LB)

  5. Thirty Years after Bill 101: A Contemporary Perspective on Attitudes Towards English and French in Montreal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kircher, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a 2007 study that was conducted amongst 147 young anglophone, francophone and allophone Montrealers in order to shed light on their attitudes towards English and French in terms of status and solidarity. The study made use of both a questionnaire and a matched-guise experiment. The findings indicate that while a certain amount…

  6. Phonetic and phonological perspectives on the acquisition of voice onset time by French-speaking children.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Andrea A N

    2016-01-01

    The goal of the present article is to describe the acquisition of the phonetic details and phonological categories of stop consonants in French. To this end, the stop consonants produced by children aged 2-4 years were transcribed and acoustically analysed. Stop consonants provide an interesting window in phonetic and phonological development since they are among the first phonemes to be acquired in French (MacLeod, Sutton, Thordardottir & Trudeau, 2011), yet the mastery of the phonetic detail of these phonemes can be more drawn out (Allen, 1985). The results of the study indicate that these children are producing significant voicing contrasts between homorganic stops using voice onset time, but at the phonetic level their productions are not yet within adult ranges. PMID:27014796

  7. Perspective of inline control of latent defects and diseases on french fries with multispectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noordam, Jacco C.; van den Broek, Willie H.; Buydens, Lutgarde M.

    2004-03-01

    In this paper, the feasibility is investigated to improve discrimination between different defect and diseases on raw French fries with multispectral imaging. Four different potato cultivars are selected from which French Fries are cut. Both multispectral images and RGB color images are classified with linear Bayes normal classifier and a support vector classifier. The effect of applying different preprocessing techniques on the spectra prior to classification was also investigated. The classification result are compared with both RGB images and the full spectra classification results. Experimental results indicate that the support vector classifier gives the best performance for both multispectral and RGB color images and is less preprocessing dependent. The multispectral image classification results outperform the RGB color classification results with a factor 15 at best. An explorative multispectral analysis also shows that latent defects can be detected with multispectral imaging, in contrast with traditional color imaging.

  8. The FARMING approach: main results and perspectives of the French FARMING groups.

    PubMed

    Jullien, T; Reales, N; Gallay, F; Lepicard, S

    2005-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident led to a long-term crisis that affected agriculture, food and living conditions in complex ways, and that modified the usual economical, political and social relations between public and private stakeholders at local, national and international level. The EC FARMING project aims to create a European stakeholder network to consider possible rehabilitation strategies for rural areas contaminated after a nuclear accident. The Institute of Patrimonial Strategies of the National Institute on Agronomy had responsibility for setting up the French stakeholder group. The objective was to develop favourable conditions and ways whereby stakeholders could deal with such a complex situation as a nuclear emergency and develop rehabilitation strategies. The results from the 3-year work programme on both strategic and technical aspects, showed an increasing commitment from the stakeholders that led to the building up of a common understanding of what a nuclear accident could be and how it could be dealt with.

  9. Computer Science Education in French Secondary Schools: Historical and Didactical Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Georges-Louis; Drot-Delange, Beatrice; Grandbastien, Monique; Tort, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    Computer science as a school subject in France is characterized by a succession of promising starts that have not yet been transformed into perennial solutions. The main goal of this article is to analyze this complex situation from a historical perspective, and describe the current rebirth of an optional Computer Science course in the last year…

  10. Organic molecules on the surface of water droplets--an energetic perspective.

    PubMed

    Hub, Jochen S; Caleman, Carl; van der Spoel, David

    2012-07-21

    The solubility of organic molecules is a well established property, founded on decades of measurements, the results of which have been tabulated in handbooks. Under atmospheric conditions water droplets may form containing small amounts of other molecules. Such droplets typically have a very large area to volume ratio, which may shift the solvation equilibrium towards molecules residing on the droplet surface. The presence of organic molecules on droplet surfaces is extremely important for reactivity--it is well established that certain chemical reactions are more prevalent under atmospheric conditions than in bulk. Here we present a thermodynamic rationalization of the surface solvation properties of methanol, ethanol, propanoic acid, n-butylamine, diethyl ether, and neopentane based on potential of mean force (PMF) calculations--we have previously demonstrated that an energetic description is a very powerful means of disentangling the factors governing solvation (Caleman et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A., 2011, 108, 6838-6842). All organic molecules investigated here are preferentially solvated on the surface of the droplets rather than in the inside, yet the magnitude of surface preference may differ by orders of magnitude. In order to dissect the energetic contributions that govern surface preference, we decompose the PMF into enthalpic and entropic components, and, in a second step, into contributions from water-water and solute-water interactions. The analysis demonstrates that surface preference is primarily an enthalpic effect, but the magnitude of surface preference of solutes containing large apolar groups is enhanced due to entropy. We introduce an analysis of the droplet PMFs that allows one to extrapolate the results to larger droplets. From this we can estimate the solubility of the solutes in water droplets, demonstrating that the solubility in droplets can be orders of magnitude larger than in bulk water. Our findings have implications for

  11. Challenges of regulatory rights of half-capacitated persons: A sociological perspective on the French Civil Code reform.

    PubMed

    Eyraud, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    Democratic societies are based on the principle of equal legal capacity of all citizens to decide and act for themselves in all areas of social life. This "socio-civil capacity", which may involve both material property of an individual, as well as private life in matters ranging from health to personal relationships, is recognized by the law (both codified law and common law). These rights guarantee the autonomy and freedom of individuals in the name of respect for human dignity. Civil capacity of a person is legally diminished because his or her "natural" abilities, capacity, or competence are reduced. Recent social changes have lead to increased uses of legal measures of protection. The reasons for these changes are complex and they are accompanied by legislative reforms that modify the rights of half-capacitated persons. In this article, we examine certain issues of civil capacity rights based on the French example. We start present a perspective of the historical definition and practice of these rights as well as their democratization. PMID:27184167

  12. Challenges of regulatory rights of half-capacitated persons: A sociological perspective on the French Civil Code reform.

    PubMed

    Eyraud, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    Democratic societies are based on the principle of equal legal capacity of all citizens to decide and act for themselves in all areas of social life. This "socio-civil capacity", which may involve both material property of an individual, as well as private life in matters ranging from health to personal relationships, is recognized by the law (both codified law and common law). These rights guarantee the autonomy and freedom of individuals in the name of respect for human dignity. Civil capacity of a person is legally diminished because his or her "natural" abilities, capacity, or competence are reduced. Recent social changes have lead to increased uses of legal measures of protection. The reasons for these changes are complex and they are accompanied by legislative reforms that modify the rights of half-capacitated persons. In this article, we examine certain issues of civil capacity rights based on the French example. We start present a perspective of the historical definition and practice of these rights as well as their democratization.

  13. The concept of instability: a French perspective on the concept of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Bader, Michel; Hadjikhani, Nouchine

    2014-03-01

    Historical references to the emergence of the current concept of ADHD typically cite descriptions from medical textbooks by Weikard (1775) and Crichton (An inquiry into the nature and origin of mental derangement: Comprehending a concise system of the physiology and pathology of the human mind and a history of the passion and their affects. Cardell Jr and Davies, Londres, 1798) on attention disorders, poems of Hoffman on hyperactive and impulsive behaviors (Der Struwwelpeter. Frankfurt am Main, Literarische Anstalt, 1843), as well as the work of Still (Lancet 1:1008-1012, 1077-1082, 1163-1168, 1902a, Lancet 159(4102):1008-1013, 1902b, Lancet 159(4103):1077-1082, 1902c, Lancet 159(4104):1163-1168, 1902d) on impulsive behaviors and defective moral regulation of behavior. The notion of "instability" developed by French physicians between 1887 and 1910 is rarely mentioned and often ignored. Writings from this period show that in France, the emergence of the concept of ADHD according to modern terminology comes from the notion of "mental instability" introduced in the 1890s under the leadership of Désiré-Magloire Bourneville at the Hospital Bicêtre in Paris, based on his observations of children and adolescents who had been labeled "abnormal" and placed in medical and educational institutions. In the early twentieth century, elaborating on the observations of Bourneville, Jean Phillipe and Georges Paul-Boncour showed the presence of a subgroup of "unstable" children who suffered from a disease entity in its own right within the population of "abnormal" schoolchildren (the terminology of the time). This new pathological entity included symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention, corresponding to today's classic triad of ADHD symptoms. While noting the lack of behavioral inhibition, clinical descriptions of Bourneville, Philip and Paul-Boncour also considered the notion of "moral disorder" which at that time played an important role in psychopathology. This

  14. The concept of instability: a French perspective on the concept of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Bader, Michel; Hadjikhani, Nouchine

    2014-03-01

    Historical references to the emergence of the current concept of ADHD typically cite descriptions from medical textbooks by Weikard (1775) and Crichton (An inquiry into the nature and origin of mental derangement: Comprehending a concise system of the physiology and pathology of the human mind and a history of the passion and their affects. Cardell Jr and Davies, Londres, 1798) on attention disorders, poems of Hoffman on hyperactive and impulsive behaviors (Der Struwwelpeter. Frankfurt am Main, Literarische Anstalt, 1843), as well as the work of Still (Lancet 1:1008-1012, 1077-1082, 1163-1168, 1902a, Lancet 159(4102):1008-1013, 1902b, Lancet 159(4103):1077-1082, 1902c, Lancet 159(4104):1163-1168, 1902d) on impulsive behaviors and defective moral regulation of behavior. The notion of "instability" developed by French physicians between 1887 and 1910 is rarely mentioned and often ignored. Writings from this period show that in France, the emergence of the concept of ADHD according to modern terminology comes from the notion of "mental instability" introduced in the 1890s under the leadership of Désiré-Magloire Bourneville at the Hospital Bicêtre in Paris, based on his observations of children and adolescents who had been labeled "abnormal" and placed in medical and educational institutions. In the early twentieth century, elaborating on the observations of Bourneville, Jean Phillipe and Georges Paul-Boncour showed the presence of a subgroup of "unstable" children who suffered from a disease entity in its own right within the population of "abnormal" schoolchildren (the terminology of the time). This new pathological entity included symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention, corresponding to today's classic triad of ADHD symptoms. While noting the lack of behavioral inhibition, clinical descriptions of Bourneville, Philip and Paul-Boncour also considered the notion of "moral disorder" which at that time played an important role in psychopathology. This

  15. Pedagogy, Didactics and the Co-Regulation of Learning: A Perspective from the French-Language World of Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allal, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Since pedagogy is a key term in the Teaching and Learning Research Programme (TLRP) principles, it is of interest to examine the evolution of the concept of pedagogy in the French-language world of education, as well as the emergence of a new field of research called "didactics". Work on situated cognition provides a framework for defining…

  16. From Autonomy to Reciprocity, or Vice Versa? French Personalism's Contribution to a New Perspective on Self-Directed Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eneau, Jerome

    2008-01-01

    After many years of research focused on the individual and psychological aspects of self-directed learning, the field has taken into consideration the context and situation surrounding the education of an adult, placing the development of individual autonomy into a constructivist perspective. But it is only recently, in France at least, that…

  17. Educational Change and New Cleavages between Head Teachers, Teachers and Parents: Global and Local Perspectives on the French Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zanten, Agnes

    2002-01-01

    Combines a global, national, and local perspective to study the effects of educational changes over the last 20 years on the relationships among head teachers, teachers, and parents in France. Examines the impact of five kinds of transformations--decentralization, marketization, accountability, managerialism, and professionalism--on definitions of…

  18. Lost property? Legal compensation for destroyed sperm: a reflection and comparison drawing on UK and French perspectives.

    PubMed

    Cordell, Sean; Bellivier, Florence; Widdows, Heather; Noiville, Christine

    2011-12-01

    In a recent case in the UK, six men stored their sperm before undergoing chemotherapy treatment for cancer in case they proved to be infertile after the treatment. The sperm was not properly stored and as a result was inadvertently destroyed. The men sued the NHS Trust that stored the sperm and were in the end successful. This paper questions the basis on which the judgement was made and the rationale behind it, namely that the men 'had ownership' of the sperm, and that compensation was thus due on the grounds that the men's property had been destroyed. We first argue that the claim is erroneous and enhances the tendency towards the commodification of body parts. We then suggest that the men could have been compensated for the harm done to them without granting property rights, and that this would, at least in philosophical and ethical terms, have been more appropriate. To help illustrate this, we draw on a parallel case in French law in which a couple whose embryos had been destroyed were overtly denied ownership rights in them. Finally, we suggest some possible ethical and practical problems if the proprietary view expressed in the UK ruling were to become dominant in law, with particular focus on the storing of genetic information in biobanks. We conclude that, although compensation claims should not necessarily be ruled out, a 'no property in the body' approach should be the default position in cases of detached bodily materials, the alternative being significantly ethically problematic.

  19. Scientific Analysis within SEPServer - New Perspectives in Solar Energetic Particle Research: The Case Study of the 13 July 2005 Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malandraki, O. E.; Agueda, N.; Papaioannou, A.; Klein, K.-L.; Valtonen, E.; Heber, B.; Dröge, W.; Aurass, H.; Nindos, A.; Vilmer, N.; Sanahuja, B.; Kouloumvakos, A.; Braune, S.; Preka-Papadema, P.; Tziotziou, K.; Hamadache, C.; Kiener, J.; Tatischeff, V.; Riihonen, E.; Kartavykh, Y.; Rodríguez-Gasén, R.; Vainio, R.

    2012-11-01

    Solar energetic particle (SEP) events are a key ingredient of solar-terrestrial physics both for fundamental research and space weather applications. Multi-satellite observations are an important and incompletely exploited tool for studying the acceleration and the coronal and interplanetary propagation of the particles. While STEREO uses for this diagnostic two identical sets of instrumentation, there are many earlier observations carried out with different spacecraft. It is the aim of the SEPServer project to make these data and analysis tools available to a broad user community. The consortium will carry out data-driven analysis and simulation-based data analysis capable of deconvolving the effects of interplanetary transport and solar injection from SEP observations, and will compare the results with the electromagnetic signatures. The tools and results will be provided on the web server of the project in order to facilitate further analysis by the research community. This paper describes the data products and analysis strategies with one specific event, the case study of 13 July 2005. The release time of protons and electrons are derived using data-driven and simulation-based analyses, and compared with hard X-ray and radio signatures. The interconnection of the experimental and the simulation-based results are discussed in detail.

  20. The ethical and legal aspects of palliative sedation in severely brain-injured patients: a French perspective.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Antoine; Claudot, Frédérique; Audibert, Gérard; Mertes, Paul-Michel; Puybasset, Louis

    2011-02-08

    To fulfill their crucial duty of relieving suffering in their patients, physicians may have to administer palliative sedation when they implement treatment-limitation decisions such as the withdrawal of life-supporting interventions in patients with poor prognosis chronic severe brain injury. The issue of palliative sedation deserves particular attention in adults with serious brain injuries and in neonates with severe and irreversible brain lesions, who are unable to express pain or to state their wishes. In France, treatment limitation decisions for these patients are left to the physicians. Treatment-limitation decisions are made collegially, based on the presence of irreversible brain lesions responsible for chronic severe disorders of consciousness. Before these decisions are implemented, they are communicated to the relatives. Because the presence and severity of pain cannot be assessed in these patients, palliative analgesia and/or sedation should be administered. However, palliative sedation is a complex strategy that requires safeguards to prevent a drift toward hastening death or performing covert euthanasia. In addition to the law on patients' rights at the end of life passed in France on April 22, 2005, a recent revision of Article 37 of the French code of medical ethics both acknowledges that treatment-limitation decisions and palliative sedation may be required in patients with severe brain injuries and provides legal and ethical safeguards against a shift towards euthanasia. This legislation may hold value as a model for other countries where euthanasia is illegal and for countries such as Belgium and Netherlands where euthanasia is legal but not allowed in patients incapable of asking for euthanasia but in whom a treatment limitation decision has been made.

  1. The ethical and legal aspects of palliative sedation in severely brain-injured patients: a French perspective.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Antoine; Claudot, Frédérique; Audibert, Gérard; Mertes, Paul-Michel; Puybasset, Louis

    2011-01-01

    To fulfill their crucial duty of relieving suffering in their patients, physicians may have to administer palliative sedation when they implement treatment-limitation decisions such as the withdrawal of life-supporting interventions in patients with poor prognosis chronic severe brain injury. The issue of palliative sedation deserves particular attention in adults with serious brain injuries and in neonates with severe and irreversible brain lesions, who are unable to express pain or to state their wishes. In France, treatment limitation decisions for these patients are left to the physicians. Treatment-limitation decisions are made collegially, based on the presence of irreversible brain lesions responsible for chronic severe disorders of consciousness. Before these decisions are implemented, they are communicated to the relatives. Because the presence and severity of pain cannot be assessed in these patients, palliative analgesia and/or sedation should be administered. However, palliative sedation is a complex strategy that requires safeguards to prevent a drift toward hastening death or performing covert euthanasia. In addition to the law on patients' rights at the end of life passed in France on April 22, 2005, a recent revision of Article 37 of the French code of medical ethics both acknowledges that treatment-limitation decisions and palliative sedation may be required in patients with severe brain injuries and provides legal and ethical safeguards against a shift towards euthanasia. This legislation may hold value as a model for other countries where euthanasia is illegal and for countries such as Belgium and Netherlands where euthanasia is legal but not allowed in patients incapable of asking for euthanasia but in whom a treatment limitation decision has been made. PMID:21303504

  2. Energetic composites

    DOEpatents

    Danen, Wayne C.; Martin, Joe A.

    1993-01-01

    A method for providing chemical energy and energetic compositions of matter consisting of thin layers of substances which will exothermically react with one another. The layers of reactive substances are separated by thin layers of a buffer material which prevents the reactions from taking place until the desired time. The reactions are triggered by an external agent, such as mechanical stress or an electric spark. The compositions are known as metastable interstitial composites (MICs). This class of compositions includes materials which have not previously been capable of use as energetic materials. The speed and products of the reactions can be varied to suit the application.

  3. Energetic composites

    DOEpatents

    Danen, W.C.; Martin, J.A.

    1993-11-30

    A method for providing chemical energy and energetic compositions of matter consisting of thin layers of substances which will exothermically react with one another. The layers of reactive substances are separated by thin layers of a buffer material which prevents the reactions from taking place until the desired time. The reactions are triggered by an external agent, such as mechanical stress or an electric spark. The compositions are known as metastable interstitial composites (MICs). This class of compositions includes materials which have not previously been capable of use as energetic materials. The speed and products of the reactions can be varied to suit the application. 3 figures.

  4. General energetics

    SciTech Connect

    Smil, V.

    1991-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive sourcebook for planetary management and strategies for sustainable development. Coupling biospheric and civilizational aspects, the book features thorough treatments of all critical energy storages, flows, and conversions. Measurements of energy and power densities and intensities are used throughout the book to provide an integrated framework of analysis for all segments of energetics from planetary and bioenergetics to the human energetics of hunting-gathering and agricultural societies through modern industrial civilization. Coverage also examines the environmental and socio-economic implication of the general patterns and trends of modern energy use.

  5. Energetic powder

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Betty S.; Danen, Wayne C.

    2003-12-23

    Fluoroalkylsilane-coated metal particles. The particles have a central metal core, a buffer layer surrounding the core, and a fluoroalkylsilane layer attached to the buffer layer. The particles may be prepared by combining a chemically reactive fluoroalkylsilane compound with an oxide coated metal particle having a hydroxylated surface. The resulting fluoroalkylsilane layer that coats the particles provides them with excellent resistance to aging. The particles can be blended with oxidant particles to form energetic powder that releases chemical energy when the buffer layer is physically disrupted so that the reductant metal core can react with the oxidant.

  6. Early Childhood Schooling and Socialization at French Nursery School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plaisance, Eric; Rayna, Sylvie

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose to examine the question of the French early childhood schooling in terms of the socialization processes. The authors start by presenting briefly the main characteristics of the French nursery school. They then discuss socialization processes through sociological perspectives on historical and anthropological…

  7. Talking It through: Two French Immersion Learners' Response to Reformulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Merrill; Lapkin, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    This article documents the importance of collaborative dialogue as part of the process of second language learning. The stimulus for the dialogue we discuss in this article was a reformulation of a story written collaboratively in French by Nina and Dara, two adolescent French immersion students. A sociocultural theoretical perspective informs the…

  8. French and Spanish-Speaking Children Use Different Visual and Motor Units during Spelling Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Sonia; Valdois, Sylviane

    2006-01-01

    This study used a copying task to examine spelling acquisition in French and Spanish from a perception and action perspective. Experiment 1 compared French and Spanish-speaking monolingual children's performance. Experiment 2 analysed the behaviour of bilingual children when copying words in French and Spanish. Gaze lift analysis showed that in…

  9. La langue francaise, objet de politique linguistique (The French Language, Object of Linguistic Politics).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eloy, Jean-Michel

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of politics of the French language looks at the nature of linguistic politics, offers historical perspective on French linguistic politics, and argues that, in France, language is always linked to the State. Aspects of French linguistic politics concerning the language itself and its role in everyday life are examined. (MSE)

  10. French Computer Terminology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Eugene F.

    1985-01-01

    Characteristics, idiosyncrasies, borrowings, and other aspects of the French terminology for computers and computer-related matters are discussed and placed in the context of French computer use. A glossary provides French equivalent terms or translations of English computer terminology. (MSE)

  11. Handwashing compliance in a French university hospital: new perspective with the introduction of hand-rubbing with a waterless alcohol-based solution.

    PubMed

    Girou, E; Oppein, F

    2001-08-01

    The baseline compliance with handwashing in a French university hospital was as low as the compliance rates reported in other countries, i.e., less than 50%. By introducing the use of hand-rubbing with an alcoholic solution, as a substitution method for both handwashing with soap and handwashing with an antiseptic agent, we significantly improved hand-cleansing compliance. Despite these encouraging results, mainly due to the accessibility of these non-aqueous products, three major obstacles remain before a wide acceptance by healthcare workers: distrust in terms of efficacy, distrust in terms of skin tolerance and lack of knowledge on hand-cleansing indications.

  12. Handwashing compliance in a French university hospital: new perspective with the introduction of hand-rubbing with a waterless alcohol-based solution.

    PubMed

    Girou, E; Oppein, F

    2001-08-01

    The baseline compliance with handwashing in a French university hospital was as low as the compliance rates reported in other countries, i.e., less than 50%. By introducing the use of hand-rubbing with an alcoholic solution, as a substitution method for both handwashing with soap and handwashing with an antiseptic agent, we significantly improved hand-cleansing compliance. Despite these encouraging results, mainly due to the accessibility of these non-aqueous products, three major obstacles remain before a wide acceptance by healthcare workers: distrust in terms of efficacy, distrust in terms of skin tolerance and lack of knowledge on hand-cleansing indications. PMID:11759028

  13. Cross-border reproductive care for law evasion: a qualitative study into the experiences and moral perspectives of French women who go to Belgium for treatment with donor sperm.

    PubMed

    Van Hoof, Wannes; Pennings, Guido; De Sutter, Petra

    2015-01-01

    One consequence of the legal diversity in Europe is that legal restrictions on treatments can be evaded by going abroad. Many French lesbian couples and single women are crossing the border to Belgium because they are denied access to treatments with donor sperm at home. This is the first qualitative research study into the experiences and moral perspectives of these women. Between June 2012 and May 2013, 11 lesbian couples and 2 single women were recruited at the department of reproductive medicine at Ghent University Hospital. The data from the semi-structured interviews was analysed using inductive thematic analysis. The results show that these women face several additional challenges to the already difficult process of cross-border treatment. Before they can start the treatment, they can only obtain information from the internet or from stories of friends who also went abroad for treatment with donor sperm. During the treatment, they need to find local clinics or physicians to monitor their cycle. Several women managed to game the French system to ensure partial reimbursement for their treatment when they were successful in finding a physician who was willing to prescribe drugs and perform tests. Most women had difficulties justifying their absence from work. In general these women felt that they were discriminated against and that their rights were not protected because of who they are. In that regard, the lack of legal recognition of the genetically unrelated partner in their country was particularly hard to cope with for the lesbian couples. These women have to develop many different strategies to deal with the difficulties they face during cross-border reproductive care. It is concluded that it is very important that they find a physician who is willing to support them in their 'baby project'. PMID:25239009

  14. Cross-border reproductive care for law evasion: a qualitative study into the experiences and moral perspectives of French women who go to Belgium for treatment with donor sperm.

    PubMed

    Van Hoof, Wannes; Pennings, Guido; De Sutter, Petra

    2015-01-01

    One consequence of the legal diversity in Europe is that legal restrictions on treatments can be evaded by going abroad. Many French lesbian couples and single women are crossing the border to Belgium because they are denied access to treatments with donor sperm at home. This is the first qualitative research study into the experiences and moral perspectives of these women. Between June 2012 and May 2013, 11 lesbian couples and 2 single women were recruited at the department of reproductive medicine at Ghent University Hospital. The data from the semi-structured interviews was analysed using inductive thematic analysis. The results show that these women face several additional challenges to the already difficult process of cross-border treatment. Before they can start the treatment, they can only obtain information from the internet or from stories of friends who also went abroad for treatment with donor sperm. During the treatment, they need to find local clinics or physicians to monitor their cycle. Several women managed to game the French system to ensure partial reimbursement for their treatment when they were successful in finding a physician who was willing to prescribe drugs and perform tests. Most women had difficulties justifying their absence from work. In general these women felt that they were discriminated against and that their rights were not protected because of who they are. In that regard, the lack of legal recognition of the genetically unrelated partner in their country was particularly hard to cope with for the lesbian couples. These women have to develop many different strategies to deal with the difficulties they face during cross-border reproductive care. It is concluded that it is very important that they find a physician who is willing to support them in their 'baby project'.

  15. [Cytological-energetic principle of the amniotic fluid examination on female patients with diagnosis of preterm premature rupture of membranes - up to now experiences and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Müllerová, K; Kelbich, P; Švecová, M

    2015-12-01

    In our study we have dealt with the amniotic fluid examination on female patients with diagnosis of preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). For one of the most important task in the feto-maternal medicine we consider the discovered method of amniotic fluid examination which is capable of the earliest possible detection in an intraamniotic inflammatory response. Unnoticed could harm or in the most serious cases threat the life of fetus or its mother. This was also the main reason why we chose this topic for our study. We have not been interested only in already known interleu-kin-6 (IL-6), but we have approached the examination comprehensively. We used the cytological-energetic principle supplemented by the examination of aspartate-amino-transferase (AST), in which already are long-term experiences in investigating other extracellular fluids. We have monitored values of C-reactive protein (CRP) and leucocytes in maternal serum, IL-6, AST and energetic score ratio (KEB) in amniotic fluid. Further we have investigated which imunocompetent cells have been dominant in amniotic fluid at different types of inflamantory reaction. According to the results of the examination of the control groups, it was necessary to correct the KEB limit in comparison to KEB limits of other extracellular fluids. Although our study includes untill now only 44 patients - 21 controls and 23 investigated persons, we have been already able to find out some trends of changes in observed parametres. As a very impotant discovery we consider the fact, that KEB, AST and cytological examination of amniotic fluid seem to be the methods for prediction of chorioamnionitis as reliable as the examination of IL-6. These methods are besides less expensive and therefore more suitable for the use in the small hospitals and developing countries. We continue in our study to confirm the previously found trends on the larger numbers of patients.

  16. French in Gabon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, John

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the usage of French in Gabon. As in other nations of francophone Africa, French is the language of upward social mobility in Gabon, and it offers access to the international community. However, one factor peculiar to Gabon is the virtual absence of a Gabonese national language, which promotes a greater dependency upon a mastery of the…

  17. French in Quebec.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Anglejan, Alison

    1979-01-01

    Discusses language legislation in Canada where French and English are both official languages, and in Quebec province where French has been declared the sole official language. Outlines the conflicts and the impact of these differing laws on Quebec, its population, and its relations with the rest of Canada. (JMF)

  18. Skiing in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Paulette

    1984-01-01

    A high school French program conducted entirely in French on local ski slopes is based on the philosophy that language is a social tool for communicative purposes and can best be learned in social interaction. The successful program uses teamwork, an open attitude toward language learning, non-stressful evaluation, and innovative techniques. (MSE)

  19. A Qualitative Approach to a Better Understanding of the Problems Underlying Drug Shortages, as Viewed from Belgian, French and the European Union's Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Petronille; Bochenek, Tomasz; Prokop, Anna; Pilc, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The problem of drug shortages has been reported worldwide, gaining prominence in multiple domains and several countries in recent years. The aim of the study was to analyze, characterise and assess this problem in Belgium and France, while also adopting a wider perspective from the European Union. A qualitative methodological approach was employed, including semi-structured interviews with the representatives of respective national health authorities, pharmaceutical companies and wholesalers, as well as hospital and community pharmacists. The research was conducted in early 2014. Four themes, which were identified through the interviews, were addressed in the paper, i.e. a) defining drug shortages, b) their dynamics and perception, c) their determinants, d) the role of the European and national institutions in coping with the problem. Three groups of determinants of drug shortages were identified throughout this study: manufacturing problems, distribution and supply problems, and problems related to economic aspects. Currently, the Member States of the European Union are striving to resolve the problem very much on their own, although a far more focused and dedicated collaboration may well prove instrumental in coping with drug shortages throughout Europe more effectively. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first qualitative study to investigate the characteristics, key determinants, and the problem drivers of drug shortages, focusing on this particular group of countries, while also adopting the European Union's perspective. PMID:25942432

  20. A Qualitative Approach to a Better Understanding of the Problems Underlying Drug Shortages, as Viewed from Belgian, French and the European Union’s Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Prokop, Anna; Pilc, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The problem of drug shortages has been reported worldwide, gaining prominence in multiple domains and several countries in recent years. The aim of the study was to analyze, characterise and assess this problem in Belgium and France, while also adopting a wider perspective from the European Union. A qualitative methodological approach was employed, including semi-structured interviews with the representatives of respective national health authorities, pharmaceutical companies and wholesalers, as well as hospital and community pharmacists. The research was conducted in early 2014. Four themes, which were identified through the interviews, were addressed in the paper, i.e. a) defining drug shortages, b) their dynamics and perception, c) their determinants, d) the role of the European and national institutions in coping with the problem. Three groups of determinants of drug shortages were identified throughout this study: manufacturing problems, distribution and supply problems, and problems related to economic aspects. Currently, the Member States of the European Union are striving to resolve the problem very much on their own, although a far more focused and dedicated collaboration may well prove instrumental in coping with drug shortages throughout Europe more effectively. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first qualitative study to investigate the characteristics, key determinants, and the problem drivers of drug shortages, focusing on this particular group of countries, while also adopting the European Union’s perspective. PMID:25942432

  1. French Antilles and Guiana.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    Attention in this discussion of French Antilles and Guiana is directed to the following: geography; the people; history; government; political conditions; the economy; and relations with the US. In 1988, the population of Martinique, the official name, numbered 351,105 with an annual growth rate in 1988 of 1.71%. The population of Guadeloupe, the official name, numbered 337,524 in January 1988 with an annual growth rate in 1987 of 1.2%. French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique, as overseas departments of France since 1946, are integral parts of the French Republic. In 1972, the metropolitan departments of France were combined into 22 regions, with an elected regional council for each region. As integral parts of the French Republic, the political systems of the 3 French Caribbean departments are essentially extensions of those of metropolitan France. Guadeloupe and Martinique owed their colonial prosperity to agriculture, primarily sugar. Martinique no longer exports sugar, but sugar still accounts for 20% of Guadeloupe's export earnings. In Martinique, sugar has been replaced as an export crop by bananas and pineapples. Bananas now account for almost 50% of Guadeloupe's total export earnings. In French Guiana, the impact of the French National Space Agency's Guiana Space Center has been great. US policy toward these overseas departments is inseparable from its overall policy of friendly relations with France.

  2. French Expansion in North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaenen, Cornelius J.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the French colonization in North America. Presents background information on New France, focusing on the French in Canada. Covers topics, such as how the French became interested in North American expansion, the French in Louisiana, colonial economics, and the reasons for the collapse of New France. Includes a bibliography. (CMK)

  3. French Dictionaries. Series: Specialised Bibliographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaar, R. M.

    This is a list of French monolingual, French-English and English-French dictionaries available in December 1975. Dictionaries of etymology, phonetics, place names, proper names, and slang are included, as well as dictionaries for children and dictionaries of Belgian, Canadian, and Swiss French. Most other specialized dictionaries, encyclopedias,…

  4. Fewer Mistakes in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, Ron

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the government-approved simplification of French spelling, and describes rectifications of spelling problems frequently found in forming or using accents, verbs, hyphens, noun plurals, and other anomalies. (CB)

  5. French Tape Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaney, Robert, Comp.

    This tape catalog is a complete list of all French-related titles appearing in the National Center for Audio Tapes 1974-76 catalog. Wherever possible, each tape is briefly described. Price and ordering information is included. (PMP)

  6. French Vocabulary Lists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, J.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews French vocabulary lists and bilingual dictionaries and evaluates their usefulness for the preparation of materials for the language laboratory as well as for any programed approach to vocabulary teaching. (FB)

  7. Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarone, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this "Perspectives" column is "Requiring a Proficiency Level as a Requirement for U.S. K-12 Teacher Licensure." In 1998, the American Council of Teachers of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) began to work with the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), which accredits teacher education programs…

  8. Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Shari; Camerini, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Provides background information on the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service Asylum office. Uses the perspective of two movie producers as they filmed a documentary film, "Well-founded Fear", about asylum and refugee protection. Includes information on how to order a classroom aid and the film. (CMK)

  9. Exploration of Unimolecular Gas-Phase Detoxication Pathways of Sarin and Soman: A Computational Study from the Perspective of Reaction Energetics and Kinetics.

    PubMed

    Ash, Tamalika; Debnath, Tanay; Banu, Tahamida; Das, Abhijit Kumar

    2016-09-19

    A mechanistic investigation has been carried out to explore all possible gas phase unimolecular isomerization as well as decomposition pathways of toxic organophosphorus compounds (OPCs), namely, sarin (GB) and soman (GD), which are better known as nerve agents. We have identified a total of 13 detoxication pathways for sarin, where the α-H, β-H, and γ-H take part in the H-transfer process. However, for soman, due to the presence of ω-H, three additional detoxication pathways are obtained, where the ω-H is involved in the H-transfer process. Among all the pathways, the D3 decomposition pathway, where the phosphorus oxoacid derivative and alkene are generated via the formation of a six-membered ring in the transition state, is identified as the most feasible pathway from the perspective of both activation barrier and reaction enthalpy values. Moreover, we have studied the feasibility of the isomerization and decomposition pathways by performing the reaction kinetics in the temperature range of 300 K-1000 K using the one-dimensional Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) master equation. From the RRKM calculation also, D3 pathway is confirmed as the most feasible pathway for both OPCs. The rate constant values associated with the D3 pathway within the temperature range of 600 K-700 K imply that the degradation of the OPCs is possible within this temperature range via the D3 pathway, which is in good agreement with the earlier reported experimental result. It is also observed that at higher temperature range (∼900 K), the increased rate constant values of other detoxication pathways indicate that along with D3, all other pathways become more or less equally feasible. Therefore, the entire work provides a widespread idea about the kinetic as well as thermodynamic feasibility of the explored detoxication pathways of the titled OPCs. PMID:27509164

  10. Hydraulic-gas transient processes within the overall phenomenological evolution of the French HLW deep geological disposal: current knowledge in PA perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendling, J.; Plas, F.

    2009-04-01

    , and may relate to significant scales of time, several tens of thousands to one hundred of thousands years. So the hydraulic - gas transient has to be put in prospective for other processes involved in the phenomenological evolution (thermal, mechanics and chemical processes), so to evaluate if there are the interactions/couplings or not between all these processes in time and space. In particular effect of hydraulic - gas processes on degradation of waste, release and then migration of radionuclide are discussed in PA perspective. In conclusion, ways of progress to describe the hydraulic and gas transient phase are indicated, in view of the demand of a licensing authorization of a repository in 2014.

  11. Moving towards Inclusive French as a Second Official Language Education in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mady, Callie

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines French as a second official language (FSOL) teachers' perspectives as they relate to the inclusion of immigrants who are learning English (IMMs), in elementary FSOL education in an English-dominant region of Canada, in particular within French immersion. In this paper, I have tried to examine the question of access to…

  12. French Antilles and Guiana.

    PubMed

    1983-11-01

    This discussion of French Antilles and Guiana cover the following: the people, geography, history, government, political conditions, economy, and relations with the US. In 1983 the population totaled 303,000 with an annual growth rate of 0.09%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 12.6/1000 and life expectancy 68 years. About 98% of the people of Martinique are of Afro European or Afro European Indian descent. The remainder are the old planter families and a sizable number of metropolitan French. Most of the work force are employed in agriculture or food processing and associated industries. Most permanent residents of Guadeloupe are of mixed Afro European descent. A few thousand Metropolitan French reside there. Most French Guianese live along the coast, about 1/2 of them in the capital. Martinique is the northernmost of the Windward Islands, which are part of the Lesser Antilles chain in the Caribbean Sea southeast of Puerto Rico. Guadeloupe comprises 2 of the Leeward Islands, which are also part of the Lesser Antilles chain. French Guiana is located on the northern coast of South America, a few degrees north of the Equator. Indians were the 1st known indigenous inhabitants of French Guiana and the French Antilles. Columbus sighted Guadeloupe in 1493, Martinique in 1493 or 1502, and the Guiana coast probably during his 3rd voyage in 1498. French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique, as overseas departments of France since 1946, are integral parts of the French Republic. Their relationship to Metropolitan France is somewhat similar to that of Alaska and Hawaii to the counterminous US. Each department has a general council composed of 1 representative elected by each canton. Guadeloupe and Martinique each elect 2 senators to the French Senate and 3 deputies to the National Assembly. French Guiana elects 1 senator and 1 deputy. In each of the 3 departments exist individuals and small political parties that advocate immediate independence, but their adherents form only

  13. French for Marketing. Using French in Media and Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, R. E.; Chebli-Saadi, M.

    The textbook, entirely in French, is designed to help prepare anglophone students for French language usage in the media and telecommunications. It is organized according to two major themes. The first part addresses the French of advertising; chapter topics include the actors in advertising (agencies, announcers, supports), forms of advertising,…

  14. Comparing Written Competency in Core French and French Immersion Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappin-Fortin, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have compared the written competency of French immersion students and their core French peers, and research on these learners at a postsecondary level is even scarcer. My corpus consists of writing samples from 255 students from both backgrounds beginning a university course in French language. The writing proficiency of core French…

  15. Teaching French via American Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berwald, Jean-Pierre

    1974-01-01

    Outlines the methods of using football in teaching French in the American classroom by using French Canadian newspapers and other visual media available in the United States, in addition to specific language activities. (LG)

  16. Social Studies in French Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Wayne; Lee, William B.

    1978-01-01

    Examines current educational goals, curricula, and methodology of French social studies education. Investigates influences of the student riots of 1968, and considers what effect these reforms will have on the future of French education. (Author/JK)

  17. The Internet and the French Language. Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tattersall, Alex

    This paper examines the influence of the Internet on the French language from a predominantly sociolinguistic perspective, noting the main areas of debate between francophone businesses, governments, and "Institutions de la Francophonie," while considering theories of language in contact and language policy. It analyzes a number of…

  18. America's Tolerance for French Radicalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolin, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The publication of Francois Cusset's "French Theory" raises a series of fascinating questions concerning the trans-Atlantic transmission and circulation of ideas. Most important, it impels everyone to inquire why for a time French thought managed to flourish in American universities while French intellectuals rapidly abandoned the entire paradigm.…

  19. Know Your Laws. French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.; Ledun, Andree

    This French language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three levels of the…

  20. Teaching Materials for French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, E. W., Comp.

    The materials described are designed for use in all areas of French language teaching and are obtainable in the United Kingdom. Sources may be located in the book through a subject-area index and through an alphabetically arranged title index. Included in each of the 687 entries are the entry's number, author's name, title of the publication,…

  1. Cookoff of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, M.R.; Hobbs, M.L.; Gross, R.J.; Schmitt, R.G.

    1998-09-01

    An overview of cookoff modeling at Sandia National Laboratories is presented aimed at assessing the violence of reaction following cookoff of confined energetic materials. During cookoff, the response of energetic materials is known to involve coupled thermal/chemical/mechanical processes which induce thermal damage to the energetic material prior to the onset of ignition. These damaged states enhance shock sensitivity and lead to conditions favoring self-supported accelerated combustion. Thus, the level of violence depends on the competition between pressure buildup and stress release due to the loss of confinement. To model these complex processes, finite element-based analysis capabilities are being developed which can resolve coupled heat transfer with chemistry, quasi-static structural mechanics and dynamic response. Numerical simulations that assess the level of violence demonstrate the importance of determining material damage in pre- and post-ignition cookoff events.

  2. INTENSE ENERGETIC GAS DISCHARGE

    DOEpatents

    Luce, J.S.

    1960-03-01

    A method and apparatus for initiating and sustaining an energetic gas arc discharge are described. A hollow cathode and a hollow anode are provided. By regulating the rate of gas flow into the interior of the cathode, the arc discharge is caused to run from the inner surface of the cathode with the result that adequate space-charge neutralization is provided inside the cathode but not in the main arc volume. Thus, the gas fed to the cathode is substantially completely ionized before it leaves the cathode, with the result that an energetic arc discharge can be maintained at lower operating pressures.

  3. Benchtop energetics progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajardo, Mario; Fossum, Emily C.; Molek, Christopher D.; Lewis, William K.

    2012-03-01

    We have constructed an apparatus for investigating the reactive chemical dynamics of mgscale energetic materials samples. We seek to advance the understanding of the reaction kinetics of energetic materials, and of the chemical influences on energetic materials sensitivity. We employ direct laser irradiation, and indirect laser-driven shock, techniques to initiate thin-film explosive samples contained in a high-vacuum chamber. Expansion of the reacting flow into vacuum quenches the chemistry and preserves reaction intermediates for interrogation via time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). By rastering the sample coupon through the fixed laser beam focus, we generate hundreds of repetitive energetic events in a few minutes. A detonation wave passing through an organic explosive, such as pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN, C5H8N4O12), is remarkably efficient in converting the solid explosive into final thermodynamically-stable gaseous products (e.g. N2, CO, CO2, H2O…). Termination of a detonation at an explosive-to-vacuum interface produces an expanding pulse of hyperthermal molecular species, with leading-edge velocities ~ 10 km/s. In contrast, deflagration (subsonic combustion) of PETN in vacuum produces mostly reaction intermediates, such as NO and NO2, with much slower molecular velocities; consistent with expansion-quenched thermal decomposition of PETN. We propose to exploit these differences in product chemical identities and molecular species velocities to provide a chemically-based diagnostic for distinguishing between "detonation-like" and deflagration events. We report recent progress towards the quantitative detection of hyperthermal neutral species produced by direct laser ablation of aluminum metal and of organic energetic materials, as a step towards demonstrating the ability to discriminate slow reaction intermediates from fast thermodynamically-stable final products.

  4. Benchtop Energetics Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajardo, Mario

    2011-06-01

    We have constructed an apparatus for investigating the reactive chemical dynamics of mg-scale energetic materials samples. We seek to advance the understanding of the reaction kinetics of energetic materials, and of the chemical influences on energetic materials sensitivity. We employ direct laser irradiation, and indirect laser-driven shock, techniques to initiate thin-film explosive samples contained in a high-vacuum chamber. Expansion of the reacting flow into vacuum quenches the chemistry and preserves reaction intermediates for interrogation via time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). By rastering the sample coupon through the fixed laser beam focus, we generate hundreds of repetitive energetic events in a few minutes. A detonation wave passing through an organic explosive, such as pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN, C5H4N4O12) , is remarkably efficient in converting the solid explosive into final thermodynamically-stable gaseous products (e . g . N2, CO2, H2O...). Termination of a detonation at an explosive-to-vacuum interface produces an expanding pulse of hyperthermal molecular species, with leading-edge velocities ~10 km/s. In contrast, deflagration (subsonic combustion) of PETN in vacuum produces mostly reaction intermediates, such as NO and NO2, with much slower molecular velocities; consistent with expansion-quenched thermal decomposition of PETN. We propose to exploit these differences in product chemical identities and molecular species velocities to provide a chemically-based diagnostic for distinguishing between detonation and deflagration events. In this talk we also report recent progress towards the quantitative detection of hyperthermal neutral species produced by direct laser ablation of aluminum metal and of organic energetic materials, as a step towards demonstrating the ability to discriminate slow reaction intermediates from fast thermodynamically-stable final products. Work done in collaboration with Emily Fossum, Christopher Molek, and

  5. Resveratrol: French Paradox Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Catalgol, Betul; Batirel, Saime; Taga, Yavuz; Ozer, Nesrin Kartal

    2012-01-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenol that plays a potentially important role in many disorders and has been studied in different diseases. The research on this chemical started through the “French paradox,” which describes improved cardiovascular outcomes despite a high-fat diet in French people. Since then, resveratrol has been broadly studied and shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and anti-angiogenic effects, with those on oxidative stress possibly being most important and underlying some of the others, but many signaling pathways are among the molecular targets of resveratrol. In concert they may be beneficial in many disorders, particularly in diseases where oxidative stress plays an important role. The main focus of this review will be the pathways affected by resveratrol. Based on these mechanistic considerations, the involvement of resveratrol especially in cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and possibly in longevity will be is addressed. PMID:22822401

  6. French NATO policy: The next five years. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, G.

    1990-06-01

    France, having long proclaimed the need to change the European status quo, regards the potential for change in the structure of European relationships with more anxiety than do most of its allies. However, French security assumptions have not remained static. French policy has been adjusting for some time, but this movement is only partially related to the changes set loose by Soviet President Gorbachev, and can be understood only in the broader context of the security perspectives that have guided French thinking since the end of World War II. This study traces the roots of Charles de Gaulle's policies and describes the nearly 15-year-long transition away from purist Gaullism toward a new compromise between independence and integration. The author describes the adjustments taken in response, including several important steps to improve the interaction between the French military and NATO, and ways that French diplomacy of the early 1980s began to emphasize common NATO positions. The author then examines the emerging policy environment and its effects on the basic assumptions underpinning French policy. He concludes that in the future, France will be easier to work with as an ally, but will continue to seek autonomy in the East-West dialogue.

  7. Dense energetic nitraminofurazanes.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Dennis; Klapötke, Thomas M; Reymann, Marius; Stierstorfer, Jörg

    2014-05-19

    3,3'-Diamino-4,4'-bifurazane (1), 3,3'-diaminoazo-4,4'-furazane (2), and 3,3'-diaminoazoxy-4,4'-furazane (3) were nitrated in 100 % HNO3 to give corresponding 3,3'-dinitramino-4,4'-bifurazane (4), 3,3'-dinitramino-4,4'-azofurazane (5) and 3,3'-dinitramino-4,4'-azoxyfurazane (6), respectively. The neutral compounds show very imposing explosive performance but possess lower thermal stability and higher sensitivity than hexogen (RDX). More than 40 nitrogen-rich compounds and metal salts were prepared. Most compounds were characterized by low-temperature X-ray diffraction, all of them by infrared and Raman spectroscopy, multinuclear NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, and by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Calculated energetic performances using the EXPLO5 code based on calculated (CBS-4M) heats of formation and X-ray densities support the high energetic performances of the nitraminofurazanes as energetic materials. The sensitivities towards impact, friction, and electrostatic discharge were also explored. Additionally the general toxicity of the anions against vibrio fischeri, representative for an aquatic microorganism, was determined.

  8. Energetic component treatability study

    SciTech Connect

    Gildea, P.D.; Brandon, S.L.; Brown, B.G.

    1997-11-01

    The effectiveness of three environmentally sound processes for small energetic component disposal was examined experimentally in this study. The three destruction methods, batch reactor supercritical water oxidation, sodium hydroxide base hydrolysis and calcium carbonate cookoff were selected based on their potential for producing a clean solid residue and minimum release of toxic gases after component detonation. The explosive hazard was destroyed by all three processes. Batch supercritical water oxidation destroyed both the energetics and organics. Further development is desired to optimize process parameters. Sodium hydroxide base hydrolysis and calcium carbonate cookoff results indicated the potential for scrubbing gaseous detonation products. Further study and testing are needed to quantify the effectiveness of these later two processes for full-scale munition destruction. The preliminary experiments completed in this study have demonstrated the promise of these three processes as environmentally sound technologies for energetic component destruction. Continuation of these experimental programs is strongly recommended to optimize batch supercritical water oxidation processing, and to fully develop the sodium hydroxide base hydrolysis and calcium carbonate cookoff technologies.

  9. Second Language Acquisition as Situated Practice: Task Accomplishment in the French Second Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondada, Lorenza; Doehler, Simona Pekarek

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an empirically based perspective on the contribution of conversation analysis (CA) and sociocultural theory to our understanding of learners' second language (L2) practices within what we call a strong socio-interactionist perspective. It explores the interactive (re)configuration of tasks in French second language…

  10. [French immigration policy].

    PubMed

    Weil, P

    1994-01-01

    From the late nineteenth century through 1974, France permitted immigration to furnish workers and to compensate for the low level of fertility. Intense immigration from North Africa, the economic crisis of the 1970s, and other factors led to policy changes in 1974. French immigration policy since 1974 has fluctuated between guaranteeing foreigners equal rights regardless of their religion, race, culture, or national origin, and attempting to differentiate among immigrants depending on their degree of assimilability to French culture. From 1974 to 1988, France had five different policies regarding whether to permit new immigration and what to do about illegal immigrants. In July 1984, the four major political parties unanimously supported a measure in Parliament that definitively guaranteed the stay in France of legal immigrants, whose assimilation thus assumed priority. Aid for return to the homeland was no longer to be widely offered, and immigration of unskilled workers was to be terminated except for those originating in European Community countries. Major changes of government in 1988 and 1993 affected only the modalities of applying these principles. The number of immigrants has fluctuated since 1974. Unskilled workers, the only category whose entrance was specifically controlled by the 1984 measures, have declined from 174,000 in 1970 to 25,000 in the early 1990s. The number of requests for political asylum declined from 60,000 in 1989 to 27,000 in 1993, and in 1991, 15,467 persons were granted refugee status. The number of immigrants of all types permitted to remain in France declined from 250,000 or 3000 per year in the early 1970s to around 110,000 at present. Although the decline is significant, it appears insufficient to the government in power since 1993. Although migratory flows are often explained as the product of imbalance in the labor market or in demographic growth, the French experience suggests that government policies, both in the sending and

  11. Is French Immersion a Special Education Loophole? … And Does It Intensify Issues of Accessibility and Exclusion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Cam

    2015-01-01

    What happens when children are asked to give up their right to special education in order to access a French immersion program? By examining one mother's efforts to secure gifted support in a French immersion program, this critical inquiry offers a parental perspective of the special education issues of accessibility and inclusion. The two…

  12. The Growth of Complexity and Accuracy in L2 French: Past Observations and Recent Applications of Developmental Stages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agren, Malin; Granfeldt, Jonas; Schlyter, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    This chapter addresses the question of the growth of accuracy and complexity in L2 French from the perspective of developmental sequences of morphosyntax, developmental stages and linguistic profiling. The six developmental stages for L2 French proposed by Bartning and Schlyter (2004) are presented and exemplified and new results are added to the…

  13. Invitation Refusals in Cameroon French and Hexagonal French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenkia, Bernard Mulo

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of regional pragmatic variation in French are lacking to date the focus has been on a limited range of speech acts, including apologies, requests, compliments and responses to compliments. The present paper, a systematic analysis of invitation refusals across regional varieties of French, is designed to add to the research on…

  14. French intensive truck garden

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T D

    1983-01-01

    The French Intensive approach to truck gardening has the potential to provide substantially higher yields and lower per acre costs than do conventional farming techniques. It was the intent of this grant to show that there is the potential to accomplish the gains that the French Intensive method has to offer. It is obvious that locally grown food can greatly reduce transportation energy costs but when there is the consideration of higher efficiencies there will also be energy cost reductions due to lower fertilizer and pesticide useage. As with any farming technique, there is a substantial time interval for complete soil recovery after there have been made substantial soil modifications. There were major crop improvements even though there was such a short time since the soil had been greatly disturbed. It was also the intent of this grant to accomplish two other major objectives: first, the garden was managed under organic techniques which meant that there were no chemical fertilizers or synthetic pesticides to be used. Second, the garden was constructed so that a handicapped person in a wheelchair could manage and have a higher degree of self sufficiency with the garden. As an overall result, I would say that the garden has taken the first step of success and each year should become better.

  15. Spotlight: French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    May, J F

    1988-01-01

    French Polynesia is a group of 4 archipelagos in the South Pacific with an estimated 1987 population of 176,600. Its people are mainly Tahitians, Polynesians, Chinese, Europeans, and persons of mixed heritage. More than half of the population live in the Society Islands. About half of the population is less than 20 years old and slightly more than 5% is older than 60. Due to a recent decline in fertility, the rate of natural increase is moderate--about 2.5% annually. In the early 1980s, about two thirds of women in Tahiti aged 15-49 used a modern method of contraception. It remains to be seen whether this pattern will spread to the entire area. Projections by the World Bank, assuming little decline in mortality, yield a total population of 400,000 by the year 2030. The major challenge for French Polynesia is to develop the many small islands spread across an ocean territory half the size of the contiguous 48 states of the U.S. Tourist-related activities have replaced traditional income-generating such as production of coconuts, mother-of-pearl, and vanilla. The value of exports from the area make up only 5% of the value of imports. To extract the potentially huge food and mineral resources from the ocean, enormous infusions of capital will be necessary.

  16. French in the Ivory Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djite, Paulin G.

    1989-01-01

    Overviews the Ivory Coast's sociolinguistic situation. Standard French, restricted to the elite, is threatened by the local lingua franca. The spread and functional allocations of Dyula and Popular French support the point that the pervasive use of a language does not always lead to its adoption as a national language. (CB)

  17. French Basic Course. Area Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This volume provides the prescribed cultural background that is part of the final phase of the Basic Course in French. The texts provide the basis for discussions and personal research through which students become acquainted with various aspects of the French-speaking world and learn the referential meaning of words and expressions as they are…

  18. French for Journalists: Classroom Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodina, Herta

    The use of authentic materials for an advanced French course for students of journalism and communication has the drawback that authentic French sources assume a regular, informed readership sharing the same culture and history. A solution found at Ohio University is to use a publication that bridges the two cultures, such as the "Journal francais…

  19. Energetics of Nanomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandra Navrotsky; Brian Woodfield; Juliana Boerio-Goates; Frances Hellman

    2005-01-28

    This project, "Energetics of Nanomaterials," represents a three-year collaboration among Alexandra Navrotsky (UC Davis), Brian Woodfield and Juliana Boerio-Goates (BYU), and Frances Hellman (UC Berkeley). It's purpose has been to explore the differences between bulk materials, nanoparticles, and thin films in term of their thermodynamic properties, with an emphasis on heat capaacities and entropies, as well as enthalpies. the three groups have brought very different expertise and capabilities to the project. Navrotsky is a solid-state chemist and geochemist, with a unique Thermochemistry Facility emphasizing enthalpy of formation measurements by high temperature oxide melt and room temperatue acid solution calorimetry. Boerio-Goates and Woodfield are calorimetry. Hellman is a physicist with expertise in magnetism and heat capacity measurements using microscale "detector on a chip" calorimetric technology that she pioneered. The overarching question of our work is "How does the free energy play out in nanoparticles?", or "How do differences in free energy affect overall nanoparticle behavior?" Because the free energy represents the temperature-dependent balance between the enthalpy of a system and its entropy, there are two separate, but related, components to the experimental investigations: Solution calorimetric measurements provide the energetics and two types of heat capacity measurements the entropy. We use materials that are well characterized in other ways (structurally, magnetically, and chemically), and samples are shared across the collaboration.

  20. Overview on energetic polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Boileau, J.

    1996-07-01

    Energetic materials for missiles, gun munitions or pyrotechnic devices often are mixtures in a biphasic form, with a filler and a binder. To satisfy the user needs, an analysis of functional requirements together with constraints (safety, vulnerability, aging, environment, disposal, price) is useful to choose a convenient binder. From this point of view numerous synthetic energetic polymers proposed or developed as binders are reviewed with regard to their syntheses, processing, properties and possible uses. These polymers contain explosophore groups: C-NO{sub 2} aliphatic or aromatic, ONO{sub 2}, NNO{sub 2}, NF{sub 2} and N{sub 3}. Some research projects are suggested. Among them in the list of published polymers, following a NIMIC (NATO) suggestion, note the reason of a development interruption. Some dinitropolystyrene-polyvinyl nitrate mixtures or copolymers could exhibit interesting properties. For unknown reasons, some mixtures of crystalline filler with polymer binder, generally in a biphasic form, may also be monophasic for a same composition. What properties are modified between both forms (e.g. combustion mechanisms, erosion, ideal character of the detonation)? It is also interesting to pursue a newly open route to thermo-plastic elastomers. 50 refs., 1 tab.

  1. Energetic cost of communication.

    PubMed

    Stoddard, Philip K; Salazar, Vielka L

    2011-01-15

    Communication signals may be energetically expensive or inexpensive to produce, depending on the function of the signal and the competitive nature of the communication system. Males of sexually selected species may produce high-energy advertisement signals, both to enhance detectability and to signal their size and body condition. Accordingly, the proportion of the energy budget allocated to signal production ranges from almost nothing for many signals to somewhere in excess of 50% for acoustic signals in short-lived sexually selected species. Recent data from gymnotiform electric fish reveal mechanisms that regulate energy allocated to sexual advertisement signals through dynamical remodeling of the excitable membranes in the electric organ. Further, males of the short-lived sexually selected species, Brachyhypopomus gauderio, trade off among different metabolic compartments, allocating energy to signal production while reducing energy used in other metabolic functions. Female B. gauderio, by contrast, do not trade off energy between signaling and other functions. To fuel energetically expensive signal production, we expect a continuum of strategies to be adopted by animals of different life history strategies. Future studies should explore the relation between life history and energy allocation trade-offs.

  2. Status of French reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ballagny, A.

    1997-08-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm{sup 3}. The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} as soon as its present stock of UO{sub 2} fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU.

  3. Energetics of Nanomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Hellman, Frances

    2004-12-13

    This project, ''Energetics of Nanomaterials'', represents a three-year collaboration among Alexandra Navrotsky (University of California at Davis), Brian Woodfield and Juliana Boerio-Goates (Brigham Young University) and Frances Hellman (University of California at San Diego). Its purpose has been to explore the differences between bulk materials, nanoparticles, and thin films in terms of their thermodynamic properties, with an emphasis on heat capacities and entropies, as well as enthalpies. We used our combined experimental techniques to address the following questions: How does energy and entropy depend on particle size and crystal structure? Do entropic differences have their origins in changes in vibrational densities of states or configurational (including surface configuration) effects? Do material preparation and sample geometry, i.e., nanoparticles versus thin films, change these quantities? How do the thermodynamics of magnetic and structural transitions change in nanoparticles and thin films? Are different crystal structures stabilized for a given composition at the nanoscale, and are the responsible factors energetic, entropic, or both? How do adsorption energies (for water and other gases) depend on particle size and crystal structure in the nanoregime? What are the energetics of formation and strain energies in artificially layered thin films? Do the differing structures of grain boundaries in films and nanocomposites alter the energetics of nanoscale materials? Of the several directions we first proposed, we initially concentrated on a few systems: TiO(sub 2), CoO, and CoO-MgO. In these systems, we were able to clearly identify particle size-dependent effects on energy and vibrational entropy, and to separate out the effect of particle size and water content on the enthalpy of formation of the various TiO(sub 2) polymorphs. With CoO, we were able to directly compare nanoparticle films and bulk materials; this comparison is important because films can

  4. Utilization of FEP energetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederking, T. H. K.; Abbassi, P.; Afifi, F.; Khandhar, P. K.; Ono, D. Y.; Chen, W. E. W.

    1987-01-01

    The research and development work on Fountain Effect Pump Systems (FEP systems) has been of interest in the competition between mechanical pumps for He II and FEP units. The latter do not have moving parts. In the course of the work, the energetics have been addressed using one part of a simple four-changes-of-state cycle. One option is the FEP ideal change of state at constant chemical potential (mu). The other option is the two-state sequence mu-P with a d mu=0 state change followed by an isobar. Questions of pump behavior, of flow rate response to temperature difference at the hot end, and related questions of thermodynamic cycle completion and heat transfer have been addressed. Porous media data obtained elucidate differences between vapor-liquid phase separation (VLPS) and Zero Net Mass Transfer (ZNMF).

  5. Energetics and systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mitsch, W.J.; Ragade, R.K.; Bosserman, R.W.; Dillon, J.A. Jr.

    1982-01-01

    To those wrestling with environmental problems and those involved with the holistic approaches of general-systems research, energy must be approached from a variety of viewpoints, some with immediate pragmatic connotations, some with long-term scientific and philosophical implications. During April 1981, there were held in Louisville, Kentucky under the auspices of the Systems Science Institute of the University of Louisville, meetings of the International Society for Ecological Modelling and the Society for General Systems Research, Southeast Region. On Earth Day, April 22, a joint symposium of the two societies was held under the title, Energetics and Systems. A number of the foremost researchers in this broad field were involved in that symposium, and the material of this volume is based on those presentations. The first chapter was devoted to introduction and overview; a separate abstract was prepared for each of the other 7 chapters.

  6. The french educational satellite arsene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danvel, M.; Escudier, B.

    ARSENE (Ariane, Radio-amateur, Satellite pour l'ENseignement de l'Espace) is a telecommunications satellite for Amateur Space Service. Its main feature is that more than 100 students from French engineering schools and universities have been working since 1979 for definition phase and satellite development. The highest IAF awards has been obtained by "ARSENE students" in Tokyo (1980) and Rome (1981). The French space agency, CNES and French aerospace industries are supporting the program. The European Space Agency offered to place ARSENE in orbit on the first Ariane mark IV launch late 1985.

  7. Teaching for Content: Greek Mythology in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giauque, Gerald S.

    An intermediate-level university French course in Greek mythology was developed to (1) improve student skills in reading, writing, speaking, and comprehending French, (2) familiarize students with Greek mythology, and (3) prepare students to deal better with allusions to Greek mythology in French literature. The texts used are a French translation…

  8. 7 CFR 993.7 - French prunes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false French prunes. 993.7 Section 993.7 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.7 French prunes. French prunes means: (a) Prunes produced from plums of the following varieties of plums: French (Prune d'Agen, Petite Prune d'Agen), Coates...

  9. 7 CFR 993.7 - French prunes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.7 French prunes. French prunes means: (a) Prunes produced from plums of the following varieties of plums: French (Prune d'Agen, Petite Prune d'Agen), Coates (Cox... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false French prunes. 993.7 Section 993.7...

  10. Dialect Effects in Speech Perception: The Role of Vowel Duration in Parisian French and Swiss French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joanne L.; Mondini, Michele; Grosjean, Francois; Dommergues, Jean-Yves

    2011-01-01

    The current experiments examined how native Parisian French and native Swiss French listeners use vowel duration in perceiving the /[openo]/-/o/ contrast. In both Parisian and Swiss French /o/ is longer than /[openo]/, but the difference is relatively large in Swiss French and quite small in Parisian French. In Experiment 1 we found a parallel…

  11. French Basic Course. Grammatical Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This index is intended for use with Volumes 1 through 8 of the French Basic Course. It facilitates the finding of grammatical references in those volumes. The items are cross-referenced and arranged in alphabetical order. (Author/AMH)

  12. Q fever in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Eldin, Carole; Mahamat, Aba; Demar, Magalie; Abboud, Philippe; Djossou, Félix; Raoult, Didier

    2014-10-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is present worldwide. Recent studies have shown that this bacterium is an emerging pathogen in French Guiana and has a high prevalence (24% of community-acquired pneumonia). In this review, we focus on the peculiar epidemiology of Q fever in French Guiana. We place it in the context of the epidemiology of the disease in the surrounding countries of South America. We also review the clinical features of Q fever in this region, which has severe initial presentation but low mortality rates. These characteristics seem to be linked to a unique genotype (genotype 17). Finally, we discuss the issue of the animal reservoir of C. burnetii in French Guiana, which is still unknown. Further studies are necessary to identify this reservoir. Identification of this reservoir will improve the understanding of the Q fever epidemic in French Guiana and will provide new tools to control this public health problem.

  13. French fireball network FRIPON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colas, F.; Zanda, B.; Vaubaillon, J.; Bouley, S.; Marmo, C.; Audureau, Y.; Kwon, M. K.; Rault, J.-L.; Caminade, S.; Vernazza, P.; Gattacceca, J.; Birlan, M.; Maquet, L.; Egal, A.; Rotaru, M.; Birnbaum, C.; Cochard, F.; Thizy, O.

    2015-01-01

    FRIPON (Fireball Recovery and Interplanetary Observation Network) was recently founded by ANR (Agence Nationale de la Recherche), its aim being to connect meteoritical science with asteroidal and cometary sciences, in order to better understand our solar system formation and evolution. The main idea is to cover all the French territory to collect a large number of meteorites (one or two per year) with an accurate orbit determination, allowing to pinpoint possible parent bodies. 100 all-sky cameras will be installed at the end of 2015, creating a dense network with an average distance of 100 km between the stations. To maximize the accuracy of the orbit determination, we will mix our optical data with radar data from the GRAVES transmitter received by 25 stations (Rault et al., 2015). As the network installation and the creation of research teams for meteorites involves many persons, at least many more than our small team of professionals, we will develop a participative science network for amateurs called Vigie-Ciel (Zanda et al., 2015). It will be possible to simply use our data, participate in research campaigns or even add cameras to the FRIPON network.

  14. Electrical initiation of an energetic nanolaminate film

    DOEpatents

    Tringe, Joseph W.; Gash, Alexander E.; Barbee, Jr., Troy W.

    2010-03-30

    A heating apparatus comprising an energetic nanolaminate film that produces heat when initiated, a power source that provides an electric current, and a control that initiates the energetic nanolaminate film by directing the electric current to the energetic nanolaminate film and joule heating the energetic nanolaminate film to an initiation temperature. Also a method of heating comprising providing an energetic nanolaminate film that produces heat when initiated, and initiating the energetic nanolaminate film by directing an electric current to the energetic nanolaminate film and joule heating the energetic nanolaminate film to an initiation temperature.

  15. Stab Sensitivity of Energetic Nanolaminates

    SciTech Connect

    Gash, A; Barbee, T; Cervantes, O

    2006-05-22

    This work details the stab ignition, small-scale safety, and energy release characteristics of bimetallic Al/Ni(V) and Al/Monel energetic nanolaminate freestanding thin films. The influence of the engineered nanostructural features of the energetic multilayers is correlated with both stab initiation and small-scale energetic materials testing results. Structural parameters of the energetic thin films found to be important include the bi-layer period, total thickness of the film, and presence or absence of aluminum coating layers. In general the most sensitive nanolaminates were those that were relatively thick, possessed fine bi-layer periods, and were not coated. Energetic nanolaminates were tested for their stab sensitivity as freestanding continuous parts and as coarse powders. The stab sensitivity of mock M55 detonators loaded with energetic nanolaminate was found to depend strongly upon both the particle size of the material and the configuration of nanolaminate material, in the detonator cup. In these instances stab ignition was observed with input energies as low as 5 mJ for a coarse powder with an average particle dimension of 400 {micro}m. Selected experiments indicate that the reacting nanolaminate can be used to ignite other energetic materials such as sol-gel nanostructured thermite, and conventional thermite that was either coated onto the multilayer substrate or pressed on it. These results demonstrate that energetic nanolaminates can be tuned to have precise and controlled ignition thresholds and can initiate other energetic materials and therefore are viable candidates as lead-free impact initiated igniters or detonators.

  16. Energetic particles at Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Andrew F.; Krimigis, S. M.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    1991-01-01

    The energetic particle measurements by the low-energy charged-particle and cosmic-ray instruments on the Voyager 2 spacecraft in the magnetosphere of Uranus are reviewed. Upstream events were observed outside the Uranian bow shock, probably produced by ion escape from the magnetosphere. Evidence of earthlike substorm activity was discovered within the Uranian magnetosphere. A proton injection event was observed within the orbit of Umbriel and proton events were observed in the magnetotail plasma-sheet boundary layer that are diagnostic of earthlike substorms. The magnetospheric composition is totally dominated by protons, with only a trace abundance of H(2+) and no evidence for He or heavy ions; the Uranian atmophere is argued to be the principal plasma source. Phase-space densities of medium energy protons show inward radial diffusion and are quantitatively similar to those observed at the earth, Jupiter, and Saturn. These findings and plasma wave data suggest the existence of structures analogous to the earth's plasmasphere and plasmapause.

  17. ENERGETICS, EPIGENETICS, MITOCHONDRIAL GENETICS

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Douglas C.; Fan, Weiwei

    2011-01-01

    The epigenome has been hypothesized to provide the interface between the environment and the nuclear DNA (nDNA) genes. Key factors in the environment are the availability of calories and demands on the organism’s energetic capacity. Energy is funneled through glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), the cellular bioenergetic systems. Since there are thousands of bioenergetic genes dispersed across the chromosomes and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), both cis and trans regulation of the nDNA genes is required. The bioenergetic systems convert environmental calories into ATP, acetyl-Coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM), and reduced NAD+. When calories are abundant, ATP and acetyl-CoA phosphorylate and acetylate chromatin, opening the nDNA for transcription and replication. When calories are limiting, chromatin phosphorylation and acetylation are lost and gene expression is suppressed. DNA methylaton via SAM can also be modulated by mitochondrial function. Phosphorylation and acetylation are also pivotal to regulating cellular signal transduction pathways. Therefore, bioenergetics provides the interface between the environment and the epigenome. Consistent with this conclusion, the clinical phenotypes of bioenergetic diseases are strikingly similar to those observed in epigenetic diseases (Angelman, Rett, Fragile X Syndromes, the laminopathies, cancer, etc.), and an increasing number of epigenetic diseases are being associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. This bioenergetic-epigenomic hypothesis has broad implications for the etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of a wide range of common diseases. PMID:19796712

  18. Energetic Compounds for Future Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenas, A.; Jacob, G.; Longevialle, Y.; Pérut, C.

    2004-10-01

    The need for new rocket propellants to improve or replace those in use today has led during the past ten years to studies of various, ancient or relatively new, energetic ingredients. The most often mentioned compounds for solid propellants are ADN (ammonium dinitramide), the nitramines RDX and HMX, HNIW (hexanitro hexaaza isowurtzitane), HNF (hydrazinum nitroformate), GAP (glycidyl azide polymer), and high nitrogen compounds. ADN, HNF, HAN (hydroxylammonium nitrate) are mentioned as possible ingredients in liquid mono and bi propellants for the future. A review of the work being conducted in the development and testing of the candidate propellants as well as an analysis of the general constraints of the industrial use and handling of these propellants and of their basic ingredients allows for a first tentative selection of the most promising ingredients. The possible synthesis routes, main characteristics, production and cost perspectives of these compounds are summarized and discussed.

  19. Method for forming energetic nanopowders

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Kien-Yin; Asay, Blaine W.; Kennedy, James E.

    2013-10-15

    A method for the preparation of neat energetic powders, having nanometer dimensions, is described herein. For these neat powder, a solution of a chosen energetic material is prepared in an aprotic solvent and later combined with liquid hexane that is miscible with such solvent. The energetic material chosen is less soluble in the liquid hexane than in the aprotic solvent and the liquid hexane is cooled to a temperature that is below that of the solvent solution. In order to form a precipitate of said neat powders, the solvent solution is rapidly combined with the liquid hexane. When the resulting precipitate is collected, it may be dried and filtered to yield an energetic nanopowder material.

  20. Voyager 2 Observes Energetic Electrons

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows the Voyager 2 observations of energetic electrons. Voyager 2 detected a dramatic drop of the flux of electrons as it left the sector region. The intense flux came back as soon ...

  1. Solar Energetic Particle Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reames, D. V.

    2003-01-01

    In the largest solar energetic-particle (SEP) events, acceleration occurs at shock waves driven out from the Sun by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In fact, the highest proton intensities directly measured near Earth at energies up to approximately 1 GeV occur at the time of passage of shocks, which arrive about a day after the CMEs leave the Sun. CME-driven shocks expanding across magnetic fields can fill over half of the heliosphere with SEPs. Proton-generated Alfven waves trap particles near the shock for efficient acceleration but also throttle the intensities at Earth to the streaming limit early in the events. At high energies, particles begin to leak from the shock and the spectrum rolls downward to form an energy-spectral 'knee' that can vary in energy from approximately 1 MeV to approximately 1 GeV in different events. All of these factors affect the radiation dose as a function of depth and latitude in the Earth's atmosphere and the risk to astronauts and equipment in space. SEP ionization of the polar atmosphere produces nitrates that precipitate to become trapped in the polar ice. Observations of nitrate deposits in ice cores reveal individual large SEP events and extend back approximately 400 years. Unlike sunspots, SEP events follow the approximately 80-100-year Gleissberg cycle rather faithfully and are now at a minimum in that cycle. The largest SEP event in the last 400 years appears to be related to the flare observed by Carrington in 1859, but the probability of SEP events with such large fluences falls off sharply because of the streaming limit.

  2. Using ACE and Ulysses to investigate the heliographic transport of energetic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Ian M.

    2002-03-01

    The Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) and the Ulysses spacecraft follow radically different trajectories, allowing the Sun to be simultaneously studied from 2 different perspectives. Data from the low energy particle instruments carried by these spacecraft reveals energetic particles accelerated at the Sun can access large angular extents of the interplanetary medium. We look at a rare case when the heliographic transport of energetic electrons was apparently prevented and speculate upon the ability of the corona to inhibit the propagation of these particles.

  3. Dengue encephalitis in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Hommel, D; Talarmin, A; Deubel, V; Reynes, J M; Drouet, M T; Sarthou, J L; Hulin, A

    1998-01-01

    Thousands of cases of dengue fever (DF) and several cases of dengue haemorrhagic fever were recorded in French Guiana during the recent outbreak of dengue-2 virus (1991-1992) and in subsequent years. One case with clinical signs typical of classical DF with neurological complications is reported in this study. The neurological features (encephalitis) appeared during the acute phase, 2 days after the onset of fever. Dengue-2 virus was detected in both the cerebrospinal fluid and blood sample. This case was fatal. This first reported case of classical DF with encephalitis in French Guiana is a new demonstration of the potential neurovirulence of dengue viruses.

  4. Retraining French Language Educators in the Teaching of Commercial French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marfurt, Rose Marie A.

    A retraining program for language teachers wishing to teach college-level business French is described. The course may be taught in five 5-hour weekend seminars or in a 2-week summer seminar of 12 hours per week. Since the teachers already have language skills, the course focuses on building confidence and interest in the subject matter by showing…

  5. A Film Study Option for HSC French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connole, Pat

    1974-01-01

    In 1974, after a trial period of two years, the study of two selected French feature films will be offered as an option to the study of prescribed texts in Higher School Certificate French in Victoria. (Author)

  6. Solar flares and energetic particles.

    PubMed

    Vilmer, Nicole

    2012-07-13

    Solar flares are now observed at all wavelengths from γ-rays to decametre radio waves. They are commonly associated with efficient production of energetic particles at all energies. These particles play a major role in the active Sun because they contain a large amount of the energy released during flares. Energetic electrons and ions interact with the solar atmosphere and produce high-energy X-rays and γ-rays. Energetic particles can also escape to the corona and interplanetary medium, produce radio emissions (electrons) and may eventually reach the Earth's orbit. I shall review here the available information on energetic particles provided by X-ray/γ-ray observations, with particular emphasis on the results obtained recently by the mission Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager. I shall also illustrate how radio observations contribute to our understanding of the electron acceleration sites and to our knowledge on the origin and propagation of energetic particles in the interplanetary medium. I shall finally briefly review some recent progress in the theories of particle acceleration in solar flares and comment on the still challenging issue of connecting particle acceleration processes to the topology of the complex magnetic structures present in the corona.

  7. How To Cope with the French: Keys to Understanding French Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarro, Brian J.

    To deal successfully with the French people in business, the American must first be conversant with his own culture. The French have a tradition of firm opinions and take an intellectual view of the world. Thinking is hierarchical, as is the French society. Education emphasizes strong command of the French language and all formal aspects of French…

  8. A Corpus-Based Evaluation of the Common European Framework Vocabulary for French Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kusseling, Francoise

    2012-01-01

    The CEFR French profiles have been widely used to teach and evaluate language instruction over the past decade. The profiles were specifications of vocabulary that have been largely untested from a corpus-based, empirical perspective. The purpose of this dissertation was to evaluate the CEFR profiles by comparing their content with two sizable…

  9. Liaison Acquisition, Word Segmentation and Construction in French: A Usage-Based Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevrot, Jean-Pierre; Dugua, Celine; Fayol, Michel

    2009-01-01

    In the linguistics field, liaison in French is interpreted as an indicator of interactions between the various levels of language organization. The current study examines the same issue while adopting a developmental perspective. Five experiments involving children aged two to six years provide evidence for a developmental scenario which…

  10. Electrophysiological Markers of Syllable Frequency during Written Word Recognition in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chetail, Fabienne; Colin, Cecile; Content, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Several empirical lines of investigation support the idea that syllable-sized units may be involved in visual word recognition processes. In this perspective, the present study aimed at investigating further the nature of the process that causes syllabic effects in reading. To do so, the syllable frequency effect was investigated in French using…

  11. French-Speaking International Students in Canada. CBIE Research in Brief #3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This report details the experience and perspectives of the 454 French-speaking international students who responded to the "2015 International Student Survey," with an aim of supporting member institutions and the broader international education sector to better understand francophone international education markets and, ultimately, to…

  12. French Spelling Rectifications: A Failed Coup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, Ron

    1992-01-01

    The proposed 1991 reforms to French spelling discussed in a previous issue of "Babel" have been abandoned. This article notes the history of other efforts to rectify French spelling and reviews the French Academy's decision-making process in the current effort. (LB)

  13. Driving in French for American Tourists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Philip

    This booklet is intended to assist the English-speaking tourist driving in a French-speaking country to communicate with service station attendants and to read road signs. The booklet is divided into three sections: (1) an English-French listing of parts of the car and useful expressions; (2) common European road signs; and (3) a French-English…

  14. A Comparative Evaluation of French Grammar Checkers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burston, Jack

    1996-01-01

    Four grammar checkers, all of French Canadian origin, were evaluated: "Le Correcteur 101,""GramR,""Hugo Plus," and "French Proofing Tools." Results indicate that "Le Correcteur 101" is the best French grammar checker on the market and worth its premium cost. (two references) (CK)

  15. La Langue Francaise (The French Language)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quemada, Bernard

    1975-01-01

    This annotated bibliography cites works concerning the French language, including works by foreign authors in translation, with nine major topics: bibliographies; introductory linguistics, the formation and evolution of French; phonetics and phonology, lexicography, grammar, language variation, stylistics, and translation. (Text is in French.)…

  16. Commercial French in a Liberal Arts Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrate, Jayne

    Drury College (Missouri) has developed a commercial French course that is practical, situation-oriented, and provides instruction in correspondence and translation. The course is considered part of the cultural segment of the French program. It enrolls majors in business, French, and a variety of other disciplines, and emphasizes contextual…

  17. More French, s'il vous plait!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillivray, W. Russ, Ed.

    The collection of essays on French second language instruction in Canada, directed to parents, includes: "Our Brave New World" (Andrew Kniewasser); "French in Your School: Identifying and Achieving the Right Program" (Carolyn Hodych, Jos Scott); "So, You're Worried About Becoming an Immersion Parent" (Judy Gibson); "Is Core French a Valid Option?"…

  18. English versus French: Language Rivalry in Tunisia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battenburg, John

    1997-01-01

    Examines the competition between English and French in Tunisian educational institutions and programs. Scrutinizes two periods in postprotectorate Tunisia: the introduction of English and the spread of English. Findings indicate that the decline in French linguistic influence may be accompanied by a future decrease in French political and economic…

  19. Getting It Done in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iodice, Don R.; And Others

    A first semester course in French, originally developed for executives of a major international company, is presented here. As its objective is to provide the "survival skills" useful in everyday situations in France, primary attention is given to the intelligibility and comprehensibility of communication. The context of the dialogues, vocabulary,…

  20. An Interview with Fiona French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, David

    2005-01-01

    In this interview Fiona French discusses her work and career with David Lewis. She describes early influences and stresses her lifelong love of colour and pattern. Amongst other themes she considers the factual basis of most of her books and her lack of interest in fantasy; her preference for clear, simple prose; her constant shifts in style and…

  1. A French Speaking Proficiency Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimsleur, Paul

    An attempt to test students objectively in a five-part, French, speaking proficiency test is described and discussed. Concrete nouns, abstract words, pronunciation, syntax, and fluency are tested with a combination of tape and picture stimuli. Reliability, validity, and practical questions are raised; and previous aural-oral testing procedures are…

  2. Acculturators for French, Vol. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Tullio, Thomas, Ed.

    This set of teaching units, called acculturators, is designed to introduce French language students to that culture. The acculturators deal with gestures, customs, family life, daily habits, and other aspects of culture. The intent is to aid the student in becoming as much a part of the target culture as his psychological and intellectual…

  3. French String Grammar. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Univ., NY. Linguistic String Project.

    This work reports on an initial study of the possibility of providing a suitable framework for the teaching of a foreign language grammar through string analysis, using French as the target language. Analysis of a string word list (word-class sequences) yields an overall view of the grammar. Details are furnished in a set of restrictions which…

  4. 1975 Textbooks for French Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jack Davis

    Four 1975 textbooks for French civilization courses are cited including price, suggested level, format and a listing of contents. A review of one text follows: Rey and Santoni, "Quand les Francais parlent: Langue en contexte, culture en contraste," Newbury House Publishers. The reviewer states that this book is basically a sociological study of…

  5. French on the Advanced Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlik, Teresa Wilkinson

    1969-01-01

    Presented in this article is an outline of some of the special interest course work included in the curriculum guidelines being developed in the Atlanta Public Schools System for advanced secondary school French classes. Titles of the audiolingually-oriented courses described are--(1) "Teenagers and Teenage Life in France Today," (2) "The Arts in…

  6. The Principle of Energetic Consistency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    A basic result in estimation theory is that the minimum variance estimate of the dynamical state, given the observations, is the conditional mean estimate. This result holds independently of the specifics of any dynamical or observation nonlinearity or stochasticity, requiring only that the probability density function of the state, conditioned on the observations, has two moments. For nonlinear dynamics that conserve a total energy, this general result implies the principle of energetic consistency: if the dynamical variables are taken to be the natural energy variables, then the sum of the total energy of the conditional mean and the trace of the conditional covariance matrix (the total variance) is constant between observations. Ensemble Kalman filtering methods are designed to approximate the evolution of the conditional mean and covariance matrix. For them the principle of energetic consistency holds independently of ensemble size, even with covariance localization. However, full Kalman filter experiments with advection dynamics have shown that a small amount of numerical dissipation can cause a large, state-dependent loss of total variance, to the detriment of filter performance. The principle of energetic consistency offers a simple way to test whether this spurious loss of variance limits ensemble filter performance in full-blown applications. The classical second-moment closure (third-moment discard) equations also satisfy the principle of energetic consistency, independently of the rank of the conditional covariance matrix. Low-rank approximation of these equations offers an energetically consistent, computationally viable alternative to ensemble filtering. Current formulations of long-window, weak-constraint, four-dimensional variational methods are designed to approximate the conditional mode rather than the conditional mean. Thus they neglect the nonlinear bias term in the second-moment closure equation for the conditional mean. The principle of

  7. Shock Sensitivity of energetic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K.

    1980-01-01

    Viscoplastic deformation is examined as the principal source of hot energy. Some shock sensitivity data on a proposed model is explained. A hollow sphere model is used to approximate complex porous matrix of energetic materials. Two pieces of shock sensitivity data are qualitatively compared with results of the proposed model. The first is the p2 tau law. The second is the desensitization of energetic materials by a ramp wave applied stress. An approach to improve the model based on experimental observations is outlined.

  8. French roots of French neo-lamarckisms, 1879-1985.

    PubMed

    Loison, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    This essay attempts to describe the neo-Lamarckian atmosphere that was dominant in French biology for more than a century. Firstly, we demonstrate that there were not one but at least two French neo-Lamarckian traditions. This implies, therefore, that it is possible to propose a clear definition of a (neo)Lamarckian conception, and by using it, to distinguish these two traditions. We will see that these two conceptions were not dominant at the same time. The first French neo-Lamarckism (1879-1931) was structured by a very mechanic view of natural processes. The main representatives of this first period were scientists such as Alfred Giard (1846-1908), Gaston Bonnier (1853-1922) and Félix Le Dantec (1869-1917). The second Lamarckism - much more vitalist in its inspiration - started to develop under the supervision of people such as Albert Vandel (1894-1980) and Pierre-Paul Grassé (1895-1985). Secondly, this essay suggests that the philosophical inclinations of these neo-Lamarckisms reactivated a very ancient and strong dichotomy of French thought. One part of this dichotomy is a material, physicalist tradition, which started with René Descartes but developed extensively during the 18th and 19th centuries. The other is a spiritual and vitalist reaction to the first one, which also had a very long history, though it is most closely associated with the work of Henri Bergson. Through Claude Bernard, the first neo-Lamarckians tried to construct a mechanical and determinist form of evolutionary theory which was, in effect, a Cartesian theory. The second wave of neo-Lamarckians wanted to reconsider the autonomy and reactivity of life forms, in contrast to purely physical systems.

  9. Heliospheric Observations of Energetic Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summerlin, Errol J.

    2011-01-01

    Heliospheric observations of energetic particles have shown that, on long time averages, a consistent v^-5 power-law index arises even in the absence of transient events. This implies an ubiquitous acceleration process present in the solar wind that is required to generate these power-law tails and maintain them against adiabatic losses and coulomb-collisions which will cool and thermalize the plasma respectively. Though the details of this acceleration process are being debated within the community, most agree that the energy required for these tails comes from fluctuations in the magnetic field which are damped as the energy is transferred to particles. Given this source for the tail, is it then reasonable to assume that the turbulent LISM should give rise to such a power-law tail as well? IBEX observations clearly show a power-law tail of index approximately -5 in energetic neutral atoms. The simplest explanation for the origins of these ENAs are that they are energetic ions which have charge-exchanged with a neutral atom. However, this would imply that energetic ions possess a v^-5 power-law distribution at keV energies at the source of these ENAs. If the source is presumed to be the LISM, it provides additional options for explaining the, so called, IBEX ribbon. This presentation will discuss some of these options as well as potential mechanisms for the generation of a power-law spectrum in the LISM.

  10. Computational studies of energetic nitramines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Politzer, Peter

    1991-09-01

    This final report summarizes our computational investigations of energetic materials carried out over a six-year period. It is divided into seven main sections, describing the major themes of this project. First, factors important in designing molecules with high specific impulse values and in determining the sensitivities of energetic systems are discussed, followed by a review of our analysis of reaction energetics (carried out primarily using a local density functional approach). Next, studies aimed at providing insight into possible synthetic routes are summarized, followed by a section on fundamental molecular properties of nitramines. Surface electrostatic potentials of the four known CL-20 polymorphs show significant differences in their tendencies for intermolecular interactions. We have calculated structures and reactive properties for a variety of new energetic materials, including heterocyclic, ionic, mesoionic and zwitterionic systems. We have shown that correlations exist between key calculated properties (the electrostatic potential V(r) and the average local ionization energy I(r)) and a number of experimentally-based indices of reactivity.

  11. Jet propagation through energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pincosy, P; Poulsen, P

    2004-01-08

    In applications where jets propagate through energetic materials, they have been observed to become sufficiently perturbed to reduce their ability to effectively penetrate subsequent material. Analytical calculations of the jet Bernoulli flow provides an estimate of the onset and extent of such perturbations. Although two-dimensional calculations show the back-flow interaction pressure pulses, the symmetry dictates that the flow remains axial. In three dimensions the same pressure impulses can be asymmetrical if the jet is asymmetrical. The 3D calculations thus show parts of the jet having a significant component of radial velocity. On the average the downstream effects of this radial flow can be estimated and calculated by a 2D code by applying a symmetrical radial component to the jet at the appropriate position as the jet propagates through the energetic material. We have calculated the 3D propagation of a radio graphed TOW2 jet with measured variations in straightness and diameter. The resultant three-dimensional perturbations on the jet result in radial flow, which eventually tears apart the coherent jet flow. This calculated jet is compared with jet radiographs after passage through the energetic material for various material thickness and plate thicknesses. We noted that confinement due to a bounding metal plate on the energetic material extends the pressure duration and extent of the perturbation.

  12. Venus transits - A French view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Débarbat, Suzanne

    2005-04-01

    After a careful study of Mars observations obtained by Tycho Brahé (1546-1601), Kepler (1571-1630) discovered the now-called Kepler's third law. In 1627 he published his famous Tabulae Rudolphinae, a homage to his protector Rudolph II (1552-1612), tables (Kepler 1609, 1627) from which he predicted Mercury and Venus transits over the Sun. In 1629 Kepler published his Admonitio ad Astronomos Advertisement to Astronomers (Kepler 1630), Avertissement aux Astronomes in French Au sujet de phénomènes rares et étonnants de l'an 1631: l'incursion de Vénus et de Mercure sur le Soleil. This was the beginning of the interest of French astronomers, among many others, in such transits, mostly for Venus, the subject of this paper in which dates are given in the Gregorian calendar.

  13. [Anti-Aedes aegypti campaign in French Guiana].

    PubMed

    Cebret, A; Désiré, R

    1996-01-01

    The history of vector control in French Guiana started in 1947 when a small team was recruited for that purpose. In 1949, the first DDT treatments were implemented and Aedes aegypti could not be found until 1960. Between 1966 and 1972 an eradication campaign was carried out which resulted in the elimination of Ae. aegypti from all the department except the city of Cayenne. Malathion and orthodibrom were used as adulticides and temephos (Abate) was sprayed against the larvae. Nevertheless, in 1980, Ae. aegypti was still infesting Cayenne and its surroundings. The pilot project of the "Cité Grant" was developed, but never gave the expected results. In 1986, the vector control agency called "Service départmental de désinfection" was restructured and extended. During the 1990s, collaborations were developed between the different health participants of French Guiana, to improve disease control. Actually, the vector control activities include house inspections, mainly to detect, treat or eliminate the breeding-sources, and also to set up entomological indices. Furthermore, investigations are made on the laboratory confirmed dengue cases to find and treat the place of infection, spatial sprayings are made against the adults, and the community health education has being reinforced. The situation in French Guiana is not optimistic for climatic and logistical reasons, and the lack of participation from the community. The perspectives are to improve vector control through education, collaborations with local authorities, reorganisation of the control teams and regional exchanges.

  14. SIMULATION OF ENERGETIC NEUTRAL ATOMS FROM SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Linghua; Li, Gang; Shih, Albert Y.; Lin, Robert P.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.

    2014-10-01

    Energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) provide the only way to observe the acceleration site of coronal-mass-ejection-driven (CME-driven) shock-accelerated solar energetic particles (SEPs). In gradual SEP events, energetic protons can charge exchange with the ambient solar wind or interstellar neutrals to become ENAs. Assuming a CME-driven shock with a constant speed of 1800 km s{sup –1} and compression ratio of 3.5, propagating from 1.5 to 40 R{sub S} , we calculate the accelerated SEPs at 5-5000 keV and the resulting ENAs via various charge-exchange interactions. Taking into account the ENA losses in the interplanetary medium, we obtain the flux-time profiles of these solar ENAs reaching 1 AU. We find that the arriving ENAs at energies above ∼100 keV show a sharply peaked flux-time profile, mainly originating from the shock source below 5 R{sub S} , whereas the ENAs below ∼20 keV have a flat-top time profile, mostly originating from the source beyond 10 R{sub S} . Assuming the accelerated protons are effectively trapped downstream of the shock, we can reproduce the STEREO ENA fluence observations at ∼2-5 MeV/nucleon. We also estimate the flux of ENAs coming from the charge exchange of energetic storm protons, accelerated by the fast CME-driven shock near 1 AU, with interstellar hydrogen and helium. Our results suggest that appropriate instrumentation would be able to detect ENAs from SEPs and to even make ENA images of SEPs at energies above ∼10-20 keV.

  15. Energetic ions in ITER plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinches, S. D.; Chapman, I. T.; Lauber, Ph. W.; Oliver, H. J. C.; Sharapov, S. E.; Shinohara, K.; Tani, K.

    2015-02-01

    This paper discusses the behaviour and consequences of the expected populations of energetic ions in ITER plasmas. It begins with a careful analytic and numerical consideration of the stability of Alfvén Eigenmodes in the ITER 15 MA baseline scenario. The stability threshold is determined by balancing the energetic ion drive against the dominant damping mechanisms and it is found that only in the outer half of the plasma ( r / a > 0.5 ) can the fast ions overcome the thermal ion Landau damping. This is in spite of the reduced numbers of alpha-particles and beam ions in this region but means that any Alfvén Eigenmode-induced redistribution is not expected to influence the fusion burn process. The influence of energetic ions upon the main global MHD phenomena expected in ITER's primary operating scenarios, including sawteeth, neoclassical tearing modes and Resistive Wall Modes, is also reviewed. Fast ion losses due to the non-axisymmetric fields arising from the finite number of toroidal field coils, the inclusion of ferromagnetic inserts, the presence of test blanket modules containing ferromagnetic material, and the fields created by the Edge Localised Mode (ELM) control coils in ITER are discussed. The greatest losses and associated heat loads onto the plasma facing components arise due to the use of the ELM control coils and come from neutral beam ions that are ionised in the plasma edge.

  16. Energetic Neutral Atom Precipitation (ENAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinsley, B. A.

    1988-01-01

    The Energetic Neutral Atom Precipitation experiment is scheduled to be flown on the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS 1) NASA mission. The objective of this experiment is to measure very faint emissions at nighttime arising from fluxes of energetic neutral atoms in the thermosphere. These energetic atoms have energies ranging up to about 50 keV, and arise from ions of hydrogen, helium, and oxygen trapped in the inner magnetosphere. Some of these ions become neutralized in charge exchange reactions with neutral hydrogen in the hydrogen geocorona that extends through the region. The ions are trapped on magnetic field lines which cross the equatorial plane at 2 to 6 earth radii distance, and they mirror at a range of heights on these field lines, extending down to the thermosphere at 500 km altitude. The ATLAS 1 measurements will not be of the neutral atoms themselves but of the optical emission produced by those on trajectories that intersect the thermosphere. The ENAP measurements are to be made using the Imaging Spectrometric Observatory (ISO) which is being flown on the ATLAS mission primarily for daytime spectral observations, and the ENAP measurements will all be nighttime measurements because of the faintness of the emissions and the relatively low level of magnetic activity expected.

  17. Process for preparing energetic materials

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Randall L.; Lee, Ronald S.; Tillotson, Thomas M.; Swansiger, Rosalind W.; Fox, Glenn A.

    2011-12-13

    Sol-gel chemistry is used for the preparation of energetic materials (explosives, propellants and pyrotechnics) with improved homogeneity, and/or which can be cast to near-net shape, and/or made into precision molding powders. The sol-gel method is a synthetic chemical process where reactive monomers are mixed into a solution, polymerization occurs leading to a highly cross-linked three dimensional solid network resulting in a gel. The energetic materials can be incorporated during the formation of the solution or during the gel stage of the process. The composition, pore, and primary particle sizes, gel time, surface areas, and density may be tailored and controlled by the solution chemistry. The gel is then dried using supercritical extraction to produce a highly porous low density aerogel or by controlled slow evaporation to produce a xerogel. Applying stress during the extraction phase can result in high density materials. Thus, the sol-gel method can be used for precision detonator explosive manufacturing as well as producing precision explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics, along with high power composite energetic materials.

  18. A Glossary of Agricultural Terms. English-French, French-English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Univ., Washington, DC. American Language Center.

    This volume consists of two glossaries of agricultural terms, one English-French, the other French-English. The terms provided deal with animals, plants, crop cultivation, animal husbandry and agricultural technology. (CLK)

  19. Histoplasma capsulatum in Cayenne, French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Moquet, Olivier; Blanchet, Denis; Simon, Stéphane; Veron, Vincent; Michel, Myriam; Aznar, Christine

    2012-10-01

    We carried out a soil sampling survey in September 2008 in central Cayenne, French Guiana, using molecular methods to assess the presence of the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. Four of the 31 samples collected (12.9 %) tested positive by PCR, with confirmation of the result by DNA sequencing. H. capsulatum is therefore present in urban environments in French Guiana. These results provide additional support for the primary prophylaxis of AIDS-related histoplasmosis in French Guiana.

  20. Energetic Particles in the Inner Heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malandraki, Olga

    2016-07-01

    Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events are a key ingredient of Solar-Terrestrial Physics both for fundamental research and space weather applications. SEP events are the defining component of solar radiation storms, contribute to radio blackouts in polar regions and are related to many of the fastest Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) driving major geomagnetic storms. In addition to CMEs, SEPs are also related to flares. In this work, the current state of knowledge on the SEP field will be reviewed. Key issues to be covered and discussed include: the current understanding of the origin, acceleration and transport processes of SEPs at the Sun and in the inner heliosphere, lessons learned from multi-spacecraft SEP observations, statistical quantification of the comparison of solar events and SEP events of the current solar cycle 24 with previous solar cycles, causes of the solar-cycle variations in SEP fluencies and composition, theoretical work and current SEP acceleration models. Furthermore, the outstanding issues that constitute a knowledge gap in the field will be presented and discussed, as well as future directions and expected advances from the observational and modeling perspective, also in view of the unique observations provided by the upcoming Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus missions. Acknowledgement: This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 637324.

  1. Efficient laser production of energetic neutral beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollica, F.; Antonelli, L.; Flacco, A.; Braenzel, J.; Vauzour, B.; Folpini, G.; Birindelli, G.; Schnuerer, M.; Batani, D.; Malka, V.

    2016-03-01

    Laser-driven ion acceleration by intense, ultra-short, laser pulse has received increasing attention in recent years, and the availability of much compact and versatile ions sources motivates the study of laser-driven sources of energetic neutral atoms. We demonstrate the production of a neutral and directional beam of hydrogen and carbon atoms up to 200 keV per nucleon, with a peak flow of 2.7× {{10}13} atom s-1. Laser accelerated ions are neutralized in a pulsed, supersonic argon jet with tunable density between 1.5× {{10}17} cm-3and 6× {{10}18} cm-3. The neutralization efficiency has been measured by a time-of-flight detector for different argon densities. An optimum is found, for which complete neutralization occurs. The neutralization rate can be explained only at high areal densities (>1× {{10}17} cm-2) by single electron charge transfer processes. These results suggest a new perspective for the study of neutral production by laser and open discussion of neutralization at a lower density.

  2. Appropriating Written French: Literacy Practices in a Parisian Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Elsie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I examine French language instruction in an elementary classroom serving primarily children of Afro-French immigrants in Paris. I show that a prevalent French language ideology privileges written over oral expression and associates full mastery of written French with rational thought and full inclusion in the French polity. This…

  3. Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, J. F.; Lal, N.; McGuire, R. E.; Szabo, A.; Narock, T. W.; Armstrong, T. P.; Manweiler, J. W.; Patterson, J. D.; Hill, M. E.; Vandergriff, J. D.; McKibben, R. B.; Lopate, C.; Tranquille, C.

    2008-12-01

    The Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO) focuses on improved discovery, access, and usability of heliospheric energetic particle and ancillary data products from selected spacecraft and sub-orbital instruments of the heliophysics data environment. The energy range of interest extends over the full range of particle acceleration from keV energies of suprathermal seed particles to GeV energies of galactic cosmic ray particles. Present spatial coverage is for operational and legacy spacecraft operating from the inner to the outer heliosphere, e.g. from measurements by the two Helios spacecraft to 0.3 AU to the inner heliosheath region now being traversed by the two Voyager spacecraft. This coverage will eventually be extended inward to ten solar radii by the planned NASA solar probe mission and at the same time beyond the heliopause into the outer heliosheath by continued Voyager operations. The geospace fleet of spacecraft providing near-Earth interplanetary measurements, selected magnetospheric spacecraft providing direct measurements of penetrating interplanetary energetic particles, and interplanetary cruise measurements from planetary spacecraft missions further extend VEPO resources to the domain of geospace and planetary interactions. Ground-based (e.g., neutron monitor) and high-altitude suborbital measurements can expand coverage to the highest energies of galactic cosmic rays affected by heliospheric interaction and of solar energetic particles. Science applications include investigation of solar flare and coronal mass ejection events, acceleration and transport of interplanetary particles within the inner heliosphere, cosmic ray interactions with planetary surfaces and atmospheres, sources of suprathermal and anomalous cosmic ray ions in the outer heliosphere, and solar cycle modulation of galactic cosmic rays. Robotic and human exploration, and eventual habitation, of planetary and space environments beyond the Earth require knowledge of radiation

  4. Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.; Lal, Nand; McGuire, Robert E.; Szabo, Adam; Narock, Thomas W.; Armstrong, Thomas P.; Manweiler, Jerry W.; Patterson, J. Douglas; Hill, Matthew E.; Vandergriff, Jon D.; McKibben, Robert B.; Lopate, Clifford; Tranquille, Cecil

    2008-01-01

    The Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO) focuses on improved discovery, access, and usability of heliospheric energetic particle and ancillary data products from selected spacecraft and sub-orbital instruments of the heliophysics data environment. The energy range of interest extends over the full range of particle acceleration from keV energies of suprathermal seed particles to GeV energies of galactic cosmic ray particles. Present spatial coverage is for operational and legacy spacecraft operating from the inner to the outer heliosphere, e.g. from measurements by the two Helios spacecraft to 0.3 AU to the inner heliosheath region now being traversed by the two Voyager spacecraft. This coverage will eventually be extended inward to ten solar radii by the planned NASA solar probe mission and at the same time beyond the heliopause into the outer heliosheath by continued Voyager operations. The geospace fleet of spacecraft providing near-Earth interplanetary measurements, selected magnetospheric spacecraft providing direct measurements of penetrating interplanetary energetic particles, and interplanetary cruise measurements from planetary spacecraft missions further extend VEPO resources to the domain of geospace and planetary interactions. Ground-based (e.g., neutron monitor) and high-altitude suborbital measurements can expand coverage to the highest energies of galactic cosmic rays affected by heliospheric interaction and of solar energetic particles. Science applications include investigation of solar flare and coronal mass ejection events. acceleration and transport of interplanetary particles within the inner heliosphere, cosmic ray interactions with planetary surfaces and atmospheres, sources of suprathermal and anomalous cosmic ray ions in the outer heliosphere, and solar cycle modulation of galactic cosmic rays. Robotic and human exploration, and eventual habitation, of planetary and space environments beyond the Earth require knowledge of radiation

  5. Retention of New Teachers in Minority French and French Immersion Programs in Manitoba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewart, Gestny

    2009-01-01

    There is a shortage of teachers in Canada qualified to teach in French; some researchers have suggested that this shortage is due to attrition. This study examined the retention in Manitoba of new teachers qualified to teach in French. Participants were 130 graduates from the only French teacher education program in the province. Attrition was…

  6. Current developments in French ethnopsychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Gesine; Nadig, Maya; Moro, Marie Rose

    2011-07-01

    French ethnopsychoanalytic approaches to therapy with immigrants combine the psychoanalytical interest in subjectivity with a specific concern for cultural factors and with the role migration plays as a crucial life event. Recent approaches consider culture as profoundly hybrid and use the notions of ''métissage'' and ''décentrage'' as central concepts. This article presents extracts from a qualitative study of ethnopsychoanalytic therapies with immigrant families. The authors argue that the ethnopsychoanalytic approach helps to open new ways of considering cultural hybridity and create a third space where experiences ''from the margins'' may be verbalized.

  7. [The French lessons of anatomy].

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Alain

    2003-01-01

    The "Lessons of Anatomy" can be considered as a step of Medicine to Art. For several centuries the exhibition of a corpse's dissection was printed on the title-page of published works. Since the seventeenth century, the "Lessons of Anatomy" became a picture on the title-page in order to highlight the well-known names of the european anatomists. The study is limited to the French Lessons of Anatomy found in books or pictures after the invention of printing. PMID:14626253

  8. Photocopy of photograph (from Mrs. Martin, grandniece of John French, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (from Mrs. Martin, grandniece of John French, Clinton, Missouri) Circa 1900, photographer unknown JOHN AND ALMIRA FRENCH IN FRONT OF WEST AND SOUTH FACADES - John French Farm, South Grand River, Deepwater, Henry County, MO

  9. Aerodynamic characteristics of French consonants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demolin, Didier; Hassid, Sergio; Soquet, Alain

    2001-05-01

    This paper reports some aerodynamic measurements made on French consonants with a group of ten speakers. Speakers were recorded while saying nonsense words in phrases such as papa, dis papa encore. The nonsense words in the study combined each of the French consonants with three vowels /i, a, u/ to from two syllables words with the first syllable being the same as the second. In addition to the audio signal, recordings were made of the oral airflow, the pressure of the air in the pharynx above the vocal folds and the pressure of the air in the trachea just below the vocal folds. The pharyngeal pressure was recorded via a catheter (i.d. 5 mm) passed through the nose so that its open end could be seen in the pharynx below the uvula. The subglottal pressure was recorded via a tracheal puncture between the first and the second rings of the trachea or between the cricoid cartilage and the first tracheal ring. Results compare subglottal presssure, pharyngeal pressure, and airflow values. Comparisons are made between values obtained with male and female subjects and various types of consonants (voiced versus voiceless at the same place of articulation, stops, fricatives, and nasals).

  10. Energetic Particles in Saturn's Magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, D. G.; Carbary, J. F.; Krupp, N.; Krimigis, S. M.; Hamilton, D. C.; Kane, M.

    2007-12-01

    Energetic particle measurements in Saturn's magnetotail reveal a magnetotail dominated by Saturn's rotational dynamics as far back in the tail as 60 Rs, rarely but sometimes spectacularly disrupted by tail reconnection events. Although Cassini spent little time in the tail, and even less at the location of the tail current sheet, the time spent there revealed a pattern of very regular encounters with the energetic particles that fill the current sheet, usually once every Saturn rotation. Carbary et al. 2007a, b show that energetic electrons reappear every rotation when the spacecraft is sufficiently close to the current sheet location, and further that they lie along a spiral in longitude when mapped into the SKR coordinate system (Kurth et al., 2007). Energetic ions are also observed in the same locations, with a mix of hydrogen and oxygen not very different from that observed in the magnetosphere between 10 and 20 Rs. These ions generally display velocities approximately in the corotation direction, but with magnitudes well below rigid corotation (Kane et al., 2007, manuscript in preparation). Two other classes of energetic particle events are also seen in the magnetotail. The first consists of energetic ion and electron beams, likely accelerated in the auroral zone over downward current regions. The second are those generated in tail reconnection events (e.g., Jackman et al., 2007; Hill et al. 2007). We will give examples of all of these phenomena, including both in situ measurements and ENA images/movies. Carbary, J.~F., Mitchell, D.~G., Krimigis, S.~M., Hamilton, D.~C., Krupp, N., Charged particle periodicities in Saturn's outer magnetosphere, Journal of Geophysical Research (Space Physics) 112, 6246 {2007JGRA..11206246C} 2007a Carbary, J. F., D. G. Mitchell, S. M. Krimigis, and N. Krupp (2007), Evidence for spiral pattern in Saturn's magnetosphere using the new SKR longitudes, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L13105, doi:10.1029/2007GL030167 2007b Kurth, W. S., A

  11. Method for calculating alloy energetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Ferrante, John; Smith, John R.

    1992-01-01

    A semiempirical method for the computation of alloy energies is introduced. It is based on the equivalent-crystal theory of defect-formation energies in elemental solids. The method is both simple and accurate. Heats of formation as a function of composition are computed for some binary alloys of Cu, Ni, Al, Ag, Pd, Pt, and Au using the heats of solution in the dilute limit as experimental input. The separation of heats into strain and chemical components helps in understanding the energetics. In addition, lattice-parameter contractions seen in solid solutions of Ag and Au are accurately predicted. Good agreement with experiment is obtained in all cases.

  12. Active interrogation using energetic protons

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Christopher L; Chung, Kiwhan; Greene, Steven J; Hogan, Gary E; Makela, Mark; Mariam, Fesseha; Milner, Edward C; Murray, Matthew; Saunders, Alexander; Spaulding, Randy; Wang, Zhehui; Waters, Laurie; Wysocki, Frederick

    2010-01-01

    Energetic proton beams provide an attractive alternative when compared to electromagnetic and neutron beams for active interrogation of nuclear threats because they have large fission cross sections, long mean free paths and high penetration, and they can be manipulated with magnetic optics. We have measured time-dependent cross sections and neutron yields for delayed neutrons and gamma rays using 800 MeV and 4 GeV proton beams with a set of bare and shielded targets. The results show significant signals from both unshielded and shielded nuclear materials. Measurements of neutron energies yield suggest a signature unique to fissile material. Results are presented in this paper.

  13. French Basic Course: Supplementary Material. Song Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This song book is presented as supplementary material for the French Basic Course. It provides the words to 36 French songs. The songs are divided into five categories: (1) military songs, (2) sea songs, (3) drinking songs, (4) folklore songs, and (5) Christmas carols. (AMH)

  14. A Mini-Film on French Kinesics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Joel

    This paper describes a silent film made by the author which illustrates various French gestures. The format is Super 8, and the film lasts five minutes. The script is given, along with an English translation. The story concerns several French students at an outdoor cafe wondering about one of their friends. The conversation includes 10 typical…

  15. French-African Cultures: A Resource Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Barbara

    This resource unit concerns French-African cultures and their influence on other cultures. The materials may be incorporated into Levels 3, 4, and 5 French classes. Topics in the outline include environmental aspects; historical background; and cultural differences expressed in Senegal, Guinee, Mali, Cote d'Ivoire, Haute Volta, Togo, Dahomey,…

  16. Gender Differences in Motivation to Learn French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissau, Scott

    2006-01-01

    There is concern among second language educators in Canada that male students are losing interest in studying French as a second language (FSL). In response, in the fall of 2003, a study was conducted to investigate gender differences in second language (L2) motivation among Grade 9 core French students. Building upon the traditional model of L2…

  17. Metropolitan French: Familiarization & Short-Term Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iszkowski, Marie-Charlotte

    The U.S. Department of State's Foreign Service Institute French Familiarization and Short-Term (FAST) course for personnel working and living in France consists of 10 weeks of French language instruction combined with practical and cultural information. An introductory section outlines FAST course objectives and sample teaching techniques in…

  18. A University Course in French for Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaughton, F.; Todd, A.

    1993-01-01

    Examines language research conducted at Napier. The objective of this research program was to improve the teaching of scientific and technical French that had been identified as a requirement for the specialist groups of scientists, doctors, and engineers interested in the use of French language in their work. (CK)

  19. Reading Speed of Contracted French Braille

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laroche, Louise; Boule, Jacinthe; Wittich, Walter

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to address three hypotheses: (1) The reading speed of both readers of French braille and readers of French print will be faster in the silent condition; however, this gain in speed will be larger for print readers; (2) Individuals who acquired braille before age 10 will display faster reading speeds at lower error rates…

  20. French for Health and Social Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crochet, Monique Y.

    In response to a need for a college textbook that would be appropriate for a course in French for health and social services professionals, an anthology was developed for second semester intermediate or third year students of French. The book and course are intended to meet the linguistic needs of current and future health care professionals and…

  1. A Modern Curriculum in French Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Robert J.

    The French department, commonly viewed by chairmen and faculty as the conveyor of culture, is admonished to revamp its curriculum and attempt to embrace a broader, more humane understanding of the nature of culture. With the traditional, belletristic, college French curriculum having been rejected in favor of programs based on "cogency, cohesion,…

  2. Reading Interests in French of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Ann C.

    This paper describes an investigation conducted to determine student preferences for types of reading content in the study of French. The subjects were 438 students enrolled in elementary French courses in five universities. Reading interests were determined with a questionnaire consisting of brief descriptions of thirty items representing five…

  3. French Phonology for Teachers: A Programmed Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jerald R.; Poulin, Norman A.

    This programed, self-instructional course has the following terminal objectives: (1) to present some notions of the science of linguistics and the major branches of linguistics, (2) to teach the segmental and suprasegmental phonemes of French, (3) to identify the major articulatory problems of French for the native speaker of English, (4) to…

  4. The French Regions and Their Social Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jany-Catrice, Florence

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a new indicator designed to capture the multidimensionality of the social health of the French regions is put to the test. Drawing on regional data for 2004, this indicator of social health (ISH) sheds new light on the social performance of the French regions. The worst performers are the highly urbanised regions, whereas others,…

  5. Act Up-Paris: French Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    The francophone world has always been at the center of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. From the mythical (French Canadian) "patient zero," Gaetan Dugas, to Rock Hudson's flight to Paris for medical treatment and the blaming of Haiti for AIDS, as well as the close relationships between Belgian and French and their former African colonies, underscores the…

  6. Le Francais Courant (Contemporary French), Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course has been developed basically within the limits of Units 4-6 of "A-LM French: Level 1", second edition. The primary objectives are to develop French vocabulary relative to the family, home, transportation, and foods by continuing to work with short dialogues based on everyday, teenage experiences. While reviewing previously studied…

  7. French Higher Education: A Cartoon Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Matthew Henry

    2012-01-01

    In this cartoon essay, the author shares his experience from a travel to Paris to see the French higher education system. From his travel, he learned that in France, "degree" inflation may be an issue, but not grade inflation. On the flight home, the author reflects how French and American academics answer one question about the state of higher…

  8. Developing the Curriculum for Intensive French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netten, Joan; Germain, Claude

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the way in which the curriculum for intensive French was developed. Reference is made to its similarities to and differences from both the multidimensional curriculum proposed by the National Core French Study and the communicative approach. The importance of learning outcomes stated in terms of communicative outcomes…

  9. French Romanticism and Napoleon's "Geometric Men."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Robert A.

    1982-01-01

    French intellectual thought changed during the Napoleonic Era. The effects of the Enlightenment philosophers, the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution, and Romanticism on the development of Napoleon's philosophical outlook are used to illustrate the changes occurring in France as a whole in the early nineteenth century. (AM)

  10. Les affaires "en francais" (Business "In French").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanko, Helene N.

    1993-01-01

    A French brochure entitled "700 Current Words for Business" was developed to familiarize the business community with modern French business vocabulary and avoid intrusion of terminology from other languages. Some terms are neologisms. Translations from Latin, Japanese, and English illustrate the etymology and morphological patterns of some idioms…

  11. Simulated Shockwaves in Nanoparticles Embedded Energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattson, William; Johnson, Donald; Mullin, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    Practical energetic materials often consist of mixtures of distinct materials formulated to optimize specific properties. Nanoparticles of traditional as well as novel additives, with their large surface to volume ratio, have been of particular recent interest to the energetics community. Using density functional theory, we have simulated high-velocity shocks of an energetic material containing nanoparticles. We will report on simulations of shocks in crystalline PETN embedded with nanodiamonds of different sizes, and at various shock speeds.

  12. National Ignition Campaign Hohlraum Energetics

    SciTech Connect

    Meezan, N B; Atherton, L J; Callahan, D A; Dewald, E L; Dixit, S N; Dzenitis, E G; Edwards, M J; Haynam, C A; Hinkel, D E; Jones, O S; Landen, O; London, R A; Michel, P A; Moody, J D; Milovich, J L; Schneider, M B; Thomas, C A; Town, R J; Warrick, A L; Weber, S V; Widmann, K; Glenzer, S H; Suter, L J; MacGowan, B J; Kline, J L; Kyrala, G A; Nikroo, A

    2009-11-16

    The first series of experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses, R. N. Boyd, B. A. Remington, C. J. Keane, and R. Al-Ayat, 'The National Ignition Facility: ushering in a new age for high energy density science,' Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] tested ignition hohlraum 'energetics,' a term described by four broad goals: (1) Measurement of laser absorption by the hohlraum; (2) Measurement of the x-ray radiation flux (T{sub RAD}{sup 4}) on the surrogate ignition capsule; (3) Quantitative understanding of the laser absorption and resultant x-ray flux; and (4) Determining whether initial hohlraum performance is consistent with requirements for ignition. This paper summarizes the status of NIF hohlraum energetics experiments. The hohlraum targets and experimental design are described, as well as the results of the initial experiments. The data demonstrate low backscattered energy (< 10%) for hohlraums filled with helium gas. A discussion of our current understanding of NIF hohlraum x-ray drive follows, including an overview of the computational tools, i.e., radiation-hydrodynamics codes, that have been used to design the hohlraums. The performance of the codes is compared to x-ray drive and capsule implosion data from the first NIF experiments. These results bode well for future NIF ignition hohlraum experiments.

  13. National Ignition Campaign Hohlraum Energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meezan, Nathan

    2009-11-01

    The first series of experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF), as part of the National Ignition Campaign, will determine the hohlraum path forward for indirect drive ignition. These first experiments will test ignition hohlraum ``energetics,'' a term described by four broad goals: *Measurement of laser absorption by the hohlraum *Measurement of the x-ray radiation flux (TRAD^4) on the surrogate ignition capsule *Quantitative understanding of the laser absorption and resultant x-ray flux *Determining whether initial hohlraum performance is consistent with point design requirements for ignition using either a beryllium or plastic capsule ablator. In this talk, we summarize the status of NIF hohlraum energetics experiments. We describe the hohlraum target and experimental design, including an overview of the theoretical and computational tools that have been used to design the hohlraums. We explain the validation of these tools on predecessor facilities and describe their performance on the first NIF experiments. We then discuss our current understanding of NIF hohlraum performance and the resulting near-term and long-term plans for NIF ignition hohlraum experiments.

  14. Solar Energetic Particle Spectrometer (SEPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    An outstanding problem of solar and heliospheric physics is the transport of solar energetic particles. The more energetic particles arriving early in the event can be used to probe the transport processes. The arrival direction distribution of these particles carries information about scattering during their propagation to Earth that can be used to test models of interplanetary transport. Also, of considerable importance to crewed space missions is the level of ionizing radiation in the interplanetary medium, and the dose that the crew experiences during an intense solar particle event, as well as the risk to space systems. A recent study concludes that 90% of the absorbed dose results from particles in the energy range 20-550 MeV. We will describe a new compact instrument concept, SEPS, that can cover the energy range from 50-600 MeV with a single compact detector. This energy range has been difficult to cover. There are only limited data, generally available only in broad energy bins, from a few past and present instruments outside Earth s magnetosphere. The SEPS concept can provide improved measurements for this energy range and its simple light-weight design could be easily accommodated on future missions.

  15. Accreditation of Prior Experiential Learning as a Catalyst for Lifelong Learning: Analysis and Proposals Based on French Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanseau, Pierre-Yves; Ansart, Sandrine

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the researchers analyse how lifelong learning can be enriched and develop a different perspective based on the experiment involving the accreditation of prior experiential learning (APEL) conducted in France at the university level. The French system for the accreditation of prior experiential learning, called Validation des Acquis…

  16. Analysis of French generic medicines retail market: why the use of generic medicines is limited.

    PubMed

    Dylst, Pieter; Vulto, Arnold; Simoens, Steven

    2014-12-01

    The market share of generic medicines in France is low compared to other European countries. This perspective paper provides an overview of the generic medicines retail market in France and how the current policy environment may affect the long-term sustainability. Looking at the French generic medicines retail market and the surrounding regulatory framework, all conditions seem to be in place to create a healthy generic medicines market: the country has well-respected regulatory authorities, generic medicines enter the market in a timely manner and prices of generic medicines are competitive compared with other European countries. Despite the success of the demand-side policies targeted at pharmacists and patients, those targeted at physicians were less successful due to a lack of enforcement and a lack of trust in generic medicines by French physicians. Recommendations to increase the use of generic medicines in France round off this perspective paper.

  17. French Project For Operational Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouliquen, S.; Petit de La Villéon, L.; Carval, T.; Loaec, G.; Gourmelen, L.; Desaubies, Y.; Coriolis, A.

    2003-04-01

    The seven French agencies concerned by ocean research are developing together a strong capability in operational oceanography based on a triad including satellite altimetry (JASON), numerical modelling with assimilation (MERCATOR), and in situ data (CORIOLIS). The CORIOLIS project aims to build a pre-operational structure to collect, valid and distribute ocean data (temperature/salinity profiles and current speeds) to the scientific community and modellers. CORIOLIS aims at four goals : (1) To build up a data management centre, part of the ARGO network for the GODAE experiment, able to provide quality-controlled data in real time and delay modes. (2) To contribute to ARGO floats deployment mainly in the Atlantic with about 250 floats during the 2001-2004 period. (3) To develop and improve profiling ARGO floats. PROVOR is a self-ballasted float, able to drift at a user-defined parking depth and then to dive to 2000m before profiling up to the surface where data are transmitted using the Argos system. More than 100 cycles can be performed during its 3-year lifetime. (4) To integrate into CORIOLIS all other data presently collected at sea by French agencies from surface drifting buoys, PIRATA anchored buoys, oceanographic research vessels (XBT, thermosalinograph and ADCP transmitted on a daily basis). CORIOLIS data centre, already one of the two global data centres for ARGO, and aims to be an important partner in projects within GMES et 6th PRCD calls. In 2004, recommendations will be done to transform the CORIOLIS activity into a permanent, routinely contribution to ocean measurement, in accordance with international plans which will follow the ARGO/GODAE experiment.

  18. Energetic materials and methods of tailoring electrostatic discharge sensitivity of energetic materials

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Wallace, Ronald S.; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Collins, Eric S.

    2016-11-01

    An energetic material comprising an elemental fuel, an oxidizer or other element, and a carbon nanofiller or carbon fiber rods, where the carbon nanofiller or carbon fiber rods are substantially homogeneously dispersed in the energetic material. Methods of tailoring the electrostatic discharge sensitivity of an energetic material are also disclosed.

  19. Geomagnetically trapped energetic helium nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J.; Gregory Guzik, T.; Wefel, J.P.; Roger Pyle, K.; Cooper, J.F.

    1996-07-01

    Geomagnetically trapped helium nuclei, at high energy ({approximately}40{endash}100 MeV/nucleon), have been measured by the ONR-604 instrument during the 1990/1991 CRRES mission. The ONR-604 instrument resolved the isotopes of helium with a mass resolution of 0.1 amu. The energetic helium observed at {ital L}{lt}2.3 have a pitch angle distribution peaking perpendicular to the local magnetic field, which is characteristic of a trapped population. Both the trapped {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He show two peaks at {ital L}=1.2 and 1.9. Each isotope{close_quote}s flux, in each peak, can be characterized by a power law energy spectrum. The energy spectrum of the {sup 3}He is different from that of {sup 4}He, indicating that the {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratio is energy dependent. Over the energy range of 51{endash}86 MeV/nucleon, the {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratio is 8.7{plus_minus}3.1 at {ital L}=1.1{endash}1.5 and is 2.4{plus_minus}0.6 at {ital L}=1.5{endash}2.3. The trapped helium counting rates decrease gradually with time during the CRRES mission, when the anomalous component is excluded from the inner heliosphere, indicating that these high energy ions were not injected by flares during this time period. The decrease in intensity is attributed mainly to the events around {ital L}=1.9. The helium around {ital L}=1.2, dominated by {sup 3}He, does not show a significant temporal evolution, which implies a long-term energetic trapped {sup 3}He population. Two possible origins of the geomagnetically trapped helium isotopes are the interactions of energetic protons with the upper atmosphere and/or the inward diffusion and acceleration of helium ions due to electric-field fluctuations. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  20. Extreme solar energetic particle events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainio, Rami; Afanasiev, Alexandr; Battarbee, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Properties of extreme solar energetic particle (SEP) events, here defined as those leading to ground level enhancements (GLEs) of cosmic rays, are reviewed. We review recent efforts on modeling SEP acceleration to relativistic energies and present simulation results on particle acceleration at shocks driven by fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in different types of coronal magnetic structures and turbulent downstream compression regions. Based on these modeling results, we discuss the possible role of solar and CME parameters in the lack of GLEs during the present sunspot cycle. This work has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 637324 (HESPERIA). The Academy of Finland is thanked for financial support.

  1. Nuclear gamma rays from energetic particle interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Kozlovsky, B.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Gamma ray line emission from nuclear deexcitation following energetic particle reactions is evaluated. The compiled nuclear data and the calculated gamma ray spectra and intensities can be used for the study of astrophysical sites which contain large fluxes of energetic protons and nuclei. A detailed evaluation of gamma ray line production in the interstellar medium is made.

  2. CORSAIR Solar Energetic Particle Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandroos, A.

    2013-05-01

    Acceleration of particles in coronal mass ejection (CME) driven shock waves is the most commonly accepted and best developed theory of the genesis of gradual solar energetic particle (SEP) events. The underlying acceleration mechanism is the diffusive shock acceleration (DSA). According to DSA, particles scatter from fluctuations present in the ambient magnetic field, which causes some particles to encounter the shock front repeatedly and to gain energy during each crossing. Currently STEREO and near-Earth spacecraft are providing valuable multi-point information on how SEP properties, such as composition and energy spectra, vary in longitude. Initial results have shown that longitude distributions of large CME-associated SEP events are much wider than reported in earlier studies. These findings have important consequences on SEP modeling. It is important to extend the present models into two or three spatial coordinates to properly take into account the effects of coronal and interplanetary (IP) magnetic geometry, and evolution of the CME and the associated shock, on the acceleration and transport of SEPs. We give a status update on CORSAIR project, which is an effort to develop a new self-consistent (total energy conserving) DSA acceleration model that is capable of modeling energetic particle acceleration and transport in IP space in two or three spatial dimensions. In the new model particles are propagated using guiding center approximation. Waves are modeled as (Lagrangian) wave packets propagating (anti)parallel to ambient magnetic field. Diffusion coefficients related to scattering from the waves are calculated using quasilinear theory. State of ambient plasma is obtained from an MHD simulation or by using idealized analytic models. CORSAIR is an extension to our earlier efforts to model the effects of magnetic geometry on SEP acceleration (Sandroos & Vainio, 2007,2009).

  3. Interchange mode excited by trapped energetic ions

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Seiya

    2015-07-15

    The kinetic energy principle describing the interaction between ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes with trapped energetic ions is revised. A model is proposed on the basis of the reduced ideal MHD equations for background plasmas and the bounce-averaged drift-kinetic equation for trapped energetic ions. The model is applicable to large-aspect-ratio toroidal devices. Specifically, the effect of trapped energetic ions on the interchange mode in helical systems is analyzed. Results show that the interchange mode is excited by trapped energetic ions, even if the equilibrium states are stable to the ideal interchange mode. The energetic-ion-induced branch of the interchange mode might be associated with the fishbone mode in helical systems.

  4. Observations and Modeling of Geospace Energetic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinlin

    2016-07-01

    Comprehensive measurements of energetic particles and electric and magnetic fields from state-of-art instruments onboard Van Allen Probes, in a geo-transfer-like orbit, revealed new features of the energetic particles and the fields in the inner magnetosphere and impose new challenges to any quantitative modeling of the physical processes responsible for these observations. Concurrent measurements of energetic particles by satellites in highly inclined low Earth orbits and plasma and fields by satellites in farther distances in the magnetospheres and in the up stream solar wind are the critically needed information for quantitative modeling and for leading to eventual accurate forecast of the variations of the energetic particles in the magnetosphere. In this presentation, emphasis will be on the most recent advance in our understanding of the energetic particles in the magnetosphere and the missing links for significantly advance in our modeling and forecasting capabilities.

  5. Energetic particle influences in Earth's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aplin, Karen; Harrison, R. Giles; Nicoll, Keri; Rycroft, Michael; Briggs, Aaron

    2016-04-01

    Energetic particles from outer space, known as galactic cosmic rays, constantly ionise the entire atmosphere. During strong solar storms, solar energetic particles can also reach the troposphere and enhance ionisation. Atmospheric ionisation generates cluster ions. These facilitate current flow in the global electric circuit, which arises from charge separation in thunderstorms driven by meteorological processes. Energetic particles, whether solar or galactic in origin, may influence the troposphere and stratosphere through a range of different mechanisms, each probably contributing a small amount. Some of the suggested processes potentially acting over a wide spatial area in the troposphere include enhanced scavenging of charged aerosol particles, modification of droplet or droplet-droplet behavior by charging, and the direct absorption of infra-red radiation by the bending and stretching of hydrogen bonds inside atmospheric cluster-ions. As well as reviewing the proposed mechanisms by which energetic particles modulate atmospheric properties, we will also discuss new instrumentation for measurement of energetic particles in the atmosphere.

  6. Femtosecond Laser Interaction with Energetic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Roos, E; Benterou, J; Lee, R; Roeske, F; Stuart, B

    2002-03-25

    Femtosecond laser ablation shows promise in machining energetic materials into desired shapes with minimal thermal and mechanical effects to the remaining material. We will discuss the physical effects associated with machining energetic materials and assemblies containing energetic materials, based on experimental results. Interaction of ultra-short laser pulses with matter will produce high temperature plasma at high-pressure which results in the ablation of material. In the case of energetic material, which includes high explosives, propellants and pyrotechnics, this ablation process must be accomplished without coupling energy into the energetic material. Experiments were conducted in order to characterize and better understand the phenomena of femtosecond laser pulse ablation on a variety of explosives and propellants. Experimental data will be presented for laser fluence thresholds, machining rates, cutting depths and surface quality of the cuts.

  7. Preparation for International Business: A Cultural Immersion Model in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Martin, Gerry

    A Salisbury State University (Maryland) program integrating intensive French language and business administration instruction is described. In its pilot, the program had 11 students, all but 1 drawn from French language classes; one was a native speaker. The French portion was taught in the morning by two French professors, and the business…

  8. Language-Learning Motivation during Short-Term Study Abroad: An Activity Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Heather Willis

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the development of language-learning motivation during short-term study abroad (SA) for six intermediate-level students of French. Taking an activity theory perspective, findings demonstrated that one of two orientations motivated participants to study or continue studying French at the college level: linguistic motives or…

  9. Le Francais quand meme (French Nonetheless).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delautier, Jean-Marie

    1983-01-01

    Political, attitudinal, and administrative problems of teaching compulsory foreign languages in Colombia are described and discussed from the point of view of a French teacher in a system characterized by confusion and lack of student interest. (MSE)

  10. Planthopper pests of grapevine (in French)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the French vineyards occur two main insect pests belonging to Fulgoromorpha, Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Cixiidae) and Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Flatidae). Hyalesthes obsoletus is inducing economic losses by transmitting a phytoplasma, called Stolbur, from wild plants (bindweed, nettle, etc.) t...

  11. Daniel Chester French: The Artist as Historian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Willadene

    1982-01-01

    Describes the life and extensive work of the American sculptor, Daniel Chester French, whose statues have come to symbolize the spirit of America. His works include the Lincoln Memorial and the Minute Man. (AM)

  12. A Local Evaluation of Primary School French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, J. D.; Welsh, Jennifer

    1972-01-01

    A local study concludes that primary school French does not confer a lasting advantage but its contribution lies in the enlargement of interest rather that as a preparation for secondary school work. (JB)

  13. Comparative "Glocal" Perspectives on European Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caena, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a PhD study, which offers comparative perspectives on teacher education in a period of reforms, inquiring into stakeholders' perceptions in English, French, Italian and Spanish contexts as case studies. The interaction of needs and constraints in European initial teacher education within higher education…

  14. Solar impulsive energetic electron events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Linghua

    The Sun is capable of accelerating ions from ~ tens of keV up to tens of GeV and electrons from ~ tens of eV up to hundreds of MeVs in transient events such as flares and fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs). The energized particles escaping into the interplanetary medium are referred to as Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events. The great majority of SEP events are impulsive SEP events that are dominated by ~1-100 keV electrons and ~MeV/nucleon ion emissions, with enhanced 3 He/ 4 He ratios up to 10 4 times the coronal values (also called electron/ 3 He-rich SEP events). This thesis is focused on solar impulsive energetic electron events, the electron part of impulsive SEP events, using electron observations from the 3-D Plasma and Energetic Particle instrument (3DP) on the WIND spacecraft near the Earth. First, I present the first comprehensive statistical study of solar energetic electron events over almost one solar cycle. I find that the occurrence rate of solar electron events shows a strong solar-cycle variation; after correction for the background effect, the estimated occurrence frequency exhibits a good power-law distribution, and the estimated occurrence rate near the Earth is ~1000/year at solar maximum and ~30/year at solar minimum for the instrumental sensitivity (~2.9×10^-4 (cm 2 s str eV) -1 for the 40 keV channel) of WIND/3DP, about one order of magnitude larger than the observed occurrence rate. Solar energetic electron events have a one-to-one association with type III radio bursts and a poor association with flares, but a close association with 3 He- rich ion emissions. These 3 He-rich electron events also have a poor association with flares but a close (~ 60%) association with west-limb CMEs. Then I present two case studies: one investigating the temporal relationship between solar impulsive electrons and type III radio emissions, and the second studying the temporal relationship between solar impulsive electrons and 3 He- rich ions. For both

  15. FRIPON, the French fireball network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colas, F.; Zanda, B.; Bouley, S.; Vaubaillon, J.; Marmo, C.; Audureau, Y.; Kwon, M. K.; Rault, J. L.; Caminade, S.; Vernazza, P.; Gattacceca, J.; Birlan, M.; Maquet, L.; Egal, A.; Rotaru, M.; Gruson-Daniel, Y.; Birnbaum, C.; Cochard, F.; Thizy, O.

    2015-10-01

    FRIPON (Fireball Recovery and InterPlanetary Observation Network) [4](Colas et al, 2014) was recently founded by ANR (Agence Nationale de la Recherche). Its aim is to connect meteoritical science with asteroidal and cometary science in order to better understand solar system formation and evolution. The main idea is to set up an observation network covering all the French territory to collect a large number of meteorites (one or two per year) with accurate orbits, allowing us to pinpoint possible parent bodies. 100 all-sky cameras will be installed at the end of 2015 forming a dense network with an average distance of 100km between stations. To maximize the accuracy of orbit determination, we will mix our optical data with radar data from the GRAVES beacon received by 25 stations [5](Rault et al, 2015). As both the setting up of the network and the creation of search teams for meteorites will need manpower beyond our small team of professionals, we are developing a citizen science network called Vigie-Ciel [6](Zanda et al, 2015). The public at large will thus be able to simply use our data, participate in search campaigns or even setup their own cameras.

  16. Energetic efficiency of infant formulae: a review.

    PubMed

    Fleddermann, Manja; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold

    2014-01-01

    Breast-fed and formula-fed infants differ in terms of nutrient intake, growth, and metabolic and endocrine responses. The energetic efficiency, i.e. the weight or length gain per 100 kcal of energy intake, of breast-fed infants is about 11% higher than the energetic efficiency of formula-fed infants. Only limited data is available on the influence of formula composition on the energetic efficiency of infant formulae. We conducted a review of controlled trials to identify the impact of the macronutrient composition of infant formulae on energetic efficiency. An electronic literature search was conducted in February 2014. Intervention trials that investigated the effect of an infant formula with a modified macronutrient composition and reported the weight, length, and nutritional intake of apparently healthy, term, fully formula-fed infants with a normal weight were included. Thirteen trials met the inclusion criteria. The results showed no effect of the total content of energy, carbohydrate, protein, or fat on energetic efficiency. In contrast, small increasing effects of higher glycemic carbohydrates on energetic efficiency were identified. Improved fat absorption via the use of palmitic acid at the sn-2 ester position of triacylglycerol increased the energetic efficiency by 11%. The quality of formula protein, specifically an increased whey-to-casein ratio, an increased α-lactalbumin content, or a higher tryptophan content increased the energetic efficiency by about 13%. We conclude that fat absorption and protein quality have the potential to modulate energetic efficiency and may contribute to the observed differences in growth and metabolism between breast-fed and formula-fed infants.

  17. Imaging heliospheric shocks using energetic neutral atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelof, E. C.

    1992-01-01

    In order to explore the feasibility of energetic neutral atom (ENA) imaging of shock-associated energetic proton populations in the heliosphere, computer-simulated ENA images have been generated based on Voyager 1/2 energetic ion measurements. One favorable vantage point for ENA shock imaging is from the Cassini spacecraft's orbit around Saturn at 10 AU. These images, calibrated relative to the measured shock-associated proton fluxes, yield an absolute estimate of ENA fluxes which indicates that useful heliospheric ENA imaging can be accomplished with present technology.

  18. {Interball-1 Plasma, Magnetic Field, and Energetic Particle Observations}

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, David G.

    1998-01-01

    Funding from NASA was received in two installments. The first installment supported research using Russian/Czech/Slovak/French Interball-1 plasma, magnetic field, and energetic particles observations in the vicinity of the magnetopause. The second installment provided salary support to review unsolicited proposals to NASA for data recovery and archiving, and also to survey ISTP data provision efforts. Two papers were published under the auspices of the grant. Sibeck et al. reported Interball-1 observations of a wave on the magnetopause with an amplitude in excess of 5 R(sub E), the largest ever reported to date. They attributed the wave to a hot flow anomaly striking the magnetopause and suggested that the hot flow anomaly itself formed during the interaction of an IMF discontinuity with the bow shock. Nemecek et al. used Interball-1's VDP Faraday cup to identify large transient increases in the magnetosheath density. They noted large variations in simultaneous Wind observations of the IMF cone angle, but were unable to establish any relationship between the cone angle variations at Wind and the density variations at Interball-1. Funds from the second installment were used to review over 20 proposals from various researchers in the scientific community who sought NASA support to restore or archive past observations. It also supported a survey of ISTP data provisions which was used as input to a Senior Review of ongoing NASA ISTP programs.

  19. POET: POlarimeters for Energetic Transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J. E.; McConnell, M. L.; Bloser, P.; Legere, J.; Macri, J.; Ryan, J.; Barthelmy, S.; Angelini, L.; Sakamoto, T.; Black, J. K.; Hartmann, D. H.; Kaaret, P.; Zhang, B.; Ioka, K.; Nakamura, T.; Toma, K.; Yamazaki, R.; Wu, X.

    2008-01-01

    POET (Polarimeters for Energetic Transients) is a Small Explorer mission concept proposed to NASA in January 2008. The principal scientific goal of POET is to measure GRB polarization between 2 and 500 keV. The payload consists of two wide FoV instruments: a Low Energy Polarimeter (LEP) capable of polarization measurements in the energy range from 2-15 keV and a high energy polarimeter (Gamma-Ray Polarimeter Experiment - GRAPE) that will measure polarization in the 60-500 keV energy range. Spectra will be measured from 2 keV up to 1 MeV. The POET spacecraft provides a zenith-pointed platform for maximizing the exposure to deep space. Spacecraft rotation will provide a means of effectively dealing with systematics in the polarization response. POET will provide sufficient sensitivity and sky coverage to measure statistically significant polarization for up to 100 GRBs in a two-year mission. Polarization data will also be obtained for solar flares, pulsars and other sources of astronomical interest.

  20. Paleo Mars energetic particle precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alho, Markku; McKenna-Lawlor, Susan; Kallio, Esa

    2015-12-01

    A young Mars may well have possessed a global dipolar magnetic field that provided protection for the planet's atmosphere from the space weather environment. Against this background, we study in the present paper the effect of various dipole magnetic fields on particle precipitation (range 10 keV-4.5 MeV) on the upper Martian atmosphere as the magnetosphere gradually declined to become an induced magnetosphere. We utilized a hybrid plasma model to provide, in a self-consistent fashion, simulations (that included ion-kinetic effects) of the interaction between the Martian obstacle (magnetized or otherwise) and the solar wind. Besides the intrinsic dipole, with field strengths of ~100 nT and below, we assume modern solar and atmospheric parameters to examine the effect of the single variable, that is the dipole strength. We thereby investigated the precipitation of solar energetic particles on the upper atmosphere of the planet in circumstances characterized by the evolution of a diminishing Martian dynamo that initially generated an ideal dipolar field. It is demonstrated that an assumed Martian dipole would have provided, in the energy range investigated, significant shielding against proton impingement and that the interaction between the solar wind and the assumed Martian magnetic dipole would have been responsible for generating the shielding effect identified.

  1. The Energetics of Centrifugal Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewar, W. K.; Jiao, Y.

    2014-12-01

    A recent study has argued that the California Undercurrent, and poleward eastern boundary currents in general, generate mixing events through centrifugal instability (CI). Conditions favorable for CI are created by the strong horizontal shears developed in turbulent bottom layers of currents flowing in the direction of topographic waves. At points of abrupt topographic change, like promontories and capes, the coastal current separates from the boundary and injects gravitationally stable but dynamically unstable flow into the interior. The resulting finite amplitude development of the instability involves overturnings and diabatic mixing. The purpose of this study is to examine the energetics of CI in order to characterize it as has been done for other instabilities and develop a framework in which to estimate its regional and global impacts. We argue that CI is roughly twice as efficient at mixing as is Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, and that roughly 10% of the initial energy in a CUC-like current is lost to either local mixing or the generation of unbalanced flows. The latter probably leads to non-local mixing. Thus centrifugal instability is an effective process by which energy is lost from the balanced flow and spent in mixing neighboring water masses. We argue the importance of the mixing is regional in nature, but of less importance to the global budgets given its regional specificity.

  2. The Galileo Energetic Particles Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. J.; Mcentire, R. W.; Jaskulek, S.; Wilken, B.

    1992-01-01

    Amongst its complement of particles and fields instruments, the Galileo spacecraft carries an Energetic Particles Detector (EPD) designed to measure the characteristics of particle populations important in determining the size, shape, and dynamics of the Jovian magnetosphere. To do this the EPD provides 4pi angular coverage and spectral measurements for Z greater than or equal to 1 ions from 20 keV to 55 MeV, for electrons from 15 keV to greater than 11 MeV, and for the elemental species helium through iron from approximately 10 keV/nucl to 15 MeV/nucl. Two bidirectional telescopes, mounted on a stepping platform, employ magnetic deflection, energy loss versus energy, and time-of-flight techniques to provide 64 rate channels and pulse height analysis of priority selected events. The EPD data system provides a large number of possible operational modes from which a small number will be selected to optimize data collection during the many encounter and cruise phases of the mission. The EPD employs a number of safeing algorithms that are to be used in the event that its self-checking procedures indicate a problem. The instrument and its operation are described.

  3. Energetics of abiogenic chemical systems.

    PubMed

    Buvet, R; Stoetzel, F

    1975-07-01

    After recalling the energy consumption necessary to produce the main categories of biochemicals from the equilibrium state of an hydrogenated atmosphere, the primary processes by which energy can be absorbed in a mixture of methane and ammonia in the presence of aqueous solutions are defined. From the very first excitations, unsaturated products are formed. In fact, this formation of atmospheric precursors is the primordial state of a photochemically induced redox dismutation. The evolution of solutions obtained from the dissolution of these atmospheric precursors in aqueous media is described from experimental data and analysed on energetic grounds. The relaxation of energy accumulated in such solutions involves non enzymic archetypes of the main categories of metabolic processes; in particular some unsaturated atmospheric precursors must be looked upon as primordial representatives of biochemical dehydrating agents. Absorption of light energy in the solutions obtained from the evolution of precursors happens near the visible range and should govern their further evolution. In fact, biochemicals which were previously detected as products of model experiments are not present in these solutions. They were probably obtained during analytical procedures from products of the evolution of atmospheric precursors which are unstable against decreases of pH. Cyclic autocatalytic effects must be involved in the further evolution of the models of the first aqueous solutions. Their possible role in the appearance of optical dissymmetry is emphasized on theoretical grounds.

  4. ENERGETIC FERMI/LAT GRB 100414A: ENERGETIC AND CORRELATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Urata, Yuji; Tsai, Patrick P.; Huang, Kuiyun; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Tashiro, Makoto S.

    2012-03-20

    This study presents multi-wavelength observational results for energetic GRB 100414A with GeV photons. The prompt spectral fitting using Suzaku/WAM data yielded spectral peak energies of E{sup src}{sub peak} of 1458.7{sup +132.6}{sub -106.6} keV and E{sub iso} of 34.5{sup +2.0}{sub -1.8} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 52} erg with z = 1.368. The optical afterglow light curves between 3 and 7 days were effectively fitted according to a simple power law with a temporal index of {alpha} = -2.6 {+-} 0.1. The joint light curve with earlier Swift/UVOT observations yields a temporal break at 2.3 {+-} 0.2 days. This was the first Fermi/LAT detected event that demonstrated the clear temporal break in the optical afterglow. The jet opening angle derived from this temporal break was 5.{sup 0}8, consistent with those of other well-observed long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The multi-wavelength analyses in this study showed that GRB 100414A follows E{sup src}{sub peak}-E{sub iso} and E{sup src}{sub peak}-E{sub {gamma}} correlations. The late afterglow revealed a flatter evolution with significant excesses at 27.2 days. The most straightforward explanation for the excess is that GRB 100414A was accompanied by a contemporaneous supernova. The model light curve based on other GRB-SN events is marginally consistent with that of the observed light curve.

  5. Third Semester College French, A Different Approach: Practical French for Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickert, Blandine

    An alternative approach used in a third semester French course at the University of Colorado at Denver is described. The approach was adopted to improve student motivation. The course focuses on the learning of practical French for everyday situations, while traveling abroad for business or pleasure. Emphasis is on conversational, communicative…

  6. French-Canadians, Acadians and the French in New England. A Learning Activity Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Univ., Orono. New England - Atlantic Provinces - Quebec Center.

    The history of the French-Canadians from their beginnings to the present time is the topic of this Learning Activity Packet (LAP). Designed to acquaint students with the French, Canada's earliest permanent settlers following the Indians, the unit is divided into six objectives which include learning activities for each. Students are expected to…

  7. French from Four to Seven. A Handbook for Teaching French to the Very Young.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodjak, Barbara Hippel

    The handbook is a compilation of ideas, strategies, resources, and suggestions for teaching French to children aged 4-7. It presupposes a school program in which French is taught as a foreign language for a brief period each day, although the ideas are adaptable to immersion instruction. Introductory sections describe the book's format and…

  8. Multiple Integrated Complementary Healing Approaches: Energetics & Light for bone.

    PubMed

    Gray, Michael G; Lackey, Brett R; Patrick, Evelyn F; Gray, Sandra L; Hurley, Susan G

    2016-01-01

    A synergistic-healing strategy that combines molecular targeting within a system-wide perspective is presented as the Multiple Integrated Complementary Healing Approaches: Energetics And Light (MICHAEL). The basis of the MICHAEL approach is the realization that environmental, nutritional and electromagnetic factors form a regulatory framework involved in bone and nerve healing. The interactions of light, energy, and nutrition with neural, hormonal and cellular pathways will be presented. Energetic therapies including electrical, low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and light based treatments affect growth, differentiation and proliferation of bone and nerve and can be utilized for their healing benefits. However, the benefits of these therapies can be impaired by the absence of nutritional, hormonal and organismal factors. For example, lack of sleep, disrupted circadian rhythms and vitamin-D deficiency can impair healing. Molecular targets, such as the Wnt pathway, protein kinase B and glucocorticoid signaling systems can be modulated by nutritional components, including quercetin, curcumin and Mg(2+) to enhance the healing process. The importance of water and water-regulation will be presented as an integral component. The effects of exercise and acupuncture on bone healing will also be discussed within the context of the MICHAEL approach. PMID:26804592

  9. Chemical Dynamics, Molecular Energetics, and Kinetics at the Synchrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Leone, Stephen R.; Ahmed, Musahid; Wilson, Kevin R.

    2010-03-14

    Scientists at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline of the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley are continuously reinventing synchrotron investigations of physical chemistry and chemical physics with vacuum ultraviolet light. One of the unique aspects of a synchrotron for chemical physics research is the widely tunable vacuum ultraviolet light that permits threshold ionization of large molecules with minimal fragmentation. This provides novel opportunities to assess molecular energetics and reaction mechanisms, even beyond simple gas phase molecules. In this perspective, significant new directions utilizing the capabilities at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline are presented, along with an outlook for future synchrotron and free electron laser science in chemical dynamics. Among the established and emerging fields of investigations are cluster and biological molecule spectroscopy and structure, combustion flame chemistry mechanisms, radical kinetics and product isomer dynamics, aerosol heterogeneous chemistry, planetary and interstellar chemistry, and secondary neutral ion-beam desorption imaging of biological matter and materials chemistry.

  10. Energetic particle characteristics of magnetotail flux ropes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholer, M.; Klecker, B.; Hovestadt, D.; Gloeckler, G.; Ipavich, F. M.; Galvin, A. B.

    1985-01-01

    During the recent ISEE-3 Geotail Mission three events have been identified from the magnetometer data which are consistent with a spacecraft crossing of a magnetotail flux rope. Energetic electron and proton observations obtained by the Max-Planck-Institut/University of Maryland sensor system during two of the possible flux rope events are presented. During one event remote sensing of the flux rope with energetic protons reveals that the flux rope is crossed by the spacecraft from south to north. This allows determination of the bandedness of the magnetic field twist and of the flux rope velocity relative to the spacecraft. A minimal flux rope radius of 3 earth radii is derived. Energetic proton intensity is highest just inside of the flux rope and decreases towards the core. Energetic electrons are streaming tailward near the outer boundary, indicating openness of the field lines, and are isotropic through the inner part of the flux rope.

  11. Discourses of Linguistic dominance: A Historical Consideration of French Language Ideology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasuya, Keisuke

    2001-07-01

    The paper offers a historical perspective on the linguistic and cultural imperialism embedded in the struggle to maintain French as a leading international language. France was the nation-state where the ideology of national language was first clearly formulated and directly extended to overseas colonies. This shows the close relationship between linguistic nationalism and imperialism. It was believed that French was the language of universal human reason and had the power to civilize people who spoke it. This myth of the "clarté française" and the "mission civilisatrice" had a strong influence on various kinds of metalinguistic discourses that created the taken-for-granted representation of French as dominant language. It is the essential strategy of language dominance to establish the hierarchy of languages as if it were natural order of things. When French was obliged to yield the status of international language to English, there emerged the ideology of "Francophonie" which tried to defend its privilege against the monopoly of English, but the same ideology is also directed against minorities' claims for their own linguistic human right. It could be said that these discourses form a recursive prototype of language dominance whose variations are to be found in other shapes almost all over the world.

  12. The energetics of Titan's ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roboz, A.; Nagy, A. F.

    1994-02-01

    We have developed a comprehensive model to study the dynamics and energetics of the ionosphere of Titan. We solved the one-dimensional, time-dependent, coupled continuity and momentum equations for several ion species, together with single ion and electron energy equations, in order to calculate density, velocity, and temperature profiles. Calculations were carried out for several cases corresponding to different local times and configurations of the Titan-Saturn system. In our model the effects of horizontal magnetic fields were assumed to be negligible, except for their effect on reducing the electron and ion thermal conductivities and inhibiting vertical transport in the subram region. The ionospheric density peak was found to be at an altitude of about 1100 km, in accordance with earlier model calculations. The ionosphere is chemically controlled below an altitude of about 1500 km. Above this level, ion densities differ significantly from their chemical equilibrium values due to strong upward ion velocities. Heat is deposited in a narrow region around the ionospheric peak, resulting in temperature profiles increasing sharply and reaching nearly constant values of 800-1000 deg K for electrons and 300 deg K for ions in the topside, assuming conditions appropriate for the wake region. In the subram region magnetic correction factors make the electron heat conductivities negligible, resulting in electron temperatures increasing strongly with altitude and reaching values in the order of 5000 deg K at our upper boundary located at 2200 km. Ion chemical heating is found to play an important role in shaping the ion energy balance in Titan's ionosphere.

  13. The making of a French manager.

    PubMed

    Barsoux, J L; Lawrence, P

    1991-01-01

    France's recent successes make it more important than ever to understand what makes its managers tick. This year, France surpassed Japan and the U.K. in acquisitions of U.S. companies. And many French companies are world leaders, including Michelin and L'Oreal. According to the authors, who have studied the French model of management development, the system stands as a coherent whole. Its clear logic and rules provide unambiguous signals that shape managerial action. Thus French industry has a focus and sense of purpose that the rest of the world should not underestimate as a key to strong economic performance. In France, management is a "state of mind" rather than an interpersonally demanding exercise. It is managers' cleverness, not skills, that distinguishes them. And these managers are not simply born. They are molded through an elaborate education and induction into the managerial elite. Alumni of the grandes écoles dominate the upper echelons. These elite colleges have grueling entrance exams resembling Japan's "examination hell." Graduates automatically enter the tight-knit cadre circle--the managerial elite who enjoy the same social prestige as doctors or lawyers. French managers prefer to put things in writing, even informal interactions. They excel in quantitative expression, at ease with putting figures to proposals. Hierarchy in French companies is often literal--the head of L'Air Liquide works on the top floor, while the typing pool is in the basement.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Vowel aperture and syllable segmentation in French.

    PubMed

    Goslin, Jeremy; Frauenfelder, Ulrich H

    2008-01-01

    The theories of Pulgram (1970) suggest that if the vowel of a French syllable is open then it will induce syllable segmentation responses that result in the syllable being closed, and vice versa. After the empirical verification that our target French-speaking population was capable of distinguishing between mid-vowel aperture, we examined the relationship between vowel and syllable aperture in two segmentation experiments. Initial findings from a metalinguistic repetition task supported the hypothesis, revealing significant segmentation differences due to vowel aperture across a range of bi-syllabic stimuli. These findings were also supported in an additional online experiment, in which a fragment detection task revealed a syllabic cross-over interaction due to vowel aperture. Evidence from these experiments suggest that multiple, independent cues are used in French syllable segmentation, including vowel aperture.

  15. Future Perspectives of Biocybernetic Research in Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, M. F.; Thwaites, H. M.

    This paper describes the future perspectives of biocybernetic communication research applied to television, i.e., the measurement of the information impact of television on both individual human beings and groups in terms of energetic changes in the human body. A summary of the recent state of the art of biocybernetic research includes discussions…

  16. Dialect effects in speech perception: the role of vowel duration in Parisian French and Swiss French.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joanne L; Mondini, Michèle; Grosjean, François; Dommergues, Jean-Yves

    2011-12-01

    The current experiments examined how native Parisian French and native Swiss French listeners use vowel duration in perceiving the /[character: see text]/-/o/ contrast. In both Parisian and Swiss French /ol is longer than /[character: see text]/, but the difference is relatively large in Swiss French and quite small in Parisian French. In Experiment I we found a parallel effect in perception. For native listeners of both dialects, the perceived best exemplars of /o/ were longer than those of /[character: see text]/. However, there was a substantial difference in best-exemplar duration for /[character: see text]/ and /o/ for Swiss French listeners, but only a small difference in best-exemplar duration for Parisian French listeners. In Experiment 2 we found that this precise pattern depended not only on the native dialect of the listeners, but also on whether the stimuli being judged had the detailed acoustic characteristics of the native dialect. These findings indicate that listeners use fine-grained information in the speech signal in a dialect-specific manner when mapping the acoustic signal onto vowel categories of their language.

  17. An educational seismicity map for the French schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godey, Stéphanie; Line Nottin, Marie; Bossu, Rémy; Frobert, Laurent; Kamb, Linus

    2010-05-01

    Low hazard regions require specific communication. In such regions, the risk perception by the population is particularly low. The risk does not relate to concrete experiences or past events in personal's or family's memory. In mainland France, for example the last destructive earthquake occurred in 1909! We created an education seismicity map in partnership with the Fondation MAIF (a foundation created by a French insurance company) for a national audience which is being distributed in French junior high schools. It aims to make the young aware of the level of hazard in France by putting it in perspective with well-known earthquakes people remember. Of course, this includes recent earthquakes such as l'Aquila (Italy) or Boumerdes (Algeria) but also Lisbon event in 1755 mentioned by Voltaire in several of his books. Are also explained the difference between hazard and risk, what is a magnitude, a macroseismic intensity and the magnitude distribution of earthquakes. It benefited from feedbacks of numerous actors involved in education initiatives in France. This map was elaborated from the recent Euro-Med seismicity as described by the Euro-Med bulletin, where bulletins from 77 Euro-Med network operators are merged. It is a good example of how to use a scientific result for education purposes. It has been printed in paper copy (A0, encapsulated paper) and is available in electronic form at http://www.citizenseismology.org A few paper copies are still available and can be obtained on request. EMSC is currently looking for a partner to prepare and distribute a similar educational map in English.

  18. Computational design of fused heterocyclic energetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsyshevskiy, Roman; Pagoria, Philip; Batyrev, Iskander; Kuklja, Maija

    A continuous traditional search for effective energetic materials is often based on a trial and error approach. Understanding of fundamental correlations between the structure and sensitivity of the materials remains the main challenge for design of novel energetics due to the complexity of the behavior of energetic materials. State of the art methods of computational chemistry and solid state physics open new compelling opportunities in simulating and predicting a response of the energetic material to various external stimuli. Hence, theoretical and computational studies can be effectively used not only for an interpretation of sensitivity mechanisms of widely used explosives, but also for identifying criteria for material design prior to its synthesis and experimental characterization. We report here, how knowledge on thermal stability of recently synthesized materials of LLM series is used for design of novel fused heterocyclic energetic materials, including DNBTT (2,7-dinitro-4H,9H-bis([1, 2, 4"]triazolo)[1,5-b:1',5'-e][1, 2, 4, 5]tetrazine), compound with high thermal stability, which is on par or better than that of TATB. This research is supported by ONR (Grant N00014-12-1-0529), NSF XSEDE resources (Grant DMR-130077) and DOE NERSC resources (Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231).

  19. Do Students Share the Same Experience in an Online Language Exchange Programme?--The Chinese-French eTandem Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szilas, Jue Wang; Zhang, Ling; Berger, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the findings of an eTandem Chinese-French exchange course during two academic years, the year 2010-2011 when the course was not credited, and the year 2011-2012 when the course was credited in one university but not in the other. It focuses on the students' perspective about the language exchange experience. The participants…

  20. The Power of "Can Do" Statements: Teachers' Perceptions of CEFR-Informed Instruction in French as a Second Language Classrooms in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faez, Farahnaz; Majhanovich, Suzanne; Taylor, Shelley; Smith, Maureen; Crowley, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    This article reports on French as a second language (FSL) teachers' perceptions of using the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR)-informed instruction (action-oriented instruction focusing on language use) in FSL classrooms in Ontario. In particular, this paper focuses on teachers' perspectives of the strengths and challenges of providing…

  1. Listening to French and the Serial Position Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrott, Carl L.

    This study sought to determine the extent of the serial position effect in listening to French and to specify the relationship between problem areas in listening to French and the position effect. The study addressed three hypotheses relative to the serial position effect and listening to French: (1) Was there a significant difference between the…

  2. French-Algonquian Interaction in Canada: A Michif Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the language contact situation between Algonquian languages and French in Canada. Michif, a French-Plains Cree mixed language, is used as a case study for linguistic results of language contact. The paper describes the phonological, morphological, and syntactic conflict sites between the grammars of Plains Cree and French, as…

  3. French: An Accommodating Language? = Le Francais: Langue D'Accueil?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sue, Ed.

    This bilingual book considers recent developments in French attitudes towards language purism, borrowing, and the incursion of English. The book begins with an essay by French sociolinguist Henriette Walter, and most of the following essays are direct responses to her ideas. All chapters are provided in French and English. Chapter titles include…

  4. Teaching French to Franco-Americans: A Controversial Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickel, Raymond A.

    1965-01-01

    A study of bilingualism among third-generation Americans of French-Canadian extraction briefly examines their linguistic superiority in French over monolingual students and appraises the appropriate psychological approaches to teaching this special group. The article suggests that an "educated standard French" be presented as an alternative to…

  5. View looking Eastnortheast at French Creek trestle, which appears at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking Eastnortheast at French Creek trestle, which appears at left center of frame. Bridge in foreground is west entrance to abandoned Phoenix iron works. - Pennsylvania Railroad, French Creek Trestle, Spanning French Creek, north of Paradise Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  6. La Culture Canadienne-Francaise = French Canadian Culture. Interim Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussiere, Adrien L., Ed.

    Materials about the culture specific to French-speaking people in Canada are presented as part of the cultural component of the prescribed second language curriculum. The materials follow the suggested sequence of studying the "French Fact" in Alberta in grade 7, the study of French settlements in Canada in grade 8, and in-depth study of Quebec…

  7. STUDIES OF THE LIFE WORK OF FOUR CONTEMPORARY FRENCH AUTHORS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NOSTRAND, HOWARD L.

    REPORTED ARE ANALYSES OF THE WORKS OF FOUR CONTEMPORARY FRENCH AUTHORS (RENE MARILL ALBERES, YVES BONNEFOY, MICHEL BUTOR, AND JEAN BRULLER UNDER THE PSEUDONYM VERCORS). THE ANALYSES WERE PREPARED IN FRENCH BY THE INDIVIDUAL AUTHORS FOR THE FRENCH CULTURE RESEARCH PROJECT, A LANGUAGE RESEARCH EFFORT. THE STUDIES ILLUSTRATE THE AUTHORS' THEMES IN…

  8. Guided Learners of French and the Acquisition of Emphatic Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleeman, Petra

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the acquisition and use of emphatic constructions by advanced guided learners of French, in particular (Dutch) first grade university students of French are studied and compared to the acquisition and use of emphatic constructions by (Dutch) secondary school pupils learning French in a purely institutional situation. It is shown that…

  9. Discrimination of English and French Orthographic Patterns by Biliterate Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jared, Debra; Cormier, Pierre; Levy, Betty Ann; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether young English-French biliterate children can distinguish between English and French orthographic patterns. Children in French immersion programs were asked to play a dictionary game when they were in Grade 2 and again when they were in Grade 3. They were shown pseudowords that contained either an English spelling pattern or…

  10. 7 CFR 993.6 - Non-French prunes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-French prunes. 993.6 Section 993.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.6 Non-French prunes. Non-French prunes means prunes...

  11. 7 CFR 993.6 - Non-French prunes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Non-French prunes. 993.6 Section 993.6 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.6 Non-French prunes. Non-French prunes means prunes commonly..., Giant, and Hungarian (Gross), produced from such varieties of plums. This definition may be modified...

  12. Student Engagement in an Ottawa French Immersion High School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makropoulos, Josee

    2010-01-01

    This article makes a contribution to the field of French immersion studies by examining the engagement realities of two groups of students in an Ottawa French immersion high school program: those with and without a parent who makes them eligible for minority French language instruction as outlined by Section 23 of the "Canadian Charter of Rights…

  13. French Theory vs. Australian Praxis: The Sham in Tertiary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, Philip

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the primary mode of expression of a significant proportion of contemporary literary and historical criticism (the stock in trade of Australian Arts faculties) is the French language. Emphasizes that knowledge of French prejudices and inclinations can only be gained by learning French. (two references) (Author/CK)

  14. Un cours avance de francais: Le francais tel qu'on le parle (An Advanced Course in French: Colloquial French)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creusot, Andre

    1971-01-01

    Second of three articles on an advanced French program sponsored by the Language Department of the State University of Mons, Belgium. Emphasis is on the phonology, lexicology, and syntax of spoken French. (DS)

  15. Core French: A Selected Annotated Resource List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, J. A.; Mollica, Anthony

    1985-01-01

    This is an annotated bibliography of: readers, workbooks, conversation books, cultural sources and readings, flash cards, duplicating or line masters, and media kits submitted by publishers as applicable to French second language instruction from kindergarten through senior high school levels. (MSE)

  16. Experiment in French Language Instruction. Second Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antioch Coll., Yellow Springs, OH.

    This report evaluates the second year of Antioch College's experimental French I course, which features the use of student assistants and acetate audiovisual aids for laboratory work. The bulk of the report consists of appendixes that contain most of the data on both experimental and control groups. Tables include information on group…

  17. Vocabulary Breadth in French L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Annabelle

    2008-01-01

    Vocabulary is one of the building blocks of language and is a necessary component of learners' development. This paper aims to describe the development of the L2 lexicon from the first year of learning French as a foreign language at school to the last year of undergraduate studies at university by setting out what learners know and how this…

  18. The French Lesson: The Right to Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Paul

    1975-01-01

    Noting that "career education is only the latest in the grand parade of American learning fads," the author points out that despite the proliferation of technology in France and the habit of accepting American fads, the French still consider education to have three aims--for work, for public life, for private life. (JT)

  19. Studies in French Grammar and Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benguerel, Andre-Pierre; Grundstrom, Allan W.

    The monograph contains two papers. The first presents a generative grammar for verbal forms in French. It consists of an ordered set of rewrite rules and a set of tables. It generates all existing verbal forms without generating any non-existing ones. The departure from an ordinary generative grammar lies in the use of a tabular form for…

  20. [Construction of the French concept of spirituality].

    PubMed

    Tardan-Masquelier, Ysé

    2015-10-01

    "Laïcité"--the French concept of secularity--holds a central position in contemporary debates. The subject here is a reminder of how this concept was introduced in France, how it has guided the secularization process in institutions and on what levels it is now called into question. PMID:26461212

  1. French as a Second Language Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaruk, Walter A.; And Others

    The handbook is a service publication for teachers of French as a second language. Each of five articles addresses a specific issue. "Teaching and Learning Strategies" (Walter A. Lazaruk) reviews the four skills approach used in second language learning. A communication model of teaching, used alongside study of the language itself, is…

  2. Capital Punishment for Juveniles: Albert French's "Billy."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darlington, Sonja

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes Albert French's novel "Billy" and its exploration of the United States' use of capital punishment for young criminals. Addresses the underlying causes of Billy's execution. Discusses specific themes and issues that teachers can use for classroom discussions of capital punishment. (RS)

  3. Commonalities of French and Mandarin Inalienable Possession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliffer, Michael D.

    1996-01-01

    Examines inalienable possession in French and Mandarin with the aim of bringing out typological affinities. In particular, two unresolved issues are re-examined: Haiman's Iconicity Hypothesis and the question of the protypical semantic categories of iposs. (32 references) (Author/CK)

  4. 21 CFR 169.115 - French dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... emulsified viscous fluid food prepared from vegetable oil(s) and one or both of the acidifying ingredients... this section may also be used. The vegetable oil(s) used may contain an optional crystallization... vegetable oil. French dressing may be mixed and packed in an atmosphere in which air is replaced in whole...

  5. 21 CFR 169.115 - French dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... emulsified viscous fluid food prepared from vegetable oil(s) and one or both of the acidifying ingredients... this section may also be used. The vegetable oil(s) used may contain an optional crystallization... vegetable oil. French dressing may be mixed and packed in an atmosphere in which air is replaced in whole...

  6. 21 CFR 169.115 - French dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... emulsified viscous fluid food prepared from vegetable oil(s) and one or both of the acidifying ingredients... this section may also be used. The vegetable oil(s) used may contain an optional crystallization... vegetable oil. French dressing may be mixed and packed in an atmosphere in which air is replaced in whole...

  7. 21 CFR 169.115 - French dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... emulsified viscous fluid food prepared from vegetable oil(s) and one or both of the acidifying ingredients... this section may also be used. The vegetable oil(s) used may contain an optional crystallization... vegetable oil. French dressing may be mixed and packed in an atmosphere in which air is replaced in whole...

  8. 21 CFR 169.115 - French dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... emulsified viscous fluid food prepared from vegetable oil(s) and one or both of the acidifying ingredients... this section may also be used. The vegetable oil(s) used may contain an optional crystallization... vegetable oil. French dressing may be mixed and packed in an atmosphere in which air is replaced in whole...

  9. Libraries of La Pocatiere: French Immersion Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia, S.

    2005-01-01

    Many times summer language immersion administrators and instructors overlook the rich collections housed in various town libraries. Students of French immersion programs have an opportunity to utilize local libraries. This essay describes the facilities and services of five libraries in La Pocatiere, Quebec. A series of interviews of librarians…

  10. French Women in Physics: Status and Actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, C.; Pépin, A.; Ducloy, M.; Giacobino, E.; Leduc, M.

    2009-04-01

    We present statistics on the underrepresentation of females entering scientific studies and on the persistence of a glass ceiling for women physicists—and female scientists in general—in France. We also examine actions taken by French research institutions, associations, companies, and professional societies since 2005 to improve these situations.

  11. [French by naturalization: a documentary file].

    PubMed

    Guillon, M

    1988-01-01

    A demographic analysis of the population acquiring nationality in France by naturalization or other means is presented. Data are from French censuses, including the 1982 census. Factors considered include trends since 1928 in the size of this population and its characteristics, including nationality of origin, age and sex distribution, residence, and socio-professional status.

  12. Code-Convergent Borrowing in Louisiana French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Becky

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes bilingual lexemes and morphemes of English-origin loanwords from a Louisiana corpus of 22 French/English speakers. Data suggest that examining borrowing beyond the word level reveals a highly complex interplay of often competing and overlapping grammars. (Author/VWL)

  13. French and English Together: An "Additive" Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltshire, Jessica; Harbon, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of the "additive" experience of a bilingual French-English curriculum at Killarney Heights Public School in New South Wales. Predictably, the well-supported "additive" nature of the languages program model elicited positive reactions regarding educational success. The paper also explores issues for administration,…

  14. Syntactic Categorization in French-Learning Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Rushen; Melancon, Andreane

    2010-01-01

    Recent work showed that infants recognize and store function words starting from the age of 6-8 months. Using a visual fixation procedure, the present study tested whether French-learning 14-month-olds have the knowledge of syntactic categories of determiners and pronouns, respectively, and whether they can use these function words for…

  15. Problems with French-English Business Dictionaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartman, Max D.

    An analysis of two French-English business dictionaries, a 1989 revised edition and a 1990 edition, looks at a number of weaknesses in the resources' design and content. First, problems are found in transcriptions of pronunciation that do not reflect actual usage when it differs from convention and in lack of attention to pronunciation of words…

  16. Using Conventional Sequences in L2 French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsberg, Fanny

    2010-01-01

    By means of a phraseological identification method, this study provides a general description of the use of conventional sequences (CSs) in interviews at four different levels of spoken L2 French as well as in interviews with native speakers. Use of conventional sequences is studied with regard to overall quantity, category distribution and type…

  17. [Leishmania braziliensis Vianna, 1911 in French Guiana].

    PubMed

    Garin, J P; Piens, M A; Pratlong, F; Rioux, J A

    1989-01-01

    A new case of cutaneous Leishmaniasis to L. braziliensis Vianna, 1911, contracted in French Guyana is reported. The parasite, isolated in culture, is identified by enzymatic typing (13 zymoden). The identified zymodem is zymodem MON-43. It is the same of the WHO reference strain L. braziliensis s. st.

  18. A French Vocabulary Tutor for the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labrie, Gilles

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a project to design and implement a small French vocabulary tutor for the World Wide Web. Highlights salient features and design of the tutor and focuses on two variants of a module on technology-related vocabulary that were created using very straightforward html code and JavaScript. (Author/VWL)

  19. Le Francais Courant: Part V, French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Instructional objectives of the Dade County Public Schools Quinmester Program in French for use with "Le Francais Courant: Part 5" focus on the development of mastery of the basic numbering system and other grammatical structures. Structures include the formation of the present tense of the irregular verbs "vouloir,""pouvoir," and "venir,"…

  20. Le Francais Moderne: Part I, French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Instructional objectives of the Dade County Public Schools Quinmester Program in French for use with "Le Francais Moderne: Part 1" focus on the development of vocabulary and mastery of grammatical structures. The formation of the passe compose with "avoir," object pronouns, the present tense of regular "-ir" verbs, and the irregular verbs…

  1. In the French Body. FIPSE Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Univ., Boston.

    This report describes an instructional material development project designed to promote a more holistic concept of second language instruction, embracing nonverbal as well as verbal communication. Initially designed for French instruction and later produced for German, the project had as a concrete goal to produce a distributable version of a…

  2. Foreign Language Workshop on French Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Sue, Ed.; And Others

    A compilation of French cultural units for use in secondary school language classes is presented in this text. Units include: (1) "Les mots et leur implication culturelle," (2) "Le telephone--une capsule culturelle," (3) "Le repas," (4) "La femme francaise 1972," (5) "Les Parents," (6) "Religion in France," (7) "La presse francaise," (8) "Les…

  3. L'enseignement du francais au Quebec (The Teaching of French in Quebec)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mear-Crine, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    This article reviews the situation of the instruction of French in Quebec, in terms of the role of French and attitudes toward standard and non-standard varieties of French, the acquisition of French by native French speakers. Bidialectal instruction is suggested as one way of dealing with non-standard varieties. (Text is in French.) (CLK)

  4. Sol-gel processing of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Tillotson, T.M.; Hrubesh, L.H.; Fox, G.L.; Simpson, R.L.; Lee, R.W.; Swansiger, R.W.; Simpson, L.R.

    1997-08-18

    As part of a new materials effort, we are exploring the use of sol- gel chemistry to manufacture energetic materials. Traditional manufacturing of energetic materials involves processing of granular solids. One application is the production of detonators where powders of energetic material and a binder are typically mixed and compacted at high pressure to make pellets. Performance properties are strongly dependent on particle size distribution, surface area of its constituents, homogeneity of the mix, and void volume. The goal is to produce detonators with fast energy release rate the are insensitive to unintended initiation. In this paper, we report results of our early work in this field of research, including the preparation of detonators from xerogel molding powders and aerogels, comparing the material properties with present state-of-the-art technology.

  5. Laser Ignition of Energetic Materials Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devries, Nora M.; Oreilly, John J.; Forch, Brad E.

    1993-11-01

    Lasers inherently possess many desirable attributes making them excellent igniters for a wide range of energetic materials such as pyrotechnics, explosives, and gun propellants. Lasers can be made very small, have modest powereD requirements, are invulnerable to external stimuli, are very reliable, and can deliver radiative energy to remote locations through optical fibers. Although the concept of using lasers for the initiation of energetic materials is not new, successful integration of laser technology into military systems has the potential to provide significant benefits. In order to efficiently expedite the evolution of the laser ignition technology for military applications, it was desirable to coordinate the effort with the JANNAF combustion community. The laser ignition of Energetic Materials Workshop was originated by Brad Forch, Austin Barrows, Richard Beyer and Arthur Cohen of the Army Research Laboratory (ARL).

  6. Energetic particle pressure in intense ESP events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lario, D.; Decker, R. B.; Roelof, E. C.; Viñas, A.-F.

    2015-09-01

    We study three intense energetic storm particle (ESP) events in which the energetic particle pressure PEP exceeded both the pressure of the background thermal plasma Pth and the pressure of the magnetic field PB. The region upstream of the interplanetary shocks associated with these events was characterized by a depression of the magnetic field strength coincident with the increase of the energetic particle intensities and, when plasma measurements were available, a depleted solar wind density. The general feature of cosmic-ray mediated shocks such as the deceleration of the upstream background medium into which the shock propagates is generally observed. However, for those shocks where plasma parameters are available, pressure balance is not maintained either upstream of or across the shock, which may result from the fact that PEP is not included in the calculation of the shock parameters.

  7. Reapplication of energetic materials at fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.; Sinquefield, S.; Huey, S.; Lipkin, J.; Shah, D.; Ross, J.; Sclippa, G.; Davis, K.

    1995-05-01

    This investigation addresses the combustion-related aspects of the reapplication of energetic materials as fuels in boilers as an economically viable and environmentally acceptable use of excess energetic materials. The economics of this approach indicate that the revenues from power generation and chemical recovery approximately equal the costs of boiler modification and changes in operation. The primary tradeoff is the cost of desensitizing the fuels against the cost of open burn/open detonation (OB/OD) or other disposal techniques. Two principal combustion-related obstacles to the use of energetic-material-derived fuels are NO{sub x} generation and the behavior of metals. NO{sub x} measurements obtained in this investigation indicate that the nitrated components (nitrocellulose, nitroglycerin, etc.) of energetic materials decompose with NO{sub x} as the primary product. This can lead to high uncontrolled NO{sub x} levels (as high as 2600 ppM on a 3% O{sub 2} basis for a 5% blend of energetic material in the fuel). NO{sub x} levels are sensitive to local stoichiometry and temperature. The observed trends resemble those common during the combustion of other nitrogen containing fuels. Implications for NO{sub x} control strategies are discussed. The behavior of inorganic components in energetic materials tested in this investigation could lead to boiler maintenance problems such as deposition, grate failure, and bed agglomeration. The root cause of the problem is the potentially extreme temperature generated during metal combustion. Implications for furnace selection and operation are discussed.

  8. Energetic Oxygen in the Terestrial Exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shizgal, B.; Sospedra-Alfonso, R.; Yau, A.

    2012-04-01

    There are numerous processes in the terrestrial atmosphere which involve the production of translationally energetic atoms with energies considerably above thermal energies. These "hot" atoms can play an important role in enhanced reaction rates, nonthermal emissions, and the enhanced nonthermal escape of atmospheric species. Such nonthermal escape mechanisms play an important role in the evolution of the atmosphere of Earth [1]. The dissociative recombination of O2+, that is O2+ + e-→ O* + O*, produces energetic oxygen atoms in the terrestrial exosphere in a range of altitudes where the production of hot atoms is greatest and a substantial coronae of hot oxygen is expected [2, 3]. These energetic oxygen atoms can transfer their energy to H and D and create additional energetic populations of H and D. The existence of extended corona of energetic H and O in the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets is now well established both from theoretical models and observations. There is a continued interest in a better understanding of the physics of the processes that produce and maintain these steady state nonequilibrium distributions. In the rarefied atmosphere of the high altitude portions of these planetary atmospheres, collisional relaxation of nonthermal distributions is slow. The extent of the departure from equilibrium distributions depends on the strengths of the processes that perturb the distributions from equilibrium and the collisional relaxation processes that restore the distributions to Maxwellians. If there is a significant population of energetic atoms with speeds in excess of the escape speed of the planet, these extended coronae can have an important effect on the rate of loss of atmospheric species, both directly and indirectly. This paper examines the altitude dependence of the nonequilibrium energetic oxygen distribution function with a Boltzmann equation driven by the energetic oxygen source term owing to dissociative recombination. The solution

  9. EDITORIAL: Energetic particles in magnetic confinement systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toi, K.

    2006-10-01

    Energetic alpha particle physics plays an obviously crucial role in burning fusion plasmas. Good confinement of them is required to sustain fusion burn and to avoid damage of the first wall. Because of this importance for nuclear fusion research, Y. Kolesnichenko and the late D. Sigmar initiated a series of IAEA technical (committee) meetings (TCM, since the 8th meeting TM) in order to exchange information on the behaviour of energetic particles in magnetic confinement devices. The role of the TMs has become increasingly important since burning plasma projects such as ITER are in preparation. After every TM, invited speakers are encouraged to publish an adapted and extended version of their contributions to the meeting as an article in a special issue of Nuclear Fusion. An exception was the 8th TM the articles of which were published in a special issue of Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion (2004 46 S1-118). These special issues attract much interest in the subject. The 9th IAEA TM of this series was held in Takayama, Japan, 9-11 November 2005, and 53 papers including 16 invited talks were presented. A total of 11 papers based on these invited talks are included in this special issue of Nuclear Fusion and are preceded by a conference summary. Experimental results of energetic ion driven global instabilities such as Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs), energetic particle modes (EPMs) and fishbone instabilities were presented from several tokamaks (JET, JT-60U, DIII-D and ASDEX Upgrade), helical/stellarator devices (LHD and CHS) and spherical tori (NSTX and MAST). Experimental studies from JET and T-10 tokamaks on the interaction of ion cyclotron waves with energetic ions and runaway electrons were also presented. Theoretical works on AEs, EPMs and nonlinear phenomena induced by energetic particles were presented and compared with experimental data. Extensive numerical codes have been developed and applied to obtain predictions of energetic particle behaviour in future ITER

  10. Measurements of Aluminum Combustion in Energetic Formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. Scott; Pangilinan, G. I.

    2004-07-01

    Aluminum combustion plays an important role in tailoring energy release rates of energetic materials. The intimate mixing between Al and oxidizers from the formulation itself or from the surrounding atmosphere is key to effecting combustion. We infer combustion processes in detonated aluminized energetic formulations PBXIH-135 and PBXN-111 in air using time-resolved spectroscopy. We recorded spectral emissions from Al and AlO emanating from the surface of each sample for up to 100 μs. We observe differences in metal combustion between the oxidizer deficient PBXIH-135 and the oxygen-rich PBXN-111. We will discuss phases of combustion that each formulation exhibits and possible reaction processes.

  11. The Impact of L2 Dialect on Learning French Vowels: Native English Speakers Learning Quebecois and European French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Wendy; Smith, Laura Catharine

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how a second language (L2) dialect affects how accurately the L2 is perceived and produced. Specifically, the study examined differences between the production and perception of French vowels /i/, /y/, and /u/ by learners of either Quebec French (QF) or European French (EF). These vowels differ across the two varieties, both…

  12. Switches to English during French Service Encounters: Relationships with L2 French Speakers' Willingness to Communicate and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaughton, Stephanie; McDonough, Kim

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated second language (L2) French speakers' service encounters in the multilingual setting of Montreal, specifically whether switches to English during French service encounters were related to L2 speakers' willingness to communicate or motivation. Over a two-week period, 17 French L2 speakers in Montreal submitted…

  13. Effectiveness of a Heritage Educational Program for the Acquisition of Oral and Written French and Tahitian in French Polynesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nocus, Isabelle; Guimard, Philippe; Vernaudon, Jacques; Paia, Mirose; Cosnefroy, Olivier; Florin, Agnes

    2012-01-01

    The research examines the effects of a bilingual pedagogical program (French/Tahitian) on the acquisition of oral and written French as well as the Tahitian language itself in primary schools in French Polynesia. 125 children divided into an experimental group (partially schooled in Tahitian for 300 min per week) and a control group (schooled in…

  14. Innovative power conversion system for the French SFR prototype, ASTRID

    SciTech Connect

    Cachon, L.; Biscarrat, C.; Morin, F.; Haubensack, D.; Rigal, E.; Moro, I.; Baque, F.; Madeleine, S.; Rodriguez, G.; Laffont, G.

    2012-07-01

    In the framework of the French Act of 28 June 2006 about nuclear materials and waste management, the prototype ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration), foreseen in operation by the 20's, will have to demonstrate not only the minor actinide transmutation capability, but also the progress made in Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) technology on an industrial scale, by qualifying innovative options. Some of these options still require improvements, especially in the field of operability and safety. In fact, one of the main issues with the standard steam/water Power Conversion System (PCS) of SFR is the fast and energetic chemical reaction between water and sodium, which could occur in steam generators in case of tube failure. To manage the sodium/water reaction, one way consists in minimizing the impact of such event: hence studies are carried out on steam generator design, improvement of the physical knowledge of this phenomenon, development of numerical simulation to predict the reaction onset and consequences, and associated detection improvement. On the other hand, the other way consists in eliminating sodium/water reaction. In this frame, the CEA contribution to the feasibility evaluation of an alternative innovative PCS (replacing steam/water by 180 bar pressurised nitrogen) is focused on the following main topics: - The parametric study leading to nitrogen selection: the thermodynamic cycle efficiency optimisation on Brayton cycles is performed with several gases at different pressures. - The design of innovative compact heat exchangers for the gas loop: here the key points are the nuclear codification associated with inspection capability, the innovative welding process and the thermal-hydraulic and thermal-mechanic optimisations. After a general introduction of the ASTRID project, this paper presents in detail these different feasibility studies being led on the innovative gas PCS for an SFR. (authors)

  15. Winter energetics of female Indiana bats Myotis sodalis.

    PubMed

    Day, Katie M; Tomasi, Thomas E

    2014-01-01

    Understanding physiological limits and environmental optima is critical to developing protection strategies for endangered and threatened species. One theory to explain the decline in endangered Indiana bat Myotis sodalis populations involves increasing cave temperatures in winter hibernacula. Altered cave temperatures can raise metabolism and cause more arousals in torpid bats, both of which use more fat reserves. In addition, fluctuations in cave temperatures may cause additional arousals. Our objectives were to quantify the effect of temperature and fluctuations thereof on torpid metabolism and arousal frequency in this species. Female Indiana bats (n=36) were collected from caves just before hibernation, maintained in an environmental chamber that simulated hibernacula conditions, and had skin temperature recorded every 30 min throughout the winter. One environmental chamber containing bats (n=12) was sequentially set at 8°, 6°, and 4°C over the winter. The second chamber containing bats (n=12) experienced the same mean temperatures, but temperature fluctuated ±2°C on a regular basis. Torpor bouts were longest at 4°C and were not affected by temperature fluctuations. However, the temperature fluctuations appeared to cause longer arousals. Other bats (n=12) were individually placed in metabolic chambers to calculate oxygen consumption during torpor and during arousals. Torpid metabolism was affected by temperature; at 9°C, it was higher than at 7° or 5°C. Metabolism during arousals was not different among temperature treatments, but rates were almost 200 times higher than torpid metabolic rates. We calculated a winter energy budget and, from the energetic perspective, determined an optimum hibernation temperature (3°-6°C) for female Indiana bats. These findings suggest that hibernacula that provide these conditions deserve extra protection, although other factors in addition to energetics may play a role in temperature preferences. PMID:24457921

  16. Chapter 4: Measuring Energetics of Biological Processes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Measurement of the energetics of biological processes is the key component in understanding the thermodynamic responses of homoeothermic animals to the environment. For these animals to achieve body temperature control, they must adapt to thermal-environmental conditions and variations caused by wea...

  17. Energetic electrons generated during solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Gottfried

    2015-12-01

    > electrons are accelerated up to energies beyond 30 keV is one of the open questions in solar physics. A flare is considered as the manifestation of magnetic reconnection in the solar corona. Which mechanisms lead to the production of energetic electrons in the magnetic reconnection region is discussed in this paper. Two of them are described in more detail.

  18. Major minority: energetic particles in fusion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breizman, B. N.; Sharapov, S. E.

    2011-05-01

    This paper describes advances made in the field of energetic-particle physics since the topical review of Alfvén eigenmode observations in toroidal plasmas (Wong 1999 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 41 R1-R56). The development of plasma confinement scenarios with reversed magnetic shear and significant population of energetic particles, and the development of novel energetic-particle diagnostics were the main milestones in the past decade, and these are the main experimental subjects of this review. The theory of Alfvén cascade eigenmodes in reversed-shear tokamaks and its use in magnetohydrodynamic spectroscopy are presented. Based on experimental observations and nonlinear theory of energetic-particle instabilities in the near-threshold regime, the frequency-sweeping events for spontaneously formed phase-space holes and clumps and the evolution of the fishbone oscillations are described. The multi-mode scenarios of enhanced particle transport are discussed and a brief summary is given of several engaging research topics that are beyond the authors' direct involvement.

  19. The Energetic Brain: Understanding and Managing ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Cecil R.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Harrison, Judith R.

    2012-01-01

    ADHD affects millions of people-some 3 to 5% of the general population. Written by a neuroscientist who has studied ADHD, a clinician who has diagnosed and treated it for 30 years, and a special educator who sees it daily, "The Energetic Brain" provides the latest information from neuroscience on how the ADHD brain works and shows how to harness…

  20. Physics with energetic radioactive ion beams

    SciTech Connect

    Henning, W.F.

    1996-12-31

    Beams of short-lived, unstable nuclei have opened new dimensions in studies of nuclear structure and reactions. Such beams also provide key information on reactions that take place in our sun and other stars. Status and prospects of the physics with energetic radioactive beams are summarized.

  1. Global Energetics of Large Solar Eruptive Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Emslie, A. G.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Moore, C. S.; Share, G. H.; Shih, A. Y.; Vourlidas, A.; Welsch, B.

    2012-01-01

    We have evaluated the energetics of the larger solar eruptive events recorded with a variety of spacecraft instruments between February 2002 and December 2006. All of the energetically important components of the flares and of the accompanying coronal mass ejections and solar energetic particles have been evaluated as accurately as the observations allow. These components include the following : (1) the total energy in the high temperature plasma determined from the RHESSI thermal X-ray observations; (2) the total energies in accelerated electrons above 20 keV and ions above 1 MeV from RHESSI hard X-ray and gamma-ray observations, respectively; (3) the potential and kinetic energies of the CME from SOHO/LASCO observations; (4) the solar energetic particle (SEP) energy estimates from in situ measurements on ACE, GOES, and SOHO; (5) the total radiated energy from the SORCEITSI measurements where available, and otherwise from the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM). The results are assimilated and discussed relative to the probable amount of non potential magnetic energy estimated to be available in the flaring active regions from MDI line-of-sight magnetograms.

  2. Energetics of the Semiconductor-Electrolyte Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, John A.

    1983-01-01

    The use of semiconductors as electrodes for electrochemistry requires an understanding of both solid-state physics and electrochemistry, since phenomena associated with both disciplines are seen in semiconductor/electrolyte systems. The interfacial energetics of these systems are discussed. (JN)

  3. Error propagation in energetic carrying capacity models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Stafford, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation objectives derived from carrying capacity models have been used to inform management of landscapes for wildlife populations. Energetic carrying capacity models are particularly useful in conservation planning for wildlife; these models use estimates of food abundance and energetic requirements of wildlife to target conservation actions. We provide a general method for incorporating a foraging threshold (i.e., density of food at which foraging becomes unprofitable) when estimating food availability with energetic carrying capacity models. We use a hypothetical example to describe how past methods for adjustment of foraging thresholds biased results of energetic carrying capacity models in certain instances. Adjusting foraging thresholds at the patch level of the species of interest provides results consistent with ecological foraging theory. Presentation of two case studies suggest variation in bias which, in certain instances, created large errors in conservation objectives and may have led to inefficient allocation of limited resources. Our results also illustrate how small errors or biases in application of input parameters, when extrapolated to large spatial extents, propagate errors in conservation planning and can have negative implications for target populations.

  4. Cryocycling of energetic materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, S.; Nilson, R.; Handrock, J.; Revelli, V.; Weingarten, L.

    1997-08-01

    The Cryocycling of Energetic Materials Project was executed in the period FY`94-96 as a Life Cycle Engineering activity in the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on advanced conventional munitions. This MOU is an agreement between the Departments of Energy and Defense (Office of Munitions) that facilitates the development of technologies of mutual interest to the two Departments. The cryocycling process is a safe, environmentally friendly, and cost effective means of rubblizing bulk energetic materials so that they can be easily reused in a variety of new products. For this reason, cryocycling of excess solid energetic materials is one of the recycle/reuse strategies under study for demilitarized munitions in the Departments of Energy and Defense. These strategies seek to minimize the environmental damage associated with disposal of decommissioned energetic materials. In addition, they encourage technologies that can be used to derive economic benefit from reuse/reapplication of materials that would otherwise be treated as hazardous wastes. 45 refs., 38 figs., 7 tabs.

  5. Piezoelectric Ignition of Nanocomposite Energetic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Collins; Michelle Pantoya; Andreas A. Neuber; Michael Daniels; Daniel Prentice

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric initiators are a unique form of ignition for energetic material because the current and voltage are tied together by impact loading on the crystal. This study examines the ignition response of an energetic composite composed of aluminum and molybdenum trioxide nanopowders to the arc generated from a lead zirconate and lead titanate piezocrystal. The mechanical stimuli used to activate the piezocrystal varied to assess ignition voltage, power, and delay time of aluminum–molybdenum trioxide for a range of bulk powder densities. Results show a high dielectric strength leads to faster ignition times because of the higher voltage delivered to the energetic. Ignition delay is under 0.4 ms, which is faster than observed with thermal or shock ignition. Electric ignition of composite energetic materials is a strong function of interparticle connectivity, and thus the role of bulk density on electrostatic discharge ignition sensitivity is a focus of this study. Results show that the ignition delay times are dependent on the powder bulk density with an optimum bulk density of 50%. Packing fractions and electrical conductivity were analyzed and aid in explaining the resulting ignition behavior as a function of bulk density.

  6. The French language virtual medical university.

    PubMed

    Morin, A; Benhamou, A C; Spector, M; Bonnin, A; Debry, C

    2004-01-01

    The work program of the French Language Virtual Medical University started about 2 years ago, and entered into a real active phase of development and implementation in 2002. Various national programs and organizational initiatives should accelerate and facilitate further appropriation of modem pedagogical approaches by knowledge providers and all users of the FSVMU, so as to advance on the way of virtual education. The French Language Virtual Medical University under the auspices of both the National Conference of Deans of Medical Schools and the International Conference of Deans of French-Speaking Medical Schools has been developed to create a major Internet portal for French-speaking distance medical learning and teaching. This construct should be representative of all medical schools in France and French-speaking countries. Contents will also be translated into English, Spanish and Arabic. All medical disciplines with their various levels of teaching are to be included. Cross-related fields are also going to be present in order to offer full range programs. The latter are intended to provide both initial and continuing education for medical students as well as all other categories of health professionals and medical and scientific research workers. To develop the appropriate technology and make such a portal, on one hand correspond to the specific educational requirements and proper training for health professionals, and on the other hand provide a general access to e-learning in all schools of medicine; in keeping with such goals, the following approaches should be stressed upon. To build a virtual space where individual patients, their families, patient associations as well as the general public, can obtain medical information of good quality for the purposes of both education and prevention. Providing such categories with reliable and validated sources of information, and offering an ethical basis for the increasing practice of e-medicine, represent in today

  7. Mitochondria, Energetics, Epigenetics, and Cellular Responses to Stress

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, Kimberly; Worth, Leroy; Haugen, Astrid C.; Meyer, Joel N.; Domann, Frederick E.; Van Houten, Bennett; Mostoslavsky, Raul; Bultman, Scott J.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Begley, Thomas J.; Sobol, Robert W.; Hirschey, Matthew D.; Ideker, Trey; Santos, Janine H.; Copeland, William C.; Tice, Raymond R.; Balshaw, David M.; Tyson, Frederick L.

    2014-01-01

    environmental stressors. Citation: Shaughnessy DT, McAllister K, Worth L, Haugen AC, Meyer JN, Domann FE, Van Houten B, Mostoslavsky R, Bultman SJ, Baccarelli AA, Begley TJ, Sobol RW, Hirschey MD, Ideker T, Santos JH, Copeland WC, Tice RR, Balshaw DM, Tyson FL. 2014. Mitochondria, energetics, epigenetics, and cellular responses to stress. Environ Health Perspect 122:1271–1278; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408418 PMID:25127496

  8. Energetic ions upstream of the earth's bow shock during an energetic storm particle event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholer, M.; Ipavich, F. M.

    1983-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of low-energy protons and alpha particles from ISEE 3 far upstream and from ISEE 1 close to the earth's bow shock during the passage of an interplanetary shock wave with its associated energetic storm particles are presented. Intensities, spectra, and anisotropies of the energetic storm particles are modified due to the interaction of these particles with the earth's bow shock. An intensity spike observed at ISEE 1 during the passage of the interplanetary shock is interpreted as being due to postacceleration of energetic storm particles at the bow shock by the first-order Fermi mechanism. The spikes observed at ISEE 1 after the passage of the interplanetary shock are most probably due to reflection of the energetic storm particles at the bow shock.

  9. Enforced Layer-by-Layer Stacking of Energetic Salts towards High-Performance Insensitive Energetic Materials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaheng; Mitchell, Lauren A; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2015-08-26

    Development of modern high-performance insensitive energetic materials is significant because of the increasing demands for both military and civilian applications. Here we propose a rapid and facile strategy called the "layer hydrogen bonding pairing approach" to organize energetic molecules via layer-by-layer stacking, which grants access to tunable energetic materials with targeted properties. Using this strategy, an unusual energetic salt, hydroxylammonium 4-amino-furazan-3-yl-tetrazol-1-olate, with good detonation performances and excellent sensitivities, was designed, synthesized, and fully characterized. In addition, the expected unique layer-by-layer structure with a high crystal packing coefficient was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Calculations indicate that the layer-stacking structure of this material can absorb the mechanical stimuli-induced kinetic energy by converting it to layer sliding, which results in low sensitivity.

  10. French Pro/Am collaborations in exoplanet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santerne, A.; Moutou, C.; Vanhuysse, M.; Bouchy, F.; Buil, C.; Cochard, F.; Thizy, O.; Martinez, P.; Desnoux, V.; Pujol, M.; Colas, F.

    2011-10-01

    Amateur astronomers have access to huge telescope time and can reach photometric precision up to a few mmag as well as radial velocity precision up to ˜ 50m.s-1 on brightest stars. We will first present some results of french amateur astronomers in transit photometry and radial velocity and then, we will present an over-view of all the collaborations which can be done between professional and amateur astronomers in the competitive exoplanet domain, and especially the current collaboration between french Pro & Am astronomers which was used in publication in A&A. Finally, we will present a new internet wiki page which goal is to develop such collaboration in different countries.

  11. French language space science educational outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, I.; Masongsong, E. V.; Connors, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    Athabasca University's AUTUMNX ground-based magnetometer array to measure and report geomagnetic conditions in eastern Canada is located in the heart of French speaking Canada. Through the course of the project, we have had the privilege to partner with schools, universities, astronomy clubs and government agencies across Quebec, all of which operate primarily in French. To acknowledge and serve the needs of our research partners, we have endeavored to produce educational and outreach (EPO) material adapted for francophone audiences with the help of UCLA's department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences (EPSS). Not only will this provide greater understanding and appreciation of the geospace environment unique to Quebec and surrounding regions, it strengthens our ties with our francophone, first nations (native Americans) and Inuit partners, trailblazing new paths of research collaboration and inspiring future generations of researchers.

  12. [The First World War and French nurses].

    PubMed

    Darrow, Margaret H

    2014-06-01

    The First World War changed the place of women in French society. The major contribution they made in numerous sectors of activity is indisputable. However, the process of professionalisation was not really undertaken and the level of training given to the nurses, most of whom were volunteers, was very sketchy. The nurses seemed to be appreciated as much for their dedication as for their skills.

  13. Coming Out à l'oriental: Maghrebi-French performances of gender, sexuality, and religion.

    PubMed

    Provencher, Denis M

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I examine issues of gender, sexuality, and religion for North African (Maghrebi)-French men in contemporary France. I introduce performance artist-photographer "2Fik," one of the Maghrebi-French research subjects from my 2010 fieldwork, and examine excerpts of his particular coming out story to his parents and situate it in relation to recent work on homosexuality in the housing projects of France's banlieues [suburban neighborhoods] (Chaumont, 2009; Naït-Balk, 2009). The interviewee's narrative interweaves a variety of discourses and imagery that help distinguish his experience from those found in those publications as well as in recent scholarship on sexuality, citizenship, and transnationalism (Cruz-Malavé & Manalansan, 2000; Hayes, 2000; Leap & Boellstorff, 2004; Patton & Sánchez-Eppler, 2000; Provencher, 2007a). I argue that 2Fik's story and photography provide him a unique voice that draws on feminist and queer perspectives--informed by both reformed Islam and contemporary Western values--to "decline" (Rosello, 1998) and rewrite longstanding stereotypes of Islam in France. In fact, by acting as a "citizen-photographer" (Möller, 2010), 2Fik successfully declines stereotypes including the absent Muslim father, the veiled woman, and the symbolic violence associated with heteronormativity and traditional masculinity in Maghrebi-French families.

  14. Coming Out à l'oriental: Maghrebi-French performances of gender, sexuality, and religion.

    PubMed

    Provencher, Denis M

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I examine issues of gender, sexuality, and religion for North African (Maghrebi)-French men in contemporary France. I introduce performance artist-photographer "2Fik," one of the Maghrebi-French research subjects from my 2010 fieldwork, and examine excerpts of his particular coming out story to his parents and situate it in relation to recent work on homosexuality in the housing projects of France's banlieues [suburban neighborhoods] (Chaumont, 2009; Naït-Balk, 2009). The interviewee's narrative interweaves a variety of discourses and imagery that help distinguish his experience from those found in those publications as well as in recent scholarship on sexuality, citizenship, and transnationalism (Cruz-Malavé & Manalansan, 2000; Hayes, 2000; Leap & Boellstorff, 2004; Patton & Sánchez-Eppler, 2000; Provencher, 2007a). I argue that 2Fik's story and photography provide him a unique voice that draws on feminist and queer perspectives--informed by both reformed Islam and contemporary Western values--to "decline" (Rosello, 1998) and rewrite longstanding stereotypes of Islam in France. In fact, by acting as a "citizen-photographer" (Möller, 2010), 2Fik successfully declines stereotypes including the absent Muslim father, the veiled woman, and the symbolic violence associated with heteronormativity and traditional masculinity in Maghrebi-French families. PMID:21740212

  15. Spectators' identification with French sports teams: a French adaptation of the sport spectator identification scale.

    PubMed

    Bernache-Assollant, Iouri; Bouchet, Patrick; Lacassagne, Marie-Françoise

    2007-02-01

    Due to the works of Wann and colleagues, spectators' identification with teams has taken on a central role in the study of sports spectators' thought and behavior. However, no research in this area has measured identification with sports teams in the French context. Two studies attempted to develop a valid and reliable French version of the Sport Spectator Identification Scale (SSIS) developed by Wann and Branscombe in 1993 to measure team identification. In Study 1, 200 physical education students completed a French translation of the SSIS and several questions concerning their involvement, investment, and evaluation of the team's future performance. Results showed that the French translation of the SSIS is a reliable and one-dimensional instrument: strong relationships were found between identification with professional French teams and these variables. In Study 2, 143 physical education students completed the SSIS with a National sport team as the target team. Results confirmed the psychometric properties of the scale and indicated that persons who strongly identify with the National soccer team reported more involvement with the team and were more optimistic about future performances than persons low in identification.

  16. Social reintegration of traumatic brain-injured: the French experience.

    PubMed

    Truelle, J-L; Wild, K Von; Onillon, M; Montreuil, M

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) may lead to specific handicap, often hidden, mainly due to cognitive and behavioural sequelae. Social re-entry is a long-term, fluctuant and precarious process. The French experience will be illustrated by 6 initiatives answering to 6 challenges to do with TBI specificities:1. bridging the gap, between initial rehabilitation and community re-entry, via transitional units dealing with assessment, retraining, social/vocational orientation and follow-up. Today, there are 30 such units based on multidisciplinary teams.2. assessing recovery by TBI-specific and validated evaluation tools: EBIS holistic document, BNI Screening of higher cerebral functions, Glasgow outcome extended, and QOLIBRI, a TBI-specific quality of life tool.3. promoting specific re-entry programmes founded on limited medication, ecological neuro-psychological rehabilitation, exchange groups and workshops, violence prevention, continuity of care, environmental structuration, and "resocialisation".4. taking into account the "head injured family"5. facilitating recovery after sports-related concussion6. facing medico-legal consequences and compensation: In that perspective, we developed guidelines for TBI-specific expert appraisal, including mandatory neuro-psychological assessment, family interview and an annual forum gathering lawyers and health professionals. PMID:22028740

  17. The French Space Operation Act: Technical Regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinchero, J. P.; Lazare, B.

    2010-09-01

    The French Space Operation Act(FSOA) stipulates that a prime objective of the National technical regulations is to protect people, property, public health and the environment. Compliance with these technical regulations is mandatory as of 10 December 2010 for space operations by French space operators and for space operations from French territory. The space safety requirements and regulations governing procedures are based on national and international best practices and experience. A critical design review of the space system and procedures shall be carried out by the applicant, in order to verify compliance with the Technical Regulations. An independent technical assessment of the operation is delegated to CNES. The principles applied when drafting technical regulations are as follows: requirements must as far as possible establish the rules according to the objective to be obtained, rather than how it is to be achieved; requirements must give preference to international standards recognised as being the state of the art; requirements must take previous experience into account. Technical regulations are divided into three sections covering common requirements for the launch, control and return of a space object. A dedicated section will cover specific rules to be applied at the Guiana Space Centre. The main topics addressed by the technical regulations are: operator safety management system; study of risks to people, property, public health and the Earth’s environment; impact study on the outer space environment: space debris generated by the operation; planetary protection.

  18. Lexical confusability and nasal coarticulation in French

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarborough, Rebecca

    2005-09-01

    Previous research has revealed a relationship between lexical confusability and degree of coarticulation [Brown (2001); Scarborough (2004)]. In particular, English speakers produce confusable, or ``hard'' words with more nasal and vowel-to-vowel coarticulation than less confusable, ``easy'' ones. Thus, it has been suggested that speakers produce additional coarticulation in order to increase the intelligibility of ``hard'' words. Here, the relation between nasal coarticulation and lexical confusability is investigated for French, a language in which vowel nasality is phonemically contrastive (at least for a subset of vowels) and might constrain such a lexical effect. Acoustic measures of nasality show that ``hard'' words (those with low usage frequencies and many frequent, phonologically similar neighbors) exhibit more nasal coarticulation than ``easy'' ones (those with high frequencies and few, low-frequency neighbors) in French as well. Interestingly, however, the effect emerges only for words containing vowels that can exhibit phonemic oral-nasal contrasts (oral vowels with nasal counterparts). Thus, where the use of nasality in phonological contrast is constrained, coarticulatory nasality is constrained, too. But the existence of phonological contrast does not itself constrain the lexical confusability effect: increased coarticulatory nasality contributes to lexically motivated phonetic enhancement in French, while even more nasality provides the basis for phonemic contrast.

  19. [The origins of the French neurosurgery].

    PubMed

    Brunon, J

    2016-06-01

    Modern French neurosurgery starts at the beginning of the XXth century under the motivation of Joseph Babinski. He submitted his patients to Thierry de Martel who had learned this new specialized area of medicine with H. Cushing in the États-Unis and V. Horsey in Great Britain. His first successfully treated case of an intracranial tumor was published in 1909. But the true founding father was Clovis Vincent, initially a neurologist and collaborator of de Martel, who became the first chairman in 1933 of the neurosurgical department at the Pitié hospital of Paris and the first professor of neurosurgery in 1938. After the Second World War, many departments were created outside of Paris. Neurosurgery was definitively recognized as a specialized area in medicine in 1948. Currently, more than 400 neurosurgeons work in France. Because I had the very great privilege to be present at the birth of this society in 1970 and to still be in contact with some of the second and third generation of French neurosurgeons who led it to its high international recognition, the Chairman of the French Neurosurgical Society asked me to write this short historical vignette. PMID:27234912

  20. French nuclear power charges in future

    SciTech Connect

    Catz, H.

    1996-07-01

    Electric rates in France are one of the best bargains in Europe, thanks largely to its state-run nuclear program. Since Charles DeGaulle created the French Atomic Energy Agency (CEA) in the late 1940`s, that agency and Elecricite de France (EdF) have put France well on the road to energy independence, says Henri Catz, director of Environment and Energy Policy at Confederation Francaise Democratique du Travail in France. {open_quotes}Nuclear power generates more than 75 percent of the electricity that France consumes,{close_quotes} Catz says. However, the French nuclear establishment has been slow to respond to the public`s environmental and safety concerns. In addition, Catz finds that CEA and EdF have no particular incentive to promote energy conservation. {open_quotes}French electricity is cheap and abundant. EdF has responded to this energy glut by encouraging its consumers to use more electricity, while simultaneously exporting excess power to France`s neighbors.

  1. Problems persist for French refining sector

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-27

    This paper reports that France's refiners face a continuing shortfall of middle distillate capacity and a persistent surplus of heavy fuel oil. That's the main conclusion of the official Hydrocarbon Directorate's report on how France's refining sector performed in 1991. Imports up---The directorate noted that although net production of refined products in French refineries rose to 1.534 million b/d in 1991 from 1.48 million b/d in 1990, products imports jumped 9.7% to 602,000 b/d in the period. The glut of heavy fuel oil eased to some extent last year because French nuclear power capacity, heavily dependent on ample water supplies, was crimped by drought. That spawned fuel switching. The most note worthy increase in imports was for motor diesel, climbing to 176,000 b/d from 148,000 b/d in 1990. Tax credits are spurring French consumption of that fuel. For the first time, consumption of motor diesel in 1991 outstripped that of gasoline at 374,000 b/d and 356,000 b/d respectively.

  2. [The origins of the French neurosurgery].

    PubMed

    Brunon, J

    2016-06-01

    Modern French neurosurgery starts at the beginning of the XXth century under the motivation of Joseph Babinski. He submitted his patients to Thierry de Martel who had learned this new specialized area of medicine with H. Cushing in the États-Unis and V. Horsey in Great Britain. His first successfully treated case of an intracranial tumor was published in 1909. But the true founding father was Clovis Vincent, initially a neurologist and collaborator of de Martel, who became the first chairman in 1933 of the neurosurgical department at the Pitié hospital of Paris and the first professor of neurosurgery in 1938. After the Second World War, many departments were created outside of Paris. Neurosurgery was definitively recognized as a specialized area in medicine in 1948. Currently, more than 400 neurosurgeons work in France. Because I had the very great privilege to be present at the birth of this society in 1970 and to still be in contact with some of the second and third generation of French neurosurgeons who led it to its high international recognition, the Chairman of the French Neurosurgical Society asked me to write this short historical vignette.

  3. Fundamental physics in space: The French contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léon-Hirtz, Sylvie

    2003-08-01

    This paper outlines the space Fundamental Physics projects developped under CNES responsability together with the french scientific community, either in the national french programme or in the french contribution to the ESA programme, mainly: -the MICROSCOPE project which aims at testing the Equivalence Principle between inertial mass and gravitational mass at a high level of precision, on a microsatellite of the MYRIADE series developped by CNES, -the PHARAO cold-atom clock which is part of the ACES project of ESA, located on an external pallett of the International Space Station, together with a swiss H-MASER and a micro-wave link making comparison with ground clocks, aimed at relativistic tests and measurement of universal constants, -the T2L2 optical link allowing to compare ultra-stable and ultra-precise clocks, -a contribution to the AMS spectrometer which searches for cosmic antimatter, on the external part of the International Space Station, -a contribution to the LISA mission of ESA for direct detection and measurement of gravitational waves by interferometry, -ground-based studies on cold-atom interferometers which could be part of the HYPER project submitted to ESA.

  4. Mechanics and energetics in tool manufacture and use: a synthetic approach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liyu; Brodbeck, Luzius; Iida, Fumiya

    2014-11-01

    Tool manufacture and use are observed not only in humans but also in other animals such as mammals, birds and insects. Manufactured tools are used for biomechanical functions such as effective control of fluids and small solid objects and extension of reaching. These tools are passive and used with gravity and the animal users' own energy. From the perspective of evolutionary biology, manufactured tools are extended phenotypes of the genes of the animal and exhibit phenotypic plasticity. This incurs energetic cost of manufacture as compared to the case with a fixed tool. This paper studies mechanics and energetics aspects of tool manufacture and use in non-human beings. Firstly, it investigates possible mechanical mechanisms of the use of passive manufactured tools. Secondly, it formulates the energetic cost of manufacture and analyses when phenotypic plasticity benefits an animal tool maker and user. We take a synthetic approach and use a controlled physical model, i.e. a robot arm. The robot is capable of additively manufacturing scoop and gripper structures from thermoplastic adhesives to pick and place fluid and solid objects, mimicking primates and birds manufacturing tools for a similar function. We evaluate the effectiveness of tool use in pick-and-place and explain the mechanism for gripper tools picking up solid objects with a solid-mechanics model. We propose a way to formulate the energetic cost of tool manufacture that includes modes of addition and reshaping, and use it to analyse the case of scoop tools. Experiment results show that with a single motor trajectory, the robot was able to effectively pick and place water, rice grains, a pebble and a plastic box with a scoop tool or gripper tools that were manufactured by itself. They also show that by changing the dimension of scoop tools, the energetic cost of tool manufacture and use could be reduced. The work should also be interesting for engineers to design adaptive machines. PMID:25209405

  5. Mechanics and energetics in tool manufacture and use: a synthetic approach

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liyu; Brodbeck, Luzius; Iida, Fumiya

    2014-01-01

    Tool manufacture and use are observed not only in humans but also in other animals such as mammals, birds and insects. Manufactured tools are used for biomechanical functions such as effective control of fluids and small solid objects and extension of reaching. These tools are passive and used with gravity and the animal users' own energy. From the perspective of evolutionary biology, manufactured tools are extended phenotypes of the genes of the animal and exhibit phenotypic plasticity. This incurs energetic cost of manufacture as compared to the case with a fixed tool. This paper studies mechanics and energetics aspects of tool manufacture and use in non-human beings. Firstly, it investigates possible mechanical mechanisms of the use of passive manufactured tools. Secondly, it formulates the energetic cost of manufacture and analyses when phenotypic plasticity benefits an animal tool maker and user. We take a synthetic approach and use a controlled physical model, i.e. a robot arm. The robot is capable of additively manufacturing scoop and gripper structures from thermoplastic adhesives to pick and place fluid and solid objects, mimicking primates and birds manufacturing tools for a similar function. We evaluate the effectiveness of tool use in pick-and-place and explain the mechanism for gripper tools picking up solid objects with a solid-mechanics model. We propose a way to formulate the energetic cost of tool manufacture that includes modes of addition and reshaping, and use it to analyse the case of scoop tools. Experiment results show that with a single motor trajectory, the robot was able to effectively pick and place water, rice grains, a pebble and a plastic box with a scoop tool or gripper tools that were manufactured by itself. They also show that by changing the dimension of scoop tools, the energetic cost of tool manufacture and use could be reduced. The work should also be interesting for engineers to design adaptive machines. PMID:25209405

  6. Mechanics and energetics in tool manufacture and use: a synthetic approach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liyu; Brodbeck, Luzius; Iida, Fumiya

    2014-11-01

    Tool manufacture and use are observed not only in humans but also in other animals such as mammals, birds and insects. Manufactured tools are used for biomechanical functions such as effective control of fluids and small solid objects and extension of reaching. These tools are passive and used with gravity and the animal users' own energy. From the perspective of evolutionary biology, manufactured tools are extended phenotypes of the genes of the animal and exhibit phenotypic plasticity. This incurs energetic cost of manufacture as compared to the case with a fixed tool. This paper studies mechanics and energetics aspects of tool manufacture and use in non-human beings. Firstly, it investigates possible mechanical mechanisms of the use of passive manufactured tools. Secondly, it formulates the energetic cost of manufacture and analyses when phenotypic plasticity benefits an animal tool maker and user. We take a synthetic approach and use a controlled physical model, i.e. a robot arm. The robot is capable of additively manufacturing scoop and gripper structures from thermoplastic adhesives to pick and place fluid and solid objects, mimicking primates and birds manufacturing tools for a similar function. We evaluate the effectiveness of tool use in pick-and-place and explain the mechanism for gripper tools picking up solid objects with a solid-mechanics model. We propose a way to formulate the energetic cost of tool manufacture that includes modes of addition and reshaping, and use it to analyse the case of scoop tools. Experiment results show that with a single motor trajectory, the robot was able to effectively pick and place water, rice grains, a pebble and a plastic box with a scoop tool or gripper tools that were manufactured by itself. They also show that by changing the dimension of scoop tools, the energetic cost of tool manufacture and use could be reduced. The work should also be interesting for engineers to design adaptive machines.

  7. Societal risk as seen by the French public

    SciTech Connect

    Karpowicz-Lazreg, C.; Mullet, E. )

    1993-06-01

    Mean risk magnitude judgments expressed by French students on 90 hazardous activities are reported and compared with findings on American, Hungarian, and Norwegian samples. In many respects, rating of perceived risk in the French sample is highly comparable to rating in American subjects. American and French people tend to share the same preoccupations to the same extent. The only major differences concern hallucinatory drugs and oral contraceptives. The Norwegians and French ratings differ much more. Norwegians and French people generally have the same preoccupations (which make Norwegian ratings the best predictor of French ratings) but not to the same extent. The French are much more concerned with a whole series of activities connected to violence, the implementation of high technology or agricultural technology. However, like the Norwegians, the French are extremely concerned about the spread of hallucinogenic drugs. The Hungarian and French ratings differ on practically all instances, except on basic activities or substances in all industrialized nations (caffeine, motorcycles, ...). Differences were observed within the French sample itself. Women more than men consider that home appliances in general and large-scale public transportation are potentially dangerous. Science students more than art students tend to fear a certain number of medical techniques and a certain number of toxic substances (e.g., smoking). 7 refs., 1 tab.

  8. Decomposability and mental representation of French verbs

    PubMed Central

    Estivalet, Gustavo L.; Meunier, Fanny E.

    2015-01-01

    In French, regardless of stem regularity, inflectional verbal suffixes are extremely regular and paradigmatic. Considering the complexity of the French verbal system, we argue that all French verbs are polymorphemic forms that are decomposed during visual recognition independently of their stem regularity. We conducted a behavioral experiment in which we manipulated the surface and cumulative frequencies of verbal inflected forms and asked participants to perform a visual lexical decision task. We tested four types of verbs with respect to their stem variants: a. fully regular (parler “to speak,” [parl-]); b. phonological change e/E verbs with orthographic markers (répéter “to repeat,” [répét-] and [répèt-]); c. phonological change o/O verbs without orthographic markers (adorer “to adore,” [ador-] and [adOr-]); and d. idiosyncratic (boire “to drink,” [boi-] and [buv-]). For each type of verb, we contrasted four conditions, forms with high and low surface frequencies and forms with high and low cumulative frequencies. Our results showed a significant cumulative frequency effect for the fully regular and idiosyncratic verbs, indicating that different stems within idiosyncratic verbs (such as [boi-] and [buv-]) have distinct representations in the mental lexicon as different fully regular verbs. For the phonological change verbs, we found a significant cumulative frequency effect only when considering the two forms of the stem together ([répét-] and [répèt-]), suggesting that they share a single abstract and under specified phonological representation. Our results also revealed a significant surface frequency effect for all types of verbs, which may reflect the recombination of the stem lexical representation with the functional information of the suffixes. Overall, these results indicate that all inflected verbal forms in French are decomposed during visual recognition and that this process could be due to the regularities of the French

  9. On the sources of solar energetic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cane, H. V; Reames, D. V.; Vonrosenvinge, T. T.

    1987-01-01

    We have examined the time histories of energetic (greater than 1 MeV) particles as detected by instruments in the earth's neighborhood over an 18 year period commencing mid-1967. The majority (greater than 75 percent) of the events extending to proton energies above 20 MeV have their origins in a flare event which includes H-alpha emission, soft x rays, and metric radio bursts of Type 2 and/or Type 4. We have assembled a list of 241 events for which the sources are thus well identified. Two further particle increases have been associated with nonflare events. Of the 82 events originating in regions to the east of central meridian, the sources of 68 (83 percent) were sufficiently energetic that they also generated interplanetary shocks detected at earth. We suggest that shocks are responsible for particles being detectable from source regions not magnetically connected to earth.

  10. Mitochondrial network energetics in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Aon, Miguel A.; Cortassa, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    At the core of eukaryotic aerobic life, mitochondria function like “hubs” in the web of energetic and redox processes in cells. In the heart, these networks - extending beyond the complex connectivity of biochemical circuit diagrams and apparent morphology - exhibit collective dynamics spanning several spatio-temporal levels of organization, from the cell, to the tissue, and the organ. The network function of mitochondria, i.e. mitochondrial network energetics, represents an advantageous behaviour. Its coordinated action, under normal physiology, provides robustness despite failure in a few nodes, and improves energy supply toward a swiftly changing demand. Extensive diffuse loops, encompassing mitochondrialcytoplasmic reaction/transport networks, control and regulate energy supply and demand in the heart. Under severe energy crises, the network behaviour of mitochondria and associated glycolytic and other metabolic networks collapse, thereby triggering fatal arrhythmias. PMID:22899654

  11. Assessment of CRBR core disruptive accident energetics

    SciTech Connect

    Theofanous, T.G.; Bell, C.R.

    1984-03-01

    The results of an independent assessment of core disruptive accident energetics for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor are presented in this document. This assessment was performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission under the direction of the CRBR Program Office within the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. It considered in detail the accident behavior for three accident initiators that are representative of three different classes of events; unprotected loss of flow, unprotected reactivity insertion, and protected loss of heat sink. The primary system's energetics accommodation capability was realistically, yet conservatively, determined in terms of core events. This accommodation capability was found to be equivalent to an isentropic work potential for expansion to one atmosphere of 2550 MJ or a ramp rate of about 200 $/s applied to a classical two-phase disassembly.

  12. Probing the heliosphere with energetic hydrogen atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsieh, K. C.; Shih, K. L.; Jokipii, J. R.; Grzedzielski, S.

    1992-01-01

    The idea of using energetic neutral atoms (ENAs), produced by charge exchange between energetic ions and ambient neutral atoms, as a diagnostic tool to investigate planetary magnetospheres from a distance has been extended to the investigation of the heliosphere. The paper explores what one can reasonably expect of the heliospheric ENA (HSENA) and what criteria would be imposed on HSENA instruments by concentrating on 10-10 exp 3 keV protons in quiet-time interplanetary space, solar-flare events, corotating interaction regions, and populations have distinctive signatures and that the detection of these particles can reveal energy spatial and propagation of ions in 3D interplanetary space, including the solar-wind termination shock. Such breadth of information could not be gained by in situ means.

  13. Molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, W.A.; Upadhye, R.S.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1995-07-18

    A molten salt destruction process is used to treat and destroy energetic waste materials such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels. The energetic material is pre-blended with a solid or fluid diluent in safe proportions to form a fluid fuel mixture. The fuel mixture is rapidly introduced into a high temperature molten salt bath. A stream of molten salt is removed from the vessel and may be recycled as diluent. Additionally, the molten salt stream may be pumped from the reactor, circulated outside the reactor for further processing, and delivered back into the reactor or cooled and circulated to the feed delivery system to further dilute the fuel mixture entering the reactor. 4 figs.

  14. Molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, William A.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Pruneda, Cesar O.

    1995-01-01

    A molten salt destruction process is used to treat and destroy energetic waste materials such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels. The energetic material is pre-blended with a solid or fluid diluent in safe proportions to form a fluid fuel mixture. The fuel mixture is rapidly introduced into a high temperature molten salt bath. A stream of molten salt is removed from the vessel and may be recycled as diluent. Additionally, the molten salt stream may be pumped from the reactor, circulated outside the reactor for further processing, and delivered back into the reactor or cooled and circulated to the feed delivery system to further dilute the fuel mixture entering the reactor.

  15. The composition of corotating energetic particle streams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, R. E.; Von Renvinge, T. T.; Mcdonald, F. B.

    1978-01-01

    The relative abundances of 1.5 to 23 MeV/nucleon ions in corotating nucleon streams were compared with ion abundances in particle events associated with solar flares and with solar and solar wind abundances. He/O and C/O ratios were found to be a factor of the order two to three times greater in corotating streams than in flare associated events. The distribution of H/He ratios in corotating streams was found to be much narrower and of lower average value than in flare associated events. H/He in corotating energetic particle streams compared favorably both in lack of variability and numerical value to H/He in high speed solar wind plasma streams. This comparison suggested that the source population for the corotating energetic particles was the solar wind.

  16. Energetics and structures of fullerene crop circles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jie

    1998-01-01

    The energetics and structures of carbon tori are studied using molecular simulation. They include circular and polygonal tori, formed by bending ( n, n) tubes and by joining ( n, n) and ( n+1, n-1) or ( n+2, n-2) tubes with pentagon-heptagon defects, respectively, in which n=5, 8 and 10. The strain energy of a circular and polygonal torus decreases by D-2 and D-1, respectively, where D is the torus diameter. Comparisons in average and local maximum strain suggest that defect-free circular tori are more energetically stable and kinetically accessible than defective polygonal tori. This confirms the hypothesis that circular tori are the predominant constituents of the observed fullerene crop circles in laser-grown single-wall carbon nanotubes.

  17. HAWC and Solar Energetic Transient Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, A.; Ryan, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is being constructed at the volcano Sierra Negra (4100 m a.s.l.) in Mexico. HAWC's primary purpose is the study of both galactic and extra-galactic sources of high energy gamma rays. The HAWC instrument will consist of 300 large water Cherenkov detectors whose counting rate will be sensitive to cosmic rays with energies above the geomagnetic cutoff of the site ( ˜ 8 GV). In particular, HAWC will detect solar energetic particles known as Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs), and the effect of Coronal Mass Ejections on the galactic cosmic rays, known as Forbush Decreases (FDs). The Milagro experiment, the HAWC predecessor, successfully observed GLEs and the HAWC engineering array "VAMOS" already observed a FD. HAWC will be sensitive to γ rays and neutrons produced during large solar flares. In this work, we present the instrument and discuss its capability to observe solar energetic events. i. e., flares and CMEs.

  18. Exploratory analysis of Spanish energetic mining accidents.

    PubMed

    Sanmiquel, Lluís; Freijo, Modesto; Rossell, Josep M

    2012-01-01

    Using data on work accidents and annual mining statistics, the paper studies work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining sector in 1999-2008. The following 3 parameters are considered: age, experience and size of the mine (in number of workers) where the accident took place. The main objective of this paper is to show the relationship between different accident indicators: risk index (as an expression of the incidence), average duration index for the age and size of the mine variables (as a measure of the seriousness of an accident), and the gravity index for the various sizes of mines (which measures the seriousness of an accident, too). The conclusions of this study could be useful to develop suitable prevention policies that would contribute towards a decrease in work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining industry. PMID:22721539

  19. Energetic Photons From Transient Plasma Discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Robert, E.; Cachoncinlle, C.; Dozias, S.; Khacef, A.; Majeri, N.; Romero, E.; Point, S.; Viladrosa, R.; Pouvesle, J. M.

    2008-09-23

    An overview of the plasma based sources of energetic photons, ranging from UV to hard X-rays, developed in GREMI is proposed. Each source principle is shortly described and applications of these specially designed sources are documented. The possibility of producing energetic photons over a very broad wavelength domain, together with the versatility of the mode of operations allow for a very large range of applications. The matching of the photon energy, the pulse repetition rate, the short duration, of a few nanosecond, of photon pulses offer for instance unique possibility for fast dynamic study, low Z element spray characterization, X-ray fluorescence of dense targets, lithography issues, and UV VUV radiating plasma optimization.

  20. Micromechanical modeling of heterogeneous energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, M.R.; Kipp, M.E.; Swol, F. van

    1998-09-01

    In this work, the mesoscale processes of consolidation, deformation and reaction of shocked porous energetic materials are studied using shock physics analysis of impact on a collection of discrete HMX crystals. High resolution three-dimensional CTH simulations indicate that rapid deformation occurs at material contact points causing large amplitude fluctuations of stress states having wavelengths of the order of several particle diameters. Localization of energy produces hot-spots due to shock focusing and plastic work near grain boundaries as material flows to interstitial regions. These numerical experiments demonstrate that hot-spots are strongly influenced by multiple crystal interactions. Chemical reaction processes also produce multiple wave structures associated with particle distribution effects. This study provides new insights into the micromechanical behavior of heterogeneous energetic materials strongly suggesting that initiation and reaction of shocked heterogeneous materials involves states distinctly different than single jump state descriptions.

  1. Green colorants based on energetic azole borates.

    PubMed

    Glück, Johann; Klapötke, Thomas M; Rusan, Magdalena; Stierstorfer, Jörg

    2014-11-24

    The investigation of green-burning boron-based compounds as colorants in pyrotechnic formulations as alternative for barium nitrate, which is a hazard to health and to the environment, is reported. Metal-free and nitrogen-rich dihydrobis(5-aminotetrazolyl)borate salts and dihydrobis(1,3,4-triazolyl)borate salts have been synthesized and characterized by NMR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, mass spectrometry, and vibrational spectroscopy. Their thermal and energetic properties have been determined as well. Several pyrotechnic compositions using selected azolyl borate salts as green colorants were investigated. Formulations with ammonium dinitramide and ammonium nitrate as oxidizers and boron and magnesium as fuels were tested. The burn time, dominant wavelength, spectral purity, luminous intensity, and luminous efficiency as well as the thermal and energetic properties of these compositions were measured.

  2. Kinetic versus Energetic Discrimination in Biological Copying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartori, Pablo; Pigolotti, Simone

    2013-05-01

    We study stochastic copying schemes in which discrimination between a right and a wrong match is achieved via different kinetic barriers or different binding energies of the two matches. We demonstrate that, in single-step reactions, the two discrimination mechanisms are strictly alternative and cannot be mixed to further reduce the error fraction. Close to the lowest error limit, kinetic discrimination results in a diverging copying velocity and dissipation per copied bit. On the other hand, energetic discrimination reaches its lowest error limit in an adiabatic regime where dissipation and velocity vanish. By analyzing experimentally measured kinetic rates of two DNA polymerases, T7 and Polγ, we argue that one of them operates in the kinetic and the other in the energetic regime. Finally, we show how the two mechanisms can be combined in copying schemes implementing error correction through a proofreading pathway.

  3. Energetic additive manufacturing process with feed wire

    DOEpatents

    Harwell, Lane D.; Griffith, Michelle L.; Greene, Donald L.; Pressly, Gary A.

    2000-11-07

    A process for additive manufacture by energetic wire deposition is described. A source wire is fed into a energy beam generated melt-pool on a growth surface as the melt-pool moves over the growth surface. This process enables the rapid prototyping and manufacture of fully dense, near-net shape components, as well as cladding and welding processes. Alloys, graded materials, and other inhomogeneous materials can be grown using this process.

  4. Energetic and Structural Study of Diphenylpyridine Isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Marisa A. A.; Gomes, Lígia R.; Low, John N.; Santos, Luís M. N. B. F.

    2009-09-01

    The energetic and structural study of three diphenylpyridine isomers is presented in detail. The three isomers, 2,6-, 2,5-, and 3,5-diphenylpyridines, were synthesized via Suzuki-Miyaura methodology based on palladium catalysis, and the crystal structures of the isomers were obtained by X-ray diffraction. The relative energetic stabilities in the condensed and gaseous phases as well as volatilities and structures of the three studied isomers were evaluated, regarding the position of the phenyl groups relative to the nitrogen atom of the pyridine ring. The temperature, standard molar enthalpies, and entropies of fusion were measured and derived by differential scanning calorimetry. The vapor pressures of the considered isomers were determined by a static apparatus based on a MKS capacitance diaphragm manometer. The standard molar enthalpies, entropies, and Gibbs energies of sublimation, at T = 298.15 K, were derived, and the phase diagram near the triple point coordinates were determined for all isomers. The standard (p° = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of combustion of all crystalline isomers were determined, at T = 298.15 K, by static bomb combustion calorimetry. The standard molar enthalpies of formation, in the crystalline and gaseous phases, at T = 298.15 K, were derived. The experimental results for the energetics in the gaseous phase of the three compounds were compared and assessed with the values obtained by ab initio calculations at different levels of theory (DFT and MP2) showing that, at this level of theory, the computational methods underestimate the energetic stability, in the gaseous phase, for these molecules. In order to understand the aromaticity in the central ring of each isomer, calculations of NICS (B3LYP/6-311G++(d,p) level of theory) values on the pyridine ring were also performed.

  5. Anomalous Energetics and Dynamics of Moving Vortices.

    PubMed

    Radzihovsky, Leo

    2015-12-11

    Motivated by the general problem of moving topological defects in an otherwise ordered state and specifically, by the anomalous dynamics observed in vortex-antivortex annihilation and coarsening experiments in freely suspended smectic-C films, I study the deformation, energetics, and dynamics of moving vortices in an overdamped XY model and show that their properties are significantly and qualitatively modified by the motion. PMID:26705656

  6. Anomalous Energetics and Dynamics of Moving Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radzihovsky, Leo

    2015-12-01

    Motivated by the general problem of moving topological defects in an otherwise ordered state and specifically, by the anomalous dynamics observed in vortex-antivortex annihilation and coarsening experiments in freely suspended smectic-C films, I study the deformation, energetics, and dynamics of moving vortices in an overdamped X Y model and show that their properties are significantly and qualitatively modified by the motion.

  7. Anomalous energetics and dynamics of moving vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radzihovsky, Leo

    Motivated by the general problem of moving topological defects in an otherwise ordered state and specifically, by the anomalous dynamics observed in vortex-antivortex annihilation and coarsening experiments in freely-suspended smectic-C films, I study the deformation, energetics and dynamics of moving vortices in an overdamped xy-model and show that their properties are significantly and qualitatively modified by the motion. Supported by NSF through DMR-1001240, MRSEC DMR-0820579, and by Simons Investigator award from Simons Foundation.

  8. The energetic alpha particle transport method EATM

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkpatrick, R.C.

    1998-02-01

    The EATM method is an evolving attempt to find an efficient method of treating the transport of energetic charged particles in a dynamic magnetized (MHD) plasma for which the mean free path of the particles and the Larmor radius may be long compared to the gradient lengths in the plasma. The intent is to span the range of parameter space with the efficiency and accuracy thought necessary for experimental analysis and design of magnetized fusion targets.

  9. Composition of energetic particles from solar flares.

    PubMed

    Garrard, T L; Stone, E C

    1994-10-01

    We present a model for composition of heavy ions in the solar energetic particles (SEP). The SEP composition in a typical large solar particle event reflects the composition of the Sun, with adjustments due to fractionation effects which depend on the first ionization potential (FIP) of the ion and on the ratio of ionic charge to mass (Q/M). Flare-to-flare variations in composition are represented by parameters describing these fractionation effects and the distributions of these parameters are presented.

  10. Energetic particle instabilities in fusion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharapov, S. E.; Alper, B.; Berk, H. L.; Borba, D. N.; Breizman, B. N.; Challis, C. D.; Classen, I. G. J.; Edlund, E. M.; Eriksson, J.; Fasoli, A.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Fu, G. Y.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Gassner, T.; Ghantous, K.; Goloborodko, V.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Gryaznevich, M. P.; Hacquin, S.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Hellesen, C.; Kiptily, V. G.; Kramer, G. J.; Lauber, P.; Lilley, M. K.; Lisak, M.; Nabais, F.; Nazikian, R.; Nyqvist, R.; Osakabe, M.; Perez von Thun, C.; Pinches, S. D.; Podesta, M.; Porkolab, M.; Shinohara, K.; Schoepf, K.; Todo, Y.; Toi, K.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Voitsekhovich, I.; White, R. B.; Yavorskij, V.; TG, ITPA EP; Contributors, JET-EFDA

    2013-10-01

    Remarkable progress has been made in diagnosing energetic particle instabilities on present-day machines and in establishing a theoretical framework for describing them. This overview describes the much improved diagnostics of Alfvén instabilities and modelling tools developed world-wide, and discusses progress in interpreting the observed phenomena. A multi-machine comparison is presented giving information on the performance of both diagnostics and modelling tools for different plasma conditions outlining expectations for ITER based on our present knowledge.

  11. Spin foam models as energetic causal sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cortês, Marina; Smolin, Lee

    2016-04-01

    Energetic causal sets are causal sets endowed by a flow of energy-momentum between causally related events. These incorporate a novel mechanism for the emergence of space-time from causal relations [M. Cortês and L. Smolin, Phys. Rev. D 90, 084007 (2014); Phys. Rev. D 90, 044035 (2014)]. Here we construct a spin foam model which is also an energetic causal set model. This model is closely related to the model introduced in parallel by Wolfgang Wieland in [Classical Quantum Gravity 32, 015016 (2015)]. What makes a spin foam model also an energetic causal set is Wieland's identification of new degrees of freedom analogous to momenta, conserved at events (or four-simplices), whose norms are not mass, but the volume of tetrahedra. This realizes the torsion constraints, which are missing in previous spin foam models, and are needed to relate the connection dynamics to those of the metric, as in general relativity. This identification makes it possible to apply the new mechanism for the emergence of space-time to a spin foam model. Our formulation also makes use of Markopoulou's causal formulation of spin foams [arXiv:gr-qc/9704013]. These are generated by evolving spin networks with dual Pachner moves. This endows the spin foam history with causal structure given by a partial ordering of the events which are dual to four-simplices.

  12. Radiation Hydrodynamics Modeling of Hohlraum Energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Mehul V.; Mauche, Christopher W.; Jones, Ogden S.; Scott, Howard A.

    2015-11-01

    Attempts to model the energetics in NIF Hohlraums have been made with varying degrees of success, with discrepancies of 0-25% being reported for the X-ray flux (10-25% for the NIC ignition platform hohlraums). To better understand the cause(s) of these discrepancies, the effects of uncertainties in modeling thermal conduction, laser-plasma interactions, atomic mixing at interfaces, and NLTE kinetics of the high-Z wall plasma must be quantified. In this work we begin by focusing on the NLTE kinetics component. We detail a simulation framework for developing an integrated HYDRA hohlraum model with predefined tolerances for energetics errors due to numerical discretization errors or statistical fluctuations. Within this framework we obtain a model for a converged 1D spherical hohlraum which is then extended to 2D. The new model is used to reexamine physics sensitivities and improve estimates of the energetics discrepancy. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. Highly Energetic, Low Sensitivity Aromatic Peroxy Acids.

    PubMed

    Gamage, Nipuni-Dhanesha H; Stiasny, Benedikt; Stierstorfer, Jörg; Martin, Philip D; Klapötke, Thomas M; Winter, Charles H

    2016-02-18

    The synthesis, structure, and energetic materials properties of a series of aromatic peroxy acid compounds are described. Benzene-1,3,5-tris(carboperoxoic) acid is a highly sensitive primary energetic material, with impact and friction sensitivities similar to those of triacetone triperoxide. By contrast, benzene-1,4-bis(carboperoxoic) acid, 4-nitrobenzoperoxoic acid, and 3,5-dinitrobenzoperoxoic acid are much less sensitive, with impact and friction sensitivities close to those of the secondary energetic material 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene. Additionally, the calculated detonation velocities of 3,5-dinitrobenzoperoxoic acid and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzoperoxoic acid exceed that of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene. The solid-state structure of 3,5-dinitrobenzoperoxoic acid contains intermolecular O-H⋅⋅⋅O hydrogen bonds and numerous N⋅⋅⋅O, C⋅⋅⋅O, and O⋅⋅⋅O close contacts. These attractive lattice interactions may account for the less sensitive nature of 3,5-dinitrobenzoperoxoic acid. PMID:26743434

  14. Synthesis of cubane based energetic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Robert J.; Bottaro, Jeffrey C.; Penwell, Paul E.

    1993-02-01

    The need to pack more power with less weight into less space in tomorrow's weapons drove this program for the synthesis of super energetic materials. Our original impetus was a program based solely on the energetic properties of cubane. However, in the course of our studies here and in a parallel ONR sponsored program, we discovered and developed an alternative oxidizer to cubyl based systems, the dinitramide salts. We will report on our developments in the synthesis of new oxidizers based on cubane and dinitramide. In this research, we developed new methods for the functionalization of the cubane nucleus and synthesized new energetic cubanes. We developed several new routes for the synthesis of the dinitramino group. Our work on the preparation of the dinitramide group led to the synthesis of the dinitramide ion, and as a consequence ammonium dinitramide. We have in turn used this synthesis to prepare cubane ammonium dinitramide salts. We synthesized cubane-1,4bis-(ammonium dinitramide) and cubane1,2,4,7-tetrakis(ammonium dinitramide) as well as several other dinitramide salts.

  15. Highly Energetic, Low Sensitivity Aromatic Peroxy Acids.

    PubMed

    Gamage, Nipuni-Dhanesha H; Stiasny, Benedikt; Stierstorfer, Jörg; Martin, Philip D; Klapötke, Thomas M; Winter, Charles H

    2016-02-18

    The synthesis, structure, and energetic materials properties of a series of aromatic peroxy acid compounds are described. Benzene-1,3,5-tris(carboperoxoic) acid is a highly sensitive primary energetic material, with impact and friction sensitivities similar to those of triacetone triperoxide. By contrast, benzene-1,4-bis(carboperoxoic) acid, 4-nitrobenzoperoxoic acid, and 3,5-dinitrobenzoperoxoic acid are much less sensitive, with impact and friction sensitivities close to those of the secondary energetic material 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene. Additionally, the calculated detonation velocities of 3,5-dinitrobenzoperoxoic acid and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzoperoxoic acid exceed that of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene. The solid-state structure of 3,5-dinitrobenzoperoxoic acid contains intermolecular O-H⋅⋅⋅O hydrogen bonds and numerous N⋅⋅⋅O, C⋅⋅⋅O, and O⋅⋅⋅O close contacts. These attractive lattice interactions may account for the less sensitive nature of 3,5-dinitrobenzoperoxoic acid.

  16. Energetic Particles Dynamics in Mercury's Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Brian M.; Ryou, A.S.; Sibeck, D. G.; Alexeev, I. I.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the drift paths of energetic particles in Mercury's magnetosphere by tracing their motion through a model magnetic field. Test particle simulations solving the full Lorentz force show a quasi-trapped energetic particle population that gradient and curvature drift around the planet via "Shabansky" orbits, passing though high latitudes in the compressed dayside by equatorial latitudes on the nightside. Due to their large gyroradii, energetic H+ and Na+ ions will typically collide with the planet or the magnetopause and will not be able to complete a full drift orbit. These simulations provide direct comparison for recent spacecraft measurements from MESSENGER. Mercury's offset dipole results in an asymmetric loss cone and therefore an asymmetry in particle precipitation with more particles precipitating in the southern hemisphere. Since the planet lacks an atmosphere, precipitating particles will collide directly with the surface of the planet. The incident charged particles can kick up neutrals from the surface and have implications for the formation of the exosphere and weathering of the surface

  17. Sol-gel manufactured energetic materials

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Randall L.; Lee, Ronald S.; Tillotson, Thomas M.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Swansiger, Rosalind W.; Fox, Glenn A.

    2003-12-23

    Sol-gel chemistry is used for the preparation of energetic materials (explosives, propellants and pyrotechnics) with improved homogeneity, and/or which can be cast to near-net shape, and/or made into precision molding powders. The sol-gel method is a synthetic chemical process where reactive monomers are mixed into a solution, polymerization occurs leading to a highly cross-linked three dimensional solid network resulting in a gel. The energetic materials can be incorporated during the formation of the solution or during the gel stage of the process. The composition, pore, and primary particle sizes, gel time, surface areas, and density may be tailored and controlled by the solution chemistry. The gel is then dried using supercritical extraction to produce a highly porous low density aerogel or by controlled slow evaporation to produce a xerogel. Applying stress during the extraction phase can result in high density materials. Thus, the sol-gel method can be used for precision detonator explosive manufacturing as well as producing precision explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics, along with high power composite energetic materials.

  18. Sol-Gel Manufactured Energetic Materials

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Randall L.; Lee, Ronald S.; Tillotson, Thomas M.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Swansiger, Rosalind W.; Fox, Glenn A.

    2005-05-17

    Sol-gel chemistry is used for the preparation of energetic materials (explosives, propellants and pyrotechnics) with improved homogeneity, and/or which can be cast to near-net shape, and/or made into precision molding powders. The sol-gel method is a synthetic chemical process where reactive monomers are mixed into a solution, polymerization occurs leading to a highly cross-linked three dimensional solid network resulting in a gel. The energetic materials can be incorporated during the formation of the solution or during the gel stage of the process. The composition, pore, and primary particle sizes, gel time, surface areas, and density may be tailored and controlled by the solution chemistry. The gel is then dried using supercritical extraction to produce a highly porous low density aerogel or by controlled slow evaporation to produce a xerogel. Applying stress during the extraction phase can result in high density materials. Thus, the sol-gel method can be used for precision detonator explosive manufacturing as well as producing precision explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics, along with high power composite energetic materials.

  19. Nonadditive Compositional Curvature Energetics of Lipid Bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodt, A. J.; Venable, R. M.; Lyman, E.; Pastor, R. W.

    2016-09-01

    The unique properties of the individual lipids that compose biological membranes together determine the energetics of the surface. The energetics of the surface, in turn, govern the formation of membrane structures and membrane reshaping processes, and thus they will underlie cellular-scale models of viral fusion, vesicle-dependent transport, and lateral organization relevant to signaling. The spontaneous curvature, to the best of our knowledge, is always assumed to be additive. We describe observations from simulations of unexpected nonadditive compositional curvature energetics of two lipids essential to the plasma membrane: sphingomyelin and cholesterol. A model is developed that connects molecular interactions to curvature stress, and which explains the role of local composition. Cholesterol is shown to lower the number of effective Kuhn segments of saturated acyl chains, reducing lateral pressure below the neutral surface of bending and favoring positive curvature. The effect is not observed for unsaturated (flexible) acyl chains. Likewise, hydrogen bonding between sphingomyelin lipids leads to positive curvature, but only at sufficient concentration, below which the lipid prefers negative curvature.

  20. Energetic neutral atoms: Imaging the magnetospheric ring current

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelof, Edmond C.

    1990-01-01

    Magnetospheric imaging is a new discipline whose goal is to make pictures of the energetic particle populations trapped in the magnetic field of Earth (or any other planet). This project demonstrated the technical feasibility and scientific validity of magnetospheric imaging using energetic neutral atoms (ENA) with the publication and quantitative analysis of the first ENA images ever obtained from space. ENA's are produced when singly-charged energetic (approximately 100 keV) trapped ions make an atomic collision with the neutral hydrogen atoms which boil of the top of the Earth's atmosphere. These hydrogen atoms suffuse the entire trapping volume of the magnetosphere. The energetic ion steals the electron from the atmospheric hydrogen, so the energetic ion is transformed into an energetic neutral atom with a velocity of several thousands of kilometers/second. Moreover, the new-born ENA preserves the velocity that the trapped ion had at the time of the collision. Consequently, any population of energetic ions emits ENA's.

  1. Soaring energetics and glide performance in a moving atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Graham K; Reynolds, Kate V; Thomas, Adrian L R

    2016-09-26

    Here, we analyse the energetics, performance and optimization of flight in a moving atmosphere. We begin by deriving a succinct expression describing all of the mechanical energy flows associated with gliding, dynamic soaring and thermal soaring, which we use to explore the optimization of gliding in an arbitrary wind. We use this optimization to revisit the classical theory of the glide polar, which we expand upon in two significant ways. First, we compare the predictions of the glide polar for different species under the various published models. Second, we derive a glide optimization chart that maps every combination of headwind and updraft speed to the unique combination of airspeed and inertial sink rate at which the aerodynamic cost of transport is expected to be minimized. With these theoretical tools in hand, we test their predictions using empirical data collected from a captive steppe eagle (Aquila nipalensis) carrying an inertial measurement unit, global positioning system, barometer and pitot tube. We show that the bird adjusts airspeed in relation to headwind speed as expected if it were seeking to minimize its aerodynamic cost of transport, but find only weak evidence to suggest that it adjusts airspeed similarly in response to updrafts during straight and interthermal glides.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'.

  2. Soaring energetics and glide performance in a moving atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Graham K; Reynolds, Kate V; Thomas, Adrian L R

    2016-09-26

    Here, we analyse the energetics, performance and optimization of flight in a moving atmosphere. We begin by deriving a succinct expression describing all of the mechanical energy flows associated with gliding, dynamic soaring and thermal soaring, which we use to explore the optimization of gliding in an arbitrary wind. We use this optimization to revisit the classical theory of the glide polar, which we expand upon in two significant ways. First, we compare the predictions of the glide polar for different species under the various published models. Second, we derive a glide optimization chart that maps every combination of headwind and updraft speed to the unique combination of airspeed and inertial sink rate at which the aerodynamic cost of transport is expected to be minimized. With these theoretical tools in hand, we test their predictions using empirical data collected from a captive steppe eagle (Aquila nipalensis) carrying an inertial measurement unit, global positioning system, barometer and pitot tube. We show that the bird adjusts airspeed in relation to headwind speed as expected if it were seeking to minimize its aerodynamic cost of transport, but find only weak evidence to suggest that it adjusts airspeed similarly in response to updrafts during straight and interthermal glides.This article is part of the themed issue 'Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight'. PMID:27528788

  3. Soaring energetics and glide performance in a moving atmosphere

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Kate V.; Thomas, Adrian L. R.

    2016-01-01

    Here, we analyse the energetics, performance and optimization of flight in a moving atmosphere. We begin by deriving a succinct expression describing all of the mechanical energy flows associated with gliding, dynamic soaring and thermal soaring, which we use to explore the optimization of gliding in an arbitrary wind. We use this optimization to revisit the classical theory of the glide polar, which we expand upon in two significant ways. First, we compare the predictions of the glide polar for different species under the various published models. Second, we derive a glide optimization chart that maps every combination of headwind and updraft speed to the unique combination of airspeed and inertial sink rate at which the aerodynamic cost of transport is expected to be minimized. With these theoretical tools in hand, we test their predictions using empirical data collected from a captive steppe eagle (Aquila nipalensis) carrying an inertial measurement unit, global positioning system, barometer and pitot tube. We show that the bird adjusts airspeed in relation to headwind speed as expected if it were seeking to minimize its aerodynamic cost of transport, but find only weak evidence to suggest that it adjusts airspeed similarly in response to updrafts during straight and interthermal glides. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Moving in a moving medium: new perspectives on flight’. PMID:27528788

  4. The "Bain Linguistique": A Core French Experiment at Churchill Alternative School, 1993-94. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesche, Marjorie; MacFarlane, Alina; Peters, Martine

    This report describes an experimental intensive core French program for grades 5 and 6 at Churchill Alternative School in Ottawa (Canada). The aim was to improve the oral French skills of core French students by providing a period of intensive exposure to French and by increasing the total number of hours in French during one program year from 120…

  5. Evidence for the Original Unity of North American French Dialects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Alexander

    1974-01-01

    Examines the resemblances - morphological, syntactic, lexical and phonological - among North American French dialects today in order to determine the extent to which these represent a common source. (PMP)

  6. Sleeping porch through french doors off master bedroom (southern unit) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Sleeping porch through french doors off master bedroom (southern unit) - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Officers' Quarters, West Charlie Kelly Boulevard & South Hutton Street, Southwest Corner, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  7. Arts in space: French experiences and elements of prospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnould, Jacques

    2009-04-01

    The French space adventure started more than 40 years ago. Its rich and long scientific and technical tradition made France able to occupy the place which is hers today. But what does happen to the world of arts, to which the French culture brought so much? Beyond some French artists belonging to the community of the space artists, do arts constitute a true dimension of the French space activity? Conversely, did space influence the national artistic culture? This paper proposes to tackle these questions according to a retrospective historical glance and to offer some prospective reflexions.

  8. The French National Mesothelioma Surveillance Program

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, M; Imbernon, E; Rolland, P; Ilg, A Gilg Soit; Savès, M; de Quillacq, A; Frenay, C; Chamming's, S; Arveux, P; Boutin, C; Launoy, G; Pairon, J C; Astoul, P; Galateau‐Sallé, F; Brochard, P

    2006-01-01

    Objectives The French National Mesothelioma Surveillance Program (NMSP) was established in 1998 by the National Institute for Health Surveillance (InVS). Its objectives are to estimate the trends in mesothelioma incidence and the proportion attributable to occupational asbestos exposure, to help improve its pathology diagnosis, to assess its compensation as an occupational disease, and to contribute to research. Methods The NMSP records incident pleural tumours in 21 French districts that cover a population of approximately 16 million people (a quarter of the French population). A standardised procedure of pathological and clinical diagnosis ascertainment is used. Lifetime exposure to asbestos and to other factors (man made mineral fibres, ionising radiation, SV40 virus) is reconstructed, and a case‐control study was also conducted. The proportion of mesothelioma compensated as an occupational disease was assessed. Results Depending on the hypothesis, the estimated number of incident cases in 1998 ranged from 660 to 761 (women: 127 to 146; men: 533 to 615). Among men, the industries with the highest risks of mesothelioma are construction and ship repair, asbestos industry, and manufacture of metal construction materials; the occupations at highest risk are plumbers, pipe‐fitters, and sheet‐metal workers. The attributable risk fraction for occupational asbestos exposure in men was 83.2% (95% CI 76.8 to 89.6). The initial pathologist's diagnosis was confirmed in 67% of cases, ruled out in 13%, and left uncertain in the others; for half of the latter, the clinical findings supported a mesothelioma diagnosis. In all, 62% applied for designation of an occupational disease, and 91% of these were receiving workers' compensation. Conclusions The NMSP is a large scale epidemiological surveillance system with several original aspects, providing important information to improve the knowledge of malignant pleural mesothelioma, such as monitoring the evolution of its

  9. The French Space Operations Act: Technical Regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazare, B.

    2013-12-01

    The French Space Operations Act (FSOA) [1] stipulates that one of the National Technical Regulations' prime objectives is to protect people, property, public health and the environment. Compliance with these Technical Regulations has been mandatory since 10 December, 2010 for space operations by French space operators and for space operations conducted on French territory. The space safety requirements and regulations governing procedures are based on national and international best practices and experience. A critical design review of the space system and procedures shall be carried out by applicant space operators, in order to verify compliance with the Technical Regulations. An independent technical assessment of the operation is delegated to CNES. The principles applied when drafting the Technical Regulations are as follows: requirements must, as far as possible, establish the rules according to the objective to be obtained, rather than how it is to be achieved; requirements must give preference to international standards recognised as being state of the art; requirements must take previous experience into account. The Technical Regulations are divided into three sections covering requirements common to the launch, control and return of a space object. A special section will cover specific rules to be applied at the Guiana Space Centre. The main topics addressed by the Technical Regulations are: operator safety management system; study of risks to people, property, public health and the Earth's environment; impact study on the outer space environment: space debris generated by the operation; planetary protection. The first version of the Technical Regulations [2], issued in March 2011, is dedicated to unmanned space systems.

  10. [French national health insurance. The current situation].

    PubMed

    Huguier, Michel; Lagrave, Michel; Marcelli, Aline; Rossignol, Claude; Tillement, Jean-Paul

    2010-06-01

    An audit of the French national health insurance system would be justified by economic considerations alone, but this would risk overlooking the notions of solidarity and freedom to which the French are rightly attached. European comparisons suggest, however, that our system could be made more efficient without undermining public health. The national health insurance system allows each member of the population to receive high-quality medical care. Practitioners have near-total freedom of prescription and practice. Medical care contributes to the ongoing increase in life expectancy, which is currently 73 years and second only to Japan. Healthcare is also a source of a million jobs. Macro-economic spending controls have failed, owing to medical progress and population aging, and also to medical consumerism favored by an unprecedented range of examinations and treatments, the increasing reimbursement of medical care, and the extension of direct payment by the insurer. Many ineffective measures have been implemented, such as tarification according to activity, and hospital certification. Health spending is also increased unnecessarily by bureaucratisation of healthcare spending and the transfer of professionals to posts for which they are not qualified. Some controversial medical prescriptions are not adequately controlled by the health service. Many reforms are based on over-optimistic economic predictions that fail to take related overheads into account. Lobbying by special interests groups undermines reform and the public interest. Too many independent administrative bodies have been created, and many are less efficient than the public structures they replaced. In sum, the French national health insurance system has become less and less efficient over the years. PMID:21513139

  11. Snow management practices in French ski resorts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spandre, Pierre; Francois, Hugues; George-Marcelpoil, Emmanuelle; Morin, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    Winter tourism plays a fundamental role in the economy of French mountain regions but also in other countries such as Austria, USA or Canada. Ski operators originally developed grooming methods to provide comfortable and safe skiing conditions. The interannual variability of snow conditions and the competition with international destinations and alternative tourism activities encouraged ski resorts to mitigate their dependency to weather conditions through snowmaking facilities. However some regions may not be able to produce machine made snow due to inadequate conditions and low altitude resorts are still negatively impacted by low snow seasons. In the meantime, even though the operations of high altitude resorts do not show any dependency to the snow conditions they invest in snowmaking facilities. Such developments of snowmaking facilities may be related to a confused and contradictory perception of climate change resulting in individualistic evolutions of snowmaking facilities, also depending on ski resorts main features such as their altitude and size. Concurrently with the expansion of snowmaking facilities, a large range of indicators have been used to discuss the vulnerability of ski resorts such as the so-called "100 days rule" which was widely used with specific thresholds (i.e. minimum snow depth, dates) and constraints (i.e. snowmaking capacity). The present study aims to provide a detailed description of snow management practices and major priorities in French ski resorts with respect to their characteristics. We set up a survey in autumn 2014, collecting data from 56 French ski operators. We identify the priorities of ski operators and describe their snowmaking and grooming practices and facilities. The operators also provided their perception of the ski resort vulnerability to snow and economic challenges which we could compare with the actual snow conditions and ski lift tickets sales during the period from 2001 to 2012.

  12. Too Much French? Not Enough French?: The Vancouver Olympics and a Very Canadian Language Ideological Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vessey, Rachelle

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a language ideological debate that took place in Canadian national newspapers following the opening ceremonies for the 2011 Vancouver Olympics. Reports on the insufficient use of French during the opening ceremonies sparked protest from politicians, official commentators, citizens and online newsreaders alike. Previous…

  13. Business French or French Business? What Do We Teach and What Do We Call It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe-Dupas, Helene

    It is argued that while college courses in French business communication aim to introduce business concepts, syllabuses and textbooks for this purpose do not integrate business skill training with business language training. Texts may contain extensive business-related vocabulary, readings, correspondence exercises, and definition of new concepts,…

  14. The perception of the French /s/-/ʃ/ contrast in early Creole-French bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Sophie; Kriegel, Sibylle; Alleesaib, Muhsina; Nguyen, Noël

    2014-01-01

    One particularity of the Mauritian Creole language is that there is no contrastive distinction between the consonants /s/ and /ʃ/, which are both pronounced /s/ in Creole. In this study, we examined the identification performance of the /s/-/ʃ/ contrast by Mauritian Creole-French bilinguals who have been exposed to French before 7 years of age, and who have been raised in a highly Creole-French bilingual society. The results showed that most of our bilingual participants identify the /s/ and /ʃ/ consonants like native French speakers. It also appeared that the way in which the two consonants are categorized can be manipulated by introducing subtle changes in the information these participants were given about the identity of the speaker that produced the stimuli. Our results are in accordance with recent studies showing native-like performance in bilinguals on a categorization task and, importantly, extend these findings to speakers of a Creole language. In addition, these results show that speech sound categorization can be influenced by information about the speaker's social identity and thus argue for models that postulate rich speech sound representations. PMID:25374557

  15. The perception of the French /s/-/ʃ/ contrast in early Creole-French bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, Sophie; Kriegel, Sibylle; Alleesaib, Muhsina; Nguyen, Noël

    2014-01-01

    One particularity of the Mauritian Creole language is that there is no contrastive distinction between the consonants /s/ and /ʃ/, which are both pronounced /s/ in Creole. In this study, we examined the identification performance of the /s/-/ʃ/ contrast by Mauritian Creole-French bilinguals who have been exposed to French before 7 years of age, and who have been raised in a highly Creole-French bilingual society. The results showed that most of our bilingual participants identify the /s/ and /ʃ/ consonants like native French speakers. It also appeared that the way in which the two consonants are categorized can be manipulated by introducing subtle changes in the information these participants were given about the identity of the speaker that produced the stimuli. Our results are in accordance with recent studies showing native-like performance in bilinguals on a categorization task and, importantly, extend these findings to speakers of a Creole language. In addition, these results show that speech sound categorization can be influenced by information about the speaker's social identity and thus argue for models that postulate rich speech sound representations. PMID:25374557

  16. Cigeo, the French Geological Repository Project - 13022

    SciTech Connect

    Labalette, Thibaud; Harman, Alain; Dupuis, Marie-Claude; Ouzounian, Gerald

    2013-07-01

    The Cigeo industrial-scale geological disposal centre is designed for the disposal of the most highly-radioactive French waste. It will be built in an argillite formation of the Callovo-Oxfordian dating back 160 million years. The Cigeo project is located near the Bure village in the Paris Basin. The argillite formation was studied since 1974, and from the Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory since end of 1999. Most of the waste to be disposed of in the Cigeo repository comes from nuclear power plants and from reprocessing of their spent fuel. (authors)

  17. Norovirus contamination on French marketed oysters

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Julien; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Lora, Monica; Atmar, Robert L.; Le Guyader, Françoise S.

    2014-01-01

    Contaminated shellfish have been implicated in gastroenteritis outbreaks in different countries. As no regulation has been set up yet regarding viral contamination of food, very few data are available on the prevalence of contaminated products on the market. This study presents data obtained from oysters collected on the French market in one producing area over a 16 month period of time. Noroviruses were detected in 9% of samples with a seasonal impact and influence of climatic events. Contamination levels were low and, surprisingly, oysters sampled directly from the producer were found to have less contamination than oysters from supermarkets. PMID:23973835

  18. Expeditionary medicine in Africa: the French experience.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Eric; Kenane, Maj Nadia; Montcriol, Ambroise; Palmier, Bruno

    2007-07-01

    The French army is often engaged in stability and support operations in Africa, and its military health service has gained much experience. The goal of this article is to present our military medical management strategies during the two main phases of military action. These situations most often begin with an initial combat phase, with combat casualty care. This consists of first aid, i.e., treatment of bleeding points, followed by battlefield forward medical care, damage control surgery, and resuscitation in forward surgical units. The quieter second phase of peacekeeping operations is dominated by the management of tropical diseases and their prevention, essential for the preservation of the military strength. PMID:17691682

  19. Darwin: German mystic or French rationalist?

    PubMed

    Ghiselin, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    The notion that Charles Darwin embraced the German Romantic tradition seems plausible, given the early influence of Alexander von Humboldt. But this view fails to do justice to other scientific traditions. Darwin was a protégé of the Englishman John Stevens Henslow and was a follower of the Scott Charles Lyell. He had important debts to French scientists, notably Henri Milne-Edwards, Etienne and Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, and Alphonse de Candolle. Many Germans were quite supportive of Darwin, but not all of these were encumbered by idealistic metaphysical baggage. Both Darwin and Anton Dohrn treated science as very much a cosmopolitan enterprise.

  20. Mammalian energetics. Flexible energetics of cheetah hunting strategies provide resistance against kleptoparasitism.

    PubMed

    Scantlebury, David M; Mills, Michael G L; Wilson, Rory P; Wilson, John W; Mills, Margaret E J; Durant, Sarah M; Bennett, Nigel C; Bradford, Peter; Marks, Nikki J; Speakman, John R

    2014-10-01

    Population viability is driven by individual survival, which in turn depends on individuals balancing energy budgets. As carnivores may function close to maximum sustained power outputs, decreased food availability or increased activity may render some populations energetically vulnerable. Prey theft may compromise energetic budgets of mesopredators, such as cheetahs and wild dogs, which are susceptible to competition from larger carnivores. We show that daily energy expenditure (DEE) of cheetahs was similar to size-based predictions and positively related to distance traveled. Theft at 25% only requires cheetahs to hunt for an extra 1.1 hour per day, increasing DEE by just 12%. Therefore, not all mesopredators are energetically constrained by direct competition. Other factors that increase DEE, such as those that increase travel, may be more important for population viability.

  1. Mammalian energetics. Instantaneous energetics of puma kills reveal advantage of felid sneak attacks.

    PubMed

    Williams, Terrie M; Wolfe, Lisa; Davis, Tracy; Kendall, Traci; Richter, Beau; Wang, Yiwei; Bryce, Caleb; Elkaim, Gabriel Hugh; Wilmers, Christopher C

    2014-10-01

    Pumas (Puma concolor) live in diverse, often rugged, complex habitats. The energy they expend for hunting must account for this complexity but is difficult to measure for this and other large, cryptic carnivores. We developed and deployed a physiological SMART (species movement, acceleration, and radio tracking) collar that used accelerometry to continuously monitor energetics, movements, and behavior of free-ranging pumas. This felid species displayed marked individuality in predatory activities, ranging from low-cost sit-and-wait behaviors to constant movements with energetic costs averaging 2.3 times those predicted for running mammals. Pumas reduce these costs by remaining cryptic and precisely matching maximum pouncing force (overall dynamic body acceleration = 5.3 to 16.1g) to prey size. Such instantaneous energetics help to explain why most felids stalk and pounce, and their analysis represents a powerful approach for accurately forecasting resource demands required for survival by large, mobile predators.

  2. Mammalian energetics. Flexible energetics of cheetah hunting strategies provide resistance against kleptoparasitism.

    PubMed

    Scantlebury, David M; Mills, Michael G L; Wilson, Rory P; Wilson, John W; Mills, Margaret E J; Durant, Sarah M; Bennett, Nigel C; Bradford, Peter; Marks, Nikki J; Speakman, John R

    2014-10-01

    Population viability is driven by individual survival, which in turn depends on individuals balancing energy budgets. As carnivores may function close to maximum sustained power outputs, decreased food availability or increased activity may render some populations energetically vulnerable. Prey theft may compromise energetic budgets of mesopredators, such as cheetahs and wild dogs, which are susceptible to competition from larger carnivores. We show that daily energy expenditure (DEE) of cheetahs was similar to size-based predictions and positively related to distance traveled. Theft at 25% only requires cheetahs to hunt for an extra 1.1 hour per day, increasing DEE by just 12%. Therefore, not all mesopredators are energetically constrained by direct competition. Other factors that increase DEE, such as those that increase travel, may be more important for population viability. PMID:25278609

  3. Personal pronouns and perspective taking in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Ricard, M; Girouard, P C; Décarie, T G

    1999-10-01

    This study examined the evolution of visual perspective-taking skills in relation to the comprehension and production of first, second and third person pronouns. Twelve French-speaking and 12 English-speaking children were observed longitudinally from 1.6 until they had acquired all pronouns and succeeded on all tasks. Free-play sessions and three tasks were used to test pronominal competence. Four other tasks assessed Level-1 perspective-taking skills: two of these tasks required the capacity to consider two visual perspectives, and two others tested the capacity to coordinate three such perspectives. The results indicated that children's performance on perspective-taking tasks was correlated with full pronoun acquisition. Moreover, competence at coordinating two visual perspectives preceded the full mastery of first and second person pronouns, and competence at coordinating three perspectives preceded the full mastery of third person pronouns when a strict criterion was adopted. However, with less stringent criteria, the sequence from perspective taking to pronoun acquisition varied either slightly or considerably. These findings are discussed in the light of the 'specificity hypothesis' concerning the links between cognition and language, and also in the context of the recent body of research on the child's developing theory of mind.

  4. "So She Has Been Educated by a Vulgar, Silly, Conceited French Governess!" Social Anxieties, Satirical Portraits, and the Eighteenth-Century French Instructor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegele, Arden

    2011-01-01

    Maria Edgeworth's pedagogical short stories "Mademoiselle Panache" (1800, 1801) and "The Good French Governess" (1801) portray contrasting French instructors, and illustrate a transformation in English girls' education in French at the end of the eighteenth century. While "Mademoiselle Panache" looks back to the disingenuous French instructors of…

  5. [Geographic aspects of mortality in French Polynesia].

    PubMed

    Vigneron, E

    1993-05-01

    The fast pace of social and economic changes which have occurred in French Polynesia over the last 30 years, have made this territory a choice ground for studying trends in mortality by revealing a fast and outstanding epidemiological transition. However, the breakdown of the population in small scattered human groups raises the statistical problem of measuring mortality. The crude mortality rate has decreased steadily from 17.5/1000 in 1945-1949 to 5.3/1000 over the last five years. However, the various infant mortality rate, in spite of their decline, is still exceeding those of Metropolitan France. The contrasted trends in the causes of mortality provides a means to classify French Polynesia in the group of small fast developing countries but still ranks it far behind its 'reference models' such as Metropolitan France or the developed countries in the South Pacific, Australia and New Zealand. Moreover, there are significant regional disparities which still exist between Tahiti and the outlying archipelagoes, mainly among causes of death. As a whole, distant islands remain significantly more affected by deaths resulting from infectious and parasitic diseases, in line with the model of epidemiological transition, where as the islands of Tahiti with 70% of the total population appears as a place of cumulation of infectious and degenerative diseases, in particular of overloading and cultural problems. The centre/periphery opposition between a metropolitan country and an overseas territory repeats itself at the local level between urban and rural environments. PMID:8511621

  6. Epidemiology of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in French Polynesia

    PubMed Central

    Phelippeau, Michael; Aboubaker Osman, Djaltou; Musso, Didier

    2015-01-01

    As few data are available in the Pacific countries and territories of the Oceania region regarding nontuberculous mycobacteria, we retrospectively identified 87 such isolates from French Polynesia from 2008 to 2013 by hybridization using DNA-strip, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and partial rpoB gene sequencing. Partial rpoB gene sequencing classified 42/87 (48.3%) isolates in the Mycobacterium fortuitum complex, 28 (32.2%) in the Mycobacterium abscessus complex, 8 (9.2%) in the Mycobacterium mucogenicum complex, and 5 (5.7%) in the Mycobacterium avium complex. Two isolates were identified as Mycobacterium acapulcensis and Mycobacterium cosmeticum by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. One isolate, unidentified by MALDI-TOF MS and yielding less than 92% and 96% sequence similarity with rpoB and hsp65 reference sequences, respectively, was regarded as a potentially new species. Samples from three patients exhibiting ≥2 Mycobacterium porcinum isolates and from one patient with emphysema and a lung abscess exhibiting 2 Mycobacterium senegalense isolates fulfilled the American Thoracic Society microbiological criteria for nontuberculous mycobacterial lung infection. Remote geographic areas, such as French Polynesia, are potential sources for the discovery of new mycobacterial species. PMID:26400787

  7. [Geographic aspects of mortality in French Polynesia].

    PubMed

    Vigneron, E

    1993-05-01

    The fast pace of social and economic changes which have occurred in French Polynesia over the last 30 years, have made this territory a choice ground for studying trends in mortality by revealing a fast and outstanding epidemiological transition. However, the breakdown of the population in small scattered human groups raises the statistical problem of measuring mortality. The crude mortality rate has decreased steadily from 17.5/1000 in 1945-1949 to 5.3/1000 over the last five years. However, the various infant mortality rate, in spite of their decline, is still exceeding those of Metropolitan France. The contrasted trends in the causes of mortality provides a means to classify French Polynesia in the group of small fast developing countries but still ranks it far behind its 'reference models' such as Metropolitan France or the developed countries in the South Pacific, Australia and New Zealand. Moreover, there are significant regional disparities which still exist between Tahiti and the outlying archipelagoes, mainly among causes of death. As a whole, distant islands remain significantly more affected by deaths resulting from infectious and parasitic diseases, in line with the model of epidemiological transition, where as the islands of Tahiti with 70% of the total population appears as a place of cumulation of infectious and degenerative diseases, in particular of overloading and cultural problems. The centre/periphery opposition between a metropolitan country and an overseas territory repeats itself at the local level between urban and rural environments.

  8. French Neurologists during World War I.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier; Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2016-01-01

    The Great War accelerated the development of neurological knowledge. Many neurological signs and syndromes, as well as new nosological entities such as war psychoneuroses, were described during the conflict. The period between 1914 and 1918 was the first time in which many neurologists were concentrated in wartime neurology centres and confronted with a number of neurological patients never seen before. This concentration led to the publication of papers concerning all fields of neurological sciences, and these reports pervaded scientific journals during the conflict and the post-war years. The careers of French neurologists during the war were highly varied. Some were mobilised, whilst others enlisted voluntarily. They worked as regiment physicians at the front or in wartime neurology centres at the front or at the rear. Others were academics who were already authoritative names in the field of neurology. Whilst they were too old to be officially mobilised, they nevertheless worked in their militarised neurology departments of civil hospitals. We present here the careers of a few French neurologists during the Great War, including Charles Foix (1882-1927), René Cruchet (1875-1959), Georges Guillain (1876-1961), Jean Lhermitte (1877-1959), Clovis Vincent (1879-1947), Gustave Roussy (1874-1948), and Paul Sollier (1861-1933).

  9. French Crossings: II. Laughing Over Boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Under the generic title, ‘French Crossings’, this Presidential Address explores the history of laughter in French society, and humour’s potential for trangressing boundaries. It focuses on the irreverent and almost entirely unknown book of comic drawings entitled Livre de caricatures tant Bonnes que mauvaises (Book of Caricatures, both Good and Bad), that was composed between the 1740s and the mid-1770s by the luxury Parisian embroiderer and designer, Charles-Germain de Saint-Aubin, and his friends and family. The bawdy laughter that the book seems intended to provoke gave it its nickname of the Livre de culs (Book of Arses). Yet despite the scatological character of many of the drawings, the humour often conjoined lower body functions with rather cerebral and erudite wit. The laughter provoked unsparingly targeted and exposed to ridicule the social elite, cultural celebrities and political leaders of Ancien Regime France. This made it a dangerous object, which was kept strictly secret. Was this humour somehow pre- or proto-Revolutionary? In fact, the work is so embedded in the culture of the Ancien Regime that 1789 was one boundary that the work signally fails to cross.

  10. French Neurologists during World War I.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier; Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2016-01-01

    The Great War accelerated the development of neurological knowledge. Many neurological signs and syndromes, as well as new nosological entities such as war psychoneuroses, were described during the conflict. The period between 1914 and 1918 was the first time in which many neurologists were concentrated in wartime neurology centres and confronted with a number of neurological patients never seen before. This concentration led to the publication of papers concerning all fields of neurological sciences, and these reports pervaded scientific journals during the conflict and the post-war years. The careers of French neurologists during the war were highly varied. Some were mobilised, whilst others enlisted voluntarily. They worked as regiment physicians at the front or in wartime neurology centres at the front or at the rear. Others were academics who were already authoritative names in the field of neurology. Whilst they were too old to be officially mobilised, they nevertheless worked in their militarised neurology departments of civil hospitals. We present here the careers of a few French neurologists during the Great War, including Charles Foix (1882-1927), René Cruchet (1875-1959), Georges Guillain (1876-1961), Jean Lhermitte (1877-1959), Clovis Vincent (1879-1947), Gustave Roussy (1874-1948), and Paul Sollier (1861-1933). PMID:27035726

  11. Relative clauses in French children's narrative texts.

    PubMed

    Jisa, H; Kern, S

    1998-10-01

    This study investigates the use of relative clauses in French children's narrative monologues. Narrative texts were collected from French-speaking monolinguals in four age groups (five, seven, ten years and adults). Twenty subjects from each group were asked to tell a story based on a picture book consisting of twenty-four images without text (Frog, Where are you?). Relative constructions were coded following the categories defined by Dasinger & Toupin (1994) into two main functional classes: general discourse and narrative functions. The results show that the use of relative clauses in general discourse functions precedes their use in more specific narrative functions. An analysis of textual connectivity (Berman & Slobin, 1994) in one episode reveals that children and adults differ in their choice of preferred structures. The results also show that children use fewer transitive predicates in relative clauses than do adults. Transitive verbs are essential for advancing the narrative plot (Hopper & Thompson, 1980). While subject relative clauses are acquired early and used frequently, the development of their multifunctional use in diverse narrative functions extends well beyond childhood.

  12. How deaf are French speakers to stress?

    PubMed

    Michelas, Amandine; Frauenfelder, Ulrich Hans; Schön, Daniele; Dufour, Sophie

    2016-03-01

    This event-related potential study examined whether French listeners use stress at a phonological level when discriminating between stressed and unstressed words in their language. Participants heard five words and made same/different decisions about the final word (male voice) with respect to the four preceding words (different female voices). Compared to the first four context words, the target word was (i) phonemically and prosodically identical (/ʃu/-/ʃu/; control condition), (ii) phonemically identical but differing in the presence of a primary stress (/ʃu'/-/ʃu/), (iii) prosodically identical but phonemically different (/ʃo/-/ʃu/), or (iv) both phonemically and prosodically different (/ʃo'/-/ʃu/). Crucially, differences on the P200 and the following N200 components were observed for the /ʃu'/-/ʃu/ and the /ʃo/-/ʃu/ conditions compared to the /ʃu/-/ʃu/ control condition. Moreover, on the N200 component more negativity was observed for the /ʃo/-/ʃu/ condition compared to the /ʃu'/-/ʃu/ conditions, while no difference emerged between these two conditions on the earlier P200 component. Crucially, the results suggest that French listeners are capable of creating an abstract representation of stress. However, as they receive more input, participants react more strongly to phonemic than to stress information. PMID:27036270

  13. French Crossings: II. Laughing Over Boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Under the generic title, ‘French Crossings’, this Presidential Address explores the history of laughter in French society, and humour’s potential for trangressing boundaries. It focuses on the irreverent and almost entirely unknown book of comic drawings entitled Livre de caricatures tant Bonnes que mauvaises (Book of Caricatures, both Good and Bad), that was composed between the 1740s and the mid-1770s by the luxury Parisian embroiderer and designer, Charles-Germain de Saint-Aubin, and his friends and family. The bawdy laughter that the book seems intended to provoke gave it its nickname of the Livre de culs (Book of Arses). Yet despite the scatological character of many of the drawings, the humour often conjoined lower body functions with rather cerebral and erudite wit. The laughter provoked unsparingly targeted and exposed to ridicule the social elite, cultural celebrities and political leaders of Ancien Regime France. This made it a dangerous object, which was kept strictly secret. Was this humour somehow pre- or proto-Revolutionary? In fact, the work is so embedded in the culture of the Ancien Regime that 1789 was one boundary that the work signally fails to cross. PMID:27630375

  14. A peek at the French missile complex

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.A.; Marshall, M.G.

    1989-09-01

    Using a spot satellite image, Grayscale, an image analysis firm, analyzed the features of a complex on the Plateau d'Albion, where French intermediate-range ballistic missiles are thought to be deployed. The project was undertaken at the request of the Carnegie Endowment, as part of the Endowment's study of the security implications of commercial remote-sensing satellites. The area studied is in southern France, near the intersection of the Vaucluse, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, and Drome provinces. Features seen in relief on an image shown here are the foot-hills just west of the Alpes Maritimes. The French acknowledge publicly that they have deployed 18 IRBMs - all S-3s. Recognizing the military habits of regimentation and organization, we believed that these weapons might be organized into two groups of nine, which could be further divided into subgroups of three. Such subgroups could be firing battalions of a brigade, or two brigades with a division-level headquarters controlling both. On this basis, the authors selected candidate sites throughout the image for closer examination, and results are discussed.

  15. Dengue in French Guiana, 1965-1993.

    PubMed

    Fouque, F; Reynes, J M; Moreau, J P

    1995-06-01

    While it seems likely that dengue fever (DF) has existed in French Guiana for at least one century, data on outbreaks are sketchy before temporary eradication of the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti and its reestablishment in the early 1960s. Dengue cases were serologically confirmed for the first time in 1965, and since then dengue epidemics have occurred at two to six year intervals, the most important occurring in 1968-1969, 1970, 1972, 1976, 1982, 1986, and 1992. Three of the four dengue virus serotypes (dengue-1, dengue-2, and dengue-4) have been implicated in these outbreaks. During the 1992 epidemic, which appears to have begun in 1991 and extended into 1993, cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) were confirmed for the first time. In all, at least 40 DHF cases and several deaths were associated with this epidemic. This development has raised considerable concern about the public health threat posed by DHF in French Guiana. Such concern is only heightened by the fact that while vector control is the sole means of preventing or combating dengue outbreaks, it has proved difficult to maintain vector populations at low levels with the control measures currently employed.

  16. Evaluation of French Guiana traditional antimalarial remedies.

    PubMed

    Bertani, S; Bourdy, G; Landau, I; Robinson, J C; Esterre, Ph; Deharo, E

    2005-04-01

    In order to evaluate the antimalarial potential of traditional remedies used in French Guiana, 35 remedies were prepared in their traditional form and screened for blood schizonticidal activity in vitro on Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine re4sistant strain (W2). Some of these extracts were screened in vivo against Plasmodium yoelii rodent malaria. Ferriprotoporphyrin inhibition test was also performed. Four remedies, widely used among the population as preventives, were able to inhibit more than 50% of the parasite growth in vivo at around 100 mg/kg: Irlbachia alata (Gentiananceae), Picrolemma pseudocoffea (Simaroubaceae), Quassia amara (Simaroubaceae), Tinospora crispa (Menispermaceae) and Zanthoxylum rhoifolium (Rutaceae). Five remedies displayed an IC50 in vitro < 10 microg/ml: Picrolemma pseudocoffea, Pseudoxandra cuspidata (Annonaceae) and Quassia amara leaves and stem, together with a multi-ingredient recipe. Two remedies were more active than a Cinchona preparation on the ferriprotoporphyrin inhibition test: Picrolemma pseudocoffea and Quassia amara. We also showed that a traditional preventive remedy, made from Geissospermum argenteum bark macerated in rum, was able to impair the intrahepatic cycle of the parasite. For the first time, traditional remedies from French Guiana have been directly tested on malarial pharmacological assays and some have been shown to be active.

  17. Lineament analysis near French Creek, northwestern Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, C.; Anderson, T.

    1984-12-01

    The authors are attempting to characterize the nature of linear topographic features in the vicinity of French Creek, northwestern Pennsylvania. Straight valleys that trend north to northwest and that are partially filled with glaciofluvial deposits distinguish prominent lineaments in Crawford, Venango, and Mercer Counties. The traces of these linear valleys are 1-15 mi (1.6-24 km) long and 10-4000 ft (3-1220 m) wide. The vertical extents of the lineaments are assumed to be proportional to their lengths. They assume that the topographic lineaments mark easily eroded zones coincident with fractures. The French Creek lineaments have been plotted on a Landsat photo, glacial map, regional map, and topographic maps. Subsurface structural and isopach maps may show facies changes or anomalous thickness across the lineaments. Geochemical surveys determine if there is any enhanced vertical migration of hydrocarbons along a lineament, and very low-frequency magnetic surveys would indicate any increase in groundwater concentration associated with the fracture zones. Well log data on initial production and breakdown pressures have been compared to lineament positions for possible correlations.

  18. Sociological Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townley, Charles; Middleton, Mike

    This monograph examines sociological perspectives and their applications. It is intended to help the college student coming to sociology for the first time to recognize that there are several perspectives within sociology and to disentangle the mass of terms associated with each. The first distinctive sociological perspective came from the work of…

  19. An Ag(I) energetic metal-organic framework assembled with the energetic combination of furazan and tetrazole: synthesis, structure and energetic performance.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiao-Ni; Zhang, Sheng; Wang, Bo-Zhou; Yang, Qi; Han, Jing; Wei, Qing; Xie, Gang; Chen, San-Ping

    2016-04-28

    A novel Ag(I) energetic MOF [Ag16(BTFOF)9]n·[2(NH4)]n () assembled with Ag(iI ions and a furazan derivative, 4,4'-oxybis[3,3'-(1H-5-tetrazol)]furazan (H2BTFOF) was successfully synthesized and structurally characterized, featuring a three-dimensional porous structure incorporating ammonium cations. The thermal stability and energetic properties were determined, revealing that the 3D energetic MOF had an outstanding insensitivity (IS > 40 J), an ultrahigh detonation pressure (P) of 65.29 GPa and a detonation velocity (D) of 11.81 km cm(-3). In addition, the self-accelerating decomposition temperature (TSADT) and the critical temperature of thermal explosion (Tb) are also discussed in detail. The finding exemplifies that the assembly strategy plays a decisive role in the density and energetic properties of MOF-based energetic materials. PMID:26987079

  20. An Ag(I) energetic metal-organic framework assembled with the energetic combination of furazan and tetrazole: synthesis, structure and energetic performance.

    PubMed

    Qu, Xiao-Ni; Zhang, Sheng; Wang, Bo-Zhou; Yang, Qi; Han, Jing; Wei, Qing; Xie, Gang; Chen, San-Ping

    2016-04-28

    A novel Ag(I) energetic MOF [Ag16(BTFOF)9]n·[2(NH4)]n () assembled with Ag(iI ions and a furazan derivative, 4,4'-oxybis[3,3'-(1H-5-tetrazol)]furazan (H2BTFOF) was successfully synthesized and structurally characterized, featuring a three-dimensional porous structure incorporating ammonium cations. The thermal stability and energetic properties were determined, revealing that the 3D energetic MOF had an outstanding insensitivity (IS > 40 J), an ultrahigh detonation pressure (P) of 65.29 GPa and a detonation velocity (D) of 11.81 km cm(-3). In addition, the self-accelerating decomposition temperature (TSADT) and the critical temperature of thermal explosion (Tb) are also discussed in detail. The finding exemplifies that the assembly strategy plays a decisive role in the density and energetic properties of MOF-based energetic materials.

  1. Synthesis of a new energetic nitrate ester

    SciTech Connect

    Chavez, David E

    2008-01-01

    Nitrate esters have been known as useful energetic materials since the discovery of nitroglycerin by Ascanio Sobrero in 1846. The development of methods to increase the safety and utility of nitroglycerin by Alfred Nobel led to the revolutionary improvement in the utility of nitroglycerin in explosive applications in the form of dynamite. Since then, many nitrate esters have been prepared and incorporated into military applications such as double-based propellants, detonators and as energetic plasticizers. Nitrate esters have also been shown to have vasodilatory effects in humans and thus have been studied and used for treatments of ailments such as angina. The mechanism of the biological response towards nitrate esters has been elucidated recently. Interestingly, many of the nitrate esters used for military purposes are liquids (ethylene glycol dinitrate, propylene glycol dinitrate, etc). Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) is one of the only solid nitrate esters, besides nitrocellulose, that is used in any application. Unfortunately, PETN melting point is above 100 {sup o}C, and thus must be pressed as a solid for detonator applications. A more practical material would be a melt-castable explosive, for potential simplification of manufacturing processes. Herein we describe the synthesis of a new energetic nitrate ester (1) that is a solid at ambient temperatures, has a melting point of 85-86 {sup o}C and has the highest density of any known nitrate ester composed only of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen. We also describe the chemical, thermal and sensitivity properties of 1 as well as some preliminary explosive performance data.

  2. Dose spectra from energetic particles and neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwadron, Nathan; Bancroft, Chris; Bloser, Peter; Legere, Jason; Ryan, James; Smith, Sonya; Spence, Harlan; Mazur, Joe; Zeitlin, Cary

    2013-10-01

    spectra from energetic particles and neutrons (DoSEN) are an early-stage space technology research project that combines two advanced complementary radiation detection concepts with fundamental advantages over traditional dosimetry. DoSEN measures not only the energy but also the charge distribution (including neutrons) of energetic particles that affect human (and robotic) health in a way not presently possible with current dosimeters. For heavy ions and protons, DoSEN provides a direct measurement of the lineal energy transfer (LET) spectra behind shielding material. For LET measurements, DoSEN contains stacks of thin-thick Si detectors similar in design to those used for the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation. With LET spectra, we can now directly break down the observed spectrum of radiation into its constituent heavy-ion components and through biologically based quality factors that provide not only doses and dose rates but also dose equivalents, associated rates, and even organ doses. DoSEN also measures neutrons from 10 to 100 MeV, which requires enough sensitive mass to fully absorb recoil particles that the neutrons produce. DoSEN develops the new concept of combining these independent measurements and using the coincidence of LET measurements and neutron detection to significantly reduce backgrounds in each measurement. The background suppression through the use of coincidence allows for significant reductions in size, mass, and power needed to provide measurements of dose, neutron dose, dose equivalents, LET spectra, and organ doses. Thus, we introduce the DoSEN concept: a promising low-mass instrument that detects the full spectrum of energetic particles, heavy ions, and neutrons to determine biological impact of radiation in space.

  3. Solar Energetic Particle Studies with PAMELA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bravar, U.; Christian, E. R.; deNolfo, Georgia; Ryan, J. M.; Stochaj, S.

    2011-01-01

    The origin of the high-energy solar energetic particles (SEPs) may conceivably be found in composition signatures that reflect the elemental abundances of the low corona and chromosphere vs. the high corona and solar wind. The presence of secondaries, such as neutrons and positrons, could indicate a low coronal origin of these particles. Velocity dispersion of different species and over a wide energy range can be used to determine energetic particle release times at the Sun. Together with multi-wavelength imaging, in- situ observations of a variety of species, and coverage over a wide energy range provide a critical tool in identifying the origin of SEPs, understanding the evolution of these events within the context of solar active regions, and constraining the acceleration mechanisms at play. The Payload for Antimatter Matter Exploration and Light-nuclei Astrophysics (PAMELA)instrument, successfully launched in 2006 and expected to remain operational until at least the beginning of 2012, measures energetic particles in the same energy range as ground-based neutron monitors, and lower energies as well. It thus bridges the gap between low energy in-situ observations and ground-based Ground Level Enhancements (GLE) observations. It can measure the charge (up to Z=6) and atomic number of the detected particles, and it can identify and measure positrons and detect neutrons-an unprecedented array of data channels that we can bring to bear on the origin of high-energy SEPs. We present prelimiary results on the for the 2006 December 13 solar flare and GLE and the 2011 March 21 solar flare, both registering proton and helium enhancements in PAMELA. Together with multi- spacecraft contextual data and modeling, we discuss the PAMELA results in the context of the different acceleration mechanisms at play.

  4. The MAVEN Solar Energetic Particle instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, P.; Lillis, R. J.; Larson, D. E.; Lin, R. P.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) instrument will travel to Mars onboard the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) Mission, launching in November 2013. In order for MAVEN to determine the role that loss of volatiles to space has played through time, solar energy input to the Martian system must be characterized. An important (if infrequent and episodic) portion of this input is in the form of solar energetic particle (SEP) events. Understanding the relationship between SEP events and atmospheric escape is crucial to understanding the climate history of Mars. The SEP instrument will characterize such events at Mars by measuring energetic protons and electrons in the energy range absorbed by the upper atmosphere. SEP takes much of its heritage from the Solid State Telescope (SST) on the THEMIS mission, consisting of 2 orthogonal dual double-ended solid-state telescopes. Proton spectra from 25 keV to 6 MeV and electron spectra from 25 keV to 1 MeV will be collected in 4 look directions at 3 measurement cadences over MAVEN's 4.5-hour elliptical orbit: 32s far from the planet, 8s between 300 and 800 km altitude and 2s below 300 km. SEP will measure particle fluxes from ~20 to ~107 cm-2s-1sr-1. Here we present a full description of the instrument, as well as GEANT4 simulations of the detailed detector response.; Cross-section view of SEP sensor. Collimators are shown in yellow, baffles are in black. The sweep magnet (blue and brown) prevents electrons < 350 keV from reaching the detector stack (mounted on circuit board shown in green) from the left. A Kapton foil (not visible) prevent ions < 250 keV from reaching the stack from the right.

  5. Solar energetic particle transport in the heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pei, Chunsheng

    2007-08-01

    The transport of solar energetic particles (SEPs) in the inner heliosphere is a very important issue which can affect our daily life. For example, large SEP events can lead to the failure of power grids, interrupt communications, and may participate in global climate change. The SEPS also can harm humans in space and destroy the instruments on board spacecraft. Studying the transport of SEPs also helps us understand remote regions of space which are not visible to us because there are not enough photons in those places. The interplanetary magnetic field is the medium in which solar energetic particles travel. The Parker Model of the solar wind and its successor, the Weber and Davis model, have been the dominant models of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field since 1960s. In this thesis, I have reviewed these models and applied an important correction to the Weber and Davis model Various solar wind models and their limitations are presented. Different models can affect the calculation of magnetic field direction at 1 AU by as much as about 30%. Analysis of the onset of SEP events could be used to infer the release time of solar energetic particles and to differentiate between models of particle acceleration near the Sun. It is demonstrated that because of the nature of the stochastic heliospheric magnetic field, the path length measured along the line of force can be shorter than that of the nominal Parker spiral. These results help to explain recent observations. A two dimensional model and a fully three dimensional numerical model for the transport of SEPs has been developed based on Parker's transport equation for the first time. ''Reservoir'' phenomenon, which means the inner heliosphere works like a reservoir for SEPs during large SEP events, and multi-spacecraft observation of peak intensities are explained by this numerical model.

  6. Energetic Ion Interactions with the Galilean Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.

    2000-01-01

    The principal research tasks of this investigation are: (1) specification of the energetic (keV to MeV) ion environments upstream of the four Galilean satellites and (2) data analysis and numerical modeling of observed ion interactions with the satellites. Differential flux spectra are being compiled for the most abundant ions (protons, oxygen, and sulfur) from measurements at 20 keV to 100 MeV total energy by the Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) experiment and at higher ion energies by the Heavy Ion Counter (HIC) experiment. Runge-Kutta and other numerical techniques are used to propagate test particles sampled from the measured upstream spectra to the satellite surface or spacecraft through the local magnetic and corotational electric field environment of each satellite. Modeling of spatial variations in directional flux anisotropies measured during each close flyby provides limits on atomic charge states for heavy (O, S) magnetospheric ions and on internal or induced magnetic fields of the satellites. Validation of models for magnetic and electric field configurations then allows computation of rates for ion implantation, sputtering, and energy deposition into the satellite surfaces for further modeling of observable chemical changes induced by irradiation. Our ongoing work on production of oxidants and other secondary species by ice irradiation on Europa's surface has significant applications, already acknowledged in current literature, to astrobiological evolution. Finally, the work will improve understanding of energetic ion sources and sinks at the satellite orbits for improved modeling of magnetospheric transport processes. The scope of the research effort mainly includes data from the primary Galileo mission (1995-1997) but may also include some later data where directly relevant (e.g., comparison of J0 and I27 data for Io) to the primary mission objectives. Funding for this contract also includes partial support for our related education and public

  7. Energetics of hydrogen storage in organolithium nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Namilae, Sirish; Fuentes-Cabrera, Miguel A; Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam; Gorti, Sarma B; Nicholson, Don M

    2007-01-01

    Ab-initio calculations based on the second order Moller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) were used to investigate the interaction of molecular hydrogen with alkyl lithium organometallic compounds. It is found that lithium in organolithium structures attracts two hydrogen molecules with a binding energy of about 0.14 eV. The calculations also show that organolithium compounds bind strongly with graphitic nanostructures. Therefore, these carbon based nanostructures functionalized with organolithium compounds can be effectively used for storage of molecular hydrogen. Energetics and mechanisms for achieving high weight percent hydrogen storage in organolithium based nanostructures are discussed.

  8. The Energetic Particle Experiment (EPE) on THOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert; Vainio, Rami; Steinhagen, Jan

    2016-07-01

    THOR is one of the remaining three candidate mission for ESA's M4 launch in 2026. The Energetic Particle Experiment (EPE) will measure electrons (ions) from 20 keV (20 keV/nuc) to 700 keV (20 MeV) with excellent pitch-angle resolution and a very high cadence. This will allow us to understand how turbulence dissipates and how particles are energized in this process, thus shedding light on this ubiquitous astrophysical process. We will present the design and current status of EPE.

  9. Dynamics and structure of energetic displacement cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Averback, R.S.; Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Benedek, R.

    1987-12-01

    This paper summarizes recent progress in the understanding of energetic displacement cascades and the primary state of damage in metals. On the theoretical side, the availability of supercomputers has greatly enhanced our ability to simulate cascades by molecular dynamics. Recent application of this simulation technique to Cu and Ni provides new insight into the dynamics of cascade processes. On the experimental side, new data on ion beam mixing and in situ electron microscopy studies of ion damage at low temperatures reveal the role of the thermodynamic properties of the material on cascade dynamics and structure. 38 refs., 9 figs.

  10. Energetics of core formation - A correction.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flasar, F. M.; Birch, F.

    1973-01-01

    An error has recently been discovered in the calculation of the temperature rise conducted by Birch (1965) in connection with a determination of the release of gravitational energy accompanying a rapid formation of the earth's core from an initially undifferentiated state. A revised calculation of the energetic relations involved in the core formation is, therefore, presented. The radii of the initial undifferentiated cold earth and of the fictitious undifferentiated warm earth are both found to be slightly smaller than that of the present differentiated warm earth.

  11. Nonlinear electromagnetic interactions in energetic materials

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wood, Mitchell Anthony; Dalvit, Diego Alejandro; Moore, David Steven

    2016-01-12

    We study the scattering of electromagnetic waves in anisotropic energetic materials. Nonlinear light-matter interactions in molecular crystals result in frequency-conversion and polarization changes. Applied electromagnetic fields of moderate intensity can induce these nonlinear effects without triggering chemical decomposition, offering a mechanism for the nonionizing identification of explosives. We use molecular-dynamics simulations to compute such two-dimensional THz spectra for planar slabs made of pentaerythritol tetranitrate and ammonium nitrate. Finally, we discuss third-harmonic generation and polarization-conversion processes in such materials. These observed far-field spectral features of the reflected or transmitted light may serve as an alternative tool for standoff explosive detection.

  12. Semiconductor bridge, SCB, ignition of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bickes, R.W.; Grubelich, M.D.; Harris, S.M.; Merson, J.A.; Tarbell, W.W.

    1997-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories` semiconductor bridge, SCB, is now being used for the ignition or initiation of a wide variety of exeoergic materials. Applications of this new technology arose because of a need at the system level to provide light weight, small volume and low energy explosive assemblies. Conventional bridgewire devices could not meet the stringent size, weight and energy requirements of our customers. We present an overview of SCB technology and the ignition characteristics for a number of energetic materials including primary and secondary explosives, pyrotechnics, thermites and intermetallics. We provide examples of systems designed to meet the modern requirements that sophisticated systems must satisfy in today`s market environments.

  13. Teaching French as a World Language: A Curriculum Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, John

    1976-01-01

    The National Endowment for the Humanities supports a University of Michigan-Flint effort to develop multimedia curriculum materials to teach French as an international and multicultural language. The project concentrates on non-European French-speaking areas. Filmstrips, reading materials and tapes record characteristic life, music, speech and…

  14. Comprehension of Sentences with Stylistic Inversion by French Aphasic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigalleau, Francois; Baudiffier, Vanessa; Caplan, David

    2004-01-01

    Three French-speaking agrammatic aphasics and three French-speaking Conduction aphasics were tested for comprehension of Active, Passive, Cleft-Subject, Cleft-Object, and Cleft-Object sentences with Stylistic Inversion using an object manipulation test. The agrammatic patients consistently reversed thematic roles in the latter sentence type, and…

  15. Teaching Scientific and Technical French at Napier College in Scotland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Evelyne

    Scotland's vocationally-oriented Napier College was funded by the French Government to develop language courses for scientists and engineers. The courses developed have been intensive and extensive, based on work started by a team of French scientists focusing on the language, concepts, and ways of thinking common to the scientific community.…

  16. Roumanie: Le Francais d'abord (Romania: French First).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serren-Rosso, M. L.

    1993-01-01

    Eighty percent of the schools in Iasi, Moldova's capital city, teach French as a second language. The city's French Cultural Center is a focus for educational and cultural information and organization. The center helped upgrade the professional level of teaching following the demise of communism in Eastern Europe. (CNP)

  17. Multilingualism and Web Advertising: Addressing French-Speaking Consumers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Drawing inferences from both quantitative and qualitative data, this study examines the extent to which American companies tailor their Web advertising for global audiences with a particular focus on French-speaking consumers in North America, Europe, Africa, the Caribbean and French Polynesia. Explored from a sociolinguistic and social semiotic…

  18. Building a Writing Community through Learning of French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissoonauth-Bedford, Anu.; Stace, Ray

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a pilot study designed to develop writing proficiency in French via collaborative writing activities at intermediate level at the University of Wollongong in Australia. Twenty four students in the final year of French studies program took part in this innovative approach which integrates multimodal functionality of the…

  19. Structural Influences on Initial Accent Placement in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astesano, Corine; Bard, Ellen Gurman; Turk, Alice

    2007-01-01

    In addition to the phrase-final accent (FA), the French phonological system includes a phonetically distinct Initial Accent (IA). The present study tested two proposals: that IA marks the onset of phonological phrases, and that it has an independent rhythmic function. Eight adult native speakers of French were instructed to read syntactically…

  20. Elusive Reform: The French Universities, 1968-1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Habiba S.

    The development of the new French universities is traced from 1968 to 1978. Chapter One examines the state of French higher education prior to 1968, including such aspects as access to education and student life. Chapter Two focuses on the student revolt at the Sorbonne on May 3, 1968. In the next four chapters, the emergence of the Faure law with…

  1. Rocky Mountain House French Immersion Camp: A Process Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klink, Patricia; And Others

    This report examines the implementation of a five-day French immersion program whose goal was to expose rural secondary school students to French in cultural context, in order to develop cultural understanding and effective communication. Findings of the study show: (1) 14 percent of the program time was spent on instructional activity, 20 percent…

  2. Strategies for Developing Cultural Awareness in the Business French Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Cathleen

    The technique used by one teacher to incorporate cultural sensitivity into the business French course is described. Cultural orientation begins in the first class meeting with a discussion of shapes and symbols. Discussion proceeds to the hexagon, a geographic, cultural, and linguistic symbol for France. A discussion of French geography and a…

  3. Facebook-Induced Motivation Shifts in a French Online Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubry, James

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the effects of instructor's self-disclosure using the Facebook social networking online platform on students' motivation types in an online language course. The participants were 104 beginning French students enrolled in an online French course at a major research university in the southeast U.S. The participants were…

  4. Do 11-Month-Old French Infants Process Articles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halle, Pierre A.; Durand, Catherine; de Boysson-Bardies, Benedicte

    2008-01-01

    The first part of this study examined (Parisian) French-learning 11-month-old infants' recognition of the six definite and indefinite French articles: "le", "la", "les", "un", "une", and "des". The six articles were compared with pseudoarticles in the context of disyllabic or monosyllabic nouns, using the Head-turn Preference Procedure. The pseudo…

  5. Debate-Creating vs. Accounting References in French Medical Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salager-Meyer, Francoise

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the quantitative and qualitative evolution of debate-creating vs. accounting references in 90 French medical articles published between 1810 and 1995. Suggests that nineteenth-century French academic writing tends to be more polemical or oppositional than cooperative by contrast to its twentieth-century counterpart. Suggests that the…

  6. The Role of Texture in French Spectral Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besharse, Kari E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the essential role of texture in French spectral music and its contribution to musical evolution and form in specific works by Gerard Grisey, Tristan Murail, Philippe Hurel, and Kaija Saariaho. The use of texture in French spectral music is placed in a historical context by exploring the new ways that texture is employed in…

  7. The Great Drama: Germany and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Gerhard

    Revolution did not spread to Germany from France at the end of the 18th century, yet the German and other European states were forced to come to terms with the principles of the French Revolution such as political and legal freedoms and national unity. Germany was affected by the French Revolution particularly by the reactions of German…

  8. Developing Aural Proficiency Skills in the Business French Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Cathleen

    This paper discusses the use of the re-broadcast of French television news (Le Journal de 20 Heures) as a tool to develop aural proficiency in college students enrolled in a business French course in the United States. Before viewing each 1- to 2-minute news segment, students complete vocabulary exercises and read a relevant newspaper article.…

  9. The Spelling Skills of French-Speaking Dyslexic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plisson, Anne; Daigle, Daniel; Montesinos-Gelet, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Learning to spell is very difficult for dyslexic children, a phenomenon explained by a deficit in processing phonological information. However, to spell correctly in an alphabetic language such as French, phonological knowledge is not enough. Indeed, the French written system requires the speller to acquire visuo-orthographical and morphological…

  10. The French Evolution: France and the Europeanisation of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkington, Marc

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the salient characteristics of the French higher education system are examined in the light of its recent evolution and in the context of overwhelming Europeanisation trends. In spite of major weaknesses still hindering the performance of French universities, it is argued that following the recent wave of reforms, the country is…

  11. Assimilation and Affirmative Action in French Education Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langan, Elise S.

    2008-01-01

    The French education system was created as a means to uphold the republican principles emanating from the Revolution. The first Article of the 1958 French Constitution says the Republic assures equality before the law of all citizens without distinction of origin or race. Theoretically at least, it is not only forbidden to discriminate, but to…

  12. French Liaison: Linguistic and Sociolinguistic Influences on Speech Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dautricourt, Robin Guillaume

    2010-01-01

    French liaison is a phonological process that takes place when an otherwise silent word-final consonant is pronounced before a following vowel-initial word. It is a process that has been evolving for centuries, and whose patterns of realization are influenced by a wide range of interacting linguistic and social factors. French speakers therefore…

  13. Acoustical Measurements of Selected Intonation Contours of French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, John M.

    Recent studies of rising intonation contours in French, in particular the acoustical differences that serve to distinguish Yes/No questions from other rising intonations are reviewed. The preliminary results of a pilot study of rising intonations in French, in which average curves were obtained from spectrographic measurements of fundamental…

  14. "Bad French" and Nice Guys: A Morphophonetic Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Pierre; Tennant, Jeff

    1990-01-01

    A study investigated variation from certain morphophonological and phonetic features normally associated with familiar, popular, or vulgar speech as they occur in a prestigious variety of French (spoken on a French literary talk show). Phonostylistic variation in the speech of host and guests is examined. (Author/MSE)

  15. The Rhythmic Group, Liaison, Nouns and Verbs of French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, William J.

    1975-01-01

    The "rhythmic group" in French (noun group or verb group) is described with examples. The aim is to find some relation between the morphophonological phenomena such as "liaison" occurring within such rhythmic groups and the syntactic structure of French. Available from Liber Laeromedel, Box 1205, S-22105 Lund, Sweden. (TL)

  16. Opera and Art in the French Foreign Language Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hekmatpanah, Lyra

    1993-01-01

    It has previously been shown that an opera can successfully be integrated into a high school or college language class. It is suggested that an entire semester could be devoted to just French operas and French art, using corresponding literary texts for comparative purposes. Grammar points are included as needed; conversation about the stories…

  17. Foreign Language Experience in the Elementary School: French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Annapolis, MD.

    Guidelines for teaching French in the elementary school are presented. The program is designed to develop the skills of careful listening and accurate pronunciation and to provide pleasurable learning experiences through dialogues, songs, and games. French is contrasted with English to relate the language experience to other aspects of the…

  18. Translating French Song as a Language Learning Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Andrew B.

    1987-01-01

    Outlines an approach to using the translation of French songs in English as an effective and enjoyable learning activity for students of French. Steps include: respecting rhythms; finding and respecting meaning; respecting style; respecting sound; respecting your choice of intended listeners; and respecting the original version. (CB)

  19. Nanostructured energetic materials using sol-gel methodologies

    SciTech Connect

    Tillotson, T M; Simpson, R L; Hrubesh, L W; Gash, A E; Thomas, I M; Poco, J F

    2000-09-27

    The fundamental differences between energetic composites and energetic materials made from a monomolecular approach are the energy density attainable and the energy release rates. For the past 4 years, we have been exploiting sol-gel chemistry as a route to process energetic materials on a microstructural scale. At the last ISA conference, we described four specific sol-gel approaches to fabricating energetic materials and presented our early work and results on two methods - solution crystallization and powder addition. Here, we detail our work on a third approach, energetic nanocomposites. Synthesis of thermitic types of energetic nanocomposites are presented using transition and main group metal-oxide skeletons. Results on characterization of structure and performance will also be given.

  20. Biology of the Coconut Bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi, on French Beans

    PubMed Central

    Egonyu, James Peter; Ekesi, Sunday; Kabaru, Jacques; Irungu, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    The coconut bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi Brown (Heteroptera: Coreidae), is a major pest of a wide range of economically important crops in Eastern and Southern Africa. The suitability of French beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) as an alternative food for mass rearing of P. wayi was determined by elucidating its development, survival, and reproduction on French bean pods in the laboratory. Development and survival of immatures on French beans was comparable to what is reported with two hosts previously used for rearing this species, namely coconut and cashew. Adults survived thrice longer and laid almost twice more eggs on the French beans than was reported for the two hosts above. These findings suggest that French beans are more suitable for mass rearing of this species than coconut and cashew, which have been used previously but can be scarce and too costly. PMID:25373191

  1. Characterization of energetic and non-energetic polymers for laser ablation propulsion applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paturi, Prem Kiran; Chelikani, Leela; Billa, Narasimha Rao; Guthikonda, Nagaraju; Jana, Tushar; Acrhem Team; School Of Chemistry Team

    2015-06-01

    Energetic Polymers, considered to be cleaner, environmental friendly materials are one of the primary candidates for future plasma thrusters. For e.g., energetic hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) is being used as a binder for high-performance composite propellants. Understanding the conversion of optical energy to kinetic energy is essential in evaluating these materials as thrusters. Spatio-temporal evolution of laser ablative (LA) and blow-off (BO) shock waves (SW) during laser excitation provide a valuable insight into the energy release of the polymers. LASW and LBOSW during 7 ns laser pulse (532 nm, 10Hz) interaction with ~ 200 micron thick HTPB and its variants with energetic additives taken in the form of a sheet were studied simultaneously using defocused shadowgraphic imaging over 0.2 - 30 μs time scales. The results were compared with non-energetic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) under same experimental conditions. The SW was observed to propagate faster through the HTPB variant compared to HTPB. Appearance of LBOSW at different time scales for the polymers revealed the shock propagation characteristics through the polymers. The work is supported by Defence Research and Developement Organization, India through Grants-in-Aid Program.

  2. Benchtop energetics: Detection of hyperthermal species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fossum, Emily C.; Molek, Christopher D.; Lewis, William K.; Fajardo, Mario

    2012-03-01

    We present a novel scheme for monitoring the transition between deflagration and "detonation-like" behavior of small-scale explosive samples subjected to shock stimuli. The intended geometry for this setup incorporates a laser-driven-flyer impact technique to generate a pure mechanical input. However, we report results here using a simplified geometry for purposes of evaluating the time-of-flight mass spectrometric (TOFMS) diagnostics using direct laser ablation of solid aluminum and of an aluminum mirror coated with a small amount (~1 μg) of PETN. This manuscript presents the TOFMS detection of fast aluminum atoms (>10 km/s) resulting from laser ablation, confirming our ability to detect hyperthermal species. Preliminary results from pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) experiments reveal a transition from species consistent with deflagration (primarily NO2) at low laser fluence, to those consistent with detonation-like events (N2, CO, CO2) at higher laser fluence. At this time, due to several unknown parameters in the current setup, we will not posit the exact physical details which cause this transition (e.g. shock pressures, temperatures, etc.). However, these results indicate that such a transition can be detected using the Benchtop Energetics TOFMS diagnostics setup, where future, more controlled and/or characterized energetic events may lead to better understanding of initiation/ignition thresholds of candidate materials.

  3. How do energetic ions damage metallic surfaces?

    SciTech Connect

    Osetskiy, Yury N.; Calder, Andrew F.; Stoller, Roger E.

    2015-02-20

    Surface modification under bombardment by energetic ions observed under different conditions in structural and functional materials and can be either unavoidable effect of the conditions or targeted modification to enhance materials properties. Understanding basic mechanisms is necessary for predicting properties changes. The mechanisms activated during ion irradiation are of atomic scale and atomic scale modeling is the most suitable tool to study these processes. In this paper we present results of an extensive simulation program aimed at developing an understanding of primary surface damage in iron by energetic particles. We simulated 25 keV self-ion bombardment of Fe thin films with (100) and (110) surfaces at room temperature. A large number of simulations, ~400, were carried out allow a statistically significant treatment of the results. The particular mechanism of surface damage depends on how the destructive supersonic shock wave generated by the displacement cascade interacts with the free surface. Three basic scenarios were observed, with the limiting cases being damage created far below the surface with little or no impact on the surface itself, and extensive direct surface damage on the timescale of a few picoseconds. In some instances, formation of large <100> vacancy loops beneath the free surface was observed, which may explain some earlier experimental observations.

  4. Coarse-Grain Modeling of Energetic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan, John

    2015-06-01

    Mechanical and thermal loading of energetic materials can incite responses over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales due to inherent nano- and microscale features. Many energy transfer processes within these materials are atomistically governed, yet the material response is manifested at the micro- and mesoscale. The existing state-of-the-art computational methods include continuum level approaches that rely on idealized field-based formulations that are empirically based. Our goal is to bridge the spatial and temporal modeling regimes while ensuring multiscale consistency. However, significant technical challenges exist, including that the multiscale methods linking the atomistic and microscales for molecular crystals are immature or nonexistent. To begin addressing these challenges, we have implemented a bottom-up approach for deriving microscale coarse-grain models directly from quantum mechanics-derived atomistic models. In this talk, a suite of computational tools is described for particle-based microscale simulations of the nonequilibrium response of energetic solids. Our approach builds upon recent advances both in generating coarse-grain models under high strains and in developing a variant of dissipative particle dynamics that includes chemical reactions.

  5. Energetics of calcium-rich dolomite

    SciTech Connect

    Chai, L.; Navrotsky, A.; Reeder, R.J.

    1995-03-01

    The enthalpy of formation of sedimentary Ca-rich dolomite has been determined by oxide melt calorimetry. The results show that Ca-rich dolomite is energetically different from well-ordered stoichiometric dolomite. The enthalpy of formation from calcite and magnesite becomes strongly more endothermic with increasing excess Ca content. This supports the idea that the substitution of Ca in the Mg layer of dolomite is energetically unfavorable. Ca-rich dolomite is unstable relative to well-ordered stoichiometric dolomite and calcite. The enthalpy behavior for excess Ca substitution in dolomite is different from that of Mg substitution in calcite; the enthalpy change is much larger in magnitude in dolomite and is more strongly dependent on composition. Differences in cation order as well as the presence of a modulated structure and low-symmetry domains in Ca-rich dolomite cannot be discerned from the enthalpy data. The findings confirm that the growth and occurrence of Ca-rich dolomite in sedimentary environments must be attributed to kinetic factors rather than to equilibrium. 47 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Energetics of calcium-rich dolomite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, L.; Navrotsky, A.; Reeder, R. J.

    1995-03-01

    The enthalpy of formation of sedimentary Ca-rich dolomite has been determined by oxide melt calorimetry. The results show that Ca-rich dolomite is energetically different from well-ordered stoichiometric dolomite. The enthalpy of formation from calcite and magnesite becomes strongly more endothermic with increasing excess Ca content. This supports the idea that the substitution of Ca in the Mg layer of dolomite is energetically unfavorable. Ca-rich dolomite is unstable relative to well-ordered stoichiometric dolomite and calcite. The enthalpy behavior for excess Ca substitution in dolomite is different from that of Mg substitution in calcite; the enthalpy change is much larger in magnitude in dolomite and is more strongly dependent on composition. Differences in cation order as well as the presence of a modulated structure and low-symmetry domains in Ca-rich dolomite cannot be discerned from the enthalpy data. The findings confirm that the growth and occurrence of Ca-rich dolomite in sedimentary environments must be attributed to kinetic factors rather than to equilibrium.

  7. Energetic Constraints on Species Coexistence in Birds.

    PubMed

    Pigot, Alexander L; Tobias, Joseph A; Jetz, Walter

    2016-03-01

    The association between species richness and ecosystem energy availability is one of the major geographic trends in biodiversity. It is often explained in terms of energetic constraints, such that coexistence among competing species is limited in low productivity environments. However, it has proven challenging to reject alternative views, including the null hypothesis that species richness has simply had more time to accumulate in productive regions, and thus the role of energetic constraints in limiting coexistence remains largely unknown. We use the phylogenetic relationships and geographic ranges of sister species (pairs of lineages who are each other's closest extant relatives) to examine the association between energy availability and coexistence across an entire vertebrate class (Aves). We show that the incidence of coexistence among sister species increases with overall species richness and is elevated in more productive ecosystems, even when accounting for differences in the evolutionary time available for coexistence to occur. Our results indicate that energy availability promotes species coexistence in closely related lineages, providing a key step toward a more mechanistic understanding of the productivity-richness relationship underlying global gradients in biodiversity.

  8. Energetic particle effects on global MHD modes

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.Z.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of energetic particles on MHD type modes are studied by analytical theories and the nonvariational kinetic-MHD stability code (NOVA-K). In particular we address the problems of (1) the stabilization of ideal MHD internal kink modes and the excitation of resonant fishbone'' internal modes and (2) the alpha particle destabilization of toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE) via transit resonances. Analytical theories are presented to help explain the NOVA-K results. For energetic trapped particles generated by neutral-beam injection (NBI) or ion cyclotron resonant heating (ICRH), a stability window for the n=1 internal kink mode in the hot particle beat space exists even in the absence of core ion finite Larmor radius effect (finite {omega}{sub *i}). On the other hand, the trapped alpha particles are found to resonantly excite instability of the n=1 internal mode and can lower the critical beta threshold. The circulating alpha particles can strongly destabilize TAE modes via inverse Landau damping associated with the spatial gradient of the alpha particle pressure. 23 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Persistent Energetic Ion Outbursts from the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucik, R.; Innes, D.; Mason, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Following the greatest elongation in 2011, STEREO-A and -B, along with the near-Earth Solar Dynamics Observatory, have provided for the first time a view of the full solar surface. This allows continual tracking of solar active regions for their entire lifetime. With the advantage of a wide angular separation between the two STEREOs and the near-Earth Advanced Composition Explorer, we present the first report of multiple 3He-rich solar energetic particle (SEP) outbursts occurring in single active regions for relatively long time periods, lasting at least a quarter of a solar rotation. We identified several long-lasting 3He- or Fe-rich SEP sources with particle emissions successively observed at least on two of STEREO-B, ACE and STEREO-A spacecraft. Previous single spacecraft observations showed such energetic ion bursts over a limited time interval (about one day) presumably due to the loss of magnetic connection to the flare sites. These new observations reveal that the physical processes responsible for particle acceleration and escape from the Sun appear to be more continuous than previously thought. We discuss conditions in the solar sources which could lead to the reappearance of 3He-rich SEPs by comparing with the cases showing no such feature.

  10. Energetics of water permeation through fullerene membrane

    PubMed Central

    Isobe, Hiroyuki; Homma, Tatsuya; Nakamura, Eiichi

    2007-01-01

    Lipid bilayer membranes are important as fundamental structures in biology and possess characteristic water-permeability, stability, and mechanical properties. Water permeation through a lipid bilayer membrane occurs readily, and more readily at higher temperature, which is largely due to an enthalpy cost of the liquid-to-gas phase transition of water. A fullerene bilayer membrane formed by dissolution of a water-soluble fullerene, Ph5C60K, has now been shown to possess properties entirely different from those of the lipid membranes. The fullerene membrane is several orders of magnitude less permeable to water than a lipid membrane, and the permeability decreases at higher temperature. Water permeation is burdened by a very large entropy loss and may be favored slightly by an enthalpy gain, which is contrary to the energetics observed for the lipid membrane. We ascribe this energetics to favorable interactions of water molecules to the surface of the fullerene molecules as they pass through the clefts of the rigid fullerene bilayer. The findings provide possibilities of membrane design in science and technology. PMID:17846427

  11. Energetic ion bombarded Fe/Al multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Busaidy, M.S.; Crapper, M.D.

    2006-05-15

    The utility of ion-assisted deposition is investigated to explore the possibility of counteracting the deficiency of back-reflected current of Ar neutrals in the case of lighter elements such as Al. A range of energetically ion bombarded Fe/Al multilayers sputtered with applied surface bias of 0, -200, or -400 V were deposited onto Si(111) substrates in an argon atmosphere of 4 mTorr using a computer controlled dc magnetron sputtering system. Grazing incidence reflectivity and rocking curve scans by synchrotron x rays of wavelength of 1.38 A were used to investigate the structures of the interfaces produced. Substantial evidence has been gathered to suggest the gradual suppression of interfacial mixing and reduction in interfacial roughness with increases of applied bias. The densification of the Al microstructure was noticeable and may be a consequence of resputtering attributable to the induced ion bombardment. The average interfacial roughnesses were calculated for the 0, -200, and -400 V samples to be 7{+-}0.5, 6{+-}0.5, and 5{+-}0.5 A respectfully demonstrating a 30% improvement in interface quality. Data from rocking curve scans point to improved long-range correlated roughness in energetically deposited samples. The computational code based on the recursive algorithm developed by Parratt [Phys. Rev. 95, 359 (1954)] was successful in the simulation of the specular reflectivity curves.

  12. Energetic analysis of fast magnetic switching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stankiewicz, Andrzej

    2010-03-01

    The speed of magnetic switching is an important parameter for many devices, like magnetic random access memory (MRAM) cells, or hard drive disk/heads. Traditionally switching processes have been evaluated by solving the Landau-Lifshitz (LLG) equation numerically. Criteria of successful switching were defined in phase space (instantaneous magnetic moments), or required full system relaxation. This presentation introduces another look at the switching processes, based on an energetic approach. The main idea is to split the total transient energy of the system into two parts: Es, which includes switching stimulus only (e.g. external pulse field), and E0 - covering effects important for final state. Monitoring a single value E0, as LLG integration progresses, allows for detection of switched states. The method shows its full power in the case of magnetic nanostructures, which have a relatively simple energetic landscape of relaxed states (no magnetic domains), but may show very complex dynamical configurations. Another advantage is a possibility to account for finite temperature in switching criteria. The concept is illustrated by simulations of single spin and MRAM cell switching.

  13. Energetic photoelectrons and the polar rain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decker, Dwight T.; Jasperse, J. R.; Winningham, J. D.

    1990-01-01

    In the daytime midlatitudes, the Low Altitude Plasma Instrument (LAPI) on board the Dynamics Explorer 2 satellite has observed photoelectrons with energies as high as 850 eV. These energetic photoelectrons are an extension of the 'classical' photoelectrons (less than 60 eV) and result from photoionization of neutrals by soft solar X-rays. Since these photoelectrons are produced wherever the solar flux is incident on the earth's atmosphere, they should be present in sunlit polar cap. But in the polar cap, over these same energies, there is a well-known electron population: the polar rain, a low intensity electron flux of magnetospheric origin. Thus, in the sunlit polar cap, an energetic population of electrons should consist of both an ionospheric (photoelectron) and a magnetospheric (polar rain) component. Using numerical solutions of an electron transport equation with appropriate boundary conditions and sunlit polar cap LAPI data, it is shown that the two populations (photoelectron and polar rain) are indeed present and are both needed to explain polar cap observations.

  14. The energetic basis of acoustic communication

    PubMed Central

    Gillooly, James F.; Ophir, Alexander G.

    2010-01-01

    Animals produce a tremendous diversity of sounds for communication to perform life's basic functions, from courtship and parental care to defence and foraging. Explaining this diversity in sound production is important for understanding the ecology, evolution and behaviour of species. Here, we present a theory of acoustic communication that shows that much of the heterogeneity in animal vocal signals can be explained based on the energetic constraints of sound production. The models presented here yield quantitative predictions on key features of acoustic signals, including the frequency, power and duration of signals. Predictions are supported with data from nearly 500 diverse species (e.g. insects, fishes, reptiles, amphibians, birds and mammals). These results indicate that, for all species, acoustic communication is primarily controlled by individual metabolism such that call features vary predictably with body size and temperature. These results also provide insights regarding the common energetic and neuromuscular constraints on sound production, and the ecological and evolutionary consequences of producing these sounds. PMID:20053641

  15. How do energetic ions damage metallic surfaces?

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Osetskiy, Yury N.; Calder, Andrew F.; Stoller, Roger E.

    2015-02-20

    Surface modification under bombardment by energetic ions observed under different conditions in structural and functional materials and can be either unavoidable effect of the conditions or targeted modification to enhance materials properties. Understanding basic mechanisms is necessary for predicting properties changes. The mechanisms activated during ion irradiation are of atomic scale and atomic scale modeling is the most suitable tool to study these processes. In this paper we present results of an extensive simulation program aimed at developing an understanding of primary surface damage in iron by energetic particles. We simulated 25 keV self-ion bombardment of Fe thin films withmore » (100) and (110) surfaces at room temperature. A large number of simulations, ~400, were carried out allow a statistically significant treatment of the results. The particular mechanism of surface damage depends on how the destructive supersonic shock wave generated by the displacement cascade interacts with the free surface. Three basic scenarios were observed, with the limiting cases being damage created far below the surface with little or no impact on the surface itself, and extensive direct surface damage on the timescale of a few picoseconds. In some instances, formation of large <100> vacancy loops beneath the free surface was observed, which may explain some earlier experimental observations.« less

  16. Solar Energetic Particle Events Observed by MAVEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. O.; Larson, D. E.; Lillis, R. J.; Luhmann, J. G.; Halekas, J. S.; Brain, D.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Espley, J. R.; Epavier, F.; Thiemann, E.; Zeitlin, C.; Jakosky, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    We present observations of solar energetic particle (SEP) events made by the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile EvolutioN (MAVEN) SEP instrument, which measures energetic ions and electrons impacting the upper Martian atmosphere. Since the arrival of the MAVEN spacecraft at Mars, a large number of solar flares and a few major coronal mass ejections (CMEs) erupted from the Sun. The SEPs are accelerated by the related shock in the solar corona or by the propagating interplanetary shock ahead of the CME ejecta. Mixed in with these SEPs are particles accelerated by the shocks of corotating streams, some of which have recurred for several solar cycles due to the persistent coronal hole sources. The SEP events are analyzed together with the upstream solar wind observations from the MAVEN Solar Wind Ion Analyzer (SWIA) and magnetometer (MAG). The sources of the SEP events are determined from Earth-based solar imagery and the MAVEN Extreme Ultra-violet Monitor (EUVM) together with numerical simulations of the inner heliospheric conditions. A comparison with the radiation dose rate measurements from the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) reveals a lack of ground signatures during the onset of the highest energy SEPs for the events observed by MAVEN, indicating that the SEPs fully deposit their energies into the Martian atmosphere. Using measurements made from the ensemble of instruments onboard MAVEN, we investigate the consequences of SEPs at Mars for a number of events observed during the primary science mapping phase of the MAVEN mission.

  17. Photomask repair using low-energetic electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edinger, K.; Wolff, K.; Spies, P.; Luchs, T.; Schneider, H.; Auth, N.; Hermanns, Ch. F.; Waiblinger, M.

    2015-10-01

    Mask repair is an essential step in the mask manufacturing process as the extension of 193nm technology and the insertion of EUV are drivers for mask complexity and cost. The ability to repair all types of defects on all mask blank materials is crucial for the economic success of a mask shop operation. In the future mask repair is facing several challenges. The mask minimum features sizes are shrinking and require a higher resolution repair tool. At the same time mask blanks with different new mask materials are introduced to optimize optical performance and long term durability. For EUV masks new classes of defects like multilayer and phase defects are entering the stage. In order to achieve a high yield, mask repair has to cover etch and deposition capabilities and must not damage the mask. We will demonstrate in this paper that low energetic electron-beam (e-beam)-based mask repair is a commercially viable solution. Therefore we developed a new repair platform called MeRiT® neXT to address the technical challenges of this new technology. We will analyze the limits of the existing as well as lower energetic electron induced repair technologies theoretically and experimentally and show performance data on photomask reticles. Based on this data, we will give an outlook to future mask repair technology.

  18. Energetic Constraints on Species Coexistence in Birds

    PubMed Central

    Pigot, Alexander L.

    2016-01-01

    The association between species richness and ecosystem energy availability is one of the major geographic trends in biodiversity. It is often explained in terms of energetic constraints, such that coexistence among competing species is limited in low productivity environments. However, it has proven challenging to reject alternative views, including the null hypothesis that species richness has simply had more time to accumulate in productive regions, and thus the role of energetic constraints in limiting coexistence remains largely unknown. We use the phylogenetic relationships and geographic ranges of sister species (pairs of lineages who are each other’s closest extant relatives) to examine the association between energy availability and coexistence across an entire vertebrate class (Aves). We show that the incidence of coexistence among sister species increases with overall species richness and is elevated in more productive ecosystems, even when accounting for differences in the evolutionary time available for coexistence to occur. Our results indicate that energy availability promotes species coexistence in closely related lineages, providing a key step toward a more mechanistic understanding of the productivity–richness relationship underlying global gradients in biodiversity. PMID:26974194

  19. Synthesis and evaluation of energetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santhosh, G.

    Over the years new generations of propellants and explosives are being developed. High performance and pollution prevention issues have become the subject of interest in recent years. Desired properties of these materials are a halogen-free, nitrogen and oxygen rich molecular composition with high density and a positive heat of formation. The dinitramide anion is a new oxy anion of nitrogen and forms salts with variety of metal, organic and inorganic cations. Particular interest is in ammonium dinitramide (ADN, NH4N(NO 2)2) which is a potentially useful energetic oxidizer. ADN is considered as one of the most promising substitutes for ammonium perchlorate (AP, NH4ClO4) in currently used composite propellants. It is unique among energetic materials in that it has no carbon or chlorine; its combustion products are not detrimental to the atmosphere. Unquestionable advantage of ADN over AP is the significant improvement in the performance of solid rocket motors by 5-15%. The present thesis is centered on the experimental results along with discussion of some of the most pertinent aspects related to the synthesis and characterization of few dinitramide salts. The chemistry, mechanism and kinetics of the formation of dinitramide salts by nitration of deactivated amines are investigated. The evaluation of the thermal and spectral properties along with the adsorption and thermal decomposition characteristics of the dinitramide salts are also explored in this thesis.

  20. Energetic Supernovae from the Cosmic Dawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ke-Jung

    2013-04-01

    We present the results from our 3D supernova simulations by using CASTRO, a new radiation-hydrodynamics code. The first generation of stars in the universe ended the cosmic dark age by shining the first light. But what was the fate of these stars? Based on the stellar evolution models, the fate of stars depends on their masses. Modern cosmological simulations suggest that the first stars could be very massive, with a typical mass scale over 50 solar masses. We look for the possible supernovae from the death of the first stars with masses over 50 solar masses. Besides the iron-core collapse supernovae, we find energetic thermonuclear supernovae, including two types of pair-instability supernovae and one type of general-relativity instability supernovae. Our models capture all explosive burning and follow the explosion until the shock breaks out from the stellar surface. We will discuss the energetics, nucleosynthesis, and possible observational signatures for these primordial supernovae that will be the prime targets for future large telescopes such as the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST).

  1. Synthesis of dense energetic materials. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Coon, C.

    1982-07-01

    The objective of the research described in the report is to synthesize new, dense, stable, highly energetic materials which will ultimately be a candidates for improved explosive and propellant formulations. Following strict guidelines pertaining to energy, density, stability, etc. Specific target molecules were chosen that appear to possess the improved properties desired for new energetic materials. This report summarizes research on the synthesis of these target materials from February 1981 to January 1982. The following compounds were synthesized: 5,5'-diamino-3,3'-bioxadiazole(1,2,4); 5,5'-bis(trichloromethyl)-3,3'-di(1,2,4-oxadiazole); 3,3'-bi(1,2,4-oxadiazole); ethylene tetranitramine (ETNA); N,N-bis(methoxymethyl)acetamide; N,N-bis(chloromethyl)acetamide; 7,8-dimethylglycoluril; Synthesis of 3,9-Di(t-butyl)-13,14-dimethyl-tetracyclo-(5,5,2,0/sup 5/ /sup 13/ 0/sup 11/ /sup 14/)-1,3,5,7,9,11-hexaaza-6,12-dioxotetradecane.

  2. Coupled energetic models for incompressible nematic elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubiano, Andrea C.

    We investigate, through methods in the Calculus of Variations, mathematical energetic models for incompressible nematic elastomers. These models are based on the coupling between the neo-classical energy density, developed by Bladon, Warner and Terentjev as an extension of the rubber elasticity theory, with the classical energy density from the Landau-de Gennes theory for uniaxial nematic liquid crystals. A unit-length molecular director of the nematic elastomer and an incompressible deformation are the unknown functions, minimizers of the coupled energy. In contrast to previous mathematical work in this field, the molecular director is not assumed to be constant throughout the domain. After establishing a suitable generalized energetic model for working in Sobolev spaces, we prove lower semi-continuity of the energy. Considering generalized shear deformations motivated by physical experiments on thin film domains, we show the existence of minimizers, and keeping the restriction of incompressibility on the deformation and unit length of the director, we derive weak Euler Lagrange equations satisfied by the minimizers. Additionally, we consider the reduction of the model to a 2-dimensional one and deduce existence results for non-convex energy densities involving terms related to the constraint of volume's preservation . In this case we also find weak Euler-Lagrange equations and prove a partial regularity result.

  3. The energetic basis of acoustic communication.

    PubMed

    Gillooly, James F; Ophir, Alexander G

    2010-05-01

    Animals produce a tremendous diversity of sounds for communication to perform life's basic functions, from courtship and parental care to defence and foraging. Explaining this diversity in sound production is important for understanding the ecology, evolution and behaviour of species. Here, we present a theory of acoustic communication that shows that much of the heterogeneity in animal vocal signals can be explained based on the energetic constraints of sound production. The models presented here yield quantitative predictions on key features of acoustic signals, including the frequency, power and duration of signals. Predictions are supported with data from nearly 500 diverse species (e.g. insects, fishes, reptiles, amphibians, birds and mammals). These results indicate that, for all species, acoustic communication is primarily controlled by individual metabolism such that call features vary predictably with body size and temperature. These results also provide insights regarding the common energetic and neuromuscular constraints on sound production, and the ecological and evolutionary consequences of producing these sounds. PMID:20053641

  4. Motivation, Ethnic Identity, and Post-Secondary Education Language Choices of Graduates of Intensive French Language Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Erin; Noels, Kimberly A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the motivation for learning French, the ethnic identities, and the decision to pursue post-secondary education in French of anglophone graduates of intensive French language programs in high school. Sixty-two graduates of either French immersion, Advanced Placement French, or the International Baccalaureate French program…

  5. Boring Forminifera in French Polynesian coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vénec-Peyré, M. T.

    1987-04-01

    The discovery of epipsammitic Foraminifera in sediments of Moorea and Scilly (French Polynesia) and the study of close relationships between embedded specimens and host-grains indicate that some species participate in the weakening and subsequent breakdown of skeletal grains and consequently contribute to the production of silt-sized particles. The study of 36 stations around the islands shows the factors that control the distribution and abundance of this incrusted microfauna. Specimens are more abundant on sand particles larger than 1,000 microns and in the high energy areas; this abundance decreases with depth. The physiological mechanism of penetrations is presumably chemical, but each species apparently has its own process: complete dissolution with removal of ions for the cytoplasm of calcareous species; partial dissolution with transport of silt-size aggregates on the test of agglutinated species. The purpose of such penetration may be to protect themselves against water turbulence and to provide material for test construction.

  6. French Frigate Shoals reef health survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Coles, Steve L.; Rameyer, Robert

    2002-01-01

    French Frigate Shoals consists of a large (31 nm) fringing reef partially enclosing a lagoon. A basalt pinnacle (La Perouse Pinnacle) arises approximately halfway between the two ends of the arcs of the fringing reefs. Tern Island is situated at the northern end of the lagoon and is surrounded by a dredged ship channel. The lagoon becomes progressively shallower from west to east and harbors a variety of marine life including corals, fish, marine mammals, and sea turtles (Amerson 1971). In 2000, an interagency survey of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands was done to document the fauna and flora in FFS (Maragos and Gulko, 2002). During that survey, 38 stations were examined, and 41 species of stony corals were documented, the most of any of the NW Hawaiian islands (Maragos and Gulko 2002). In some of these stations, corals with abnormalities were observed. The present study aimed to expand on the 2000 survey to evaluate the lesions in areas where they were documented.

  7. The French Technical Vaccination Committee (CTV).

    PubMed

    Floret, Daniel; Deutsch, Paule

    2010-04-19

    This article describes the make-up and activities of the Technical Vaccination Committee (CTV) that serves as the National Immunization Technical Advisory Group (NITAG) in France. Comprised of a variety of technical experts, the CTV makes recommendations concerning vaccination. The committee functions as an independent expert advisory committee, and its proceedings are confidential, although its recommendations are made public. It helps to make decisions about using new vaccines, as well as re-examining guidelines for vaccines already in use. It obtains technical expertise from a variety of sources, including specialized national centres. Although it is not obliged to do so, in most cases, the French government implements CTV recommendations. Information regarding CTV activities is disseminated through publications, its website, and letters to health officials. Efforts need to be enhanced in order to avoid creating a gap between the issuing of complex vaccination policies and their understanding by general practitioners who are responsible for the administration of over 80% of all vaccines.

  8. Adapting information for Maroons in French Guyana.

    PubMed

    Vernon, D

    1993-01-01

    In 1990 in French Guiana, the nongovernmental organization, AIDES-Guyane interviewed Maroon refugees living in camps along the border with Suriname to obtain baseline data on HIV/AIDS. The Maroons consisted of at least the Aluka, Ndjuka, Paramaka, and Saramaka groups. In July 1991, it used findings of this preliminary research to implement an HIV/AIDS education project targeting adults and incorporating traditional healers. A project evaluation occurred in February 1992 consisting traditional healers. A project evaluation occurred in February 1992 consisting of interviews with 197 Maroons living in different areas of French Guiana. Almost 50% had attended at least 1 project session and considered the sessions to be very clear. They also appreciated that the sessions were in their own language. Even though many participants were aware that HIV is not transmitted via bodily contact, they still feared sharing food, clothing, and living space with HIV-positive persons. Nonetheless, they had significantly improved their attitudes toward people infected with HIV. Virtually all the maroons immediately referred to condoms as a means to protect against HIV/AIDS and officially praised condoms. In private, however, the Maroons claimed that condoms reduced pleasure. Some people claimed that condoms were difficult to obtain and embarrassing and difficult to use. Most men carried condoms, evidently because this was fashionable, but rarely used them. Some people doubted that condoms effectively prevented HIV transmission. Men tended to change their strategies of choosing sexual partners, but these strategies overlooked the fact that anyone may carry HIV (e.g., a village girl rather than a nonvillage girl). None of the women ever used condoms. Relationships between traditional healers and biomedical practitioners improved over time. Interviews with 8-10 year olds who listened to sessions through windows and crannies of walls showed that they understood and retained HIV

  9. Synthesis, characterization and energetics of zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Pingping

    Zeolites are microporous aluminosilicates, and Al or Si can be substituted by other elements, such as Ge, Ga, or P. Zeolites have been studied for more than two hundred years, because of their wide application and importance in mineralogy and technology. With high acidity and special pore system, zeolite beta (IZA code BEA) receives much attention. In the dissertation, the formation and dehydration enthalpy of cation exchanged zeolite beta, Li/Na/K/Rb/Cs/Mg/Ca/Sr/Ba -BEA 14 (14 is the Si/Al ratio), Mg/Ca - BEA 4 (4 is the Si/Al ratio), were studied by high-temperature oxide melt solution calorimetry. From an energetic point of view, zeolites beta are less stable than other zeolites of similar Si/Al ratio and cation content. Their enthalpies of formation and dehydration become more endothermic with increasing average ionic potential of the cations in the channels. The unfavorable enthalpy of low silica Mg-BEA 4 and Ca-BEA 4 suggests a possible energy barrier in their direct synthesis. The formation and partial molar dehydration enthalpy of Li-BEA 3 and Na-BEA 3.67 are also investigated by high temperature calorimetry. The partial molar dehydration enthalpies are a linear function of water content. Molecular mechanics simulations explore the cation and water molecule positions in the framework at several water contents. Ga substitution is of great interest due to the special catalytic character of Ga zeolites and the directing agent effect of Ga atoms. The energetics of gallosilicate zeolites Ga-NaSOD, Ga-NaFAU, Ga-NaNAT, Ga-KNAT, Ga-KLTL and Ga-KTUN-1 were studied. The lattice parameters and adsorbed water content increase after Ga substitution of Al. Compared to analogous aluminosilicate zeolites, the gallosilicate zeolites have a similar dehydration enthalpy per mole of tetrahedra, but a less endothermic dehydration enthalpy per mole of water. The gallosilicate zeolites also have less exothermic formation enthalpies from oxide components. The energetics of Ga

  10. Intracellular Energetic Units regulate metabolism in cardiac cells.

    PubMed

    Saks, Valdur; Kuznetsov, Andrey V; Gonzalez-Granillo, Marcela; Tepp, Kersti; Timohhina, Natalja; Karu-Varikmaa, Minna; Kaambre, Tuuli; Dos Santos, Pierre; Boucher, François; Guzun, Rita

    2012-02-01

    This review describes developments in historical perspective as well as recent results of investigations of cellular mechanisms of regulation of energy fluxes and mitochondrial respiration by cardiac work - the metabolic aspect of the Frank-Starling law of the heart. A Systems Biology solution to this problem needs the integration of physiological and biochemical mechanisms that take into account intracellular interactions of mitochondria with other cellular systems, in particular with cytoskeleton components. Recent data show that different tubulin isotypes are involved in the regular arrangement exhibited by mitochondria and ATP-consuming systems into Intracellular Energetic Units (ICEUs). Beta II tubulin association with the mitochondrial outer membrane, when co-expressed with mitochondrial creatine kinase (MtCK) specifically limits the permeability of voltage-dependent anion channel for adenine nucleotides. In the MtCK reaction this interaction changes the regulatory kinetics of respiration through a decrease in the affinity for adenine nucleotides and an increase in the affinity for creatine. Metabolic Control Analysis of the coupled MtCK-ATP Synthasome in permeabilized cardiomyocytes showed a significant increase in flux control by steps involved in ADP recycling. Mathematical modeling of compartmentalized energy transfer represented by ICEUs shows that cyclic changes in local ADP, Pi, phosphocreatine and creatine concentrations during contraction cycle represent effective metabolic feedback signals when amplified in the coupled non-equilibrium MtCK-ATP Synthasome reactions in mitochondria. This mechanism explains the regulation of respiration on beat to beat basis during workload changes under conditions of metabolic stability. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Local Signaling in Myocytes." PMID:21816155

  11. French validation of the critical care family needs inventory.

    PubMed

    Coutu-Wakulczyk, G; Chartier, L

    1990-03-01

    This study is a contribution to the French validation of Molter and Leske Critical Care Family Needs Inventory (CCFNI). The importance of this validation study is based on the presumption that evaluation of family needs relies on the use of measures that are reliable and valid for a specific population. The preliminary validation of the French text of the CCFNI was carried out by back translation method of the French form into English by three translators. Then the final French version was selected. The study was conducted in the surgical intensive care unit of the University Hospital in Sherbrooke, Canada. The sample consisted of 207 voluntary subjects selected from adult members of the immediate family visiting a patient in the intensive care unit. The data collection was spread over a 10-week period. The French version of the CCFNI was given to subjects for self-reporting at the end of a 15-minute face-to-face interview. The reliability of the French version yielded 0.91 as Cronbach alpha coefficient. The Spearman-Brown split-half coefficient was 0.89, and the Guttman split-half coefficient was 0.88. Principal-component analysis and factorial matrices were used to examine the clustering structure of the French version of this instrument.

  12. [The French Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology position paper on the concept of integration. Part two].

    PubMed

    Somme, Dominique; Trouvé, Hélène; Passadori, Yves; Corvez, Alain; Jeandel, Claude; Bloch, Marie-Aline; Ruault, Geneviève; Dupont, Olivier; de Stampa, Matthieu

    2014-06-01

    The concept of integrated services delivery, although dating from the 1990s, has only recently appeared in French public health policy. To clarify the concept and its adaptation to the reality of the French systems of healthcare and social services, the French Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology established an interdisciplinary working group. This article reports that group's findings according to three axes: the definition of integration, the objectives of this organizational approach and the means needed to achieve them. Analysis of the literature indicated that integration is a process that aims to overcome the fragmentation of services for vulnerable people. This process requires a multilevel approach, particularly concerning how to modify public policies and financing systems. Notably, all relevant levels need to develop shared processes, tools, resources, finance, interventions and returns on the latter. Indeed, this sharing is the ultimate proof of evolution towards integration. In the second part of the position paper, its authors have developed arguments that could lead professionals and non-professional caregivers to adopt integrated care as an answer to their aspirations. Policy-maker perspectives and politicians are also analyzed. Bearing in mind that integrated care necessarily will always involve a human component which may find expression during individual case-management; relations between integration and case managements are clarified. Finally, lessons learned from national and international experiments are examined. Results suggest that integrated care must to be accompanied by a local pilot. Results of recent experiments have shown that it is possible to initiate a dynamic towards integrated care in France and hence join the international movement towards adapting our healthcare systems to new challenges. PMID:24939400

  13. [The French Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology position paper on the concept of integration. Part two].

    PubMed

    Somme, Dominique; Trouvé, Hélène; Passadori, Yves; Corvez, Alain; Jeandel, Claude; Bloch, Marie-Aline; Ruault, Geneviève; Dupont, Olivier; de Stampa, Matthieu

    2014-06-01

    The concept of integrated services delivery, although dating from the 1990s, has only recently appeared in French public health policy. To clarify the concept and its adaptation to the reality of the French systems of healthcare and social services, the French Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology established an interdisciplinary working group. This article reports that group's findings according to three axes: the definition of integration, the objectives of this organizational approach and the means needed to achieve them. Analysis of the literature indicated that integration is a process that aims to overcome the fragmentation of services for vulnerable people. This process requires a multilevel approach, particularly concerning how to modify public policies and financing systems. Notably, all relevant levels need to develop shared processes, tools, resources, finance, interventions and returns on the latter. Indeed, this sharing is the ultimate proof of evolution towards integration. In the second part of the position paper, its authors have developed arguments that could lead professionals and non-professional caregivers to adopt integrated care as an answer to their aspirations. Policy-maker perspectives and politicians are also analyzed. Bearing in mind that integrated care necessarily will always involve a human component which may find expression during individual case-management; relations between integration and case managements are clarified. Finally, lessons learned from national and international experiments are examined. Results suggest that integrated care must to be accompanied by a local pilot. Results of recent experiments have shown that it is possible to initiate a dynamic towards integrated care in France and hence join the international movement towards adapting our healthcare systems to new challenges.

  14. ENERGETIC PARTICLE ANISOTROPIES AT THE HELIOSPHERIC BOUNDARY

    SciTech Connect

    Florinski, V.; Le Roux, J. A.; Jokipii, J. R.; Alouani-Bibi, F.

    2013-10-20

    In 2012 August the Voyager 1 space probe entered a distinctly new region of space characterized by a virtual absence of heliospheric energetic ions and magnetic fluctuations, now interpreted as a part of the local interstellar cloud. Prior to their disappearance, the ion distributions strongly peaked at a 90° pitch angle, implying rapid escape of streaming particles along the magnetic field lines. Here we investigate the process of particle crossing from the heliosheath into the interstellar space, using a kinetic approach that resolves scales of the particle's cyclotron radius and smaller. It is demonstrated that a 'pancake' pitch-angle distribution naturally arises at a tangential discontinuity separating a weakly turbulent plasma from a laminar region with a very low pitch-angle scattering rate. The relatively long persistence of gyrating ions is interpreted in terms of field line meandering facilitating their cross-field diffusion within the depletion region.

  15. Energetic materials destruction using molten salt

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R.S.; Watkins, B.E.; Pruneda, C.O.; Brummond, W.A.

    1994-04-29

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in conjunction with the Energetic Materials Center is developing methods for the safe and environmentally sound destruction of explosives and propellants as a part of the Laboratory`s ancillary demilitarization mission. LLNL has built a small-scale unit to test the destruction of HE using the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process. In addition to the high explosive HMX, destruction has been carried out on RDX, PETN, ammonium picrate, TNT, nitroguanadine, and TATB. Also destroyed was a liquid gun propellant comprising hydroxyammonium nitrate, triethanolammonium nitrate and water. In addition to these pure components, destruction has been carried out on a number of commonly used formulations, such as LX-10, LX-16, LX-17, and PBX-9404.

  16. Tackling radio polarization of energetic pulsars

    SciTech Connect

    Craig, H. A.

    2014-08-01

    The traditional, geometrical rotating vector model (RVM) has proved particularly poor at capturing the polarization sweeps of the young energetic and millisecond pulsars detected by Fermi. We augment this model by including finite altitude effects using a swept back vacuum dipole geometry. By further including the effects of orthogonal mode jumps, multiple emission altitudes, open zone growth via y-point lowering, and interstellar scattering, we show that a wide range of departures from RVM can be modeled well while retaining a geometrical picture. We illustrate these effects by fitting six Fermi-detected pulsars (J0023+0923, J1024–0719, J1744–1134, J1057–5226, J1420–6048, and J2124–3358) and we describe how such modeling can improve our understanding of their emission geometry.

  17. Effect of Sawtooth Oscillations on Energetic Ions

    SciTech Connect

    R.B. White; V.V. Lutsenko; Ya. I. Kolesnichenko; Yu. V. Yakovenko

    1999-12-10

    The work summarizes results of the authors' studies on the energetic ion transport induced by sawtooth oscillations in tokamaks. The main attention is paid to description of physical mechanisms responsible for the transport. In addition to overview, the work contains new material. The new results concern the resonant interaction of the particles and the electromagnetic field of the sawtooth crash. In particular, it is discovered that the dominant harmonic of the crash (m = n = 1) can lead to stochastic motion of particles having large orbit width (potatoes). Regular motion of potatoes and quasi-stagnation particles in the presence of an n = 1 mode is studied, and their characteristic displacements associated with quick switching on/off the mode are found.

  18. Characterization of thermally degraded energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Renlund, A.M.; Miller, J.C.; Trott, W.M.; Erickson, K.L.; Hobbs, M.L.; Schmitt, R.G.; Wellman, G.W.; Baer, M.R.

    1997-12-31

    Characterization of the damage state of a thermally degraded energetic material (EM) is a critical first step in understanding and predicting cookoff behavior. Unfortunately, the chemical and mechanical responses of heated EMs are closely coupled, especially if the EM is confined. The authors have examined several EMs in small-scale experiments (typically 200 mg) heated in both constant-volume and constant-load configurations. Fixtures were designed to minimize free volume and to contain gas pressures to several thousand psi. The authors measured mechanical forces or displacements that correlated to thermal expansion, phase transitions, material creep and gas pressurization as functions of temperature and soak time. In addition to these real-time measurements, samples were recovered for postmortem examination, usually with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and chemical analysis. The authors present results on EMs (HMX and TATB), with binders (e.g., PBX 9501, PBX 9502, LX-14) and propellants (Al/AP/HTPB).

  19. COSTEP - Comprehensive Suprathermal and Energetic Particle Analyser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Mellin, R.; Kunow, H.; Fleißner, V.; Pehlke, E.; Rode, E.; Röschmann, N.; Scharmberg, C.; Sierks, H.; Rusznyak, P.; McKenna-Lawlor, S.; Elendt, I.; Sequeiros, J.; Meziat, D.; Sanchez, S.; Medina, J.; Del Peral, L.; Witte, M.; Marsden, R.; Henrion, J.

    1995-12-01

    The COSTEP experiment on SOHO forms part of the CEPAC complex of instruments that will perform studies of the suprathermal and energetic particle populations of solar, interplanetary, and galactic origin. Specifically, the LION and EPHIN instruments are designed to use particle emissions from the Sun for several species (electrons, protons, and helium nuclei) in the energy range 44 keV/particle to > 53 MeV/n as tools to study critical problems in solar physics as well as fundamental problems in space plasma and astrophysics. Scientific goals are presented and a technical description is provided of the two sensors and the common data processing unit. Calibration results are presented which show the ability of LION to separate electrons from protons and the ability of EPHIN to obtain energy spectra and achieve isotope separation for light nuclei. A brief description of mission operations and data products is given.

  20. STEREO Observations of Solar Energetic Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vonRosenvinge, Tycho; Christian, Eric; Cohen, Christina; Leske, Richard; Mewaldt, Richard; Stone, Edward; Wiedenbeck, Mark

    2011-01-01

    We report on observations of Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events as observed by instruments on the STEREO Ahead and Behind spacecraft and on the ACE spacecraft. We will show observations of an electron event observed by the STEREO Ahead spacecraft on June 12, 2010 located at W74 essentially simultaneously with electrons seen at STEREO Behind at E70. Some similar events observed by Helios were ascribed to fast electron propagation in longitude close to the sun. We will look for independent verification of this possibility. We will also show observations of what appears to be a single proton event with very similar time-history profiles at both of the STEREO spacecraft at a similar wide separation. This is unexpected. We will attempt to understand all of these events in terms of corresponding CME and radio burst observations.

  1. Satellite sweeping of energetic particles at Neptune

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paranicas, C. P.; Cheng, A. F.

    1991-01-01

    The calculation of the absorption rate of charged particles by planetary satellites introduced by Paonessa and Cheng (1987) is generalized to include an arbitrary offset of the dipole center from the planet center, appropriate for Neptune. The absorption rates calculated for particles of fixed L shell, energy, and pitch angle reflect the features of the complicated geometry of the dipole and the moons. This absorption probability is found to be insignificant compared with that of the rings at L shells to which both sets of absorbers map. However, at larger radii the sweeping rate is controlled by the moons, and the corresponding absorption features provide a starting point for understanding the Voyager energetic particle observations.

  2. Energetic particles in the jovian magnetotail.

    PubMed

    McNutt, R L; Haggerty, D K; Hill, M E; Krimigis, S M; Livi, S; Ho, G C; Gurnee, R S; Mauk, B H; Mitchell, D G; Roelof, E C; McComas, D J; Bagenal, F; Elliott, H A; Brown, L E; Kusterer, M; Vandegriff, J; Stern, S A; Weaver, H A; Spencer, J R; Moore, J M

    2007-10-12

    When the solar wind hits Jupiter's magnetic field, it creates a long magnetotail trailing behind the planet that channels material out of the Jupiter system. The New Horizons spacecraft traversed the length of the jovian magnetotail to >2500 jovian radii (RJ; 1 RJ identical with 71,400 kilometers), observing a high-temperature, multispecies population of energetic particles. Velocity dispersions, anisotropies, and compositional variation seen in the deep-tail (greater, similar 500 RJ) with a approximately 3-day periodicity are similar to variations seen closer to Jupiter in Galileo data. The signatures suggest plasma streaming away from the planet and injection sites in the near-tail region (approximately 200 to 400 RJ) that could be related to magnetic reconnection events. The tail structure remains coherent at least until it reaches the magnetosheath at 1655 RJ. PMID:17932283

  3. Energetics of life on the deep seafloor.

    PubMed

    McClain, Craig R; Allen, Andrew P; Tittensor, Derek P; Rex, Michael A

    2012-09-18

    With frigid temperatures and virtually no in situ productivity, the deep oceans, Earth's largest ecosystem, are especially energy-deprived systems. Our knowledge of the effects of this energy limitation on all levels of biological organization is very incomplete. Here, we use the Metabolic Theory of Ecology to examine the relative roles of carbon flux and temperature in influencing metabolic rate, growth rate, lifespan, body size, abundance, biomass, and biodiversity for life on the deep seafloor. We show that the relative impacts of thermal and chemical energy change across organizational scales. Results suggest that individual metabolic rates, growth, and turnover proceed as quickly as temperature-influenced biochemical kinetics allow but that chemical energy limits higher-order community structure and function. Understanding deep-sea energetics is a pressing problem because of accelerating climate change and the general lack of environmental regulatory policy for the deep oceans.

  4. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetic efficiency and aging.

    PubMed

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive loss of maximal cell functionality, and mitochondria are considered a key factor in aging process, since they determine the ATP availability in the cells. Mitochondrial performance during aging in skeletal muscle is reported to be either decreased or unchanged. This heterogeneity of results could partly be due to the method used to assess mitochondrial performance. In addition, in skeletal muscle the mitochondrial population is heterogeneous, composed of subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar mitochondria. Therefore, the purpose of the present review is to summarize the results obtained on the functionality of the above mitochondrial populations during aging, taking into account that the mitochondrial performance depends on organelle number, organelle activity, and energetic efficiency of the mitochondrial machinery in synthesizing ATP from the oxidation of fuels. PMID:25970752

  5. Very energetic protons in Saturn's radiation belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fillius, W.; Mcilwain, C.

    1980-01-01

    Very energetic protons are trapped in the inner Saturnian radiation belt. The University of California at San Diego instrument on Pioneer 11 has definitely identified protons of energy greater than 80 MeV on channel M3 and has tentatively detected protons of energy greater than 600 MeV on channel C3. The spatial distribution of the protons is distinct from that of the trapped electrons, the main difference being that the protons are strongly absorbed by the innermost moons and that the electrons are not. The source strength for injecting protons by the decay of cosmic ray albedo neutrons generated in the rings of Saturn has been estimated. The required proton lifetime is approximately 20 years.

  6. Coronal abundances determined from energetic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reames, D. V.

    1995-01-01

    Solar energetic particles (SEPs) provide a measurement of coronal element abundances that is highly independent of the ionization states and temperature of the ions in the source plasma. The most complete measurements come from large 'gradual' events where ambient coronal plasma is swept up by the expanding shock wave from a coronal mass ejection. Particles from 'impulsive' flares have a pattern of acceleration-induced enhancements superimposed on the coronal abundances. Particles accelerated from high-speed solar wind streams at corotating shocks show a different abundance pattern corresponding to material from coronal holes. Large variations in He/O in coronal material are seen for both gradual and impulsive-flare events but other abundance ratios, such as Mg/Ne, are remarkably constant. SEP measurements now include hundreds of events spanning 15 years of high-quality measurement.

  7. Energetics and stochastic dynamics of intraneuron transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanovsky, Yu M.; Trifonenkov, V. P.

    2016-02-01

    Walking molecular motors performing various functions in living cells are reviewed, including kinesin, myosin V, and dynein. These motors ensure the transport of neuromediators in neurons and are therefore crucial for interaction among the hundred billion brain cells. Functional schemes based on these motors are presented, and corresponding mathematical models are constructed as systems of two coupled FitzHugh-Nagumo equations. However, polynomials describing the moments of force are of high order and nearly N-shaped. Model parameters are determined from motor functional schemes that are based on observed data from X-ray structural analysis, cryogenic electron microscopy, laser tweezer measurements, and fast point marker-based videomicroscopy. Basic data on neuron energetics are summarized.

  8. Towards coherent control of energetic material initiation

    SciTech Connect

    Greenfield, Margo T; Mcgrane, Shawn D; Scharff, R Jason; Moore, David S

    2009-01-01

    Direct optical initiation (DOI) of energetic materials using coherent control of localized energy deposition requires depositing energy into the material to produce a critical size hot spot, which allows propagation of the reaction and thereby initiation, The hot spot characteristics needed for growth to initiation can be studied using quantum controlled initiation (QCI). Achieving direct quantum controlled initiation (QCI) in condensed phase systems requires optimally shaped ultrafast laser pulses to coherently guide the energy flow along the desired paths. As a test of our quantum control capabilities we have successfully demonstrated our ability to control the reaction pathway of the chemical system stilbene. An acousto-optical modulator based pulse shaper was used at 266 nm, in a shaped pump/supercontinuum probe technique, to enhance and suppress th relative yields of the cis- to trans-stilbene isomerization. The quantum control techniques tested in the stilbene experiments are currently being used to investigate QCI of the explosive hexanitroazobenzene (HNAB).

  9. Tutorial on Solar Energetic-Particle Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    vonRosenvinge, Tycho T.

    2004-01-01

    Particles from the Sun at energies above approx. 1 MeV/nucleon have been studied in space for over 35 years. There have been major advances in instrumentation for studying elemental and isotopic composition, kinetic energy, charge states, time intensity histories, and anisotropies of energetic particles. There have also been extensive improvements in the observations of solar phenomena, including radio bursts, Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), and solar photons from soft X-ray to gamma-ray energies. Despite these advances, there is a lack of agreement as to the acceleration processes responsible for the particles seen in space shortly after the solar event. In particular, the relative importance of solar flares and CME-driven shocks is disputed for events of moderate to larger size. The reasons for this will be reviewed, and the prospects for resolving this issue will be evaluated.

  10. Energetics of life on the deep seafloor

    PubMed Central

    McClain, Craig R.; Allen, Andrew P.; Tittensor, Derek P.; Rex, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    With frigid temperatures and virtually no in situ productivity, the deep oceans, Earth’s largest ecosystem, are especially energy-deprived systems. Our knowledge of the effects of this energy limitation on all levels of biological organization is very incomplete. Here, we use the Metabolic Theory of Ecology to examine the relative roles of carbon flux and temperature in influencing metabolic rate, growth rate, lifespan, body size, abundance, biomass, and biodiversity for life on the deep seafloor. We show that the relative impacts of thermal and chemical energy change across organizational scales. Results suggest that individual metabolic rates, growth, and turnover proceed as quickly as temperature-influenced biochemical kinetics allow but that chemical energy limits higher-order community structure and function. Understanding deep-sea energetics is a pressing problem because of accelerating climate change and the general lack of environmental regulatory policy for the deep oceans. PMID:22949638

  11. [The Sino-French emergency and disaster medicine training center].

    PubMed

    Pourriat, Jean-Louis; Dahan, Benjamin; Lapandry, Claude

    2012-01-01

    French (AP-HP) and Chinese (Beijing Health Office) hospitals, with support from the French company Total, collaborated in order to improve Chinese doctors' knowledge of emergency and disaster medicine prior to the Beijing Olympic Games. A Sino-French emergency and disaster medicine training center was subsequently opened in Beijing in 2008, with the aim of providing high-level continuous medical training for Chinese specialists in emergency medicine. Teaching in the management of critical situations was based on the use of a latest-generation simulator (Sim 3G; Laerdal). This collaboration has had both pedagogical and diplomatic benefits. PMID:23550459

  12. [2013 update about arthropod envenomations in French Guyana].

    PubMed

    Ganteaume, F; Imbert, C

    2014-02-01

    French Guiana, by its geographical situation, its climate and its biodiversity, is often called "the green hell". Indeed, this French department of America shelters a wildlife rich, abundant among which many species of arthropods, some of which are responsible for envenomations. These accidents consist of scorpion's or hymenoptera's stings or spider's bites. The associated clinical aspect is variable, from simple pain to circulatory collapse, or lung oedema. However, symptomatology is generally mild; four deaths associated to arthropod envenomations have been reported in the past 25 years. This article focuses on envenomations in French Guiana, describing favoring human behavior, risks and venoms associated with the main related animal species.

  13. Rocket measurements of energetic particles in the midlatitude precipitation zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voss, H. D.; Smith, L. G.; Braswell, F. M.

    1980-01-01

    Measurements of energetic ion and electron properties as a function of altitude in the midlatitude zone of nighttime energetic particle precipitation are reported. The measurements of particle fluxes, energy spectra and pitch angle distributions were obtained by a Langmuir probe, six energetic particle spectrometers and an electrostatic analyzer on board a Nike Apache rocket launched near the center of the midlatitude zone during disturbed conditions. It is found that the incident flux was primarily absorbed rather than backscattered, and consists of mainly energetic hydrogen together with some helium and a small energetic electron component. Observed differential energy spectra of protons having an exponential energy spectrum, and pitch angle distributions at various altitudes indicate that the energetic particle flux decreases rapidly for pitch angles less than 70 deg. An energetic particle energy flux of 0.002 ergs/sq cm per sec is calculated which indicates the significance of energetic particles as a primary nighttime ionization source for altitudes between 120 and 200 km in the midlatitude precipitation zone.

  14. Estimating instantaneous energetic cost during non-steady-state gait.

    PubMed

    Selinger, Jessica C; Donelan, J Maxwell

    2014-12-01

    Respiratory measures of oxygen and carbon dioxide are routinely used to estimate the body's steady-state metabolic energy use. However, slow mitochondrial dynamics, long transit times, complex respiratory control mechanisms, and high breath-by-breath variability obscure the relationship between the body's instantaneous energy demands (instantaneous energetic cost) and that measured from respiratory gases (measured energetic cost). The purpose of this study was to expand on traditional methods of assessing metabolic cost by estimating instantaneous energetic cost during non-steady-state conditions. To accomplish this goal, we first imposed known changes in energy use (input), while measuring the breath-by-breath response (output). We used these input/output relationships to model the body as a dynamic system that maps instantaneous to measured energetic cost. We found that a first-order linear differential equation well approximates transient energetic cost responses during gait. Across all subjects, model fits were parameterized by an average time constant (τ) of 42 ± 12 s with an average R(2) of 0.94 ± 0.05 (mean ± SD). Armed with this input/output model, we next tested whether we could use it to reliably estimate instantaneous energetic cost from breath-by-breath measures under conditions that simulated dynamically changing gait. A comparison of the imposed energetic cost profiles and our estimated instantaneous cost demonstrated a close correspondence, supporting the use of our methodology to study the role of energetics during locomotor adaptation and learning.

  15. Energetic adaptations persist after bariatric surgery in severely obese adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energetic adaptations induced by bariatric surgery have not been studied in adolescents or for extended periods postsurgery. Energetic, metabolic, and neuroendocrine responses to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery were investigated in extremely obese adolescents. At baseline and at 1.5, 6, and...

  16. Novel Theory of Energetic-Ion-Induced Interchange Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Seiya

    2015-06-01

    On the basis of a kinetic energy principle, it is shown that the interchange mode in helical systems is excited by trapped energetic ions, where the ideal interchange mode is stable. The mode has a rotation frequency comparable to precession drift frequencies of trapped energetic ions. The theory explains how to apply the fishbone mode theory originally developed in tokamaks to helical systems.

  17. Energetic-particle stabilization of ballooning modes in Tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbluth, M. N.; Tsai, S. T.; van Dam, J. W.; Engguist, M. G.

    1983-07-01

    Introduction of an anisotropic, highly energetic trapped-particle species into a Tokamak may allow direct stable access to the high-beta regime of second stability. Under certain conditions, the mode at marginal stability acquires a real frequency close to the precessional drift frequency of the energetic particles, perhaps correlating with recent fishbone observations on PDX.

  18. Energetic Particle Stabilization of Ballooning Modes in Tokamaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbluth, M. N.; Tsai, S. T.; van Dam, J. W.; Engquist, M. G.

    1983-11-01

    Introduction of an anisctropic, highly energetic trapped-particle species into a tokamak may allow direct stable access to the high-beta regime of second stability. Under certain conditions, the mode at marginal stability acquires a real frequency close to the precessional drift frequency of the energetic particles, perhaps correlating with recent "fishbone" observations on PDX.

  19. Energetic particle stabilization of ballooning modes in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenbluth, M.N.; Tsai, S.T.; Van Dam, J.W.; Engquist, M.G.

    1983-11-21

    Introduction of an anisotropic, highly energetic trapped-particle species into a tokamak may allow direct stable access to the high-beta regime of second stability. Under certain conditions, the mode at marginal stability acquires a real frequency close to the precessional drift frequency of the energetic particles, perhaps correlating with recent ''fishbone'' observations on PDX.

  20. Remote detection of traces of high energetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrovnikov, S. M.; Gorlov, E. V.; Zharkov, V. I.; Panchenko, Yu. N.

    2015-11-01

    The possibility of remote detection of traces of high energetic materials using laser fragmentation/laser-induced fluorescence (LF/LIF) method is studied. Experimental data on the remote visualization of traces of trinitrotoluene, hexogen, composition B, octogen, and tetryl obtained at a distance of 5 m with a scanning lidar detector of traces of high energetic materials are presented.