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Sample records for french energetic perspective

  1. Perspective view of span over French Creek and east abutment, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of span over French Creek and east abutment, looking NW. - Pennsylvania Railroad, French Creek Trestle, Spanning French Creek, north of Paradise Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  2. French pharmacovigilance: Missions, organization and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Vial, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    Pharmacovigilance aims to identify unknown adverse drug reactions once clinical development is complete, in order to promote improved use of drugs, and thus a reduction in risk for every exposed patient. We describe in this article the missions of French pharmacovigilance system, including French drug agency, Regional Centers of Pharmacovigilance, health professionals, pharmaceutical companies, patients and their associations. We also develop the French pharmacovigilance organization, its perspectives and challenges, both in French and European levels.

  3. Viewing perspective in energetic neutral atom intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yihua; Lui, Anthony T. Y.; Fok, Mei-Ching

    2008-09-01

    Through interspacecraft comparison of energetic neutral oxygen (ENO) intensity from two different vantage points provided by IMAGE and Geotail, Lui et al. (2005) showed that viewing perspective plays a very important role in the observed ENO intensity level during a magnetic storm period. Motivated by the findings of Lui et al. (2005), we investigate how viewing perspective influences energetic neutral atom emissions from a modeling perspective. The main results of this paper are that (1) our simulation results, based upon O+ ion fluxes from the Comprehensive Ring Current Model and the subsequent ENO calculation, reproduce the total differential ENO intensity obtained from two spacecraft to a reasonable degree and (2) further analysis of our results indicates that pitch angle anisotropy in ring current ion flux, a crucial physical quantity in ring current dynamics, is one major contributor to the difference in energetic neutral atom intensity from different viewing perspectives.

  4. French perspectives on psychiatric classification.

    PubMed

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the role of the French schools in the development of psychiatric nosology. Boissier de Sauvages published the first French treatise on medical nosology in 1763. Until the 1880s, French schools held a pre-eminent position in the development of psychiatric concepts. From the 1880s until World War I, German-speaking schools exerted the most influence, featuring the work of major figures such as Emil Kraepelin and Eugen Bleuler. French schools were probably hampered by excessive administrative and cultural centralization. Between the 1880s and the 1930s, French schools developed diagnostic categories that set them apart from international classifications. The main examples are Bouffée Délirante, and the complex set of chronic delusional psychoses (CDPs), including chronic hallucinatory psychosis. CDPs were distinguished from schizophrenia by the lack of cognitive deterioration during evolution. Modern French psychiatry is now coming into line with international classification, such as DSM-5 and the upcoming ICD-11.

  5. French perspectives on psychiatric classification

    PubMed Central

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the role of the French schools in the development of psychiatric nosology. Boissier de Sauvages published the first French treatise on medical nosology in 1763. Until the 1880s, French schools held a pre-eminent position in the development of psychiatric concepts. From the 1880s until World War I, German-speaking schools exerted the most influence, featuring the work of major figures such as Emil Kraepelin and Eugen Bleuler. French schools were probably hampered by excessive administrative and cultural centralization. Between the 1880s and the 1930s, French schools developed diagnostic categories that set them apart from international classifications. The main examples are Bouffée Délirante, and the complex set of chronic delusional psychoses (CDPs), including chronic hallucinatory psychosis. CDPs were distinguished from schizophrenia by the lack of cognitive deterioration during evolution. Modern French psychiatry is now coming into line with international classification, such as DSM-5 and the upcoming ICD-11. PMID:25987863

  6. Hosting anions. The energetic perspective.

    PubMed

    Schmidtchen, Franz P

    2010-10-01

    Hosting anions addresses the widely spread molecular recognition event of negatively charged species by dedicated organic compounds in condensed phases at equilibrium. The experimentally accessible energetic features comprise the entire system including the solvent, any buffers, background electrolytes or other components introduced for e.g. analysis. The deconvolution of all these interaction types and their dependence on subtle structural variation is required to arrive at a structure-energy correlation that may serve as a guide in receptor construction. The focus on direct host-guest interactions (lock-and-key complementarity) that have dominated the binding concepts of artificial receptors in the past must be widened in order to account for entropic contributions which constitute very significant fractions of the total free energy of interaction. Including entropy necessarily addresses the ambiguity and fuzziness of the host-guest structural ensemble and requires the appreciation of the fact that most liquid phases possess distinct structures of their own. Apparently, it is the perturbation of the intrinsic solvent structure occurring upon association that rules ion binding in polar media where ions are soluble and abundant. Rather than specifying peculiar structural elements useful in anion binding this critical review attempts an illumination of the concepts and individual energetic contributions resulting in the final observation of specific anion recognition (95 references).

  7. The French Revolution on Film: American and French Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harison, Casey

    2005-01-01

    It is not hard to locate negative or condescending images of the French Revolution in aspects of popular American culture, including film. Despite a handful of instances where nuanced or ambiguous "messages" may be identified, the number of American film interpretations of the French Revolution that might be judged historically…

  8. The French Revolution on Film: American and French Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harison, Casey

    2005-01-01

    It is not hard to locate negative or condescending images of the French Revolution in aspects of popular American culture, including film. Despite a handful of instances where nuanced or ambiguous "messages" may be identified, the number of American film interpretations of the French Revolution that might be judged historically…

  9. Running Economy from a Muscle Energetics Perspective.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jared R; MacIntosh, Brian R

    2017-01-01

    The economy of running has traditionally been quantified from the mass-specific oxygen uptake; however, because fuel substrate usage varies with exercise intensity, it is more accurate to express running economy in units of metabolic energy. Fundamentally, the understanding of the major factors that influence the energy cost of running (Erun) can be obtained with this approach. Erun is determined by the energy needed for skeletal muscle contraction. Here, we approach the study of Erun from that perspective. The amount of energy needed for skeletal muscle contraction is dependent on the force, duration, shortening, shortening velocity, and length of the muscle. These factors therefore dictate the energy cost of running. It is understood that some determinants of the energy cost of running are not trainable: environmental factors, surface characteristics, and certain anthropometric features. Other factors affecting Erun are altered by training: other anthropometric features, muscle and tendon properties, and running mechanics. Here, the key features that dictate the energy cost during distance running are reviewed in the context of skeletal muscle energetics.

  10. Running Economy from a Muscle Energetics Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Fletcher, Jared R.; MacIntosh, Brian R.

    2017-01-01

    The economy of running has traditionally been quantified from the mass-specific oxygen uptake; however, because fuel substrate usage varies with exercise intensity, it is more accurate to express running economy in units of metabolic energy. Fundamentally, the understanding of the major factors that influence the energy cost of running (Erun) can be obtained with this approach. Erun is determined by the energy needed for skeletal muscle contraction. Here, we approach the study of Erun from that perspective. The amount of energy needed for skeletal muscle contraction is dependent on the force, duration, shortening, shortening velocity, and length of the muscle. These factors therefore dictate the energy cost of running. It is understood that some determinants of the energy cost of running are not trainable: environmental factors, surface characteristics, and certain anthropometric features. Other factors affecting Erun are altered by training: other anthropometric features, muscle and tendon properties, and running mechanics. Here, the key features that dictate the energy cost during distance running are reviewed in the context of skeletal muscle energetics. PMID:28690549

  11. Attainment at 16+: the French Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dundas-Grant, Valerie

    1975-01-01

    In the face of the deliberations that have been taking place in England for several years now about the merging of two '16+' examinations, the CSE and GCE Ordinary level, author investigated the French system and the examination, the BEPC, taken at 'intermediate' level by 'average' and 'above average' students. (Author/RK)

  12. Energetics of swimming: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Zamparo, P; Capelli, C; Pendergast, D

    2011-03-01

    The energy cost to swim a unit distance (C(sw)) is given by the ratio E/v where E is the net metabolic power and v is the swimming speed. The contribution of the aerobic and anaerobic energy sources to E in swimming competitions is independent of swimming style, gender or skill and depends essentially upon the duration of the exercise. C(sw) is essentially determined by the hydrodynamic resistance (W(d)): the higher W(d) the higher C(sw); and by the propelling efficiency (η(P)): the higher η(P) the lower C(sw). Hence, all factors influencing W(d) and/or η(P) result in proportional changes in C(sw). Maximal metabolic power E max and C(sw) are the main determinants of swimming performance; an improvement in a subject's best performance time can more easily be obtained by a reduction of C sw) rather than by an (equal) increase in E max (in either of its components, aerobic or anaerobic). These sentences, which constitute a significant contribution to today's knowledge about swimming energetics, are based on the studies that Professor Pietro Enrico di Prampero and his co-workers carried out since the 1970s. This paper is devoted to examine how this body of work helped to improve our understanding of this fascinating mode of locomotion.

  13. The Current Energetics of Earth's Interior: A Gravitational Energy Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Jason; Rüpke, Lars; White, William

    2016-05-01

    The Earth's mantle convects to lose heat (Holmes, 1931); doing so drives plate tectonics (Turcotte and Oxburgh, 1967). Significant gravitational energy is created by the cooling of oceanic lithosphere atop hotter, less dense mantle. When slabs subduct, this gravitational energy is mostly (~86% for whole mantle flow in a PREM-like mantle) transformed into heat by viscous dissipation. Using this perspective, we reassess the energetics of Earth's mantle. We also reconsider the terrestrial abundances of heat producing elements U, Th, and K, and argue they are lower than previously considered and that consequently the heat produced by radioactive decay within the mantle is comparable to the present-day potential gravitational energy release by subducting slabs — both are roughly ~10-12 TW. We reassess possible core heat flow into the base of the mantle, and determine that the core may be still losing a significant amount of heat from its original formation, potentially more than the radioactive heat generation within the mantle. These factors are all likely to be important for Earth's current energetics, and argue that strong plume-driven upwelling is likely to exist within the convecting mantle.

  14. Research Perspectives on Core French: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapkin, Sharon; Mady, Callie; Arnott, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the research literature on core French in three main areas: student diversity, delivery models for the core French program, and instructional approaches. These topics are put into context through a discussion of studies on community attitudes to French as a second language (FSL), dissatisfaction with core French outcomes and…

  15. Research Perspectives on Core French: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapkin, Sharon; Mady, Callie; Arnott, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the research literature on core French in three main areas: student diversity, delivery models for the core French program, and instructional approaches. These topics are put into context through a discussion of studies on community attitudes to French as a second language (FSL), dissatisfaction with core French outcomes and…

  16. Parallel worlds? French and anglophone perspectives on health geography.

    PubMed

    Hoyez, Anne-Cécile; Collins, Damian; Fleuret, Sébastien

    2016-09-01

    In this short commentary, we address the following question: setting aside the issue of translation, do health geographers in France speak the same language as their English-speaking counterparts in various parts of the world? Specifically, do they have comparable empirical, theoretical and political concerns? We briefly survey the 'states of knowledge' in both fields for points of difference and similarity. We devote particular attention to the diverse contexts in which health geography is practiced. Our overarching goal is not to oppose two 'blocks'; nor is it to produce syntheses of two bodies of work. Rather, we seek to identify the diverse contexts in which geographic knowledge of health issues is produced, and to encourage reflection on what these mean for current and future collaboration across linguistic boundaries. We contend that meaningful Anglo-French comparative work will need to be particularly attentive to takes on theory that is 'the same, but different', to alternative spatial lenses (territory vs. place), and to sometimes sharply distinct perspectives on social difference.

  17. Variable Deletion of French "Ne": A Cross-Stylistic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Nigel

    2002-01-01

    Considers the socio-stylistic distinction of the French variable morpho-syntactic particle "ne." The interspeaker axes of variation in "ne" are summarized, and intraspeaker data deriving from a corpus of spoken French are considered. Examines intraspeaker variation in "ne" by focusing on the use of the variable by a single speaker in both speech…

  18. A Rationale for Broadening the Perspectives of Business French Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugan, J. Sanford

    1984-01-01

    Links success of future international trade between U.S. and French-speaking world to a broader knowledge of economic systems and cultures of Quebec, Belgium, Switzerland, North and West Africa. More than just developing language competence, American students in business French need curriculum giving more exposure to diversity of cultures and…

  19. A perspective on modeling the multiscale response of energetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Betsy M.

    2017-01-01

    The response of an energetic material to insult is perhaps one of the most difficult processes to model due to concurrent chemical and physical phenomena occurring over scales ranging from atomistic to continuum. Unraveling the interdependencies of these complex processes across the scales through modeling can only be done within a multiscale framework. In this paper, I will describe progress in the development of a predictive, experimentally validated multiscale reactive modeling capability for energetic materials at the Army Research Laboratory. I will also describe new challenges and research opportunities that have arisen in the course of our development which should be pursued in the future.

  20. French and American Cross-Cultural Military Education and Relations: One Naval Officer’s Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-03-01

    determine whether cross- cultural education would have changed the outcome of history. However, a historical perspective may alert the reader to a ...from the perspective of the author of this paper. First, both schools possess the progressive potential to incorporate a formal cross- cultural ...AU/ACSC/0605C/97-03 FRENCH AND AMERICAN CROSS- CULTURAL MILITARY EDUCATION AND RELATIONS: ONE NAVAL OFFICER’S PERSPECTIVE A Research Paper

  1. Space Weather Research in Greece: The Solar Energetic Particle Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malandraki, Olga E.

    2015-03-01

    Space Weather Research carried out in the National Observatory of Athens (NOA), within the SEPServer and COMESEP projects under the Seventh Framework Programme (FP7-SPACE) of the European Union (EU) is presented. Results and services that these projects provide to the whole scientific community as well as stakeholders are underlined. NOA strongly contributes in terms of crucial Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) dataset provided, data analysis and SEP catalogue items provided as well as comparative results of the various components of the project server, greatly facilitating the investigation of SEPs and their origin. SEP research highlights carried out at NOA are also presented, used to test and validate the particle SEP model developed and incorporated within the SEP forecasting tools of the COronal Mass Ejections and Solar Energetic Particles (COMESEP) Space Weather Alert System, i.e. the First European Alert System for geomagnetic storms and SEP radiation hazards.

  2. French Immersion for English Language Learners?: Kindergarten Teachers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mady, Callie

    2016-01-01

    Given the increasingly diverse, multilingual student body in Canada, the call for increased inclusion in education, and in light of research highlighting the potential for inclusion in French immersion (FI) to be limited by gatekeepers, this study examines the beliefs of kindergarten teachers regarding the inclusion of English language learners in…

  3. French Immersion for English Language Learners?: Kindergarten Teachers' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mady, Callie

    2016-01-01

    Given the increasingly diverse, multilingual student body in Canada, the call for increased inclusion in education, and in light of research highlighting the potential for inclusion in French immersion (FI) to be limited by gatekeepers, this study examines the beliefs of kindergarten teachers regarding the inclusion of English language learners in…

  4. Inclusion in French Immersion in Canada: One Parent's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mady, Callie; Arnett, Katy

    2009-01-01

    Through an examination of one mother's journals about her son's academic struggles to navigate the French immersion (FI) program in Canada, this article explores the tensions that exist when the construct of "inclusion" is juxtaposed against that particular second language-learning context. The analysis of the mother's journals revealed…

  5. [The French School of Public Health (FSPH): I. General perspectives].

    PubMed

    Flahault, Antoine

    2007-02-01

    FSPH is based on the foundations of the 45-year-old National School of Public Health Administration (ENSP), located in Rennes (Brittany) on a 22-acre campus. The annual budget is 55 milion euros, which is only partly adequate for FSPH missions and objectives. What is currently needed, in addition to ENSP is a high-level academic establishment. It has been argued that France lacks the research resources and funding necessary to hold a leading international position in public health research and expertise. About 85% of international scientific papers published by French teams in the field of public health are produced by Inserm (the French equivalent of NIH) and university hospitals, which are mainly located in Paris. It is proposed to initially network and reinforce existing forces, in close collaboration with top-level institutions in the French capital. This series of three papers proposes to establish a dynamic in two domains: (i) risk analysis and regulation, and (ii) prevention and screening in public health. FSPH will be grounded on scientific excellence, French-English bilingual training, openness to Europe and North America, worldwide notoriety, and collaboration with top-flight academic and research institutions, hospitals, and the private sector.

  6. Mediation of Artefacts, Tools and Technical Objects: An International and French Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Impedovo, Maria Antonietta; Andreucci, Colette; Ginestié, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    In this article we present a review of literature on the concept of Artefact, Tool and Technical Object in the light of sociocultural approach. Particular attention is given to present and discuss the French research tradition on the Technical Object and Technological education. The aim is to give a broad perspective to explore the mediation…

  7. Mediation of Artefacts, Tools and Technical Objects: An International and French Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Impedovo, Maria Antonietta; Andreucci, Colette; Ginestié, Jacques

    2017-01-01

    In this article we present a review of literature on the concept of Artefact, Tool and Technical Object in the light of sociocultural approach. Particular attention is given to present and discuss the French research tradition on the Technical Object and Technological education. The aim is to give a broad perspective to explore the mediation…

  8. The role of research in nuclear regulation: A French perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Livolant, M.

    1997-01-01

    Roughly speaking, the French Nuclear Protection and Safety Institute`s role is similar in the French situation to the NRC administration role but with less authority role, which corresponds to another body in France. They define themselves as a technical support of the safety authorities. On the other hand, they have their own research laboratories. Among them, the most famous are the Phebus reactor and the Cabri reactor about which we have heard a lot these two days. They work on safety but also on protection of man and environment, management of accident conditions, security of transport, and safeguards. They have a relationship with utilities and with government authorities. With the utilities they have two types of technical evaluations. They make detailed technical studies of the safety reports presented to the authorities by the utility. On the research side, they participate in common research programs to resolve issues and to increase knowledge and understanding about safety related questions. With the governmental authorities, their role is to give advice on safety reports of existing or being-built installations and on more general policy questions like, for example, the safety principle to apply to the next generation of power plants. The decisions are left to the safety authorities, but they give a lot of advice and detailed studies about questions of safety.

  9. Survey on the Teaching of Contemporary French Culture in American Colleges and Universities, Part II: The Students' Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koop, Marie-Christine Weidmann

    1991-01-01

    Presents the results of a study of student perspectives on the state of the art of undergraduate courses in French culture taught in American colleges and universities. Results from 28 questions are reviewed. The questions deal with the student's profiles, knowledge of facts, and their opinions about France and French. (28 references) (GLR)

  10. Gaining Access to Late French-Immersion Programs: Class-Based Perspectives of Canadian Students in an Ottawa High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makropoulos, Josee

    2009-01-01

    The question of access to French-immersion programs has become a timely subject in Canada as a result of shifting political priorities, cutbacks, and growing concern around finding the most efficient way to teach French as a second language (FSL). While drawing on social selection and identity perspectives on school choice, this article presents…

  11. Gaining Access to Late French-Immersion Programs: Class-Based Perspectives of Canadian Students in an Ottawa High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makropoulos, Josee

    2009-01-01

    The question of access to French-immersion programs has become a timely subject in Canada as a result of shifting political priorities, cutbacks, and growing concern around finding the most efficient way to teach French as a second language (FSL). While drawing on social selection and identity perspectives on school choice, this article presents…

  12. Advance directives and the family: French and American perspectives.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Arias, David; Moutel, Grégoire; Aulisio, Mark P; Salfati, Alexandra; Coffin, Jean-Christophe; Rodríguez-Arias, J L; Calvo, L; Hervé, Christian

    2007-09-01

    Several studies have explored differences between North American and European doctor-patient relationships. They have focused primarily on differences in philosophical traditions and historic and socio-economic factors between these two regions that might lead to differences in behaviour, as well as divergent concepts in and justifications of medical practice. However, few empirical intercultural studies have been carried out to identify in practice these cultural differences. This lack of standard comparative empirical studies led us to compare differences between France and the USA regarding end-of-life decision making. We tested certain assertions put forward by bioethicists concerning the impact of culture on the acceptance of advance directives in such decisions. In particular, we compared North American and French intensive care professional's attitudes toward: 1) advance directives and 2) the role of the family in decisions to withhold or withdraw life-support.

  13. Quality organization and risk in anaesthesia: the French perspective.

    PubMed

    Marty, Jean; Samain, Emmanuel

    2017-04-01

    Ensuring the quality and safety of anaesthesia in the face of budgetary restrictions and changing demographics is challenging. In France, the environment is regulated by the legislation, and it is often necessary to find solutions that seize opportunities to break with the traditional organization. Postoperative mortality remains excessively high. The move towards ambulatory care is being adequately integrated into all the stages of patient management in the context of a single therapeutic plan that is mutually agreed upon by all caregivers. The French National Health Authority, which provides certification for healthcare establishments, encourages this 'seamless' approach between private practice and the hospital setting, based on teamwork and interdisciplinary consultation. By daring to break with traditional organizational structures, and by taking account of human factors and staged strategies, it is possible to deliver appropriate care, with a level of quality and safety that meets users' demands. The management of a patient undergoing surgery with anaesthesia is a seamless spectrum from the patient's home to the hospital and back to home. Decision-making must be multidisciplinary. Increased use of ambulatory care, breaks with traditional organizational structures, and efforts to reduce postoperative mortality represents opportunities to improve overall system performance. Demographic and economic constraints are potential threats to be identified.

  14. Helium Energetic Neutral Atoms from the Heliosphere: Perspectives for Future Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swaczyna, Paweł; Grzedzielski, Stan; Bzowski, Maciej

    2017-05-01

    Observations of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) allow for remote sensing of plasma properties in distant regions of the heliosphere. So far, most of the observations have concerned only hydrogen atoms. In this paper, we present perspectives for observations of helium energetic neutral atoms (He ENAs). We calculated the expected intensities of He ENAs created by the neutralization of helium ions in the inner heliosheath and through the secondary ENA mechanism in the outer heliosheath. We found that the dominant source region for He ENAs is the inner heliosheath. The obtained magnitudes of intensity spectra suggest that He ENAs can be observed with future ENA detectors, as those planned on Interstellar Mapping and Acceleration Probe. Observing He ENAs is most likely for energies from a few to a few tens of keV/nuc. Estimates of the expected count rates show that the ratio of helium to hydrogen atoms registered in the detectors can be as low as 1:104. Consequently, the detectors need to be equipped with an appropriate mass spectrometer capability, allowing for recognition of chemical elements. Due to the long mean free paths of helium ions in the inner heliosheath, He ENAs are produced also in the distant heliospheric tail. This implies that observations of He ENAs can resolve its structure, which seems challenging from observations of hydrogen ENAs since energetic protons are neutralized before they progress deeper in the heliospheric tail.

  15. Viability of long range dragonfly migration across the Indian Ocean: An energetics perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Sandeep; Nirwal, Satvik

    2016-11-01

    Recently Pantala flavescens (dragonflies) have been reported to migrate in millions from India to Eastern Africa on a multigenerational migratory circuit of length 14000-18000 kms. We attempt to understand the ability of dragonflies to perform long range migration by examining the energetics using computer simulations. In absence of a theory for long range insect migrations, we resort to the extensive literature on long range bird migration from the energetics perspective. The flight energetics depends upon instantaneous power and velocity. The mechanical flight power is computed from the power curve which is then converted to mass depletion using Brequet's equation. However, the mechanical flight power itself depends upon the instantaneous velocity which can vary depending upon the current mass. In order to predict the range in our simulations, we assume that the insect progressively tries to achieve the maximum range velocity. The results indicate that the migration range is approximately 1260 kms in 70 hours based on the true airspeed. However, our analysis is restricted by the lack of data and certain caveats in drag prediction and basal metabolism rate.

  16. An ocean drum: quasi-geostrophic energetics from a Riemann geometry perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo, José Luis

    2016-05-01

    We revisit the discussion of the energetics of quasi-geostrophic flows from a geometric perspective based on the introduction of an effective metric, built in terms of the flow stratification and the Coriolis parameter. In particular, an appropriate notion of normal modes is defined through a spectral geometry problem in the ocean basin (a compact manifold with boundary) for the associated Laplace-Beltrami scalar operator. This spectral problem can be used to systematically encode non-local aspects of stratification and topography. As examples of applications we revisit the isotropy assumption in geostrophic turbulence, identify (a patch of) the hyperbolic space {{{H}}}3 as the leading-order term in the effective geometry for the deep mesoscale ocean and, finally, discuss some diagnostic tools based on a simple statistical mechanics toy-model to be used in numerical simulations and/or observations of quasi-geostrophic flows.

  17. Ecological Energetic Perspectives on Responses of Nitrogen-Transforming Chemolithoautotrophic Microbiota to Changes in the Marine Environment

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Hongyue; Chen, Chen-Tung A.

    2017-01-01

    Transformation and mobilization of bioessential elements in the biosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere constitute the Earth’s biogeochemical cycles, which are driven mainly by microorganisms through their energy and material metabolic processes. Without microbial energy harvesting from sources of light and inorganic chemical bonds for autotrophic fixation of inorganic carbon, there would not be sustainable ecosystems in the vast ocean. Although ecological energetics (eco-energetics) has been emphasized as a core aspect of ecosystem analyses and microorganisms largely control the flow of matter and energy in marine ecosystems, marine microbial communities are rarely studied from the eco-energetic perspective. The diverse bioenergetic pathways and eco-energetic strategies of the microorganisms are essentially the outcome of biosphere-geosphere interactions over evolutionary times. The biogeochemical cycles are intimately interconnected with energy fluxes across the biosphere and the capacity of the ocean to fix inorganic carbon is generally constrained by the availability of nutrients and energy. The understanding of how microbial eco-energetic processes influence the structure and function of marine ecosystems and how they interact with the changing environment is thus fundamental to a mechanistic and predictive understanding of the marine carbon and nitrogen cycles and the trends in global change. By using major groups of chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms that participate in the marine nitrogen cycle as examples, this article examines their eco-energetic strategies, contributions to carbon cycling, and putative responses to and impacts on the various global change processes associated with global warming, ocean acidification, eutrophication, deoxygenation, and pollution. We conclude that knowledge gaps remain despite decades of tremendous research efforts. The advent of new techniques may bring the dawn to scientific breakthroughs that necessitate

  18. Ecological Energetic Perspectives on Responses of Nitrogen-Transforming Chemolithoautotrophic Microbiota to Changes in the Marine Environment.

    PubMed

    Dang, Hongyue; Chen, Chen-Tung A

    2017-01-01

    Transformation and mobilization of bioessential elements in the biosphere, lithosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere constitute the Earth's biogeochemical cycles, which are driven mainly by microorganisms through their energy and material metabolic processes. Without microbial energy harvesting from sources of light and inorganic chemical bonds for autotrophic fixation of inorganic carbon, there would not be sustainable ecosystems in the vast ocean. Although ecological energetics (eco-energetics) has been emphasized as a core aspect of ecosystem analyses and microorganisms largely control the flow of matter and energy in marine ecosystems, marine microbial communities are rarely studied from the eco-energetic perspective. The diverse bioenergetic pathways and eco-energetic strategies of the microorganisms are essentially the outcome of biosphere-geosphere interactions over evolutionary times. The biogeochemical cycles are intimately interconnected with energy fluxes across the biosphere and the capacity of the ocean to fix inorganic carbon is generally constrained by the availability of nutrients and energy. The understanding of how microbial eco-energetic processes influence the structure and function of marine ecosystems and how they interact with the changing environment is thus fundamental to a mechanistic and predictive understanding of the marine carbon and nitrogen cycles and the trends in global change. By using major groups of chemolithoautotrophic microorganisms that participate in the marine nitrogen cycle as examples, this article examines their eco-energetic strategies, contributions to carbon cycling, and putative responses to and impacts on the various global change processes associated with global warming, ocean acidification, eutrophication, deoxygenation, and pollution. We conclude that knowledge gaps remain despite decades of tremendous research efforts. The advent of new techniques may bring the dawn to scientific breakthroughs that necessitate

  19. Cost-Effectiveness of Treatments for Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: A French Societal Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Julie; Chamoux, Catherine; Hammès, Florence; Chicoye, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The paper aimed to estimate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) at the public published price for delayed-release dimethyl fumarate versus relevant Multiple Sclerosis disease-modifying therapies available in France in June 2015. Methods The economic model was adapted to the French setting in accordance with the Haute Autorité de Santé guidelines using a model previously developed for NICE. A cohort of Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis patients was simulated over a 30-year time horizon. Twenty one health states were taken into account: Kurtzke Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) 0–9 for Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis patients, EDSS 0–9 for Secondary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis patients, and death. Estimates of relative treatment efficacy were determined using a mixed-treatment comparison. Probabilities of events were derived from the dimethyl fumarate pivotal clinical trials and the London Ontario Dataset. Costs and utilities were extracted from the published literature from both the payer and societal perspectives. Univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the robustness of the model results. Results From both perspectives, dimethyl fumarate and interferon beta-1a (IFN beta-1a) 44mcg were the two optimal treatments, as the other treatments (IFN beta-1a 30mcg, IFN beta-1b 250mcg, teriflunomide, glatiramer acetate, fingolimod) were dominated on the efficiency frontier. From the societal perspective, dimethyl fumarate versus IFN beta-1a 44mcg incurred an incremental cost of €3,684 and an incremental quality-adjusted life year (QALY) of 0.281, corresponding to an ICER of €13,110/QALY. Conclusions Despite no reference threshold for France, dimethyl fumarate can be considered as a cost-effective option as it is on the efficiency frontier. PMID:26987055

  20. Burden of Clostridium difficile Infections in French Hospitals in 2014 From the National Health Insurance Perspective.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Soline; Blein, Cécile; Andremont, Antoine; Bandinelli, Pierre-Alain; Galvain, Thibaut

    2017-08-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the hospital stays of patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and to measure the hospitalization costs of CDI (as primary and secondary diagnoses) from the French national health insurance perspective DESIGN Burden of illness study SETTING All acute-care hospitals in France METHODS Data were extracted from the French national hospitalization database (PMSI) for patients covered by the national health insurance scheme in 2014. Hospitalizations were selected using the International Classification of Diseases, 10 th revision (ICD-10) code for CDI. Hospital stays with CDI as the primary diagnosis or the secondary diagnosis (comorbidity) were studied for the following parameters: patient sociodemographic characteristics, mortality, length of stay (LOS), and related costs. A retrospective case-control analysis was performed on stays with CDI as the secondary diagnosis to assess the impact of CDI on the LOS and costs. RESULTS Overall, 5,834 hospital stays with CDI as the primary diagnosis were included in this study. The total national insurance costs were €30.7 million (US $33,677,439), and the mean cost per hospital stay was €5,267±€3,645 (US $5,777±$3,998). In total, 10,265 stays were reported with CDI as the secondary diagnosis. The total national insurance additional costs attributable to CDI were estimated to be €85 million (US $93,243,725), and the mean additional cost attributable to CDI per hospital stay was €8,295±€17,163, median, €4,797 (US $9,099±$8,827; median, $5,262). CONCLUSION CDI has a high clinical and economic burden in the hospital, and it represents a major cost for national health insurance. When detected as a comorbidity, CDI was significantly associated with increased LOS and economic burden. Preventive approaches should be implemented to avoid CDIs. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:906-911.

  1. What are check dams made for? An historical perspective from the French experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piton, Guillaume; Carladous, Simon; Recking, Alain

    2015-04-01

    technical and sociological reasons. The Mountain lands' conservation and restoration law of 1882 aimed to better fit local issues. The idea of the presentation is thus to highlight how evolved the historical comprehension of torrential hazards and of the usefulness of check dams in mitigation plans in a changing environment on the technical as well as on the sociological and regulatory points of view. Pioneering scientific and technical works on torrential hydraulics and check dams will be presented. Describing the global context that leads to French laws of 1860,1864 and 1882 will allow us to explain the extensive development of the works in more than a thousand of torrents and a hundred of big landslides. We then will discuss the evolution of technics during the beginning of the 20th century and the changes induced after WWII by the arrival of reinforced-concrete technics. We will conclude the presentation with a synthesis table aiming to highlight the different functions of check dams based on a description of their situations in the watershed, compare to other structures' situations and on shape criteria. This historical perspective will hopefully help people to better understand for which purposes some structures have been built in the past centuries and what lessons can be learnt from this assessment.

  2. On-Line Grammaticality Judgments in French Children and Adults: A Crosslinguistic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kail, Michele

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the on-line processing of French sentences in a grammaticality judgment experiment. Three age groups of French children (mean age: 6;8, 8;6 and 10;10 years) and a group of adults were asked to detect grammatical violations as quickly as possible. Three factors were studied: the violation type: agreement violations (number and…

  3. Language Needs Analysis from a Perspective of International Professional Mobility: The Case of French Mountain Guides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wozniak, Severine

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a detailed account of an analysis carried out at the French National Skiing and Mountaineering School from August 2008 to June 2009 to assess the language needs of French mountain guides. A targeted literature review highlighted two main points to be taken into account in the design of this language needs analysis: target…

  4. On-Line Grammaticality Judgments in French Children and Adults: A Crosslinguistic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kail, Michele

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the on-line processing of French sentences in a grammaticality judgment experiment. Three age groups of French children (mean age: 6;8, 8;6 and 10;10 years) and a group of adults were asked to detect grammatical violations as quickly as possible. Three factors were studied: the violation type: agreement violations (number and…

  5. Language Needs Analysis from a Perspective of International Professional Mobility: The Case of French Mountain Guides

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wozniak, Severine

    2010-01-01

    This paper gives a detailed account of an analysis carried out at the French National Skiing and Mountaineering School from August 2008 to June 2009 to assess the language needs of French mountain guides. A targeted literature review highlighted two main points to be taken into account in the design of this language needs analysis: target…

  6. French Health Technology Assessment of Antineoplastic Drugs Indicated in the Treatment of Solid Tumours: Perspective for Future Trends.

    PubMed

    Chouaid, Christos; Borget, Isabelle; Braun, Eric; Bazil, Marie-Laure; Schaetz, Dominique; Rémuzat, Cécile; Toumi, Mondher

    2016-08-01

    France is one of the European countries that spend the most on oncology drugs. To keep pharmaceutical expenditure under control, Health Authorities highly scrutinize market access of costly medicines. To assess current and future trends in French health technology assessment (HTA) of antineoplastic drugs indicated in the treatment of solid tumours. A review of the SMR and ASMR drivers of the Transparency Committee (CT) opinions issued for antineoplastic drugs indicated in the treatment of solid tumours and approved between 2009 and 2014 was performed to assess current trends in French health technology assessment (HTA), complemented by an expert board consultation to capture the critical issues on the future of antineoplastic drugs HTA. Thirty-one drugs indicated for the treatment of solid tumours were identified (77 % targeted therapies). Initial CT assessments were available for 26 drugs. Four key items in the CT assessment were identified: 1) Clinical trial methodology; 2) Acceptance of progression-free survival (PFS) as a valuable endpoint; 3) Transferability of clinical trials in clinical practice; 4) Unpredictability of CT decisions. Experts raised the important development of personalised medicines in oncology and key challenges for oncology products to generate information expected from HTA perspective. The French system remains committed to its values and philosophy (access of all innovations for everybody) which are threatened by the increasing launch of innovative therapies and budget constraint. Both HTA decision framework evolution and revision of the current pricing process should be considered in France to cope with these new challenges.

  7. Thirty Years after Bill 101: A Contemporary Perspective on Attitudes Towards English and French in Montreal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kircher, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a 2007 study that was conducted amongst 147 young anglophone, francophone and allophone Montrealers in order to shed light on their attitudes towards English and French in terms of status and solidarity. The study made use of both a questionnaire and a matched-guise experiment. The findings indicate that while a certain amount…

  8. Uncovering Productive Morphosyntax in French-Learning Toddlers: A Multidimensional Methodology Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barriére, Isabelle; Goyet, Louise; Kresh, Sarah; Legendre, Géraldine; Nazzi, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The present study applies a multidimensional methodological approach to the study of the acquisition of morphosyntax. It focuses on evaluating the degree of productivity of an infrequent subject-verb agreement pattern in the early acquisition of French and considers the explanatory role played by factors such as input frequency, semantic…

  9. Supporting French Teachers for a Paradigm Shift in Grammar Education: A Teacher Trainer's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibeault, Joël

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a series of pedagogical workshops that was offered over two years to a cohort of 50 teachers practising in Ontarian French schools. Focusing on grammar teaching, the workshops' objectives were to: (a) contribute to the teachers' development of linguistic knowledge consistent with the grammar under new provincial standards and…

  10. Teaching, Learning, and Developing L2 French Sociolinguistic Competence: A Sociocultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Compernolle, Remi A.; Williams, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The study reported in this article investigates the development of sociolinguistic competence among second-year (US university-level) L2 learners of French who were given systematic instruction on sociolinguistic variation as part of their normal coursework. We focus on the variable use of the negative morpheme "ne" in verbal negation. Drawing…

  11. Supporting French Teachers for a Paradigm Shift in Grammar Education: A Teacher Trainer's Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibeault, Joël

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a series of pedagogical workshops that was offered over two years to a cohort of 50 teachers practising in Ontarian French schools. Focusing on grammar teaching, the workshops' objectives were to: (a) contribute to the teachers' development of linguistic knowledge consistent with the grammar under new provincial standards and…

  12. Teaching, Learning, and Developing L2 French Sociolinguistic Competence: A Sociocultural Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Compernolle, Remi A.; Williams, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The study reported in this article investigates the development of sociolinguistic competence among second-year (US university-level) L2 learners of French who were given systematic instruction on sociolinguistic variation as part of their normal coursework. We focus on the variable use of the negative morpheme "ne" in verbal negation. Drawing…

  13. Future time perspective as predictor of cannabis use: exploring the role of substance perception among French adolescents.

    PubMed

    Apostolidis, Thémis; Fieulaine, Nicolas; Soulé, Florence

    2006-12-01

    This study explored the relation of Future time perspective (FTP) to cannabis use and tested the potential mediating role of cannabis perception, with a sample of 276 French adolescents. FTP was assessed using ZTPI subscale, cannabis perception was evaluated from a list of nine items related to drug-oriented perception (DOP), and participants were asked to report both their cannabis use and the level of use. Results showed that FTP acts as a significant predictor of cannabis use, and is significantly linked to DOP. A significant relationship between DOP and cannabis use also appeared. Regression analyses showed that DOP acts as a mediator in the link between FTP and cannabis use. These findings confirm the protective role of FTP in cannabis use and suggest the indirect nature of this role.

  14. Locomotion, Energetics, Performance, and Behavior: A Mammalian Perspective on Lizards, and Vice Versa.

    PubMed

    Garland, Theodore; Albuquerque, Ralph L

    2017-08-01

    Animals are constrained by their abilities and by interactions with environmental factors, such as low ambient temperatures. These constraints range from physical impossibilities to energetic inefficiencies, and may entail trade-offs. Some of the constraints related to locomotion and activity metabolism can be illustrated through allometric comparisons of mammals and lizards, as representative terrestrial vertebrate endotherms and ectotherms, respectively, because these lineages differ greatly in aerobic metabolic capacities, resting energetic costs, and thermoregulatory patterns. Allometric comparisons are both useful and unavoidable, but "outlier" species (unusual for their clade) can also inform evolutionary scenarios, as they help indicate extremes of possible adaptation within mammalian and saurian levels of organization. We compared mammals and lizards for standard metabolic rate (SMR), maximal oxygen consumption during forced exercise (VO2max), net (incremental) cost of transport (NCT), maximal aerobic speed (MAS), daily movement distance (DMD), daily energy expenditure (DEE) during the active season, and the ecological cost of transport (ECT = percentage of DEE attributable to locomotion). (Snakes were excluded because their limbless locomotion has no counterpart in terrestrial mammals.) We only considered lizard SMR, VO2max, NCT, MAS, and sprint speed data if measured at 35-40 °C. On average, MAS is ∼7.4-fold higher in mammals, whereas SMR and VO2max are ∼6-fold greater, but values for all three of these traits overlap (or almost overlap) between mammals and lizards, a fact that has not previously been appreciated. Previous studies show that sprint speeds are similar for smaller mammals and lizards, but at larger sizes lizards are not as fast as some mammals. Mammals move ∼6-fold further each day than lizards, and DMD is by far the most variable trait considered here, but their NCT is similar. Mammals exceed lizards by ∼11.4-fold for DEE. On

  15. Impacts of the QBO on the North Atlantic and Mediterranean storm tracks: An energetic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asbaghi, Ghorban; Joghataei, Mohammad; Mohebalhojeh, Ali R.

    2017-01-01

    Impacts of the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) on the energetics of the North Atlantic and Mediterranean storm tracks are discussed. The daily National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis data for the period 1953-2015 are used to evaluate the spatial distribution of eddy kinetic energy (EKE) and the main factors involved in generation, conversion, and propagation of the EKE in the westerly and easterly phases of the QBO. Results are presented for both early and late winter to uncover intraseasonal variations of the impact. It is shown that the QBO exerts a marked influence on the Mediterranean storm track in early winter, which is of the same order of its impact on the North Atlantic storm track. Further, the impact on the Mediterranean storm track is rather local in early winter but more influenced by variations in the North Atlantic storm track in late winter.

  16. Flare energetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, S. T.; Dejager, C.; Dennis, B. R.; Hudson, H. S.; Simnett, G. M.; Strong, K. T.; Bentley, R. D.; Bornmann, P. L.; Bruner, M. E.; Cargill, P. J.

    1986-01-01

    In this investigation of flare energetics, researchers sought to establish a comprehensive and self-consistent picture of the sources and transport of energy within a flare. To achieve this goal, they chose five flares in 1980 that were well observed with instruments on the Solar Maximum Mission, and with other space-borne and ground-based instruments. The events were chosen to represent various types of flares. Details of the observations available for them and the corresponding physical parameters derived from these data are presented. The flares were studied from two perspectives, the impulsive and gradual phases, and then the results were compared to obtain the overall picture of the energics of these flares. The role that modeling can play in estimating the total energy of a flare when the observationally determined parameters are used as the input to a numerical model is discussed. Finally, a critique of the current understanding of flare energetics and the methods used to determine various energetics terms is outlined, and possible future directions of research in this area are suggested.

  17. The FARMING approach: main results and perspectives of the French FARMING groups.

    PubMed

    Jullien, T; Reales, N; Gallay, F; Lepicard, S

    2005-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident led to a long-term crisis that affected agriculture, food and living conditions in complex ways, and that modified the usual economical, political and social relations between public and private stakeholders at local, national and international level. The EC FARMING project aims to create a European stakeholder network to consider possible rehabilitation strategies for rural areas contaminated after a nuclear accident. The Institute of Patrimonial Strategies of the National Institute on Agronomy had responsibility for setting up the French stakeholder group. The objective was to develop favourable conditions and ways whereby stakeholders could deal with such a complex situation as a nuclear emergency and develop rehabilitation strategies. The results from the 3-year work programme on both strategic and technical aspects, showed an increasing commitment from the stakeholders that led to the building up of a common understanding of what a nuclear accident could be and how it could be dealt with.

  18. Uncovering productive morphosyntax in French-learning toddlers: a multidimensional methodology perspective.

    PubMed

    Barrière, Isabelle; Goyet, Louise; Kresh, Sarah; Legendre, Géraldine; Nazzi, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    The present study applies a multidimensional methodological approach to the study of the acquisition of morphosyntax. It focuses on evaluating the degree of productivity of an infrequent subject-verb agreement pattern in the early acquisition of French and considers the explanatory role played by factors such as input frequency, semantic transparency of the agreement markers, and perceptual factors in accounting for comprehension of agreement in number (singular vs. plural) in an experimental setting. Results on a pointing task involving pseudo-verbs demonstrate significant comprehension of both singular and plural agreement in children aged 2;6. The experimental results are shown not to reflect input frequency, input marker reliability on its own, or lexically driven knowledge. We conclude that toddlers have knowledge of subject-verb agreement at age 2;6 which is abstract and productive despite its paucity in the input.

  19. Computer Science Education in French Secondary Schools: Historical and Didactical Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Georges-Louis; Drot-Delange, Beatrice; Grandbastien, Monique; Tort, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    Computer science as a school subject in France is characterized by a succession of promising starts that have not yet been transformed into perennial solutions. The main goal of this article is to analyze this complex situation from a historical perspective, and describe the current rebirth of an optional Computer Science course in the last year…

  20. European Qualifications Framework: Weighing Some Pros and Cons out of a French Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouder, Annie

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to question the appropriateness of a proposal for a new European Qualifications Framework. The framework has three perspectives: historical; analytical; and national. Design/methodology/approach: The approaches are diverse since the first insists on the institutional and decision-making processes at European…

  1. Computer Science Education in French Secondary Schools: Historical and Didactical Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron, Georges-Louis; Drot-Delange, Beatrice; Grandbastien, Monique; Tort, Françoise

    2014-01-01

    Computer science as a school subject in France is characterized by a succession of promising starts that have not yet been transformed into perennial solutions. The main goal of this article is to analyze this complex situation from a historical perspective, and describe the current rebirth of an optional Computer Science course in the last year…

  2. Challenges of regulatory rights of half-capacitated persons: A sociological perspective on the French Civil Code reform.

    PubMed

    Eyraud, Benoît

    2016-01-01

    Democratic societies are based on the principle of equal legal capacity of all citizens to decide and act for themselves in all areas of social life. This "socio-civil capacity", which may involve both material property of an individual, as well as private life in matters ranging from health to personal relationships, is recognized by the law (both codified law and common law). These rights guarantee the autonomy and freedom of individuals in the name of respect for human dignity. Civil capacity of a person is legally diminished because his or her "natural" abilities, capacity, or competence are reduced. Recent social changes have lead to increased uses of legal measures of protection. The reasons for these changes are complex and they are accompanied by legislative reforms that modify the rights of half-capacitated persons. In this article, we examine certain issues of civil capacity rights based on the French example. We start present a perspective of the historical definition and practice of these rights as well as their democratization. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. [Clinical research activity of the French cancer cooperative network: Overview and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Dubois, Claire; Morin, Franck; Moro-Sibilot, Denis; Langlais, Alexandra; Seitz, Jean-François; Girault, Cécile; Salles, Gilles; Haioun, Corinne; Deschaseaux, Pascal; Casassus, Philippe; Mathiot, Claire; Pujade-Lauraine, Éric; Votan, Bénédicte; Louvet, Christophe; Delpeut, Christine; Bardet, Étienne; Vintonenko, Nadejda; Hoang Xuan, Khê; Vo, Maryline; Michon, Jean; Milleron, Bernard

    The French Cancer Plan 2014-2019 stresses the importance of strengthening collaboration between all stakeholders involved in the fight against cancer, including cancer cooperative groups and intergroups. This survey aimed to describe the basics characteristics and clinical research activity among the Cancer Cooperative Groups (Groupes coopérateurs en oncologie). The second objective was to identify facilitators and barriers to their research activity. A questionnaire was sent to all the clinicians involved in 2014 as investigators in a clinical trial sponsored by one of the ten members of the Cancer Cooperative Groups network. The questions were related to their profile, research activity and the infrastructure existing within their healthcare center to support clinical research and related compliance activities. In total, 366 investigators responded to our survey. The academic clinical trials sponsored by the Cancer Cooperative Groups represented an important part of the research activity of the investigators in France in 2014. These academic groups contributed to the opening of many research sites throughout all regions in France. Factors associated with a higher participation of investigators (more than 10 patients enrolled in a trial over a year) include the existing support of healthcare professionals (more than 2 clinical research associate (CRA) OR=11.16 [3.82-32.6] compared to none) and the practice of their research activity in a University Hospital Center (CHU) rather than a Hospital Center (CH) (OR=2.15 [1.20-3.83]). This study highlighted factors that can strengthen investigator clinical research activities and subsequently improve patient access to evidence-based new cancer therapies in France. Copyright © 2017 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. The concept of instability: a French perspective on the concept of ADHD.

    PubMed

    Bader, Michel; Hadjikhani, Nouchine

    2014-03-01

    Historical references to the emergence of the current concept of ADHD typically cite descriptions from medical textbooks by Weikard (1775) and Crichton (An inquiry into the nature and origin of mental derangement: Comprehending a concise system of the physiology and pathology of the human mind and a history of the passion and their affects. Cardell Jr and Davies, Londres, 1798) on attention disorders, poems of Hoffman on hyperactive and impulsive behaviors (Der Struwwelpeter. Frankfurt am Main, Literarische Anstalt, 1843), as well as the work of Still (Lancet 1:1008-1012, 1077-1082, 1163-1168, 1902a, Lancet 159(4102):1008-1013, 1902b, Lancet 159(4103):1077-1082, 1902c, Lancet 159(4104):1163-1168, 1902d) on impulsive behaviors and defective moral regulation of behavior. The notion of "instability" developed by French physicians between 1887 and 1910 is rarely mentioned and often ignored. Writings from this period show that in France, the emergence of the concept of ADHD according to modern terminology comes from the notion of "mental instability" introduced in the 1890s under the leadership of Désiré-Magloire Bourneville at the Hospital Bicêtre in Paris, based on his observations of children and adolescents who had been labeled "abnormal" and placed in medical and educational institutions. In the early twentieth century, elaborating on the observations of Bourneville, Jean Phillipe and Georges Paul-Boncour showed the presence of a subgroup of "unstable" children who suffered from a disease entity in its own right within the population of "abnormal" schoolchildren (the terminology of the time). This new pathological entity included symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention, corresponding to today's classic triad of ADHD symptoms. While noting the lack of behavioral inhibition, clinical descriptions of Bourneville, Philip and Paul-Boncour also considered the notion of "moral disorder" which at that time played an important role in psychopathology. This

  5. Effect of Phonological Training in French Children with SLI: Perspectives on Voicing Identification, Discrimination and Categorical Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collet, G.; Colin, C.; Serniclaes, W.; Hoonhorst, I.; Markessis, E.; Deltenre, P.; Leybaert, J.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of auditory training on voicing perception in French children with specific language impairment (SLI). We used an adaptive discrimination training that was centred across the French phonological boundary (0 ms voice onset time--VOT). One group of nine children with SLI attended eighteen…

  6. Development of a French Version of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System-Revised: A Pilot Study of Palliative Care Patients' Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Nekolaichuk, Cheryl; Huot, Ann; Gratton, Valérie; Bush, Shirley H; Tarumi, Yoko; Watanabe, Sharon M

    2017-09-01

    The Edmonton Symptom Assessment System-revised (ESAS-r) is a nine-item self-report symptom intensity tool developed for palliative care patients, with the option of adding a 10th patient-specific symptom. Due to growing international uptake, the ESAS-r has been translated into different languages. There has not been agreement, however, regarding a standard process for translation into multiple languages, which also includes patients' perspectives. The purpose of this study was to develop a French version of the ESAS-r, using a standardized translation protocol, and to obtain palliative care patients' perspectives regarding this translated tool. We developed a French version of the ESAS-r, using a standard translation method, involving both professional translators (n = 2) and bilingual palliative care experts (n = 3). Fifteen Francophone participants recruited from palliative care sites in two urban centers in Canada completed the ESAS-r and provided feedback on the translation, in the presence of a trained interviewer. Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data, respectively. Fifteen Francophone participants were recruited from palliative care sites in two urban centers in Canada. Participants completed the ESAS-r and provided feedback on the translation in the presence of a trained interviewer. Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data, respectively. Based on participants' concerns, translations for four of the nine symptoms were revised: drowsiness, nausea, lack of appetite, and shortness of breath. Concerns expressed for three additional symptoms (depression, anxiety, and well-being) were related to overall difficulty rating these symptoms, not specific to the translation. The French version of the ESAS-r is a credible tool for symptom assessment in Francophone patients. The study findings provide a vital step in the development of

  7. Teaching French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marty, Fernand

    This comprehensive analysis of French teaching methodology reveals basic problems underlying the current philosophy of language learning, while presenting new ideas based on extensive research. Two books, "Active French; Dialogues" and "Active French: Foundations Course" (Books 1 and 2), which stress well specified learning objectives, were…

  8. Pedagogy, Didactics and the Co-Regulation of Learning: A Perspective from the French-Language World of Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allal, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Since pedagogy is a key term in the Teaching and Learning Research Programme (TLRP) principles, it is of interest to examine the evolution of the concept of pedagogy in the French-language world of education, as well as the emergence of a new field of research called "didactics". Work on situated cognition provides a framework for…

  9. New Canadian Perspectives: A Profile of the Providers of Training in English or French as a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Statistics Canada, Ottawa (Ontario). Training and Continuing Education Section.

    This report presents the findings of the 1998 survey of providers of training in English or French as a second or foreign language in Canada. The purpose of the survey was to gather information at the national level and, where possible, at the regional level, on the size of the industry, its characteristics, and the role played by foreign…

  10. A Hierarchical Relationship between the Fluence Spectra and CME Kinematics in Large Solar Energetic Particle Events: A Radio Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Mäkelä, P.; Yashiro, S.; Thakur, N.; Akiyama, S.; Xie, H.

    2017-09-01

    We report on further evidence that solar energetic particles are organized by the kinematic properties of coronal mass ejections (CMEs)[1]. In particular, we focus on the starting frequency of type II bursts, which is related to the distance from the Sun where the radio emission starts. We find that the three groups of solar energetic particle (SEP) events known to have distinct values of CME initial acceleration, also have distinct average starting frequencies of the associated type II bursts. SEP events with ground level enhancement (GLE) have the highest starting frequency (107 MHz), while those associated with filament eruption (FE) in quiescent regions have the lowest starting frequency (22 MHz); regular SEP events have intermediate starting frequency (81 MHz). Taking the onset time of type II bursts as the time of shock formation, we determine the shock formation heights measured from the Sun center. We find that the shocks form on average closest to the Sun (1.51 Rs) in GLE events, farthest from the Sun in FE SEP events (5.38 Rs), and at intermediate distances in regular SEP events (1.72 Rs). Finally, we present the results of a case study of a CME with high initial acceleration (∼3 km s-2) and a type II radio burst with high starting frequency (∼200 MHz) but associated with a minor SEP event. We find that the relation between the fluence spectral index and CME initial acceleration continues to hold even for this minor SEP event.

  11. Perspective: assume a spherical cow: the role of free or mobile electrons in bodywork, energetic and movement therapies.

    PubMed

    Oschman, James L

    2008-01-01

    Biomedical research has led to the hypothesis that inflammation is the culprit behind almost every modern chronic illness. Hence there is interest in techniques that can resolve acute and chronic inflammation. A natural method involves connecting the human body to the earth (earthing). When done during sleep, earthing normalizes the daily cortisol rhythm, improves sleep and reduces pain and inflammation. Direct electrical connection with the earth enables diurnal (daily) electrical rhythms and electrons to flow from the earth to the body. Electrons are thought to act as natural anti-oxidants by neutralizing positively charged inflammatory free radicals. This concept requires a revision of an old idea in physiology: the human body and the cells within it are best described as volume conductors, in which charge is only conducted by dissolved electrolytes. The discussion relates to the term, "ungrounded," widely used by practitioners of bodywork, energetic and movement therapies.

  12. How Place and Audience Matter: Perspectives on Mathematics Plural Identities from Late 1950s French and English Middle School Textbooks.

    PubMed

    Radtka, Catherine

    2016-12-01

    Argument In this paper, I argue that studying school textbooks is a fruitful way to investigate mathematical conceptions in different national contexts. These sources give access to the written production of an extended mathematical milieu whose members write for various audiences. By studying the case of late 1950s French and English textbooks issued for a growing audience of 11- to 15-year-old pupils, I show that a plurality of conceptions was projected at the time onto pupils and their teachers in both national contexts. I link this diversity to contemporaneous debates regarding mathematics teaching and argue that textbooks themselves have to be considered as active agents of such debates.

  13. Structural, energetic and electrical properties of encapsulation of penicillamine drug into the CNTs based on vdW-DF perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorsand, Ameneh; Jamehbozorgi, Saeid; Ghiasi, Reza; Rezvani, Mahyar

    2015-08-01

    First-principles van der Waals density functional (vdW-DF) calculation using GGA/PBE functional and DZP basis set implemented in the SIESTA package was carried out to investigation the encapsulation of penicillamine drug into the both armchair and zigzag single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). The results reveal that the drug encapsulated inside the CNT cavity is weakly bounded. The obtained results of binding energies indicated that incorporation of drug is favored inside the zigzag SWCNTs compared with armchair counterparts. We address here the role of vdW interaction for penicillamine drug when inclusion in the CNTs. It worth mentioning that encapsulation of vdW forces can be effects on the binding properties. The electronic structures and Mulliken charge population are analysed for the energetically most favorable complexes which shows that encapsulated penicillamine changes slightly the electronic properties of SWCNTs and trivial charges are transferred from drug to CNTs during encapsulation process. Global reactivity descriptor values such as electronegativity (χ), global hardness (η), global softness (S), electronic chemical potential (μ), and electrophilicity index (ω) were calculated. We anticipated that these findings supply the new way and value information for help in the experimental study and future applications.

  14. Energetic composites

    DOEpatents

    Danen, Wayne C.; Martin, Joe A.

    1993-01-01

    A method for providing chemical energy and energetic compositions of matter consisting of thin layers of substances which will exothermically react with one another. The layers of reactive substances are separated by thin layers of a buffer material which prevents the reactions from taking place until the desired time. The reactions are triggered by an external agent, such as mechanical stress or an electric spark. The compositions are known as metastable interstitial composites (MICs). This class of compositions includes materials which have not previously been capable of use as energetic materials. The speed and products of the reactions can be varied to suit the application.

  15. Energetic composites

    DOEpatents

    Danen, W.C.; Martin, J.A.

    1993-11-30

    A method for providing chemical energy and energetic compositions of matter consisting of thin layers of substances which will exothermically react with one another. The layers of reactive substances are separated by thin layers of a buffer material which prevents the reactions from taking place until the desired time. The reactions are triggered by an external agent, such as mechanical stress or an electric spark. The compositions are known as metastable interstitial composites (MICs). This class of compositions includes materials which have not previously been capable of use as energetic materials. The speed and products of the reactions can be varied to suit the application. 3 figures.

  16. Aging and well-being in French older adults regularly practicing physical activity: a self-determination perspective.

    PubMed

    Ferrand, Claude; Nasarre, Sandra; Hautier, Christophe; Bonnefoy, Marc

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the motivational profiles of physically active older adults and to achieve a better understanding of their perceived motives to explain their regular physical activity behavior in relation to self-determination theory (SDT). To address these aims, this study used quantitative and qualitative approaches. Older adults (n = 92; M = 74.95, SD = 4.6) completed the French version of the Sport Motivational Scale. A cluster analysis showed two motivational profiles with differential motivational patterns. The first was named the high combined profile, with high scores on intrinsic motivation and introjected regulation and low levels of external regulation. The second profile was the low to moderate motivational profile, with low scores on intrinsic motivation and moderate scores on introjected regulation. The qualitative study's results demonstrate the usefulness of SDT in explaining the relationship between these motivational profiles and the intertwining of the three basic psychological needs.

  17. From Autonomy to Reciprocity, or Vice Versa? French Personalism's Contribution to a New Perspective on Self-Directed Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eneau, Jerome

    2008-01-01

    After many years of research focused on the individual and psychological aspects of self-directed learning, the field has taken into consideration the context and situation surrounding the education of an adult, placing the development of individual autonomy into a constructivist perspective. But it is only recently, in France at least, that…

  18. Energetic Charged Particles Above Thunderclouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Füllekrug, Martin; Diver, Declan; Pinçon, Jean-Louis; Phelps, Alan D. R.; Bourdon, Anne; Helling, Christiane; Blanc, Elisabeth; Honary, Farideh; Harrison, R. Giles; Sauvaud, Jean-André; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Lester, Mark; Rycroft, Michael; Kosch, Mike; Horne, Richard B.; Soula, Serge; Gaffet, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    The French government has committed to launch the satellite TARANIS to study transient coupling processes between the Earth's atmosphere and near-Earth space. The prime objective of TARANIS is to detect energetic charged particles and hard radiation emanating from thunderclouds. The British Nobel prize winner C.T.R. Wilson predicted lightning discharges from the top of thunderclouds into space almost a century ago. However, new experiments have only recently confirmed energetic discharge processes which transfer energy from the top of thunderclouds into the upper atmosphere and near-Earth space; they are now denoted as transient luminous events, terrestrial gamma-ray flashes and relativistic electron beams. This meeting report builds on the current state of scientific knowledge on the physics of plasmas in the laboratory and naturally occurring plasmas in the Earth's atmosphere to propose areas of future research. The report specifically reflects presentations delivered by the members of a novel Franco-British collaboration during a meeting at the French Embassy in London held in November 2011. The scientific subjects of the report tackle ionization processes leading to electrical discharge processes, observations of transient luminous events, electromagnetic emissions, energetic charged particles and their impact on the Earth's atmosphere. The importance of future research in this area for science and society, and towards spacecraft protection, is emphasized.

  19. The ethical and legal aspects of palliative sedation in severely brain-injured patients: a French perspective.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Antoine; Claudot, Frédérique; Audibert, Gérard; Mertes, Paul-Michel; Puybasset, Louis

    2011-02-08

    To fulfill their crucial duty of relieving suffering in their patients, physicians may have to administer palliative sedation when they implement treatment-limitation decisions such as the withdrawal of life-supporting interventions in patients with poor prognosis chronic severe brain injury. The issue of palliative sedation deserves particular attention in adults with serious brain injuries and in neonates with severe and irreversible brain lesions, who are unable to express pain or to state their wishes. In France, treatment limitation decisions for these patients are left to the physicians. Treatment-limitation decisions are made collegially, based on the presence of irreversible brain lesions responsible for chronic severe disorders of consciousness. Before these decisions are implemented, they are communicated to the relatives. Because the presence and severity of pain cannot be assessed in these patients, palliative analgesia and/or sedation should be administered. However, palliative sedation is a complex strategy that requires safeguards to prevent a drift toward hastening death or performing covert euthanasia. In addition to the law on patients' rights at the end of life passed in France on April 22, 2005, a recent revision of Article 37 of the French code of medical ethics both acknowledges that treatment-limitation decisions and palliative sedation may be required in patients with severe brain injuries and provides legal and ethical safeguards against a shift towards euthanasia. This legislation may hold value as a model for other countries where euthanasia is illegal and for countries such as Belgium and Netherlands where euthanasia is legal but not allowed in patients incapable of asking for euthanasia but in whom a treatment limitation decision has been made.

  20. The ethical and legal aspects of palliative sedation in severely brain-injured patients: a French perspective

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    To fulfill their crucial duty of relieving suffering in their patients, physicians may have to administer palliative sedation when they implement treatment-limitation decisions such as the withdrawal of life-supporting interventions in patients with poor prognosis chronic severe brain injury. The issue of palliative sedation deserves particular attention in adults with serious brain injuries and in neonates with severe and irreversible brain lesions, who are unable to express pain or to state their wishes. In France, treatment limitation decisions for these patients are left to the physicians. Treatment-limitation decisions are made collegially, based on the presence of irreversible brain lesions responsible for chronic severe disorders of consciousness. Before these decisions are implemented, they are communicated to the relatives. Because the presence and severity of pain cannot be assessed in these patients, palliative analgesia and/or sedation should be administered. However, palliative sedation is a complex strategy that requires safeguards to prevent a drift toward hastening death or performing covert euthanasia. In addition to the law on patients' rights at the end of life passed in France on April 22, 2005, a recent revision of Article 37 of the French code of medical ethics both acknowledges that treatment-limitation decisions and palliative sedation may be required in patients with severe brain injuries and provides legal and ethical safeguards against a shift towards euthanasia. This legislation may hold value as a model for other countries where euthanasia is illegal and for countries such as Belgium and Netherlands where euthanasia is legal but not allowed in patients incapable of asking for euthanasia but in whom a treatment limitation decision has been made. PMID:21303504

  1. Energetic powder

    DOEpatents

    Jorgensen, Betty S.; Danen, Wayne C.

    2003-12-23

    Fluoroalkylsilane-coated metal particles. The particles have a central metal core, a buffer layer surrounding the core, and a fluoroalkylsilane layer attached to the buffer layer. The particles may be prepared by combining a chemically reactive fluoroalkylsilane compound with an oxide coated metal particle having a hydroxylated surface. The resulting fluoroalkylsilane layer that coats the particles provides them with excellent resistance to aging. The particles can be blended with oxidant particles to form energetic powder that releases chemical energy when the buffer layer is physically disrupted so that the reductant metal core can react with the oxidant.

  2. The Acquisition and Use of French as a Second Language in Africa (Sociolinguistic, Historical-Comparative and Methodological Perspectives). Publication H-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwofie, Emmanuel N.

    A collection of papers addresses three aspects of the learning and use of French as a second language in Africa. The first two chapters look at the sociolinguistic dimension; the first examines the language question and language consciousness in parts of Africa where French was once or is still used as an official or "second" language.…

  3. French Teaching Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, J. Dale

    Supplementary teaching materials for French language programs are presented in this text. Primarily intended for secondary school students, the study contains seven units of material. They include: (1) French gestures, (2) teaching the interrogative pronouns, (3) French cuisine, (4) recreational learning games, (5) French-English cognates, (6)…

  4. Official Language Bilingualism to the Exclusion of Multilingualism: Immigrant Student Perspectives on French as a Second Official Language in "English-Dominant" Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mady, Callie

    2012-01-01

    This study explores the implications of Canada's official bilingual status on young immigrant adults who are presently studying at the undergraduate level at university. More precisely, I examine how these young adults have experienced and judge French as a second official language (FSOL) learning in "English-dominant" regions of Canada.…

  5. Talking It through: Two French Immersion Learners' Response to Reformulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Merrill; Lapkin, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    This article documents the importance of collaborative dialogue as part of the process of second language learning. The stimulus for the dialogue we discuss in this article was a reformulation of a story written collaboratively in French by Nina and Dara, two adolescent French immersion students. A sociocultural theoretical perspective informs the…

  6. La langue francaise, objet de politique linguistique (The French Language, Object of Linguistic Politics).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eloy, Jean-Michel

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of politics of the French language looks at the nature of linguistic politics, offers historical perspective on French linguistic politics, and argues that, in France, language is always linked to the State. Aspects of French linguistic politics concerning the language itself and its role in everyday life are examined. (MSE)

  7. French and Spanish-Speaking Children Use Different Visual and Motor Units during Spelling Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Sonia; Valdois, Sylviane

    2006-01-01

    This study used a copying task to examine spelling acquisition in French and Spanish from a perception and action perspective. Experiment 1 compared French and Spanish-speaking monolingual children's performance. Experiment 2 analysed the behaviour of bilingual children when copying words in French and Spanish. Gaze lift analysis showed that in…

  8. Why Study French?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Gerard

    This brochure for parents and prospective students of French points out career opportunities available to qualified speakers of French. Suggestions concerning student eligibility and the time requirements of language programs are also offered. (RL)

  9. Towards a French Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breach, H. T.

    1972-01-01

    Contends that secondary school students lose their appeal for French as they advance in school. Suggests that French teachers endeavor to motivate students by focusing more attention on their students and less on their own credentials. (DS)

  10. Towards a French Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breach, H. T.

    1972-01-01

    Contends that secondary school students lose their appeal for French as they advance in school. Suggests that French teachers endeavor to motivate students by focusing more attention on their students and less on their own credentials. (DS)

  11. Handwashing compliance in a French university hospital: new perspective with the introduction of hand-rubbing with a waterless alcohol-based solution.

    PubMed

    Girou, E; Oppein, F

    2001-08-01

    The baseline compliance with handwashing in a French university hospital was as low as the compliance rates reported in other countries, i.e., less than 50%. By introducing the use of hand-rubbing with an alcoholic solution, as a substitution method for both handwashing with soap and handwashing with an antiseptic agent, we significantly improved hand-cleansing compliance. Despite these encouraging results, mainly due to the accessibility of these non-aqueous products, three major obstacles remain before a wide acceptance by healthcare workers: distrust in terms of efficacy, distrust in terms of skin tolerance and lack of knowledge on hand-cleansing indications.

  12. French Computer Terminology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Eugene F.

    1985-01-01

    Characteristics, idiosyncrasies, borrowings, and other aspects of the French terminology for computers and computer-related matters are discussed and placed in the context of French computer use. A glossary provides French equivalent terms or translations of English computer terminology. (MSE)

  13. French Studies: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markey, William L., Comp.

    A bibliography of materials relating to French language and area studies includes citations of bibliographies, books, articles, and general and specialized reference materials in French and English in these categories: general reference guides; guides to French studies; style manuals; research methodology and handbooks; library resources;…

  14. Spoken French: Book One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denoeu, Francois; Hall, R. A., Jr.

    This textbook offers a course in French designed for those who need to make themselves understood on ordinary topics in French and cannot devote years of study to the language. It is a self-instructional course, but it is designed to be used with a native French speaker as a guide or, if no native speaker is available, with recordings that are…

  15. Un corpus de francais parle. Montreal 84: Historique, methodes et perspectives de recherche (A Corpus of Spoken French. Montreal 84: History, Methods, and Perspectives of Research). Recherches Sociolinguistiques/1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibault, Pierrette; Vincent, Diane

    In 1984, a new corpus of spoken Quebecois French (Canada) was added to the existing data. In developing it, half of the native speakers participating in a 1971 study were re-interviewed, providing previously unavailable data on individual language development. The report describes in detail the sociolinguistic methodology used in developing the…

  16. Cross-border reproductive care for law evasion: a qualitative study into the experiences and moral perspectives of French women who go to Belgium for treatment with donor sperm.

    PubMed

    Van Hoof, Wannes; Pennings, Guido; De Sutter, Petra

    2015-01-01

    One consequence of the legal diversity in Europe is that legal restrictions on treatments can be evaded by going abroad. Many French lesbian couples and single women are crossing the border to Belgium because they are denied access to treatments with donor sperm at home. This is the first qualitative research study into the experiences and moral perspectives of these women. Between June 2012 and May 2013, 11 lesbian couples and 2 single women were recruited at the department of reproductive medicine at Ghent University Hospital. The data from the semi-structured interviews was analysed using inductive thematic analysis. The results show that these women face several additional challenges to the already difficult process of cross-border treatment. Before they can start the treatment, they can only obtain information from the internet or from stories of friends who also went abroad for treatment with donor sperm. During the treatment, they need to find local clinics or physicians to monitor their cycle. Several women managed to game the French system to ensure partial reimbursement for their treatment when they were successful in finding a physician who was willing to prescribe drugs and perform tests. Most women had difficulties justifying their absence from work. In general these women felt that they were discriminated against and that their rights were not protected because of who they are. In that regard, the lack of legal recognition of the genetically unrelated partner in their country was particularly hard to cope with for the lesbian couples. These women have to develop many different strategies to deal with the difficulties they face during cross-border reproductive care. It is concluded that it is very important that they find a physician who is willing to support them in their 'baby project'.

  17. Studying and Being a Student: How Are These Valued by Today's Youth? The Perspective of French Language Sociology on the Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamel, Jacques; Methot, Christian; Dore, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine students' values in "relationship to their studies." After defining the concept within this rubric, we attempt to define the values at work from the perspectives of (1) the motivation for pursuing post-secondary studies; (2) the pace of studies; (3) the time devoted to study; (4) the time spent in the…

  18. Studying and Being a Student: How Are These Valued by Today's Youth? The Perspective of French Language Sociology on the Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamel, Jacques; Methot, Christian; Dore, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine students' values in "relationship to their studies." After defining the concept within this rubric, we attempt to define the values at work from the perspectives of (1) the motivation for pursuing post-secondary studies; (2) the pace of studies; (3) the time devoted to study; (4) the time spent in the…

  19. A Study of Energetic Neutral Oxygen Emissions and its Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Lui, A. T.; Fok, M.

    2008-05-01

    Energetic Neutral Atom (ENA) emission detection serves as an innovative diagnostic tool for detailed investigations of energetic particles and has contributed greatly in addressing key issues of storm and substorm dynamics. ENAs, which are products of charge exchange between singly charged energetic ions and neutrals of the geocorona, carry not only spectral information but also composition of source plasma and therefore enable global imaging of ring current ions. An inter-spacecraft comparison of energetic neutral oxygen (ENO) intensity from two different vantage points, provided by IMAGE and Geotail, showed that viewing perspective plays a very important role in the observed ENO intensity level during a magnetic storm period [Lui et al., 2005]. Motivated by the findings, we investigate how viewing perspective influences energetic neutral atom emissions from a modeling perspective. Our simulation results, based upon O+ ion fluxes from the Comprehensive Ring Current Model (CRCM) and the subsequent ENO calculation, reproduce the total differential ENO intensity obtained from two spacecraft to a reasonable degree. Further analysis of our results indicates that pitch angle anisotropy in ring current ion flux, a crucial physical quantity in ring current and radiation belt dynamics, is one major contributor to the difference in energetic neutral atom intensity from different viewing perspectives. Using the CRCM, we will also examine the role of O+ in the storm-time ring current dynamics. Lui, A. T. Y. et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 32, L13104, doi:10.1029/2005GL022851 (2005).

  20. Reevaluating the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromberg, Roland N.

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes previous interpretations concerning the French Revolution. Discusses several weaknesses of the Marxist views in light of recent philosophical and sociological thinking about social change. (RKM)

  1. Reevaluating the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromberg, Roland N.

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes previous interpretations concerning the French Revolution. Discusses several weaknesses of the Marxist views in light of recent philosophical and sociological thinking about social change. (RKM)

  2. Solar Energetic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Király, Péter

    Energetic particles recorded in the Earth environment and in interplanetary space have a multitude of origins, i.e. acceleration and propagation histories. At early days practically all sufficiently energetic particles were considered to have come either from solar flares or from interstellar space. Later on, co-rotating interplanetary shocks, the termination shock of the supersonic solar wind, planetary bow shocks and magnetospheres, and also coronal mass ejections (CME) were recognized as energetic particle sources. It was also recognized that less energetic (suprathermal) particles of solar origin and pick-up ions have also a vital role in giving rise to energetic particles in interplanetary disturbances. The meaning of the term "solar energetic particles" (SEP) is now somewhat vague, but essentially it refers to particles produced in disturbances fairly directly related to solar processes. Variation of intensity fluctuations with energy and with the phase of the solar cycle will be discussed. Particular attention will be given to extremes of time variation, i.e. to very quiet periods and to large events. While quiet-time fluxes are expected to shed light on some basic coronal processes, large events dominate the fluctuation characteristics of cumulated fluence, and the change of that fluctuation with energy and with the phase of the solar cycle may also provide important clues. Mainly ISEE-3 and long-term IMP-8 data will be invoked. Energetic and suprathermal particles that may never escape into interplanetary space may play an important part in heating the corona of the sun.

  3. Insights Into French Emergency Planning, Response, and Resilience Procedures From a Hospital Managerial Perspective Following the Paris Terrorist Attacks of Friday, November 13, 2015.

    PubMed

    Ghanchi, Ali

    2016-10-01

    On Friday, November 13, 2015, Paris was subjected to a multiple terrorist attack that caused widespread carnage. Although French emergency planning, response, and resilience procedures (Plan Blanc) anticipated crisis management of a major incident, these had to be adapted to the local context of Pitié-Salpêtrière University Teaching Hospital. Health care workers had undergone Plan Blanc training and exercises and it was fortunate that such a drill had occurred on the morning of the attack. The procedures were observed to work well because this type of eventuality had been fully anticipated, and staff performance exceeded expectations owing to prior in-depth training and preparations. Staff performance was also facilitated by overwhelming staff solidarity and professionalism, ensuring the smooth running of crisis management and improving victim survival rates. Although lessons learned are ongoing, an initial debriefing of managers found organizational improvements to be made. These included improvements to the activation of Plan Blanc and how staff were alerted, bed management, emergency morgue facilities, and public relations. In conclusion, our preparations for an eventual terrorist attack on this unprecedented scale ensured a successful medical response. Even though anticipating the unthinkable is difficult, contingency plans are being made to face other possible terrorist threats including chemical or biological agents. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 6).

  4. Synthesis of Energetic Polymers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-15

    POLYMERS Summary Report 15 July 1980 to 14 July 1981 COctober 15, 1981 By: G. E. Manser and D. L. Ross Prepared for: ) OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH 800 N...OF ENERGETIC POLYMERS Summary Report 15 July 1980 to 14 July 1981 iOctober 15, 1981 By: G. E. Manser and D. L. Ross Prepared for: OFFICE OF NAVAL...necessary and identify by block number) Three general synthetic routes to the preparation of energetic oxetanes and tetrahydrofurans were investigated during

  5. The French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltimore City Public Schools, MD.

    This outline on the French Revolution is designed to illustrate how this period of French history influenced various aspects of contemporary culture. Four main sections are treated: (1) ideas that led to the Revolution, (2) the reigns of the Bourbon kings, (3) the Revolution, and (4) the rise of Napoleon as a reaction to chaos. A list of 16mm…

  6. Skiing in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Paulette

    1984-01-01

    A high school French program conducted entirely in French on local ski slopes is based on the philosophy that language is a social tool for communicative purposes and can best be learned in social interaction. The successful program uses teamwork, an open attitude toward language learning, non-stressful evaluation, and innovative techniques. (MSE)

  7. French in Quebec.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Anglejan, Alison

    1979-01-01

    Discusses language legislation in Canada where French and English are both official languages, and in Quebec province where French has been declared the sole official language. Outlines the conflicts and the impact of these differing laws on Quebec, its population, and its relations with the rest of Canada. (JMF)

  8. Demythifying French Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, William H.

    1984-01-01

    Focuses on several myths and fallacies prevalent in the field of French grammar. The importance of keeping up-to-date with language and grammatical usage is stressed, since the rules of language do change. Thus, the validity of the linguistic content of French grammar books must be questioned, so that any outmoded or invalid concepts can be…

  9. French Phonology. Programmed Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Robert

    This self-instructional course is designed to help students in attaining a high degree of competence in French pronunciation and a basic knowledge of how French sounds correspond to the writing system. The material is divided into ten chapters. Each chapter has three parts. Part One is the presentation of a short dialogue for memorization. It…

  10. Illustrated French Idioms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsa, Serge M.

    Designed to promote an awareness of the everyday French language, this supplementary textbook was developed to enable students of French to use idiomatic expressions from the early learning stages to the more advanced levels. The units are arranged as follows according to the verb component of the expression: "avoir,""etre,""faire," the three…

  11. A Qualitative Approach to a Better Understanding of the Problems Underlying Drug Shortages, as Viewed from Belgian, French and the European Union’s Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Prokop, Anna; Pilc, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The problem of drug shortages has been reported worldwide, gaining prominence in multiple domains and several countries in recent years. The aim of the study was to analyze, characterise and assess this problem in Belgium and France, while also adopting a wider perspective from the European Union. A qualitative methodological approach was employed, including semi-structured interviews with the representatives of respective national health authorities, pharmaceutical companies and wholesalers, as well as hospital and community pharmacists. The research was conducted in early 2014. Four themes, which were identified through the interviews, were addressed in the paper, i.e. a) defining drug shortages, b) their dynamics and perception, c) their determinants, d) the role of the European and national institutions in coping with the problem. Three groups of determinants of drug shortages were identified throughout this study: manufacturing problems, distribution and supply problems, and problems related to economic aspects. Currently, the Member States of the European Union are striving to resolve the problem very much on their own, although a far more focused and dedicated collaboration may well prove instrumental in coping with drug shortages throughout Europe more effectively. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first qualitative study to investigate the characteristics, key determinants, and the problem drivers of drug shortages, focusing on this particular group of countries, while also adopting the European Union’s perspective. PMID:25942432

  12. A Qualitative Approach to a Better Understanding of the Problems Underlying Drug Shortages, as Viewed from Belgian, French and the European Union's Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bogaert, Petronille; Bochenek, Tomasz; Prokop, Anna; Pilc, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    The problem of drug shortages has been reported worldwide, gaining prominence in multiple domains and several countries in recent years. The aim of the study was to analyze, characterise and assess this problem in Belgium and France, while also adopting a wider perspective from the European Union. A qualitative methodological approach was employed, including semi-structured interviews with the representatives of respective national health authorities, pharmaceutical companies and wholesalers, as well as hospital and community pharmacists. The research was conducted in early 2014. Four themes, which were identified through the interviews, were addressed in the paper, i.e. a) defining drug shortages, b) their dynamics and perception, c) their determinants, d) the role of the European and national institutions in coping with the problem. Three groups of determinants of drug shortages were identified throughout this study: manufacturing problems, distribution and supply problems, and problems related to economic aspects. Currently, the Member States of the European Union are striving to resolve the problem very much on their own, although a far more focused and dedicated collaboration may well prove instrumental in coping with drug shortages throughout Europe more effectively. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first qualitative study to investigate the characteristics, key determinants, and the problem drivers of drug shortages, focusing on this particular group of countries, while also adopting the European Union's perspective.

  13. French Antilles and Guiana.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    Attention in this discussion of French Antilles and Guiana is directed to the following: geography; the people; history; government; political conditions; the economy; and relations with the US. In 1988, the population of Martinique, the official name, numbered 351,105 with an annual growth rate in 1988 of 1.71%. The population of Guadeloupe, the official name, numbered 337,524 in January 1988 with an annual growth rate in 1987 of 1.2%. French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique, as overseas departments of France since 1946, are integral parts of the French Republic. In 1972, the metropolitan departments of France were combined into 22 regions, with an elected regional council for each region. As integral parts of the French Republic, the political systems of the 3 French Caribbean departments are essentially extensions of those of metropolitan France. Guadeloupe and Martinique owed their colonial prosperity to agriculture, primarily sugar. Martinique no longer exports sugar, but sugar still accounts for 20% of Guadeloupe's export earnings. In Martinique, sugar has been replaced as an export crop by bananas and pineapples. Bananas now account for almost 50% of Guadeloupe's total export earnings. In French Guiana, the impact of the French National Space Agency's Guiana Space Center has been great. US policy toward these overseas departments is inseparable from its overall policy of friendly relations with France.

  14. Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Shari; Camerini, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Provides background information on the U.S. Immigration and Naturalization Service Asylum office. Uses the perspective of two movie producers as they filmed a documentary film, "Well-founded Fear", about asylum and refugee protection. Includes information on how to order a classroom aid and the film. (CMK)

  15. Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarone, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this "Perspectives" column is "Requiring a Proficiency Level as a Requirement for U.S. K-12 Teacher Licensure." In 1998, the American Council of Teachers of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) began to work with the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), which accredits teacher education programs…

  16. Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarone, Elaine

    2013-01-01

    The topic of this "Perspectives" column is "Requiring a Proficiency Level as a Requirement for U.S. K-12 Teacher Licensure." In 1998, the American Council of Teachers of Foreign Languages (ACTFL) began to work with the National Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE), which accredits teacher education programs…

  17. French for Business and Journalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacombe, Anne

    1977-01-01

    A description of a university course in French whose object is to give students some facility in current French as found in newspapers, magazines, radio and films; and to introduce them to contemporary French civilization. Methods used are reading, translation, synopsis writing, correspondence and interviews. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  18. Cookoff of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, M.R.; Hobbs, M.L.; Gross, R.J.; Schmitt, R.G.

    1998-09-01

    An overview of cookoff modeling at Sandia National Laboratories is presented aimed at assessing the violence of reaction following cookoff of confined energetic materials. During cookoff, the response of energetic materials is known to involve coupled thermal/chemical/mechanical processes which induce thermal damage to the energetic material prior to the onset of ignition. These damaged states enhance shock sensitivity and lead to conditions favoring self-supported accelerated combustion. Thus, the level of violence depends on the competition between pressure buildup and stress release due to the loss of confinement. To model these complex processes, finite element-based analysis capabilities are being developed which can resolve coupled heat transfer with chemistry, quasi-static structural mechanics and dynamic response. Numerical simulations that assess the level of violence demonstrate the importance of determining material damage in pre- and post-ignition cookoff events.

  19. Teaching Middle School French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Marilyn L.

    1975-01-01

    Author described some of the techniques she used for teaching French at Roosevelt Junior High School, West Palm Beach. She also explained how these techniques helped students to maintain an early desire to learn a foreign language. (Author/RK)

  20. Nanostructured Energetic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    for the nanoenergetic composites prepared using mesoporous Fe2O3 gel, nanoparticles of WO3, MoO3, Bi2O3 , and CuO mixed with Al-nanoparticles and...used in the energetic composite. For example, in the energetic reactions of the composites containing Fe2O3, WO3, MoO3, Bi2O3 , and CuO, combined...MA), WO3 (Aldrich, WI), MoO3 and Bi2O3 (Accumet Materials, NY) and nanoparticles of Al (avg. size 80 nm with 2 nm passivation layer from

  1. INTENSE ENERGETIC GAS DISCHARGE

    DOEpatents

    Luce, J.S.

    1960-03-01

    A method and apparatus for initiating and sustaining an energetic gas arc discharge are described. A hollow cathode and a hollow anode are provided. By regulating the rate of gas flow into the interior of the cathode, the arc discharge is caused to run from the inner surface of the cathode with the result that adequate space-charge neutralization is provided inside the cathode but not in the main arc volume. Thus, the gas fed to the cathode is substantially completely ionized before it leaves the cathode, with the result that an energetic arc discharge can be maintained at lower operating pressures.

  2. The French Strategic Dilemma.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    crisis . The language of French strategic doctrine is that of dissuasion (deterrence). The French talk publicly much less about warfighting (and employment...threaten vital lines of supply in a crisis situation. Nuclear forces would not *-"e necessarily be useful In deterring Soviet actions in this regard. Rather...34 in Pierre Lellouche, ed., Pacifisme et Dissuasion (Paris: Economica , 1983), pp. 253-266. C. % 6. See Pierre Lacoste, Strategie Navale (Paris: Fernand

  3. Hydraulic-gas transient processes within the overall phenomenological evolution of the French HLW deep geological disposal: current knowledge in PA perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendling, J.; Plas, F.

    2009-04-01

    , and may relate to significant scales of time, several tens of thousands to one hundred of thousands years. So the hydraulic - gas transient has to be put in prospective for other processes involved in the phenomenological evolution (thermal, mechanics and chemical processes), so to evaluate if there are the interactions/couplings or not between all these processes in time and space. In particular effect of hydraulic - gas processes on degradation of waste, release and then migration of radionuclide are discussed in PA perspective. In conclusion, ways of progress to describe the hydraulic and gas transient phase are indicated, in view of the demand of a licensing authorization of a repository in 2014.

  4. Benchtop Energetics Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajardo, Mario

    2011-06-01

    We have constructed an apparatus for investigating the reactive chemical dynamics of mg-scale energetic materials samples. We seek to advance the understanding of the reaction kinetics of energetic materials, and of the chemical influences on energetic materials sensitivity. We employ direct laser irradiation, and indirect laser-driven shock, techniques to initiate thin-film explosive samples contained in a high-vacuum chamber. Expansion of the reacting flow into vacuum quenches the chemistry and preserves reaction intermediates for interrogation via time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOFMS). By rastering the sample coupon through the fixed laser beam focus, we generate hundreds of repetitive energetic events in a few minutes. A detonation wave passing through an organic explosive, such as pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN, C5H4N4O12) , is remarkably efficient in converting the solid explosive into final thermodynamically-stable gaseous products (e . g . N2, CO2, H2O...). Termination of a detonation at an explosive-to-vacuum interface produces an expanding pulse of hyperthermal molecular species, with leading-edge velocities ~10 km/s. In contrast, deflagration (subsonic combustion) of PETN in vacuum produces mostly reaction intermediates, such as NO and NO2, with much slower molecular velocities; consistent with expansion-quenched thermal decomposition of PETN. We propose to exploit these differences in product chemical identities and molecular species velocities to provide a chemically-based diagnostic for distinguishing between detonation and deflagration events. In this talk we also report recent progress towards the quantitative detection of hyperthermal neutral species produced by direct laser ablation of aluminum metal and of organic energetic materials, as a step towards demonstrating the ability to discriminate slow reaction intermediates from fast thermodynamically-stable final products. Work done in collaboration with Emily Fossum, Christopher Molek, and

  5. Energetics of running: a new perspective.

    PubMed

    Kram, R; Taylor, C R

    1990-07-19

    The amount of energy used to run a mile is nearly the same whether it is run at top speed or at a leisurely pace (although it is used more rapidly at the higher speed). This puzzling independence of energy cost and speed is found generally among running animals, although, on a per gram basis, cost is much higher for smaller animals. Running involves little work against the environment; work is done by muscles and tendons to lift and accelerate the body and limbs. Some of the work is recovered from muscle-tendon springs without metabolic cost and work rate does not parallel metabolic rate with either speed or size. Regardless of the amount of work muscles do, they must be activated and develop force to support the weight of the body. Load-carrying experiments have shown that the cost of supporting an extra newton of load is the same as the weight-specific cost of running. Size differences in cost are proportional to stride frequency at equivalent speeds, suggesting that the time available for developing force is important in determining cost. We report a simple inverse relationship between the rate of energy used for running and the time the foot applies force to the ground during each stride. These results support the hypothesis that it is primarily the cost of supporting the animal's weight and the time course of generating this force that determines the cost of running.

  6. Moving towards Inclusive French as a Second Official Language Education in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mady, Callie

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines French as a second official language (FSOL) teachers' perspectives as they relate to the inclusion of immigrants who are learning English (IMMs), in elementary FSOL education in an English-dominant region of Canada, in particular within French immersion. In this paper, I have tried to examine the question of access to…

  7. Moving towards Inclusive French as a Second Official Language Education in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mady, Callie

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines French as a second official language (FSOL) teachers' perspectives as they relate to the inclusion of immigrants who are learning English (IMMs), in elementary FSOL education in an English-dominant region of Canada, in particular within French immersion. In this paper, I have tried to examine the question of access to…

  8. Intergenerational Pattern of Interference and Internally-Motivated Changes in Cajun French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubois, Sylvie; Noetzel, Sibylle

    2005-01-01

    We examine the variable use of locative prepositions in Cajun French, adding two dimensions to existing studies: real-time evidence, adding a diachronic descriptive perspective, and a methodological tool, measuring the degree of exposure to French (MDI). The goal of this paper is to determine the origins and the directions of language change…

  9. Intergenerational Pattern of Interference and Internally-Motivated Changes in Cajun French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubois, Sylvie; Noetzel, Sibylle

    2005-01-01

    We examine the variable use of locative prepositions in Cajun French, adding two dimensions to existing studies: real-time evidence, adding a diachronic descriptive perspective, and a methodological tool, measuring the degree of exposure to French (MDI). The goal of this paper is to determine the origins and the directions of language change…

  10. Rural renaissance in the United States: the viewpoint of a French geographer.

    PubMed

    Kayser, B

    1988-01-01

    The author provides a French perspective on the phenomenon of the turnaround migration that occurred in the United States during the 1970s. Some comparisons are made with the situation in France and elsewhere in Western Europe.

  11. Translating Word-Play: French-English, English-French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, W. Terrence

    1986-01-01

    The linguistic complexity of humor is illustrated with examples of word play translated from French to English and English to French. Examples from the writings of James Joyce and Marcel Proust are highlighted. (CB)

  12. Translating Word-Play: French-English, English-French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, W. Terrence

    1986-01-01

    The linguistic complexity of humor is illustrated with examples of word play translated from French to English and English to French. Examples from the writings of James Joyce and Marcel Proust are highlighted. (CB)

  13. French Antilles and Guiana.

    PubMed

    1983-11-01

    This discussion of French Antilles and Guiana cover the following: the people, geography, history, government, political conditions, economy, and relations with the US. In 1983 the population totaled 303,000 with an annual growth rate of 0.09%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 12.6/1000 and life expectancy 68 years. About 98% of the people of Martinique are of Afro European or Afro European Indian descent. The remainder are the old planter families and a sizable number of metropolitan French. Most of the work force are employed in agriculture or food processing and associated industries. Most permanent residents of Guadeloupe are of mixed Afro European descent. A few thousand Metropolitan French reside there. Most French Guianese live along the coast, about 1/2 of them in the capital. Martinique is the northernmost of the Windward Islands, which are part of the Lesser Antilles chain in the Caribbean Sea southeast of Puerto Rico. Guadeloupe comprises 2 of the Leeward Islands, which are also part of the Lesser Antilles chain. French Guiana is located on the northern coast of South America, a few degrees north of the Equator. Indians were the 1st known indigenous inhabitants of French Guiana and the French Antilles. Columbus sighted Guadeloupe in 1493, Martinique in 1493 or 1502, and the Guiana coast probably during his 3rd voyage in 1498. French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique, as overseas departments of France since 1946, are integral parts of the French Republic. Their relationship to Metropolitan France is somewhat similar to that of Alaska and Hawaii to the counterminous US. Each department has a general council composed of 1 representative elected by each canton. Guadeloupe and Martinique each elect 2 senators to the French Senate and 3 deputies to the National Assembly. French Guiana elects 1 senator and 1 deputy. In each of the 3 departments exist individuals and small political parties that advocate immediate independence, but their adherents form only

  14. Solar flare energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, R. P.

    A review is presented regarding the current knowledge of the energetics of solar flares. Recent observations by the Solar Maximum Mission and by balloon-borne instrumentation indicate that the flare hard X-ray emission arises from nonthermal bremsstrahlung - the collisions of fast electrons into a cold ambient medium (Ee much greater than kT). Under this interpretation, most of the energy released for many flares is initially contained in the energetic electrons. These electrons can produce most of the observed flare phenomena via interactions with the solar atmosphere. In large flares a shock wave may result from explosive heating of the solar atmosphere by these electrons. This shock wave can accelerate nuclei to relativistic energies. It is argued that recent SMM observations of fast gamma-ray bursts are consistent with this picture of shock acceleration of nuclei.

  15. Solar flare energetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, R. P.

    1982-01-01

    A review is presented regarding the current knowledge of the energetics of solar flares. Recent observations by the Solar Maximum Mission and by balloon-borne instrumentation indicate that the flare hard X-ray emission arises from nonthermal bremsstrahlung - the collisions of fast electrons into a cold ambient medium (Ee much greater than kT). Under this interpretation, most of the energy released for many flares is initially contained in the energetic electrons. These electrons can produce most of the observed flare phenomena via interactions with the solar atmosphere. In large flares a shock wave may result from explosive heating of the solar atmosphere by these electrons. This shock wave can accelerate nuclei to relativistic energies. It is argued that recent SMM observations of fast gamma-ray bursts are consistent with this picture of shock acceleration of nuclei.

  16. Synthesis of Energetic Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-31

    1 ) ................... 2 2 GPC of Polyformal of Decafluorodiol ( 2 ) .......................... 4 3 GPC of Polyformal of...turn: ( 1 ) synthesis of energetic monomers and polymers, and ( 2 ) synthesis of polycyclic and adamantoid nitramines. Both tasks were continuations of...preparation of 2,2,3,3,4,4-hexafluoropentane-l,lidiol polyformal (FPF- 1 ) by the 2 step sequence shown below was reported. " HOCH2 (CF2 )3CH20H + (CH20) 3

  17. Energetics of tropical hibernation.

    PubMed

    Dausmann, K H; Glos, J; Heldmaier, G

    2009-04-01

    In this field study, the energetic properties of tropical hibernation were investigated by measuring oxygen consumption and body temperature of the Malagasy primate Cheirogaleus medius in their natural hibernacula. These lemurs use tree holes with extremely varying insulation capacities as hibernacula. In poorly insulated tree holes, tree hole temperature and body temperature fluctuated strongly each day (between 12.8 and 34.4 degrees C). The metabolic rate under these conditions also showed large daily fluctuations between about 29.0 ml O(2)/h and 97.9 ml O(2)/h in parallel with changes in body temperature. In well insulated tree holes in very large trees on the other hand, tree hole temperature and body temperature remained relatively constant at about 25 degrees C. Lemurs hibernating in these tree holes showed a more constant metabolic rate at an intermediate level, but hibernation was interrupted by repeated arousals with peak metabolic rates up to 350 ml O(2)/h. The occurrence of these spontaneous arousals proved that the ability for thermoregulation persists during hibernation. Arousals were energetically costly, but much less so than in temperate and arctic hibernators. Despite the decisive influence of tree hole properties on the pattern of body temperature and metabolic rate during hibernation, the choice of the hibernaculum does not seem to be of energetic importance. The overall energetic savings by tropical hibernation amounted to about 70% as compared to the active season (31.5 vs. 114.3 kJ/d). Therefore, tropical hibernation in C. medius is an effective, well-regulated adaptive response to survive unfavourable seasons.

  18. Comparing Written Competency in Core French and French Immersion Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappin-Fortin, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have compared the written competency of French immersion students and their core French peers, and research on these learners at a postsecondary level is even scarcer. My corpus consists of writing samples from 255 students from both backgrounds beginning a university course in French language. The writing proficiency of core French…

  19. French for Marketing. Using French in Media and Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, R. E.; Chebli-Saadi, M.

    The textbook, entirely in French, is designed to help prepare anglophone students for French language usage in the media and telecommunications. It is organized according to two major themes. The first part addresses the French of advertising; chapter topics include the actors in advertising (agencies, announcers, supports), forms of advertising,…

  20. French for Marketing. Using French in Media and Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, R. E.; Chebli-Saadi, M.

    The textbook, entirely in French, is designed to help prepare anglophone students for French language usage in the media and telecommunications. It is organized according to two major themes. The first part addresses the French of advertising; chapter topics include the actors in advertising (agencies, announcers, supports), forms of advertising,…

  1. The French Revolution and the French Language: A Paradox?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djite, Paulin

    1992-01-01

    Explores the relationship between revolutionary ideals and the subsequent expansion and promotion of the French language. It is shown, through a linguistic and sociopolitical history of the French Revolution and the French language, that there is no incompatibility between the two and that the movement of Francophonie is a continuation of France's…

  2. The French Revolution and the French Language: A Paradox?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djite, Paulin

    1992-01-01

    Explores the relationship between revolutionary ideals and the subsequent expansion and promotion of the French language. It is shown, through a linguistic and sociopolitical history of the French Revolution and the French language, that there is no incompatibility between the two and that the movement of Francophonie is a continuation of France's…

  3. Energetic component treatability study

    SciTech Connect

    Gildea, P.D.; Brandon, S.L.; Brown, B.G.

    1997-11-01

    The effectiveness of three environmentally sound processes for small energetic component disposal was examined experimentally in this study. The three destruction methods, batch reactor supercritical water oxidation, sodium hydroxide base hydrolysis and calcium carbonate cookoff were selected based on their potential for producing a clean solid residue and minimum release of toxic gases after component detonation. The explosive hazard was destroyed by all three processes. Batch supercritical water oxidation destroyed both the energetics and organics. Further development is desired to optimize process parameters. Sodium hydroxide base hydrolysis and calcium carbonate cookoff results indicated the potential for scrubbing gaseous detonation products. Further study and testing are needed to quantify the effectiveness of these later two processes for full-scale munition destruction. The preliminary experiments completed in this study have demonstrated the promise of these three processes as environmentally sound technologies for energetic component destruction. Continuation of these experimental programs is strongly recommended to optimize batch supercritical water oxidation processing, and to fully develop the sodium hydroxide base hydrolysis and calcium carbonate cookoff technologies.

  4. French nuclear physics accelerator opens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumé, Belle

    2016-12-01

    A new €140m particle accelerator for nuclear physics located at the French Large Heavy Ion National Accelerator (GANIL) in Caen was inaugurated last month in a ceremony attended by French president François Hollande.

  5. The Internet and the French Language. Occasional Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tattersall, Alex

    This paper examines the influence of the Internet on the French language from a predominantly sociolinguistic perspective, noting the main areas of debate between francophone businesses, governments, and "Institutions de la Francophonie," while considering theories of language in contact and language policy. It analyzes a number of…

  6. Negritude: A New Dimension in the French Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, Keith Q.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses how the study of negritude writings, put in the proper perspective, can help to show the futile nature of racial discrimination, the beauty of African and Caribbean culture, the contribution of the black man to world civilization, and the universality of the French language. (Author/JM)

  7. America's Tolerance for French Radicalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolin, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The publication of Francois Cusset's "French Theory" raises a series of fascinating questions concerning the trans-Atlantic transmission and circulation of ideas. Most important, it impels everyone to inquire why for a time French thought managed to flourish in American universities while French intellectuals rapidly abandoned the entire…

  8. French Polynesia. Asian Studies Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Outs, JoAnn

    This curriculum outline presents the components of an introductory course to French culture which focuses on the colonization of French Polynesia. First, the general goals and student objectives for the course, which focuses on different historical periods of French Polynesia, are discussed. Next, the pre-test to determine students knowledge of…

  9. Aspects of Bordeaux French Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochet, Bernard

    Among the characteristics which set Bordeaux French apart from Standard French are the rules governing the behavior of its mid-vowels. These rules are much simpler and more extensive (in that they also apply to unstressed vowels) than in Standard French. Their application is, however, systematically conditioned by the presence or absence of word…

  10. Syllabification and French Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, D. C.

    1973-01-01

    Much research has focused on the question of whether phonological rules can and should be stated more appropriately in terms of the syllable than other units, notable segments and various boundaries. Formulation of rules without reference to the syllable obscures the motivation and unity of alternations. French has rules for consonant deletion…

  11. Technoscientific French for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Brigitte D.

    A two-semester sequence of courses in French and Spanish for science and technology at Eastern Michigan University responds to alumni demands for better linguistic and cultural preparation for increasingly global business and industry. In addition, high schools teacher enrolled in the courses find they answer a need for professional upgrading of…

  12. Know Your Laws. French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.; Ledun, Andree

    This French language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three…

  13. French 3200, Course Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newfoundland and Labrador Dept. of Education, St. John's. Div. of Instruction.

    The objectives and course content for French 3200, a secondary level course intended for the second or third year of four- and six-credit language course sequences in Newfoundland high schools, are outlined. Its primary objectives relate to the skill development in the four language skill areas (listening, speaking, reading, and writing),…

  14. Old French for Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Barbara Nelson

    A list of six main benefits of the study of Old French at the undergraduate level follows a discussion of the value, function, and goals of such a program. The advantages discussed result in: (1) a first-hand acquaintance with medieval masterpieces, (2) a sense of continuity in the history of literature, (3) improved techniques in critical…

  15. French Theory's American Adventures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusset, Francois

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how it is simply too late to be still speaking about French theory and its role in the intellectual life of the United States today. It seems to many observers that the gap between real-life politics and theory's guerrillas is much too wide already, after 30 years of academic fever, for the two worlds to even…

  16. Know Your Laws. French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.; Ledun, Andree

    This French language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three…

  17. Teaching the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Thomas M.

    1989-01-01

    Reports on presentations made at a symposium sponsored by the Connecticut Humanities Council. Papers dealt with teaching the French Revolution by presenting European history in new relationships with the rest of the world and by examining the Declaration of the Rights of Man as it related to the role of women. (KO)

  18. The French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrofani, E. Robert; Johnston, Anne

    This 10-day unit on the French Revolution is designed to help high school students understand the interplay of economic, social, and political forces in the process of revolutionary change, and the development of modern democratic forms of government. Critical thinking and geographic skill activities are employed throughout the unit and include…

  19. Teaching the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Thomas M.

    1989-01-01

    Reports on presentations made at a symposium sponsored by the Connecticut Humanities Council. Papers dealt with teaching the French Revolution by presenting European history in new relationships with the rest of the world and by examining the Declaration of the Rights of Man as it related to the role of women. (KO)

  20. The French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrofani, E. Robert; Johnston, Anne

    This 10-day unit on the French Revolution is designed to help high school students understand the interplay of economic, social, and political forces in the process of revolutionary change, and the development of modern democratic forms of government. Critical thinking and geographic skill activities are employed throughout the unit and include…

  1. Living in Ontario French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadasdi, Terry

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a variationist analysis of verbs meaning "reside" in Ontario French. Four lexical variants are examined: "demeurer," "habiter," "rester" and "vivre." Results reveal that "rester" is used most often by unrestricted speakers and least often by those whose use of French…

  2. I Can Speak French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The guide presents content and techniques for teaching conversational French in the elementary grades. It contains an introductory section and 20 units for classroom instruction. The introduction includes notes on the overall objectives of the course, general guidelines on classroom procedure, and specific techniques for use of the materials…

  3. I Can Speak French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The guide presents content and techniques for teaching conversational French in the elementary grades. It contains an introductory section and 20 units for classroom instruction. The introduction includes notes on the overall objectives of the course, general guidelines on classroom procedure, and specific techniques for use of the materials…

  4. Nonadiabatic reaction of energetic molecules.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Atanu; Guo, Yuanqing; Bernstein, Elliot R

    2010-12-21

    Energetic materials store a large amount of chemical energy that can be readily converted into mechanical energy via decomposition. A number of different ignition processes such as sparks, shocks, heat, or arcs can initiate the excited electronic state decomposition of energetic materials. Experiments have demonstrated the essential role of excited electronic state decomposition in the energy conversion process. A full understanding of the mechanisms for the decomposition of energetic materials from excited electronic states will require the investigation and analysis of the specific topography of the excited electronic potential energy surfaces (PESs) of these molecules. The crossing of multidimensional electronic PESs creates a funnel-like topography, known as conical intersections (CIs). CIs are well established as a controlling factor in the excited electronic state decomposition of polyatomic molecules. This Account summarizes our current understanding of the nonadiabatic unimolecular chemistry of energetic materials through CIs and presents the essential role of CIs in the determination of decomposition pathways of these energetic systems. Because of the involvement of more than one PES, a decomposition process involving CIs is an electronically nonadiabatic mechanism. Based on our experimental observations and theoretical calculations, we find that a nonadiabatic reaction through CIs dominates the initial decomposition process of energetic materials from excited electronic states. Although the nonadiabatic behavior of some polyatomic molecules has been well studied, the role of nonadiabatic reactions in the excited electronic state decomposition of energetic molecules has not been well investigated. We use both nanosecond energy-resolved and femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopic techniques to determine the decomposition mechanism and dynamics of energetic species experimentally. Subsequently, we employ multiconfigurational methodologies (such as, CASSCF

  5. Current energetic particle sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fennell, J. F.; Blake, J. B.; Claudepierre, S.; Mazur, J.; Kanekal, S.; O'Brien, P.; Baker, D.; Crain, W.; Mabry, D.; Clemmons, J.

    2016-09-01

    Several energetic particle sensors designed to make measurements in the current decade are described and their technology and capabilities discussed and demonstrated. Most of these instruments are already on orbit or approaching launch. These include the Magnetic Electron Ion Spectrometers (MagEIS) and the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT) that are flying on the Van Allen Probes, the Fly's Eye Electron Proton Spectrometers (FEEPS) flying on the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission, and Dosimeters flying on the AC6 Cubesat mission. We focus mostly on the electron measurement capability of these sensors while providing summary comments of their ion measurement capabilities if they have any.

  6. Energetics of Nanomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandra Navrotsky; Brian Woodfield; Juliana Boerio-Goates; Frances Hellman

    2005-01-28

    This project, "Energetics of Nanomaterials," represents a three-year collaboration among Alexandra Navrotsky (UC Davis), Brian Woodfield and Juliana Boerio-Goates (BYU), and Frances Hellman (UC Berkeley). It's purpose has been to explore the differences between bulk materials, nanoparticles, and thin films in term of their thermodynamic properties, with an emphasis on heat capaacities and entropies, as well as enthalpies. the three groups have brought very different expertise and capabilities to the project. Navrotsky is a solid-state chemist and geochemist, with a unique Thermochemistry Facility emphasizing enthalpy of formation measurements by high temperature oxide melt and room temperatue acid solution calorimetry. Boerio-Goates and Woodfield are calorimetry. Hellman is a physicist with expertise in magnetism and heat capacity measurements using microscale "detector on a chip" calorimetric technology that she pioneered. The overarching question of our work is "How does the free energy play out in nanoparticles?", or "How do differences in free energy affect overall nanoparticle behavior?" Because the free energy represents the temperature-dependent balance between the enthalpy of a system and its entropy, there are two separate, but related, components to the experimental investigations: Solution calorimetric measurements provide the energetics and two types of heat capacity measurements the entropy. We use materials that are well characterized in other ways (structurally, magnetically, and chemically), and samples are shared across the collaboration.

  7. French NATO policy: The next five years. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, G.

    1990-06-01

    France, having long proclaimed the need to change the European status quo, regards the potential for change in the structure of European relationships with more anxiety than do most of its allies. However, French security assumptions have not remained static. French policy has been adjusting for some time, but this movement is only partially related to the changes set loose by Soviet President Gorbachev, and can be understood only in the broader context of the security perspectives that have guided French thinking since the end of World War II. This study traces the roots of Charles de Gaulle's policies and describes the nearly 15-year-long transition away from purist Gaullism toward a new compromise between independence and integration. The author describes the adjustments taken in response, including several important steps to improve the interaction between the French military and NATO, and ways that French diplomacy of the early 1980s began to emphasize common NATO positions. The author then examines the emerging policy environment and its effects on the basic assumptions underpinning French policy. He concludes that in the future, France will be easier to work with as an ally, but will continue to seek autonomy in the East-West dialogue.

  8. [Young French neurosurgeons: Working conditions and outlook].

    PubMed

    Pommier, B; Manet, R; Gay, E; Vassal, F; Nuti, C; Hladky, J-P

    2015-10-01

    Due to the increase in the number of French neurosurgeon residents the neurosurgical workforce is changing. The main objective of this survey was to assess working conditions and perspectives for young French neurosurgeons. An on-line survey was sent to young French neurosurgeons based on a mailing-list (219 mail addresses of Residents and Fellows obtained during previous meetings). The form contained questions about career, amount of work, salary, quality of life, teaching and university work. We received 78 replies from January to March 2014. A total of 56% from fellows saying they had undergone difficulties in obtaining a fellowship, although 78% were satisfied. Fellows considered a private career more often than residents. Overall, young neurosurgeons were worried about future employment. Some 33% admitted contemplating a different career from one they originally wanted. The average weekly working time of 76.8 hours was deemed to be excessive. Security rests after overnight shifts were lacking or incomplete in 91% of cases. The work atmosphere was good overall (3.7/5), and so was the quality of life (3.2/5). Theoretical teaching was unsatisfactory (2.43/5) as well as the time allowed for academic work (approximately 1.58 half-days per month). However, practical teaching was considered rewarding (3.63/5). This study provides some guidance for upcoming reforms, and should be considered again at a later date to evaluate progress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Ultrafast Vibrational Spectroscopy of Inhomogeneous Energetic Materials and Energetic Interfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    nanocomposite energetic materials and fast mechanical processes at a molecular level. We are attacking these difficult problems using three parallel...not changed) The goal of this project remains the development of a fundamental understanding of nanocomposite energetic materials and fast mechanical...nanoparticle rocket propellants, we are thinking this type of mechanism might explain some anomalies observed in flame propagation of burning nanocomposites

  10. Resveratrol: French Paradox Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Catalgol, Betul; Batirel, Saime; Taga, Yavuz; Ozer, Nesrin Kartal

    2012-01-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenol that plays a potentially important role in many disorders and has been studied in different diseases. The research on this chemical started through the “French paradox,” which describes improved cardiovascular outcomes despite a high-fat diet in French people. Since then, resveratrol has been broadly studied and shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and anti-angiogenic effects, with those on oxidative stress possibly being most important and underlying some of the others, but many signaling pathways are among the molecular targets of resveratrol. In concert they may be beneficial in many disorders, particularly in diseases where oxidative stress plays an important role. The main focus of this review will be the pathways affected by resveratrol. Based on these mechanistic considerations, the involvement of resveratrol especially in cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and possibly in longevity will be is addressed. PMID:22822401

  11. New energetic epoxy binders

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, S.R.; Amanulla, S.

    1996-07-01

    A new class of epoxy resins having N{single_bond}N bonds in the backbone has been synthesized with a view to explore their properties as energetic binders. The N-epoxidation of bis-dicarbonylhydrazones of adipic, azelaic and sebacic dihydrazides results in the formation of viscous resins having epoxide end groups. The resins have been characterized by the elemental and end group analyses, IR and NMR spectra. Relevant properties for their use as binders in solid propellants, such as thermal stability, heat of combustion, burn rate and performance parameters of AP-based propellant systems, have been evaluated. A significant increase in the burn rate of AP-based propellants noticed, is perhaps related to the exothermicity of the binder decomposition and the reactivity of N{single_bond}N bonds with perchloric acid formed during the combustion of AP.

  12. Energetics of Nanomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Hellman, Frances

    2004-12-13

    This project, ''Energetics of Nanomaterials'', represents a three-year collaboration among Alexandra Navrotsky (University of California at Davis), Brian Woodfield and Juliana Boerio-Goates (Brigham Young University) and Frances Hellman (University of California at San Diego). Its purpose has been to explore the differences between bulk materials, nanoparticles, and thin films in terms of their thermodynamic properties, with an emphasis on heat capacities and entropies, as well as enthalpies. We used our combined experimental techniques to address the following questions: How does energy and entropy depend on particle size and crystal structure? Do entropic differences have their origins in changes in vibrational densities of states or configurational (including surface configuration) effects? Do material preparation and sample geometry, i.e., nanoparticles versus thin films, change these quantities? How do the thermodynamics of magnetic and structural transitions change in nanoparticles and thin films? Are different crystal structures stabilized for a given composition at the nanoscale, and are the responsible factors energetic, entropic, or both? How do adsorption energies (for water and other gases) depend on particle size and crystal structure in the nanoregime? What are the energetics of formation and strain energies in artificially layered thin films? Do the differing structures of grain boundaries in films and nanocomposites alter the energetics of nanoscale materials? Of the several directions we first proposed, we initially concentrated on a few systems: TiO(sub 2), CoO, and CoO-MgO. In these systems, we were able to clearly identify particle size-dependent effects on energy and vibrational entropy, and to separate out the effect of particle size and water content on the enthalpy of formation of the various TiO(sub 2) polymorphs. With CoO, we were able to directly compare nanoparticle films and bulk materials; this comparison is important because films can

  13. Utilization of FEP energetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frederking, T. H. K.; Abbassi, P.; Afifi, F.; Khandhar, P. K.; Ono, D. Y.; Chen, W. E. W.

    1987-01-01

    The research and development work on Fountain Effect Pump Systems (FEP systems) has been of interest in the competition between mechanical pumps for He II and FEP units. The latter do not have moving parts. In the course of the work, the energetics have been addressed using one part of a simple four-changes-of-state cycle. One option is the FEP ideal change of state at constant chemical potential (mu). The other option is the two-state sequence mu-P with a d mu=0 state change followed by an isobar. Questions of pump behavior, of flow rate response to temperature difference at the hot end, and related questions of thermodynamic cycle completion and heat transfer have been addressed. Porous media data obtained elucidate differences between vapor-liquid phase separation (VLPS) and Zero Net Mass Transfer (ZNMF).

  14. Second Language Acquisition as Situated Practice: Task Accomplishment in the French Second Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondada, Lorenza; Doehler, Simona Pekarek

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an empirically based perspective on the contribution of conversation analysis (CA) and sociocultural theory to our understanding of learners' second language (L2) practices within what we call a strong socio-interactionist perspective. It explores the interactive (re)configuration of tasks in French second language…

  15. Second Language Acquisition as Situated Practice: Task Accomplishment in the French Second Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondada, Lorenza; Doehler, Simona Pekarek

    2004-01-01

    This article provides an empirically based perspective on the contribution of conversation analysis (CA) and sociocultural theory to our understanding of learners' second language (L2) practices within what we call a strong socio-interactionist perspective. It explores the interactive (re)configuration of tasks in French second language…

  16. The Growth of Complexity and Accuracy in L2 French: Past Observations and Recent Applications of Developmental Stages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agren, Malin; Granfeldt, Jonas; Schlyter, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    This chapter addresses the question of the growth of accuracy and complexity in L2 French from the perspective of developmental sequences of morphosyntax, developmental stages and linguistic profiling. The six developmental stages for L2 French proposed by Bartning and Schlyter (2004) are presented and exemplified and new results are added to the…

  17. Is French Immersion a Special Education Loophole? … And Does It Intensify Issues of Accessibility and Exclusion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Cam

    2015-01-01

    What happens when children are asked to give up their right to special education in order to access a French immersion program? By examining one mother's efforts to secure gifted support in a French immersion program, this critical inquiry offers a parental perspective of the special education issues of accessibility and inclusion. The two…

  18. The Growth of Complexity and Accuracy in L2 French: Past Observations and Recent Applications of Developmental Stages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agren, Malin; Granfeldt, Jonas; Schlyter, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    This chapter addresses the question of the growth of accuracy and complexity in L2 French from the perspective of developmental sequences of morphosyntax, developmental stages and linguistic profiling. The six developmental stages for L2 French proposed by Bartning and Schlyter (2004) are presented and exemplified and new results are added to the…

  19. Is French Immersion a Special Education Loophole? … And Does It Intensify Issues of Accessibility and Exclusion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Cam

    2015-01-01

    What happens when children are asked to give up their right to special education in order to access a French immersion program? By examining one mother's efforts to secure gifted support in a French immersion program, this critical inquiry offers a parental perspective of the special education issues of accessibility and inclusion. The two…

  20. Faut-il Mettre "Un Bonnet Rouge" a la grammaire francaise (Must We Put a "Bonnet Rouge" on French Grammar?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaussaud, Francoise

    1989-01-01

    An experimental approach to French grammar instruction at the American School of Madrid, based on a restructuring of the grammar around the verb, provides a promising new perspective for language pedagogy. (MSE)

  1. Electrical initiation of an energetic nanolaminate film

    DOEpatents

    Tringe, Joseph W.; Gash, Alexander E.; Barbee, Jr., Troy W.

    2010-03-30

    A heating apparatus comprising an energetic nanolaminate film that produces heat when initiated, a power source that provides an electric current, and a control that initiates the energetic nanolaminate film by directing the electric current to the energetic nanolaminate film and joule heating the energetic nanolaminate film to an initiation temperature. Also a method of heating comprising providing an energetic nanolaminate film that produces heat when initiated, and initiating the energetic nanolaminate film by directing an electric current to the energetic nanolaminate film and joule heating the energetic nanolaminate film to an initiation temperature.

  2. [French immigration policy].

    PubMed

    Weil, P

    1994-01-01

    From the late nineteenth century through 1974, France permitted immigration to furnish workers and to compensate for the low level of fertility. Intense immigration from North Africa, the economic crisis of the 1970s, and other factors led to policy changes in 1974. French immigration policy since 1974 has fluctuated between guaranteeing foreigners equal rights regardless of their religion, race, culture, or national origin, and attempting to differentiate among immigrants depending on their degree of assimilability to French culture. From 1974 to 1988, France had five different policies regarding whether to permit new immigration and what to do about illegal immigrants. In July 1984, the four major political parties unanimously supported a measure in Parliament that definitively guaranteed the stay in France of legal immigrants, whose assimilation thus assumed priority. Aid for return to the homeland was no longer to be widely offered, and immigration of unskilled workers was to be terminated except for those originating in European Community countries. Major changes of government in 1988 and 1993 affected only the modalities of applying these principles. The number of immigrants has fluctuated since 1974. Unskilled workers, the only category whose entrance was specifically controlled by the 1984 measures, have declined from 174,000 in 1970 to 25,000 in the early 1990s. The number of requests for political asylum declined from 60,000 in 1989 to 27,000 in 1993, and in 1991, 15,467 persons were granted refugee status. The number of immigrants of all types permitted to remain in France declined from 250,000 or 3000 per year in the early 1970s to around 110,000 at present. Although the decline is significant, it appears insufficient to the government in power since 1993. Although migratory flows are often explained as the product of imbalance in the labor market or in demographic growth, the French experience suggests that government policies, both in the sending and

  3. Invitation Refusals in Cameroon French and Hexagonal French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenkia, Bernard Mulo

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of regional pragmatic variation in French are lacking to date the focus has been on a limited range of speech acts, including apologies, requests, compliments and responses to compliments. The present paper, a systematic analysis of invitation refusals across regional varieties of French, is designed to add to the research on…

  4. Invitation Refusals in Cameroon French and Hexagonal French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenkia, Bernard Mulo

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of regional pragmatic variation in French are lacking to date the focus has been on a limited range of speech acts, including apologies, requests, compliments and responses to compliments. The present paper, a systematic analysis of invitation refusals across regional varieties of French, is designed to add to the research on…

  5. Stab Sensitivity of Energetic Nanolaminates

    SciTech Connect

    Gash, A; Barbee, T; Cervantes, O

    2006-05-22

    This work details the stab ignition, small-scale safety, and energy release characteristics of bimetallic Al/Ni(V) and Al/Monel energetic nanolaminate freestanding thin films. The influence of the engineered nanostructural features of the energetic multilayers is correlated with both stab initiation and small-scale energetic materials testing results. Structural parameters of the energetic thin films found to be important include the bi-layer period, total thickness of the film, and presence or absence of aluminum coating layers. In general the most sensitive nanolaminates were those that were relatively thick, possessed fine bi-layer periods, and were not coated. Energetic nanolaminates were tested for their stab sensitivity as freestanding continuous parts and as coarse powders. The stab sensitivity of mock M55 detonators loaded with energetic nanolaminate was found to depend strongly upon both the particle size of the material and the configuration of nanolaminate material, in the detonator cup. In these instances stab ignition was observed with input energies as low as 5 mJ for a coarse powder with an average particle dimension of 400 {micro}m. Selected experiments indicate that the reacting nanolaminate can be used to ignite other energetic materials such as sol-gel nanostructured thermite, and conventional thermite that was either coated onto the multilayer substrate or pressed on it. These results demonstrate that energetic nanolaminates can be tuned to have precise and controlled ignition thresholds and can initiate other energetic materials and therefore are viable candidates as lead-free impact initiated igniters or detonators.

  6. Energetic Particles Investigation (EPI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, H. M.; Mihalov, J. D.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Wibberenz, G.; Rinnert, K.; Gliem, F. O.; Bach, J.

    1992-05-01

    The EPI instrument operates during the pre-entry phase of the Galileo Probe. The main objective is the study of the energetic particle population in the inner Jovian magnetosphere and in the upper atmosphere. This will be achieved through omnidirectional measurements of electrons, protons, alpha-particles and heavy ions (Z greater than 2) and recording intensity profiles with a spatial resolution of about 0.02 Jupiter radii. Sectored data will also be obtained for electrons, protons, and alpha-particles to determine directional anisotropies and particle pitch angle distributions. The detector assembly is a two-element telescope using totally depleted circular silicon surface-barrier detectors surrounded by cylindrical tungsten shielding. The lower energy threshold of the particle species investigated during the Probe's pre-entry phase is determined by the material thickness of the Probe's rear heat shield which is required for heat protection of the scientific payload during entry into the Jovian atmosphere. The EPI instrument is combined with the Lightning and Radio Emission Detector and both instruments share one interface of the Probe's power, command, and data unit.

  7. ENERGETICS, EPIGENETICS, MITOCHONDRIAL GENETICS

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Douglas C.; Fan, Weiwei

    2011-01-01

    The epigenome has been hypothesized to provide the interface between the environment and the nuclear DNA (nDNA) genes. Key factors in the environment are the availability of calories and demands on the organism’s energetic capacity. Energy is funneled through glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), the cellular bioenergetic systems. Since there are thousands of bioenergetic genes dispersed across the chromosomes and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), both cis and trans regulation of the nDNA genes is required. The bioenergetic systems convert environmental calories into ATP, acetyl-Coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), S-adenosyl-methionine (SAM), and reduced NAD+. When calories are abundant, ATP and acetyl-CoA phosphorylate and acetylate chromatin, opening the nDNA for transcription and replication. When calories are limiting, chromatin phosphorylation and acetylation are lost and gene expression is suppressed. DNA methylaton via SAM can also be modulated by mitochondrial function. Phosphorylation and acetylation are also pivotal to regulating cellular signal transduction pathways. Therefore, bioenergetics provides the interface between the environment and the epigenome. Consistent with this conclusion, the clinical phenotypes of bioenergetic diseases are strikingly similar to those observed in epigenetic diseases (Angelman, Rett, Fragile X Syndromes, the laminopathies, cancer, etc.), and an increasing number of epigenetic diseases are being associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. This bioenergetic-epigenomic hypothesis has broad implications for the etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment of a wide range of common diseases. PMID:19796712

  8. "Energetics of Nanomaterials"

    SciTech Connect

    Professor Alexandra Navrotsky

    2005-01-31

    This project represents a three-year collaboration among Alexandra Navrotsky, Brian Woodfield, Juliana Bocrio-Goates and Frances Hellman. It's purpose has been to explore the differences between bulk materials, nanoparticles, and thin films in terms of their thermodynamic properties, with an emphasis on heat capacities and entropies, as well as enthalpies. The three groups have brought very different expertise and capabilities to the project. Navrotsky is a solid-state chemist and geochemist, with a unique Thermochemistry Facility emphasizing enthalpy of formation measurements by high temperature oxide melt and room temperature acid solution calorimetry. Bocrio-Goates and Woodfield are physical chemists with unique capabilities in accurate cryogenic heat capacity measurements using adiabatic calorimetry. Hellman is a physicist with expertise in magnetism and heat capacity measurements using microscale ''detector on a chip'' calorimetric technology that she pioneered. The overarching question of the work is ''How does the free energy play out in nanoparticles''? or ''How do differences in free energy affect overall nanoparticle behavior''? Because the free energy represents the temperature-dependent balance between the enthalpy of a system and its entropy, there are two separate, but related, components to the experimental investigations: Solution calorimetric measurements provide the energetics and two types of heat capacity measurements the entropy. They use materials that are well characterized in other ways (structurally, magnetically, and chemically), and samples are shared across the collaboration.

  9. Energetic particles at Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Andrew F.; Krimigis, S. M.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    1991-01-01

    The energetic particle measurements by the low-energy charged-particle and cosmic-ray instruments on the Voyager 2 spacecraft in the magnetosphere of Uranus are reviewed. Upstream events were observed outside the Uranian bow shock, probably produced by ion escape from the magnetosphere. Evidence of earthlike substorm activity was discovered within the Uranian magnetosphere. A proton injection event was observed within the orbit of Umbriel and proton events were observed in the magnetotail plasma-sheet boundary layer that are diagnostic of earthlike substorms. The magnetospheric composition is totally dominated by protons, with only a trace abundance of H(2+) and no evidence for He or heavy ions; the Uranian atmophere is argued to be the principal plasma source. Phase-space densities of medium energy protons show inward radial diffusion and are quantitatively similar to those observed at the earth, Jupiter, and Saturn. These findings and plasma wave data suggest the existence of structures analogous to the earth's plasmasphere and plasmapause.

  10. Spotlight: French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    May, J F

    1988-01-01

    French Polynesia is a group of 4 archipelagos in the South Pacific with an estimated 1987 population of 176,600. Its people are mainly Tahitians, Polynesians, Chinese, Europeans, and persons of mixed heritage. More than half of the population live in the Society Islands. About half of the population is less than 20 years old and slightly more than 5% is older than 60. Due to a recent decline in fertility, the rate of natural increase is moderate--about 2.5% annually. In the early 1980s, about two thirds of women in Tahiti aged 15-49 used a modern method of contraception. It remains to be seen whether this pattern will spread to the entire area. Projections by the World Bank, assuming little decline in mortality, yield a total population of 400,000 by the year 2030. The major challenge for French Polynesia is to develop the many small islands spread across an ocean territory half the size of the contiguous 48 states of the U.S. Tourist-related activities have replaced traditional income-generating such as production of coconuts, mother-of-pearl, and vanilla. The value of exports from the area make up only 5% of the value of imports. To extract the potentially huge food and mineral resources from the ocean, enormous infusions of capital will be necessary.

  11. French intensive truck garden

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T D

    1983-01-01

    The French Intensive approach to truck gardening has the potential to provide substantially higher yields and lower per acre costs than do conventional farming techniques. It was the intent of this grant to show that there is the potential to accomplish the gains that the French Intensive method has to offer. It is obvious that locally grown food can greatly reduce transportation energy costs but when there is the consideration of higher efficiencies there will also be energy cost reductions due to lower fertilizer and pesticide useage. As with any farming technique, there is a substantial time interval for complete soil recovery after there have been made substantial soil modifications. There were major crop improvements even though there was such a short time since the soil had been greatly disturbed. It was also the intent of this grant to accomplish two other major objectives: first, the garden was managed under organic techniques which meant that there were no chemical fertilizers or synthetic pesticides to be used. Second, the garden was constructed so that a handicapped person in a wheelchair could manage and have a higher degree of self sufficiency with the garden. As an overall result, I would say that the garden has taken the first step of success and each year should become better.

  12. The French Revolution and "Revisionism."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Claude

    1990-01-01

    Outlines revisionist interpretations of the French Revolution that challenged the dominant historiographical tradition during the 1950s and 1960s. Distinguishes four central characteristics of revisionist works. Identifies a key split in current French Revolution historiography between reflection on nineteenth-century…

  13. The French Revolution and "Revisionism."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Claude

    1990-01-01

    Outlines revisionist interpretations of the French Revolution that challenged the dominant historiographical tradition during the 1950s and 1960s. Distinguishes four central characteristics of revisionist works. Identifies a key split in current French Revolution historiography between reflection on nineteenth-century…

  14. French in the Ivory Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djite, Paulin G.

    1989-01-01

    Overviews the Ivory Coast's sociolinguistic situation. Standard French, restricted to the elite, is threatened by the local lingua franca. The spread and functional allocations of Dyula and Popular French support the point that the pervasive use of a language does not always lead to its adoption as a national language. (CB)

  15. French Basic Course. Area Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This volume provides the prescribed cultural background that is part of the final phase of the Basic Course in French. The texts provide the basis for discussions and personal research through which students become acquainted with various aspects of the French-speaking world and learn the referential meaning of words and expressions as they are…

  16. French for Journalists: Classroom Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodina, Herta

    The use of authentic materials for an advanced French course for students of journalism and communication has the drawback that authentic French sources assume a regular, informed readership sharing the same culture and history. A solution found at Ohio University is to use a publication that bridges the two cultures, such as the "Journal…

  17. Negative Association in Quebec French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrivee, Pierre

    In Quebec French, unlike standard French, sentence negation "pas" ("not") can occur in the same clause as a negative quantifier like "personne" ("nobody"), for instance. This paper proposes that "pas" in these contexts marks negative association in the same way that "ne" does in standard…

  18. Exploring French, German, and Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steigerwald, Jacob

    This text- and workbook serves as an introduction to French, German, and Spanish as second languages. An introductory chapter discusses the relatedness of languages and the interrelationships of the Indo-European language families. The relationships of French, German, and Spanish to English are demonstrated in cognate exercises. In the second…

  19. Energetic solar electrons in the interplanetary medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, R. P.

    1985-01-01

    Results are given of ISEE-3 measurements of energetic solar electrons extending down to 2 keV energy. Such measurements have provided a new perspective on energetic solar electrons in the interplanetary medium. Impulsive solar electron events are observed, on the average, several times a day near solar maximum, with about 40 percent detected only below about 15 keV. The electron energy spectra have a nearly power-law shape extending smoothly down to 2 keV, indicating that the origin of these events is high in the corona. In large solar flares which accelerate electrons and ions to relativistic energies, the electron spectrum appears to be modified by a second acceleration which results in a double power-law shape above about 10 keV with a break near 100 keV and flattening from about 10-100 keV. Solar type-III radio bursts are produced by the escaping 2-100 keV electrons through a beam-plasma instability.

  20. The spelling skills of French-speaking dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    Plisson, Anne; Daigle, Daniel; Montésinos-Gelet, Isabelle

    2013-05-01

    Learning to spell is very difficult for dyslexic children, a phenomenon explained by a deficit in processing phonological information. However, to spell correctly in an alphabetic language such as French, phonological knowledge is not enough. Indeed, the French written system requires the speller to acquire visuo-orthographical and morphological knowledge as well. To date, the majority of studies aimed at describing dyslexic children's spelling abilities related to English and reading. The general goal of this study is to describe the spelling performance, from an explanatory perspective, of 26 French-Canadian dyslexic children, aged 9 to 12 years. The specific goals are to describe the spelling performances of these pupils in the context of free production and to compare them with the performances of 26 normally achieving children matched on age (CA) and with those of 29 younger normally achieving children matched on reading age (RA). To do so, errors were classified according to phonological, visuo-orthographical and morphological properties of French written words. The results indicate that the dyslexic group scored lower than the CA group but sometimes also lower than the RA group. The results are discussed according to the types of knowledge required to spell correctly in French. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Voyager 2 Observes Energetic Electrons

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation shows the Voyager 2 observations of energetic electrons. Voyager 2 detected a dramatic drop of the flux of electrons as it left the sector region. The intense flux came back as soon ...

  2. Method for forming energetic nanopowders

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Kien-Yin; Asay, Blaine W.; Kennedy, James E.

    2013-10-15

    A method for the preparation of neat energetic powders, having nanometer dimensions, is described herein. For these neat powder, a solution of a chosen energetic material is prepared in an aprotic solvent and later combined with liquid hexane that is miscible with such solvent. The energetic material chosen is less soluble in the liquid hexane than in the aprotic solvent and the liquid hexane is cooled to a temperature that is below that of the solvent solution. In order to form a precipitate of said neat powders, the solvent solution is rapidly combined with the liquid hexane. When the resulting precipitate is collected, it may be dried and filtered to yield an energetic nanopowder material.

  3. Energetic Compounds for Future Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davenas, A.; Jacob, G.; Longevialle, Y.; Pérut, C.

    2004-10-01

    The need for new rocket propellants to improve or replace those in use today has led during the past ten years to studies of various, ancient or relatively new, energetic ingredients. The most often mentioned compounds for solid propellants are ADN (ammonium dinitramide), the nitramines RDX and HMX, HNIW (hexanitro hexaaza isowurtzitane), HNF (hydrazinum nitroformate), GAP (glycidyl azide polymer), and high nitrogen compounds. ADN, HNF, HAN (hydroxylammonium nitrate) are mentioned as possible ingredients in liquid mono and bi propellants for the future. A review of the work being conducted in the development and testing of the candidate propellants as well as an analysis of the general constraints of the industrial use and handling of these propellants and of their basic ingredients allows for a first tentative selection of the most promising ingredients. The possible synthesis routes, main characteristics, production and cost perspectives of these compounds are summarized and discussed.

  4. Diabetes: energetics, development and human evolution.

    PubMed

    Campbell, B C; Cajigal, A

    2001-07-01

    The recent emergence of the thrifty phenotype as an explanation for metabolic efficiency has brought evolutionary perspectives on diabetes, as represented by the thrifty genotype, under scrutiny. However, the logic of natural selection along with evidence from non-human primates supports the role for energetic constraints in the evolution of metabolic efficiency, particularly in skeletal muscle physiology. Environmental fluctuation during human evolution would have provided selective pressures for the development of efficient skeletal muscle starting prenatally and continuing throughout the lifespan. Such mechanisms including, glucose transporters, mitochondrial gene expression, leptin receptors and uncoupling proteins, should be present in all humans, though some living populations may exhibit particular 'thriftier' alleles. A focus on physical activity and the factors underlying efficient muscle physiology has implications for prevention of diabetes in both developing and developed societies. Copyright 2001 Harcourt Publishers Ltd.

  5. Design of Energetic Ionic Liquids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-12

    effectiveness of the FMO method in both providing accurate results and reducing computational requirements, timings were performed for the ionic liquid ...Technical Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Design of Energetic Ionic Liquids 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...Design of Energetic Ionic Liquids challenge project is to address several key technical issues and challenges associated with the characterization

  6. Photodecomposition of energetic nitro compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Mialocq, J.C.

    1989-03-14

    The photodecomposition of energetic nitrocompounds depends on the excitation energy, the light intensity which determines the mono-, bi- or multiphotonic character of the initial process and their gaseous, liquid or solid state. The initial processes of the photodecomposition of nitromethane and nitroalcanes are reviewed and their relevance to the initiation of energetic nitrocompounds detonation is discussed. The case of nitramines (dimethylnitramine and tutorial) is also briefly introduced.

  7. Solar Energetic Particle Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reames, D. V.

    2003-01-01

    In the largest solar energetic-particle (SEP) events, acceleration occurs at shock waves driven out from the Sun by coronal mass ejections (CMEs). In fact, the highest proton intensities directly measured near Earth at energies up to approximately 1 GeV occur at the time of passage of shocks, which arrive about a day after the CMEs leave the Sun. CME-driven shocks expanding across magnetic fields can fill over half of the heliosphere with SEPs. Proton-generated Alfven waves trap particles near the shock for efficient acceleration but also throttle the intensities at Earth to the streaming limit early in the events. At high energies, particles begin to leak from the shock and the spectrum rolls downward to form an energy-spectral 'knee' that can vary in energy from approximately 1 MeV to approximately 1 GeV in different events. All of these factors affect the radiation dose as a function of depth and latitude in the Earth's atmosphere and the risk to astronauts and equipment in space. SEP ionization of the polar atmosphere produces nitrates that precipitate to become trapped in the polar ice. Observations of nitrate deposits in ice cores reveal individual large SEP events and extend back approximately 400 years. Unlike sunspots, SEP events follow the approximately 80-100-year Gleissberg cycle rather faithfully and are now at a minimum in that cycle. The largest SEP event in the last 400 years appears to be related to the flare observed by Carrington in 1859, but the probability of SEP events with such large fluences falls off sharply because of the streaming limit.

  8. Status of French reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ballagny, A.

    1997-08-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm{sup 3}. The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} as soon as its present stock of UO{sub 2} fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU.

  9. 7 CFR 993.7 - French prunes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false French prunes. 993.7 Section 993.7 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.7 French prunes. French prunes means: (a) Prunes produced from plums of the following varieties of plums: French (Prune d'Agen, Petite Prune d'Agen), Coates (Cox...

  10. Teaching for Content: Greek Mythology in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giauque, Gerald S.

    An intermediate-level university French course in Greek mythology was developed to (1) improve student skills in reading, writing, speaking, and comprehending French, (2) familiarize students with Greek mythology, and (3) prepare students to deal better with allusions to Greek mythology in French literature. The texts used are a French translation…

  11. Dialect Effects in Speech Perception: The Role of Vowel Duration in Parisian French and Swiss French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joanne L.; Mondini, Michele; Grosjean, Francois; Dommergues, Jean-Yves

    2011-01-01

    The current experiments examined how native Parisian French and native Swiss French listeners use vowel duration in perceiving the /[openo]/-/o/ contrast. In both Parisian and Swiss French /o/ is longer than /[openo]/, but the difference is relatively large in Swiss French and quite small in Parisian French. In Experiment 1 we found a parallel…

  12. Energetic particles in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Paizis, C.; Colgate, S. A.; Dulk, G. A.; Hoyng, P.; Knight, J. W.; Lin, R. P.; Melrose, D. B.; Orrall, F.; Shapiro, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    The various manifestations of energetic particles in solar flares are examined, and possible mechanisms for the acceleration of these particles are considered. Hard X-ray observations and possible mechanisms for the production of the dominant form of solar energetic particles, electrons with energies between 10 and 100 keV, are discussed, with consideration of thin-target models, thick-target models and thick-target models with reverse currents, and first-phase acceleration mechanisms for energetic electrons emitting impulsive microwave and fast-drift Type III radio bursts as well as impulsive hard X rays, which are detected themselves 20 min after the flare at 1 AU are considered. Radio evidence on the number, energy and pitch-angle distributions of energetic particles produced during solar flares is summarized, and observations at 1 AU of proton and electron energy spectra, the proton/electron ratio and energetic particle events rich in He-3 from solar flares are discussed. Finally, consideration is given to gamma-ray evidence of nuclear reactions in flares and white-light flares

  13. Solar flares and energetic particles.

    PubMed

    Vilmer, Nicole

    2012-07-13

    Solar flares are now observed at all wavelengths from γ-rays to decametre radio waves. They are commonly associated with efficient production of energetic particles at all energies. These particles play a major role in the active Sun because they contain a large amount of the energy released during flares. Energetic electrons and ions interact with the solar atmosphere and produce high-energy X-rays and γ-rays. Energetic particles can also escape to the corona and interplanetary medium, produce radio emissions (electrons) and may eventually reach the Earth's orbit. I shall review here the available information on energetic particles provided by X-ray/γ-ray observations, with particular emphasis on the results obtained recently by the mission Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager. I shall also illustrate how radio observations contribute to our understanding of the electron acceleration sites and to our knowledge on the origin and propagation of energetic particles in the interplanetary medium. I shall finally briefly review some recent progress in the theories of particle acceleration in solar flares and comment on the still challenging issue of connecting particle acceleration processes to the topology of the complex magnetic structures present in the corona.

  14. Feudalism and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Thomas E.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews and questions the traditional established interpretation that the French Revolution was about feudalism. Concludes that revisionist historians have cast doubt upon the orthodox theory but that they have not supplied an alternative explanation. (Author/DB)

  15. Feudalism and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Thomas E.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews and questions the traditional established interpretation that the French Revolution was about feudalism. Concludes that revisionist historians have cast doubt upon the orthodox theory but that they have not supplied an alternative explanation. (Author/DB)

  16. Near-Resonant Thermomechanics of Energetic and Mock Energetic Composite Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    AFRL-RW-EG-TR-2016-088 Near-Resonant Thermomechanics of Energetic and Mock Energetic Composite Materials Jeffrey F. Rhoads, Steven F...Near-Resonant Thermomechanics of Energetic and Mock Energetic Composite Materials 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8651-16-D-0287 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...the near-resonant thermomechanics of energetic and mock energetic particulate composite materials. The effort specifically focuses on: (i

  17. Energetic environment at Titan's orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regoli, L.; Roussos, E.; Luhmann, J. G.; Dialynas, K.; Krupp, N.; Jones, G. H.; Coates, A. J.

    2016-12-01

    A statistical study of the energetic plasma environment at Titan's orbit is presented. Using data from the MIMI/LEMMS instrument on board Cassini, ion and electron spectra from more than 10 years are analyzed in order to study the dependence of different factors such as average fluxes or spectral indices with magnetospheric environment derived from thermal plasma and magnetic field data or Saturn Local Time (SLT). The non-negligible field-aligned velocity of the energetic ions and electrons allows them to travel farther from the magnetic equator when compared to lower-energy particles, making it difficult to distinguish among different magnetospheric environments by means of the energetic plasma fluxes. Some asymmetries in terms of SLT are observed, especially on the ion data.

  18. The Principle of Energetic Consistency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    A basic result in estimation theory is that the minimum variance estimate of the dynamical state, given the observations, is the conditional mean estimate. This result holds independently of the specifics of any dynamical or observation nonlinearity or stochasticity, requiring only that the probability density function of the state, conditioned on the observations, has two moments. For nonlinear dynamics that conserve a total energy, this general result implies the principle of energetic consistency: if the dynamical variables are taken to be the natural energy variables, then the sum of the total energy of the conditional mean and the trace of the conditional covariance matrix (the total variance) is constant between observations. Ensemble Kalman filtering methods are designed to approximate the evolution of the conditional mean and covariance matrix. For them the principle of energetic consistency holds independently of ensemble size, even with covariance localization. However, full Kalman filter experiments with advection dynamics have shown that a small amount of numerical dissipation can cause a large, state-dependent loss of total variance, to the detriment of filter performance. The principle of energetic consistency offers a simple way to test whether this spurious loss of variance limits ensemble filter performance in full-blown applications. The classical second-moment closure (third-moment discard) equations also satisfy the principle of energetic consistency, independently of the rank of the conditional covariance matrix. Low-rank approximation of these equations offers an energetically consistent, computationally viable alternative to ensemble filtering. Current formulations of long-window, weak-constraint, four-dimensional variational methods are designed to approximate the conditional mode rather than the conditional mean. Thus they neglect the nonlinear bias term in the second-moment closure equation for the conditional mean. The principle of

  19. Shock Sensitivity of energetic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, K.

    1980-01-01

    Viscoplastic deformation is examined as the principal source of hot energy. Some shock sensitivity data on a proposed model is explained. A hollow sphere model is used to approximate complex porous matrix of energetic materials. Two pieces of shock sensitivity data are qualitatively compared with results of the proposed model. The first is the p2 tau law. The second is the desensitization of energetic materials by a ramp wave applied stress. An approach to improve the model based on experimental observations is outlined.

  20. Energetic Oxetane Thermoplastic Elastomer Binders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    Naval Air Warfare Center personnel on the project was particularly helpful. We recognize the contributions of Geoff Lindsay, Mostafa Talukder , Mel... Talukder , M.A.H.; Nissan, R.A.; Quintana, R.L; Hasting, M.A.S.; Yee, R.Y.; D-7 Nadler, M.P.; Atwood, A.I.; Reed, R.; Manser, G.E. "Energetic Polyoxetane...G.A.; Talukder , M.A.H.; Nissan, R.A.; Quintana, R.L; Hasting, M.A.S.; Yee, R.Y.; Nadler, M.P.; Atwood, A.I.; Reed, R.; Manser, G.E. "Energetic

  1. French fireball network FRIPON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colas, F.; Zanda, B.; Vaubaillon, J.; Bouley, S.; Marmo, C.; Audureau, Y.; Kwon, M. K.; Rault, J.-L.; Caminade, S.; Vernazza, P.; Gattacceca, J.; Birlan, M.; Maquet, L.; Egal, A.; Rotaru, M.; Birnbaum, C.; Cochard, F.; Thizy, O.

    2015-01-01

    FRIPON (Fireball Recovery and Interplanetary Observation Network) was recently founded by ANR (Agence Nationale de la Recherche), its aim being to connect meteoritical science with asteroidal and cometary sciences, in order to better understand our solar system formation and evolution. The main idea is to cover all the French territory to collect a large number of meteorites (one or two per year) with an accurate orbit determination, allowing to pinpoint possible parent bodies. 100 all-sky cameras will be installed at the end of 2015, creating a dense network with an average distance of 100 km between the stations. To maximize the accuracy of the orbit determination, we will mix our optical data with radar data from the GRAVES transmitter received by 25 stations (Rault et al., 2015). As the network installation and the creation of research teams for meteorites involves many persons, at least many more than our small team of professionals, we will develop a participative science network for amateurs called Vigie-Ciel (Zanda et al., 2015). It will be possible to simply use our data, participate in research campaigns or even add cameras to the FRIPON network.

  2. Paradoxes of French accreditation.

    PubMed

    Pomey, M-P; François, P; Contandriopoulos, A-P; Tosh, A; Bertrand, D

    2005-02-01

    The accreditation system introduced into the French healthcare system in 1996 has five particular characteristics: (1) it is mandatory for all healthcare establishments; (2) it is performed by an independent government agency; (3) surveyors have to report all instances of non-compliance with safety regulations; (4) the accreditation report is delivered to regional administrative authorities and a summary is made available to the public; and (5) regional administrative authorities can use the information contained in the accreditation report to revise hospital budgets. These give rise to a number of paradoxes: (1) the fact that accreditation is mandatory lends itself to ambiguity and likens the process to an inspection; (2) the fact that decision makers can use the information contained in the accreditation report for resource allocation can incite establishments to adopt strategic behaviours aimed merely at complying with the accreditation manual; and (3) there is a tendency for establishments to reduce quality processes to nothing more than the completion of accreditation and to focus efforts on standardizing practices and resolving safety issues to the detriment of organizational development. All accreditation systems must be aware of these paradoxes and decide on the level of government involvement and the relationship between accreditation and resource allocation. With time, accreditation in France could benefit from both a professionally driven system and from the increased amount of freedom to focus on quality improvement which is necessary for organizational development.

  3. Paradoxes of French accreditation

    PubMed Central

    Pomey, M; Francois, P; Contandriopoulos, A; Tosh, A; Bertrand, D

    2005-01-01

    

 The accreditation system introduced into the French healthcare system in 1996 has five particular characteristics: (1) it is mandatory for all healthcare establishments; (2) it is performed by an independent government agency; (3) surveyors have to report all instances of non-compliance with safety regulations; (4) the accreditation report is delivered to regional administrative authorities and a summary is made available to the public; and (5) regional administrative authorities can use the information contained in the accreditation report to revise hospital budgets. These give rise to a number of paradoxes: (1) the fact that accreditation is mandatory lends itself to ambiguity and likens the process to an inspection; (2) the fact that decision makers can use the information contained in the accreditation report for resource allocation can incite establishments to adopt strategic behaviours aimed merely at complying with the accreditation manual; and (3) there is a tendency for establishments to reduce quality processes to nothing more than the completion of accreditation and to focus efforts on standardizing practices and resolving safety issues to the detriment of organizational development. All accreditation systems must be aware of these paradoxes and decide on the level of government involvement and the relationship between accreditation and resource allocation. With time, accreditation in France could benefit from both a professionally driven system and from the increased amount of freedom to focus on quality improvement which is necessary for organizational development. PMID:15692004

  4. Jet propagation through energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pincosy, P; Poulsen, P

    2004-01-08

    In applications where jets propagate through energetic materials, they have been observed to become sufficiently perturbed to reduce their ability to effectively penetrate subsequent material. Analytical calculations of the jet Bernoulli flow provides an estimate of the onset and extent of such perturbations. Although two-dimensional calculations show the back-flow interaction pressure pulses, the symmetry dictates that the flow remains axial. In three dimensions the same pressure impulses can be asymmetrical if the jet is asymmetrical. The 3D calculations thus show parts of the jet having a significant component of radial velocity. On the average the downstream effects of this radial flow can be estimated and calculated by a 2D code by applying a symmetrical radial component to the jet at the appropriate position as the jet propagates through the energetic material. We have calculated the 3D propagation of a radio graphed TOW2 jet with measured variations in straightness and diameter. The resultant three-dimensional perturbations on the jet result in radial flow, which eventually tears apart the coherent jet flow. This calculated jet is compared with jet radiographs after passage through the energetic material for various material thickness and plate thicknesses. We noted that confinement due to a bounding metal plate on the energetic material extends the pressure duration and extent of the perturbation.

  5. Heliospheric Observations of Energetic Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summerlin, Errol J.

    2011-01-01

    Heliospheric observations of energetic particles have shown that, on long time averages, a consistent v^-5 power-law index arises even in the absence of transient events. This implies an ubiquitous acceleration process present in the solar wind that is required to generate these power-law tails and maintain them against adiabatic losses and coulomb-collisions which will cool and thermalize the plasma respectively. Though the details of this acceleration process are being debated within the community, most agree that the energy required for these tails comes from fluctuations in the magnetic field which are damped as the energy is transferred to particles. Given this source for the tail, is it then reasonable to assume that the turbulent LISM should give rise to such a power-law tail as well? IBEX observations clearly show a power-law tail of index approximately -5 in energetic neutral atoms. The simplest explanation for the origins of these ENAs are that they are energetic ions which have charge-exchanged with a neutral atom. However, this would imply that energetic ions possess a v^-5 power-law distribution at keV energies at the source of these ENAs. If the source is presumed to be the LISM, it provides additional options for explaining the, so called, IBEX ribbon. This presentation will discuss some of these options as well as potential mechanisms for the generation of a power-law spectrum in the LISM.

  6. The Universal Parser and Interlanguage: Domain-Specific Mental Organization in the Comprehension of "Combien" Interrogatives in English-French Interlanguage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekydtspotter, Laurent

    2001-01-01

    From the perspective of Fodor's (1983) theory of mental organization and Chomsky's (1995) Minimalist theory of grammar, considers constraints on the interpretation of French-type and English-type cardinality interrogatives in the task of sentence comprehension, as a function of a universal parsing algorithm and hypotheses embodied in a French-type…

  7. The Universal Parser and Interlanguage: Domain-Specific Mental Organization in the Comprehension of "Combien" Interrogatives in English-French Interlanguage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dekydtspotter, Laurent

    2001-01-01

    From the perspective of Fodor's (1983) theory of mental organization and Chomsky's (1995) Minimalist theory of grammar, considers constraints on the interpretation of French-type and English-type cardinality interrogatives in the task of sentence comprehension, as a function of a universal parsing algorithm and hypotheses embodied in a French-type…

  8. The Energetics of Gravity Driven Faulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrows, L.

    2007-12-01

    Faulting can result from either of two different mechanisms. These involve fundamentally different energetics. In displacement-bounded faulting, locked-in elastic strain energy is transformed into seismic waves plus work done in the fault zone. Elastic rebound is an example of displacement-bounded faulting. In force-driven faulting, the forces that create the stress on the fault supply work or energy to the faulting process. Half of this energy is transformed into seismic waves plus work done in the fault zone and half goes into an increase in locked-in elastic strain. In displacement-bounded faulting the locked-in elastic strain drives slip on the fault. In force-driven faulting it stops slip on the fault. Tectonic stress is reasonably attributed to gravity acting on topography and the Earth's lateral density variations. This includes the thermal convection that ultimately drives plate tectonics. The gravity collapse seismic mechanism assumes the fault fails and slips in direct response to the gravitational tectonic stress. Gravity collapse is an example of force-driven faulting. In the simplest case, energy that is released from the gravitational potential of the topography and internal stress-causing density variations is equally split between the seismic waves plus work done in the fault zone and the increase in locked-in elastic strain. The release of gravitational potential energy requires a change in the Earth's density distribution. Gravitational body forces are solely dependent on density so a change in the density distribution requires a change in the body forces. This implies the existence of volumetric body-force displacements. The volumetric body-force displacements are in addition to displacements generated by slip on the fault. They must exist if gravity participates in the energetics of the faulting process. From the perspective of gravitational tectonics, the gravity collapse mechanism is direct and simple. The related mechanics are a little more

  9. SIMULATION OF ENERGETIC NEUTRAL ATOMS FROM SOLAR ENERGETIC PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Linghua; Li, Gang; Shih, Albert Y.; Lin, Robert P.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.

    2014-10-01

    Energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) provide the only way to observe the acceleration site of coronal-mass-ejection-driven (CME-driven) shock-accelerated solar energetic particles (SEPs). In gradual SEP events, energetic protons can charge exchange with the ambient solar wind or interstellar neutrals to become ENAs. Assuming a CME-driven shock with a constant speed of 1800 km s{sup –1} and compression ratio of 3.5, propagating from 1.5 to 40 R{sub S} , we calculate the accelerated SEPs at 5-5000 keV and the resulting ENAs via various charge-exchange interactions. Taking into account the ENA losses in the interplanetary medium, we obtain the flux-time profiles of these solar ENAs reaching 1 AU. We find that the arriving ENAs at energies above ∼100 keV show a sharply peaked flux-time profile, mainly originating from the shock source below 5 R{sub S} , whereas the ENAs below ∼20 keV have a flat-top time profile, mostly originating from the source beyond 10 R{sub S} . Assuming the accelerated protons are effectively trapped downstream of the shock, we can reproduce the STEREO ENA fluence observations at ∼2-5 MeV/nucleon. We also estimate the flux of ENAs coming from the charge exchange of energetic storm protons, accelerated by the fast CME-driven shock near 1 AU, with interstellar hydrogen and helium. Our results suggest that appropriate instrumentation would be able to detect ENAs from SEPs and to even make ENA images of SEPs at energies above ∼10-20 keV.

  10. Energetic trade-offs between brain size and offspring production: Marsupials confirm a general mammalian pattern.

    PubMed

    Isler, Karin

    2011-03-01

    Recently, Weisbecker and Goswami presented the first comprehensive comparative analysis of brain size, metabolic rate, and development periods in marsupial mammals. In this paper, a strictly energetic perspective is applied to identify general mammalian correlates of brain size evolution. In both marsupials and placentals, the duration or intensity of maternal investment is a key correlate of relative brain size, but here I show that allomaternal energy subsidies may also play a role. In marsupials, an energetic constraint on brain size in adults is only revealed if we consider both metabolic and reproductive rates simultaneously, because a strong trade-off between encephalization and offspring production masks the positive correlation between basal metabolic rate and brain size in a bivariate comparison. In conclusion, starting from an energetic perspective is warranted to elucidate relations between ecology, social systems, life history, and brain size in all mammals. Copyright © 2011 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A Film Study Option for HSC French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connole, Pat

    1974-01-01

    In 1974, after a trial period of two years, the study of two selected French feature films will be offered as an option to the study of prescribed texts in Higher School Certificate French in Victoria. (Author)

  12. Energetic costs of cellular computation.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Pankaj; Schwab, David J

    2012-10-30

    Cells often perform computations in order to respond to environmental cues. A simple example is the classic problem, first considered by Berg and Purcell, of determining the concentration of a chemical ligand in the surrounding media. On general theoretical grounds, it is expected that such computations require cells to consume energy. In particular, Landauer's principle states that energy must be consumed in order to erase the memory of past observations. Here, we explicitly calculate the energetic cost of steady-state computation of ligand concentration for a simple two-component cellular network that implements a noisy version of the Berg-Purcell strategy. We show that learning about external concentrations necessitates the breaking of detailed balance and consumption of energy, with greater learning requiring more energy. Our calculations suggest that the energetic costs of cellular computation may be an important constraint on networks designed to function in resource poor environments, such as the spore germination networks of bacteria.

  13. Energetic costs of cellular computation

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Pankaj; Schwab, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Cells often perform computations in order to respond to environmental cues. A simple example is the classic problem, first considered by Berg and Purcell, of determining the concentration of a chemical ligand in the surrounding media. On general theoretical grounds, it is expected that such computations require cells to consume energy. In particular, Landauer’s principle states that energy must be consumed in order to erase the memory of past observations. Here, we explicitly calculate the energetic cost of steady-state computation of ligand concentration for a simple two-component cellular network that implements a noisy version of the Berg–Purcell strategy. We show that learning about external concentrations necessitates the breaking of detailed balance and consumption of energy, with greater learning requiring more energy. Our calculations suggest that the energetic costs of cellular computation may be an important constraint on networks designed to function in resource poor environments, such as the spore germination networks of bacteria. PMID:23045633

  14. Retraining French Language Educators in the Teaching of Commercial French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marfurt, Rose Marie A.

    A retraining program for language teachers wishing to teach college-level business French is described. The course may be taught in five 5-hour weekend seminars or in a 2-week summer seminar of 12 hours per week. Since the teachers already have language skills, the course focuses on building confidence and interest in the subject matter by showing…

  15. DRIAS project : A component of French Climate Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lémond, J.; Dandin, P.; Moisselin, J. M.; Franchistéguy, L.; Kerdoncuff, M.; Pagé, C.; Vautard, R.; Déqué, M.; Planton, S.

    2010-09-01

    DRIAS (Providing access to French Regionalized climate scenarios for the Impact and the Adaptation of our Societies and environment) is a 2 years project, funded by the GICC (Management and Impacts of Climate Change) programme of the French Ministery of Ecology and Sustainable Development. Its aim is to provide regionalized climate simulations, data and products performed by French climate modeling, as well as to support users of these informations. In addition to numerical data, the project aims to make available probabilistic products, allowing the user to apprehend and take into account in studies the uncertainty inherent in modeling. From a technical perspective, the challenge will be to provide standardized informations between different producers. The combined accompaniment should be under different forms (metadata, hotline, training, forum), which will allow optimal use of products supplied. DRIAS gathers different partners and expertises. Its composed by representatives of French laboratories in which regionalized numerical simulations are produced : IPSL, CERFACS, and CNRM. The project is coordonned by the Climatology Departement of Météo-France which will provide expertise in the production and tools of availability of climatological data, acquired through the development of an existing data service access called Climathèque (http://climatheque.meteo.fr). In addition, a multidisciplinary committee of users representing different sectors concerned by climate change and different kind of structures (public, parapublic, private, association) accompanies the project. Its role is to express needs, validate the choices made, do tests... and thus facilitate communication between producers and users. Thus, the DRIAS project participates in the development effort of French Climate Services. The aim of this work is to present and introduce these key aspects.

  16. Cardiac energetics: sense and nonsense.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Colin L

    2003-08-01

    1. The background to current ideas in cardiac energetics is outlined and, in the genomic era, the need is stressed for detailed knowledge of mouse heart mechanics and energetics. 2. The mouse heart is clearly different to the rat in terms of its excitation-contraction (EC) coupling and the common assumption that heart rate difference between mice and humans will account for the eightfold difference in myocardial oxygen consumption is wrong, because the energy per beat of the mouse heart is approximately one-third that of the human heart. 3. In vivo evidence suggests that there may well be an eightfold species difference in the non-beating metabolism of mice and human hearts. It is speculated that the magnitude of basal metabolism in the heart is regulatable and that, in the absence of perfusion, it falls to approximately one-quarter of its in vivo rate and that in clinical conditions, such as hibernation, it probably decreases; its magnitude may be controlled by the endothelium. 4. The active energy balance sheet is briefly discussed and it is suggested that the activation heat accounts for 20-25% of the active energy per beat and cross-bridge turnover accounts for the balance. It is argued that force, not shortening, is the major determinant of cardiac energy usage. 5. The outcome of recent cardiac modelling with variants of the Huxley and Hill/Eisenberg models is described. It has been necessary to invoke 'loose coupling' to replicate the low cardiac energy flux measured at low afterloads (medium to high velocities of shortening). 6. Lastly, some of the unexplained or 'nonsense' energetic data are outlined and eight unsolved problems in cardiac energetics are discussed.

  17. Electrophysiological Markers of Syllable Frequency during Written Word Recognition in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chetail, Fabienne; Colin, Cecile; Content, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Several empirical lines of investigation support the idea that syllable-sized units may be involved in visual word recognition processes. In this perspective, the present study aimed at investigating further the nature of the process that causes syllabic effects in reading. To do so, the syllable frequency effect was investigated in French using…

  18. French-Speaking International Students in Canada. CBIE Research in Brief #3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    This report details the experience and perspectives of the 454 French-speaking international students who responded to the "2015 International Student Survey," with an aim of supporting member institutions and the broader international education sector to better understand francophone international education markets and, ultimately, to…

  19. Electrophysiological Markers of Syllable Frequency during Written Word Recognition in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chetail, Fabienne; Colin, Cecile; Content, Alain

    2012-01-01

    Several empirical lines of investigation support the idea that syllable-sized units may be involved in visual word recognition processes. In this perspective, the present study aimed at investigating further the nature of the process that causes syllabic effects in reading. To do so, the syllable frequency effect was investigated in French using…

  20. Teaching and Learning French--A Tale of Desire in the Humanities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Catriona

    2017-01-01

    This article considers the way we talk about learning and teaching the humanities in higher education in the UK. By using the tools of the arts and humanities within the scholarship of learning and teaching, and examining a personal perspective, the author explores the transformational impact of French language learning and teaching. Close textual…

  1. Liaison Acquisition, Word Segmentation and Construction in French: A Usage-Based Account

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chevrot, Jean-Pierre; Dugua, Celine; Fayol, Michel

    2009-01-01

    In the linguistics field, liaison in French is interpreted as an indicator of interactions between the various levels of language organization. The current study examines the same issue while adopting a developmental perspective. Five experiments involving children aged two to six years provide evidence for a developmental scenario which…

  2. Energetic Neutral Atom Precipitation (ENAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinsley, B. A.

    1988-01-01

    The Energetic Neutral Atom Precipitation experiment is scheduled to be flown on the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science (ATLAS 1) NASA mission. The objective of this experiment is to measure very faint emissions at nighttime arising from fluxes of energetic neutral atoms in the thermosphere. These energetic atoms have energies ranging up to about 50 keV, and arise from ions of hydrogen, helium, and oxygen trapped in the inner magnetosphere. Some of these ions become neutralized in charge exchange reactions with neutral hydrogen in the hydrogen geocorona that extends through the region. The ions are trapped on magnetic field lines which cross the equatorial plane at 2 to 6 earth radii distance, and they mirror at a range of heights on these field lines, extending down to the thermosphere at 500 km altitude. The ATLAS 1 measurements will not be of the neutral atoms themselves but of the optical emission produced by those on trajectories that intersect the thermosphere. The ENAP measurements are to be made using the Imaging Spectrometric Observatory (ISO) which is being flown on the ATLAS mission primarily for daytime spectral observations, and the ENAP measurements will all be nighttime measurements because of the faintness of the emissions and the relatively low level of magnetic activity expected.

  3. Energetic ions in ITER plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Pinches, S. D.; Chapman, I. T.; Sharapov, S. E.; Lauber, Ph. W.; Oliver, H. J. C.; Shinohara, K.; Tani, K.

    2015-02-15

    This paper discusses the behaviour and consequences of the expected populations of energetic ions in ITER plasmas. It begins with a careful analytic and numerical consideration of the stability of Alfvén Eigenmodes in the ITER 15 MA baseline scenario. The stability threshold is determined by balancing the energetic ion drive against the dominant damping mechanisms and it is found that only in the outer half of the plasma (r/a>0.5) can the fast ions overcome the thermal ion Landau damping. This is in spite of the reduced numbers of alpha-particles and beam ions in this region but means that any Alfvén Eigenmode-induced redistribution is not expected to influence the fusion burn process. The influence of energetic ions upon the main global MHD phenomena expected in ITER's primary operating scenarios, including sawteeth, neoclassical tearing modes and Resistive Wall Modes, is also reviewed. Fast ion losses due to the non-axisymmetric fields arising from the finite number of toroidal field coils, the inclusion of ferromagnetic inserts, the presence of test blanket modules containing ferromagnetic material, and the fields created by the Edge Localised Mode (ELM) control coils in ITER are discussed. The greatest losses and associated heat loads onto the plasma facing components arise due to the use of the ELM control coils and come from neutral beam ions that are ionised in the plasma edge.

  4. Process for preparing energetic materials

    DOEpatents

    Simpson, Randall L [Livermore, CA; Lee, Ronald S [Livermore, CA; Tillotson, Thomas M [Tracy, CA; Hrubesh, Lawrence W [Pleasanton, CA; Swansiger, Rosalind W [Livermore, CA; Fox, Glenn A [Livermore, CA

    2011-12-13

    Sol-gel chemistry is used for the preparation of energetic materials (explosives, propellants and pyrotechnics) with improved homogeneity, and/or which can be cast to near-net shape, and/or made into precision molding powders. The sol-gel method is a synthetic chemical process where reactive monomers are mixed into a solution, polymerization occurs leading to a highly cross-linked three dimensional solid network resulting in a gel. The energetic materials can be incorporated during the formation of the solution or during the gel stage of the process. The composition, pore, and primary particle sizes, gel time, surface areas, and density may be tailored and controlled by the solution chemistry. The gel is then dried using supercritical extraction to produce a highly porous low density aerogel or by controlled slow evaporation to produce a xerogel. Applying stress during the extraction phase can result in high density materials. Thus, the sol-gel method can be used for precision detonator explosive manufacturing as well as producing precision explosives, propellants, and pyrotechnics, along with high power composite energetic materials.

  5. English versus French: Language Rivalry in Tunisia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battenburg, John

    1997-01-01

    Examines the competition between English and French in Tunisian educational institutions and programs. Scrutinizes two periods in postprotectorate Tunisia: the introduction of English and the spread of English. Findings indicate that the decline in French linguistic influence may be accompanied by a future decrease in French political and economic…

  6. The French Revolution: A Simulation Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, James Patrick

    1978-01-01

    Describes a college-level simulation game about the French Revolution. Based on George Lefebvre's "The Coming of the French Revolution," the role-play focuses on social and economic causes of the revolution and allows students to understand citizens' grievances against the French government. (AV)

  7. The French Revolution: A Simulation Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, James Patrick

    1978-01-01

    Describes a college-level simulation game about the French Revolution. Based on George Lefebvre's "The Coming of the French Revolution," the role-play focuses on social and economic causes of the revolution and allows students to understand citizens' grievances against the French government. (AV)

  8. France: Africans and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatunde, Tunde

    1989-01-01

    The French Revolution had profound and long-term effects for Africans, both in Africa and throughout the Western hemisphere. Revolutionary leaders not only opposed the emancipation of slaves in French territories but supported an intensified slave trade, sparking numerous rebellions. French exploitation of Africans extended well into the twentieth…

  9. A Comparative Evaluation of French Grammar Checkers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burston, Jack

    1996-01-01

    Four grammar checkers, all of French Canadian origin, were evaluated: "Le Correcteur 101,""GramR,""Hugo Plus," and "French Proofing Tools." Results indicate that "Le Correcteur 101" is the best French grammar checker on the market and worth its premium cost. (two references) (CK)

  10. France: Africans and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatunde, Tunde

    1989-01-01

    The French Revolution had profound and long-term effects for Africans, both in Africa and throughout the Western hemisphere. Revolutionary leaders not only opposed the emancipation of slaves in French territories but supported an intensified slave trade, sparking numerous rebellions. French exploitation of Africans extended well into the twentieth…

  11. French Spelling Rectifications: A Failed Coup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, Ron

    1992-01-01

    The proposed 1991 reforms to French spelling discussed in a previous issue of "Babel" have been abandoned. This article notes the history of other efforts to rectify French spelling and reviews the French Academy's decision-making process in the current effort. (LB)

  12. Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.; Lal, Nand; McGuire, Robert E.; Szabo, Adam; Narock, Thomas W.; Armstrong, Thomas P.; Manweiler, Jerry W.; Patterson, J. Douglas; Hill, Matthew E.; Vandergriff, Jon D.; McKibben, Robert B.; Lopate, Clifford; Tranquille, Cecil

    2008-01-01

    The Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO) focuses on improved discovery, access, and usability of heliospheric energetic particle and ancillary data products from selected spacecraft and sub-orbital instruments of the heliophysics data environment. The energy range of interest extends over the full range of particle acceleration from keV energies of suprathermal seed particles to GeV energies of galactic cosmic ray particles. Present spatial coverage is for operational and legacy spacecraft operating from the inner to the outer heliosphere, e.g. from measurements by the two Helios spacecraft to 0.3 AU to the inner heliosheath region now being traversed by the two Voyager spacecraft. This coverage will eventually be extended inward to ten solar radii by the planned NASA solar probe mission and at the same time beyond the heliopause into the outer heliosheath by continued Voyager operations. The geospace fleet of spacecraft providing near-Earth interplanetary measurements, selected magnetospheric spacecraft providing direct measurements of penetrating interplanetary energetic particles, and interplanetary cruise measurements from planetary spacecraft missions further extend VEPO resources to the domain of geospace and planetary interactions. Ground-based (e.g., neutron monitor) and high-altitude suborbital measurements can expand coverage to the highest energies of galactic cosmic rays affected by heliospheric interaction and of solar energetic particles. Science applications include investigation of solar flare and coronal mass ejection events. acceleration and transport of interplanetary particles within the inner heliosphere, cosmic ray interactions with planetary surfaces and atmospheres, sources of suprathermal and anomalous cosmic ray ions in the outer heliosphere, and solar cycle modulation of galactic cosmic rays. Robotic and human exploration, and eventual habitation, of planetary and space environments beyond the Earth require knowledge of radiation

  13. Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.; Lal, Nand; McGuire, Robert E.; Szabo, Adam; Narock, Thomas W.; Armstrong, Thomas P.; Manweiler, Jerry W.; Patterson, J. Douglas; Hill, Matthew E.; Vandergriff, Jon D.; hide

    2008-01-01

    The Virtual Energetic Particle Observatory (VEPO) focuses on improved discovery, access, and usability of heliospheric energetic particle and ancillary data products from selected spacecraft and sub-orbital instruments of the heliophysics data environment. The energy range of interest extends over the full range of particle acceleration from keV energies of suprathermal seed particles to GeV energies of galactic cosmic ray particles. Present spatial coverage is for operational and legacy spacecraft operating from the inner to the outer heliosphere, e.g. from measurements by the two Helios spacecraft to 0.3 AU to the inner heliosheath region now being traversed by the two Voyager spacecraft. This coverage will eventually be extended inward to ten solar radii by the planned NASA solar probe mission and at the same time beyond the heliopause into the outer heliosheath by continued Voyager operations. The geospace fleet of spacecraft providing near-Earth interplanetary measurements, selected magnetospheric spacecraft providing direct measurements of penetrating interplanetary energetic particles, and interplanetary cruise measurements from planetary spacecraft missions further extend VEPO resources to the domain of geospace and planetary interactions. Ground-based (e.g., neutron monitor) and high-altitude suborbital measurements can expand coverage to the highest energies of galactic cosmic rays affected by heliospheric interaction and of solar energetic particles. Science applications include investigation of solar flare and coronal mass ejection events. acceleration and transport of interplanetary particles within the inner heliosphere, cosmic ray interactions with planetary surfaces and atmospheres, sources of suprathermal and anomalous cosmic ray ions in the outer heliosphere, and solar cycle modulation of galactic cosmic rays. Robotic and human exploration, and eventual habitation, of planetary and space environments beyond the Earth require knowledge of radiation

  14. Energetic Particles in the Inner Heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malandraki, Olga

    2016-07-01

    Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events are a key ingredient of Solar-Terrestrial Physics both for fundamental research and space weather applications. SEP events are the defining component of solar radiation storms, contribute to radio blackouts in polar regions and are related to many of the fastest Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) driving major geomagnetic storms. In addition to CMEs, SEPs are also related to flares. In this work, the current state of knowledge on the SEP field will be reviewed. Key issues to be covered and discussed include: the current understanding of the origin, acceleration and transport processes of SEPs at the Sun and in the inner heliosphere, lessons learned from multi-spacecraft SEP observations, statistical quantification of the comparison of solar events and SEP events of the current solar cycle 24 with previous solar cycles, causes of the solar-cycle variations in SEP fluencies and composition, theoretical work and current SEP acceleration models. Furthermore, the outstanding issues that constitute a knowledge gap in the field will be presented and discussed, as well as future directions and expected advances from the observational and modeling perspective, also in view of the unique observations provided by the upcoming Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus missions. Acknowledgement: This project has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 637324.

  15. Efficient laser production of energetic neutral beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mollica, F.; Antonelli, L.; Flacco, A.; Braenzel, J.; Vauzour, B.; Folpini, G.; Birindelli, G.; Schnuerer, M.; Batani, D.; Malka, V.

    2016-03-01

    Laser-driven ion acceleration by intense, ultra-short, laser pulse has received increasing attention in recent years, and the availability of much compact and versatile ions sources motivates the study of laser-driven sources of energetic neutral atoms. We demonstrate the production of a neutral and directional beam of hydrogen and carbon atoms up to 200 keV per nucleon, with a peak flow of 2.7× {{10}13} atom s-1. Laser accelerated ions are neutralized in a pulsed, supersonic argon jet with tunable density between 1.5× {{10}17} cm-3and 6× {{10}18} cm-3. The neutralization efficiency has been measured by a time-of-flight detector for different argon densities. An optimum is found, for which complete neutralization occurs. The neutralization rate can be explained only at high areal densities (>1× {{10}17} cm-2) by single electron charge transfer processes. These results suggest a new perspective for the study of neutral production by laser and open discussion of neutralization at a lower density.

  16. Cinque's Functional Verbs in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowlett, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the syntax of a number of subcategories of verb in French which are compatible with a following bare infinitive and which express various kinds of grammatical tense, mood, modality, aspect and voice, as well as such (more lexical?) notions as perception, causation and locomotion. The article starts by cataloguing a number…

  17. Verlan: Talking Backwards in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefkowitz, Natalie J.

    1989-01-01

    The history of "Verlan," a form of French word play involving inversion of syllables with varying degrees of complexity, is described and its phonological and morphological patterns are outlined. Appropriate and inappropriate contexts for use of Verlan, extralinguistic functions, and the results of lexicalization of verlanized words are…

  18. Belgium--The French Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sägesser, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Since 1993, Belgium has been a federal state where education is entrusted to the Communities. There are three Communities in Belgium: Flemish, French and German-speaking. They are responsible for personal matters (mainly education, culture and social affairs). There are also three Regions in Belgium: Flanders, Wallonia and Brussels. Regions are…

  19. Some "English" Words in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thogmartin, Clyde

    1984-01-01

    Examines "pseudoborrowing" of some English words into the French vocabulary. Considered the prestige language of Western Europe, English is viewed as a social hallmark of higher education; thus, even a modest knowledge and use of English reinforces this attitude. However, also suggests a modification of this concept, noting a reciprocal prestige…

  20. An Interview with Fiona French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, David

    2005-01-01

    In this interview Fiona French discusses her work and career with David Lewis. She describes early influences and stresses her lifelong love of colour and pattern. Amongst other themes she considers the factual basis of most of her books and her lack of interest in fantasy; her preference for clear, simple prose; her constant shifts in style and…

  1. French String Grammar. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Univ., NY. Linguistic String Project.

    This work reports on an initial study of the possibility of providing a suitable framework for the teaching of a foreign language grammar through string analysis, using French as the target language. Analysis of a string word list (word-class sequences) yields an overall view of the grammar. Details are furnished in a set of restrictions which…

  2. An Interview with Fiona French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, David

    2005-01-01

    In this interview Fiona French discusses her work and career with David Lewis. She describes early influences and stresses her lifelong love of colour and pattern. Amongst other themes she considers the factual basis of most of her books and her lack of interest in fantasy; her preference for clear, simple prose; her constant shifts in style and…

  3. Normenbuch Franzoesisch (Norm Book French)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pamp, Friedhelm

    1976-01-01

    Critizes the Norm Book for French Final (Abitur) Examination 1975 for German Schools, as to its arrangement and some resulting difficulties; also for its over-emphasis on written work over speaking. Additional publications are needed to make the existing requirements more specific. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  4. Exploiting French Songs as Genre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamblin, Vicki L.

    1993-01-01

    Describes strategy for teaching culture and conversation at the third- and fourth-year undergraduate level using authentic documents as the primary materials. The medium chosen for this course was the French chanson, but similar strategies may be applicable to any modern language using the culturally appropriate materials. (eight references) (LET)

  5. [Herman Lundborg and French eugenicists].

    PubMed

    Drouard, A

    1999-01-01

    Herman Lundborg, the director of the Institute of Racial Biology in Uppsala, corresponded with some prominent French eugenicists in the 1920s and 1930s. The historical context of this correspondence is analyzed, and the importance of the national differences as well as of the international eugenic organization's efforts are emphasized.

  6. Guide to French Noun Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Perkins

    This guide presents a system for determining the qender of French nouns that has been tested against 12,000 pages of general reading: novels, history, social science, law, finance, and the Bible. The guide discusses the rules for determining gender and also presents various lists of the non-routine or exceptions to the rules. It is asserted that…

  7. French on the Advanced Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlik, Teresa Wilkinson

    1969-01-01

    Presented in this article is an outline of some of the special interest course work included in the curriculum guidelines being developed in the Atlanta Public Schools System for advanced secondary school French classes. Titles of the audiolingually-oriented courses described are--(1) "Teenagers and Teenage Life in France Today," (2)…

  8. Carbonyl-bridged energetic materials: biomimetic synthesis, organic catalytic synthesis, and energetic performances.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yong-An; Qiu, Hao; Yang, Sa-Sha; Du, Jiang; Zhang, Tong-Lai

    2016-11-01

    In order to obtain high-performance energetic materials, in this work, carbonyl groups (C[double bond, length as m-dash]O) have been newly introduced as sole bridging groups in the field of energetic materials. To this end, two tailored green methods for the synthesis of carbonyl-bridged energetic compounds have been developed for the first time. One is a biomimetic synthesis, in which the conversion route of heme to biliverdin has been used to obtain metal-containing energetic compounds. The other one is an organocatalysis, in which guanidinium serves as an energetic catalyst to afford other energetic compounds. Experimental studies and theoretical calculations have shown that carbonyl-bridged energetic compounds exhibit excellent energetic properties, which is promising for the carbonyl group as a new important and effective linker in energetic materials.

  9. Energetic Particles in Saturn's Magnetotail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, D. G.; Carbary, J. F.; Krupp, N.; Krimigis, S. M.; Hamilton, D. C.; Kane, M.

    2007-12-01

    Energetic particle measurements in Saturn's magnetotail reveal a magnetotail dominated by Saturn's rotational dynamics as far back in the tail as 60 Rs, rarely but sometimes spectacularly disrupted by tail reconnection events. Although Cassini spent little time in the tail, and even less at the location of the tail current sheet, the time spent there revealed a pattern of very regular encounters with the energetic particles that fill the current sheet, usually once every Saturn rotation. Carbary et al. 2007a, b show that energetic electrons reappear every rotation when the spacecraft is sufficiently close to the current sheet location, and further that they lie along a spiral in longitude when mapped into the SKR coordinate system (Kurth et al., 2007). Energetic ions are also observed in the same locations, with a mix of hydrogen and oxygen not very different from that observed in the magnetosphere between 10 and 20 Rs. These ions generally display velocities approximately in the corotation direction, but with magnitudes well below rigid corotation (Kane et al., 2007, manuscript in preparation). Two other classes of energetic particle events are also seen in the magnetotail. The first consists of energetic ion and electron beams, likely accelerated in the auroral zone over downward current regions. The second are those generated in tail reconnection events (e.g., Jackman et al., 2007; Hill et al. 2007). We will give examples of all of these phenomena, including both in situ measurements and ENA images/movies. Carbary, J.~F., Mitchell, D.~G., Krimigis, S.~M., Hamilton, D.~C., Krupp, N., Charged particle periodicities in Saturn's outer magnetosphere, Journal of Geophysical Research (Space Physics) 112, 6246 {2007JGRA..11206246C} 2007a Carbary, J. F., D. G. Mitchell, S. M. Krimigis, and N. Krupp (2007), Evidence for spiral pattern in Saturn's magnetosphere using the new SKR longitudes, Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L13105, doi:10.1029/2007GL030167 2007b Kurth, W. S., A

  10. Amination of energetic anions: high-performing energetic materials.

    PubMed

    Klapötke, Thomas M; Piercey, Davin G; Stierstorfer, Jörg

    2012-08-21

    The new energetic materials 2-amino-5-nitrotetrazole (ANT, 1), 1-amino-3,4-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole (ADNT, 2), and both 1,1'-diamino-5,5'-bistetrazole and 1,2'-diamino-5,5'-bistetrazole (11DABT, 3 and 12DABT, 4) have been prepared by the amination of the parent anion with O-tosylhydroxylamine. The 5-H-tetrazolate anion has also been aminated using hydroxylamine O-sulfonic acid to both 1-aminotetrazole and 2-aminotetrazole (1AT, 5 and 2AT, 6). The prepared materials have been characterized chemically (XRD (1-4, 6·AtNO(2), 8), multinuclear NMR, IR, Raman) and as explosives (mechanical and electrostatic sensitivity) and their explosive performances calculated using the EXPLO5 computer code. The prepared N-amino energetic materials, which can also be used as new ligands for high energy-capacity transition metal complexes, exhibit high explosive performances (in the range of hexogen and octogen) and a range of sensitivities from low to extremely high.

  11. French roots of French neo-lamarckisms, 1879-1985.

    PubMed

    Loison, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    This essay attempts to describe the neo-Lamarckian atmosphere that was dominant in French biology for more than a century. Firstly, we demonstrate that there were not one but at least two French neo-Lamarckian traditions. This implies, therefore, that it is possible to propose a clear definition of a (neo)Lamarckian conception, and by using it, to distinguish these two traditions. We will see that these two conceptions were not dominant at the same time. The first French neo-Lamarckism (1879-1931) was structured by a very mechanic view of natural processes. The main representatives of this first period were scientists such as Alfred Giard (1846-1908), Gaston Bonnier (1853-1922) and Félix Le Dantec (1869-1917). The second Lamarckism - much more vitalist in its inspiration - started to develop under the supervision of people such as Albert Vandel (1894-1980) and Pierre-Paul Grassé (1895-1985). Secondly, this essay suggests that the philosophical inclinations of these neo-Lamarckisms reactivated a very ancient and strong dichotomy of French thought. One part of this dichotomy is a material, physicalist tradition, which started with René Descartes but developed extensively during the 18th and 19th centuries. The other is a spiritual and vitalist reaction to the first one, which also had a very long history, though it is most closely associated with the work of Henri Bergson. Through Claude Bernard, the first neo-Lamarckians tried to construct a mechanical and determinist form of evolutionary theory which was, in effect, a Cartesian theory. The second wave of neo-Lamarckians wanted to reconsider the autonomy and reactivity of life forms, in contrast to purely physical systems.

  12. French Alps, Mont Blanc, French/Italian Border

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-04-02

    In this southeast looking view, Mont Blanc, on the French/Italian border, (48.0N, 4.5E) the highest mountain peak in all of Europe, is just below and right of center (below the end of the prominent valley of the Aosta River, in the center of the photo. The rivers flow out of the Alps into Italy toward Turin. Chamonix, the famous resort town and center of Alpine mountain climbing, lies in the valley just below Mont Blanc.

  13. Mesoscale Modeling of Energetic Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-23

    This briefing represents interim progress towards these goals. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Heterogeneous explosives , Mesoscale dynamics, Level set method...High  Explosives  Research and Development Branch (RWME) – Damage Mechanisms Branch (RWMW) • Goal: Predict survivability of energetic payload of high...the mechanical  behavior of simple  explosive – Pristine – Damaged • Performed simulations on mechanical RVE’s – From XCMT – Idealized • Developed and

  14. Method for calculating alloy energetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Ferrante, John; Smith, John R.

    1992-01-01

    A semiempirical method for the computation of alloy energies is introduced. It is based on the equivalent-crystal theory of defect-formation energies in elemental solids. The method is both simple and accurate. Heats of formation as a function of composition are computed for some binary alloys of Cu, Ni, Al, Ag, Pd, Pt, and Au using the heats of solution in the dilute limit as experimental input. The separation of heats into strain and chemical components helps in understanding the energetics. In addition, lattice-parameter contractions seen in solid solutions of Ag and Au are accurately predicted. Good agreement with experiment is obtained in all cases.

  15. Method for calculating alloy energetics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Ferrante, John; Smith, John R.

    1992-01-01

    A semiempirical method for the computation of alloy energies is introduced. It is based on the equivalent-crystal theory of defect-formation energies in elemental solids. The method is both simple and accurate. Heats of formation as a function of composition are computed for some binary alloys of Cu, Ni, Al, Ag, Pd, Pt, and Au using the heats of solution in the dilute limit as experimental input. The separation of heats into strain and chemical components helps in understanding the energetics. In addition, lattice-parameter contractions seen in solid solutions of Ag and Au are accurately predicted. Good agreement with experiment is obtained in all cases.

  16. Simulated Shockwaves in Nanoparticles Embedded Energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattson, William; Johnson, Donald; Mullin, Jonathan

    2015-06-01

    Practical energetic materials often consist of mixtures of distinct materials formulated to optimize specific properties. Nanoparticles of traditional as well as novel additives, with their large surface to volume ratio, have been of particular recent interest to the energetics community. Using density functional theory, we have simulated high-velocity shocks of an energetic material containing nanoparticles. We will report on simulations of shocks in crystalline PETN embedded with nanodiamonds of different sizes, and at various shock speeds.

  17. Dynamic Deformation Properties of Energetic Composite Materials

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-12-01

    the dynamic mechanical properties and detonation of energetic materials. It also included some preliminary data on the effect of particle size on the...study of the dynamic mechanical properties and detonation of energetic materials. It also included some preliminary data on the effect of particle size...qualitative only. 33 5. DEFLAGRATION-TO- DETONATION (DDT) STUDIES As part of an on-going programme to investigate the properties of ultrafine energetic

  18. Solar Energetic Particle Spectrometer (SEPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    An outstanding problem of solar and heliospheric physics is the transport of solar energetic particles. The more energetic particles arriving early in the event can be used to probe the transport processes. The arrival direction distribution of these particles carries information about scattering during their propagation to Earth that can be used to test models of interplanetary transport. Also, of considerable importance to crewed space missions is the level of ionizing radiation in the interplanetary medium, and the dose that the crew experiences during an intense solar particle event, as well as the risk to space systems. A recent study concludes that 90% of the absorbed dose results from particles in the energy range 20-550 MeV. We will describe a new compact instrument concept, SEPS, that can cover the energy range from 50-600 MeV with a single compact detector. This energy range has been difficult to cover. There are only limited data, generally available only in broad energy bins, from a few past and present instruments outside Earth s magnetosphere. The SEPS concept can provide improved measurements for this energy range and its simple light-weight design could be easily accommodated on future missions.

  19. Solar Energetic Particle Spectrometer (SEPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, Mark J.

    2009-01-01

    An outstanding problem of solar and heliospheric physics is the transport of solar energetic particles. The more energetic particles arriving early in the event can be used to probe the transport processes. The arrival direction distribution of these particles carries information about scattering during their propagation to Earth that can be used to test models of interplanetary transport. Also, of considerable importance to crewed space missions is the level of ionizing radiation in the interplanetary medium, and the dose that the crew experiences during an intense solar particle event, as well as the risk to space systems. A recent study concludes that 90% of the absorbed dose results from particles in the energy range 20-550 MeV. We will describe a new compact instrument concept, SEPS, that can cover the energy range from 50-600 MeV with a single compact detector. This energy range has been difficult to cover. There are only limited data, generally available only in broad energy bins, from a few past and present instruments outside Earth s magnetosphere. The SEPS concept can provide improved measurements for this energy range and its simple light-weight design could be easily accommodated on future missions.

  20. National Ignition Campaign Hohlraum Energetics

    SciTech Connect

    Meezan, N B; Atherton, L J; Callahan, D A; Dewald, E L; Dixit, S N; Dzenitis, E G; Edwards, M J; Haynam, C A; Hinkel, D E; Jones, O S; Landen, O; London, R A; Michel, P A; Moody, J D; Milovich, J L; Schneider, M B; Thomas, C A; Town, R J; Warrick, A L; Weber, S V; Widmann, K; Glenzer, S H; Suter, L J; MacGowan, B J; Kline, J L; Kyrala, G A; Nikroo, A

    2009-11-16

    The first series of experiments on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. I. Moses, R. N. Boyd, B. A. Remington, C. J. Keane, and R. Al-Ayat, 'The National Ignition Facility: ushering in a new age for high energy density science,' Phys. Plasmas 16, 041006 (2009)] tested ignition hohlraum 'energetics,' a term described by four broad goals: (1) Measurement of laser absorption by the hohlraum; (2) Measurement of the x-ray radiation flux (T{sub RAD}{sup 4}) on the surrogate ignition capsule; (3) Quantitative understanding of the laser absorption and resultant x-ray flux; and (4) Determining whether initial hohlraum performance is consistent with requirements for ignition. This paper summarizes the status of NIF hohlraum energetics experiments. The hohlraum targets and experimental design are described, as well as the results of the initial experiments. The data demonstrate low backscattered energy (< 10%) for hohlraums filled with helium gas. A discussion of our current understanding of NIF hohlraum x-ray drive follows, including an overview of the computational tools, i.e., radiation-hydrodynamics codes, that have been used to design the hohlraums. The performance of the codes is compared to x-ray drive and capsule implosion data from the first NIF experiments. These results bode well for future NIF ignition hohlraum experiments.

  1. Venus transits - A French view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Débarbat, Suzanne

    2005-04-01

    After a careful study of Mars observations obtained by Tycho Brahé (1546-1601), Kepler (1571-1630) discovered the now-called Kepler's third law. In 1627 he published his famous Tabulae Rudolphinae, a homage to his protector Rudolph II (1552-1612), tables (Kepler 1609, 1627) from which he predicted Mercury and Venus transits over the Sun. In 1629 Kepler published his Admonitio ad Astronomos Advertisement to Astronomers (Kepler 1630), Avertissement aux Astronomes in French Au sujet de phénomènes rares et étonnants de l'an 1631: l'incursion de Vénus et de Mercure sur le Soleil. This was the beginning of the interest of French astronomers, among many others, in such transits, mostly for Venus, the subject of this paper in which dates are given in the Gregorian calendar.

  2. [The French lessons of anatomy].

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Alain

    2003-01-01

    The "Lessons of Anatomy" can be considered as a step of Medicine to Art. For several centuries the exhibition of a corpse's dissection was printed on the title-page of published works. Since the seventeenth century, the "Lessons of Anatomy" became a picture on the title-page in order to highlight the well-known names of the european anatomists. The study is limited to the French Lessons of Anatomy found in books or pictures after the invention of printing.

  3. French field experience with buprenorphine.

    PubMed

    Auriacombe, Marc; Fatséas, Mélina; Dubernet, Jacques; Daulouède, Jean-Pierre; Tignol, Jean

    2004-01-01

    In most European countries, methadone treatment is provided to only 20-30% of opiate abusers who need treatment due to regulations and concerns about safety. To address this need in France, all registered medical doctors since 1995 have been allowed to prescribe buprenorphine (BUP) without any special education or licensing. This led to treating approximately 65,000 patients per year with BUP, about ten times more than with more restrictive methadone policies. French physician compensation mechanisms, pharmacy services, and medical insurance funding all minimized barriers to BUP treatment. About 20% of all physicians in France are using BUP to treat about half of the estimated 150,000 problem heroin users. Daily supervised dosing by a pharmacist for the first six months resulted in significantly better treatment retention (80% vs 46%) and lower heroin use. Intravenous diversion of BUP may occur in up to 20% of BUP patients and has led to various infections and relatively rare overdoses in combination with sedatives. Opiate overdose deaths have declined substantially (by 79%) since BUP was introduced in 1995. Newborn opiate withdrawal in mothers treated with buprenorphine compared to methadone was reported to be less frequent, less severe, and of shorter duration. Although some of the public health benefits seen during the time of buprenorphine expansion in France might be contingent upon characteristics of the French health and social services system, the French model raises questions about the value of tight regulations on prescribing BUP imposed by many countries throughout the world.

  4. Fatty acid dietary intake in the general French population: are the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES) national recommendations met?

    PubMed

    Tressou, Jessica; Moulin, Philippe; Vergès, Bruno; Le Guillou, Céline; Simon, Noémie; Pasteau, Stéphane

    2016-12-01

    Quantity and quality of fatty acids (FA) in diet influence CVD risk. Consequently, health authorities promote recommended dietary intakes for FA, looking for optimal intakes in a primary prevention of CVD perspective. In parallel, a few data are available detailing intakes in national populations. The objective of the present study was to perform a large analysis combining the data of the French National Survey INCA 2 on food consumption performed in 2006 and 2007, and the nutritional content of food consumed in France updated in 2013 by the French Information Centre on Food Quality, to explore in details the FA intakes in French adults using the most recent available data. To compare the discrepancies in the observed intake levels with the French recommended levels, a weighted fat adherence score was built combining intakes of the different FA. Individual scores were computed in relation to official recommendations, and potential explanatory factors were identified. These data show that SFA intakes are persistently higher than national recommendations, combined with low intakes of MUFA and PUFA, particularly long-chain n-3 FA. Only 14·6 % of the French population met DHA intake recommendation, 7·8 % for EPA and 21·6 % for SFA. This situation remains unfavourable in terms of primary prevention of CVD. Consuming fish and other sources of n-3 FA, living in the south of France, being female, having a higher education level, and low alcohol consumption were associated with a healthier fat adherence score.

  5. Energetic materials and methods of tailoring electrostatic discharge sensitivity of energetic materials

    DOEpatents

    Daniels, Michael A.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Wallace, Ronald S.; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Collins, Eric S.

    2016-11-01

    An energetic material comprising an elemental fuel, an oxidizer or other element, and a carbon nanofiller or carbon fiber rods, where the carbon nanofiller or carbon fiber rods are substantially homogeneously dispersed in the energetic material. Methods of tailoring the electrostatic discharge sensitivity of an energetic material are also disclosed.

  6. French security policy: From independence to interdependence

    SciTech Connect

    Laird, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    The book features the first-time translation of some of the most significant recent papers by leading French analysts of security affairs. Beginning with a look at continuity and change in French policy since de Gaulle, this books presents the evolution of French security policy in the 1970s and 1980s. Dr. Laird pays special attention to the French nuclear modernization process and to the trend in the last two decades toward greater emphasis on security interdependence within the Western Alliance at the expense of the classic Gaullist stance of independence. He examines the major dimensions of French security policy, particularly French nuclear employment policy and doctrine, the Franco-German relationship, and France's role in Europe and in East-West relations.

  7. Overweight and obesity in French Hajj pilgrims.

    PubMed

    Gautret, Philippe; Bauge, Marie; Simon, Fabrice; Benkouiten, Samir; Valéro, René; Parola, Philippe; Brouqui, Philippe

    2013-02-01

    High prevalence of overweight (45%) and obesity (30%) were recorded in French Hajj pilgrims originating from North Africa. Females were significantly more likely to suffer from obesity compared to males. The overall prevalence of obesity among French pilgrims born in North-Africa was twice that of the overall French population. The prevalence of obesity in pilgrims aged 55-64 years and 65 years and over were respectively 38 and 25% compared to 20 and 18% in the corresponding overall French population age classes. The prevalence of diabetes in French pilgrims was five times higher compared to that of the overall French population. This situation prompts us to organize in the next future, pre-Hajj education seminars for diabetics.

  8. Nuclear gamma rays from energetic particle interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramaty, R.; Kozlovsky, B.; Lingenfelter, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Gamma ray line emission from nuclear deexcitation following energetic particle reactions is evaluated. The compiled nuclear data and the calculated gamma ray spectra and intensities can be used for the study of astrophysical sites which contain large fluxes of energetic protons and nuclei. A detailed evaluation of gamma ray line production in the interstellar medium is made.

  9. Anisotropic Decomposition of Energetic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pravica, Michael; Quine, Zachary; Romano, Edward; Bajar, Sean; Yulga, Brian; Yang, Wenge; Hooks, Daniel

    2008-01-17

    Using a white x-ray synchrotron beam, we have dynamically studied radiation-induced decomposition in single crystalline PETN and TATB. By monitoring the integrated intensity of selected diffraction spots via a CCD x-ray camera as a function of time, we have found that the decomposition rate varies dramatically depending upon the orientation of the crystalline axes relative to polarized x-ray beam and for differing diffracting conditions (spots) within the same crystalline orientation. We suggest that this effect is due to Compton scattering of the polarized x-rays with electron clouds that is dependent upon their relative orientation. This novel effect may yield valuable insight regarding anisotropic detonation sensitivity in energetic materials such as PETN.

  10. Anisotropic decomposition of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Pravica, Michael; Quine, Zachary; Romano, Edward; Bajar, Sean; Yulga, Brian; Yang Wenge; Hooks, Daniel

    2007-12-12

    Using a white x-ray synchrotron beam, we have dynamically studied radiation-induced decomposition in single crystalline PETN and TATB. By monitoring the integrated intensity of selected diffraction spots via a CCD x-ray camera as a function of time, we have found that the decomposition rate varies dramatically depending upon the orientation of the crystalline axes relative to polarized x-ray beam and for differing diffracting conditions (spots) within the same crystalline orientation. We suggest that this effect is due to Compton scattering of the polarized x-rays with electron clouds that is dependent upon their relative orientation. This novel effect may yield valuable insight regarding anisotropic detonation sensitivity in energetic materials such as PETN.

  11. Extreme solar energetic particle events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vainio, Rami; Afanasiev, Alexandr; Battarbee, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Properties of extreme solar energetic particle (SEP) events, here defined as those leading to ground level enhancements (GLEs) of cosmic rays, are reviewed. We review recent efforts on modeling SEP acceleration to relativistic energies and present simulation results on particle acceleration at shocks driven by fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs) in different types of coronal magnetic structures and turbulent downstream compression regions. Based on these modeling results, we discuss the possible role of solar and CME parameters in the lack of GLEs during the present sunspot cycle. This work has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 637324 (HESPERIA). The Academy of Finland is thanked for financial support.

  12. Appropriating Written French: Literacy Practices in a Parisian Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Elsie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I examine French language instruction in an elementary classroom serving primarily children of Afro-French immigrants in Paris. I show that a prevalent French language ideology privileges written over oral expression and associates full mastery of written French with rational thought and full inclusion in the French polity. This…

  13. Appropriating Written French: Literacy Practices in a Parisian Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Elsie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I examine French language instruction in an elementary classroom serving primarily children of Afro-French immigrants in Paris. I show that a prevalent French language ideology privileges written over oral expression and associates full mastery of written French with rational thought and full inclusion in the French polity. This…

  14. Energetics and the immune system

    PubMed Central

    Reiches, Meredith W.; Prentice, Andrew M.; Moore, Sophie E.; Ellison, Peter T.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background and objectives: The human immune system is an ever-changing composition of innumerable cells and proteins, continually ready to respond to pathogens or insults. The cost of maintaining this state of immunological readiness is rarely considered. In this paper we aim to discern a cost to non-acute immune function by investigating how low levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) relate to other energetic demands and resources in adolescent Gambian girls. Methodology: Data from a longitudinal study of 66 adolescent girls was used to test hypotheses around investment in immune function. Non-acute (under 2 mg/L) CRP was used as an index of immune function. Predictor variables include linear height velocity, adiposity, leptin, and measures of energy balance. Results: Non-acute log CRP was positively associated with adiposity (β = 0.16, P < 0.001, R2 = 0.17) and levels of the adipokine leptin (β = 1.17, P = 0.006, R2 = 0.09). CRP was also negatively associated with increased investment in growth, as measured by height velocity (β = −0.58, P < 0.001, R2 = 0.13) and lean mass deposition β = −0.42, P = 0.005, R2 = 0.08). Relationships between adiposity and growth explained some, but not all, of this association. We do not find that CRP was related to energy balance. Conclusions and implications: These data support a hypothesis that investment in non-acute immune function is facultative, and sensitive to energetic resources and demands. We also find support for an adaptive association between the immune system and adipose tissue. PMID:28003312

  15. Energetic Particle Influence on the Earth's Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mironova, Irina A.; Aplin, Karen L.; Arnold, Frank; Bazilevskaya, Galina A.; Harrison, R. Giles; Krivolutsky, Alexei A.; Nicoll, Keri A.; Rozanov, Eugene V.; Turunen, Esa; Usoskin, Ilya G.

    2015-11-01

    This manuscript gives an up-to-date and comprehensive overview of the effects of energetic particle precipitation (EPP) onto the whole atmosphere, from the lower thermosphere/mesosphere through the stratosphere and troposphere, to the surface. The paper summarizes the different sources and energies of particles, principally galactic cosmic rays (GCRs), solar energetic particles (SEPs) and energetic electron precipitation (EEP). All the proposed mechanisms by which EPP can affect the atmosphere are discussed, including chemical changes in the upper atmosphere and lower thermosphere, chemistry-dynamics feedbacks, the global electric circuit and cloud formation. The role of energetic particles in Earth's atmosphere is a multi-disciplinary problem that requires expertise from a range of scientific backgrounds. To assist with this synergy, summary tables are provided, which are intended to evaluate the level of current knowledge of the effects of energetic particles on processes in the entire atmosphere.

  16. Observations and Modeling of Geospace Energetic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinlin

    2016-07-01

    Comprehensive measurements of energetic particles and electric and magnetic fields from state-of-art instruments onboard Van Allen Probes, in a geo-transfer-like orbit, revealed new features of the energetic particles and the fields in the inner magnetosphere and impose new challenges to any quantitative modeling of the physical processes responsible for these observations. Concurrent measurements of energetic particles by satellites in highly inclined low Earth orbits and plasma and fields by satellites in farther distances in the magnetospheres and in the up stream solar wind are the critically needed information for quantitative modeling and for leading to eventual accurate forecast of the variations of the energetic particles in the magnetosphere. In this presentation, emphasis will be on the most recent advance in our understanding of the energetic particles in the magnetosphere and the missing links for significantly advance in our modeling and forecasting capabilities.

  17. Femtosecond Laser Interaction with Energetic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Roos, E; Benterou, J; Lee, R; Roeske, F; Stuart, B

    2002-03-25

    Femtosecond laser ablation shows promise in machining energetic materials into desired shapes with minimal thermal and mechanical effects to the remaining material. We will discuss the physical effects associated with machining energetic materials and assemblies containing energetic materials, based on experimental results. Interaction of ultra-short laser pulses with matter will produce high temperature plasma at high-pressure which results in the ablation of material. In the case of energetic material, which includes high explosives, propellants and pyrotechnics, this ablation process must be accomplished without coupling energy into the energetic material. Experiments were conducted in order to characterize and better understand the phenomena of femtosecond laser pulse ablation on a variety of explosives and propellants. Experimental data will be presented for laser fluence thresholds, machining rates, cutting depths and surface quality of the cuts.

  18. Femtosecond laser interaction with energetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roos, Edward V.; Benterou, Jerry J.; Lee, Ronald S.; Roseke, Frank; Stuart, Brent C.

    2002-09-01

    Femtosecond laser ablation shows promise in machining energetic materials into desired shapes with minimal thermal and mechanical effects to the remaining material. We will discuss the physical effects associated with machining energetic materials and assemblies containing energetic materials, based on experimental results. Interaction of ultra-short laser pulses with matter will produce high temperature plasma at high-pressure which results in the ablation of material. In the case of energetic material, which includes high explosives, propellants and pyrotechnics, this ablation process must be accomplished without coupling energy into the energetic material. Experiments were conducted in order to characterize and better understand the phenomena of femtosecond laser pulse ablation on a variety of explosives and propellants. Experimental data will be presented for laser fluence thresholds, machining rates, cutting depths and surface quality of the cuts.

  19. Interchange mode excited by trapped energetic ions

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, Seiya

    2015-07-15

    The kinetic energy principle describing the interaction between ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes with trapped energetic ions is revised. A model is proposed on the basis of the reduced ideal MHD equations for background plasmas and the bounce-averaged drift-kinetic equation for trapped energetic ions. The model is applicable to large-aspect-ratio toroidal devices. Specifically, the effect of trapped energetic ions on the interchange mode in helical systems is analyzed. Results show that the interchange mode is excited by trapped energetic ions, even if the equilibrium states are stable to the ideal interchange mode. The energetic-ion-induced branch of the interchange mode might be associated with the fishbone mode in helical systems.

  20. Interchange mode excited by trapped energetic ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Seiya

    2015-07-01

    The kinetic energy principle describing the interaction between ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes with trapped energetic ions is revised. A model is proposed on the basis of the reduced ideal MHD equations for background plasmas and the bounce-averaged drift-kinetic equation for trapped energetic ions. The model is applicable to large-aspect-ratio toroidal devices. Specifically, the effect of trapped energetic ions on the interchange mode in helical systems is analyzed. Results show that the interchange mode is excited by trapped energetic ions, even if the equilibrium states are stable to the ideal interchange mode. The energetic-ion-induced branch of the interchange mode might be associated with the fishbone mode in helical systems.

  1. [On the history of French eugenics].

    PubMed

    Drouard, A

    1998-01-01

    The French Eugenical Society was founded in 1913, but eugenics had been actively discussed already much earlier, although under varing names. The main protagonists of early French eugenics were Georges Vacher de Lapouge, who was inspired by Galton and socialism, Adolphe Pinard, who propagated the "puericulture", and Paul Robin, who represented neo-malthusianism in his country. Alexis Carrel's ideas on improving the human race became widespread especially through his book "Man, the Unknown", published simultaneously in French and English in 1935. In general, the French eugenicists were more in favour of positive eugenics than negative selection, including sterilization, but their general influence was weaker than in several other countries.

  2. Learning to Read in English and French: Emergent Readers in French Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Sheila Cira; Koh, Poh Wee; Deacon, S. Hélène; Chen, Xi

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the predictors of word reading in English and French for 69 children in early total French immersion from first through third grade. The influence of phonological awareness, orthographic processing, and vocabulary in English and French on the achievement and growth of word reading in the 2 languages were…

  3. Cultural Understanding: French, Level One. Selected Cultural Concepts Which May Be Developed in French Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walpole, Earl L.

    This manual was prepared to instruct the language teacher on concepts of French culture to be taught in a beginning French class to students of any age. The cultural concepts are cross-referenced and intended to be used with five of the most widely used French texts. Certain deeper cultural concepts are meant to be used for longer unit…

  4. Evaluation of the French Immersion Weekends, French Centre, University of Calgary, 1979-80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinck, Patricia

    Four French immersion weekends for continuing education students at the University of Calgary were evaluated. Each weekend involved recreational activities for twenty students and four French-speaking monitors at one of two recreational retreats near Calgary. The purpose of the program was to promote fluency in French by encouraging its use in a…

  5. Rethinking marital enmeshment: distinguishing intrusiveness from closeness-caregiving among French couples.

    PubMed

    Fanjoux-Cohen, L; Mouly-Bandini, A; Werner, P; Green, R J

    1998-01-01

    Authors recently have suggested that family enrneshment is not synonymous with high levels of closeness or cohesion. A model proposed by Green and Werner clarifies the cohesion-enmeshment domain by distinguishing between closeness-caregiving and intrusiveness as separate relationship processes. This paper examines the cross-cultural applicability of this perspective through a study of 61 married couples in France. The French version of the California Inventory for Family Assessment (CIFA), a self-report measure designed to assess clinically relevant marital dimensions, was employed. In general, spouses' reports of their marital process demonstrated high internal consistency reliabilities. Factor analysis showed meaningful factor structures distinguishing closeness-caregiving and intrusiveness, as predicted, as well as openness of communication. Significant correlations were obtained between CIFA scales and scores on the Marital Adjustment Test. These results are similar for French and American couples. Research implications for studying relationships among French-speaking couples are underlined.

  6. Current developments in French ethnopsychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Gesine; Nadig, Maya; Moro, Marie Rose

    2011-07-01

    French ethnopsychoanalytic approaches to therapy with immigrants combine the psychoanalytical interest in subjectivity with a specific concern for cultural factors and with the role migration plays as a crucial life event. Recent approaches consider culture as profoundly hybrid and use the notions of ''métissage'' and ''décentrage'' as central concepts. This article presents extracts from a qualitative study of ethnopsychoanalytic therapies with immigrant families. The authors argue that the ethnopsychoanalytic approach helps to open new ways of considering cultural hybridity and create a third space where experiences ''from the margins'' may be verbalized.

  7. Global Energetics of Solar Flares. IV. Coronal Mass Ejection Energetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschwanden, Markus J.

    2016-11-01

    This study entails the fourth part of a global flare energetics project, in which the mass m cme, kinetic energy E kin, and the gravitational potential energy E grav of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is measured in 399 M and X-class flare events observed during the first 3.5 years of the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) mission, using a new method based on the EUV dimming effect. EUV dimming is modeled in terms of a radial adiabatic expansion process, which is fitted to the observed evolution of the total emission measure of the CME source region. The model derives the evolution of the mean electron density, the emission measure, the bulk plasma expansion velocity, the mass, and the energy in the CME source region. The EUV dimming method is truly complementary to the Thomson scattering method in white light, which probes the CME evolution in the heliosphere at r ≳ 2 R ⊙, while the EUV dimming method tracks the CME launch in the corona. We compare the CME parameters obtained in white light with the LASCO/C2 coronagraph with those obtained from EUV dimming with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the SDO for all identical events in both data sets. We investigate correlations between CME parameters, the relative timing with flare parameters, frequency occurrence distributions, and the energy partition between magnetic, thermal, nonthermal, and CME energies. CME energies are found to be systematically lower than the dissipated magnetic energies, which is consistent with a magnetic origin of CMEs.

  8. Energetic Fermi/LAT GRB 100414A: Energetic and Correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urata, Yuji; Huang, Kuiyun; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Tsai, Patrick P.; Tashiro, Makoto S.

    2012-03-01

    This study presents multi-wavelength observational results for energetic GRB 100414A with GeV photons. The prompt spectral fitting using Suzaku/WAM data yielded spectral peak energies of E src peak of 1458.7+132.6 - 106.6 keV and E iso of 34.5+2.0 - 1.8 × 1052 erg with z = 1.368. The optical afterglow light curves between 3 and 7 days were effectively fitted according to a simple power law with a temporal index of α = -2.6 ± 0.1. The joint light curve with earlier Swift/UVOT observations yields a temporal break at 2.3 ± 0.2 days. This was the first Fermi/LAT detected event that demonstrated the clear temporal break in the optical afterglow. The jet opening angle derived from this temporal break was 5fdg8, consistent with those of other well-observed long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The multi-wavelength analyses in this study showed that GRB 100414A follows E src peak-E iso and E src peak-E γ correlations. The late afterglow revealed a flatter evolution with significant excesses at 27.2 days. The most straightforward explanation for the excess is that GRB 100414A was accompanied by a contemporaneous supernova. The model light curve based on other GRB-SN events is marginally consistent with that of the observed light curve.

  9. Photocopy of photograph (from Mrs. Martin, grandniece of John French, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (from Mrs. Martin, grandniece of John French, Clinton, Missouri) Circa 1900, photographer unknown JOHN AND ALMIRA FRENCH IN FRONT OF WEST AND SOUTH FACADES - John French Farm, South Grand River, Deepwater, Henry County, MO

  10. Aerodynamic characteristics of French consonants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demolin, Didier; Hassid, Sergio; Soquet, Alain

    2004-05-01

    This paper reports some aerodynamic measurements made on French consonants with a group of ten speakers. Speakers were recorded while saying nonsense words in phrases such as papa, dis papa encore. The nonsense words in the study combined each of the French consonants with three vowels /i, a, u/ to from two syllables words with the first syllable being the same as the second. In addition to the audio signal, recordings were made of the oral airflow, the pressure of the air in the pharynx above the vocal folds and the pressure of the air in the trachea just below the vocal folds. The pharyngeal pressure was recorded via a catheter (i.d. 5 mm) passed through the nose so that its open end could be seen in the pharynx below the uvula. The subglottal pressure was recorded via a tracheal puncture between the first and the second rings of the trachea or between the cricoid cartilage and the first tracheal ring. Results compare subglottal presssure, pharyngeal pressure, and airflow values. Comparisons are made between values obtained with male and female subjects and various types of consonants (voiced versus voiceless at the same place of articulation, stops, fricatives, and nasals).

  11. More French, s'il vous plait!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillivray, W. Russ, Ed.

    The collection of essays on French second language instruction in Canada, directed to parents, includes: "Our Brave New World" (Andrew Kniewasser); "French in Your School: Identifying and Achieving the Right Program" (Carolyn Hodych, Jos Scott); "So, You're Worried About Becoming an Immersion Parent" (Judy Gibson);…

  12. Reading Speed of Contracted French Braille

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laroche, Louise; Boule, Jacinthe; Wittich, Walter

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to address three hypotheses: (1) The reading speed of both readers of French braille and readers of French print will be faster in the silent condition; however, this gain in speed will be larger for print readers; (2) Individuals who acquired braille before age 10 will display faster reading speeds at lower error rates…

  13. Reading Speed of Contracted French Braille

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laroche, Louise; Boule, Jacinthe; Wittich, Walter

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to address three hypotheses: (1) The reading speed of both readers of French braille and readers of French print will be faster in the silent condition; however, this gain in speed will be larger for print readers; (2) Individuals who acquired braille before age 10 will display faster reading speeds at lower error rates…

  14. Le Francais Courant (Contemporary French), Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course has been developed basically within the limits of Units 4-6 of "A-LM French: Level 1", second edition. The primary objectives are to develop French vocabulary relative to the family, home, transportation, and foods by continuing to work with short dialogues based on everyday, teenage experiences. While reviewing previously studied…

  15. Why Learn French for Business in 2001?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maratier-Declety, Guilhene

    This essay makes the case for why it is worth learning French for business purposes, even though it is acknowledged that English is increasingly the lingua franca of international business, science, technology, and the Internet. It is asserted that French is still the dominant language in some important markets, and being able to conduct business…

  16. French Higher Education: A Cartoon Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Matthew Henry

    2012-01-01

    In this cartoon essay, the author shares his experience from a travel to Paris to see the French higher education system. From his travel, he learned that in France, "degree" inflation may be an issue, but not grade inflation. On the flight home, the author reflects how French and American academics answer one question about the state of…

  17. Act Up-Paris: French Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    The francophone world has always been at the center of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. From the mythical (French Canadian) "patient zero," Gaetan Dugas, to Rock Hudson's flight to Paris for medical treatment and the blaming of Haiti for AIDS, as well as the close relationships between Belgian and French and their former African colonies,…

  18. Metropolitan French: Familiarization & Short-Term Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iszkowski, Marie-Charlotte

    The U.S. Department of State's Foreign Service Institute French Familiarization and Short-Term (FAST) course for personnel working and living in France consists of 10 weeks of French language instruction combined with practical and cultural information. An introductory section outlines FAST course objectives and sample teaching techniques in…

  19. The French Regions and Their Social Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jany-Catrice, Florence

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a new indicator designed to capture the multidimensionality of the social health of the French regions is put to the test. Drawing on regional data for 2004, this indicator of social health (ISH) sheds new light on the social performance of the French regions. The worst performers are the highly urbanised regions, whereas others,…

  20. Left Dislocation in Near-Native French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the upper limits of SLA--specifically, mastery of the syntax-discourse interface in successful endstate learners of second-language (L2) French (near-native speakers). Left dislocation (LD) is a syntactic means of structuring spoken French discourse by marking topic. Its use requires speakers to coordinate…

  1. French Higher Education: A Cartoon Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Matthew Henry

    2012-01-01

    In this cartoon essay, the author shares his experience from a travel to Paris to see the French higher education system. From his travel, he learned that in France, "degree" inflation may be an issue, but not grade inflation. On the flight home, the author reflects how French and American academics answer one question about the state of…

  2. Les affaires "en francais" (Business "In French").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanko, Helene N.

    1993-01-01

    A French brochure entitled "700 Current Words for Business" was developed to familiarize the business community with modern French business vocabulary and avoid intrusion of terminology from other languages. Some terms are neologisms. Translations from Latin, Japanese, and English illustrate the etymology and morphological patterns of…

  3. Lafayette School District: French Immersion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreaux, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    From 1969 to the late 1980's, most French programs in schools were based on a traditional foreign language instructional model, usually offering 30 minutes a day of French language instruction in elementary grades, increasing to 50 minutes a day in middle school. Contingent on funding and political swings over time, programs expanded from…

  4. Learning French Pronunciation: Audiocassettes or Multimedia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Alysse; Knoerr, Helene

    2003-01-01

    Describes a two phase experiment that was conducted at the university of Ottawa using audiocassettes and multimedia while teaching French, specifically French phonetics, intonation, and pronunciation, to a group of low-intermediate level language students. Looks at whether receptive and productive skills are influenced by the explicit teaching of…

  5. The French Regions and Their Social Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jany-Catrice, Florence

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a new indicator designed to capture the multidimensionality of the social health of the French regions is put to the test. Drawing on regional data for 2004, this indicator of social health (ISH) sheds new light on the social performance of the French regions. The worst performers are the highly urbanised regions, whereas others,…

  6. Vowel Aperture and Syllable Segmentation in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goslin, Jeremy; Frauenfelder, Ulrich H.

    2008-01-01

    The theories of Pulgram (1970) suggest that if the vowel of a French syllable is open then it will induce syllable segmentation responses that result in the syllable being closed, and vice versa. After the empirical verification that our target French-speaking population was capable of distinguishing between mid-vowel aperture, we examined the…

  7. French Romanticism and Napoleon's "Geometric Men."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Robert A.

    1982-01-01

    French intellectual thought changed during the Napoleonic Era. The effects of the Enlightenment philosophers, the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution, and Romanticism on the development of Napoleon's philosophical outlook are used to illustrate the changes occurring in France as a whole in the early nineteenth century. (AM)

  8. Act Up-Paris: French Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    The francophone world has always been at the center of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. From the mythical (French Canadian) "patient zero," Gaetan Dugas, to Rock Hudson's flight to Paris for medical treatment and the blaming of Haiti for AIDS, as well as the close relationships between Belgian and French and their former African colonies,…

  9. French-African Cultures: A Resource Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Barbara

    This resource unit concerns French-African cultures and their influence on other cultures. The materials may be incorporated into Levels 3, 4, and 5 French classes. Topics in the outline include environmental aspects; historical background; and cultural differences expressed in Senegal, Guinee, Mali, Cote d'Ivoire, Haute Volta, Togo, Dahomey,…

  10. Business French: Cultural Content and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Brigitte D.

    The goals and cultural content of two advanced business French courses, developed at Eastern Michigan University (EMU) in conjunction with the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Paris (CCIP), are examined and the wider cultural implications of the courses are discussed. As background information, the role of the CCIP in French education and the…

  11. Commercial French Radio in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melpignano, Richard J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes several techniques for implementing commercial radio to improve listening comprehension skills in the foreign language student. Canadian radio, accessible to much of the northern United States, brings news, weather, and sports, in French, to the student of French and provides major components for sharpening comprehension skills. (PJM)

  12. Lafayette School District: French Immersion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreaux, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    From 1969 to the late 1980's, most French programs in schools were based on a traditional foreign language instructional model, usually offering 30 minutes a day of French language instruction in elementary grades, increasing to 50 minutes a day in middle school. Contingent on funding and political swings over time, programs expanded from…

  13. Syntactic Devices of Emphasis in Contemporary French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollerbach, Wolf

    A device of emphasis in French syntax is defined as a construction of syntactic paraphrase whose function is to make certain parts of a sentence stand out for purposes of contrast, clarification, differentiation, or because a given element is considered important. These devices exist in French because of the lack of a phonemic stress system, and…

  14. Radical Reform of the French University System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bereziat, Gilbert

    2008-01-01

    The French university system is in crisis. After its dismantlement during the French revolution, its rebirth was progressive under the third republic (1871-1945). But it was only after 1968 that the current universities developed, with an autonomy that is strictly supervised by the state. Since 1986 all experiments at modernizing the management of…

  15. Le Francais Courant (Contemporary French), Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course has been developed basically within the limits of Units 4-6 of "A-LM French: Level 1", second edition. The primary objectives are to develop French vocabulary relative to the family, home, transportation, and foods by continuing to work with short dialogues based on everyday, teenage experiences. While reviewing previously studied…

  16. French for Business: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Brenda

    The paper discusses the development and evolution of the French for Business undergraduate language course at Oregon State University, focusing on: (1) instructor preparation; (2) course structure; (3) course content; (4) the business student as teacher and mentor; (5) cultural exchanges with French-speaking business students; (6) oral and written…

  17. Left Dislocation in Near-Native French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the upper limits of SLA--specifically, mastery of the syntax-discourse interface in successful endstate learners of second-language (L2) French (near-native speakers). Left dislocation (LD) is a syntactic means of structuring spoken French discourse by marking topic. Its use requires speakers to coordinate…

  18. Metropolitan French: Familiarization & Short-Term Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iszkowski, Marie-Charlotte

    The U.S. Department of State's Foreign Service Institute French Familiarization and Short-Term (FAST) course for personnel working and living in France consists of 10 weeks of French language instruction combined with practical and cultural information. An introductory section outlines FAST course objectives and sample teaching techniques in…

  19. French Romanticism and Napoleon's "Geometric Men."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Robert A.

    1982-01-01

    French intellectual thought changed during the Napoleonic Era. The effects of the Enlightenment philosophers, the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution, and Romanticism on the development of Napoleon's philosophical outlook are used to illustrate the changes occurring in France as a whole in the early nineteenth century. (AM)

  20. A Modern Curriculum in French Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Robert J.

    The French department, commonly viewed by chairmen and faculty as the conveyor of culture, is admonished to revamp its curriculum and attempt to embrace a broader, more humane understanding of the nature of culture. With the traditional, belletristic, college French curriculum having been rejected in favor of programs based on "cogency, cohesion,…

  1. Business Letter Writing: English, French, and Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Susan; Hinds, John

    1987-01-01

    Examination of business letters in English, French, and Japanese, focusing on prescriptive accounts in the respective languages, found that, despite amazingly similar surface characteristics, American business letters were reader-oriented, French business letters were writer-oriented, and Japanese business letters were oriented to the space…

  2. Radical Reform of the French University System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bereziat, Gilbert

    2008-01-01

    The French university system is in crisis. After its dismantlement during the French revolution, its rebirth was progressive under the third republic (1871-1945). But it was only after 1968 that the current universities developed, with an autonomy that is strictly supervised by the state. Since 1986 all experiments at modernizing the management of…

  3. The French Language in the Americas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdman, Albert, Ed.

    The annual bulletin of the French 8 section of the Annual Meeting of the Modern Language Association of America is presented with the texts of papers read at both the 1969 and 1970 sessions. The 1970 papers, in French, include Jean Louis Darbelnet's "Etude Sociolinguistique des contacts entre 1'Anglais et le Francais au Canada et en…

  4. A Mini-Film on French Kinesics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Joel

    This paper describes a silent film made by the author which illustrates various French gestures. The format is Super 8, and the film lasts five minutes. The script is given, along with an English translation. The story concerns several French students at an outdoor cafe wondering about one of their friends. The conversation includes 10 typical…

  5. POET: POlarimeters for Energetic Transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J. E.; McConnell, M. L.; Bloser, P.; Legere, J.; Macri, J.; Ryan, J.; Barthelmy, S.; Angelini, L.; Sakamoto, T.; Black, J. K.; hide

    2008-01-01

    POET (Polarimeters for Energetic Transients) is a Small Explorer mission concept proposed to NASA in January 2008. The principal scientific goal of POET is to measure GRB polarization between 2 and 500 keV. The payload consists of two wide FoV instruments: a Low Energy Polarimeter (LEP) capable of polarization measurements in the energy range from 2-15 keV and a high energy polarimeter (Gamma-Ray Polarimeter Experiment - GRAPE) that will measure polarization in the 60-500 keV energy range. Spectra will be measured from 2 keV up to 1 MeV. The POET spacecraft provides a zenith-pointed platform for maximizing the exposure to deep space. Spacecraft rotation will provide a means of effectively dealing with systematics in the polarization response. POET will provide sufficient sensitivity and sky coverage to measure statistically significant polarization for up to 100 GRBs in a two-year mission. Polarization data will also be obtained for solar flares, pulsars and other sources of astronomical interest.

  6. Mitochondrial energetics in the kidney.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, Pallavi; Schnellmann, Rick G

    2017-10-01

    The kidney requires a large number of mitochondria to remove waste from the blood and regulate fluid and electrolyte balance. Mitochondria provide the energy to drive these important functions and can adapt to different metabolic conditions through a number of signalling pathways (for example, mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathways) that activate the transcriptional co-activator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ co-activator 1α (PGC1α), and by balancing mitochondrial dynamics and energetics to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis. Mitochondrial dysfunction leads to a decrease in ATP production, alterations in cellular functions and structure, and the loss of renal function. Persistent mitochondrial dysfunction has a role in the early stages and progression of renal diseases, such as acute kidney injury (AKI) and diabetic nephropathy, as it disrupts mitochondrial homeostasis and thus normal kidney function. Improving mitochondrial homeostasis and function has the potential to restore renal function, and administering compounds that stimulate mitochondrial biogenesis can restore mitochondrial and renal function in mouse models of AKI and diabetes mellitus. Furthermore, inhibiting the fission protein dynamin 1-like protein (DRP1) might ameliorate ischaemic renal injury by blocking mitochondrial fission.

  7. Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Eun-Suk

    2014-08-01

    The balloon-borne Cosmic Ray Energetics And Mass (CREAM) experiment was flown for ~161 days in six flights over Antarctica. High energy cosmic-ray data were collected over a wide energy range from ~ 10^10 to > 10^14 eV at an average altitude of ~38.5 km with ~3.9 g/cm2 atmospheric overburden. Cosmic-ray elements from protons (Z = 1) to iron nuclei (Z = 26) are separated with excellent charge resolution. Building on success of the balloon flights, the payload is being reconfigured for exposure on the International Space Station (ISS). This ISS-CREAM instrument is configured with the CREAM calorimeter for energy measurements, and four finely segmented Silicon Charge Detector layers for precise charge measurements. In addition, the Top and Bottom Counting Detectors (TCD and BCD) and Boronated Scintillator Detector (BSD) have been newly developed. The TCD and BCD are scintillator based segmented detectors to separate electrons from nuclei using the shower profile differences, while BSD distinguishes electrons from nuclei by detecting thermal neutrons that are dominant in nuclei induced showers. An order of magnitude increase in data collecting power is possible by utilizing the ISS to reach the highest energies practical with direct measurements. The project status including results from on-going analysis of existing data and future plans will be discussed.

  8. Paleo Mars energetic particle precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alho, Markku; McKenna-Lawlor, Susan; Kallio, Esa

    2015-12-01

    A young Mars may well have possessed a global dipolar magnetic field that provided protection for the planet's atmosphere from the space weather environment. Against this background, we study in the present paper the effect of various dipole magnetic fields on particle precipitation (range 10 keV-4.5 MeV) on the upper Martian atmosphere as the magnetosphere gradually declined to become an induced magnetosphere. We utilized a hybrid plasma model to provide, in a self-consistent fashion, simulations (that included ion-kinetic effects) of the interaction between the Martian obstacle (magnetized or otherwise) and the solar wind. Besides the intrinsic dipole, with field strengths of ~100 nT and below, we assume modern solar and atmospheric parameters to examine the effect of the single variable, that is the dipole strength. We thereby investigated the precipitation of solar energetic particles on the upper atmosphere of the planet in circumstances characterized by the evolution of a diminishing Martian dynamo that initially generated an ideal dipolar field. It is demonstrated that an assumed Martian dipole would have provided, in the energy range investigated, significant shielding against proton impingement and that the interaction between the solar wind and the assumed Martian magnetic dipole would have been responsible for generating the shielding effect identified.

  9. The Galileo Energetic Particles Detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. J.; Mcentire, R. W.; Jaskulek, S.; Wilken, B.

    1992-01-01

    Amongst its complement of particles and fields instruments, the Galileo spacecraft carries an Energetic Particles Detector (EPD) designed to measure the characteristics of particle populations important in determining the size, shape, and dynamics of the Jovian magnetosphere. To do this the EPD provides 4pi angular coverage and spectral measurements for Z greater than or equal to 1 ions from 20 keV to 55 MeV, for electrons from 15 keV to greater than 11 MeV, and for the elemental species helium through iron from approximately 10 keV/nucl to 15 MeV/nucl. Two bidirectional telescopes, mounted on a stepping platform, employ magnetic deflection, energy loss versus energy, and time-of-flight techniques to provide 64 rate channels and pulse height analysis of priority selected events. The EPD data system provides a large number of possible operational modes from which a small number will be selected to optimize data collection during the many encounter and cruise phases of the mission. The EPD employs a number of safeing algorithms that are to be used in the event that its self-checking procedures indicate a problem. The instrument and its operation are described.

  10. Molecular characterization of energetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saraf, Sanjeev R.

    2003-06-01

    Assessing hazards due to energetic or reactive chemicals is a challenging and complicated task and has received considerable attention from industry and regulatory bodies. Thermal analysis techniques, such as Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), are commonly employed to evaluate reactivity hazards. A simple classification based on energy of reaction (-DeltaH), a thermodynamic parameter, and onset temperature (To), a kinetic parameter, is proposed with the aim of recognizing more hazardous compositions. The utility of other DSC parameter in predicting explosive properties is discussed. Calorimetric measurements to determine reactivity can be resource consuming, so computational methods to predict reactivity hazards present an attractive option. Molecular modeling techniques were employed to gain information at the molecular scale to predict calorimetric data. Molecular descriptors, calculated at density functional level of theory, were correlated with DSC data for mono nitro compounds applying Quantitative Structure Property Relationships (QSPR) and yielded reasonable predictions. Such correlations can be incorporated into a software program for a priori prediction of potential reactivity hazards. Estimations of potential hazards can greatly help to focus attention on more hazardous substances, such as hydroxylamine (HA), which was involved in two major industrial incidents in the past four years. A detailed discussion of HA investigation is presented.

  11. Highlights of recent studies and future plans for the French human biomonitoring (HBM) programme.

    PubMed

    Fréry, Nadine; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Etchevers, Anne; Fillol, Clémence

    2012-02-01

    This manuscript presents highlights of recent studies and perspectives from the French human biomonitoring (HBM) programme. Until recently, HBM studies focused on specific populations or pollutants to gain a better understanding of exposure to environmental chemicals, to help regulators reduce environmental exposure and to monitor existing policies on specific concerns. Highlights of recent multicentre biomonitoring studies with specific population or pollutant focus are given. These French HBM studies have been implemented to know: (1) the influence of living near an incinerator on serum dioxin and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels, (2) the influence of consuming river fish contaminated by PCBs on serum PCBs of fishermen, and (3) the evolution of blood lead levels in children from 1 to 6 years old since 1995. Special emphasis is placed on the use of an integrated (HBM coupled with nutrition and health studies), multipollutant approach. This approach has been initiated in France with a recent national population-based biomonitoring survey, the Etude Nationale Nutrition Santé (ENNS; French Nutrition and Health Survey). This survey will provide the first reference distribution for 42 biomarkers in the French population. The current national HBM strategy will build upon the ENNS and include a national survey of people aged between 6 and 74 years complemented for the neonatal period and childhood by the Etude Longitudinale Française depuis l'Enfance (ELFE; French longitudinal study of children). France also contributes to the harmonization of HBM activities in Europe through participation in European HBM projects.

  12. ENERGETIC FERMI/LAT GRB 100414A: ENERGETIC AND CORRELATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Urata, Yuji; Tsai, Patrick P.; Huang, Kuiyun; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Tashiro, Makoto S.

    2012-03-20

    This study presents multi-wavelength observational results for energetic GRB 100414A with GeV photons. The prompt spectral fitting using Suzaku/WAM data yielded spectral peak energies of E{sup src}{sub peak} of 1458.7{sup +132.6}{sub -106.6} keV and E{sub iso} of 34.5{sup +2.0}{sub -1.8} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 52} erg with z = 1.368. The optical afterglow light curves between 3 and 7 days were effectively fitted according to a simple power law with a temporal index of {alpha} = -2.6 {+-} 0.1. The joint light curve with earlier Swift/UVOT observations yields a temporal break at 2.3 {+-} 0.2 days. This was the first Fermi/LAT detected event that demonstrated the clear temporal break in the optical afterglow. The jet opening angle derived from this temporal break was 5.{sup 0}8, consistent with those of other well-observed long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The multi-wavelength analyses in this study showed that GRB 100414A follows E{sup src}{sub peak}-E{sub iso} and E{sup src}{sub peak}-E{sub {gamma}} correlations. The late afterglow revealed a flatter evolution with significant excesses at 27.2 days. The most straightforward explanation for the excess is that GRB 100414A was accompanied by a contemporaneous supernova. The model light curve based on other GRB-SN events is marginally consistent with that of the observed light curve.

  13. Accreditation of Prior Experiential Learning as a Catalyst for Lifelong Learning: Analysis and Proposals Based on French Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanseau, Pierre-Yves; Ansart, Sandrine

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the researchers analyse how lifelong learning can be enriched and develop a different perspective based on the experiment involving the accreditation of prior experiential learning (APEL) conducted in France at the university level. The French system for the accreditation of prior experiential learning, called Validation des Acquis…

  14. Two Sides of the Communicative Coin: Honors and Nonhonors French and Spanish Classes in a Midwestern High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This study compares the instructional practices in honors and nonhonors French and Spanish classes at a Midwestern high school, as well as factors influencing those practices. The researcher observed 54 class sessions and used questionnaires and interviews to obtain teachers' perspectives on instruction. Analysis revealed a statistically…

  15. Accreditation of Prior Experiential Learning as a Catalyst for Lifelong Learning: Analysis and Proposals Based on French Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanseau, Pierre-Yves; Ansart, Sandrine

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the researchers analyse how lifelong learning can be enriched and develop a different perspective based on the experiment involving the accreditation of prior experiential learning (APEL) conducted in France at the university level. The French system for the accreditation of prior experiential learning, called Validation des Acquis…

  16. {Interball-1 Plasma, Magnetic Field, and Energetic Particle Observations}

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, David G.

    1998-01-01

    Funding from NASA was received in two installments. The first installment supported research using Russian/Czech/Slovak/French Interball-1 plasma, magnetic field, and energetic particles observations in the vicinity of the magnetopause. The second installment provided salary support to review unsolicited proposals to NASA for data recovery and archiving, and also to survey ISTP data provision efforts. Two papers were published under the auspices of the grant. Sibeck et al. reported Interball-1 observations of a wave on the magnetopause with an amplitude in excess of 5 R(sub E), the largest ever reported to date. They attributed the wave to a hot flow anomaly striking the magnetopause and suggested that the hot flow anomaly itself formed during the interaction of an IMF discontinuity with the bow shock. Nemecek et al. used Interball-1's VDP Faraday cup to identify large transient increases in the magnetosheath density. They noted large variations in simultaneous Wind observations of the IMF cone angle, but were unable to establish any relationship between the cone angle variations at Wind and the density variations at Interball-1. Funds from the second installment were used to review over 20 proposals from various researchers in the scientific community who sought NASA support to restore or archive past observations. It also supported a survey of ISTP data provisions which was used as input to a Senior Review of ongoing NASA ISTP programs.

  17. Analysis of French generic medicines retail market: why the use of generic medicines is limited.

    PubMed

    Dylst, Pieter; Vulto, Arnold; Simoens, Steven

    2014-12-01

    The market share of generic medicines in France is low compared to other European countries. This perspective paper provides an overview of the generic medicines retail market in France and how the current policy environment may affect the long-term sustainability. Looking at the French generic medicines retail market and the surrounding regulatory framework, all conditions seem to be in place to create a healthy generic medicines market: the country has well-respected regulatory authorities, generic medicines enter the market in a timely manner and prices of generic medicines are competitive compared with other European countries. Despite the success of the demand-side policies targeted at pharmacists and patients, those targeted at physicians were less successful due to a lack of enforcement and a lack of trust in generic medicines by French physicians. Recommendations to increase the use of generic medicines in France round off this perspective paper.

  18. Multiple Integrated Complementary Healing Approaches: Energetics & Light for bone.

    PubMed

    Gray, Michael G; Lackey, Brett R; Patrick, Evelyn F; Gray, Sandra L; Hurley, Susan G

    2016-01-01

    A synergistic-healing strategy that combines molecular targeting within a system-wide perspective is presented as the Multiple Integrated Complementary Healing Approaches: Energetics And Light (MICHAEL). The basis of the MICHAEL approach is the realization that environmental, nutritional and electromagnetic factors form a regulatory framework involved in bone and nerve healing. The interactions of light, energy, and nutrition with neural, hormonal and cellular pathways will be presented. Energetic therapies including electrical, low-intensity pulsed ultrasound and light based treatments affect growth, differentiation and proliferation of bone and nerve and can be utilized for their healing benefits. However, the benefits of these therapies can be impaired by the absence of nutritional, hormonal and organismal factors. For example, lack of sleep, disrupted circadian rhythms and vitamin-D deficiency can impair healing. Molecular targets, such as the Wnt pathway, protein kinase B and glucocorticoid signaling systems can be modulated by nutritional components, including quercetin, curcumin and Mg(2+) to enhance the healing process. The importance of water and water-regulation will be presented as an integral component. The effects of exercise and acupuncture on bone healing will also be discussed within the context of the MICHAEL approach.

  19. Energetic salt of trinitrophloroglucinol and melamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowden, Patrick R.; Leonard, Philip W.; Lichthardt, Joseph P.; Tappan, Bryce C.; Ramos, Kyle J.

    2017-01-01

    We hope to harness the field of energetic co-crystals for development of insensitive, high-performing explosives. As demonstrated by other groups, co-crystals of energetic materials are diverse in their resultant properties versus the native materials. Herein, we discuss the synthesis, characterization, and testing of an energetic co-crystal of trinitrophloroglucinol (1,3,5-trihydroxy-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene) and melamine. Although melamine is not an energetic material, high nitrogen content and insensitivity can be of benefit in a co-crystal. Currently, trinitrophloroglucinol (TNPG) and melamine have been found to exist as a 1:1 ionic co-crystal. Characterization by NMR, IR, small-scale sensitivity, thermal stability and powder X-ray diffraction have all been used to characterize the individual compounds as well as the co-crystals developed.

  20. Safer energetic materials by a nanotechnological approach.

    PubMed

    Siegert, Benny; Comet, Marc; Spitzer, Denis

    2011-09-01

    Energetic materials - explosives, thermites, populsive powders - are used in a variety of military and civilian applications. Their mechanical and electrostatic sensitivity is high in many cases, which can lead to accidents during handling and transport. These considerations limit the practical use of some energetic materials despite their good performance. For industrial applications, safety is one of the main criteria for selecting energetic materials. The sensitivity has been regarded as an intrinsic property of a substance for a long time. However, in recent years, several approaches to lower the sensitivity of a given substance, using nanotechnology and materials engineering, have been described. This feature article gives an overview over ways to prepare energetic (nano-)materials with a lower sensitivity.

  1. Energetic particle characteristics of magnetotail flux ropes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholer, M.; Klecker, B.; Hovestadt, D.; Gloeckler, G.; Ipavich, F. M.; Galvin, A. B.

    1985-01-01

    During the recent ISEE-3 Geotail Mission three events have been identified from the magnetometer data which are consistent with a spacecraft crossing of a magnetotail flux rope. Energetic electron and proton observations obtained by the Max-Planck-Institut/University of Maryland sensor system during two of the possible flux rope events are presented. During one event remote sensing of the flux rope with energetic protons reveals that the flux rope is crossed by the spacecraft from south to north. This allows determination of the bandedness of the magnetic field twist and of the flux rope velocity relative to the spacecraft. A minimal flux rope radius of 3 earth radii is derived. Energetic proton intensity is highest just inside of the flux rope and decreases towards the core. Energetic electrons are streaming tailward near the outer boundary, indicating openness of the field lines, and are isotropic through the inner part of the flux rope.

  2. Applications and implications of ecological energetics.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Sean; Arnall, Sophie G; Munn, Adam; Bradshaw, S Don; Maloney, Shane K; Dixon, Kingsley W; Didham, Raphael K

    2014-05-01

    The ecological processes that are crucial to an animal's growth, survival, and reproductive fitness have energetic costs. The imperative for an animal to meet these costs within the energetic constraints of the environment drives many aspects of animal ecology and evolution, yet has largely been overlooked in traditional ecological paradigms. The field of 'ecological energetics' is bringing comparative physiology out of the laboratory and, for the first time, is becoming broadly accessible to field ecologists addressing real-world questions at many spatial and temporal scales. In an era of unprecedented global environmental challenges, ecological energetics opens up the tantalising prospect of a more predictive, mechanistic understanding of the drivers of threatened species decline, delivering process-based modelling approaches to natural resource management.

  3. Chemical Dynamics, Molecular Energetics, and Kinetics at the Synchrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Leone, Stephen R.; Ahmed, Musahid; Wilson, Kevin R.

    2010-03-14

    Scientists at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline of the Advanced Light Source in Berkeley are continuously reinventing synchrotron investigations of physical chemistry and chemical physics with vacuum ultraviolet light. One of the unique aspects of a synchrotron for chemical physics research is the widely tunable vacuum ultraviolet light that permits threshold ionization of large molecules with minimal fragmentation. This provides novel opportunities to assess molecular energetics and reaction mechanisms, even beyond simple gas phase molecules. In this perspective, significant new directions utilizing the capabilities at the Chemical Dynamics Beamline are presented, along with an outlook for future synchrotron and free electron laser science in chemical dynamics. Among the established and emerging fields of investigations are cluster and biological molecule spectroscopy and structure, combustion flame chemistry mechanisms, radical kinetics and product isomer dynamics, aerosol heterogeneous chemistry, planetary and interstellar chemistry, and secondary neutral ion-beam desorption imaging of biological matter and materials chemistry.

  4. Energetic Materials Optimization via Constrained Search

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    ARL-TR-7304• JUN 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Energetic Materials Optimization via Constrained Search by Berend Christopher Rinderspacher...Army Research Laboratory Energetic Materials Optimization via Constrained Search by Berend Christopher Rinderspacher Weapons and Materials Research...burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions,  searching

  5. Size distributions of solar energetic particle events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliver, E.; Reames, D.; Kahler, S.; Cane, H.

    1991-01-01

    NASA particle detectors on the IMP-8 are employed to determine the size distributions of the peak fluxes of events related to solar-energetic particles including protons and electrons. The energetic proton events show a flatter size distribution which suggests that not all flares are proton flares. Both the electron and proton events are classified as either 'impulsive' or 'gradual', and the impulsive events tend to have a steeper power-law distribution.

  6. Energy Harvesting from Energetic Porous Silicon

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    and Background Porous silicon (PSi) is a useful material for energetic applications because of its high surface area and reactivity. When silicon is...coupling of the sample output to the cantilever, and reducing losses due to nonactive materials in the cantilever (the Kapton coating). • Directing the...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 9 5. References 1. Currano L, Churaman W, Becker C. Nanoporous silicon as a bulk energetic

  7. Alfven instabilities effects on energetic particles

    SciTech Connect

    Zonca, F.; Briguglio, S.; Fogaccia, G.; Vlad, G.

    1999-09-20

    In the present work, a review of shear Alfven instabilities effects on energetic particles is presented and important results of both theory and experiments are emphasized. Open problems and possible topics for future discussions are also indicated, such as those related to the observation of 'frequency chirping modes' associated with fast minority ion tails produced during ICRF heating on TFTR, which may be interpreted as Energetic Particle Modes (EPM)

  8. Energetic Materials Modeling for Rocket Propulsion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-08-01

    a) Polynitrogen/high nitrogen chemistry ► b) Energetic ionic liquids ► c) Ionic liquids ignition/ combustion ► d) Energetic hydrocarbons ► e...Computational Chemistry • Polynitrogen chemistry • Ionic liquids • Advanced hydrocarbon fuels • Ignition studies High Energy Density Matter Propellant...Synthesis Ignition Decomposition mechanisms Cost Toxicity This page is Distribution A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 8 2

  9. Shock Wave Structure Mediated by Energetic Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafavi, P.; Zank, G. P.; Webb, G. M.

    2016-12-01

    Energetic particles such as cosmic rays, Pick Up Ions (PUIs), and solar energetic particles can affect all facets of plasma physics and astrophysical plasma. Energetic particles play an especially significant role in the dissipative process at shocks and in determining their structure. The very interesting recent observations of shocks in the inner heliosphere found that many shocks appear to be significantly mediated by solar energetic particles which have a pressure that exceeds considerably both the thermal gas pressure and the magnetic field pressure. Energetic particles contribute an isotropic scalar pressure to the plasma system at the leading order, as well as introducing dissipation via a collisionless heat flux (diffusion) at the next order and a collisionless stress tensor (viscosity) at the second order. Cosmic-ray modified shocks were discussed by Axford et al. (1982), Drury (1983), and Webb (1983). Zank et al. (2014) investigated the incorporation of PUIs in the supersonic solar wind beyond 10AU, in the inner Heliosheath and in the Very Local Interstellar Medium. PUIs do not equilibrate collisionally with the background plasma in these regimes. In the absence of equilibration between plasma components, a separate coupled plasma description for the energetic particles is necessary. This model is used to investigate the structure of shock waves assuming that we can neglect the magnetic field. Specifically, we consider the dissipative role that both the energetic particle collisionless heat flux and viscosity play in determining the structure of collisionless shock waves. We show that the incorporation of both energetic particle collisionless heat flux and viscosity is sufficient to completely determine the structure of a shock. Moreover, shocks with three sub-shocks converge to the weak sub-shocks. This work differs from the investigation of Jokipii and Williams (1992) who restricted their attention to a cold thermal gas. For a cold thermal non

  10. Photoactive energetic materials: linear and nonlinear photochemistry of chromophore linked energetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenfield, Margo; McGrane, Shawn; Bolme, Cindy; Chavez, David; Veauthier, Jacqueline; Hanson, Susan; Myers, Thomas; Scharff, Jason

    2015-06-01

    In general, conventional molecular explosives are white to off-white in color and only absorb ultraviolet light. A novel approach to synthetically link optically active energetic chromophores to existing molecular energetic materials has resulted in increased photoactivity in the visible (532 nm) region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Tetrazine, an energetic optically active chromophore, which absorbs around 532 nm, has been derivatized with various energetic materials including pentaeythritol tetranitrate (PETN), nitroglycerine (NG) and dinitroazetidine (DNAZ). We report the corresponding photochemistry and photochemical quantum yields of these new materials under various wavelength and intensity regimes.

  11. Solar Energetic Particle Spectral Breaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mewaldt, R.; Cohen, C.; Mason, G.; Desai, M.; Labrador, A.; Lee, M.; Li, G.

    2008-05-01

    A new generation of instruments during solar cycle 23 made it possible to measure solar energetic particle (SEP) energy spectra for many species over a broad energy interval (~0.1 to ~100 MeV/nucleon). These observations revealed that most large SEP events have power-law spectra below a few MeV/nucleon with rather hard spectral indices, followed by spectral steepening at higher energies. These spectral breaks are ordered by species - the spectra of lighter elements break at higher energy/nucleon than those for heavier species. To understand the charge-to-mass (Q/M) dependence of these spectral breaks, we have located the breaks for a range of species (e.g., H, He, C, N, O, Ne, Mg, Si, and Fe) and correlated the break locations with either measured or average Q/M ratios. As of this writing there are results for 13 large SEP events, based on data from ACE, GOES, SAMPEX, and STEREO, and charge state data from SAMPEX and ACE. We find that the location of the breaks is generally well-represented by a power-law in Q/M. This power-law fit can be related to the Q/M- dependence of the interplanetary diffusion coefficient and to the turbulence spectrum of the interplanetary magnetic field. We find that the slope of the deduced turbulence spectra are correlated with Fe/O and the proton fluence. These results support the idea that proton-amplified Alfven waves are generated in large SEP events, as expected for acceleration at parallel shocks.

  12. The energetics of Titan's ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roboz, A.; Nagy, A. F.

    1994-01-01

    We have developed a comprehensive model to study the dynamics and energetics of the ionosphere of Titan. We solved the one-dimensional, time-dependent, coupled continuity and momentum equations for several ion species, together with single ion and electron energy equations, in order to calculate density, velocity, and temperature profiles. Calculations were carried out for several cases corresponding to different local times and configurations of the Titan-Saturn system. In our model the effects of horizontal magnetic fields were assumed to be negligible, except for their effect on reducing the electron and ion thermal conductivities and inhibiting vertical transport in the subram region. The ionospheric density peak was found to be at an altitude of about 1100 km, in accordance with earlier model calculations. The ionosphere is chemically controlled below an altitude of about 1500 km. Above this level, ion densities differ significantly from their chemical equilibrium values due to strong upward ion velocities. Heat is deposited in a narrow region around the ionospheric peak, resulting in temperature profiles increasing sharply and reaching nearly constant values of 800-1000 deg K for electrons and 300 deg K for ions in the topside, assuming conditions appropriate for the wake region. In the subram region magnetic correction factors make the electron heat conductivities negligible, resulting in electron temperatures increasing strongly with altitude and reaching values in the order of 5000 deg K at our upper boundary located at 2200 km. Ion chemical heating is found to play an important role in shaping the ion energy balance in Titan's ionosphere.

  13. The energetics of Titan's ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roboz, A.; Nagy, A. F.

    1994-02-01

    We have developed a comprehensive model to study the dynamics and energetics of the ionosphere of Titan. We solved the one-dimensional, time-dependent, coupled continuity and momentum equations for several ion species, together with single ion and electron energy equations, in order to calculate density, velocity, and temperature profiles. Calculations were carried out for several cases corresponding to different local times and configurations of the Titan-Saturn system. In our model the effects of horizontal magnetic fields were assumed to be negligible, except for their effect on reducing the electron and ion thermal conductivities and inhibiting vertical transport in the subram region. The ionospheric density peak was found to be at an altitude of about 1100 km, in accordance with earlier model calculations. The ionosphere is chemically controlled below an altitude of about 1500 km. Above this level, ion densities differ significantly from their chemical equilibrium values due to strong upward ion velocities. Heat is deposited in a narrow region around the ionospheric peak, resulting in temperature profiles increasing sharply and reaching nearly constant values of 800-1000 deg K for electrons and 300 deg K for ions in the topside, assuming conditions appropriate for the wake region. In the subram region magnetic correction factors make the electron heat conductivities negligible, resulting in electron temperatures increasing strongly with altitude and reaching values in the order of 5000 deg K at our upper boundary located at 2200 km. Ion chemical heating is found to play an important role in shaping the ion energy balance in Titan's ionosphere.

  14. Energetic consequences of mechanical loads.

    PubMed

    Loiselle, D S; Crampin, E J; Niederer, S A; Smith, N P; Barclay, C J

    2008-01-01

    In this brief review, we have focussed largely on the well-established, but essentially phenomenological, linear relationship between the energy expenditure of the heart (commonly assessed as the oxygen consumed per beat, oxygen consumption (VO2)) and the pressure-volume-area (PVA, the sum of pressure-volume work and a specified 'potential energy' term). We raise concerns regarding the propriety of ignoring work done during 'passive' ventricular enlargement during diastole as well as the work done against series elasticity during systole. We question the common assumption that the rate of basal metabolism is independent of ventricular volume, given the equally well-established Feng- or stretch-effect. Admittedly, each of these issues is more of conceptual than of quantitative import. We point out that the linearity of the enthalpy-PVA relation is now so well established that observed deviations from linearity are often ignored. Given that a one-dimensional equivalent of the linear VO2-PVA relation exists in papillary muscles, it seems clear that the phenomenon arises at the cellular level, rather than being a property of the intact heart. This leads us to discussion of the classes of crossbridge models that can be applied to the study of cardiac energetics. An admittedly superficial examination of the historical role played by Hooke's Law in theories of muscle contraction foreshadows deeper consideration of the thermodynamic constraints that must, in our opinion, guide the development of any mathematical model. We conclude that a satisfying understanding of the origin of the enthalpy-PVA relation awaits the development of such a model.

  15. Theoretical studies on nitrogen rich energetic azoles.

    PubMed

    Ghule, Vikas Dasharath; Sarangapani, Radhakrishnan; Jadhav, Pandurang M; Tewari, Surya P

    2011-06-01

    Different nitro azole isomers based on five membered heterocyclics were designed and investigated using computational techniques in order to find out the comprehensive relationships between structure and performances of these high nitrogen compounds. Electronic structure of the molecules have been calculated using density functional theory (DFT) and the heat of formation has been calculated using the isodesmic reaction approach at B3LYP/6-31G* level. All designed compounds show high positive heat of formation due to the high nitrogen content and energetic nitro groups. The crystal densities of these energetic azoles have been predicted with different force fields. All the energetic azoles show densities higher than 1.87 g/cm(3). Detonation properties of energetic azoles are evaluated by using Kamlet-Jacobs equation based on the calculated densities and heat of formations. It is found that energetic azoles show detonation velocity about 9.0 km/s, and detonation pressure of 40GPa. Stability of the designed compounds has been predicted by evaluating the bond dissociation energy of the weakest C-NO(2) bond. The aromaticity using nucleus independent chemical shift (NICS) is also explored to predict the stability via delocalization of the π-electrons. Charge on the nitro group is used to assess the impact sensitivity in the present study. Overall, the study implies that all energetic azoles are found to be stable and expected to be the novel candidates of high energy density materials (HEDMs).

  16. Structure of Energetic Particle Mediated Shocks Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostafavi, P.; Zank, G. P.; Webb, G. M.

    2017-05-01

    The structure of collisionless shock waves is often modified by the presence of energetic particles that are not equilibrated with the thermal plasma (such as pickup ions [PUIs] and solar energetic particles [SEPs]). This is relevant to the inner and outer heliosphere and the Very Local Interstellar Medium (VLISM), where observations of shock waves (e.g., in the inner heliosphere) show that both the magnetic field and thermal gas pressure are less than the energetic particle component pressures. Voyager 2 observations revealed that the heliospheric termination shock (HTS) is very broad and mediated by energetic particles. PUIs and SEPs contribute both a collisionless heat flux and a higher-order viscosity. We show that the incorporation of both effects can completely determine the structure of collisionless shocks mediated by energetic ions. Since the reduced form of the PUI-mediated plasma model is structurally identical to the classical cosmic ray two-fluid model, we note that the presence of viscosity, at least formally, eliminates the need for a gas sub-shock in the classical two-fluid model, including in that regime where three are possible. By considering parameters upstream of the HTS, we show that the thermal gas remains relatively cold and the shock is mediated by PUIs. We determine the structure of the weak interstellar shock observed by Voyager 1. We consider the inclusion of the thermal heat flux and viscosity to address the most general form of an energetic particle-thermal plasma two-fluid model.

  17. Energetic neutral particles from Jupiter and Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, A. F.

    1986-01-01

    The Voyager 1 spacecraft has detected energetic neutral particles escaping from the magnetospheres of Jupiter and Saturn. These energetic neutrals are created in charge exchange reactions between radiation belt ions and ambient atoms or molecules in the magnetosphere. If the Io torus is assumed to be the dominant Jovian source region for energetic neutrals, the Voyager observations can be used to infer upper limits to the average ion intensities there below about 200 keV. No readily interpretable in-situ measurements are available in the Io torus at these energies. The middle and outer Jovian magnetospheres may also be a significant source of energetic neutrals. At Saturn, the observed neutral particle count rates are too high to be explained by charge exchange between fast protons and H atoms of the Titan torus. Most of the energetic neutrals may be produced by charge exchanges between heavy ions and a neutral cloud containing H2O in Saturn's inner magnetosphere. If so, the Voyager measurements of energetic neutral fluxes would be the first detected emissions from this region of Saturn's magnetosphere.

  18. [Human parasitoses in French Guiana].

    PubMed

    Carme, B

    2001-11-03

    MALARIA: This review summarises current knowledge of the epidemiological situation regarding parasitoses in French Guiana. Malaria is the most prevalent infection. The most common species is Plasmodium falciparum which is responsible for three quarters of all bouts of malaria. Plasmodium vivax is mostly present in endemic areas inhabited by Amerindian communities. Plasmodium malariae is rarer. CHAGAS' DISEASE, LEISHMAMIASIS AND TOXOPLASMOSIS: Four acute cases of cardiac Chagas' disease were observed between 1994 and 1996. These cases serve as a warning concerning the possible emergence of this type of parasitosis among the poor in Latin America. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is still highly endemic, with an incidence of about 2 cases per 1,000 inhabitants, which has remained essentially unchanged for 15 years. The identification of severe primary toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent individuals in recent years seems to be associated with an as yet poorly known, natural, Amazonian cycle. INTESTINAL PARASITOSES: Improvements in living conditions, hygiene and treatments are such that intestinal parasitoses, other than anguilluliasis, are no longer a major problem in the urban or coastal areas. The situation is very different in the central areas of the country and in the Amerindian and black half-cast communities, with high prevalences of ankylostomiasis (hookworm disease), anguilluliasis and amoebal disease (Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar). OTHERS: Lymphatic filariasis is no longer endemic; tropical schistosomiasis and distomiasis have never been endemic. Parasitic pests (cutaneous larva migrans and insect or dust-mite ectoparasites) are more spectacular than severe, and constitute a classic "exotic" component of the spectrum of diseases in French Guiana.

  19. Language-Learning Motivation during Short-Term Study Abroad: An Activity Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Heather Willis

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the development of language-learning motivation during short-term study abroad (SA) for six intermediate-level students of French. Taking an activity theory perspective, findings demonstrated that one of two orientations motivated participants to study or continue studying French at the college level: linguistic motives or…

  20. Comparative "Glocal" Perspectives on European Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caena, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a PhD study, which offers comparative perspectives on teacher education in a period of reforms, inquiring into stakeholders' perceptions in English, French, Italian and Spanish contexts as case studies. The interaction of needs and constraints in European initial teacher education within higher education…

  1. Assessing Group Interactions Online: Students' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caws, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the following article is to discuss the integration of computer mediated communication into a French writing course and to report on the assessment methodology used in order to gather students' perspectives. The online course component was introduced in the Fall of 2003 in order to enhance students' learning by introducing…

  2. Comparative "Glocal" Perspectives on European Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caena, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a PhD study, which offers comparative perspectives on teacher education in a period of reforms, inquiring into stakeholders' perceptions in English, French, Italian and Spanish contexts as case studies. The interaction of needs and constraints in European initial teacher education within higher education…

  3. Soviet Perspectives on French Security Policy. A Reader

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    contradictloa between capitalism and socialism Is the principal motive force underlying the formation and development of both the Uest...the fraaework of Western Europe and not on the scale of NATO as a whole. ’: J U«»t European IntegraCion Is playing an laportant role...the Uast German Social -Democrats. With regard to the «ore profound level, It esy be stated that, under the conditions of the

  4. The French initiated FESUM - historical development, experience and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Dubert, T; Merle, M

    2013-12-01

    FESUM is an association dedicated to management, research and education of hand trauma. Created by surgeons in 1979, it is now accepted by the national and regional health administrations. The first goal of FESUM is to apply strict guidelines for specialized hand trauma centers. These guidelines are verified on site by 2 FESUM surgeons, and re-checked every 3 years. Patients are selected to be directed to the FESUM cen-ters following very simple recommendations: every severe trauma must be addressed to and accepted by FESUM centers, 24/7. Seemingly less severe lesions such as deep palmar lacerations must also be systematically explored in FESUM centers to ensure patients have the best opportunity for treatment. Prevention is also a very important part of FESUM activities. The FESUM prevention campaigns are currently focused more specifically on daily life trauma, that represents 2/3 of the total injuries and is very poorly managed by authorities. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Emotional norms for 524 French personality trait words.

    PubMed

    Ric, François; Alexopoulos, Theodore; Muller, Dominique; Aubé, Benoîte

    2013-06-01

    Newly measured rating norms provide a database of emotion-related dimensions for 524 French trait words. Measures include valence, approach/avoidance tendencies associated with the trait, possessor- and other-relevance of the trait, and discrete emotions conveyed by the trait (i.e., anger, disgust, fear, happiness, and sadness). The normative data were obtained from 328 participants and were revealed to be stable across samples and gender. These data go beyond a dimensional structure and consider more fine-grained descriptions such as the categorical emotions, as well as the perspective of the evaluator conveyed by the traits. They should thus be particularly useful for researchers interested in emotion or in the emotional dimension of cognition, action, or personality. The database is available as supplementary material.

  6. Evolution of the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the French armed forces in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Christen, Jacques-Robert; Mura, Marie; Roudaut, Gwenaëlle; Drogoul, Anne-Sophie; Demar, Magalie; Briolant, Sébastien; Garnotel, Eric; Simon, Fabrice; Pommier De Santi, Vincent

    2016-07-01

    Two cross-sectional studies were performed 2 years apart in French military personnel deployed from France to French Guiana. In 2011, military medical centres in French Guiana reported 40 cases of intestinal parasitism in service members returning from illegal gold mining sites in the rainforest. In 2013, 48 out of 132 service members returning from French Guiana after a 4-month mission had eosinophilia and seven were infected with hookworm. A presumptive first-line treatment with albendazole could be the most pragmatic strategy.

  7. Le Francais quand meme (French Nonetheless).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delautier, Jean-Marie

    1983-01-01

    Political, attitudinal, and administrative problems of teaching compulsory foreign languages in Colombia are described and discussed from the point of view of a French teacher in a system characterized by confusion and lack of student interest. (MSE)

  8. Affective norms for French words (FAN).

    PubMed

    Monnier, Catherine; Syssau, Arielle

    2014-12-01

    The present study provides affective norms for a large corpus of French words (N = 1,031) that were rated on emotional valence and emotional arousal by 469 French young adults. Ratings were made using the Self-Assessment Manikin (Lang, 1980). By combining evaluations of valence and arousal, and including ratings provided by male and female young adults, this database complements and extends existing French-language databases. The response reliability for the two affective dimensions was good, and the consistency between the present and previous ratings was high. We found a strong quadratic relationship between the valence and arousal ratings. Perceptions of the affective content of a word were partly linked to sex. This new affective database (FAN) will enable French-speaking researchers to select suitable materials for studies of how the character of affective words influences their cognitive processing. FAN is available as an online supplement downloadable with this article.

  9. Planthopper pests of grapevine (in French)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the French vineyards occur two main insect pests belonging to Fulgoromorpha, Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Cixiidae) and Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Flatidae). Hyalesthes obsoletus is inducing economic losses by transmitting a phytoplasma, called Stolbur, from wild plants (bindweed, nettle, etc.) t...

  10. A Local Evaluation of Primary School French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, J. D.; Welsh, Jennifer

    1972-01-01

    A local study concludes that primary school French does not confer a lasting advantage but its contribution lies in the enlargement of interest rather that as a preparation for secondary school work. (JB)

  11. A Local Evaluation of Primary School French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, J. D.; Welsh, Jennifer

    1972-01-01

    A local study concludes that primary school French does not confer a lasting advantage but its contribution lies in the enlargement of interest rather that as a preparation for secondary school work. (JB)

  12. Le Francais quand meme (French Nonetheless).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delautier, Jean-Marie

    1983-01-01

    Political, attitudinal, and administrative problems of teaching compulsory foreign languages in Colombia are described and discussed from the point of view of a French teacher in a system characterized by confusion and lack of student interest. (MSE)

  13. The longitudinal development of clusters in French.

    PubMed

    Demuth, Katherine; McCullough, Elizabeth

    2009-03-01

    Studies of English and German find that children tend to acquire word-final consonant clusters before word-initial consonant clusters. This order of acquisition is generally attributed to articulatory, frequency and/or morphological factors. This contrasts with recent experimental findings from French, where two-year-olds were better at producing word-initial than word-final clusters (Demuth & Kehoe, 2006). The purpose of the present study was to examine French-speaking children's longitudinal acquisition of clusters to determine if these results replicate developmentally. Analysis of spontaneous speech productions from two French-speaking children between one and three years confirmed the earlier acquisition of initial clusters, even when sonority factors were controlled. The findings suggest that French-speaking children acquire complexity at the beginnings of words before complexity appears word-finally. The role of frequency, morphological, structural and input factors is discussed.

  14. [The French general inspectorate of prisons].

    PubMed

    Dupont, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    The French general inspectorate of prisons is an independent watchdog responsible for ensuring that inmates' fundamental rights are respected. An interview with Xavier Dupont, the secretary general, who assesses the objectives and methods of this institution.

  15. Translation and the Teacher of French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, H. S. Frank

    1977-01-01

    This article is a brief discussion of some exercises in guided translation and comparative analysis designed not only to increase students' competence in translation and knowledge of French but also to make them more attentive to their English. (CFM)

  16. Computational design of fused heterocyclic energetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsyshevskiy, Roman; Pagoria, Philip; Batyrev, Iskander; Kuklja, Maija

    A continuous traditional search for effective energetic materials is often based on a trial and error approach. Understanding of fundamental correlations between the structure and sensitivity of the materials remains the main challenge for design of novel energetics due to the complexity of the behavior of energetic materials. State of the art methods of computational chemistry and solid state physics open new compelling opportunities in simulating and predicting a response of the energetic material to various external stimuli. Hence, theoretical and computational studies can be effectively used not only for an interpretation of sensitivity mechanisms of widely used explosives, but also for identifying criteria for material design prior to its synthesis and experimental characterization. We report here, how knowledge on thermal stability of recently synthesized materials of LLM series is used for design of novel fused heterocyclic energetic materials, including DNBTT (2,7-dinitro-4H,9H-bis([1, 2, 4"]triazolo)[1,5-b:1',5'-e][1, 2, 4, 5]tetrazine), compound with high thermal stability, which is on par or better than that of TATB. This research is supported by ONR (Grant N00014-12-1-0529), NSF XSEDE resources (Grant DMR-130077) and DOE NERSC resources (Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231).

  17. French NATO Policy: The Next Five Years

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    individual allies. 2See Bresson and Rosenzweig, 1988. -24- NUCLEAR FORCES The French are basing their defense planning on the assumption that a basic...Pillar in NATO?" Armed Forces Journal International, August 1988b. Bresson , Henri de, and Luc Rosenzweig, "La France et la RFA souhaitent une...Tribune, September 30, 1988c. Grant, Robert , "French Defense Policy and European Security," Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 100, No. 3, Fall 1985. Grosser

  18. Management control literature and French public hospitals.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, Irène

    2013-08-01

    The introduction of activity based pricing in combination with hospitals' reorganizations has created a new financial logic in French public hospitals. The organization has an obligation to produce certain levels of activity, since hospitals' resources are directly dependent on the activity level. These changes also imply the implementation of financial results controls in these organizations. The purpose of this answer is to demonstrate how the literature on management control can help to understand what has been happening within the French public hospitals.

  19. The French Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children.

    PubMed

    Putois, Benjamin; Leslie, Wendy; Gustin, Marie Paule; Challamel, Marie-Josèphe; Raoux, Aude; Guignard-Perret, Anne; Weick, Diane; Sauzeau, Jean-Baptiste; Herbillon, Vania; Zourou, Filio; Spruyt, Karen; Franco, Patricia

    2017-04-01

    The psychometric properties of the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC) have been shown to be accurate, even when translated into several languages. The aim of the present study was to translate, adapt, and validate the SDSC for a French-speaking population. After forward- and back-translation, the tool was further translated and adapted into the French language. It was then pretested in terms of clarity on 33 French-speaking parents. Pretesting demonstrated that the questionnaire was well understood, indicating good clarity. During the validation phase, a total of 447 French-speaking parents of children aged between 4 and 16  years completed the SDSC. Among these, 66 children were diagnosed with sleep disorders by a pediatric specialist after a sleep consultation and polysomnographic recordings. The factor analysis revealed five factors: difficulty in initiating and maintaining sleep (DIMS), sleep breathing disorders (SBD), disorders of excessive somnolence (DOES), parasomnias (PARA) and non-restorative sleep (NRS). This psychometric structure is reliable and logical in comparison with the experts' diagnoses. Convergent validity, divergent and internal reliability are very good. Inter-parental concordance in scoring the child's sleep problem does show differences in the ways in which parents report their children's sleep patterns. Cut-off was calculated for the total score (45). This study validated a 25-item French version of the questionnaire. The French SDSC could therefore be used to aid screening of sleep disorders in the general population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The French in American Television Commercials, Part One: Plus ca change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinet, Christopher

    1979-01-01

    Discusses French stereotypes in television commercials to supply data with which to confront prejudices that American students bring to French class. Three kinds of commercials are examined: (1) French people promoting French products, (2) non-French people promoting French products, and (3) French people promoting American products. (AMH)

  1. FRIPON, the French fireball network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colas, F.; Zanda, B.; Bouley, S.; Vaubaillon, J.; Marmo, C.; Audureau, Y.; Kwon, M. K.; Rault, J. L.; Caminade, S.; Vernazza, P.; Gattacceca, J.; Birlan, M.; Maquet, L.; Egal, A.; Rotaru, M.; Gruson-Daniel, Y.; Birnbaum, C.; Cochard, F.; Thizy, O.

    2015-10-01

    FRIPON (Fireball Recovery and InterPlanetary Observation Network) [4](Colas et al, 2014) was recently founded by ANR (Agence Nationale de la Recherche). Its aim is to connect meteoritical science with asteroidal and cometary science in order to better understand solar system formation and evolution. The main idea is to set up an observation network covering all the French territory to collect a large number of meteorites (one or two per year) with accurate orbits, allowing us to pinpoint possible parent bodies. 100 all-sky cameras will be installed at the end of 2015 forming a dense network with an average distance of 100km between stations. To maximize the accuracy of orbit determination, we will mix our optical data with radar data from the GRAVES beacon received by 25 stations [5](Rault et al, 2015). As both the setting up of the network and the creation of search teams for meteorites will need manpower beyond our small team of professionals, we are developing a citizen science network called Vigie-Ciel [6](Zanda et al, 2015). The public at large will thus be able to simply use our data, participate in search campaigns or even setup their own cameras.

  2. Laser Ignition of Energetic Materials Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devries, Nora M.; Oreilly, John J.; Forch, Brad E.

    1993-11-01

    Lasers inherently possess many desirable attributes making them excellent igniters for a wide range of energetic materials such as pyrotechnics, explosives, and gun propellants. Lasers can be made very small, have modest powereD requirements, are invulnerable to external stimuli, are very reliable, and can deliver radiative energy to remote locations through optical fibers. Although the concept of using lasers for the initiation of energetic materials is not new, successful integration of laser technology into military systems has the potential to provide significant benefits. In order to efficiently expedite the evolution of the laser ignition technology for military applications, it was desirable to coordinate the effort with the JANNAF combustion community. The laser ignition of Energetic Materials Workshop was originated by Brad Forch, Austin Barrows, Richard Beyer and Arthur Cohen of the Army Research Laboratory (ARL).

  3. Sol-gel processing of energetic materials

    SciTech Connect

    Tillotson, T.M.; Hrubesh, L.H.; Fox, G.L.; Simpson, R.L.; Lee, R.W.; Swansiger, R.W.; Simpson, L.R.

    1997-08-18

    As part of a new materials effort, we are exploring the use of sol- gel chemistry to manufacture energetic materials. Traditional manufacturing of energetic materials involves processing of granular solids. One application is the production of detonators where powders of energetic material and a binder are typically mixed and compacted at high pressure to make pellets. Performance properties are strongly dependent on particle size distribution, surface area of its constituents, homogeneity of the mix, and void volume. The goal is to produce detonators with fast energy release rate the are insensitive to unintended initiation. In this paper, we report results of our early work in this field of research, including the preparation of detonators from xerogel molding powders and aerogels, comparing the material properties with present state-of-the-art technology.

  4. Future Perspectives of Biocybernetic Research in Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, M. F.; Thwaites, H. M.

    This paper describes the future perspectives of biocybernetic communication research applied to television, i.e., the measurement of the information impact of television on both individual human beings and groups in terms of energetic changes in the human body. A summary of the recent state of the art of biocybernetic research includes discussions…

  5. Future Perspectives of Biocybernetic Research in Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, M. F.; Thwaites, H. M.

    This paper describes the future perspectives of biocybernetic communication research applied to television, i.e., the measurement of the information impact of television on both individual human beings and groups in terms of energetic changes in the human body. A summary of the recent state of the art of biocybernetic research includes discussions…

  6. Energetic Oxygen in the Terestrial Exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shizgal, B.; Sospedra-Alfonso, R.; Yau, A.

    2012-04-01

    There are numerous processes in the terrestrial atmosphere which involve the production of translationally energetic atoms with energies considerably above thermal energies. These "hot" atoms can play an important role in enhanced reaction rates, nonthermal emissions, and the enhanced nonthermal escape of atmospheric species. Such nonthermal escape mechanisms play an important role in the evolution of the atmosphere of Earth [1]. The dissociative recombination of O2+, that is O2+ + e-→ O* + O*, produces energetic oxygen atoms in the terrestrial exosphere in a range of altitudes where the production of hot atoms is greatest and a substantial coronae of hot oxygen is expected [2, 3]. These energetic oxygen atoms can transfer their energy to H and D and create additional energetic populations of H and D. The existence of extended corona of energetic H and O in the atmospheres of the terrestrial planets is now well established both from theoretical models and observations. There is a continued interest in a better understanding of the physics of the processes that produce and maintain these steady state nonequilibrium distributions. In the rarefied atmosphere of the high altitude portions of these planetary atmospheres, collisional relaxation of nonthermal distributions is slow. The extent of the departure from equilibrium distributions depends on the strengths of the processes that perturb the distributions from equilibrium and the collisional relaxation processes that restore the distributions to Maxwellians. If there is a significant population of energetic atoms with speeds in excess of the escape speed of the planet, these extended coronae can have an important effect on the rate of loss of atmospheric species, both directly and indirectly. This paper examines the altitude dependence of the nonequilibrium energetic oxygen distribution function with a Boltzmann equation driven by the energetic oxygen source term owing to dissociative recombination. The solution

  7. French from Four to Seven. A Handbook for Teaching French to the Very Young.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodjak, Barbara Hippel

    The handbook is a compilation of ideas, strategies, resources, and suggestions for teaching French to children aged 4-7. It presupposes a school program in which French is taught as a foreign language for a brief period each day, although the ideas are adaptable to immersion instruction. Introductory sections describe the book's format and…

  8. Hierarchies of Authenticity in Study Abroad: French from Canada versus French from France?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wernicke, Meike

    2016-01-01

    For many decades, Francophone regions in Canada have provided language study exchanges for French as a second language (FSL) learners within their own country. At the same time, FSL students and teachers in Canada continue to orient to a native speaker standard associated with European French. This Eurocentric orientation manifested itself in a…

  9. Reformulation and the Learning of French Pronominal Verbs in a Canadian French Immersion Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapkin, Sharon; Swain, Merrill; Smith, Monika

    2002-01-01

    Examines a subset of collaborative dialogues that occurred in a a multistage task where Canadian Grade 7 French immersion students worked together in pairs. Each pair wrote a story, noticed differences between their text and a reformulator's revision, and reflected on their noticing. Traces development of the target language (French), with…

  10. Third Semester College French, A Different Approach: Practical French for Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickert, Blandine

    An alternative approach used in a third semester French course at the University of Colorado at Denver is described. The approach was adopted to improve student motivation. The course focuses on the learning of practical French for everyday situations, while traveling abroad for business or pleasure. Emphasis is on conversational, communicative…

  11. French from Four to Seven. A Handbook for Teaching French to the Very Young.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodjak, Barbara Hippel

    The handbook is a compilation of ideas, strategies, resources, and suggestions for teaching French to children aged 4-7. It presupposes a school program in which French is taught as a foreign language for a brief period each day, although the ideas are adaptable to immersion instruction. Introductory sections describe the book's format and…

  12. Discourses of Linguistic dominance: A Historical Consideration of French Language Ideology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasuya, Keisuke

    2001-07-01

    The paper offers a historical perspective on the linguistic and cultural imperialism embedded in the struggle to maintain French as a leading international language. France was the nation-state where the ideology of national language was first clearly formulated and directly extended to overseas colonies. This shows the close relationship between linguistic nationalism and imperialism. It was believed that French was the language of universal human reason and had the power to civilize people who spoke it. This myth of the "clarté française" and the "mission civilisatrice" had a strong influence on various kinds of metalinguistic discourses that created the taken-for-granted representation of French as dominant language. It is the essential strategy of language dominance to establish the hierarchy of languages as if it were natural order of things. When French was obliged to yield the status of international language to English, there emerged the ideology of "Francophonie" which tried to defend its privilege against the monopoly of English, but the same ideology is also directed against minorities' claims for their own linguistic human right. It could be said that these discourses form a recursive prototype of language dominance whose variations are to be found in other shapes almost all over the world.

  13. French Gender "Rules" in the Speech of English-Dominant, French-Dominant and Monolingual French-Speaking Children. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Birgit

    The French gender usage of grade two and grade five Franco-Ontarian children was compared with that of English-speaking children enrolled in French immersion programs, and monolingual French-speaking children in Quebec. While some of the Franco-Ontarian children are similar to the Quebec children with respect to the gender "rules" they…

  14. Understanding the high energetic behavior of nano-energetic porous silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churaman, Wayne; Currano, Luke; Singh, Anant Kumar; Rai, Uma Shankar; Dubey, Madan; Amirtharaj, Paul; Ray, Paresh Chandra

    2008-10-01

    Nano-energetic materials have recently become a subject of intense interest due to improved performance in terms of energy release, ignition, and mechanical properties. Here we report the mechanism of highly energetic behavior of nano-crystalline porous silicon. We show that the nanocomposite reacts at lower temperatures than that required for the dehydration of NaClO 4·1H 2O by itself. Using time-resolved emission during energetic reaction and infrared absorption analysis after explosion, we demonstrated the formation of O and OH radicals during the explosion. A detailed chemical mechanism for the formation of O and OH radicals is presented based on QRRK estimates.

  15. [Acute schistosomiasis in French travellers].

    PubMed

    Agbessi, C-A; Bourvis, N; Fromentin, M; Jaspard, M; Teboul, F; Bougnoux, M-E; Hanslik, T

    2006-08-01

    The clinical presentation of acute schistosomiasis in travellers differs from those observed with chronic schistosomiasis in people from endemic areas. The objective of this study is to describe the main clinical and biological characteristics of the acute schistosomiasis in French travellers. Retrospective study conducted in 42 hospital laboratories of parasitology in France, based on a questionnaire filled out for each case of schistosomiasis diagnosed in subjects non-originating from an endemic country and returning from of a stay in Africa, between 2000 and 2004. Seventy-seven cases of acute schistosomiasis diagnosed between 2000 and 2004 were reported by 15 of the 33 laboratories having taken part in the study. The patients were 26 years old on average and 60% were contaminated in West Africa. Seventy patients (91%) presented at least one symptom at the moment of the diagnosis, but only 44 (57%) presented sufficiently intense symptoms to justify a medical consultation spontaneously. The most frequently reported clinical signs were fever (44%), diarrhoea (40%), pruritus (25%), cough (21%) and hematuria (20%). Hypereosinophilia (82%), elevated liver enzymes and positive serology were respectively reported in 82, 23 and 90% of the cases. Ova were found in the urines or the stool in 60% of the cases. Eleven patients were hospitalized. Acute schistosomiasis must be evoked in patients returning from endemic country and presenting with non-specific symptoms; including patients whose bathes in contaminated water was limited to a short contact of the feet in a river. The high frequency of the asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic forms exposes the infected people to a delayed diagnosis and therefore to an evolution towards the chronic form of schistosomiasis. The increase in tourism towards the endemic areas could be accompanied by an increase in the frequency of the schistosomiasis, and encourages setting-up an active monitoring of acute schistosomiasis.

  16. The Energetic Brain: Understanding and Managing ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Cecil R.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Harrison, Judith R.

    2012-01-01

    ADHD affects millions of people-some 3 to 5% of the general population. Written by a neuroscientist who has studied ADHD, a clinician who has diagnosed and treated it for 30 years, and a special educator who sees it daily, "The Energetic Brain" provides the latest information from neuroscience on how the ADHD brain works and shows how to harness…

  17. Nanojets: Electrification, Energetics, Dynamics, Stability and Breakup

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-31

    20/2007 FINAL 02/15/2004-12/31/2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Nanojets: Electrification , Energetics, Dynamics, Stability and Breakup...NUMBER finclude area code)UUU64 404.894.3368 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by ANSI SId. Z39.18 FINAL REPORT Nanojets: Electrification

  18. The Energetic Brain: Understanding and Managing ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Cecil R.; Vannest, Kimberly J.; Harrison, Judith R.

    2012-01-01

    ADHD affects millions of people-some 3 to 5% of the general population. Written by a neuroscientist who has studied ADHD, a clinician who has diagnosed and treated it for 30 years, and a special educator who sees it daily, "The Energetic Brain" provides the latest information from neuroscience on how the ADHD brain works and shows how to harness…

  19. Energetics of geostrophic adjustment in rotating flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, Fang; Rongsheng, Wu

    2002-09-01

    Energetics of geostrophic adjustment in rotating flow is examined in detail with a linear shallow water model. The initial unbalanced flow considered first falls tinder two classes. The first is similar to that adopted by Gill and is here referred to as a mass imbalance model, for the flow is initially motionless but with a sea surface displacement. The other is the same as that considered by Rossby and is referred to as a momentum imbalance model since there is only a velocity perturbation in the initial field. The significant feature of the energetics of geostrophic adjustment for the above two extreme models is that although the energy conversion ratio has a large case-to-case variability for different initial conditions, its value is bounded below by 0 and above by 1 / 2. Based on the discussion of the above extreme models, the energetics of adjustment for an arbitrary initial condition is investigated. It is found that the characteristics of the energetics of geostrophic adjustment mentioned above are also applicable to adjustment of the general unbalanced flow under the condition that the energy conversion ratio is redefined as the conversion ratio between the change of kinetic energy and potential energy of the deviational fields.

  20. Cryocycling of energetic materials. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, S.; Nilson, R.; Handrock, J.; Revelli, V.; Weingarten, L.

    1997-08-01

    The Cryocycling of Energetic Materials Project was executed in the period FY`94-96 as a Life Cycle Engineering activity in the Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) on advanced conventional munitions. This MOU is an agreement between the Departments of Energy and Defense (Office of Munitions) that facilitates the development of technologies of mutual interest to the two Departments. The cryocycling process is a safe, environmentally friendly, and cost effective means of rubblizing bulk energetic materials so that they can be easily reused in a variety of new products. For this reason, cryocycling of excess solid energetic materials is one of the recycle/reuse strategies under study for demilitarized munitions in the Departments of Energy and Defense. These strategies seek to minimize the environmental damage associated with disposal of decommissioned energetic materials. In addition, they encourage technologies that can be used to derive economic benefit from reuse/reapplication of materials that would otherwise be treated as hazardous wastes. 45 refs., 38 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Pulsed source of energetic atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caledonia, George E.; Krech, Robert H.

    1989-01-01

    A large area, high flux beam of energetic oxygen atoms, E about 5 eV, has been developed to study the interaction of atomic oxygen with materials appropriate for spacecraft in low earth orbit. A description of the operating conditions and characteristics of the beam along with typical sample irradiation results are provided.

  2. Pulsed source of energetic atomic oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caledonia, George E.; Krech, Robert H.

    1989-01-01

    A large area, high flux beam of energetic oxygen atoms, E about 5 eV, has been developed to study the interaction of atomic oxygen with materials appropriate for spacecraft in low earth orbit. A description of the operating conditions and characteristics of the beam along with typical sample irradiation results are provided.

  3. Energetics of geostrophic adjustment in rotating flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, J.; Wu, R. S.

    2002-09-01

    Energetics of geostrophic adjustment in rotating how is examined in detail with a linear shallow water model. The Initial Unbalanced flow considered first falls under two classes. The first is similar to that adopted by Gill and is here referred to as it mass imbalance model, for the flow is initially motionless but with a sea surface displacement. The other is the same as that considered by Rossby and is referred to as I momentum imbalance model since there is only a velocity perturbation in the initial field. The significant feature of the energetics of geostrophic adjustment for the above two extreme models is that althongh the energy conversion ratio has a large case-to-case variability for different initial conditions, Its value is bounded below by 0 and above by 1 / 2. Based on the discussion of the above extreme models, the energetics of adjustment for an arbitrary initial condition is investigated. It is found that the characteristics of the energetics of geostrophic adjustment mentioned above are also applicable to adjustment of the general unbalanced flow under the condition that the energy conversion ratio is redefined as the conversion ratio between the change of kinetic energy and potential energy of the deviational fields.

  4. Energetics of the Semiconductor-Electrolyte Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, John A.

    1983-01-01

    The use of semiconductors as electrodes for electrochemistry requires an understanding of both solid-state physics and electrochemistry, since phenomena associated with both disciplines are seen in semiconductor/electrolyte systems. The interfacial energetics of these systems are discussed. (JN)

  5. The energetics of CNS white matter.

    PubMed

    Harris, Julia J; Attwell, David

    2012-01-04

    The energetics of CNS white matter are poorly understood. We derive a signaling energy budget for the white matter (based on data from the rodent optic nerve and corpus callosum) which can be compared with previous energy budgets for the gray matter regions of the brain, perform a cost-benefit analysis of the energetics of myelination, and assess mechanisms for energy production and glucose supply in myelinated axons. We show that white matter synapses consume ≤0.5% of the energy of gray matter synapses and that this, rather than more energy-efficient action potentials, is the main reason why CNS white matter uses less energy than gray matter. Surprisingly, while the energetic cost of building myelin could be repaid within months by the reduced ATP cost of neuronal action potentials, the energetic cost of maintaining the oligodendrocyte resting potential usually outweighs the saving on action potentials. Thus, although it dramatically speeds action potential propagation, myelination need not save energy. Finally, we show that mitochondria in optic nerve axons could sustain measured firing rates with a plausible density of glucose transporters in the nodal membrane, without the need for energy transfer from oligodendrocytes.

  6. Chapter 4: Measuring Energetics of Biological Processes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Measurement of the energetics of biological processes is the key component in understanding the thermodynamic responses of homoeothermic animals to the environment. For these animals to achieve body temperature control, they must adapt to thermal-environmental conditions and variations caused by wea...

  7. Energetics of the Semiconductor-Electrolyte Interface.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, John A.

    1983-01-01

    The use of semiconductors as electrodes for electrochemistry requires an understanding of both solid-state physics and electrochemistry, since phenomena associated with both disciplines are seen in semiconductor/electrolyte systems. The interfacial energetics of these systems are discussed. (JN)

  8. Piezoelectric Ignition of Nanocomposite Energetic Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Collins; Michelle Pantoya; Andreas A. Neuber; Michael Daniels; Daniel Prentice

    2014-01-01

    Piezoelectric initiators are a unique form of ignition for energetic material because the current and voltage are tied together by impact loading on the crystal. This study examines the ignition response of an energetic composite composed of aluminum and molybdenum trioxide nanopowders to the arc generated from a lead zirconate and lead titanate piezocrystal. The mechanical stimuli used to activate the piezocrystal varied to assess ignition voltage, power, and delay time of aluminum–molybdenum trioxide for a range of bulk powder densities. Results show a high dielectric strength leads to faster ignition times because of the higher voltage delivered to the energetic. Ignition delay is under 0.4 ms, which is faster than observed with thermal or shock ignition. Electric ignition of composite energetic materials is a strong function of interparticle connectivity, and thus the role of bulk density on electrostatic discharge ignition sensitivity is a focus of this study. Results show that the ignition delay times are dependent on the powder bulk density with an optimum bulk density of 50%. Packing fractions and electrical conductivity were analyzed and aid in explaining the resulting ignition behavior as a function of bulk density.

  9. The energetics of low browsing in sauropods

    PubMed Central

    Ruxton, Graeme D.; Wilkinson, David M.

    2011-01-01

    It has recently been argued that the probable high cost of travel for sauropod dinosaurs would have made exploiting high forage energetically attractive, if this reduced the need to travel between food patches. This argument was supported by simple calculations. Here, we take a similar approach to evaluate the energetics of foraging close to the ground. We predict that small extensions of the neck beyond the minimum required for the mouth to reach the ground bring substantial energetic savings. Each increment of length brings a further saving, but the sizes of such benefits decrease with increasing neck length. However, the observed neck length of around 9 m for Brachiosaurus (for example) is predicted to reduce the overall cost of foraging by 80 per cent, compared with a minimally necked individual. We argue that the long neck of the sauropods may have been under positive selection for low foraging (instead of, or as well as, exploitation of high foraging), if this long neck allowed a greater area of food to be exploited from a given position and thus reduced the energetically expensive movement of the whole animal. PMID:21429913

  10. Global Energetics of Large Solar Eruptive Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Chamberlin, P. C.; Emslie, A. G.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Moore, C. S.; Share, G. H.; Shih, A. Y.; Vourlidas, A.; Welsch, B.

    2012-01-01

    We have evaluated the energetics of the larger solar eruptive events recorded with a variety of spacecraft instruments between February 2002 and December 2006. All of the energetically important components of the flares and of the accompanying coronal mass ejections and solar energetic particles have been evaluated as accurately as the observations allow. These components include the following : (1) the total energy in the high temperature plasma determined from the RHESSI thermal X-ray observations; (2) the total energies in accelerated electrons above 20 keV and ions above 1 MeV from RHESSI hard X-ray and gamma-ray observations, respectively; (3) the potential and kinetic energies of the CME from SOHO/LASCO observations; (4) the solar energetic particle (SEP) energy estimates from in situ measurements on ACE, GOES, and SOHO; (5) the total radiated energy from the SORCEITSI measurements where available, and otherwise from the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM). The results are assimilated and discussed relative to the probable amount of non potential magnetic energy estimated to be available in the flaring active regions from MDI line-of-sight magnetograms.

  11. Error propagation in energetic carrying capacity models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Stafford, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation objectives derived from carrying capacity models have been used to inform management of landscapes for wildlife populations. Energetic carrying capacity models are particularly useful in conservation planning for wildlife; these models use estimates of food abundance and energetic requirements of wildlife to target conservation actions. We provide a general method for incorporating a foraging threshold (i.e., density of food at which foraging becomes unprofitable) when estimating food availability with energetic carrying capacity models. We use a hypothetical example to describe how past methods for adjustment of foraging thresholds biased results of energetic carrying capacity models in certain instances. Adjusting foraging thresholds at the patch level of the species of interest provides results consistent with ecological foraging theory. Presentation of two case studies suggest variation in bias which, in certain instances, created large errors in conservation objectives and may have led to inefficient allocation of limited resources. Our results also illustrate how small errors or biases in application of input parameters, when extrapolated to large spatial extents, propagate errors in conservation planning and can have negative implications for target populations.

  12. Energetic electrons generated during solar flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Gottfried

    2015-12-01

    > electrons are accelerated up to energies beyond 30 keV is one of the open questions in solar physics. A flare is considered as the manifestation of magnetic reconnection in the solar corona. Which mechanisms lead to the production of energetic electrons in the magnetic reconnection region is discussed in this paper. Two of them are described in more detail.

  13. Evolvement of French advanced practice nurses.

    PubMed

    Bonnel, Galadriel

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to chronicle the development of the advanced practice nurse (APN) in France and compare international APN indictors of quality care with French studies. A review of the literature was performed by accessing the MEDLINE, Science Direct, and Cochrane Databases for studies of quality of care by APNs during 1965-2012. The author's participation on a national task force in collaboration with the French Ministry of Health provided additional information. After applying limits of this search, 36 studies fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria. In both the French and international APN nursing literature, the most frequently described quality of care measures were level of patient satisfaction and other patient outcomes (clinical and laboratory measures) according to evidence-based guidelines. In three French studies (nephrology, neuro-oncology, and urology settings), nurses performed direct patient care and were legally permitted to take on some limited responsibilities usually held by French physicians, including clinical examinations, diagnosing, and prescribing. Creation of the APN role in France can respond to public health challenges including the rising incidence of chronic diseases and an impending physician shortage. Future APN research should focus on rigorous, innovative design development including collaborative care models. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  14. Mitochondria, Energetics, Epigenetics, and Cellular Responses to Stress

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, Kimberly; Worth, Leroy; Haugen, Astrid C.; Meyer, Joel N.; Domann, Frederick E.; Van Houten, Bennett; Mostoslavsky, Raul; Bultman, Scott J.; Baccarelli, Andrea A.; Begley, Thomas J.; Sobol, Robert W.; Hirschey, Matthew D.; Ideker, Trey; Santos, Janine H.; Copeland, William C.; Tice, Raymond R.; Balshaw, David M.; Tyson, Frederick L.

    2014-01-01

    environmental stressors. Citation: Shaughnessy DT, McAllister K, Worth L, Haugen AC, Meyer JN, Domann FE, Van Houten B, Mostoslavsky R, Bultman SJ, Baccarelli AA, Begley TJ, Sobol RW, Hirschey MD, Ideker T, Santos JH, Copeland WC, Tice RR, Balshaw DM, Tyson FL. 2014. Mitochondria, energetics, epigenetics, and cellular responses to stress. Environ Health Perspect 122:1271–1278; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408418 PMID:25127496

  15. Enforced Layer-by-Layer Stacking of Energetic Salts towards High-Performance Insensitive Energetic Materials.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaheng; Mitchell, Lauren A; Parrish, Damon A; Shreeve, Jean'ne M

    2015-08-26

    Development of modern high-performance insensitive energetic materials is significant because of the increasing demands for both military and civilian applications. Here we propose a rapid and facile strategy called the "layer hydrogen bonding pairing approach" to organize energetic molecules via layer-by-layer stacking, which grants access to tunable energetic materials with targeted properties. Using this strategy, an unusual energetic salt, hydroxylammonium 4-amino-furazan-3-yl-tetrazol-1-olate, with good detonation performances and excellent sensitivities, was designed, synthesized, and fully characterized. In addition, the expected unique layer-by-layer structure with a high crystal packing coefficient was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray crystallography. Calculations indicate that the layer-stacking structure of this material can absorb the mechanical stimuli-induced kinetic energy by converting it to layer sliding, which results in low sensitivity.

  16. Energetic ions upstream of the earth's bow shock during an energetic storm particle event

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scholer, M.; Ipavich, F. M.

    1983-01-01

    Simultaneous observations of low-energy protons and alpha particles from ISEE 3 far upstream and from ISEE 1 close to the earth's bow shock during the passage of an interplanetary shock wave with its associated energetic storm particles are presented. Intensities, spectra, and anisotropies of the energetic storm particles are modified due to the interaction of these particles with the earth's bow shock. An intensity spike observed at ISEE 1 during the passage of the interplanetary shock is interpreted as being due to postacceleration of energetic storm particles at the bow shock by the first-order Fermi mechanism. The spikes observed at ISEE 1 after the passage of the interplanetary shock are most probably due to reflection of the energetic storm particles at the bow shock.

  17. Energetic charged particle interactions at icy satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nordheim, T.; Hand, K. P.; Paranicas, C.; Howett, C.; Hendrix, A. R.

    2016-12-01

    Satellites embedded within planetary magnetospheres are typically exposed to bombardment by charged particles, from thermal plasma to more energetic particles at radiation belt energies. At many planetary satellites, energetic charged particles are typically unimpeded by patchy atmospheres or induced satellite magnetic fields and instead are stopped in the surface itself. Most of these primaries have ranges in porous water ice that are at most centimeters, but some of their secondary photons, emitted during the deceleration process, can reach meter depths [Paranicas et al., 2002, 2004; Johnson et al., 2004]. Examples of radiation-induced surface alteration includes sputtering, radiolysis and grain sintering, processes that are capable of significantly altering the physical properties of surface material. Thus, accurate characterization of energetic charged particle weathering at icy satellites is crucial to a more comprehensive understanding of these bodies. At Saturn's inner mid-size moons remote sensing observations by several instruments onboard the Cassini spacecraft have revealed distinct weathering patterns which have been attributed to energetic electron bombardment of the surface [Howett et al., 2011, 2012, 2014; Schenk et al., 2011; Paranicas et al., 2014]. In the Jovian system, radiolytic production of oxidants has been invoked as a potential source of energy for life which may reside in the sub-surface ocean of its satellite Europa [Johnson et al., 2003; Hand et al., 2007; Vance et al., 2016]. Here we will discuss the near-surface energetic charged particle environment of icy satellites, with particular emphasis on comparative studies between the Saturnian and Jovian systems and interpretation of remote sensing observations by instruments onboard missions such as Cassini and Galileo. In addition, we will discuss implications for surface sampling by future lander missions (e.g. the proposed Europa lander now under study).

  18. Energetic cost of building a virus

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudabadi, Gita; Milo, Ron; Phillips, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Viruses are incapable of autonomous energy production. Although many experimental studies make it clear that viruses are parasitic entities that hijack the molecular resources of the host, a detailed estimate for the energetic cost of viral synthesis is largely lacking. To quantify the energetic cost of viruses to their hosts, we enumerated the costs associated with two very distinct but representative DNA and RNA viruses, namely, T4 and influenza. We found that, for these viruses, translation of viral proteins is the most energetically expensive process. Interestingly, the costs of building a T4 phage and a single influenza virus are nearly the same. Due to influenza’s higher burst size, however, the overall cost of a T4 phage infection is only 2–3% of the cost of an influenza infection. The costs of these infections relative to their host’s estimated energy budget during the infection reveal that a T4 infection consumes about a third of its host’s energy budget, whereas an influenza infection consumes only ≈ 1%. Building on our estimates for T4, we show how the energetic costs of double-stranded DNA phages scale with the capsid size, revealing that the dominant cost of building a virus can switch from translation to genome replication above a critical size. Last, using our predictions for the energetic cost of viruses, we provide estimates for the strengths of selection and genetic drift acting on newly incorporated genetic elements in viral genomes, under conditions of energy limitation. PMID:28512219

  19. Energetic particle physics issues for ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, C.Z.; Budny, R.; Fu, G.Y.

    1996-12-31

    This paper summarizes our present understanding of the following energetic/alpha particle physics issues for the 21 MA, 20 TF coil ITER Interim Design configuration and operational scenarios: (a) toroidal field ripple effects on alpha particle confinement, (b) energetic particle interaction with low frequency MHD modes, (c) energetic particle excitation of toroidal Alfven eigenmodes, and (d) energetic particle transport due to MHD modes. TF ripple effects on alpha loss in ITER under a number of different operating conditions are found to be small with a maximum loss of 1%. With careful plasma control in ITER reversed-shear operation, TF ripple induced alpha loss can be reduced to below the nominal ITER design limit of 5%. Fishbone modes are expected to be unstable for {beta}{sub {alpha}} > 1%, and sawtooth stabilization is lost if the ideal kink growth rate exceeds 10% of the deeply trapped alpha precessional drift frequency evaluated at the q = 1 surface. However, it is expected that the fishbone modes will lead only to a local flattening of the alpha profile due to small banana size. MHD modes observed during slow decrease of stored energy after fast partial electron temperature collapse in JT-60U reversed-shear experiments may be resonant type instabilities; they may have implications on the energetic particle confinement in ITER reversed-shear operation. From the results of various TAE stability code calculations, ITER equilibria appear to lie close to TAE linear stability thresholds. However, the prognosis depends strongly on q profile and profiles of alpha and other high energy particles species. If TAE modes are unstable in ITER, the stochastic diffusion is the main loss mechanism, which scales with ({delta}B{sub r}/B){sup 2}, because of the relatively small alpha particle banana orbit size. For isolated TAE modes the particle loss is very small, and TAE modes saturate via the resonant wave-particle trapping process at very small amplitude.

  20. Quantifying Energetic Particle Precipitation using the Array for Broadband Observations of VLF/ELF Emissions (ABOVE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cully, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    The Array for Broadband Observations of VLF/ELF Emissions (ABOVE) is a network of instruments deployed across Western Canada to monitor electromagnetic emissions from 200 Hz to 75 kHz. By observing the amplitude and phase of artificial ground-based transmitters in this band, we monitor changes in lower D layer ionization caused by energetic particle precipitation. We discuss numerical modeling and sensitivity analyses that enable us to use ABOVE data to quantify energetic particle precipitation over Western Canada. We then apply this technique to precipitation events, comparing our preliminary results with in-situ and ground-based observations. We conclude that ABOVE offers a large-scale perspective on the problem of acceleration and loss of radiation belt particles that complements the detailed in-situ measurements from the Van Allen Probes, Themis, and other satellite missions.

  1. French immersion in Canada: Theory and practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safty, Adel

    1991-12-01

    French immersion programs are rapidly becoming an integral part of the Canadian education system. Its educational and linguistic achievements have been the subject of an abundant literature that continues to grow. The popularity of the program has helped it expand at a phenomenal rate. From one school and a handful of students in the experimental classes 25 years ago, there are now more than 17,000 schools offering French immersion instruction to close to 250,000 students in all major Canadian cities. The major theoretical foundations on which French immersion was explicitly and sometimes implicitly based may be summarized as follows: Early exposure to a second language is better than late exposure.

  2. A French description of the Psychology Laboratory of G. S. Hall at Clark University in 1893.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Serge; Young, Jacy L

    2014-01-01

    There is a rich tradition of writings about the foundation of psychology laboratories, particularly in the United States and in France. Like their German counterparts, American laboratories of psychology were described by several scholars in French journals. These descriptions stimulated the establishment of laboratories in France and provided templates for laboratory designs. We introduce here an article written by Marcel Baudouin (1860-1941), who visited and subsequently described the psychology laboratory of Granville Stanley Hall (1844-1924) at Clark University in Worcester, Massachusetts. The English translation of Baudouin's paper, provided here, constitutes an interesting new document on Hall's laboratory at Clark University as it stood in 1893. From the French perspective, the Clark laboratory provided an ideal model for the experimental psychology laboratory.

  3. Fast Reacting Nano Composite Energetic Materials: Synthesis and Combustion Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-24

    Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 aluminum combustion; energetic materials; fluorine; reaction kinetics; fluoropolymers; self...associated with particulate media, in general. Once this foundational understanding is established, new strategies for designing aluminum fuel particles... aluminum based fuels in any energetic system (i.e., as an additive to liquid propellants or even explosive formulations). Composite energetic

  4. Mechanics and energetics in tool manufacture and use: a synthetic approach

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liyu; Brodbeck, Luzius; Iida, Fumiya

    2014-01-01

    Tool manufacture and use are observed not only in humans but also in other animals such as mammals, birds and insects. Manufactured tools are used for biomechanical functions such as effective control of fluids and small solid objects and extension of reaching. These tools are passive and used with gravity and the animal users' own energy. From the perspective of evolutionary biology, manufactured tools are extended phenotypes of the genes of the animal and exhibit phenotypic plasticity. This incurs energetic cost of manufacture as compared to the case with a fixed tool. This paper studies mechanics and energetics aspects of tool manufacture and use in non-human beings. Firstly, it investigates possible mechanical mechanisms of the use of passive manufactured tools. Secondly, it formulates the energetic cost of manufacture and analyses when phenotypic plasticity benefits an animal tool maker and user. We take a synthetic approach and use a controlled physical model, i.e. a robot arm. The robot is capable of additively manufacturing scoop and gripper structures from thermoplastic adhesives to pick and place fluid and solid objects, mimicking primates and birds manufacturing tools for a similar function. We evaluate the effectiveness of tool use in pick-and-place and explain the mechanism for gripper tools picking up solid objects with a solid-mechanics model. We propose a way to formulate the energetic cost of tool manufacture that includes modes of addition and reshaping, and use it to analyse the case of scoop tools. Experiment results show that with a single motor trajectory, the robot was able to effectively pick and place water, rice grains, a pebble and a plastic box with a scoop tool or gripper tools that were manufactured by itself. They also show that by changing the dimension of scoop tools, the energetic cost of tool manufacture and use could be reduced. The work should also be interesting for engineers to design adaptive machines. PMID:25209405

  5. [French immigration policy at a turning point?].

    PubMed

    Wihtol De Wenden, C

    1995-01-01

    The author examines the changes to French immigration law adopted in 1993 in the light of current trends and pressures affecting migration to France. The focus is on the changes in the rules concerning the acquisition of French nationality, and the assimilation of existing immigrants from developing countries. The difficulties of resolving such problems at the national level while migration regulations are being developed at the European Community level are noted. Problems involving the control of the nation's borders, illegal immigration, and the growing demand for political asylum are also discussed. The author raises the possibility that immigration could be better managed in light of current labor market conditions in France.

  6. Laser-induced reactions in energetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Ping

    1999-07-01

    Several energetic materials have been investigated under shock wave loading, heating, and photodissociation. This dissertation highlights some efforts to understand energetic material from an angle of basic physical processes and elementary chemical reactions. The first series of experiments was performed to study laser-generated shock waves in energetic materials. Shock waves are generated by pulsed laser vaporization of thin aluminum films. The rapidly expanding aluminum plasma launches a shock wave into the adjacent layer of energetic material, initiating chemical reactions. The shock velocity has been measured by a velocity interferometer. Shock pressures as high as 8 GPa have been generated in this manner. A simple model is proposed to predict laser-generated shock pressure. Several energetic materials have been studied under laser- generated shock wave. The second series of experiments was conducted to study thermal decomposition and photodissociation of energetic materials. Glycidyl azide polymer (GAP) and poly(glycidyl nitrate) (PGN) have been investigated by pulsed infrared laser pyrolysis and ultraviolet laser photolysis of thin films at 17-77 K. Reactions are monitored by transmission infrared spectroscopy. Photolysis of GAP at 266 nm shows that the initial reaction steps are elimination of molecular nitrogen with subsequent formation of imines. Thermal decomposition of GAP by infrared laser pyrolysis reveals products similar to the UV experiments after warming. Laser pyrolysis of PGN indicated that the main steps of decomposition are elimination of NO2 and CH2O from the nitrate ester functional group. It seems that the initial thermal decomposition mechanism of GAP and PGN are the same from heating rate of several degrees per second to 107 oC/s. The third series of experiments is about detailed study of photodissociation mechanism of methyl nitrate. Photodissociation of methyl nitrate isolated in an argon matrix at 17 K has been investigated by 266 nm

  7. Vers un nouveau phonetisme francais (Toward a New French Phonetics)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monnot, Michel; Kite, Francoise

    1976-01-01

    Evolutionary changes in French pronunciation have necessitated changes in phonetic representation. The new articulatory phenomena involve modifications in syllabic structure and in consonant/vowel relationship. (Text is in French.) (DB)

  8. An educational seismicity map for the French schools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godey, Stéphanie; Line Nottin, Marie; Bossu, Rémy; Frobert, Laurent; Kamb, Linus

    2010-05-01

    Low hazard regions require specific communication. In such regions, the risk perception by the population is particularly low. The risk does not relate to concrete experiences or past events in personal's or family's memory. In mainland France, for example the last destructive earthquake occurred in 1909! We created an education seismicity map in partnership with the Fondation MAIF (a foundation created by a French insurance company) for a national audience which is being distributed in French junior high schools. It aims to make the young aware of the level of hazard in France by putting it in perspective with well-known earthquakes people remember. Of course, this includes recent earthquakes such as l'Aquila (Italy) or Boumerdes (Algeria) but also Lisbon event in 1755 mentioned by Voltaire in several of his books. Are also explained the difference between hazard and risk, what is a magnitude, a macroseismic intensity and the magnitude distribution of earthquakes. It benefited from feedbacks of numerous actors involved in education initiatives in France. This map was elaborated from the recent Euro-Med seismicity as described by the Euro-Med bulletin, where bulletins from 77 Euro-Med network operators are merged. It is a good example of how to use a scientific result for education purposes. It has been printed in paper copy (A0, encapsulated paper) and is available in electronic form at http://www.citizenseismology.org A few paper copies are still available and can be obtained on request. EMSC is currently looking for a partner to prepare and distribute a similar educational map in English.

  9. L2 vs. L3 Initial State: A Comparative Study of the Acquisition of French DPs by Vietnamese Monolinguals and Cantonese-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Yan-Kit Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares the initial state of second language acquisition (L2A) and third language acquisition (L3A) from the generative linguistics perspective. We examine the acquisition of the Determiner Phrase (DP) by two groups of beginning French learners: an L2 group (native speakers of Vietnamese who do not speak any English) and an L3 group…

  10. Do Students Share the Same Experience in an Online Language Exchange Programme?--The Chinese-French eTandem Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szilas, Jue Wang; Zhang, Ling; Berger, Claudia

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the findings of an eTandem Chinese-French exchange course during two academic years, the year 2010-2011 when the course was not credited, and the year 2011-2012 when the course was credited in one university but not in the other. It focuses on the students' perspective about the language exchange experience. The participants…

  11. The Scimitar, the Dagger, and the Glove: Intercultural Differences in the Rhetoric of Criticism in Spanish, French, and English Medical Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salager-Meyer, Francoise; Ariza, Maria Angeles Alcaraz; Zambrano, Nahirana

    2003-01-01

    Addresses the socio-pragmatic phenomenon of academic conflict from a cross-cultural and diachronic perspective. It is examined by combining a quantitative approach and a qualitative discoursal analysis of its salient rhetorical features in corpus of Spanish, French, and English medical articles published between 1930 and 1995. (VWL)

  12. The Scimitar, the Dagger, and the Glove: Intercultural Differences in the Rhetoric of Criticism in Spanish, French, and English Medical Discourse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salager-Meyer, Francoise; Ariza, Maria Angeles Alcaraz; Zambrano, Nahirana

    2003-01-01

    Addresses the socio-pragmatic phenomenon of academic conflict from a cross-cultural and diachronic perspective. It is examined by combining a quantitative approach and a qualitative discoursal analysis of its salient rhetorical features in corpus of Spanish, French, and English medical articles published between 1930 and 1995. (VWL)

  13. L2 vs. L3 Initial State: A Comparative Study of the Acquisition of French DPs by Vietnamese Monolinguals and Cantonese-English Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leung, Yan-Kit Ingrid

    2005-01-01

    This paper compares the initial state of second language acquisition (L2A) and third language acquisition (L3A) from the generative linguistics perspective. We examine the acquisition of the Determiner Phrase (DP) by two groups of beginning French learners: an L2 group (native speakers of Vietnamese who do not speak any English) and an L3 group…

  14. Les examens de francais dans les universites populaires en R.F.A. (French Examinations in People's Universities in the Federal Republic of Germany)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raasch, Albert

    1978-01-01

    The Certificate of the People's Universities is an examination organized in different European countries. The students are generally adults in evening courses. A description of the system in Germany is given; and principles of the examination, test content, and educational perspectives are discussed. References are included. (Text is in French.)…

  15. Le francais parle dans la ville de Quebec: une etude sociolinguistique (The Spoken French in the City of Quebec: A Sociolinguistic Study). Publication G-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deshaies, Denise

    This study is divided into two major sections. The first, the study of language in a sociolinguistic perspective, includes: (1) an analysis of the attitudes associated with linguistic variation, and a review of (2) studies conducted in French Quebec, (3) the linguistic and cultural deficit theories, (4) the theory of cross-linguistic and…

  16. Molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, William A.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Pruneda, Cesar O.

    1995-01-01

    A molten salt destruction process is used to treat and destroy energetic waste materials such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels. The energetic material is pre-blended with a solid or fluid diluent in safe proportions to form a fluid fuel mixture. The fuel mixture is rapidly introduced into a high temperature molten salt bath. A stream of molten salt is removed from the vessel and may be recycled as diluent. Additionally, the molten salt stream may be pumped from the reactor, circulated outside the reactor for further processing, and delivered back into the reactor or cooled and circulated to the feed delivery system to further dilute the fuel mixture entering the reactor.

  17. Molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, W.A.; Upadhye, R.S.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1995-07-18

    A molten salt destruction process is used to treat and destroy energetic waste materials such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels. The energetic material is pre-blended with a solid or fluid diluent in safe proportions to form a fluid fuel mixture. The fuel mixture is rapidly introduced into a high temperature molten salt bath. A stream of molten salt is removed from the vessel and may be recycled as diluent. Additionally, the molten salt stream may be pumped from the reactor, circulated outside the reactor for further processing, and delivered back into the reactor or cooled and circulated to the feed delivery system to further dilute the fuel mixture entering the reactor. 4 figs.

  18. The energetic basis of acoustic communication.

    PubMed

    Gillooly, James F; Ophir, Alexander G

    2010-05-07

    Animals produce a tremendous diversity of sounds for communication to perform life's basic functions, from courtship and parental care to defence and foraging. Explaining this diversity in sound production is important for understanding the ecology, evolution and behaviour of species. Here, we present a theory of acoustic communication that shows that much of the heterogeneity in animal vocal signals can be explained based on the energetic constraints of sound production. The models presented here yield quantitative predictions on key features of acoustic signals, including the frequency, power and duration of signals. Predictions are supported with data from nearly 500 diverse species (e.g. insects, fishes, reptiles, amphibians, birds and mammals). These results indicate that, for all species, acoustic communication is primarily controlled by individual metabolism such that call features vary predictably with body size and temperature. These results also provide insights regarding the common energetic and neuromuscular constraints on sound production, and the ecological and evolutionary consequences of producing these sounds.

  19. Energetics in robotic flight at small scales.

    PubMed

    Karydis, Konstantinos; Kumar, Vijay

    2017-02-06

    Recent advances in design, sensing and control have led to aerial robots that offer great promise in a range of real-world applications. However, one critical open question centres on how to improve the energetic efficiency of aerial robots so that they can be useful in practical situations. This review paper provides a survey on small-scale aerial robots (i.e. less than 1 m(2) area foot print, and less than 3 kg weight) from the point of view of energetics. The paper discusses methods to improve the efficiency of aerial vehicles, and reports on recent findings by the authors and other groups on modelling the impact of aerodynamics for the purpose of building energy-aware motion planners and controllers.

  20. Assessment of CRBR core disruptive accident energetics

    SciTech Connect

    Theofanous, T.G.; Bell, C.R.

    1984-03-01

    The results of an independent assessment of core disruptive accident energetics for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor are presented in this document. This assessment was performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission under the direction of the CRBR Program Office within the Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation. It considered in detail the accident behavior for three accident initiators that are representative of three different classes of events; unprotected loss of flow, unprotected reactivity insertion, and protected loss of heat sink. The primary system's energetics accommodation capability was realistically, yet conservatively, determined in terms of core events. This accommodation capability was found to be equivalent to an isentropic work potential for expansion to one atmosphere of 2550 MJ or a ramp rate of about 200 $/s applied to a classical two-phase disassembly.

  1. Mitochondrial network energetics in the heart.

    PubMed

    Aon, Miguel A; Cortassa, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    At the core of eukaryotic aerobic life, mitochondrial function like 'hubs' in the web of energetic and redox processes in cells. In the heart, these networks-extending beyond the complex connectivity of biochemical circuit diagrams and apparent morphology-exhibit collective dynamics spanning several spatiotemporal levels of organization, from the cell, to the tissue, and the organ. The network function of mitochondria, i.e., mitochondrial network energetics, represents an advantageous behavior. Its coordinated action, under normal physiology, provides robustness despite failure in a few nodes, and improves energy supply toward a swiftly changing demand. Extensive diffuse loops, encompassing mitochondrial-cytoplasmic reaction/transport networks, control and regulate energy supply and demand in the heart. Under severe energy crises, the network behavior of mitochondria and associated glycolytic and other metabolic networks collapse, thereby triggering fatal arrhythmias.

  2. Energetics and structures of fullerene crop circles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jie

    1998-01-01

    The energetics and structures of carbon tori are studied using molecular simulation. They include circular and polygonal tori, formed by bending ( n, n) tubes and by joining ( n, n) and ( n+1, n-1) or ( n+2, n-2) tubes with pentagon-heptagon defects, respectively, in which n=5, 8 and 10. The strain energy of a circular and polygonal torus decreases by D-2 and D-1, respectively, where D is the torus diameter. Comparisons in average and local maximum strain suggest that defect-free circular tori are more energetically stable and kinetically accessible than defective polygonal tori. This confirms the hypothesis that circular tori are the predominant constituents of the observed fullerene crop circles in laser-grown single-wall carbon nanotubes.

  3. Energetics of nanocrystalline TiO2

    PubMed Central

    Ranade, M. R.; Navrotsky, A.; Zhang, H. Z.; Banfield, J. F.; Elder, S. H.; Zaban, A.; Borse, P. H.; Kulkarni, S. K.; Doran, G. S.; Whitfield, H. J.

    2002-01-01

    The energetics of the TiO2 polymorphs (rutile, anatase, and brookite) were studied by high temperature oxide melt drop solution calorimetry. Relative to bulk rutile, bulk brookite is 0.71 ± 0.38 kJ/mol (6) and bulk anatase is 2.61 ± 0.41 kJ/mol higher in enthalpy. The surface enthalpies of rutile, brookite, and anatase are 2.2 ± 0.2 J/m2, 1.0 ± 0.2 J/m2, and 0.4 ± 0.1 J/m2, respectively. The closely balanced energetics directly confirm the crossover in stability of nanophase polymorphs inferred by Zhang and Banfield (7). An amorphous sample with surface area of 34,600 m2/mol is 24.25 ± 0.88 kJ/mol higher in enthalpy than bulk rutile. PMID:11880610

  4. Energetic oxygen atom material degradation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caledonia, George E.; Krech, Robert H.

    1987-01-01

    As part of a study designed to test potential Shuttle surface materials for the extents of degradation and mass loss expected to be suffered in space from the velocity impacts of ambient oxygen atoms, a novel technique was developed for generation of a high flux of energetic oxygen atoms. The generation technique involves laser-induced breakdown of molecular oxygen followed by a rapid expansion of energetic oxygen atoms. The high-velocity streams developed in an evacuated hypersonic nozzle have average O-atom velocities of about 5 to 13 km/s, with an estimated total production of 10 to the 18th atoms per pulse over pulse durations of several microseconds. Results on preliminary material degradation tests conducted with this test facility have been reported by Caledonia et al. (1987). Diagrams of the experimental setup are included.

  5. Energetics of compost production and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Diaz, L.F.; Golueke, C.G.; Savage, G.M.

    1986-09-01

    Developments during the past decade have led to a fairly clear delineation of the role of composting in municipal solid waste (MSW) management. However, before that role can be accepted and implemented on a practical scale, certain important environmental and economic factors must be resolved. Of the economic factors, the energetics of composting in waste management is in urgent need of further elaboration and exploration. This need prompted an attempt on the part of the authors of this paper to resolve basic questions regarding the energetics involved in the production and utilization of compost from urban solid waste and municipal sludges, and peripherally, the applicability of these findings to the management of other wastes (e.g., agricultural). Progress made in pursuing this attempt is described in the present paper.

  6. Probing the heliosphere with energetic hydrogen atoms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsieh, K. C.; Shih, K. L.; Jokipii, J. R.; Grzedzielski, S.

    1992-01-01

    The idea of using energetic neutral atoms (ENAs), produced by charge exchange between energetic ions and ambient neutral atoms, as a diagnostic tool to investigate planetary magnetospheres from a distance has been extended to the investigation of the heliosphere. The paper explores what one can reasonably expect of the heliospheric ENA (HSENA) and what criteria would be imposed on HSENA instruments by concentrating on 10-10 exp 3 keV protons in quiet-time interplanetary space, solar-flare events, corotating interaction regions, and populations have distinctive signatures and that the detection of these particles can reveal energy spatial and propagation of ions in 3D interplanetary space, including the solar-wind termination shock. Such breadth of information could not be gained by in situ means.

  7. Exploratory analysis of Spanish energetic mining accidents.

    PubMed

    Sanmiquel, Lluís; Freijo, Modesto; Rossell, Josep M

    2012-01-01

    Using data on work accidents and annual mining statistics, the paper studies work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining sector in 1999-2008. The following 3 parameters are considered: age, experience and size of the mine (in number of workers) where the accident took place. The main objective of this paper is to show the relationship between different accident indicators: risk index (as an expression of the incidence), average duration index for the age and size of the mine variables (as a measure of the seriousness of an accident), and the gravity index for the various sizes of mines (which measures the seriousness of an accident, too). The conclusions of this study could be useful to develop suitable prevention policies that would contribute towards a decrease in work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining industry.

  8. Energetic protons from a disappearing solar filament

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahler, S. W.; Cliver, E. W.; Cane, H. V.; Mcguire, R. E.; Stone, R. G.; Sheeley, N. R., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A solar energetic (E 50 MeV) particle (SEP) event observed at 1 AU began about 15000 UT on 1981 December 5. This event was associated with a fast coronal mass ejection observed with the Solwind coronagraph on the P78-1 satellite. No metric type 2 or type 4 burst was observed, but a weak interplanetary type 2 burst was observed with the low frequency radio experiment on the International Sun-Earth Explorer-3 satellite. The mass ejection was associated with the eruption of a large solar quiescent filament which lay well away from any active regions. The eruption resulted in an H alpha double ribbon structure which straddled the magnetic inversion line. No impulsive phase was obvious in either the H alpha or the microwave observations. This event indicates that neither a detectable impulsive phase nor a strong or complex magnetic field is necessary for the production of energetic ions.

  9. Kinetic versus Energetic Discrimination in Biological Copying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartori, Pablo; Pigolotti, Simone

    2013-05-01

    We study stochastic copying schemes in which discrimination between a right and a wrong match is achieved via different kinetic barriers or different binding energies of the two matches. We demonstrate that, in single-step reactions, the two discrimination mechanisms are strictly alternative and cannot be mixed to further reduce the error fraction. Close to the lowest error limit, kinetic discrimination results in a diverging copying velocity and dissipation per copied bit. On the other hand, energetic discrimination reaches its lowest error limit in an adiabatic regime where dissipation and velocity vanish. By analyzing experimentally measured kinetic rates of two DNA polymerases, T7 and Polγ, we argue that one of them operates in the kinetic and the other in the energetic regime. Finally, we show how the two mechanisms can be combined in copying schemes implementing error correction through a proofreading pathway.

  10. Mitochondrial network energetics in the heart

    PubMed Central

    Aon, Miguel A.; Cortassa, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    At the core of eukaryotic aerobic life, mitochondria function like “hubs” in the web of energetic and redox processes in cells. In the heart, these networks - extending beyond the complex connectivity of biochemical circuit diagrams and apparent morphology - exhibit collective dynamics spanning several spatio-temporal levels of organization, from the cell, to the tissue, and the organ. The network function of mitochondria, i.e. mitochondrial network energetics, represents an advantageous behaviour. Its coordinated action, under normal physiology, provides robustness despite failure in a few nodes, and improves energy supply toward a swiftly changing demand. Extensive diffuse loops, encompassing mitochondrialcytoplasmic reaction/transport networks, control and regulate energy supply and demand in the heart. Under severe energy crises, the network behaviour of mitochondria and associated glycolytic and other metabolic networks collapse, thereby triggering fatal arrhythmias. PMID:22899654

  11. HAWC and Solar Energetic Transient Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, A.; Ryan, J. M.

    2013-12-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) observatory is being constructed at the volcano Sierra Negra (4100 m a.s.l.) in Mexico. HAWC's primary purpose is the study of both galactic and extra-galactic sources of high energy gamma rays. The HAWC instrument will consist of 300 large water Cherenkov detectors whose counting rate will be sensitive to cosmic rays with energies above the geomagnetic cutoff of the site ( ˜ 8 GV). In particular, HAWC will detect solar energetic particles known as Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs), and the effect of Coronal Mass Ejections on the galactic cosmic rays, known as Forbush Decreases (FDs). The Milagro experiment, the HAWC predecessor, successfully observed GLEs and the HAWC engineering array "VAMOS" already observed a FD. HAWC will be sensitive to γ rays and neutrons produced during large solar flares. In this work, we present the instrument and discuss its capability to observe solar energetic events. i. e., flares and CMEs.

  12. Discrimination of English and French Orthographic Patterns by Biliterate Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jared, Debra; Cormier, Pierre; Levy, Betty Ann; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether young English-French biliterate children can distinguish between English and French orthographic patterns. Children in French immersion programs were asked to play a dictionary game when they were in Grade 2 and again when they were in Grade 3. They were shown pseudowords that contained either an English spelling pattern or…

  13. 7 CFR 993.6 - Non-French prunes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-French prunes. 993.6 Section 993.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.6 Non-French prunes. Non-French prunes means prunes commonly...

  14. Negation in Near-Native French: Variation and Sociolinguistic Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how adult second language (L2) speakers of French with near-native proficiency realize verbal negation, a well-known sociolinguistic variable in contemporary spoken French. Data included 10 spontaneous informal conversations between near-native speakers of French and native speakers (NSs) closely acquainted with them.…

  15. La Culture Canadienne-Francaise = French Canadian Culture. Interim Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussiere, Adrien L., Ed.

    Materials about the culture specific to French-speaking people in Canada are presented as part of the cultural component of the prescribed second language curriculum. The materials follow the suggested sequence of studying the "French Fact" in Alberta in grade 7, the study of French settlements in Canada in grade 8, and in-depth study of…

  16. Old French for Undergraduates at the University of Minnesota, Morris.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, David E.

    Old French for undergraduates, as it is offered to students at the University of Minnesota, Morris, represents a break with tradition. A rationale for the program and course descriptions accentuate benefits accrued from undergraduate medieval studies. Syllabuses for French 80, The History of the Language; French 90, Directed Medieval Studies; and…

  17. French: An Accommodating Language? = Le Francais: Langue D'Accueil?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sue, Ed.

    This bilingual book considers recent developments in French attitudes towards language purism, borrowing, and the incursion of English. The book begins with an essay by French sociolinguist Henriette Walter, and most of the following essays are direct responses to her ideas. All chapters are provided in French and English. Chapter titles include…

  18. Discrimination of English and French Orthographic Patterns by Biliterate Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jared, Debra; Cormier, Pierre; Levy, Betty Ann; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether young English-French biliterate children can distinguish between English and French orthographic patterns. Children in French immersion programs were asked to play a dictionary game when they were in Grade 2 and again when they were in Grade 3. They were shown pseudowords that contained either an English spelling pattern or…

  19. On the Status of the Word in French Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochet, Bernard

    1977-01-01

    French linguists generally agree that the word in French has no phonetic or phonological status. This article examines this position and studies several vowel-consonant sequences, mute-"e" deletion and post-consonantal deletion and suggests that the role of French word-boundaries is more important than is generally acknowledged. (CHK)

  20. Teaching French to Franco-Americans: A Controversial Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickel, Raymond A.

    1965-01-01

    A study of bilingualism among third-generation Americans of French-Canadian extraction briefly examines their linguistic superiority in French over monolingual students and appraises the appropriate psychological approaches to teaching this special group. The article suggests that an "educated standard French" be presented as an alternative to…

  1. Linguistic, Academic, and Cognitive Benefits of French Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaruk, Wally

    2007-01-01

    A survey of research on French as a second language (FSL) education in Canada suggests that French immersion (FI) students enjoy significant linguistic, academic, and cognitive benefits. We organize our summary of the advantages of FI around these three themes, comparing students' proficiency in French and English across various FI programs, and…

  2. The French Defense and Foreign Policies: Rwanda Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-25

    Turquoise , French Strategic Communication, President Mitterrand 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES...and United- Nations-mandated TURQUOISE ) varying in size, scope, and objectives. Concurrently, the French military cooperation architecture evolved...October 1990 RPF offensive, the pro-Hutu press openly cheered the French involvement in operations NOROIT, AMARYLLIS, and TURQUOISE , creating

  3. STUDIES OF THE LIFE WORK OF FOUR CONTEMPORARY FRENCH AUTHORS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NOSTRAND, HOWARD L.

    REPORTED ARE ANALYSES OF THE WORKS OF FOUR CONTEMPORARY FRENCH AUTHORS (RENE MARILL ALBERES, YVES BONNEFOY, MICHEL BUTOR, AND JEAN BRULLER UNDER THE PSEUDONYM VERCORS). THE ANALYSES WERE PREPARED IN FRENCH BY THE INDIVIDUAL AUTHORS FOR THE FRENCH CULTURE RESEARCH PROJECT, A LANGUAGE RESEARCH EFFORT. THE STUDIES ILLUSTRATE THE AUTHORS' THEMES IN…

  4. On Translating French Occurring in English into Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastian, Robert N.

    1989-01-01

    Explores problems encountered during attempts to translate French expressions occurring in English (such as concierge) into Spanish, particularly when the English interpretation of the expression is different from the standard French usage. Spanish translations are provided for about 200 French terms and expressions commonly used in English. (61…

  5. Word Parsing by Late-Learning French-English Bilinguals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golato, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Research on early learning French-English bilinguals suggests that development of segmentation is best characterized by a parameter-setting theory of language acquisition in which French segmentation is marked relative to English segmentation. Reports recent research with late-learning French-English bilinguals that finds evidence for parameter…

  6. Insights from the French Immersion Experience in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safty, Adel

    Canada's French immersion program began in 1965 in response to anglophone parent demand for bilingual French/English instruction. Instruction entirely in French begins in kindergarten, and formal English instruction begins in third grade. The program's popularity has caused rapid expansion, with success attributed to changing attitudes toward…

  7. Sources of French-Canadian Materials for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrey, Irene E.

    This bibiography of reference sources for French-Canadian children's books includes bibliographies, indexes, a publishers' trade annual, recommended lists, and features in professional journals. The citations are presented alphabetically by title--in English, in French and English, or in French, depending on their source--and an address where it…

  8. Negation in Near-Native French: Variation and Sociolinguistic Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how adult second language (L2) speakers of French with near-native proficiency realize verbal negation, a well-known sociolinguistic variable in contemporary spoken French. Data included 10 spontaneous informal conversations between near-native speakers of French and native speakers (NSs) closely acquainted with them.…

  9. View looking Eastnortheast at French Creek trestle, which appears at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking Eastnortheast at French Creek trestle, which appears at left center of frame. Bridge in foreground is west entrance to abandoned Phoenix iron works. - Pennsylvania Railroad, French Creek Trestle, Spanning French Creek, north of Paradise Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  10. French Theory vs. Australian Praxis: The Sham in Tertiary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, Philip

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the primary mode of expression of a significant proportion of contemporary literary and historical criticism (the stock in trade of Australian Arts faculties) is the French language. Emphasizes that knowledge of French prejudices and inclinations can only be gained by learning French. (two references) (Author/CK)

  11. Ten Projects to Involve Your Students Directly in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lent, Peter C.

    1981-01-01

    Proposes 10 activities to provide French classes of all levels with a broad spectrum of language projects involving direct and active use of French including students polling each other, skits based on television commercials, geographical "show and tell," cooking French dishes, writing a monthly newspaper, and field trips. (BK)

  12. French Vocabulary--Looking for "le mot juste."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parris, David L.

    1996-01-01

    The apparent difficulty of students of French as a second language to acquire French vocabulary is examined, drawing on experience with teaching Irish university students and the structures and stylistic traits peculiar to French. It is noted that while certain kinds of words (noun, verb, adjective, adverb) occupy little space in text, they take…

  13. Suggestions for the Organization of a Course in Commercial French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Jacqueline

    1978-01-01

    Comments and suggestions are offered for organizing a class in commercial French. Two subjects must be taught: basic business transactions and procedures applicable to both the U.S. and France and French commercial terminology, stressing the differences between French and American practices. (SW)

  14. A French Culture Course for Non-Language Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savoie, Norman R.

    1987-01-01

    Utah State University changed its "potentially...boring and probably...useless" French civilization course (taught in French and required of majors) to an English-taught course for French majors and majors in business, economics, political science, and prelaw. The new course focuses on stereotypes, cultural differences, and current…

  15. Un cours avance de francais: Le francais tel qu'on le parle (An Advanced Course in French: Colloquial French)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creusot, Andre

    1971-01-01

    Second of three articles on an advanced French program sponsored by the Language Department of the State University of Mons, Belgium. Emphasis is on the phonology, lexicology, and syntax of spoken French. (DS)

  16. Un cours avance de francais: Le francais tel qu'on le parle (An Advanced Course in French: Colloquial French)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creusot, Andre

    1971-01-01

    Second of three articles on an advanced French program sponsored by the Language Department of the State University of Mons, Belgium. Emphasis is on the phonology, lexicology, and syntax of spoken French. (DS)

  17. Energetic ion composition of the plasma sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, W.K.; Sharp, R.D.; Shelley, E.G.; Johnson, R.G.; Balsiger, H.

    1981-02-01

    Data obtained from the energetic ion mass spectrometer experiment on Isee 1 in the distant plasma sheet are presented. These data show that (1) the plasma sheet has a significant and variable ionospheric component (H/sup +/ and O/sup +/) representing from 10% to more than 50% of the total number density and (2) there is more than one process responsible for the energization of solar wind plasma (H/sup +/ and He/sup + +/) to plasma sheet energies.

  18. Energetic ion composition of the plasma sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, W. K.; Sharp, R. D.; Shelley, E. G.; Johnson, R. G.; Balsiger, H.

    1981-01-01

    Data obtained from the energetic ion mass spectrometer experiment on Isee 1 in the distant plasma sheet are presented. These data show that (1) the plasma sheet has a significant and variable ionospheric component (H(+) and O(+)) representing from 10% to more than 50% of the total number density and (2) there is more than one process responsible for the energization of solar wind plasma (H(+) and He(++)) to plasma sheet energies.

  19. Reaction Dynamics and Dispersion of Energetic Biocides

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-04-01

    This approach enables the use of hygroscopic materials by stabilizing them within a matrix. Several samples including Fe2O3/KClO4, CuO/KClO4 and Fe2O3...within a more stable weak oxidizer offers the opportunity to both tune reactivity and to employ materials that previously would be prohibited. 1...Introduction Nano-thermite, a subset of metastable intermolecular composites (MIC), is a relatively new class of energetic materials (EMs) that is finding

  20. Energetic and Structural Study of Diphenylpyridine Isomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, Marisa A. A.; Gomes, Lígia R.; Low, John N.; Santos, Luís M. N. B. F.

    2009-09-01

    The energetic and structural study of three diphenylpyridine isomers is presented in detail. The three isomers, 2,6-, 2,5-, and 3,5-diphenylpyridines, were synthesized via Suzuki-Miyaura methodology based on palladium catalysis, and the crystal structures of the isomers were obtained by X-ray diffraction. The relative energetic stabilities in the condensed and gaseous phases as well as volatilities and structures of the three studied isomers were evaluated, regarding the position of the phenyl groups relative to the nitrogen atom of the pyridine ring. The temperature, standard molar enthalpies, and entropies of fusion were measured and derived by differential scanning calorimetry. The vapor pressures of the considered isomers were determined by a static apparatus based on a MKS capacitance diaphragm manometer. The standard molar enthalpies, entropies, and Gibbs energies of sublimation, at T = 298.15 K, were derived, and the phase diagram near the triple point coordinates were determined for all isomers. The standard (p° = 0.1 MPa) molar enthalpies of combustion of all crystalline isomers were determined, at T = 298.15 K, by static bomb combustion calorimetry. The standard molar enthalpies of formation, in the crystalline and gaseous phases, at T = 298.15 K, were derived. The experimental results for the energetics in the gaseous phase of the three compounds were compared and assessed with the values obtained by ab initio calculations at different levels of theory (DFT and MP2) showing that, at this level of theory, the computational methods underestimate the energetic stability, in the gaseous phase, for these molecules. In order to understand the aromaticity in the central ring of each isomer, calculations of NICS (B3LYP/6-311G++(d,p) level of theory) values on the pyridine ring were also performed.