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Sample records for french intermede study

  1. Do gender differences affect the doctor-patient interaction during consultations in general practice? Results from the INTERMEDE study.

    PubMed

    Schieber, Anne-Cécile; Delpierre, Cyrille; Lepage, Benoît; Afrite, Anissa; Pascal, Jean; Cases, Chantal; Lombrail, Pierre; Lang, Thierry; Kelly-Irving, Michelle

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to ascertain whether disagreement between GPs and patients on advice given on nutrition, exercise and weight loss is related to patient-doctor gender discordance. Our hypothesis is that a patient interacting with a physician of the same gender may perceive more social proximity, notably on health care beliefs and may be more inclined to trust them. The analysis used the Intermede project's quantitative data collected via mirrored questionnaires at the end of the consultation. Multilevel logistic regressions were carried out to explore associations between patient-doctor gender discordance and their disagreement on advice given during the consultation adjusted on patients' and physicians' characteristics. The sample consists of 585 eligible patients and 27 GPs. Disagreement on advice given on nutrition was observed less often for female concordant dyads: OR = 0.25 (95% CI = 0.08-0.78), and for female doctors-male patients dyads: OR = 0.24 (95% CI = 0.07-0.84), taking the male concordant dyads as reference. For advice given on exercise, disagreement was found less often for female concordant dyads OR = 0.38 (95% CI = 0.15-0.98) and an interdoctor effect was found (P < 0.05). For advice given on weight loss, the probability of disagreement was significantly increased (OR: 2.87 95% CI = 1.29-6.41) when consultations consisted of female patient and male GP. Patient-doctor gender concordance/discordance is associated with their agreement/disagreement on advice given during the consultation. Physicians need to be conscious that their own demographic characteristics and perceptions might influence the quality of prevention counseling delivered to their patients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  2. French Studies: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markey, William L., Comp.

    A bibliography of materials relating to French language and area studies includes citations of bibliographies, books, articles, and general and specialized reference materials in French and English in these categories: general reference guides; guides to French studies; style manuals; research methodology and handbooks; library resources;…

  3. Ethnobotany in Intermedical Spaces: The Case of the Fulni-ô Indians (Northeastern Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Soldati, Gustavo Taboada; Paulino de Albuquerque, Ulysses

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the Fulni-ô medical system and introduced its intermedical character based on secondary data published in the literature. Then we focused on the medicinal plants known to the ethnic group, describing the most important species, their therapeutic uses and the body systems attributed to them. We based this analysis on the field experience of the authors in the project Studies for the Environmental and Cultural Sustainability of the Fulni-ô Medical System: Office of Medicinal Plant Care. This traditional botanical knowledge was used to corroborate the hybrid nature of local practices for access to health. We show that intermedicality is a result not only of the meeting of the Fulni-ô medical system with Biomedicine but also of its meeting with other traditional systems. Finally, we discuss how traditional botanical knowledge may be directly related to the ethnogenesis process led by the Fulni-ô Indians in northeastern Brazil. PMID:21961025

  4. Stimulating Student Interest in Physiology: The Intermedical School Physiology Quiz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Hwee-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ) was initiated in 2003 during the author's last sabbatical from the University of Malaya. At this inaugural event, there were just seven competing teams from Malaysian medical schools. The challenge trophy for the IMSPQ is named in honor of Prof. A. Raman, who was the first Malaysian Professor of…

  5. Stimulating Student Interest in Physiology: The Intermedical School Physiology Quiz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Hwee-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ) was initiated in 2003 during the author's last sabbatical from the University of Malaya. At this inaugural event, there were just seven competing teams from Malaysian medical schools. The challenge trophy for the IMSPQ is named in honor of Prof. A. Raman, who was the first Malaysian Professor of…

  6. Why Study French?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Gerard

    This brochure for parents and prospective students of French points out career opportunities available to qualified speakers of French. Suggestions concerning student eligibility and the time requirements of language programs are also offered. (RL)

  7. A Film Study Option for HSC French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connole, Pat

    1974-01-01

    In 1974, after a trial period of two years, the study of two selected French feature films will be offered as an option to the study of prescribed texts in Higher School Certificate French in Victoria. (Author)

  8. French Polynesia. Asian Studies Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Outs, JoAnn

    This curriculum outline presents the components of an introductory course to French culture which focuses on the colonization of French Polynesia. First, the general goals and student objectives for the course, which focuses on different historical periods of French Polynesia, are discussed. Next, the pre-test to determine students knowledge of…

  9. Misconceptions Highlighted among Medical Students in the Annual International Intermedical School Physiology Quiz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Hwee-Ming; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi

    2012-01-01

    The annual Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ), initiated in 2003, is now an event that attracts a unique, large gathering of selected medical students from medical schools across the globe. The 8th IMSPQ, in 2010, hosted by the Department of Physiology, University of Malaya, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, had 200 students representing 41…

  10. Misconceptions Highlighted among Medical Students in the Annual International Intermedical School Physiology Quiz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Hwee-Ming; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi

    2012-01-01

    The annual Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ), initiated in 2003, is now an event that attracts a unique, large gathering of selected medical students from medical schools across the globe. The 8th IMSPQ, in 2010, hosted by the Department of Physiology, University of Malaya, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, had 200 students representing 41…

  11. French Basic Course. Area Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This volume provides the prescribed cultural background that is part of the final phase of the Basic Course in French. The texts provide the basis for discussions and personal research through which students become acquainted with various aspects of the French-speaking world and learn the referential meaning of words and expressions as they are…

  12. Study Guide for TCT in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, J. Carroll; Bradley, C. Lee

    This study guide is specifically designed for those individuals preparing to take the Georgia Teacher Certification Test (TCT) in French language instruction. It covers four areas: (1) grammar; (2) usage; (3) history, geography, and literature; and (4) listening and oral skills. This guide provides prospective examinees with test content…

  13. STUDIES OF THE LIFE WORK OF FOUR CONTEMPORARY FRENCH AUTHORS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NOSTRAND, HOWARD L.

    REPORTED ARE ANALYSES OF THE WORKS OF FOUR CONTEMPORARY FRENCH AUTHORS (RENE MARILL ALBERES, YVES BONNEFOY, MICHEL BUTOR, AND JEAN BRULLER UNDER THE PSEUDONYM VERCORS). THE ANALYSES WERE PREPARED IN FRENCH BY THE INDIVIDUAL AUTHORS FOR THE FRENCH CULTURE RESEARCH PROJECT, A LANGUAGE RESEARCH EFFORT. THE STUDIES ILLUSTRATE THE AUTHORS' THEMES IN…

  14. Hierarchies of Authenticity in Study Abroad: French from Canada versus French from France?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wernicke, Meike

    2016-01-01

    For many decades, Francophone regions in Canada have provided language study exchanges for French as a second language (FSL) learners within their own country. At the same time, FSL students and teachers in Canada continue to orient to a native speaker standard associated with European French. This Eurocentric orientation manifested itself in a…

  15. French for Business: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Brenda

    The paper discusses the development and evolution of the French for Business undergraduate language course at Oregon State University, focusing on: (1) instructor preparation; (2) course structure; (3) course content; (4) the business student as teacher and mentor; (5) cultural exchanges with French-speaking business students; (6) oral and written…

  16. A Modern Curriculum in French Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Robert J.

    The French department, commonly viewed by chairmen and faculty as the conveyor of culture, is admonished to revamp its curriculum and attempt to embrace a broader, more humane understanding of the nature of culture. With the traditional, belletristic, college French curriculum having been rejected in favor of programs based on "cogency, cohesion,…

  17. Studies in French Grammar and Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benguerel, Andre-Pierre; Grundstrom, Allan W.

    The monograph contains two papers. The first presents a generative grammar for verbal forms in French. It consists of an ordered set of rewrite rules and a set of tables. It generates all existing verbal forms without generating any non-existing ones. The departure from an ordinary generative grammar lies in the use of a tabular form for…

  18. Studies in French Grammar and Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benguerel, Andre-Pierre; Grundstrom, Allan W.

    The monograph contains two papers. The first presents a generative grammar for verbal forms in French. It consists of an ordered set of rewrite rules and a set of tables. It generates all existing verbal forms without generating any non-existing ones. The departure from an ordinary generative grammar lies in the use of a tabular form for…

  19. French Immersion Teacher Education: A Study of Two Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Elaine M.; Shapson, Stan M.

    1993-01-01

    A study of French immersion teacher education programs at Simon Fraser University and Faculte Saint-Jean (University of Alberta) in Canada is reported. The in-depth case studies examined program clientele, models, participant experiences and needs, and planning, especially in relation to current research on teacher education. (Author/MSE)

  20. For a Study of Diglossia in French Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spilka, Irene V.

    This paper defines diglossia as "a situation in which two closely related language systems enjoy differing social status, one being the 'high' and the other the 'low' language," and then attempts to show how a study of diglossia in Canada, where such a diglossic situation is seen to exist among varieties of French, might be carried out.…

  1. [Drug in pregnancy: studies in the French database EFEMERIS].

    PubMed

    Damase-Michel, Christine; Lacroix, Isabelle; Hurault-Delarue, Caroline; Beau, Anna-Belle; Montastruc, Jean-Louis

    2014-01-01

    The present article describes the first French database of drugs prescribed and dispensed during pregnancy and the outcome of these pregnancies, named EFEMERIS (Évaluation chez la Femme Enceinte des MÉdicaments et de leurs RISques). At the present time, EFEMERIS contains anonymous data concerning around 78,000 pregnant women who gave birth to a baby between 1 July 2004 to 31 December 2012 in Haute-Garonne (South West France) and who are registered in the French health insurance service. Data sources include 1- the French health insurance database (drugs prescribed during pregnancy), 2- the mother and child protection centre database (newborn health) 3- the antenatal diagnostic centre database (medical pregnancy interruptions) and 4- medical data from the hospital (PMSI). EFEMERIS provides exact data on period of exposure to drugs, pregnancy terminations, and follow up of the babies 9 months and 2 years after birth. It is incremented each year with around 10 000 new pregnancies. Analysis of data until December 2011 shows a prevalence rate of congenital anomalies of 2.4%. Pregnant women were prescribed around 10 different reimbursed drugs during their pregnancy, the potential risk of a lot of these medications having not been evaluated during pregnancy. EFEMERIS can be used to monitor the prescription of reimbursed drugs to French pregnant women as well as to identify adverse pregnancy outcomes such as congenital malformation or effects on psychomotor development of the child. Examples of some studies already performed are given. © 2014 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  2. French contribution to ozone related studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Megie, G.

    Experiments conducted in France to study the tropospheric and stratospheric ozone layer and the minor constituents which are of interest in the prediction of natural and anthropogenic climatic effects are reviewed. With reference to ground-based measurements, consideration is given to continuous ozone monitoring using Dobson instruments, lidar measurements of atmospheric constituents, IR spectroscopy, monitoring of the troposphere pollution level by gas chromatography, measurements of the atmospheric turbulent layers by star scintillation, and microwave measurements of ozone and minor constituents. Airborne measurements include two Spacelab experiments: measurement of stratospheric trace constituents using a grid spectrometer, and solar spectrum and solar constant observations by UV spectrometry. Laboratory experiments and theoretical models are also discussed.

  3. The French Defense and Foreign Policies: Rwanda Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-25

    Turquoise , French Strategic Communication, President Mitterrand 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES...and United- Nations-mandated TURQUOISE ) varying in size, scope, and objectives. Concurrently, the French military cooperation architecture evolved...October 1990 RPF offensive, the pro-Hutu press openly cheered the French involvement in operations NOROIT, AMARYLLIS, and TURQUOISE , creating

  4. Disciplinary and Research Subjects in French Doctoral Dissertations in Press and Media Studies: A Bibliometric Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herubel, Jean-Pierre V. M.

    2007-01-01

    For English-speaking researchers, French doctoral dissertations can represent a "terra incognita." For this reason, a retrospective bibliometric study of French dissertations in press and media studies offers a useful profile of available research to researchers concentrating in studies of the press and other media. The present study…

  5. Subject-Verb Agreement, Object Clitics and Wh-Questions in Bilingual French-Greek SLI: The Case Study of a French-Greek-Speaking Child with SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavrakaki, Stavroula; Chrysomallis, Marie-Annick; Petraki, Evangelia

    2011-01-01

    In this study we investigate the linguistic performance of a school age French-Greek simultaneous bilingual boy with specific language impairment (SLI) on the production of subject-verb agreement, object clitic pronouns and wh-questions. In addition, we compare his performance on these linguistic structures with that of two French-Greek bilingual…

  6. Subject-Verb Agreement, Object Clitics and Wh-Questions in Bilingual French-Greek SLI: The Case Study of a French-Greek-Speaking Child with SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavrakaki, Stavroula; Chrysomallis, Marie-Annick; Petraki, Evangelia

    2011-01-01

    In this study we investigate the linguistic performance of a school age French-Greek simultaneous bilingual boy with specific language impairment (SLI) on the production of subject-verb agreement, object clitic pronouns and wh-questions. In addition, we compare his performance on these linguistic structures with that of two French-Greek bilingual…

  7. Euphemism as a Core Feature of "Patientese": A Comparative Study between English and French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faure, Pascaline

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this lexicological study is to present a typology of patients' euphemizing lay denominations of medical terms illustrated by examples in English and French. Various textbooks and lexicons dealing with English and French for medical purposes served as corpora. The euphemisms were classified according to the three semantic processes…

  8. Syntactic Comprehension in Reading and Listening: A Study with French Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casalis, Severine; Leuwers, Christel; Hilton, Heather

    2013-01-01

    This study examined syntactic comprehension in French children with dyslexia in both listening and reading. In the first syntactic comprehension task, a partial version of the Epreuve de Comprehension syntaxico-semantique (ECOSSE test; French adaptation of Bishop's test for receptive grammar test) children with dyslexia performed at a lower level…

  9. Franco-American Ethnic Heritage Studies Program. Contributions of the French to America: Dissemination of Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chasse, Paul P.

    The document contains 12 units suitable for use in junior and senior high school social studies classes on experiences and acculturation of first and second generation French people in the Northeastern United States. Each unit is presented in both the English and French language. Units are entitled "Education,""The…

  10. Euphemism as a Core Feature of "Patientese": A Comparative Study between English and French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faure, Pascaline

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this lexicological study is to present a typology of patients' euphemizing lay denominations of medical terms illustrated by examples in English and French. Various textbooks and lexicons dealing with English and French for medical purposes served as corpora. The euphemisms were classified according to the three semantic processes…

  11. Integrating Formal and Functional Approaches in Language Teaching in French Immersion: An Experimental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Elaine M.; Shapson, Stan M.

    An experiment evaluated the impact of an integrated formal, analytic, and functional communicative approach to second language teaching in French immersion on French language proficiency. The impetus for the study arises from research indicating that immersion children show persistent weaknesses in their grammatical skills despite the fluent,…

  12. Effects of Audiovisual Media on L2 Listening Comprehension: A Preliminary Study in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Shannon R.; Sturm, Jessica L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether integrating online audiovisual materials into the listening instruction of L2 French learners would have a measurable impact on their listening comprehension development. Students from two intact sections of second-semester French were tested on their listening comprehension before and…

  13. Allergens labeling on French processed foods - an Oqali study.

    PubMed

    Battisti, Charlène; Chambefort, Amélie; Digaud, Olivier; Duplessis, Barbara; Perrin, Cécile; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Gauvreau-Béziat, Julie; Menard, Céline

    2017-07-01

    The French Observatory of Food Quality (Oqali) aims at collecting all nutritional data provided on labels of processed foods (nutritional information and composition), at branded products level, in order to follow nutritional labeling changes over time. This study carries out an overview of allergens labeling frequencies by distinguishing allergens used in recipes from those listed on precautionary statements, for the fourteen allergen categories for which labeling is mandatory according to European legislation. 17,309 products were collected, between 2008 and 2012, from 26 food categories. Products were classified per family and type of brand (national brands, retailer brands, entry-level retailer brands, hard discount, and specialized retailer brands). Allergenic ingredients were identified from ingredients lists and precautionary statements. 73% of the 17,309 products studied contained at least one allergen in their ingredients list and 39% had a precautionary statement for one or more allergens. Milk (53%), gluten (41%), and egg (22%) were the most commonly used allergens in ingredients lists. For precautionary statement, nuts (20%), egg (14%), peanut (13%), soybean (12%), and milk (11%) were the most common allergens listed. Precautionary statement was most frequently found among first-price products (hard discount and entry-level retailer brands). National brands seemed to use it less frequently. For all these results, differences depended both on food categories and allergen categories. This study will enable to follow allergens labeling and their use as ingredients over time, particularly by assessing an hypothetical increase in allergens presence in processed food.

  14. Emergency Care for Homeless Patients: A French Multicenter Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Feral-Pierssens, Anne-Laure; Aubry, Adeline; Truchot, Jennifer; Raynal, Pierre-Alexis; Boiffier, Mathieu; Hutin, Alice; Leleu, Agathe; Debruyne, Geraud; Joly, Luc-Marie; Juvin, Philippe; Riou, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To determine whether homeless patients experience suboptimal care in the emergency department (ED) by the provision of fewer health care resources. Methods. We conducted a prospective multicenter cohort study in 30 EDs in France. During 72 hours in March 2015, all homeless patients that visited the participating EDs were included in the study. The primary health care service measure was the order by the physician of a diagnostic investigation or provision of a treatment in the ED. Secondary measures of health care services included ED waiting time, number and type of investigations per patient, treatment in the ED, and discharge disposition. Results. A total of 254 homeless patients and 254 nonhomeless patients were included. After excluding homeless patients that attended the ED for the sole purpose of housing, we analyzed 214 homeless and 214 nonhomeless. We found no significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of health care resource consumption, and for our secondary endpoints. Conclusions. We did not find significant differences in the level of medical care delivered in French EDs to homeless patients compared with matched nonhomeless patients. PMID:26985613

  15. Redesigning a Participatory Health Study for a French Industrial Context.

    PubMed

    Allen, Barbara L; Cohen, Alison K; Ferrier, Yolaine; Lees, Johanna; Richards, Travis

    2016-08-21

    The Marseille, France, metropolitan area is home to a heavily concentrated industrial region directly adjacent to residential communities. These towns have been subjected to a wide variety of social science and public health studies, but residents continue to have many questions about health concerns for which they currently have primarily anecdotal evidence. Reflecting on our in-progress research in two of these towns, we argue that community-based participatory research that draws from both social science and public health science can be successfully adapted to the French political and cultural context and is key for developing environmental health research that is relevant for community residents and local leaders. Understanding and working within the customs of the local values and practices culture is critical for community-based participatory research regardless of location but is particularly paramount when working in non-United States contexts, since local values and practices will shape the particular techniques used within the community-based participatory research framework.

  16. CLIM-RUN: Tourism cas study over the French Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, C.

    2012-04-01

    Climate information for societal use has becoming a major challenge for tourism management and adaptation in a context of strong climate variability and change. Within the CLIMRUN EU FP7, a case study on summer tourism in the French Alps has been identify. I will introduce the bottom-up approach use in the project where stakeholders and local users meet with climate experts. From those meetings, they thus identify the climate dependence and information which impact their summer activities over this region. All the activities are located in a mountainous region where outdoor leisure is the main economic driver of the region. It has emerged that the climate requirements are as well on past as on future climate information. On one side, the past climate parameters are found to be an invaluable information to evaluate the climate dependence of the different activities. A better knowledge as well as a growing interest in climate variability has been express to quantify the climate dependence on their activities. On the other side, the future climate information requested mainly on seasonal to decadal timescale. A particular interest has been express on the snow cover at the end of the winter season, evolution of heavy precipitations, heatwave, air temperatures and well as the water temperature of the mountainous lakes. Those climate variables are used to create comfort index under climate change. All those targeted climate information are based on on-going projects as well as future model development.

  17. French Teaching Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, J. Dale

    Supplementary teaching materials for French language programs are presented in this text. Primarily intended for secondary school students, the study contains seven units of material. They include: (1) French gestures, (2) teaching the interrogative pronouns, (3) French cuisine, (4) recreational learning games, (5) French-English cognates, (6)…

  18. Urinary arsenic levels in the French adult population: the French National Nutrition and Health Study, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Saoudi, Abdessattar; Zeghnoun, Abdelkrim; Bidondo, Marie-Laure; Garnier, Robert; Cirimele, Vincent; Persoons, Renaud; Fréry, Nadine

    2012-09-01

    The French Nutrition and Health Survey (ENNS) was conducted to describe dietary intakes, nutritional status, physical activity, and levels of various biomarkers for environmental chemicals (heavy metals and pesticides) in the French population (adults aged 18-74 years and children aged 3-17 years living in continental France in 2006-2007). The aim of this paper was to describe the distributions of total arsenic and the sum of iAs+MMA+DMA in the general adult population, and to present their main risk factors. In the arsenic study, 1500 and 1515 adults (requested to avoid seafood intake in the previous 3 days preceding urine collection) were included respectively for the analysis of the sum of inorganic arsenic (iAs) and its two metabolites, monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA), and for the total arsenic. Results were presented as geometric means and selected percentiles of urinary arsenic concentrations (μg/L) and creatinine-adjusted urinary arsenic (μg/g of creatinine) for total arsenic, and the sum of inorganic arsenic and metabolites (iAs+MMA+DMA). The geometric mean concentration of the sum of iAs+MMA+DMA in the adult population living in France was 3.34 μg/g of creatinine [3.23-3.45] (3.75 μg/L [3.61-3.90]) with a 95th percentile of 8.9 μg/g of creatinine (10.68 μg/L). The geometric mean concentration of total arsenic was 11.96 μg/g of creatinine [11.41-12.53] (13.42 μg/L [12.77-14.09]) with a 95th percentile of 61.29 μg/g of creatinine (72.75 μg/L). Urinary concentrations of total arsenic and iAS+MMA+DMA were influenced by sociodemographic and economic factors, and by risk factors such as consumption of seafood products and of wine. In our study, covariate-adjusted geometric means demonstrated several slight differences, due to consumption of fish, shellfish/crustaceans or wine. This study provides the first reference value for arsenic in a representative sample of the French population not particularly exposed to high levels

  19. Subject-verb agreement, object clitics and wh-questions in bilingual French-Greek SLI: the case study of a French-Greek-speaking child with SLI.

    PubMed

    Stavrakaki, Stavroula; Chrysomallis, Marie-Annick; Petraki, Evangelia

    2011-05-01

    In this study we investigate the linguistic performance of a school age French-Greek simultaneous bilingual boy with specific language impairment (SLI) on the production of subject-verb agreement, object clitic pronouns and wh-questions. In addition, we compare his performance on these linguistic structures with that of two French-Greek bilingual children with typical development matched on language age. Furthermore, we discuss the performance of the child with SLI in the light of published data from monolingual French and Greek school-age children with SLI, as reported in the relevant literature. The results indicated that the performance of the bilingual French-Greek-speaking child with SLI was highly comparable to that of bilingual French-Greek typically developing children and monolingual children with SLI speaking French or Greek. In addition, the results revealed a language effect on the performance of the bilingual child with SLI on subject-verb agreement, object clitics and wh-questions. We adopt a comparative linguistic approach to interpret the results and argue that the specific linguistic properties of Greek and French were significant determinants for the manifestation of SLI in each language. We suggest that bilingualism per se did not aggravate the language deficits in this child with SLI. Finally, we discuss the clinical implications of our study for language intervention in bilingual individuals with SLI.

  20. Linguistic Effects of Globalization: A Case Study of French for Specific Purposes (FSP) in Kenyan Vocational Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulenda, Mubalama

    2013-01-01

    The study of French for Specific Purposes (FSP) is a topical subject in this era of globalization. Kenya requires people who can communicate in French in the various specialized areas. It has become crucial in Kenya to respond to the French language needs of students learning tourism and hospitality among other domains which have already shown an…

  1. Linguistic Effects of Globalization: A Case Study of French for Specific Purposes (FSP) in Kenyan Vocational Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulenda, Mubalama

    2013-01-01

    The study of French for Specific Purposes (FSP) is a topical subject in this era of globalization. Kenya requires people who can communicate in French in the various specialized areas. It has become crucial in Kenya to respond to the French language needs of students learning tourism and hospitality among other domains which have already shown an…

  2. Checkpoint A-French. Course of Study in Foreign Languages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The New York City schools' syllabus for the first year of high school French instruction outlines a communicative curriculum conforming to state standards of preparation for state language proficiency examinations. The syllabus begins with an introductory section that describes the objectives and approach used and provides suggestions for…

  3. Car Crashes and Central Disorders of Hypersomnolence: A French Study

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Regis; Pesenti, Carole; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Drouot, Xavier; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Beziat, Severine; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Background Drowsiness compromises driving ability by reducing alertness and attentiveness, and delayed reaction times. Sleep-related car crashes account for a considerable proportion of accident at the wheel. Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1), narcolepsy type 2 (NT2) and idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) are rare central disorders of hypersomnolence, the most severe causes of sleepiness thus being potential dangerous conditions for both personal and public safety with increasing scientific, social, and political attention. Our main objective was to assess the frequency of recent car crashes in a large cohort of patients affected with well-defined central disorders of hypersomnolence versus subjects from the general population. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study in French reference centres for rare hypersomnia diseases and included 527 patients and 781 healthy subjects. All participants included needed to have a driving license, information available on potential accident events during the last 5 years, and on potential confounders; thus analyses were performed on 282 cases (71 IH, 82 NT2, 129 NT1) and 470 healthy subjects. Results Patients reported more frequently than healthy subjects the occurrence of recent car crashes (in the previous five years), a risk that was confirmed in both treated and untreated subjects at study inclusion (Untreated, OR = 2.21 95%CI = [1.30–3.76], Treated OR = 2.04 95%CI = [1.26–3.30]), as well as in all disease categories, and was modulated by subjective sleepiness level (Epworth scale and naps). Conversely, the risk of car accidents of patients treated for at least 5 years was not different to healthy subjects (OR = 1.23 95%CI = [0.56–2.69]). Main risk factors were analogous in patients and healthy subjects. Conclusion Patients affected with central disorders of hypersomnolence had increased risk of recent car crashes compared to subjects from the general population, a finding potentially reversed by long-term treatment. PMID:26052938

  4. Car Crashes and Central Disorders of Hypersomnolence: A French Study.

    PubMed

    Pizza, Fabio; Jaussent, Isabelle; Lopez, Regis; Pesenti, Carole; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Drouot, Xavier; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Beziat, Severine; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Drowsiness compromises driving ability by reducing alertness and attentiveness, and delayed reaction times. Sleep-related car crashes account for a considerable proportion of accident at the wheel. Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1), narcolepsy type 2 (NT2) and idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) are rare central disorders of hypersomnolence, the most severe causes of sleepiness thus being potential dangerous conditions for both personal and public safety with increasing scientific, social, and political attention. Our main objective was to assess the frequency of recent car crashes in a large cohort of patients affected with well-defined central disorders of hypersomnolence versus subjects from the general population. We performed a cross-sectional study in French reference centres for rare hypersomnia diseases and included 527 patients and 781 healthy subjects. All participants included needed to have a driving license, information available on potential accident events during the last 5 years, and on potential confounders; thus analyses were performed on 282 cases (71 IH, 82 NT2, 129 NT1) and 470 healthy subjects. Patients reported more frequently than healthy subjects the occurrence of recent car crashes (in the previous five years), a risk that was confirmed in both treated and untreated subjects at study inclusion (Untreated, OR = 2.21 95%CI = [1.30-3.76], Treated OR = 2.04 95%CI = [1.26-3.30]), as well as in all disease categories, and was modulated by subjective sleepiness level (Epworth scale and naps). Conversely, the risk of car accidents of patients treated for at least 5 years was not different to healthy subjects (OR = 1.23 95%CI = [0.56-2.69]). Main risk factors were analogous in patients and healthy subjects. Patients affected with central disorders of hypersomnolence had increased risk of recent car crashes compared to subjects from the general population, a finding potentially reversed by long-term treatment.

  5. Smoking habits in French farmers: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Roux, Pauline; Guillien, Alicia; Soumagne, Thibaud; Ritter, Ophélie; Laplante, Jean-Jacques; Travers, Cécile; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Peiffer, Gérard; Laurent, Lucie; Degano, Bruno

    2017-02-04

    Farmers are exposed to multiple air contaminants that may interact with tobacco smoking in the development of respiratory diseases. Farmers are currently considered to smoke less than non-farmers, but precise data in different categories of age and farming activities are lacking. Smoking habits were studied in a cross-sectional study involving 4105 farmers and 996 non-farming controls aged 40-74 years in 9 French departments between October 2012 and May 2013. Three age groups were defined (40-54, 55-64 and 65-74years). Farmers were divided into four activity groups, namely cattle breeders, livestock farmers working in confined spaces, crop farmers and others. Smoking prevalence was compared between farmers and controls, and odds ratios (ORs) for smoking adjusted for age were calculated. The adjusted OR for ever-smoking was lower among farmers than among non-farmers in all age categories, but the ORs for current smoking were similar in farmers and controls. Smoking prevalence varied according to the type of farming activity, and was lower than in non-farming controls only among cattle breeders and confined livestock farmers. In farmers, the proportion of smokers was higher in the youngest age categories compared with the older age classes. Our results confirm that the prevalence of ever-smokers is lower in farmers than in non-farmers. Nevertheless, our data show that active smoking prevalence is similar in farmers and in non-farmers. This suggests that farmers, just like non-farmers, should be targeted by primary prevention campaigns against smoking.

  6. [French validation study of the levels of emotional awareness scale].

    PubMed

    Bydlowski, S; Corcos, M; Paterniti, S; Guilbaud, O; Jeammet, P; Consoli, S M

    2002-01-01

    According to a thesis based on the idea of an influence of cognitions in the structuring of internal reality, emotional awareness, ie the capacity of representing your own emotional experience and that of others, is a cognitive process that goes into maturation. Defining this concept, Lane and Schwartz present a cognitivo-developmental model in five stages of the processes of symbolization, accounting for the differences in levels of emotional awareness observed in individuals. The organization of these cognitive processes would thus be structured in well differentiated stages, in which the development of the emotions would be inseparable from the development of ego and of the relation to others. These authors focus on the capacity of representing in a conscious way the emotional experience and consider that verbal representations used to describe the contents of what is experience constitute a good reflection of the organization structural of the emotional awareness. Therefore, they worked out an instrument of evaluation: the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS), which measures the capacity to describe your own emotional experience and the one you allow to others, in an emotional situation. The system of quotation of this scale is based on the analysis of the verbal contents of the provided answers, in direct reference to the authors' theory of the levels of differentiation and integration of the emotional experience. It is therefore an empirical measurement which is centered specifically on the structural organization of the emotional experience. The various studies of validation of this instrument show that it presents solid metrological properties. This work presents the validation of the French version of Lane and Schwartz's LEAS. Validity and fidelity were studied in a group of 121 healthy subjects. This setting is part of a larger clinical evaluation, also including a collection of socio-demographic and clinical data, and other instruments of self

  7. Determination of serum albumin, analytical challenges: a French multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Rossary, Adrien; Blondé-Cynober, Françoise; Bastard, Jean-Philippe; Beauvieux, Marie-Christine; Beyne, Pascale; Drai, Jocelyne; Lombard, Christine; Anglard, Ingrid; Aussel, Christian; Claeyssens, Sophie; Vasson, Marie-Paule

    2017-06-01

    Among the biological markers of morbidity and mortality, albumin holds a key place in the range of criteria used by the High Authority for Health (HAS) for the assessment of malnutrition and the coding of information system medicalization program (PMSI). If the principle of quantification methods have not changed in recent years, the dispersion of external evaluations of the quality (EEQ) data shows that the standardization using the certified reference material (CRM) 470 is not optimal. The aim of this multicenter study involving 7 sites, conducted by a working group of the French Society of Clinical Biology (SFBC), was to assess whether the albuminemia values depend on the analytical system used. The albumin from plasma (n=30) and serum (n=8) pools was quantified by 5 different methods [bromocresol green (VBC) and bromocresol purple (PBC) colorimetry, immunoturbidimetry (IT), immunonephelometry (IN) and capillary electrophoresis (CE)] using 12 analyzers. Bland and Altman's test evaluated the difference between the results obtained by the different methods. For example, a difference as high as 13 g/L was observed for the same sample between the methods (p <0.001) in the concentration range of 30 to 35 g/L. The VBC overestimates albumin across the range of values tested compared to PBC (p <0.05). PBC method gives similar results to IN for values lower than 40 g/L. For IT methods, one of the technical/analyzer tandem underestimates the albumin values inducing a difference of performance between the immunoprecipitation methods (IT vs IN, p <0.05). Although, the albumin results are related to the technical/analyzer tandem used. This variability is usually not taken into account by the clinician. Thus, clinicians and biologists have to be aware and have to check, depending on the method used, the albumin thresholds identified as risk factors for complications related to malnutrition and PMSI coding.

  8. To which chemical mixtures is the French population exposed? Mixture identification from the second French Total Diet Study.

    PubMed

    Traoré, T; Béchaux, C; Sirot, V; Crépet, A

    2016-12-01

    Through their diet, humans are exposed to a wide range of substances with possible adverse effects. Total diet studies (TDS) assess exposure and risk for many single substances or mixtures from the same chemical family. This research aims to identify from 440 substances in the second French TDS, the major mixtures to which the French population is exposed and their associated diet. Firstly, substances with a contamination value over the detection limit were selected. Secondly, consumption systems comprising major consumed foods were identified using non-negative matrix factorisation and combined with concentration levels to form the main mixture. Thirdly, individuals were clustered to identify "diet clusters" with similar consumption patterns and co-exposure profiles. Six main consumption systems and their associated mixtures were identified. For example, a mixture of ten pesticides, six trace elements and bisphenol A was identified. Exposure to this mixture is related to fruit and vegetables consumed by a diet cluster comprising 62% of women with a mean age of 51 years. Six other clusters are described with their associated diets and mixtures. Cluster co-exposures were compared to the whole population. This work helps prioritise mixtures for which it is crucial to investigate possible toxicological effects.

  9. [Confirmative study of a French version of the Exercise Dependence Scale-revised with a French population].

    PubMed

    Allegre, B; Therme, P

    2008-10-01

    Since the first writings on excessive exercise, there has been an increased interest in exercise dependence. One of the major consequences of this increased interest has been the development of several definitions and measures of exercise dependence. The work of Veale [Does primary exercise dependence really exist? In: Annet J, Cripps B, Steinberg H, editors. Exercise addiction: Motivation for participation in sport and exercise.Leicester, UK: Br Psychol Soc; 1995. p. 1-5.] provides an advance for the definition and measure of exercise dependence. These studies have adapted the DSM-IV criteria for substance dependence to measure exercise dependence. The Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised is based on these diagnostic criteria, which are: tolerance; withdrawal effects; intention effect; lack of control; time; reductions in other activities; continuance. Confirmatory factor analyses of EDS-R provided support to present a measurement model (21 items loaded in seven factors) of EDS-R (Comparative Fit Index=0.97; Root mean Square Error of Approximation=0.05; Tucker-Lewis Index=0.96). The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of a French version of the EDS-R [Factorial validity and psychometric examination of the exercise dependence scale-revised. Meas Phys Educ Exerc Sci 2004;8(4):183-201.] to test the stability of the seven-factor model of the original version with a French population. A total of 516 half-marathoners ranged in age from 17 to 74 years old (Mean age=39.02 years, ET=10.64), with 402 men (77.9%) and 114 women (22.1%) participated in the study. The principal component analysis results in a six-factor structure, which accounts for 68.60% of the total variance. Because principal component analysis presents a six-factor structure differing from the original seven-factor structure, two models were tested, using confirmatory factor analysis. The first model is the seven-factor model of the original version of the EDS-R and the second is the

  10. Orthographic transparency and grapheme-phoneme conversion: An ERP study in Arabic and French readers.

    PubMed

    Simon, Grégory; Bernard, Christian; Lalonde, Robert; Rebaï, Mohamed

    2006-08-09

    Numerous behavioral studies have suggested that orthographic transparency of a language is liable to influence the use of grapheme-phoneme conversion during reading. In order to test this hypothesis, the effect of orthographic transparency on event-related potentials was assessed by comparing French to Arab readers. Indeed, French language, contrary to Arabic one, was expected to favor the use of grapheme-phoneme rules during reading. Our results demonstrated that the N320, a component implicated in phonologic transcription, was modulated by orthographic transparency. Indeed, during reading in their mother tongue, only French subjects clearly elicited a N320. Moreover, the comparisons between activations elicited by Arabic words in Arab subjects and French monolingual people also confirm that the N170 component represents an important orthographic stage. The implications of these results on bilinguism and visual word recognition models are discussed.

  11. Vocational identity and psychological adjustment: a study in French adolescents and emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Lannegrand-Willems, Lyda; Perchec, Cyrille; Marchal, Clotilde

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present research was to study vocational identity in French adolescent and emerging adult students by using a French adaptation of the Vocational Identity Status Assessment (VISA), and to analyze the links between vocational identity formation and negative and positive psychological adjustment. Participants were 1077 French students who completed self-report scales about vocational identity, depression and satisfaction with life. The French version of the VISA showed good psychometric properties and six identity statuses were derived by means of cluster analysis: achievement, foreclosure, moratorium, searching moratorium, diffused diffusion and carefree diffusion. The main findings show that diffused diffusion and moratorium represent the dark sides of identity because of their negative psychological adjustment, and that the two processes of reconsideration of commitment were differently associated with psychological adjustment. These findings demonstrate that clinical interventions should be adapted to the individual's identity profile.

  12. Seismic ambient noise study at Bouillante geothermal system, French Antilles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jousset, Philippe; Bitri, Adnan; Loiseau, Justine; Bouchot, Vincent

    2010-05-01

    Seismic ambient noise analyses have been shown to be able to image structural features of the crust and to monitor underground changes of seismic wave ground velocity. We present results of cross-correlation techniques at Bouillante geothermal field, French Antilles, the largest French high-enthalpy geothermal system exploited for electrical power from 3 collocated productive wells. Two power plants generate electricity and fluid extraction rate varies with time and wells are sometimes closed for equipment maintenance. Under the support of the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME) and the French Research Agency (ANR), BRGM has been analyzing seismic data from a network comprising 5 broadband seismological stations set-up at Bouillante area since 2004. Amongst the large number of earthquakes recorded, we show that no single earthquake could be related to the fluid exploitation. Instead, they are due to the intense regional seismicity. Despite the small number of stations, surface wave travel times computed from ambient noise cross-correlation for about a year suggest that the velocity structure is consistent with the conceptual model of hot (250°C) and permeable (fractured) geothermal reservoir of Bouillante. We show at several instances that changes of the fluid extraction rate have spatial and temporal slight perturbations on medium wave velocity. For example, when the production stops for maintenance, velocity increases by several percent and with larger amplitude at stations within 1 km distance from the production wells and lower amplitudes (by more than 50 %) at stations further than 2 km from the production wells. In addition, we note that velocity perturbations have a delay of at most 1 day at further stations. We discuss several mechanisms to explain those observations like pressure and stress variations in the geothermal system. The results suggest that the inferred velocity changes, owing the fine sensibility of the inter

  13. Highlights of recent studies and future plans for the French human biomonitoring (HBM) programme.

    PubMed

    Fréry, Nadine; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Etchevers, Anne; Fillol, Clémence

    2012-02-01

    This manuscript presents highlights of recent studies and perspectives from the French human biomonitoring (HBM) programme. Until recently, HBM studies focused on specific populations or pollutants to gain a better understanding of exposure to environmental chemicals, to help regulators reduce environmental exposure and to monitor existing policies on specific concerns. Highlights of recent multicentre biomonitoring studies with specific population or pollutant focus are given. These French HBM studies have been implemented to know: (1) the influence of living near an incinerator on serum dioxin and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels, (2) the influence of consuming river fish contaminated by PCBs on serum PCBs of fishermen, and (3) the evolution of blood lead levels in children from 1 to 6 years old since 1995. Special emphasis is placed on the use of an integrated (HBM coupled with nutrition and health studies), multipollutant approach. This approach has been initiated in France with a recent national population-based biomonitoring survey, the Etude Nationale Nutrition Santé (ENNS; French Nutrition and Health Survey). This survey will provide the first reference distribution for 42 biomarkers in the French population. The current national HBM strategy will build upon the ENNS and include a national survey of people aged between 6 and 74 years complemented for the neonatal period and childhood by the Etude Longitudinale Française depuis l'Enfance (ELFE; French longitudinal study of children). France also contributes to the harmonization of HBM activities in Europe through participation in European HBM projects.

  14. Gender stereotyping in television advertisements: a study of French and Danish television.

    PubMed

    Furnham, A; Babitzkow, M; Uguccioni, S

    2000-02-01

    Two similar, but not identical, content analyses of the portrayals of men and women in French and Danish television advertisements are reported. By partially replicating and extending past investigations conducted in America, Australia, Britain, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Italy, Kenya, and New Zealand, it was predicted that there would be more gender stereotyping in French television advertisements and less gender stereotyping in Danish television advertisements. In the first study, 165 French television advertisements were analyzed by following established coding categories (A. Furnham & E. Skae, 1997; L. Z. McArthur & B. G. Resko, 1975). Contrary to prediction, the results showed that traditional gender role portrayal on French television was no different from that found in other countries. Separate statistical analyses were carried out for visually versus aurally classified central figures, yet this yielded relatively few significant differences. In the second study, a sample of 151 Danish advertisements was analyzed; results showed that Danish television was generally less gender stereotypic than French television in its portrayal of women. Exactly half (5) of the coding categories showed significant differences. Finally, an international statistical comparison between these two studies and similar research in Australia, Britain, and Italy was carried out. The methodological implications of these results are discussed as well as the theoretical issues arising from other studies of this sort.

  15. [Neuroenhancement in healthy subject? A French case study].

    PubMed

    Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Vion-Dury, Jean; Lancon, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Neuroenhancement is an anglo-saxon concept concerning the use of stimulating psychotropic drugs by healthy subjects, outside any established medical indication or festive setting, to achieve an improvement of their mental functioning. In 2009, because of increasing requests for neuroenhancement in USA, the American Association of Neurology has published practical recommendations stating that "it is ethically permissible to prescribe medications for neuroenhancement" if a number of conditions is met. We present these ethical and psychopharmacological conditions ("the inverted U-Shape principle" in which cognitive performance is related to catecholamine levels and "the trade-off principle" to cognitive enhancement) through a clinical case of methylphenidate prescription in a healthy 24 years old medical student, preparing for the "examen classant national" (the French national ranking before postgraduate education). We then discuss anglo-saxon ethical context in which these recommendations have been proposed. © 2012 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  16. Language Learning Strategies Used by Adolescents Studying French in New York Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Arnulfo G.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a study which attempted to determine the successful strategies utilized by adolescent learners studying French. The learning strategies investigated include: (1) classroom behaviors, (2) individual study tactics, and (3) social interaction behaviors. These strategies are examined in relation to their significance on different language…

  17. Spoken French: Book One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denoeu, Francois; Hall, R. A., Jr.

    This textbook offers a course in French designed for those who need to make themselves understood on ordinary topics in French and cannot devote years of study to the language. It is a self-instructional course, but it is designed to be used with a native French speaker as a guide or, if no native speaker is available, with recordings that are…

  18. The French Version of the Modified-Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT): A Validation Study on a French Sample of 24 Month-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baduel, Sophie; Guillon, Quentin; Afzali, Mohammad H.; Foudon, Nadège; Kruck, Jeanne; Rogé, Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    Early ASD screening has the potential to reduce delays between initial parental concerns and diagnosis, and promote early intervention. The aim of this study was to validate the M-CHAT on a French population sample of 24 month-old children. This study included a low-risk sample of 1,227 children. A total of 20 children screened positive on the…

  19. The French Version of the Modified-Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT): A Validation Study on a French Sample of 24 Month-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baduel, Sophie; Guillon, Quentin; Afzali, Mohammad H.; Foudon, Nadège; Kruck, Jeanne; Rogé, Bernadette

    2017-01-01

    Early ASD screening has the potential to reduce delays between initial parental concerns and diagnosis, and promote early intervention. The aim of this study was to validate the M-CHAT on a French population sample of 24 month-old children. This study included a low-risk sample of 1,227 children. A total of 20 children screened positive on the…

  20. Motivations and the Intent to Study Abroad among U.S., French, and Chinese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Carol M.; Fornerino, Marianela; Zhang, Mengxia

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between students' motivations and their intention to participate in study abroad programs using a model based on expectancy theory. We surveyed U.S., Chinese and French business students who studied in their home countries. Results suggest that certain motivations are common among students from the three…

  1. Motivations and the Intent to Study Abroad among U.S., French, and Chinese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Carol M.; Fornerino, Marianela; Zhang, Mengxia

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the relationship between students' motivations and their intention to participate in study abroad programs using a model based on expectancy theory. We surveyed U.S., Chinese and French business students who studied in their home countries. Results suggest that certain motivations are common among students from the three…

  2. Electronic Mail, a New Written-Language Register: A Study with French-Speaking Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volckaert-Legrier, Olga; Bernicot, Josie; Bert-Erboul, Alain

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which the linguistic forms used by adolescents in electronic mail (e-mail) differ from those used in standard written language. The study was conducted in French, a language with a deep orthography that has strict, addressee-dependent rules for using second person personal pronouns (unfamiliar…

  3. Electronic Mail, a New Written-Language Register: A Study with French-Speaking Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volckaert-Legrier, Olga; Bernicot, Josie; Bert-Erboul, Alain

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which the linguistic forms used by adolescents in electronic mail (e-mail) differ from those used in standard written language. The study was conducted in French, a language with a deep orthography that has strict, addressee-dependent rules for using second person personal pronouns (unfamiliar…

  4. Teaching Business French through Case Studies: Presentation of a Marketing Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federico, Salvatore; Moore, Catherine

    The use of case studies as a means for teaching business French is discussed. The approach is advocated because of the realism of case studies, which are based on actual occurrences. Characteristics of a good case are noted: it tells a story, focuses on interest-arousing issues, is set in the past 10 years, permits empathy with the main…

  5. Cardiac bioassist: results of the French multicenter cardiomyoplasty study.

    PubMed

    Chachques, Juan C; Jegaden, Olivier; Mesana, Thierry; Glock, Yves; Grandjean, Pierre A; Carpentier, Alain F

    2009-12-01

    The French multicenter experience (6 centers) of dynamic cardiomyoplasty was analyzed for long-term survival and functional outcome, the most important endpoints in congestive heart failure therapy. Cardiomyoplasty was performed in 212 patients with symptoms of chronic heart failure despite maximal pharmacological therapy. The etiology was ischemic (48%), idiopathic (45%) or other (7%). Cardiomyoplasty was performed using the latissimus dorsi muscle which was electrostimulated after surgery. During follow-up, 88% of patients improved clinically. Hospital death occurred in 29 (14%) patients and was related to the severity of preoperative heart failure symptoms. Late mortality occurred in 99 patients due to heart failure (44%), sudden death (37%), or noncardiac causes (18%). Combined dynamic cardiomyoplasty and implantation of a cardiac rhythm management system was safely achieved in 22 patients, and 26 underwent heart transplantation for recurrent heart failure. Long-term functional improvements were observed in most patients, and the best outcome was achieved in those with isolated right ventricular failure. Dynamic cardiomyoplasty can be considered as a destination therapy or a mid- to long-term biological bridge to heart transplantation.

  6. Mortality in female and male French Olympians: a 1948-2013 cohort study.

    PubMed

    Antero-Jacquemin, Juliana; Rey, Grégoire; Marc, Andy; Dor, Frédéric; Haïda, Amal; Marck, Adrien; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Calmat, Alain; Latouche, Aurélien; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2015-06-01

    Whereas intense physical activity has been associated with deleterious effects on elite athletes' health, in particular due to cardiovascular anomalies, long-term follow-ups have suggested lower mortality rates among elite athletes. Causes of death for French Olympic athletes and female elite athletes have not been studied. We aimed to measure overall and disease-specific mortality of French female and male Olympians compared with the French general population. We hypothesize that Olympians, both women and men, have lower mortality rates. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. French elite athletes (601 women and 1802 men) participating in summer or winter Olympic Games from 1948 to 2010 had their vital status verified by national sources and were followed until 2013. Causes of death were obtained via the National Death registry from 1968 to 2012. Overall and disease-specific mortalities of Olympians were compared with those of the French general population through standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and 95% CIs. Olympians' observed and expected survivals were illustrated by Kaplan-Meier curves. At the endpoint of the study, 13 women and 222 men had died. Overall mortality in Olympians compared with that of their compatriots was 51% lower (SMR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.26-0.85) among women and 49% lower (SMR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.45-0.59) among men. Olympic athletes' survival is significantly superior to that of the French general population (women, P = .03; men, P < .001). According to the total deaths occurring from 1968 to 2012 (12 among women, 202 among men), female Olympians died from neoplasm (50.0%), external causes (33.3%), and cardiovascular diseases (16.6%). The main causes of death among men were related to neoplasms (36.1%), cardiovascular diseases (24.3%), and external causes (14.4%). Regarding the main causes of mortality among male Olympic athletes, the SMRs were as follows: 0.55 for neoplasms (95% CI, 0.43-0.69), 0.55 for cardiovascular diseases (95% CI, 0

  7. [Complications of transluminal coronary angioplasty. A multicenter French study (1983)].

    PubMed

    Valeix, B; Labrunie, P; Marco, J; Cherrier, F; Cuillière, M; Bertrand, M; Schmitt, R; Sabatier, M; Gaspard, P; Guermonprez, J L

    1985-03-01

    The authors report the complications observed during 1 247 transluminal coronary angioplasties (TCA) performed in 1 187 patients in 17 french centers between 1979 and October 1983. There were 855 primary successes (68.9 p. 100). There were 41 cases of symptomatic dissection (3.3 p. 100) of which 32 underwent aortocoronary bypass surgery with a residual myocardial infarction (MI) in 13 cases (40.6 p. 100). Medical treatment of symptomatic dissection gave very poor results (7 out of 9 MI) and is formally contra-indicated. 67 per- or postoperative occlusions were observed (5.3 p. 100). This is the most serious complication which necessitates an emergency revascularisation procedure (TCA or coronary bypass surgery--CBS--) because MI rapidly follows in patients without a well-developed collateral circulation. In this series MI occurred in 28 out of 45 patients--62 p. 100--despite CBS. This underlines the value of an immediate repeat TCA which, when successful, results in a much faster revascularisation. Seventy-three MI (5.8 p. 100) were observed in the first 24 hours: 50 p. 100 were secondary to an angiographically documented coronary occlusion. The other two causes were coronary dissection and spasm. Emergency CBS was carried out in 107 cases (8.9 p. 100) mainly for coronary occlusion or symptomatic dissection. The mortality was 11 out of 1 187 patients (0.93 p. 100). Death occurred in the catheter laboratory in 3 cases, during the first 24 hours in the operating theatre in 1 case, and after the first 24 hours but before hospital discharge in 7 patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Upper Secondary French Students, Chemical Transformations and the "Register of Models": A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokelez, Aytekin; Dumon, Alain; Taber, Keith S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify how upper secondary school French students (Grade 10-12) interpret chemical transformation with regards to the changes within molecules and atoms, and in terms of intramolecular and/or intermolecular bond breaking. In order to identify and describe the students' assimilated knowledge, four questions were…

  9. Graphophonological Processes in Dyslexic Readers of French: A Longitudinal Study of the Explicitness Effect of Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daigle, Daniel; Berthiaume, Rachel; Plisson, Anne; Demont, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Given the well-acknowledged phonological deficit found in dyslexic children, this study was aimed at investigating graphophonological processes in dyslexic readers of French over a 1-year period. Among the different types of phonological processing can be distinguished those related to phonological awareness based on knowledge of the oral language…

  10. Perception by French Students of the Gendered Nature of Material Artifacts Studied in Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colette, Andreucci; Marjolaine, Chatoney

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have shown the importance of the socio-cultural factors that lead girls to desert scientific and technological courses. Over a long period, the contents of the French technology education (TE) college curricula may well have contributed to strengthening the feeling among girls that this discipline was better suited to boys. The choice…

  11. A Comparative Study of French and Turkish Students' Ideas on Acid-Base Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokelez, Aytekin

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this comparative study was to determine the knowledge that French and Turkish upper secondary-school students (grades 11 and 12) acquire on the concept of acid-base reactions. Following an examination of the relevant curricula and textbooks in the two countries, 528 students answered six written questions about the acid-base concept.…

  12. The Acquisition of Pronouns by French Children: A Parallel Study of Production and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zesiger, Pascal; Zesiger, Laurence Chillier; Arabatzi, Marina; Baranzini, Lara; Cronel-Ohayon, Stephany; Franck, Julie; Frauenfelder, Ulrich Hans; Hamann, Cornelia; Rizzi, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    This study examines syntactic and morphological aspects of the production and comprehension of pronouns by 99 typically developing French-speaking children aged 3 years, 5 months to 6 years, 5 months. A fine structural analysis of subject, object, and reflexive clitics suggests that whereas the object clitic chain crosses the subject chain, the…

  13. The Rise and Fall of Mathematical Enrolments in the French Educational System: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnoux, Pierre; Duverney, Daniel; Holton, Derek

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we start by considering the relevant parts of the French educational system and the data relating to science at the end of secondary school and the early years of university. We show an increase, till 1995, and then a decline in the study of mathematics at baccalaureate and university level. However, our main conclusions relate to…

  14. A Triple-Track Program in the Second-Year French Courses: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagiwara, M. P.

    This is a report of a pilot study conducted by the Department of Romance Languages of the University of Michigan to assess the feasibility of a multiple-track foreign language program for second-year language students. The multiple-track system was used during the winter semester of 1969. Three types of French classes were offered. One type was…

  15. French as a Second Language: Nine-Year Program of Studies (Grade 4 to Grade 12)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The nine-year program of studies for French as a Second Language (FSL) is a legal document that specifies from Grade 4 to 12 what Alberta students are expected to acquire as attitudes and linguistic, cultural, and strategic knowledge as they develop and demonstrate their communicative skills. This document contains an introduction, a rationale,…

  16. The Acquisition of Pronouns by French Children: A Parallel Study of Production and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zesiger, Pascal; Zesiger, Laurence Chillier; Arabatzi, Marina; Baranzini, Lara; Cronel-Ohayon, Stephany; Franck, Julie; Frauenfelder, Ulrich Hans; Hamann, Cornelia; Rizzi, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    This study examines syntactic and morphological aspects of the production and comprehension of pronouns by 99 typically developing French-speaking children aged 3 years, 5 months to 6 years, 5 months. A fine structural analysis of subject, object, and reflexive clitics suggests that whereas the object clitic chain crosses the subject chain, the…

  17. Perception by French Students of the Gendered Nature of Material Artifacts Studied in Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colette, Andreucci; Marjolaine, Chatoney

    2017-01-01

    Many studies have shown the importance of the socio-cultural factors that lead girls to desert scientific and technological courses. Over a long period, the contents of the French technology education (TE) college curricula may well have contributed to strengthening the feeling among girls that this discipline was better suited to boys. The choice…

  18. Chinese-French Case Study of English Language Learning via Wikispaces, Animoto and Skype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartwell, Laura M.; Zou, Bin

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the learning experience of Chinese and French students participating in a computer mediated communication (CMC) collaboration conducted in English and supported by Wikispaces, Animoto, and Skype. Several studies have investigated CMC contexts in which at least some participants were native speakers. Here, we address the…

  19. The First Language in Science Class: A Quasi-Experimental Study in Late French Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Miles; Cormier, Marianne; Bourque, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    This article reports analysis of data collected from a quasi-experimental study in 2 Canadian late French immersion science classes. We examine if, how, and when the first language (L1) is used when students in the first years of their second language learning talk about complex science concepts. We compare differences in groups following a…

  20. A Comparative Study of French and Turkish Students' Ideas on Acid-Base Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokelez, Aytekin

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this comparative study was to determine the knowledge that French and Turkish upper secondary-school students (grades 11 and 12) acquire on the concept of acid-base reactions. Following an examination of the relevant curricula and textbooks in the two countries, 528 students answered six written questions about the acid-base concept.…

  1. How Specific Is the Connection between Morphological Awareness and Spelling? A Study of French Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casalis, S.; Deacon, S. H.; Pacton, S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between morphological awareness and spelling. We show that French children in Grades 3 and 4 appear to use morphological information in spelling; spelling of sounds for which there are several alternatives was more accurate in derived than in nonderived words. The link between morphological awareness and…

  2. Upper Secondary French Students, Chemical Transformations and the "Register of Models": A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokelez, Aytekin; Dumon, Alain; Taber, Keith S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify how upper secondary school French students (Grade 10-12) interpret chemical transformation with regards to the changes within molecules and atoms, and in terms of intramolecular and/or intermolecular bond breaking. In order to identify and describe the students' assimilated knowledge, four questions were…

  3. The First Language in Science Class: A Quasi-Experimental Study in Late French Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Miles; Cormier, Marianne; Bourque, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    This article reports analysis of data collected from a quasi-experimental study in 2 Canadian late French immersion science classes. We examine if, how, and when the first language (L1) is used when students in the first years of their second language learning talk about complex science concepts. We compare differences in groups following a…

  4. Graphophonological Processes in Dyslexic Readers of French: A Longitudinal Study of the Explicitness Effect of Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daigle, Daniel; Berthiaume, Rachel; Plisson, Anne; Demont, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Given the well-acknowledged phonological deficit found in dyslexic children, this study was aimed at investigating graphophonological processes in dyslexic readers of French over a 1-year period. Among the different types of phonological processing can be distinguished those related to phonological awareness based on knowledge of the oral language…

  5. Dietary iodine and thyroid cancer risk in French Polynesia: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Cléro, Énora; Doyon, Françoise; Chungue, Vaïana; Rachédi, Frédérique; Boissin, Jean-Louis; Sebbag, Joseph; Shan, Larrys; Bost-Bezeaud, Frédérique; Petitdidier, Patrice; Dewailly, Eric; Rubino, Carole; de Vathaire, Florent

    2012-04-01

    French Polynesia has one of the world's highest thyroid cancer incidence rates. Iodine is suspected to play a role in this high incidence. The objective of this study was to assess whether low dietary iodine is related to a higher risk of thyroid cancer in the French Polynesian population. A case-control study was performed among native residents of French Polynesia. It included 229 cases of differentiated thyroid cancer diagnosed between 1979 and 2004 (203 women, 26 men) matched with 371 population controls (324 women, 47 men) on the date of birth. The current study is focused on dietary iodine intake and fish consumption (food rich in iodine) and analyzed by conditional logistic regression. Daily dietary iodine intake was insufficient (<150 μg/day) in 60% of both cases and controls. A decreased risk of thyroid cancer was observed with a higher consumption of fish (p(trend)=0.008) and shellfish (p(trend)=0.002), and also with a higher dietary iodine intake (p(trend)=0.03). There was no significant interaction between the effects of the thyroid radiation dose and the dietary iodine intake (p=0.2). French Polynesia is a mild iodine deficiency area in which a higher consumption of food from the sea and a higher dietary iodine intake are significantly associated with a decreased risk of thyroid cancer. The quantification of this reduction requires specific investigation of iodine intake in traditional Polynesian food.

  6. A cost/benefit study of paratuberculosis certification in French cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Barbara; Pouillot, Régis; Durand, Benoît

    2004-01-01

    Paratuberculosis has received increasing attention in France because of the important losses this disease may provoke. The use of certification schemes has proven its effectiveness for the protection of healthy herds against diseases transmitted mainly by trade. The economic justification of such schemes in the particular case of paratuberculosis is studied, for French cattle herds, using a cost/benefit approach. The basic economical hypotheses and estimates have been proposed and carefully examined by a working group composed of paratuberculosis experts and field specialists. By adopting the point of view of a breeder that buys animals, we first estimated the benefits resulting from the non-introduction of the disease. They were then compared with the costs resulting from the fact that the vendor reports its own certification costs on the price of the animals he sells. Two average herds (the mean French beef herd and the mean French dairy herd), and two certification levels were studied. The results show that, currently, the use of the certification is not very economically profitable in French cattle herds. This conclusion, however should be reappraised if the certification costs decrease, for example with the commercialization of diagnostic tests on mixtures.

  7. An ultrasound study of Canadian French rhotic vowels with polar smoothing spline comparisons.

    PubMed

    Mielke, Jeff

    2015-05-01

    This is an acoustic and articulatory study of Canadian French rhotic vowels, i.e., mid front rounded vowels /ø œ̃ œ/ produced with a rhotic perceptual quality, much like English [ɚ] or [ɹ], leading heureux, commun, and docteur to sound like [ɚʁɚ], [kɔmɚ̃], and [dɔktaɹʁ]. Ultrasound, video, and acoustic data from 23 Canadian French speakers are analyzed using several measures of mid-sagittal tongue contours, showing that the low F3 of rhotic vowels is achieved using bunched and retroflex tongue postures and that the articulatory-acoustic mapping of F1 and F2 are rearranged in systems with rhotic vowels. A subset of speakers' French vowels are compared with their English [ɹ]/[ɚ], revealing that the French vowels are consistently less extreme in low F3 and its articulatory correlates, even for the most rhotic speakers. Polar coordinates are proposed as a replacement for Cartesian coordinates in calculating smoothing spline comparisons of mid-sagittal tongue shapes, because they enable comparisons to be roughly perpendicular to the tongue surface, which is critical for comparisons involving tongue root position but appropriate for all comparisons involving mid-sagittal tongue contours.

  8. The French Version of the Modified-Checklist for Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT): A Validation Study on a French Sample of 24 Month-Old Children.

    PubMed

    Baduel, Sophie; Guillon, Quentin; Afzali, Mohammad H; Foudon, Nadège; Kruck, Jeanne; Rogé, Bernadette

    2017-02-01

    Early ASD screening has the potential to reduce delays between initial parental concerns and diagnosis, and promote early intervention. The aim of this study was to validate the M-CHAT on a French population sample of 24 month-old children. This study included a low-risk sample of 1227 children. A total of 20 children screened positive on the M-CHAT. Twelve out of 20 of these children received a diagnosis of ASD at 36 months, yielding a PPV of 0.60. These results add to the evidence that the M-CHAT is a useful screening instrument and further demonstrates the importance of the follow-up interview in primary care settings. This study provides French practitioners with guidelines regarding the use of the M-CHAT at 24 months.

  9. [Trends and evolutions of French breast cancer research: a bibliometric study].

    PubMed

    Thonon, Frédérique; Saghatchian, Mahasti; Nerfie, Alexia; Delaloge, Suzette

    2015-05-01

    This article presents a bibliometric study carried out in order to describe the trends and evolutions of French breast cancer research from 2003 to 2013. The results show an increase in the number of publications, especially international publications coordinated by non-French institutions. The most visible topics, in terms of number of publications by keywords, are related to biology, clinical trials and genetics. Most publications are written by authors affiliated to comprehensive cancer centres, followed by universities, research centres, university hospitals and governmental agencies. The importance of publications by topic varies throughout the years: there has been an increase of the number of publications related to targeted therapies or genomics. The importance of institutions or country affiliation of authors varies with the topics. This study, especially the analysis by keywords, enables the coordinators of research programs to identify the predominant actors and themes.

  10. Study of SGD along the French Mediterranean coastline using airborne TIR images and in situ analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beek, Pieter; Stieglitz, Thomas; Souhaut, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Although submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been investigated in many places of the world, very few studies were conducted along the French coastline of the Mediterranean Sea. Almost no information is available on the fluxes of water and chemical elements associated with these SGD and on their potential impact on the geochemical cycling and ecosystems of the coastal zones. In this work, we combined the use of airborne thermal infrared (TIR) images with in situ analyses of salinity, temperature, radon and radium isotopes to study SGD at various sites along the French Mediterranean coastline and in coastal lagoons. These analyses allowed us to detect SGD sites and to quantify SGD fluxes (that include both the fluxes of fresh groundwater and recirculated seawater). In particular, we will show how the Ra isotopes determined in the La Palme lagoon were used to estimate i) the residence time of waters in the lagoon and ii) SGD fluxes.

  11. Le vocabulaire disponible du francais, Tome 1. Le vocabulaire concret usuel des enfants francais et acadiens: Etude temoin (The Working French Vocabulary, Volume 1. Common Generic Terms Used by French and Acadian Children: A Field Study).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, William F.; And Others

    The first of a two-volume study of the relative accessibility of French vocabulary in French-speaking Canada presents statistical data concerning the frequency, distribution, valence, and accessibility of vocabulary related to 16 fundamental centers of interest found in normal conversation. The scope, procedures, and results of the study are…

  12. Epidemiological and entomological studies of a malaria outbreak among French armed forces deployed at illegal gold mining sites reveal new aspects of the disease's transmission in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Pommier de Santi, Vincent; Girod, Romain; Mura, Marie; Dia, Aissata; Briolant, Sébastien; Djossou, Félix; Dusfour, Isabelle; Mendibil, Alexandre; Simon, Fabrice; Deparis, Xavier; Pagès, Frédéric

    2016-01-22

    In December 2010, a Plasmodium vivax malaria outbreak occurred among French forces involved in a mission to control illegal gold mining in French Guiana. The findings of epidemiological and entomological investigations conducted after this outbreak are presented here. Data related to malaria cases reported to the French armed forces epidemiological surveillance system were collected during the epidemic period from December 2010 to April 2011. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to identify presumed contamination sites. Anopheles mosquitoes were sampled at the identified sites using Mosquito Magnet and CDC light traps. Specimens were identified morphologically and confirmed using molecular methods (sequencing of ITS2 gene and/or barcoding). Anopheles infections with Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax were tested by both enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time PCR. Seventy-two P. vivax malaria cases were reported (three were mixed P. falciparum/P. vivax infections), leading to a global attack rate of 26.5% (72/272). Lack of compliance with vector control measures and doxycycline chemoprophylaxis was reported by patients. Two illegal gold mining sites located in remote areas in the primary forest were identified as places of contamination. In all, 595 Anopheles females were caught and 528 specimens were formally identified: 305 Anopheles darlingi, 145 Anopheles nuneztovari s.l., 63 Anopheles marajoara and 15 Anopheles triannulatus s.l. Three An. darlingi were infected by P. falciparum (infection rate: 1.1%) and four An. marajoara by P. vivax (infection rate: 6.4%). The main drivers of the outbreak were the lack of adherence by military personnel to malaria prevention measures and the high level of malaria transmission at illegal gold mining sites. Anopheles marajoara was clearly implicated in malaria transmission for the first time in French Guiana. The high infection rates observed confirm that illegal gold mining sites must be considered as high level

  13. Wild gudgeons (Gobio gobio) from French rivers are contaminated by microplastics: preliminary study and first evidence.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Wilfried; Bender, Coline; Porcher, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Marine ecosystem contamination by microplastics is extensively documented. However few data is available on the contamination of continental water bodies and associated fauna. The aim of this study was to address the occurrence of microplastics in digestive tract of gudgeons (Gobio gobio) from French rivers. These investigations confirm that continental fish ingested microplastics while 12% of collected fish are contaminated by these small particles. Further works are needed to evaluate the occurence of this contamination.

  14. Eating fruits and vegetables. An ethnographic study of American and French family dinners.

    PubMed

    Kremer-Sadlik, Tamar; Morgenstern, Aliyah; Peters, Chloe; Beaupoil, Pauline; Caët, Stéphanie; Debras, Camille; le Mené, Marine

    2015-06-01

    The French eat more fruits and vegetables than Americans and have lower rates of childhood obesity. This ethnographic study compares various aspects of meal environment in sixteen households in LA, California and Paris, France, and offers insights on the relationship between local practices and preferences and children's consumption of fruits and vegetables. Our analysis of video-recorded naturalist data reveals that the consumption of fruits and vegetables is linked to the cultural organization of dinner--what, when and how food is served--and to local beliefs about children's eating practices. We also found that the French model for dinnertime prioritizes the eating of fruits and vegetables more than the American model does. We propose that local eating models should be taken into account in research on childhood obesity and in prevention programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Confirmed Beliefs or False Assumptions? A Study of Home Stay Experiences in the French Study Abroad Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diao, Wenhao; Freed, Barbara; Smith, Leigh

    2011-01-01

    The past 20 years have witnessed enormous growth in a diverse array of studies which explore the linguistic impact of study abroad (SA) experiences. During this period a multitude of research projects have investigated SLA/L2 learning in SA, in a number of different languages (Russian, Japanese, French, Spanish, English), utilizing diverse…

  16. Conceptions of learning research: variations amongst French and Swedish nurses. A phenomenographic study.

    PubMed

    Dupin, Cécile Marie; Larsson, Maria; Dariel, Odessa; Debout, Christophe; Rothan-Tondeur, Monique

    2015-01-01

    The development of nursing research capacity and interactions with cultural and structural issues is at various stages throughout Europe. This process appears to be remarkably similar irrespective of the country. Sweden has developed this capacity since the 1990s, whereas France is experiencing a transition. Nevertheless, knowledge about how nurses conceive their learning about nursing research and transitioning toward being researchers is scarce. The aim of this study was to explore French and Swedish RNs' conceptions of research education and educational passage toward research and to describe how learning research contributes to the understanding of their norms and practices. A phenomenographic approach was used to understand and describe the qualitatively different ways in which French and Swedish RNs conceive research and its apprenticeship. A purposive maximum variation sampling of five French and five Swedish Nurse Researchers with PhDs. Individual in-depth interviews conducted in France and Sweden between November 2012 and March 2013 were analysed using phenomenography. The analysis revealed one main category, "Organisational factors to sustain individual apprenticeship". Three descriptive categories have emerged from the data and its variations amongst French and Swedish nurses: (1) entrance into research--modes of commitment; (2) nurses' engagement--the need for dedicated support; and (3) research as the means to resolve nursing situations. This study demonstrates how registered nurses have integrated nursing and researcher roles following different efficient paths. Education in nursing research is part of the strategy needed for the development of nursing research and is supported by the integration of research and practice. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dietary patterns, goitrogenic food, and thyroid cancer: a case-control study in French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Cléro, Énora; Doyon, Françoise; Chungue, Vaïana; Rachédi, Frédérique; Boissin, Jean-Louis; Sebbag, Joseph; Shan, Larrys; Rubino, Carole; de Vathaire, Florent

    2012-01-01

    French Polynesia has one of the world's highest thyroid cancer incidence rates. A case-control study among native residents of French Polynesia included 229 cases of differentiated thyroid cancer diagnosed between 1979 and 2004, and 371 population controls. Dietary patterns and goitrogenic food consumption (cabbage, cassava) were analyzed. We used a factor analysis to identify dietary patterns and a conditional logistic regression analysis to investigate the association between dietary patterns or food items and thyroid cancer risk. Two distinct dietary patterns were identified: traditional Polynesian and Western. A nonsignificant inverse association was observed between the traditional Polynesian dietary pattern and thyroid cancer risk. The Western pattern was not associated with thyroid cancer risk. Cassava consumption was significantly associated with a decreased risk of thyroid cancer. In conclusion, a traditional Polynesian dietary pattern led to a weak reduced risk of thyroid cancer in French Polynesia. The protective effect of cassava on this cancer does not seem to be substantially different from that of cabbage, which was the main goitrogenic food studied to date.

  18. Grammatical and Situational Aspect in French: A Developmental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labelle, Marie; Godard, Lucie; Longtin, Catherine-Marie

    2002-01-01

    We study the ability of children to provide an appropriate continuation for a stimulus sentence, taking into account the joint demands of situational aspect and grammatical aspect. We hypothesize that the aspectual transitions required by some aspectual combinations play a role in the difficulty of providing an appropriate continuation for them.…

  19. Vaccine coverage in CF children: A French multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Masson, A; Launay, O; Delaisi, B; Bassinet, L; Remus, N; Lebourgeois, M; Chedevergne, F; Bailly, C; Foucaud, P; Corvol, H; deBlic, J; Sermet-Gaudelus, I

    2015-09-01

    Recent reports have pointed the low vaccine coverage in patients with chronic diseases. Data are lacking in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Gaining more information on coverage both for mandatory vaccines and those more specifically recommended would help to optimize care of these patients. Data were extracted from the "MucoFlu" study, which was a prospective study performed in 2009 in the 5 cystic fibrosis centers of the Paris metropolitan area. Data on mandatory and recommended vaccines in CF were collected in the health booklet and compared to the coverage of the general population. A total of 134 CF children were included. Vaccination coverage for mandatory vaccines was insufficient (DTPCaHi, conjugate pneumococcal, BCG, MMR and hepatitis B) at 1year of age with no catching-up with age in contrast to the general population. Approximately 66% of the children had immunization for seasonal influenza and 91% for 2009 pandemic flu. Coverage for vaccines specifically recommended in CF was low for hepatitis A, non conjugate pneumococcal and varicella. This study shows a defect in vaccine coverage for both routine immunization and vaccines more specifically recommended in CF. Copyright © 2015 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Predictive factors of unprotected sex for female sex workers: first study in French Guiana, the French territory with the highest HIV prevalence.

    PubMed

    Parriault, Marie-Claire; Basurko, Célia; Melle, Astrid Van; Gaubert-Maréchal, Emilie; Rogier, Stéphanie; Couppié, Pierre; Nacher, Mathieu

    2015-07-01

    French Guiana is the French territory that is most affected by HIV. AIDS incidence is much higher than in mainland France and sex work seems to be an important driver of the epidemic. The objective of this study was to describe consistent condom use among female sex workers with their clients and their intimate partners and to identify determinants of non-use of condoms. An HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviours and Practices survey was conducted in 2009-2010 among sex workers in French Guiana. A total of 477 sex workers were interviewed. Female sex workers were more likely to use condoms with their clients (97%) than with their intimate partners (45%). The factors associated with non-consistent condom use with the intimate partner were having had an abortion, feeling at risk for HIV, not evaluating one's own risk for HIV, living as a couple, being Dominican, and not feeling comfortable asking intimate partners to use condoms. Although a high proportion of female sex workers declared using condoms with commercial partners, there is still room for improvement in the prevention of transmission with both commercial and intimate partners.

  1. Predictive factors of unprotected sex for female sex workers: first study in French Guiana, the French territory with the highest HIV prevalence

    PubMed Central

    Parriault, Marie-Claire; Basurko, Célia; Van Melle, Astrid; Gaubert-Maréchal, Emilie; Rogier, Stéphanie; Couppié, Pierre; Nacher, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    French Guiana is the French territory that is most affected by HIV. AIDS incidence is much higher than in mainland France and sex work seems to be an important driver of the epidemic. The objective of this study was to describe consistent condom use among female sex workers (FSW) with their clients and their intimate partners and to identify determinants of non-use of condoms. An HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviours and Practices survey was conducted in 2009–2010 among sex workers in French Guiana. A total of 477 sex workers were interviewed. FSW were more likely to use condoms with their clients (97%) than with their intimate partners (45%). The factors associated with non consistent condom use with the intimate partner were having had an abortion, feeling at risk for HIV, not evaluating one’s own risk for HIV, living as a couple, being Dominican, not feeling comfortable asking intimate partners to use condoms. Although, a high proportion of FSW declared using condoms with commercial partners, there is still room for improvement in the prevention of transmission with both commercial and intimate partners. PMID:25080287

  2. Prevalence and determinants of vitamin D deficiency in healthy French adults: the VARIETE study.

    PubMed

    Souberbielle, Jean-Claude; Massart, Catherine; Brailly-Tabard, Sylvie; Cavalier, Etienne; Chanson, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    The U.S. Institute of Medicine considers that a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentration >20 ng/mL corresponds to optimal vitamin D status in the general population. Old studies of vitamin D status in the French general population have demonstrated high prevalence of insufficiency. We measured serum 25OHD, 1,25(OH)2D, PTH, calcium, phosphorus, and creatinine levels in 892 French Caucasian healthy subjects (463 men, 429 women) aged from 18 to 89 years. The 25OHD concentration was similar in men (24.1 ± 8.2 ng/mL) and women (23.4 ± 8.0 ng/mL). 25OHD concentrations of <10, <12, <20, and <30 ng/mL were found in respectively 6.3, 9.9, 34.6, and 80.3 % of subjects. Residence in northern France (odds ratio [OR] 1.91), blood sampling between January and March (OR 7.74), BMI ≥24 kg/m(2) (OR 1.81), and age 60 years or more (OR 1.99) were significant determinants of hypovitaminosis D (25OHD <20 ng/mL). The serum 25OHD level correlated positively with 1,25(OH)2D and negatively with PTH. 25OHD values below 20 ng/mL were associated with lower 1,25(OH)2D levels, and 25OHD values below 27 ng/mL were associated with higher PTH levels. Many French healthy adults have a 25OHD concentration <20 ng/mL, especially during winter months. Actions to improve the vitamin D status of the French general population are urgently needed.

  3. Prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis in the French West Indies: Results of the EPPPRA study in Martinique.

    PubMed

    Brunier, Lauren; Bleterry, Marie; Merle, Sylvie; Derancourt, Christian; Polomat, Katlyn; Dehlinger, Véronique; Deligny, Christophe; Jean-Baptiste, Georges; Arfi, Serge; Banydeen, Rishika; De Bandt, Michel

    2017-07-01

    Studies suggest that rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is less frequent in African populations. However, no recent precise data exists for Afro-Caribbeans. The EPPPRA project is a prospective epidemiological survey to describe prevalence and clinical aspects of RA in the French West Indies (Martinique, Guadeloupe, French Guiana). EPPPRA involved all rheumatologists from the French West Indies who included all patients with a known clinical diagnosis of RA, during a one-year period. We outline here results for Martinique. EPPPRA estimated an overall world age-standardized prevalence of RA at 0.10% [95% CI 0.09% to 0.11%] in Martinique, with a high female predominance (88.1%) and 93.1% of self-reported Afro-Caribbeans. Mean age at diagnosis was 49.6±16.0 years. A majority of subjects presented at least 4 criteria points from the 1987 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification (94.4%) and at least 6 points (78.2%) from the 2010 ACR/European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) classification. A high immune seropositivity rate was highlighted (84.2%). Despite functional impact observed in 40.5% of patients, 71.4% presented a low disease activity level. Methotrexate was the most common ongoing treatment (73%), followed by biotherapies (24.4%). Numerous patients (68.6%) received a steroid regimen. Cardiovascular risk factors were very frequent, contrasting with a very low tobacco use (8.7%), CONCLUSION: This work outlines low standardized prevalence of RA in a French Afro-Caribbean population with specific characteristics (high female predominance, high immune seropositivity, low tobacco use). Despite easy access to care and biotherapies, approximately half of RA patients still present destructive disease with functional impact. Copyright © 2016 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Adherence to Hypothermia Guidelines: A French Multicenter Study of Fullterm Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Chevallier, Marie; Ego, Anne; Cans, Christine; Debillon, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Aim The objective of this study was to describe the French practice of hypothermia treatment (HT) in full-term newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) and to analyze the deviations from the guidelines of the French Society of Neonatology. Materials and Methods From May 2010 to March 2012 we recorded all cases of HIE treated by HT in a French national database. The population was divided into three groups, "optimal HT" (OHT), “late HT” (LHT) and “non-indicated” HT (NIHT), according to the guidelines. Results Of the 311 newborns registered in the database and having HT, 65% were classified in the OHT group, 22% and 13% in the LHT and NIHT groups respectively. The severity of asphyxia and HIE were comparable between newborns with OHT and LHT, apart from EEG. HT was initiated at a mean time of 12 hours of life in the LHT group. An acute obstetrical event was more likely to be identified among newborns with LHT (46%), compared to OHT (34%) and NIHT (22%). There was a gradation in the rate of complications from the NIHT group (29%) to the LHT (38%) group and the OHT group (52%). Despite an insignificant difference in the rates of death or abnormal neurological examination at discharge, nearly 60% of newborns in the OHT group had an MRI showing abnormalities, compared to 44% and 49% in the LHT and NIHT groups respectively. Conclusion The conduct of the HT for HIE newborns is not consistent with French guidelines for 35% of newborns, 22% being explained by an excessive delay in the start of HT, 13% by the lack of adherence to the clinical indications. This first report illustrates the difficulties in implementing guidelines for HT and should argue for an optimization of perinatal care for HIE. PMID:24391817

  5. Teaching French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marty, Fernand

    This comprehensive analysis of French teaching methodology reveals basic problems underlying the current philosophy of language learning, while presenting new ideas based on extensive research. Two books, "Active French; Dialogues" and "Active French: Foundations Course" (Books 1 and 2), which stress well specified learning objectives, were…

  6. Serum levels of organochlorine pesticides in the French adult population: the French National Nutrition and Health Study (ENNS), 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Saoudi, Abdessattar; Fréry, Nadine; Zeghnoun, Abdelkrim; Bidondo, Marie-Laure; Deschamps, Valérie; Göen, Thomas; Garnier, Robert; Guldner, Laurence

    2014-02-15

    Although most organochlorine (OC) pesticides were banned in France in the 1970s and 1980s, they remain a source of public concern. Because of their high persistence in the environment, they are still detected in foodstuffs, leading to continued human exposure. The purpose of this study was to assess the distribution of serum organochlorine (OC) pesticides in the French adult population and to identify the main risk factors for p,p'-dichlorodiphenyl dichlorethylene (DDE), β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) and hexachlorobenzene (HCB). The selected OC pesticides (HCB, DDE, DDT, α-HCH, β-HCB and γ-HCH) were measured in serum samples collected in 2006-2007 from 386 persons (aged 18-74 years) randomly selected among the participants in the clinical and biological component of the French Nutrition and Health Survey (Etude Nationale Nutrition Santé [ENNS]), a cross-sectional survey carried out in the general population. Collected data included biological samples, socio-demographic characteristics, and data about environmental and occupational exposure factors. Of the six OC pesticides investigated, the highest concentrations were observed for HCB, β-HCH and DDE. Median serum concentrations were as follows: 22.8 ng/g lipid for HCB, 0.74 and 27.0 ng/g lipid, respectively, for α- and ß-HCH, and 3.8 and 104.6 ng/g lipid, respectively, for DDT and DDE. Lindane (γ-HCH) was detected in approximately 10% of the sample. OC pesticide levels in serum in French adults were higher (except for DDT and DDE) than those observed in American, Canadian and German populations and generally lower than or in the same range as those observed in other European countries. The low serum DDT/DDE ratio in the present study (3.7%) would suggest that the concentrations observed for these two OC pesticides were mainly the result of past exposure. The most important predictors of serum DDE, HCB and β-HCH concentrations among the French adult population included individual factors (age, gender

  7. [Magnet ingestions in children: a French multicenter study].

    PubMed

    Talvard, M; Mouttalib, S; Flaum, V; Viala, J; Galinier, P; Olives, J-P; Mas, E

    2015-01-01

    Digestive complications related to the ingestion of magnetic foreign bodies in children are increasing, especially in Asia and North America. In France, several case reports have been reported since 2008. We conducted a retrospective multicentric study to evaluate the frequency of ingestion of magnet foreign bodies and to describe the complicated cases that have occurred in France over the last 5 years. We report 40 cases of which 60% were multiple magnet ingestions. Eighty-eight percent of the children of the group who had swallowed multiple magnets needed interventional management by endoscopy (33%) or surgery (58%). Only two children (12.5%) of the group who swallowed one magnet required removal. This problem is not uncommon in France (2% of the 1132 foreign bodies investigated in the Toulouse center over 5 years), which justifies clear information for healthcare professionals and caregivers in order to avoid potential intestinal complications. We suggest interventional management or very close monitoring in the cases of multiple magnet ingestion. Meanwhile, in the majority of confirmed cases of simple magnet ingestions, we propose home monitoring.

  8. Morphostructural study of the Belledonne faults system (French Alps).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billant, Jérémy; Bellier, Olivier; Hippolyte, Jean-Claude; Godard, Vincent; Manchuel, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    The NE trending Belledonne faults system, located in the Alps, is a potentially active faults system that extends from the Aiguilles Rouges and Mont Blanc massifs in the NE to the Vercors massif in the SW (subalpine massifs). It includes the Belledonne border fault (BBF), defined by an alignment of micro earthquakes (ML≤3.5) along the eastern part of the Grésivaudan valley (Thouvenot et al., 2003). Focal mechanisms and their respective depths tend to confirm a dextral strike-slip faulting at crustal scale. In the scope of the Sigma project (http://projet-sigma.com/index.html, EDF), this study aims at better constraining the geometry, kinematic and seismogenic potential of the constitutive faults of the Belledonne fault system, by using a multidisciplinary approach that includes tectonics, geomorphology and geophysics. Fault kinematic analysis along the BBF (Billant et al., 2015) and the Jasneuf fault allows the determination of a strike-slip tectonic regime characterised by an ENE trending σ1 stress axes, which is consistent with stress state deduced from the focal mechanisms. Although no morphological anomalies could be related to recent faulting along the BBF, new clues of potential Quaternary deformations were observed along the other faults of the system: -right lateral offset of morphologic markers (talwegs...) along the NE trending Arcalod fault located at the north-eastern terminations of the BBF; -left lateral offset of the valley formed by the Isère glacier along the NW trending Brion fault which is consistent with its left-lateral slip inferred from the focal mechanisms; -fault scarps and right lateral offsets of cliffs bordering a calcareous plateau and talwegs along the four fault segments of the NE trending Jasneuf fault located at the south-western termination of the BBF in the Vercors massif. Some offsets were measured using a new method that does not require the identification of piercing points and take advantage of the high resolution

  9. Le "Francais Populaire" and French as a Second Language: A Comparative Study of Language Simplification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenemer, Virginia Lynn

    The French of English speaking students of French as a second language is compared with "francais populaire" (FP) in order to determine similarities in their tendency toward simplified grammar and morphology. Simplifying characteristics that are typical of FP were obtained from French working class sources, while simplification patterns…

  10. Factor Structure of the French Version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III. Validity Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregoire, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    The standardization of the French version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) was conducted after carefully adapting the French version from the U.S. version and extensive field testing. The standardization sample was composed of 1,104 participants from 16 to 89 years. To assess the construct validity of the French version,…

  11. English-French Bilingual Education in the Early Grades: The Elgin Study through Grade Four

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barik, Henri C.; Swain, Merrill

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an evaluation of a bilingual education program for English-speaking pupils, grades 1-4, in Ontario. It is a partial French immersion program, with instruction in French or English half of each day. Evaluative tests are described, and English and French language skills examined. (CHK)

  12. Producing Multimodal Picture Books and Dramatic Performances in a Core French Classroom: An Exploratory Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Early, Margaret; Yeung, Cindy

    2009-01-01

    In a Grade 9 core French class, the teacher designed a multi-stage project in which students composed original children's stories in French; illustrated their stories to produce picture books; then, in groups, adapted one group member's story into a play script; and, finally, dramatized the scripts for children from the local French immersion…

  13. Early Predictors of Biliteracy Development in Children in French Immersion: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jared, Debra; Cormier, Pierre; Levy, Betty Ann; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2011-01-01

    English language predictors of English and French reading development were investigated in a group of 140 children who were enrolled in French immersion programs. Children were first tested in kindergarten, and their reading achievement was tested yearly in both English and French from Grades 1 to 3, with word-level and passage-level measures that…

  14. [Burnout in French doctors: a comparative study among anaesthesiologists and other specialists in French hospitals (SESMAT study)].

    PubMed

    Doppia, M-A; Estryn-Béhar, M; Fry, C; Guetarni, K; Lieutaud, T

    2011-11-01

    Burnout is one of the main chronic health problems with negative consequences on health care givers but also on quality of care. The main goal of Physician Health Survey was to study the frequency of burnout among salaried physicians and pharmacists and to compare anesthesiologists and intensivists (AI) with other practitioners (OP). The secondary end points were to analyze risk factors of burnout in each group. An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire was diffused via a specific website. Burnout was measured using the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory (CBI). Several different factors were examined: work/family conflict, salary satisfaction, quality of teamwork, interpersonal relationships, workplace influence, workload and perceived health. The role of each factor was calculated by multivariate logistic regression and comparisons were made between AI and OP. Among the 3196 responses, CBI revealed an elevated score of burnout in 38.4% in AI and in 42.4% in OP. In each group, a great gap was displayed between the CBI results and the self-assessment of burnout (15%). Among AI, risk factors of burnout were high quantitative demand (ORadj=3.40; CI(95) 1,34-8,63), Work/family conflict (ORadj=; 3.12 CI(95) 1.60-6.08), low quality of teamwork (ORadj=1.99; CI(95)1.14-3.47) and tense Relation within team (ORadj=1.92; CI(95) 1.25-2.95). All these factors are observed also among OP. Female gender, young age and dissatisfaction with pay have significant influence but different in the two groups. Claims of recurrent harassment by superiors is a risk factor for burnout only for the AP (adj.OR=1.83; CI(95) 1.04-3.22). Burnout affected near one about two salaried physicians and pharmacists in France. AI were not more concerned by burnout than OP but all of whom have difficulty identifying their own levels of psychological stress and burnout. Decreasing the level of different risk factors i.e. by improving the quality of teamwork should lead to reduce burnout frequency. Copyright

  15. Dietary patterns in the French adult population: a study from the second French national cross-sectional dietary survey (INCA2) (2006-2007).

    PubMed

    Gazan, R; Béchaux, C; Crépet, A; Sirot, V; Drouillet-Pinard, P; Dubuisson, C; Havard, S

    2016-07-01

    Identification and characterisation of dietary patterns are needed to define public health policies to promote better food behaviours. The aim of this study was to identify the major dietary patterns in the French adult population and to determine their main demographic, socio-economic, nutritional and environmental characteristics. Dietary patterns were defined from food consumption data collected in the second French national cross-sectional dietary survey (2006-2007). Non-negative-matrix factorisation method, followed by a cluster analysis, was implemented to derive the dietary patterns. Logistic regressions were then used to determine their main demographic and socio-economic characteristics. Finally, nutritional profiles and contaminant exposure levels of dietary patterns were compared using ANOVA. Seven dietary patterns, with specific food consumption behaviours, were identified: 'Small eater', 'Health conscious', 'Mediterranean', 'Sweet and processed', 'Traditional', 'Snacker' and 'Basic consumer'. For instance, the Health-conscious pattern was characterised by a high consumption of low-fat and light products. Individuals belonging to this pattern were likely to be older and to have a better nutritional profile than the overall population, but were more exposed to many contaminants. Conversely, individuals of Snacker pattern were likely to be younger, consumed more highly processed foods, had a nutrient-poor profile but were exposed to a limited number of food contaminants. The study identified main dietary patterns in the French adult population with distinct food behaviours and specific demographic, socio-economic, nutritional and environmental features. Paradoxically, for better dietary patterns, potential health risks cannot be ruled out. Therefore, this study demonstrated the need to conduct a risk-benefit analysis to define efficient public health policies regarding diet.

  16. Comparing Written Competency in Core French and French Immersion Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappin-Fortin, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have compared the written competency of French immersion students and their core French peers, and research on these learners at a postsecondary level is even scarcer. My corpus consists of writing samples from 255 students from both backgrounds beginning a university course in French language. The writing proficiency of core French…

  17. First epidemiological study on occupational radar exposure in the French Navy: a 26-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dabouis, Vincent; Arvers, Philippe; Debouzy, Jean-Claude; Sebbah, Charles; Crouzier, David; Perrin, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective cohort study deals with the causes of death among 57,000 military personnel who served in the French Navy surface vessels and were observed over the period 1975-2000. We successively compared the mortality rate and the specific causes of death between two groups differing in their potential exposure levels to radar. Occupational exposure was defined according to the on-board workplace (radar and control groups). The age-adjusted death ratios of the navy personnel were compared. For all causes of death, the results showed that 885 deaths in the radar group and 299 in the control group occurred (RR = 1.00 (95% CI: 0.88-1.14)). RRs were 0.92 (95% CI: 0.69-1.24) for neoplasms. For the duration of follow-up, the results did not show an increased health risk for military personnel exposed to higher levels of radio frequencies in the radar group, but the number of deaths was very small for some cancer sites.

  18. A cohort mortality and nested case-control study of French and Austrian talc workers

    PubMed Central

    Wild, P; Leodolter, K; Refregier, M; Schmidt, H; Zidek, T; Haidinger, G

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To study whether the mortality from non-malignant and malignant respiratory diseases of workers employed in French and Austrian talc mines and mills is related to their long term occupational exposure. Methods: Two historical cohorts were set up comprising all male subjects who had been working continuously for at least 1 year in a series of talc producing companies in France and Austria. The French cohort consisted of those employed at a site in the French Pyrenees and working between 1 January 1945 and 31 December 1994. The Austrian cohort consisted of the workers employed between 1 January 1972 and 31 December 1995 in one of four industrial sites in the Austrian Alps. The mortality within the cohorts was compared with local death rates. Two nested case-control studies focusing on non-malignant and malignant respiratory diseases were set up to estimate possible dose-response relations with cumulative exposure to talc dust based on an industry specific job exposure matrix. Results: Mortality from lung cancer was in small excess in both cohorts (France, standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 1.23, 21 cases observed, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.76 to 1.89; Austria, SMR 1.06, seven observed, 95% CI 0.43 to 2.19). A non-significant excess mortality was found for all non-malignant respiratory diseases in the French cohort due to a significant excess for pneumoconiosis (SMR 5.56, three observed, 95% CI 1.12 to 16.2). The case-control study of non-malignant respiratory disease showed an increased mortality in the highest exposure groups (odds ratio (OR) 2.5 for a cumulative exposure ≥800 y.mg/m3) with a significant trend (OR/100 y.mg/m3 1.08) with cumulative exposure to talc. On the contrary, no increasing trend could be found in the case-control study of lung cancer. This result must be interpreted considering the small cohort size. Adjustment on smoking and exposure to quartz did not influence these results to any extent. Conclusions: The mortality

  19. Impact of Resident Rotations on Critically Ill Patient Outcomes: Results of a French Multicenter Observational Study.

    PubMed

    Chousterman, Benjamin G; Pirracchio, Romain; Guidet, Bertrand; Aegerter, Philippe; Mentec, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    The impact of resident rotation on patient outcomes in the intensive care unit (ICU) has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to address this question using a large ICU database. We retrospectively analyzed the French CUB-REA database. French residents rotate every six months. Two periods were compared: the first (POST) and fifth (PRE) months of the rotation. The primary endpoint was ICU mortality. The secondary endpoints were the length of ICU stay (LOS), the number of organ supports, and the duration of mechanical ventilation (DMV). The impact of resident rotation was explored using multivariate regression, classification tree and random forest models. 262,772 patients were included between 1996 and 2010 in the database. The patient characteristics were similar between the PRE (n = 44,431) and POST (n = 49,979) periods. Multivariate analysis did not reveal any impact of resident rotation on ICU mortality (OR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.94; 1.07, p = 0.91). Based on the classification trees, the SAPS II and the number of organ failures were the strongest predictors of ICU mortality. In the less severe patients (SAPS II<24), the POST period was associated with increased mortality (OR = 1.65, 95%CI = 1.17-2.33, p = 0.004). After adjustment, no significant association was observed between the rotation period and the LOS, the number of organ supports, or the DMV. Resident rotation exerts no impact on overall ICU mortality at French teaching hospitals but might affect the prognosis of less severe ICU patients. Surveillance should be reinforced when treating those patients.

  20. Impact of Resident Rotations on Critically Ill Patient Outcomes: Results of a French Multicenter Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Guidet, Bertrand; Aegerter, Philippe; Mentec, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The impact of resident rotation on patient outcomes in the intensive care unit (ICU) has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to address this question using a large ICU database. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the French CUB-REA database. French residents rotate every six months. Two periods were compared: the first (POST) and fifth (PRE) months of the rotation. The primary endpoint was ICU mortality. The secondary endpoints were the length of ICU stay (LOS), the number of organ supports, and the duration of mechanical ventilation (DMV). The impact of resident rotation was explored using multivariate regression, classification tree and random forest models. Results 262,772 patients were included between 1996 and 2010 in the database. The patient characteristics were similar between the PRE (n = 44,431) and POST (n = 49,979) periods. Multivariate analysis did not reveal any impact of resident rotation on ICU mortality (OR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.94; 1.07, p = 0.91). Based on the classification trees, the SAPS II and the number of organ failures were the strongest predictors of ICU mortality. In the less severe patients (SAPS II<24), the POST period was associated with increased mortality (OR = 1.65, 95%CI = 1.17–2.33, p = 0.004). After adjustment, no significant association was observed between the rotation period and the LOS, the number of organ supports, or the DMV. Conclusion Resident rotation exerts no impact on overall ICU mortality at French teaching hospitals but might affect the prognosis of less severe ICU patients. Surveillance should be reinforced when treating those patients. PMID:27627449

  1. Effect of frying instructions for food handlers on acrylamide concentration in French fries: an explorative study.

    PubMed

    Sanny, M; Luning, P A; Jinap, S; Bakker, E J; van Boekel, M A J S

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain insight into the effect of frying instructions on food handlers' control decisions in restaurants and to investigate the impact of control decisions on the variation and concentration of acrylamide in French fries. The concentrations of acrylamide and reducing sugars were analyzed, the frying temperature and time were measured, and thawing practices were observed. The results obtained before and after instructions were provided to the food handlers were compared for restaurants as a group and for each restaurant. Frying instructions supported food handlers' decisions to start frying when the oil temperature reached 175°C; all handlers started frying at the correct temperature. However, the effect of the instructions on the food handlers' decisions for frying time differed; most handlers increased the frying time beyond 240 s to achieve crispier French fries with a final color dictated by their preference. Providing instructions did not result in a significant difference in the mean concentration of acrylamide in French fries for the restaurants as a group. However, data analyzed for each restaurant revealed that when food handlers properly followed the instructions, the mean concentration of acrylamide was significantly lower (169 μg/kg) than that before instructions were provided (1,517 μg/kg). When food handlers did not complying with the frying instructions, mean acrylamide concentrations were even higher than those before instructions were provided. Two different strategies were developed to overcome the noncompliant behavior of food handlers: establishing requirements for the features of commercial fryers and strict monitoring of compliance with instructions.

  2. High prevalence of HPV infection in the remote villages of French Guiana: an epidemiological study.

    PubMed

    Adenis, A; Dufit, V; Douine, M; Corlin, F; Ayhan, G; Najioullah, F; Molinie, V; Brousse, P; Carles, G; Lacoste, V; Cesaire, R; Nacher, M

    2017-04-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer in women in French Guiana. Studies have shown that populations living in the remote areas of the interior have early sexual debut and that multiple sexual partnerships are common. The objective of the present study was thus to determine the prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in these areas. A study was conducted in women aged 20-65 years with previous sexual activity. Women were included on a voluntary basis after using local media and leaders to inform them of the visit of the team. HPV infection was defined by the detection of HPV DNA using the Greiner Bio-One kit. In addition to HPV testing cytology was performed. The overall age-standardized prevalence rate was 35%. There was a U-shaped evolution of HPV prevalence by age with women aged >50 years at highest risk for HPV, followed by the 20-29 years group. Twenty-seven percent of women with a positive HPV test had normal cytology. Given the high incidence of cervical cancer in French Guiana and the high prevalence of HPV infections the present results re-emphasize the need for screening for cervical cancer in these remote areas. Vaccination against HPV, preferably with a nonavalent vaccine, also seems an important prevention measure. However, in this region where a large portion of the population has no health insurance, this still represents a challenge.

  3. [Closed claims in obstetrics: A study based on French Sham insurance data].

    PubMed

    Theissen, A; Fuz, F; Carbonne, B; Bonnet, L; Rouquette-Vincenti, I; Niccolai, P; Raucoules-Aime, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the medicolegal claims related to obstetrics in French hospitals. We did retrospective study on insurance claims provided by Sham insurances and which has been settled by a court over a 3-year period (2004-2006). We analyzed 66 closed claims that occurred between 1983 and 2005 in French hospitals (54 general hospitals and 12 academic). The average time between the declaration of the claim and the court conviction was 6 years. The average amount of compensation per claim was 500,000 €. The damage occurred during vaginal delivery (n=44), planned (n=5) or unplanned (n=4) cesarean. The more often claims are fetal asphyxia (n=24) or shoulder dystocia (n=8). The consequences are very important: cerebral palsy (16), death of the newborn (12), death of the mother (2) or brachial plexus injuries (6). The causes identified by the expert are always multifactorial with generally a misdiagnosis (n=27), a decision making error (n=36), a care error by the midwife (n=21) and/or a delay in medical care (n=13). These data should help strengthen the quality approach in obstetrics. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  4. Demography of French anaesthesiologists. Results of a national survey by the French College of Anaesthesiologists (CFAR) and the French National Society of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care (SFAR), supported by the National Institute for Demographic Studies (INED).

    PubMed

    Pontone, S; Brouard, N; Scherpereel, P; Boulardl, G; Arduin, P

    2004-05-01

    The perception of a looming manpower shortage led the French College of Anaesthesiologists (CFAR) and the French Society of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care (SFAR), with assistance from the National Institute for Demographic Studies (INED), to conduct a national survey of French anaesthesiologists in order to determine precise physician characteristics data, analyse professional practices and project future service provision. The survey was based on self-administered individual questionnaires, approved by the National Committee on Informatics and Freedom (CNIL). The survey was carried out at the end of 1998 among 1484 hospitals (590 public and 894 private), under the supervision of local referees and regional co-ordinators. Of 9741 anaesthesiologists' posts, 5694 (58%) are in public hospitals, 3569 (37%) in private practice and 478 (5%) in private hospitals within the National Health Service, i.e. the participant au service public hospitalier (PSPH). Complex validation of the results was necessary to account for the missing responses and multiple sites of activity. The survey identified 8876 specialists practising anaesthesia and intensive care in France at the beginning of 1999, including 216 in French overseas territories. This figure is consistent with that published by the Medical Council (Ordre des Médecins) on 1 January 1999, identifying 8950 anaesthesiologists in France, including 234 in the overseas territories. Annual growth in the anaesthesiologist population has fallen from 9% pre-1989 to 0% in 1999. Male anaesthesiologists outnumber females (35.7%). The average age has risen from 42.8 yr in 1989 to 45.9yr in 1999. The age distribution of anaesthesiologists has become bell shaped, reflecting reduced numbers of younger practitioners. There are currently 14.75 anaesthesiologists per 100 000 people (compared to 12.9 in 1989), a figure slightly above the European average, but there is considerable geographical inequality between the north and south of France

  5. Individual socioeconomic status and breast cancer diagnostic stages: a French case-control study.

    PubMed

    Orsini, Mattea; Trétarre, Brigitte; Daurès, Jean-Pierre; Bessaoud, Faiza

    2016-06-01

    Health inequalities have increased over the last 30 years. Our goal was to investigate the relationship between low individual socioeconomic status and poor breast cancer prognosis. Our hypothesis was: low socioeconomic status patients have a higher risk of being diagnosed with late stage breast cancer than high socioeconomic status ones due to delayed diagnosis.   We conducted a matched case-control study on 619 women with breast cancer, living in the Hérault, a French administrative area. Both Cases and Controls were recruited among invasive cases diagnosed in 2011 and 2012 and treated in Hérault care centers. Cases were defined as patients with advanced stages. Controls were composed of early stage patients. Individual socioeconomic status was assessed using a validated individual score adapted to the French population and health care system.   We observed that low socioeconomic status patients have a 2-fold risk of having late stage breast cancer regardless of cancer characteristics and detection mode (screening vs. clinical signs).   One reason explaining those results could be that low socioeconomic status patients have less regular follow-up which can lead to later and poorer diagnosis. Follow-up is improved for women with a better awareness of breast cancer. Health policy makers could reduce health inequalities by reducing the delay in breast cancer diagnosis for low socioeconomic status women. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  6. Syntactic comprehension in reading and listening: a study with French children with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Casalis, Séverine; Leuwers, Christel; Hilton, Heather

    2013-01-01

    This study examined syntactic comprehension in French children with dyslexia in both listening and reading. In the first syntactic comprehension task, a partial version of the Epreuve de Compréhension syntaxico-sémantique (ECOSSE test; French adaptation of Bishop's test for receptive grammar test) children with dyslexia performed at a lower level in the written but not in the spoken modality, compared to reading age-matched children, suggesting a difficulty in handling syntax while reading. In the second task, syntactic processing was further explored through a test of relative clause processing, in which inflectional markers could aid in attributing roles to the elements in a complex syntactic structure. Children with dyslexia were insensitive to inflectional markers in both reading and listening, as was the reading age control group, while only the older normal reader group appeared to make use of the inflectional markers. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that difficulties in comprehension in dyslexia are strongly related to poor reading skills.

  7. Manual wheelchair satisfaction among long-term users and caregivers: a French study.

    PubMed

    Marchiori, Claire; Bensmail, Djamel; Gagnon, Dany; Pradon, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Wheelchair mobility is a prerequisite to being able to carry out important activities and to participate in social life. Level of satisfaction with the wheelchair and overall quality of life were found to be positively associated. The aim of this study was to determine the level of satisfaction of French manual wheelchair (MW) users and caregivers with MW characteristics. A total of 132 users and 76 caregivers completed a questionnaire about their level of satisfaction with their MW characteristics. Satisfaction scores were independent of age, sex, reason for MW use, and time of use. As a whole, MW users are satisfied. However, a few parameters such as MW weight and difficulties propelling outdoors demonstrate a low level of satisfaction among users. MW weight, brakes, and height of pushing handles are the less satisfying elements among caregivers. In conclusion, the majority of French MW users are satisfied, but some characteristics, such as weight, must be optimized. Considering caregiver needs is paramount when aiming to improve MW parameters such as brakes or pushing handles. Improvement in some wheelchair parameters seems to be important in achieving improved level of satisfaction and increased participation and active lifestyle among MW users and caregivers.

  8. Management of giant cell arteritis: Recommendations of the French Study Group for Large Vessel Vasculitis (GEFA).

    PubMed

    Bienvenu, B; Ly, K H; Lambert, M; Agard, C; André, M; Benhamou, Y; Bonnotte, B; de Boysson, H; Espitia, O; Fau, G; Fauchais, A-L; Galateau-Sallé, F; Haroche, J; Héron, E; Lapébie, F-X; Liozon, E; Luong Nguyen, L B; Magnant, J; Manrique, A; Matt, M; de Menthon, M; Mouthon, L; Puéchal, X; Pugnet, G; Quemeneur, T; Régent, A; Saadoun, D; Samson, M; Sène, D; Smets, P; Yelnik, C; Sailler, L; Mahr, A

    2016-03-01

    Management of giant cell arteritis (GCA, Horton's disease) involves many uncertainties. This work was undertaken to establish French recommendations for GCA management. Recommendations were developed by a multidisciplinary panel of 33 physicians, members of the French Study Group for Large Vessel Vasculitis (Groupe d'étude français des artérites des gros vaisseaux [GEFA]). The topics to be addressed, selected from proposals by group members, were assigned to subgroups to summarize the available literature and draft recommendations. Following an iterative consensus-seeking process that yielded consensus recommendations, the degree of agreement among panel members was evaluated with a 5-point Likert scale. A recommendation was approved when ≥ 80% of the voters agreed or strongly agreed. The 15 retained topics resulted in 31 consensus recommendations focusing on GCA nomenclature and classification, the role of temporal artery biopsy and medical imaging in the diagnosis, indications and search modalities for involvement of the aorta and its branches, the glucocorticoid regimen to prescribe, treatment of complicated GCA, indications for use of immunosuppressants or targeted biologic therapies, adjunctive treatment measures, and management of relapse and recurrence. The recommendations, which will be updated regularly, are intended to guide and harmonize the standards of GCA management. Copyright © 2016 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. The Study of the Phenomenon of Hesitation as a Cognitive Process in Iranian French Learners' Oral Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahmatian, Rouhollah; Mehrabi, Marzieh; Safa, Parivash; Golfam, Arsalan

    2014-01-01

    Hesitation, when speaking a foreign language, is studied through its components: beginnings, pauses, and repetitions. This paper aims to identify, through the study of this phenomenon, vulnerable zones among Iranian learners when they speak French. A case study of 30 adult learners shows that hesitation is not random and at different levels (A1 to…

  10. [The influence of culture in the oral expression of pain: comparative study between French and Syrian cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Lebreuilly, Romain; Sakkour, Sam; Lebreuilly, Joëlle

    2013-03-01

    This study examines the role of culture in the perception and the verbal expression of pain among syrian and french blood-related cancer patients. The level of intensity (AVS scale) and the different aspects (Saint-Antoine Pain Questionnaire [SAPQ]) of their pain were studied. The sensory and emotional descriptors chosen by the Syrian possessed a stronger semantic content in comparison to those used by the French. The patient's cultural background, which affect the perception and verbal expression of pain should be a new indicator in the optimization of global medical management.

  11. Continuing French in Grade Four: MLA Teacher's Guide. A Course of Study Including Methods, Materials, and Aids for Teaching French to Fourth-Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mary P.; And Others

    This teacher's guide for use in a fourth-grade French course concentrates on the development of basic audiolingual skills. Twelve lessons, each containing an exposition, dialogue, teaching procedures, and dialogue adaptation, emphasize the use of French during classroom instruction. Lessons include: (1) a review unit, (2) "La chemise neuve," (3)…

  12. Continuing French in Grade Four: MLA Teacher's Guide. A Course of Study Including Methods, Materials, and Aids for Teaching French to Fourth-Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mary P.; And Others

    This teacher's guide for use in a fourth-grade French course concentrates on the development of basic audiolingual skills. Twelve lessons, each containing an exposition, dialogue, teaching procedures, and dialogue adaptation, emphasize the use of French during classroom instruction. Lessons include: (1) a review unit, (2) "La chemise neuve," (3)…

  13. A New Concurrent Master's Program in French Studies and Public Administration at Penn State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frautschi, Richard L.

    Pennsylvania State University's Department of French and Institute of Public Administration have responded to the need for language-trained civil servants by developing a dual master's degree program in French and public administration. Degree requirements include the full requirements for each program, with six credits from each curriculum…

  14. English and French Journal Abstracts in the Language Sciences: Three Exploratory Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Bonn, Sarah; Swales, John M.

    2007-01-01

    This article compares French and English academic article abstracts from the language sciences in an attempt to understand how and why language choice might affect this part-genre--both in actual use and according to authors' linguistic and rhetorical perceptions. Two corpora are used: Corpus A consists of abstracts from a French linguistics…

  15. Le Francais parle. Etudes sociolinguistiques (Spoken French. Sociolinguistic Studies). Current Inquiry into Languages and Linguistics 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibault, Pierrette

    This volume contains twelve articles dealing with the French language as spoken in Quebec. The following topics are addressed: (1) language change and variation; (2) coordinating expressions in the French spoken in Montreal; (3) expressive language as source of language change; (4) the role of correction in conversation; (5) social change and…

  16. From Crisis to Opportunity: French and Foreign Language Studies in the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Samia I.

    2003-01-01

    In response to falling enrollments in French and a diminishing pool of high school teachers, faculty at Auburn University tried to turn the tide through a series of curricular and advocacy initiatives. They introduced new French majors in education and in international trade and a collaborative major with the Consumer Affairs Department in French…

  17. From Crisis to Opportunity: French and Foreign Language Studies in the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Samia I.

    2003-01-01

    In response to falling enrollments in French and a diminishing pool of high school teachers, faculty at Auburn University tried to turn the tide through a series of curricular and advocacy initiatives. They introduced new French majors in education and in international trade and a collaborative major with the Consumer Affairs Department in French…

  18. EMPIRICAL STUDIES RELATED TO THE TEACHING OF FRENCH PRONUNCIATION TO AMERICAN STUDENTS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CLARK, JOHN L.D.

    THIS REPORT DESCRIBES IN DETAIL FIVE RELATED EXPERIMENTS THAT WERE CONDUCTED IN AREAS PERTAINING TO THE TEACHING OF FRENCH PRONUNCIATION TO NATIVE SPEAKERS OF AMERICAN ENGLISH. THE FIRST TWO EXPERIMENTS SOUGHT TO DETERMINE THE RELATIVE ACCEPTABILITY OF 38 ENGLISH PHONEMES TO NATIVE FRENCH LISTENERS AT EACH OF TWO ACCEPTABILITY LEVELS--PHONEMIC AND…

  19. An Experimental Study of the Teaching of French Pronunciation Using an "Ad Hoc" Phonemic Alphabet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herold, William R.

    The primary purpose of this experiment is to determine the effect of reading development based on phonemic transcription and traditional orthography on the pronunciation of French as a second language. Sixteen level 1 French classes in Western New York State schools participated in the experiment in which the control and experimental classes…

  20. English and French Journal Abstracts in the Language Sciences: Three Exploratory Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Bonn, Sarah; Swales, John M.

    2007-01-01

    This article compares French and English academic article abstracts from the language sciences in an attempt to understand how and why language choice might affect this part-genre--both in actual use and according to authors' linguistic and rhetorical perceptions. Two corpora are used: Corpus A consists of abstracts from a French linguistics…

  1. Partitivity, Atomization, and Noun-Drop: A Longitudinal Study of French Child Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valois, Daniel; Royle, Phaedra

    2009-01-01

    This article examines noun-drop constructions in French-speaking children. French being intermediate between English (which rarely allows noun-drop) and Spanish (which freely allows it) with respect to the richness of their respective morphological systems, it provides a fertile testing ground for various agreement-based analyses of noun-drop. We…

  2. [Drugs and retinal disorders: A case/non-case study in the French pharmacovigilance database].

    PubMed

    Bourgeois, Nicolas; Chavant, François; Lafay-Chebassier, Claire; Leveziel, Nicolas; Pérault-Pochat, Marie-Christine

    2016-09-01

    Retina is the part of the eye suffering most damage from pharmaceutical molecules. Drug-induced retinopathies have been described but data are scarce and sometimes conflicting especially concerning its potential seriousness. The aim of this study was to investigate potential associations between drugs and retinal disorders using the French Pharmacovigilance data. We used the case/non-case method in the French PharmacoVigilance Database (FPVD) to identify drugs able to induce retinopathies. Cases were reports of retinal disorders in the FPVD between January 2008 and December 2012. Non-cases were all other reports during the same period. To assess the association between retinopathy and drug intake, we calculated the odds-ratio (OR) [with their 95% confidence intervals] for all drugs associated with at least 3 cases of retinopathy. Among the 123 687 adverse drug reactions recorded during the studied period, we identified 164 cases of retinal disorders. Significant associations were found for 11 drugs. The main therapeutic classes were antirhumatismals (hydroxychloroquine, chloroquine and etanercept: 18 cases), anti-infective (ribavirine, PEG-interferon-alfa-2a and cefuroxime: 16 cases) and antineoplastic drugs (imatinib and letrozole: 8 cases. Three other drugs were also found: raloxifene (5 cases), erythropoietin beta (4 cases) and ranibizumab (3 cases). Taking into account the limits of the methodology, our study confirmed the association between retinopathy and some expected drugs such as aminoquinolines, interferons, imatinib or ranibizumab. Other drugs like erythropoietin beta, cefuroxime, letrozole and etanercept were significantly associated with retinal disorders although this was not or poorly described in the literature. Thus, further prospective studies are necessary to confirm such associations.

  3. Psychosocial work factors, major depressive and generalised anxiety disorders: results from the French national SIP study.

    PubMed

    Murcia, Marie; Chastang, Jean-François; Niedhammer, Isabelle

    2013-04-25

    Anxiety and depression are prevalent mental disorders in working populations. The risk factors of these disorders are not completely well known. Developing knowledge on occupational risk factors for mental disorders appears crucial. This study investigates the association between various classical and emergent psychosocial work factors and major depressive and generalised anxiety disorders in the French working population. The study was based on a national random sample of 3765 men and 3944 women of the French working population (SIP 2006 survey). Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD) were measured using a standardised diagnostic interview (MINI). Occupational factors included psychosocial work factors as well as biomechanical, physical, and chemical exposures. Adjustment variables included age, occupation, marital status, social support, and life events. Multivariate analysis was performed using logistic regression analysis. Low decision latitude, overcommitment, and emotional demands were found to be risk factors for both MDD-GAD among both genders. Other risk factors were observed: high psychological demands, low reward, ethical conflict, and job insecurity, but differences were found according to gender and outcome. Significant interaction terms were observed suggesting that low decision latitude, high psychological demands, and job insecurity had stronger effects on mental disorders for men than for women. Given the cross-sectional study design, no causal conclusion could be drawn. This study showed significant associations between classical and emergent psychosocial work factors and MDD-GAD. Preventive actions targeting various psychosocial work factors, including emergent factors, may help to reduce mental disorders at the workplace. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The status of 'canonical SVO sentences' in French: a developmental study of the on-line processing of dislocated sentences.

    PubMed

    Charvillat, A; Kail, M

    1991-10-01

    This on-line study investigates the processing of word order by 30 French children (6;6, 8;6, 10;6) and 10 adults. Its main objective is to show that the privileged status granted to 'canonical SVO sentences' is inadequate to account for the on-line processing of pronominal utterances in spoken French. Using a word monitoring task, we showed that word order (NVN vs NNV): (1) is a significant factor in sentences containing no clitic pronoun; (2) stops being significant when sentences contain either one or two clitic pronouns. These results suggest that processing complexity depends upon co-reference ('linear', 'crossed' or 'embedding') assignment constraints rather than upon word order per se. We conclude that, in French, word-order processing always interacts with acceptability considerations provided by cliticization.

  5. The Costs of Providing Instruction in French Language Instructional Units: In-Depth Study of Eight Areas Where There Exists a High Concentration of Francophones.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desjarlais, Lionel

    The purpose of this study was to determine the costs of providing instruction in French to students enrolled in French-language instructional units in areas of high concentration of Francophones. Chapter 1, which makes up most of the study, consists of separate case studies of eight educational jurisdictions that encompass a major proportion of…

  6. A Cross-Linguistic Study of the Development of Gesture and Speech in Zulu and French Oral Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolas, Ramona Kunene; Guidetti, Michele; Colletta, Jean-Marc

    2017-01-01

    The present study reports on a developmental and cross-linguistic study of oral narratives produced by speakers of Zulu (a Bantu language) and French (a Romance language). Specifically, we focus on oral narrative performance as a bimodal (i.e., linguistic and gestural) behaviour during the late language acquisition phase. We analyzed seventy-two…

  7. A Cross-Linguistic Study of the Development of Gesture and Speech in Zulu and French Oral Narratives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolas, Ramona Kunene; Guidetti, Michele; Colletta, Jean-Marc

    2017-01-01

    The present study reports on a developmental and cross-linguistic study of oral narratives produced by speakers of Zulu (a Bantu language) and French (a Romance language). Specifically, we focus on oral narrative performance as a bimodal (i.e., linguistic and gestural) behaviour during the late language acquisition phase. We analyzed seventy-two…

  8. Prescription medicines and the risk of road traffic crashes: a French registry-based study.

    PubMed

    Orriols, Ludivine; Delorme, Bernard; Gadegbeku, Blandine; Tricotel, Aurore; Contrand, Benjamin; Laumon, Bernard; Salmi, Louis-Rachid; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2010-11-16

    In recent decades, increased attention has been focused on the impact of disabilities and medicinal drug use on road safety. The aim of our study was to investigate the association between prescription medicines and the risk of road traffic crashes, and estimate the attributable fraction. We extracted and matched data from three French nationwide databases: the national health care insurance database, police reports, and the national police database of injurious crashes. Drivers identified by their national health care number involved in an injurious crash in France, between July 2005 and May 2008, were included in the study. Medicines were grouped according to the four risk levels of the French classification system (from 0 [no risk] to 3 [high risk]). We included 72,685 drivers involved in injurious crashes. Users of level 2 (odds ratio [OR]  = 1.31 [1.24-1.40]) and level 3 (OR  = 1.25 [1.12-1.40]) prescription medicines were at higher risk of being responsible for a crash. The association remained after adjustment for the presence of a long-term chronic disease. The fraction of road traffic crashes attributable to levels 2 and 3 medications was 3.3% [2.7%-3.9%]. A within-person case-crossover analysis showed that drivers were more likely to be exposed to level 3 medications on the crash day than on a control day, 30 days earlier (OR  = 1.15 [1.05-1.27]). The use of prescription medicines is associated with a substantial number of road traffic crashes in France. In light of the results, warning messages appear to be relevant for level 2 and 3 medications and questionable for level 1 medications. A follow-up study is needed to evaluate the impact of the warning labeling system on road traffic crash prevention.

  9. [Historical and biological approaches to the study of Modern Age French plague mass burials].

    PubMed

    Bianuccii, Raffaella; Tzortzis, Stéfan; Fornaciari, Gino; Signoli, Michel

    2010-01-01

    The "Black Death" and subsequent epidemics from 1346 to the early 18th century spread from the Caspian Sea all over Europe six hundred years after the outbreak of the Justinian plague (541-767 AD). Plague has been one of the most devastating infectious diseases that affected the humankind and has caused approximately 200 million human deaths historically. Here we describe the different approaches adopted in the study of several French putative plague mass burials dating to the Modern Age (16th-18th centuries). Through complementation of historical, archaeological and paleobiological data, ample knowledge of both the causes that favoured the spread of the Medieval plague in cities, towns and small villages and of the modification of the customary funerary practices in urban and rural areas due to plague are gained.

  10. The expression of cognitive vulnerabilities for depression in daily life: a French-American study.

    PubMed

    Swendsen, J D; Compagnone, P

    2000-06-01

    This prospective study provided a direct comparison of French and American samples concerning a cognitive diathesis for depression. Using the Experience Sampling Method and identical measures across sites, subjects were signaled five times daily by electronic devices to provide in vivo reports of negative events, attributions, and depressed moods. After controlling for effects associating clinical and demographic variables, and despite differences attributable to national origin, attributional style emerged as a highly significant predictor of the numerous specific attributions made to negative events within the course of daily life. However, consistent with the cognitive mediation hypothesis, attributional style did not directly explain depression levels. The results are discussed in terms of the predictive power of cognitive and personality assessments in understanding the day-to-day experience of depression.

  11. Helical tomotherapy of spinal chordomas: French Multicentric, retrospective study of a cohort of 30 cases.

    PubMed

    Bobin, Maxime; Zacharatou, Christina; Sargos, Paul; Brouste, Véronique; Lisbona, Albert; Mahé, Marc-André; Noël, Georges; Halley, Amandine; Feuvret, Loïc; Gras, Louis; Hoppe, Stéphanie; de Figueiredo, Bénédicte Henriques; Kantor, Guy

    2017-01-31

    To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of helical tomotherapy (HT) in the management of spine chordomas when proton therapy is unavailable or non-feasible. Between 2007 and 2013, 30 patients with biopsy-proven chordomas were treated by HT in five French institutions. Information regarding local control (LC), overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and metastasis-free survival (MFS) was collected. Clinical efficacy, toxicity and treatment quality were evaluated. Two-year actuarial LC, OS, PFS and MFS were 69.9%, 96.7%, 61.2% and 76.4%, respectively. HT treatments were well tolerated and no Grade 4-5 toxicities were observed. HT permitted the delivery of a mean dose of 68 Gy while respecting organ at risk (OAR) dose constraints, in particular in the spinal cord and cauda equina. This multicentric, retrospective study demonstrated the feasibility of HT in the treatment of spine chordomas, in the absence of hadron therapy.

  12. Case study of a Chinese dust plume reaching the French Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grousset, Francis E.; Ginoux, Paul; Bory, Aloys; Biscaye, Pierre E.

    2003-03-01

    By combining reconstruction of airmass back-trajectories from dust deposition sites in Europe and measurements of the (Nd) isotopic composition of deposited dust particles, potential sources of different Saharan dust events can be identified. The study of ``red dust'' events collected in France allowed us to identify distinct North African source areas (e.g. Lybia vs. Mauritania). Surprisingly, the airmass trajectory of one dust event (March 6, 1990) was distinct from the others, and revealed a Chinese origin. The Nd isotopic composition of this dust was consistent with the range of isotopic compositions of Chinese loess. Moreover, an atmospheric global model simulation reveals that a dust plume left China before February 25, 1990, flew over North America around the February/March transition and reached the French Alps by March 6, 1990, revealing that intercontinental dust and pollutant transport may occur across the Pacific Ocean and the North Atlantic at the Westerlies latitudes.

  13. [Research fellowship in the curriculum of French urologists-in-training: a study by the French Association of Urologists-in-training (AFUF)].

    PubMed

    Rizk, J; Audenet, F; Brichart, N; Capon, G; Dariane, C; Fiard, G; Lebdai, S; Madec, F-X; Maurin, C; Sanson, S; Tanchoux, C; Thibault, F; Murez, T; Terrasa, J-B; Terrier, J-É

    2014-05-01

    To assess motivations, the practical organization and the funding of a research fellowship in the training curriculum of French urologists-in-training. An online questionnaire was sent to members of the AFUF and to participants of a research training seminar "Graines et Sol" organised by the AFU, between July and September 2013. Results are presented as the median (interquartile range). Sixty answers out of 115 research fellows (response rate 52%) were computed. Median age was 29 years (28-30) during the research year and male proportion 75%. The AFU grant was obtained by 57.4% of applicants, 56.4% for various grants and 47.6% for the research fellowship university grant. The annual gross amount was 29,870€ (22,710-30,195), without any significant difference between residency subdivisions. Financial supplements were obtained by being on-duty (26.2%), on-call (28.6%) and replacements (25%). The research fellowship year was done between 4th and 5th years of residency (53%), for a one-year length (96.7%) and in France (86.6%). Urologic cancerology was the thematic the most studied (60%). The research fellowship was done in view of an academic career (31.7%) or was done to wait for a post-residency position (20.8%). About a quarter was being proposed a chief-residency position before the beginning of the research year. During this year, 76.7% published. About 63% were interested in pursuing with a PhD. This study confirmed the interest for a research fellowship by French urologists-in-training. Financial support thanks to grants facilitated the conduct of a research fellowship in the aim of an academic career for most of them. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. [Descriptive study of digestive functional symptoms in the French general population].

    PubMed

    Frexinos, J; Denis, P; Allemand, H; Allouche, S; Los, F; Bonnelye, G

    1998-10-01

    To study the prevalence of "reported" functional digestive symptoms (FDS) in terms easily understood by the general population without resorting to predefined concepts of functional syndromes, and to assess FDS impact on public health, a sample survey has been carried out between September and December 1995. Four thousand eight hundred and seventeen subjects representative of the French general population aged 15 years or more filled in a questionnaire describing their digestive disorders. Seventy percent of the subjects had digestive complaints, 9% being related to a presumably organic disease, and 61% attributed to FDS. Twenty-seven % of the subjects claimed to be inconvenienced by their FDS, whereas 34% seemed not to feel any inconvenience. Among FDS, gas emission was the most frequent symptom (59%), followed by stomach ache and/or digestive pain (48%), flatulence (47%), bad digestion sensations (40%), constipation (35%), aerophagia (29%), bad breath (22%), incomplete evacuation of stools (19%). FDS had lasted from 6 months to 5 years in 38%, and over 5 years in 52%. In the subgroup of subjects inconvenienced by FDS (27%), 9% consulted and 18% did not, whereas in the subgroup not inconvenienced, 3% consulted and 31% did not. Altogether, 26% of the subjects followed a prescription or self medication treatment; 35% were not treated. Some explanatory variables appeared to be associated with the onset of inconvenience: the associations pain and bad digestion, flatulence and aerophagia, incomplete evacuation and nervous or presumably organic origin of FDS, age, stress, FDS frequency. Duration of symptoms, age above 65 years, digestive pain, presumably organic origin, and FDS frequency were associated with the need to consult. This descriptive, pragmatic survey shows the widespread prevalence of FDS, affecting 28 million French people. Functional digestive disorders in the "academic" meaning constitute only a limited subset. FDS lead to major health care consumption

  15. New insights into childhood autoimmune hemolytic anemia: a French national observational study of 265 children

    PubMed Central

    Aladjidi, Nathalie; Leverger, Guy; Leblanc, Thierry; Picat, Marie Quitterie; Michel, Gérard; Bertrand, Yves; Bader-Meunier, Brigitte; Robert, Alain; Nelken, Brigitte; Gandemer, Virginie; Savel, Hélène; Stephan, Jean Louis; Fouyssac, Fanny; Jeanpetit, Julien; Thomas, Caroline; Rohrlich, Pierre; Baruchel, André; Fischer, Alain; Chêne, Geneviève; Perel, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Background Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a rare condition in children. Little is known about its initial presentation and the subsequent progression of the disease. Design and Methods Since 2004, a national observational study has been aiming to thoroughly describe cases and identify prognostic factors. Patients from all French hematologic pediatric units have been included if they had a hemoglobin concentration less than 11 g/dL, a positive direct antiglobulin test and hemolysis. Evans’ syndrome was defined by the association of autoimmune hemolytic anemia and immunological thrombocytopenic purpura. Data from patients’ medical records were registered from birth to last follow-up. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia was classified as primary or secondary. Remission criteria, qualifying the status of anemia at last follow-up, were used with the aim of identifying a subgroup with a favorable prognosis in continuous complete remission. Results The first 265 patients had a median age of 3.8 years at diagnosis. In 74% of cases the direct antiglobulin test was IgG/IgG+C3d. Consanguinity was reported in 8% of cases and first degree familial immunological diseases in 15% of cases. Evans’ syndrome was diagnosed in 37% of cases. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia was post-infectious in 10%, immunological in 53% and primary in 37% of cases. After a median follow-up of 3 years, 4% of children had died, 28% were still treatment-dependent and 39% were in continuous complete remission. In multivariate analysis, IgG and IgG+C3d direct antiglobulin tests were associated with a lower rate of survival with continuous complete remission (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.21–0.86). Conclusions This nationwide French cohort is the largest reported study of childhood autoimmune hemolytic anemia. The rarity of this condition is confirmed. Subgroups with genetic predisposition and underlying immune disorders were identified. PMID:21228033

  16. Dietary exposure to polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and polychlorinated biphenyls of the French population: Results of the second French Total Diet Study.

    PubMed

    Sirot, Véronique; Tard, Alexandra; Venisseau, Anaïs; Brosseaud, Aline; Marchand, Philippe; Le Bizec, Bruno; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2012-07-01

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) bioaccumulate through the food chain and are therefore of public health concern. Exposure to these compounds was assessed in the second French Total Diet Study (TDS). Food samples (n=583) were collected to be representative of the whole diet of the population, prepared as consumed, and analyzed. Contamination data were combined with national individual food consumption data. Mean exposure (95th percentile) to PCDD/F+DL-PCBs was assessed to be 0.57 (1.29) pg TEQ(WHO-98) (kg bw)(-1) d(-1) in the adult population and 0.89 (2.02) pg TEQ(WHO-98) (kg bw)(-1) d(-1) in the child and teenager population. Less than 4% of the population exceeded the health-based guidance value for PCDD/F+DL-PCBs. Mean exposure (95th percentile) to the six indicator PCBs (PCB 28, 52, 101, 138, 153, 180) was estimated at 2.71 (7.90) ng (kg bw)(-1) d(-1) in the adult population and 3.77 (11.7) ng (kg bw)(-1) d(-1) in the child and teenager population. Only 2.6% of the adults [CI(95%): 1.9; 3.3] and 6.5% of the children and teenagers [5.2; 7.8] exceeded the health-based guidance value for total PCBs. These results show that the contamination levels in food and therefore the exposure of the general French population to PCDD/Fs and PCBs have declined (by a factor of 3.2 for PCDD/F+DL-PCBs and about three for total PCBs) since the last evaluation, which was conducted using another methodology in 2005 and 2007, and show the efficiency of the European risk management measures which came into force after these evaluations. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Monitoring fitness levels and detecting implications for health in a French population: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Nassif, Hala; Sedeaud, Adrien; Abidh, Elisa; Schipman, Julien; Tafflet, Muriel; Deschamps, Thibault; Maillet, Hervé; Ovigneur, Hervé; Desgorces, François-Denis; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyse the physical fitness of a large sample of the French population across different ages. Design Observational cross-sectional study. Setting Data were collected from the Athletic Track and Field Federation, which organised events dedicated to measuring physical fitness. The events took place in 22 regions between 2006 and 2010. Participants French volunteer citizens (N=31 349) aged between 4 and 80 years old who participated in events dedicated to measuring physical fitness. Primary and secondary outcome measures We assessed the results of the following fitness tests: 20 m shuttle run, standing broad jump, repeated squat jump, 4×10 m shuttle run, speed, flexibility and push-ups in relation to age and body mass index (BMI) using Spearman's rho, a one-way analysis of variance. A bi-exponential model was used to represent the performance with age. Results Our major results showed higher performances for men and for subjects with normal BMI at all age groups except for the flexibility test. BMI was strongly correlated across all ages with physical fitness p<0.0001. Furthermore, through bi-exponential model, a mean peak performance was identified at 26.32 years of age for men and 22.18 years of age for women. Conclusions Physical fitness assessment using a simple series of tests on the general population offers an important indicator of health status. The possibility of observing the evolution of fitness levels with time provides an important monitoring method from a public health perspective. Further research is needed to reinforce and evaluate the approach. PMID:23024257

  18. Clinical outcome and safety study of a newly developed instrumented French-door cervical laminoplasty technique.

    PubMed

    Nasto, Luigi Aurelio; Muquit, Samiul; Perez-Romera, Ana Belen; Mehdian, Hossein

    2017-06-01

    Standard laminectomy for treatment of cervical myelopathy is associated with secondary instability and kyphosis, while laminectomy combined with fusion puts adjacent segments at risk of degeneration. Single- and double-door laminoplasty techniques have been developed to overcome these limitations. More recently, complications related to bone graft dislodgment have fostered development of hardware-augmented laminoplasty techniques. The aim of this study is to review the clinical safety and effectiveness of a newly developed technique of instrumented French-door laminoplasty for treatment of cervical myelopathy. A series of 25 consecutive myelopathic patients were treated with a novel instrumented cervical French-door laminoplasty technique, whereby the enlarged posterior arch was held open with maxillofacial plates and screws. Patients had pre- and postoperative assessments with the Neck Disability Index (NDI), Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) Score, Visual Analogue Score and radiographs. Minimum follow-up was 40 months, with regular interval assessments. There were 18 males with a mean age of 45 years. The mean operative time was 145 min. The average hospital stay was 2.4 days and the mean follow-up was 56.5 months (40-72). All patients reported neurological improvements and there was a 35% improvement in NDI, and JOA score improved by 4.8 points. No postoperative hardware-related complications were noted and only one case of temporary C5 palsy, which completely resolved by the one-year follow-up. Our data and clinical experience demonstrate that this hardware-augmented laminoplasty technique is safe and effective. We observed no hardware-related complications in our series. The use of readily available maxillofacial titanium miniplates and ease of surgical procedure means that this technique can be easily adopted into clinical practice. Level IV.

  19. Acquisition of Derivational Lexical Rules: A Case Study of the Acquisition of French Agent Noun Forms by L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redouane, Rabia

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates L2 learners' use of French derivational processes and their strategies as they form agent nouns. It also attempts to find out which of the acquisitional principles (conventionality, semantic transparency, formal simplicity, and productivity) advanced by Clark (1993, 2003) for various L1s acquisition of word formation…

  20. Cross-Language Transfer of Orthographic Processing Skills: A Study of French Children Who Learn English at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commissaire, Eva; Duncan, Lynne G.; Casalis, Severine

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the nature of orthographic processing skills among French-speaking children in Grades 6 and 8 who are learning English at school as a second language (L2). Two aspects of orthographic processing skills are thought to form a convergent construct in monolingual beginning readers: word-specific knowledge (e.g. "rain-rane") and…

  1. Evaluating the Risks of School Dropout amongst Children in the Care of the French Child Protection System: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derivois, Daniel; Guillier-Pasut, Nathalie; Karray, Amira; Cénat, Jude-Mary; Brolles, Lisbeth; Matsuhara, Hanae

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study is to identify the best way of preventing and assessing the livelihood and risk of school dropout amongst children entrusted to the care of the French child protection system in the Département of Rhone. The sample comprised 91 children and adolescents aged 4- to 17-years-old, of whom 45 were girls. The data were…

  2. Acquisition of Derivational Lexical Rules: A Case Study of the Acquisition of French Agent Noun Forms by L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redouane, Rabia

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates L2 learners' use of French derivational processes and their strategies as they form agent nouns. It also attempts to find out which of the acquisitional principles (conventionality, semantic transparency, formal simplicity, and productivity) advanced by Clark (1993, 2003) for various L1s acquisition of word formation…

  3. The Impact of New Work Technologies on Training. Five Case Studies in French Industry. Discussion Paper No. 81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo e Oliveira, Joao Batista

    Case studies of five French firms illustrate the impact of new work technologies on training. Liquid Corporation has embarked on changes in production technology in response to market needs. Four aspects of the change process are as follows: creating the climate for change, selecting operators, defining new training requirements, and training for…

  4. Evaluating the Risks of School Dropout amongst Children in the Care of the French Child Protection System: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derivois, Daniel; Guillier-Pasut, Nathalie; Karray, Amira; Cénat, Jude-Mary; Brolles, Lisbeth; Matsuhara, Hanae

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study is to identify the best way of preventing and assessing the livelihood and risk of school dropout amongst children entrusted to the care of the French child protection system in the Département of Rhone. The sample comprised 91 children and adolescents aged 4- to 17-years-old, of whom 45 were girls. The data were…

  5. Phrase-Final Prepositions in Quebec French: An Empirical Study of Contact, Code-Switching and Resistance to Convergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormel, Ellen; Hermans, Daan; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate whether preposition stranding, a stereotypical non-standard feature of North American French, results from convergence with English, and the role of bilingual code-switchers in its adoption and diffusion. Establishing strict criteria for the validation of contact-induced change, we make use of the comparative…

  6. Intentional Control and Operational Constraints in Prosodic Phrasing: A Study of Picture-Elicited Narrations by French Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vion, Monique; Colas, Annie

    2009-01-01

    This study deals with the determinants of prosodic phrasing in French schoolchildren's narratives. Children (aged 7 to 11) told picture stories to a silent same-age peer. The establishment of temporal and/or causal relations between the events was more or less guided by the drawings (ordered vs. arbitrary sequences). The comprehension of the…

  7. Ambivalence about Communicating in a Second Language: A Qualitative Study of French Immersion Students' Willingness to Communicate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Burns, Carolyn; Jessome, Alison

    2011-01-01

    The defining feature of immersion language learning is the omnipresent pressure to communicate in the second language (L2), even as incipient skills are being acquired. This study uses the focused essay technique to investigate ambivalence about communicating among adolescent French immersion students (12-14 years of age). Students described…

  8. The Impact of New Work Technologies on Training. Five Case Studies in French Industry. Discussion Paper No. 81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo e Oliveira, Joao Batista

    Case studies of five French firms illustrate the impact of new work technologies on training. Liquid Corporation has embarked on changes in production technology in response to market needs. Four aspects of the change process are as follows: creating the climate for change, selecting operators, defining new training requirements, and training for…

  9. Cross-Language Transfer of Orthographic Processing Skills: A Study of French Children Who Learn English at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commissaire, Eva; Duncan, Lynne G.; Casalis, Severine

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the nature of orthographic processing skills among French-speaking children in Grades 6 and 8 who are learning English at school as a second language (L2). Two aspects of orthographic processing skills are thought to form a convergent construct in monolingual beginning readers: word-specific knowledge (e.g. "rain-rane") and…

  10. Severe Traumatic Brain Injury, Frontal Lesions, and Social Aspects of Language Use: A Study of French-Speaking Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dardier, Virginie; Bernicot, Josie; Delanoe, Anaig; Vanberten, Melanie; Fayada, Catherine; Chevignard, Mathilde; Delaye, Corinne; Laurent-Vannier, Anne; Dubois, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the social (pragmatic) aspects of language use by French-speaking individuals with frontal lesions following a severe traumatic brain injury. Eleven participants with traumatic brain injury performed tasks in three areas of communication: production (interview situation), comprehension (direct…

  11. Severe Traumatic Brain Injury, Frontal Lesions, and Social Aspects of Language Use: A Study of French-Speaking Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dardier, Virginie; Bernicot, Josie; Delanoe, Anaig; Vanberten, Melanie; Fayada, Catherine; Chevignard, Mathilde; Delaye, Corinne; Laurent-Vannier, Anne; Dubois, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the social (pragmatic) aspects of language use by French-speaking individuals with frontal lesions following a severe traumatic brain injury. Eleven participants with traumatic brain injury performed tasks in three areas of communication: production (interview situation), comprehension (direct…

  12. Phrase-Final Prepositions in Quebec French: An Empirical Study of Contact, Code-Switching and Resistance to Convergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormel, Ellen; Hermans, Daan; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate whether preposition stranding, a stereotypical non-standard feature of North American French, results from convergence with English, and the role of bilingual code-switchers in its adoption and diffusion. Establishing strict criteria for the validation of contact-induced change, we make use of the comparative…

  13. A Diachronic Study of Initial Stress and Other Prosodic Features in the French News Announcer Style: Corpus-Based Measurements and Perceptual Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mareuil, Philippe Boula; Rilliard, Albert; Allauzen, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on prosodic evolution in the French news announcer style, based on acoustic and perceptual analysis of French audiovisual archives. A 10-hour corpus covering six decades of broadcast news is investigated automatically. Two prosodic features, which may give an impression of emphatic style, are explored: word-initial stress and…

  14. English-French Bilingual Education in the Early Grades: The Elgin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barik, Henri C.; Swain, Merrill

    1974-01-01

    Presents findings of an evaluation of an English-French bilingual education program using partial instruction in the second language in St. Thomas, Ontario. The evaluation covers grades 1-3. The program operates in unilingual English environment. (RM)

  15. Three-Year Evaluation of a Large Scale Early Grade French Immersion Program: The Ottawa Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barik, Henri; Swain, Marrill

    1975-01-01

    The school performance of pupils in grades K-2 of the French immersion program in operation in Ottawa public schools is evaluated in comparison with that of pupils in the regular English program. (Author/RM)

  16. Translating ICD-11 into French using lexical-based approach: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Merabti, Tayeb; Grosjean, Julien; Rodrigues, Jean-Marie; Darmoni, Stefan Jacques

    2015-01-01

    To translate the 11th edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) into French, we proposed a lexical approach using Natural Language Processing techniques. This method relies on the 56 biomedical terminologies and ontologies included in the Cross-lingual Health Multiple Terminologies and Ontologies Portal. From a sample of 336 ICD-11 terms, the algorithm translated 164 (49%) terms into at least one French term each.

  17. Fashoda: Turning Point in Anglo-French Relations: a Study in Military-Political Affairs.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-01-01

    Leavenworth, Kansas 1976 MASTER OF MTLITARY ART AND SCIECE THESIS APPROVAL PAGE Name of Candidate Paul W. Grenier, MAJ, USA Tmi.tle of Thesis Fashoda: Turning...to involve France in colonial projects in order to distract her from Continental Europe. ’rance also demanded from time to time that Britain set a term...situation.8 At first, the French governent was cool to the idea because its attention was firhly focused on the Continent.9 In January 1893, a French

  18. [Acute heart disease in search and rescue helicopter missions, from French Navy. A retrospective study from 2000 to 2007].

    PubMed

    Vinsonneau, U; Bombert, C; Brondex, A; Castellant, P; Cornily, J-C; Pennec, P-Y; Cavel, C; Vergez-Larrouget, C; Perchoc, S; Castellant, M; Godon, P; Blanc, J-J; Quiniou, G

    2009-08-01

    Search and rescue helicopters from the French navy conduct ambulance and search and rescue missions near the western coast of the French Britain. The team on board includes military doctor and paramedic. Operations in this area are challenging due to long distances and severe weather conditions. We studied retrospectively 205 search and rescue missions from 2000 to 2007 with special emphasis on acute heart disease and operative conditions. 12.2% of the missions (25/205) concern acute heart disease dominated by myocardial infarction elevation myocardial infarction. All of the patients are male. Most of them are seafarers and the others come from ferries with a median age of 53.4 years. Sixty-two percent of the missions were carried in darkness. The median range is about 80 nautical miles. Two patients died during search and rescue missions. All patient are hospitalized. Ambulance and search and rescue mission near the western coasting of the French Britain are a challenge. Using a heavy helicopter from French Navy was the best way to carry medical treatment to seafarers and passengers of ferries suffering from acute heart disease.

  19. Management of rectal cancers in relation to treatment guidelines: a population-based study comparing Italian and French patients.

    PubMed

    Minicozzi, Pamela; Bouvier, Anne-Marie; Faivre, Jean; Sant, Milena

    2014-07-01

    Few studies have investigated rectal cancer management at the population level. We compared how rectal cancers diagnosed in Italy (2003-2005) and France (2005) were managed, and evaluated the extent to which management adhered to European guidelines. Samples of 3938 Italian and 2287 French colorectal cancer patients were randomly extracted from 8 and 12 cancer registries respectively. Rectal cancer patients (860 Italian, 559 French) were analysed. Logistic regression models estimated odds ratios (ORs) of being treated with curative intent, receiving sphincter-saving surgery, and receiving preoperative radiotherapy. Similar proportions of Italian and French patients were treated with curative intent (70% vs. 67%; OR=0.92 [0.73-1.16]); the respective proportions receiving sphincter-saving surgery were 21% and 33% (OR=1.15 [0.86-1.53]). In about 50% of those treated with curative intent, ≥ 12 lymph nodes were harvested in both countries. The proportion receiving postoperative radiotherapy was higher in Italy than in France (25% vs. 11%, p<0.01), but French patients were more likely to receive preoperative radiotherapy (52% vs. 21%; OR=4.06 [2.79-5.91]). The proportions of patients receiving preoperative radiotherapy and the numbers of lymph nodes sampled were low in both countries. Centralising treatment and potentiating screening would be practical ways of improving outcomes and adhering to guidelines. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Fate of protocols submitted to a French national funding scheme: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Decullier, Evelyne; Huot, Laure; Chapuis, François R

    2014-01-01

    The fate of clinical research projects funded by a grant has been investigated, but there is no information on the projects which did not receive funding. The fate of these projects is not known: do they apply for and/or receive funding from other sources or are they carried out without specific funding? The aim of the study was to describe all clinical research projects submitted to a French national funding scheme (PHRC 2000) and to assess project initiation, completion and publication status taking into account whether or not they received funding. This study is a retrospective cohort. The initial project characteristics were retrieved from the submission files and follow-up information was collected from the primary investigator. The percentages of projects started, completed and published were studied. A total of 481 projects were studied. Follow-up information was obtained for 366. Overall, 185 projects were initiated (51%); 139 of them were funded by the PHRC 2000 or other sources. The most commonly cited reason for not initiating a project was a lack of funding. Subsequently, 121 of the projects initiated were completed (65%). Accrual difficulties were the main reason cited to explain why studies were stopped prematurely or were still ongoing. Finally, 88 of the completed projects were published (73%). Amongst the completed projects, the only factor explaining publication was the statistical significance of the results. Obtainment of funding was a determining factor for project initiation. However, once initiated, the funding did not influence completion or publication.

  1. Mortality from Circulatory System Diseases among French Uranium Miners: A Nested Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Drubay, Damien; Caër-Lorho, Sylvaine; Laroche, Pierre; Laurier, Dominique; Rage, Estelle

    2015-05-01

    A significant association has been observed between radon exposure and cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) mortality among French uranium miners, but risk factors for circulatory system diseases (CSD) have not been previously considered. We conducted new analyses in the recently updated (through 2007) French cohort of uranium miners (n = 5,086), which included 442 deaths from CSD, 167 of them from ischemic heart disease (IHD) and 105 from CeVD. A nested case-control study was then set up to collect and investigate the influence of these risk factors on the relationships between mortality from CSD and occupational external gamma ray and internal ionizing radiation exposure (radon and long-lived radionuclides) in this updated cohort. The nested case-control study included miners first employed after 1955, still employed in 1976 and followed up through 2007. Individual information about CSD risk factors was collected from medical files for the 76 deaths from CSD (including 26 from IHD and 16 from CeVD) and 237 miners who had not died of CSD by the end of follow-up. The exposure-risk relationships were assessed with a Cox proportional hazard model weighted by the inverse sampling probability. A significant increase in all CSD and CeVD mortality risks associated with radon exposure was observed in the total cohort [hazard ratios: HRCSD/100 working level months (WLM) = 1.11, 95% confidence interval (1.01; 1.22) and HRCeVD/100 WLM = 1.25 (1.09; 1.43), respectively]. A nonsignificant exposure-risk relationship was observed for every type of cumulative ionizing radiation exposure and every end point [e.g., HRCSD/100WLM = 1.43 (0.71; 2.87)]. The adjustment for each CSD risk factor did not substantially change the exposure-risk relationships. When the model was adjusted for overweight, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and smoking status, the HR/100WLM for CSD, for example, was equal to 1.21 (0.54; 2.75); and when it was adjusted for risk factors selected with the

  2. Evaluation of adherence to French clinical practice guidelines in the management of pregnancy loss issued by the French College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, one year after publication: A vignette-based study.

    PubMed

    Le Gouic, S; Lavoué, V; Mimouni, M; Levêque, J; Huchon, C

    2017-05-01

    To assess the adhesion of French obstetricians and gynecologists to the French clinical practice guidelines for pregnancy loss, issued by the French College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, one year after publication. An online vignette-based study was emailed to a sample of French obstetricians and gynecologists to compare their management of women with missed early miscarriage and incomplete early miscarriage. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed comparing the rates of appropriate management for these two indications before and after the release of the guidelines. Of the 404 specialists contacted, 143 completed the questionnaire. Forty-three percent stated that they had changed their practices following the release of the guidelines. The rate of adhesion was moderate for the management of missed early miscarriage (53% after publication of the guidelines versus 42% before, P=0.001) with a trend to avoid watching-and-waiting management. The rate of adhesion was poor for the management of incomplete early miscarriage (43% after the publication of the guidelines versus 27% before, P<0.001) with a lower use of misoprostol. Adhesion to the French guidelines appears to be moderate for the management of missed early miscarriage and low for the management of incomplete early miscarriage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Health workforce development: a needs assessment study in French speaking African countries.

    PubMed

    Chastonay, Philippe; Moretti, Roberto; Zesiger, Véronique; Cremaschini, Marco; Bailey, Rebecca; Pariyo, George; Kabengele, Emmanuel Mpinga

    2013-05-01

    In 2006, WHO alerted the world to a global health workforce crisis, demonstrated through critical shortages of health workers, primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa (WHO in World Health Report, 2006). The objective of our study was to assess, in a participative way, the educational needs for public health and health workforce development among potential trainees and training institutions in nine French-speaking African countries. A needs assessment was conducted in the target countries according to four approaches: (1) Review at national level of health challenges. (2) Semi-directed interviews with heads of relevant training institutions. (3) Focus group discussions with key-informants. (4) A questionnaire-based study targeting health professionals identified as potential trainees. A needs assessment showed important public health challenges in the field of health workforce development among the target countries (e.g. unequal HRH distribution in the country, ageing of HRH, lack of adequate training). It also showed a demand for education and training institutions that are able to offer a training programme in health workforce development, and identified training objectives and core competencies useful to potential employers and future trainees (e.g. leadership, planning/evaluation, management, research skill). In combining various approaches our study was able to show a general demand for health managers who are able to plan, develop and manage a nation's health workforce. It also identified specific competencies that should be developed through an education and training program in public health with a focus on health workforce development.

  4. Using a new lipidocolloid dressing in paediatric wounds: results of French and German clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Letouze, A; Voinchet, V; Hoecht, B; Muenter, K C; Vives, R; Bohbot, S

    2004-06-01

    To evaluate the efficacy, tolerance and acceptability of a lipidocolloid dressing, Urgotul (Laboratoires Urgo), in the local treatment of acute and chronic paediatric wounds. Two non-comparative multicentre prospective clinical studies were conducted using the same protocol in France and Germany. A total of 100 patients were recruited from 16 centres (11 in France and five in Germany), and followed up for four weeks. Seventy wounds (55 burns and 15 other wounds) from France and 30 from Germany (22 burns and eight other wounds) were evaluated by nursing staff at every dressing change and by the medical investigator on a weekly basis. In the French study population, 86% of the burns (superficial and deep partial-thickness) and 53% of the other wounds healed completely within the four weeks. Figures for the German study population were 100% and 88% respectively. Pain was evaluated using pain scales adapted to the patient's age (objective pain scale, faces scale for pain and a visual analogue scale) at each dressing change. Dressing removal was non-traumatic, inducing very limited pain. Minor local adverse events were reported in four children. Urgotul is not only efficacious, but also well-tolerated and accepted by children with acute and chronic wounds. The dressing, therefore, might be an appropriate and highly promising alternative to conventional dressings.

  5. Haemoptysis in adults: a 5-year study using the French nationwide hospital administrative database.

    PubMed

    Abdulmalak, Caroline; Cottenet, Jonathan; Beltramo, Guillaume; Georges, Marjolaine; Camus, Philippe; Bonniaud, Philippe; Quantin, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Haemoptysis is a serious symptom with various aetiologies. Our aim was to define the aetiologies, outcomes and associations with lung cancer in the entire population of a high-income country.This retrospective multicentre study was based on the French nationwide hospital medical information database collected over 5 years (2008-2012). We analysed haemoptysis incidence, aetiologies, geographical and seasonal distribution and mortality. We studied recurrence, association with lung cancer and mortality in a 3-year follow-up analysis.Each year, ~15 000 adult patients (mean age 62 years, male/female ratio 2/1) were admitted for haemoptysis or had haemoptysis as a complication of their hospital stay, representing 0.2% of all hospitalised patients. Haemoptysis was cryptogenic in 50% of cases. The main aetiologies were respiratory infections (22%), lung cancer (17.4%), bronchiectasis (6.8%), pulmonary oedema (4.2%), anticoagulants (3.5%), tuberculosis (2.7%), pulmonary embolism (2.6%) and aspergillosis (1.1%). Among incident cases, the 3-year recurrence rate was 16.3%. Of the initial cryptogenic haemoptysis patients, 4% were diagnosed with lung cancer within 3 years. Mortality rates during the first stay and at 1 and 3 years were 9.2%, 21.6% and 27%, respectively.This is the first epidemiological study analysing haemoptysis and its outcomes in an entire population. Haemoptysis is a life-threatening symptom unveiling potentially life-threatening underlying conditions. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  6. [BIOETHICS LAWS AND REALITY ON THE GROUND DURING EPIDEMIOLOGICAL STUDIES IN FRENCH GUINEA AND CAMEROON].

    PubMed

    Tortevoye, Patricia; Gessain, Antoine

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this article is to describe the difficulties encountered, during the twenty last years, to obey the laws of bioethics in force during epidemiological investigations, carried out in French Guiana and in Cameroon. These research tasks aim to better understanding the transmission of two viruses: the human T lymphotropic retrovirus type 1 and the human herpes virus 8. These investigations, carried out in highly endemic villages, for one or two of these viruses, also aim at searching susceptibility genetic factors for infection in children by these viruses. They are scientific researches carried out in populations on low level of education and strong socio-economic constraints. These studies performed in general population are without benefit for the people. They require a collection of the family data, to build genealogic pedigrees, and a blood sampling. Using concrete examples, collected during field-investigations, we illustrate the problems encountered to apply, practically, the laws of bioethics. We will introduce and discuss thus the legislative framework in force, the studied populations, the concepts of preliminary information and informed consent, the adaptation necessary to take into account the local social organization and the importance of the family hierarchy. Lastly, the question of returned results of this kind of investigation will be discussed like that of the possible compensatory measures. This inventory reveals the limits of the current regulation, which is often poorly adapted to research in epidemiology in this kind of population and the ethical choices that has thus to be decided by the investigator.

  7. [Study on the venoms of the principal venomous snakes from French Guiana and the neutralization].

    PubMed

    Estévez, J; Magaña, P; Chippaux, J P; Vidal, N; Mancilla, R; Paniagua, J F; de Roodt, A R

    2008-10-01

    We studied some biochemical, toxic and immunological characteristics of the venoms of Bothrops atrox, Bothrops brazili and Lachesis muta, Viperidae responsible for most of the bites of venomous snakes in French Guiana. Chromatographic (HPLC) and electrophoretical profiles (SDS-PAGE), lethal, hemorrhagic, defibrinogenating, coagulant, thrombin like, proteolytic, fibrino(geno)lytic and phospholipase activities were studied. In addition, the neutralization of some toxic activities conferred by four antivenins was compared. The chromatographic and electrophoretic profiles were different for the three venoms, showing differences between Bothrops and L. muta venoms. In general, bothropic venoms showed the highest toxic and enzymatic activities, while the venom of L. muta showed the lowest lethal, hemorrhagic and coagulant activities. The enzymes of bothropic venoms responsible for gelatinolytic activity were around 50-90 kDa. All the venoms were able to hydrolyze a and beta chains of the fibrinogen, showing different patterns of degradation. Although all the antivenoms tested were effective to various degrees in neutralizing the venom of B. brazili and B. atrox, neutralization of L. muta venom was significantly better achieved using the antivenom including this venom in its immunogenic mixture. For the neutralization of L. muta venom, homologous or polyvalent antivenoms that include the "bushmaster" venom in their immunogenic mixture should be preferred.

  8. Usage patterns of aromatherapy among the French general population: A descriptive study focusing on dermal exposure.

    PubMed

    Dornic, N; Ficheux, A S; Roudot, A C; Saboureau, D; Ezzedine, K

    2016-04-01

    Although likely benefits of aromatherapy are well documented, little is known about essential oils consumption and exposure to molecules present in the oils. The aim of our study was to determine usage patterns of 12 types of essential oils among a quite large panel, sorted per sex and quintile of age from birth to 70. A survey was conducted in September 2014 among 1507 French individuals, selected to build a representative panel of the general population. The key point of our study, apart from the fact that it has never been done among general population, was the focus on dermal exposure. Information about types of essential oils used, skin areas exposed, frequencies and quantities were collected. Our work revealed that some sub-populations could be significantly exposed to molecules of toxicological concern, especially in terms of skin sensitization. This work is the first step to assess human exposure to these molecules, and will help safety authorities and risk managers to protect the population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Electronic mail, a new written-language register: a study with French-speaking adolescents.

    PubMed

    Volckaert-Legrier, Olga; Bernicot, Josie; Bert-Erboul, Alain

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which the linguistic forms used by adolescents in electronic mail (e-mail) differ from those used in standard written language. The study was conducted in French, a language with a deep orthography that has strict, addressee-dependent rules for using second person personal pronouns (unfamiliar and familiar forms). Data were collected from 80 adolescents ages 12 to 15 in a natural situation where they had to introduce themselves by e-mail to two addressees (peer/teacher). Participants were divided into two groups (skilled/unskilled in computer-mediated communication). Their emails contained a large number of orthographic deviations (the most frequent being neographic forms). Participants skilled in computer-mediated communication (CMC) deviated more than unskilled ones did. The number of orthographic deviations was not linked to the participants' standard writing ability. The personal-pronoun data clearly showed that adolescents used the familiar form of 'you' (tu) to address the peer and the unfamiliar form (vous) to address the teacher. We conclude that, for adolescents, e-mail constitutes a distinct written-language register. Nevertheless, the e-mail register seems to follow the pragmatic rules of standard spoken and written interaction.

  10. Cohort Profile: The French Childhood Cancer Survivor Study For Leukaemia (LEA Cohort)

    PubMed Central

    Berbis, Julie; Michel, Gérard; Baruchel, André; Bertrand, Yves; Chastagner, Pascal; Demeocq, François; Kanold, Justyna; Leverger, Guy; Plantaz, Dominique; Poirée, Marilyne; Stephan, Jean-Louis; Auquier, Pascal; Contet, Audrey; Dalle, Jean-Hugues; Ducassou, Stéphane; Gandemer, Virginie; Lutz, Patrick; Sirvent, Nicolas; Tabone, Marie-Dominique; Thouvenin-Doulet, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the Leucémies de l’Enfant et l’Adolescent (LEA) project (Childhood and Adolescent Leukaemia) is to study the determinants (medical, socioeconomic, behavioural and environmental) of medium- and long-term outcomes of patients treated for childhood acute leukaemia (AL). The LEA study began in 2004 and is based on a French multicentric prospective cohort. Included are children treated for AL since January 1980 (incident and prevalent cases), surviving at month 24 for myeloblastic AL and lymphoblastic AL grafted in first complete remission or at month 48 for lymphoblastic AL not grafted in first complete remission. Information is collected during specific medical visits and notably includes the following data: socioeconomic data, AL history, physical late effects (such as fertility, cardiac function and metabolic syndrome) and quality of life. Data are collected every 2 years until the patient is 20 years old and has had a 10-year follow-up duration from diagnosis or last relapse. Thereafter, assessments are planned every 4 years. In active centres in 2013, eligible patients number more than 3000. The cohort has already included 2385 survivors, with rate of exhaustiveness of almost 80%. Data access can be requested from principal coordinators and must be approved by the steering committee. PMID:24639445

  11. Gastrobronchial Fistula: A Serious Complication of Sleeve Gastrectomy. Results of a French Multicentric Study.

    PubMed

    Guillaud, Antoine; Moszkowicz, David; Nedelcu, Marius; Caballero-Caballero, Aurélien; Rebibo, Lionel; Reche, Fabian; Abba, Julio; Arvieux, Catherine

    2015-12-01

    Gastrobronchial fistula (GBF) is a complication of esophageal, splenic, or antireflux surgeries and was recently described as a complication of bariatric surgery. Our aim was to study all cases of GBF after laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) managed in five French university bariatric centers in order to establish the incidence and to evaluate the different treatments of this complication. We retrospectively studied 13 patients which developed GBF after LSG performed between March 2007 and August 2012. Patients were separated into two groups: patients who had early gastric fistula which has evolved into a GBF (group 1) and patients who had a late gastric fistula, either directly GBF or a late gastric fistula evolved in GBF (group 2). Group 1 consisted of five patients and group 2 of eight patients. All patients were undernourished at diagnosis. Management of GBF was a combined thoraco-abdominal surgery with gastrojejunal anastomosis (n = 5) or total gastrectomy (n = 1), multiple endoscopic treatment and thoracic surgery (n = 3), an endobronchial valve (n = 1), total gastrectomy and thoracic drainage (n = 1), and transorificial intubation with thoracic surgery or drainage (n = 2). There was no mortality. All GBF healed. GBF after LSG is a serious complication which is not anecdotal. Most of the early gastric fistulas occuring after LSG become chronic and can evolve into a GBF. Surgical approach is an effective treatment. Endobronchial valve is a novel alternative.

  12. The Montagne Noire migmatitic dome emplacement (French Massif Central): new insights from petrofabric and AMS studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charles, Nicolas; Faure, Michel; Chen, Yan

    2009-11-01

    In the southern French Massif Central, the Montagne Noire axial zone is a NE-SW elongated granite-migmatite dome emplaced within Visean south-verging recumbent folds and intruded by syn- to late-migmatization granitoids. The tectonic setting of this dome is still disputed, thus several models have been proposed. In order to better understand the emplacement mechanism of this dome, petrofabric and Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) studies have been carried out. In the granites and migmatites that form the dome core, magmatic texture and to a lesser extent weak solid-state texture are dominant. As a paramagnetic mineral, biotite is the main carrier of the magnetic susceptibility. On the basis of 135 AMS sites, the magnetic fabrics appear as independent of the lithology but related to the dome architecture. Coupling our results with previous structural and geochronological studies, allows us to propose a new emplacement model. Between 340-325 Ma, the Palaeozoic series underwent a compressional deformation represented by nappes and recumbent folds involving the thermal event leading to partial melting. Until ˜325-310 Ma, the dome emplacement was assisted by diapiric processes. An extensional event took place at ˜300 Ma, after the emplacement of the late to post-migmatitic granitic plutons. In the northeast side of the dome, a brittle normal-dextral faulting controlled the opening of the Graissessac coal basin.

  13. The utilization of ERTS-1 data for the study of the French Atlantic Littoral. [coastal water and geomorphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demathieu, P. G.; Verger, F. H.

    1974-01-01

    The French Atlantic Littoral (FRALIT) program uses ERTS-1 data to study coastal geomorphology and waters. ERTS-1 gives an overall picture of the phenomena for the first time due mainly to channel 4 data, but the other channels also contribute valuable complementary data on superficial waters. These studies have already resulted in accurate maps of the mud transported south-westwards from the mouth of the River Loire.

  14. Antibiotic use and good practice in 314 French hospitals: The 2010 SPA2 prevalence study.

    PubMed

    Alfandari, S; Robert, J; Péan, Y; Rabaud, C; Bedos, J P; Varon, E; Lepape, A; Bru, J P; Gauzit, R

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to assess antibiotic prescriptions to identify potential targets for improvement. We conducted a point prevalence survey (November 2010) of antibiotic use in 314 voluntary hospitals recruited by the French Infectious Diseases Society (SPILF) and the National Observatory for Epidemiology of Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobials (ONERBA). Data were entered online, immediately analyzed and exported. The prevalence of antibiotic use was 19.5% (9059/46,446patients). A higher prevalence was observed in the infectious disease (58.4%), hematology (58%), and intensive care (48.7%) units. The three most frequently used antibiotic classes were aminopenicillins (23.8%), fluoroquinolones (17.9%), and 3rd-generation cephalosporins (16.7%). A monotherapy was prescribed to 64% of patients. The reasons for the antibiotic prescription were written in the medical records of 74% of patients and 62% were consistent with the local guidelines. Our results are similar to that of other studies. Various local targets for improvement have been identified to help hospitals define a better antibiotic stewardship. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Classroom Research: GC Studies of Linoleic and Linolenic Fatty Acids Found in French Fries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, Janice P.; Deboise, Kristen L.; Marshall, Megan R.; Shaffer, Hannah M.; Zafar, Sara; Jones, Kevin A.; Palko, Nick R.; Mitsch, Stephen M.; Sutton, Lindsay A.; Chang, Margaret; Fromer, Ilana; Kraft, Jake; Meister, Jessica; Shah, Amar; Tan, Priscilla; Whitchurch, James

    2002-07-01

    A study of fatty-acid ratios in French fries has proved to be an excellent choice for an entry-level research class. This research develops reasoning skills and involves the subject of breast cancer, a major concern of American society. Analysis of tumor samples removed from women with breast cancer revealed high ratios of linoleic to linolenic acid, suggesting a link between the accelerated growth of breast tumors and the combination of these two fatty acids. When the ratio of linoleic to linolenic acid was approximately 9 to 1, accelerated growth was observed. Since these fatty acids are found in cooking oils, Wichita Collegiate students, under the guidance of their chemistry teacher, decided that an investigation of the ratios of these two fatty acids should be conducted. A research class was structured using a gas chromatograph for the analysis. Separation of linoleic from linolenic acid was successfully accomplished. The students experienced inductive experimental research chemistry as it applies to everyday life. The structure of this research class can serve as a model for high school and undergraduate college research curricula.

  16. Socioeconomic Indicators Are Independently Associated with Nutrient Intake in French Adults: A DEDIPAC Study.

    PubMed

    Si Hassen, Wendy; Castetbon, Katia; Cardon, Philippe; Enaux, Christophe; Nicolaou, Mary; Lien, Nanna; Terragni, Laura; Holdsworth, Michelle; Stronks, Karien; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2016-03-10

    Studies have suggested differential associations of specific indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP) with nutrient intake and a cumulative effect of these indicators on diet. We investigated the independent association of SEP indicators (education, income, occupation) with nutrient intake and their effect modification. This cross-sectional analysis included 91,900 French adults from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Nutrient intake was estimated using three 24-h records. We investigated associations between the three SEP factors and nutrient intake using sex-stratified analysis of covariance, adjusted for age and energy intake, and associations between income and nutrient intake stratified by education and occupation. Low educated participants had higher protein and cholesterol intakes and lower fibre, vitamin C and beta-carotene intakes. Low income individuals had higher complex carbohydrate intakes, and lower magnesium, potassium, folate and vitamin C intakes. Intakes of vitamin D and alcohol were lower in low occupation individuals. Higher income was associated with higher intakes of fibre, protein, magnesium, potassium, beta-carotene, and folate among low educated persons only, highlighting effect modification. Lower SEP, particularly low education, was associated with lower intakes of nutrients required for a healthy diet. Each SEP indicator was associated with specific differences in nutrient intake suggesting that they underpin different social processes.

  17. Phonology and syntax in French children with SLI: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Parisse, Christophe; Maillart, Christelle

    2007-01-01

    Maillart and Parisse found out that French children with specific language impairment (SLI) presented strong difficulties in phonology when compared with normally-developing children matched by MLU (NLD). Some of the youngest children from this study were followed to provide developmental information about their language deficit. Children were tested again in the same way as before (free spontaneous production) and matched by MLU against other NLD children. The previous phonological analysis was extended to include syntax as well as phonology. Percentage of words correct was computed for both phonology and syntax. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was performed with children's age as covariate. Results showed a significant difference between SLI and NLD children for phonology but not for syntax. There was a trend that showed that the difference between SLI and NLD children tended to increase with age. The same analysis was performed separately for 9 frequent syntactic categories for phonology and for syntax. A significant difference was found for prepositions, nouns, subject pronouns, and verbs in phonology. Effects were found for determiners and prepositions in syntax. As well as confirming the importance of phonological difficulties in SLI, our results call for a developmental theory of phonological and syntactic deficits in SLI, where differences between SLI and NLD grow with age and where there is a timing difference between phonology (earlier) and syntax (later).

  18. French healthcare professionals' perceived barriers to and motivation for therapeutic patient education: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Lelorain, Sophie; Bachelet, Adeline; Bertin, Nicole; Bourgoin, Maryline

    2017-09-01

    Therapeutic patient education is effective for various patient outcomes; however, healthcare professionals sometimes lack the motivation to carry out patient education. Surprisingly, this issue has rarely been addressed in research. Therefore, this study explores healthcare professionals' perceived barriers to and motivation for therapeutic patient education. Healthcare professionals, mainly nurses, working in different French hospitals were interviewed. Thematic content analysis was performed. Findings included a lack of skills, knowledge, and disillusionment of the effectiveness of therapeutic patient education were features of a demotivated attitude. In contrast, a positive attitude was observed when therapeutic patient education met a need to work differently and more effectively. A key factor motivating professionals was the integration of therapeutic patient education in routine care within a multidisciplinary team. To keep healthcare professionals motivated, managers should ensure that therapeutic patient education is implemented in accordance with its core principles: a patient-centered approach within a trained multidisciplinary team. In the latter case, therapeutic patient education is viewed as an efficient and rewarding way to work with patients, which significantly motivates healthcare professionals. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. The psychiatric report as moral tool: a case study in a French district court.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Fabrice; Lézé, Samuel

    2014-09-01

    Mental health evaluation within a legal setting is widely seen as a power to judge. The aim of this paper is to challenge this current thesis, which was popularised by Michel Foucault, who encapsulated the notion in a brief sentence: "The sordid business of punishing is thus converted into the fine profession of curing" (Foucault, 2003: 23). On the basis of an ethnography of a French district court (between September 2008 and May 2009, n = 60 trials) including interviews with judges (n = 10) and psychiatrists (n = 10), we study the everyday penal treatment of sexual offenders using psychiatric reports. Our findings show how (i.) the expectations of the judges select the psychiatrists' skills (based on the following criteria for their reports: accessibility of knowledge, singularization and individualization of content) and (ii.) reframe the psychiatric report as a moral tool. The clinical reasoning of forensic psychiatrists in their reports offer moral affordances due to their clinical caution regarding the risk of recidivism (therapeutic and criminological reversal, moral prevention). Both the judges' evaluation and the psychiatrists' clinical authority are shaped by a moral economy of dangerousness, which eclipses the idea of lack of criminal responsibility. In conclusion, we show that these unintended effects are necessarily of interest to most clinical practitioners engaged in work as expert witnesses.

  20. Is patient education helpful in providing care for patients with rheumatoid arthritis? A qualitative study involving French nurses.

    PubMed

    Fall, Estelle; Chakroun, Nadia; Dalle, Nathalie; Izaute, Marie

    2013-09-01

    This French study explored nurses' involvement in patient education for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The study design was qualitative. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 16 hospital nurses. Data analysis was performed according to Giorgi's descriptive phenomenological method, and supported by specific qualitative analysis software (Sphinx). The results showed the important role of hospital nurses in rheumatoid arthritis care. Patient education is a core part of nurses' work, allowing them to give patients information and emotional support. The interviewees displayed skills in helping patients learn to care for themselves. However, patient education mostly concerned patients who are already committed to their health care. Non-adherent patients warrant special attention; their acceptance of their disease, perceptions about disease and treatment, motivation, and autonomy should be specifically addressed. French nurses could benefit from more training, and could be aided by psychologists. Ambulatory services could also be developed for patient education in France, based on examples from other countries.

  1. Lifecourse socioeconomic position and alcohol use in young adulthood: results from the French TEMPO cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Yaogo, Ahmed; Fombonne, Eric; Kouanda, Seni; Lert, France; Melchior, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Aims To examine the relationship between lifetime socioeconomic position and alcohol use in young adults. Methods Study participants (n=1,103, age 22–35 years in 2009) belong to the French TEMPO cohort study and are all offspring of participants of the GAZEL cohort study. Alcohol use was assessed by the WHO AUDIT questionnaire (none, low or intermediate alcohol use, alcohol abuse). Childhood socioeconomic position was measured using parental income through the GAZEL cohort study in 1989 (low: ≤2592€/month vs. Intermediate/high: >2592€/month). Adult socioeconomic position was measured by participants’ educational level (<=high school degree vs. > high school degree). Combining family income and educational attainment, we ascertained participants’ social trajectory (stable high, upward, downward and stable low). Data were analyzed using multinomial regression analyses controlled for demographic, social, psychological and family characteristics. Results Participants’ social trajectory was associated with alcohol abstinence: compared to participants with a stable high social trajectory, those with an upward, downward or low social trajectory were more likely to abstain from alcohol (compared to a stable high social trajectory, sex and age-adjusted ORs: OR=2.22, 95% CI 1.35–3.65 for an upward social trajectory; OR=3.20, 95% CI 1.78–5.73 for a downward social trajectory; OR= 3.27, 95% CI 1.75–6.12 for a stable low social trajectory). Additionally, participants with a downward social trajectory were disproportionately likely to abuse alcohol (sex and age-adjusted OR: 1.48, 95% CI 0.89–2.48). In multivariate analyses, social trajectory remained associated with alcohol abstinence. Conclusions Lifelong socioeconomic position may shape patterns of alcohol use early in life. PMID:23900495

  2. Drug-induced Depression: a Case/Non Case Study in the French Pharmacovigilance Database.

    PubMed

    Lafay-Chebassier, Claire; Chavant, François; Favrelière, Sylvie; Pizzoglio, Véronique; Pérault-Pochat, Marie-Christine

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a complex disorder with heterogeneous clinical anomalies whose neurobiological understanding still remains unclear. Medications have been implicated as potential causes of depression but for many of them, data are controversial. The present study aims to investigate association bet ween drugs and reports of depression. We used the case/non case method in the French pharmacovigilance database (FPVD) to identify drugs associated with depression. Cases were reports of depression in the FPVD between January 2007 and December 2011. Non cases were all other reports during the same period. Data were expressed as reporting odds ratio (ROR) with their 95% confidence interval. Of the 114,692 reports recorded in the FPVD during the studied period, we identified 474 cases of depression. For the majority of the patients, they were considered as "non serious" (56%) and evolution was favorable (64%). Significant RORs were found for antiepileptics (topiramate, levetiracetam), anti-infective and especially anti-retroviral drugs (efavirenz, emtricitabine, tenofovir, etravirine, raltegravir), interferons and other agents including isotretinoin, methylphenidate, sodium oxybate, varenicline, montelukast, flunarizine, adalimumab, anastrozole. Taking into account the limits of the methodology, the present study described associations with mainly expected drugs belonging to various therapeutic classes but it also found a signal with some anti-retrovirals. On the contrary, we did not find some assumed associations like cardiovascular medications, antimalarial. For most of the drugs, one or more mechanisms were found to explain these depressogenic effects on the basis of animal and human literature. Even if such associations need to be confirmed by further prospective studies, cautions are necessary for many drugs to early detect depressive symptoms.

  3. RECONSTRUCTION OF INDIVIDUAL RADIATION DOSES FOR A CASE-CONTROL STUDY OF THYROID CANCER IN FRENCH POLYNESIA

    PubMed Central

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Bouville, André; Doyon, Françoise; Brindel, Pauline; Cardis, Elisabeth; de Vathaire, Florent

    2014-01-01

    Forty-one atmospheric nuclear weapons tests (plus five safety tests) were conducted in French Polynesia between 1966 and 1974. To evaluate the potential role of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing on a high incidence of thyroid cancer observed since 1985 in French Polynesia, a population-based case-control study was performed. The study included 602 subjects, either cases or controls, all aged less than 40 y at the end of nuclear weapons testing in 1974. Radiation doses to the thyroids of the study subjects were assessed based on the available historical results of radiation measurements. These were mainly found in the annual reports on the radiological situation in French Polynesia that had been sent to the UNSCEAR Secretariat. For each atmospheric nuclear weapons test that contributed substantially to the local deposition of radionuclides, the radiation dose to the thyroid from 131I intake was estimated. In addition, thyroid doses from the intake of short-lived radioiodines (132I, 133I, 135I) and 132Te, external exposure from gamma-emitted radionuclides deposited on the ground, and ingestion of long-lived 137Cs were reconstructed. The mean thyroid dose among the study subjects was found to be around 3 mGy while the highest dose was estimated to be around 40 mGy. Doses from short-lived iodine and tellurium isotopes ranged up to 10 mGy. Thyroid doses from external exposure ranged up to 3 mGy, while those from internal exposure due to cesium ingestion did not exceed 1 mGy. The dose estimates that have been obtained are based on a rather limited number of radiation measurements performed on a limited number of islands and are highly uncertain. A thorough compilation of the results of all radiation monitoring that was performed in French Polynesia in 1966–1974 would be likely to greatly improve the reliability and the precision of the dose estimates. PMID:18403963

  4. Associations between transition to retirement and changes in dietary intakes in French adults (NutriNet-Santé cohort study).

    PubMed

    Si Hassen, Wendy; Castetbon, Katia; Lelièvre, Eva; Lampuré, Aurélie; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2017-05-30

    Few studies have focused on the influence of retirement on dietary behaviors. Our study aimed at assessing the associations between transition to retirement and changes in dietary intake in French adults, particularly according to spousal retirement and baseline income. This prospective study included 577 French participants from the NutriNet-Santé cohort who retired over a 5-year follow-up (2009-2014 or 2010-2015). At baseline and every year, dietary intakes were assessed using 24 h records. Repeated measures of dietary intake were analysed using mixed models adjusted for energy with random effects of time and period (before and after retirement) to assess changes following retirement for each gender. After retirement, intakes of saturated fatty acids and sodium increased in both genders. Women showed specific changes after retirement: decrease in the score of adherence to recommendations and in intakes of fruits, proteins, vitamins; increase in intakes of fatty sweet products. In men with the lowest income at baseline, specific changes in intake were associated with retirement such as decrease in intake of dairy products and increase in intake of lipids. Transition to retirement was associated with unhealthier dietary intakes. These results may help defining interventions during this vulnerable life-period. This study was conducted according to guidelines laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki and all procedures were approved by the Institutional Review Board of the French Institute for Health and Medical Research (IRB Inserm No. 0000388FWA00005831) and the French Data Protection Authority (Commission Nationale Informatique et Libertés No. 908450 and No. 909216). Electronic informed consents were obtained from all participants.

  5. Serological and Molecular Diagnosis of Hepatitis Delta Virus Infection: Results of a French National Quality Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Brichler, Ségolène; Le Gal, Frédéric; Neri-Pinto, Fernando; Mansour, Wael; Roulot, Dominique; Laperche, Syria

    2014-01-01

    A French national quality control study for the serological and molecular diagnosis of hepatitis delta virus (HDV) was organized. Total HDV antibodies were properly detected by all laboratories; 8/14 laboratories failed to detect low titers of IgM, and 6/11 failed to quantify and/or underestimated the RNA viral load in several samples. These discrepancies are likely related to the molecular diversity of HDV. PMID:24523467

  6. Pediatric drug-related problems: a multicenter study in four French-speaking countries.

    PubMed

    Prot-Labarthe, Sonia; Di Paolo, Ermindo R; Lavoie, Annie; Quennery, Stefanie; Bussières, Jean-François; Brion, Françoise; Bourdon, Olivier

    2013-04-01

    Pediatric intensive care patients represent a population at high risk for drug-related problems. There are few studies that compare the activity of clinical pharmacists between countries. To describe the drug-related problems identified and interventions by four pharmacists in a pediatric cardiac and intensive care unit. Four pediatric centers in France, Quebec, Switzerland and Belgium. This was a six-month multicenter, descriptive and prospective study conducted from August 1, 2009 to January 31, 2010. Drug-related problems and clinical interventions were compiled from four pediatric centers in France, Quebec, Switzerland and Belgium. Data on patients, drugs, intervention, documentation, approval and estimated impact were compiled. Number and type of drug-related problems encountered in a large pediatric inpatient population. A total of 996 interventions were recorded: 238 (24 %) in France, 278 (28 %) in Quebec, 351 (35 %) in Switzerland and 129 (13 %) in Belgium. These interventions targeted 270 patients (median 21 months old, 53 % male): 88 (33 %) in France, 56 (21 %) in Quebec, 57 (21 %) in Switzerland and 69 (26 %) in Belgium. The main drug-related problems were inappropriate administration technique (29 %), untreated indication (25 %) and supra-therapeutic dose (11 %). The pharmacists' interventions were mostly optimizing the mode of administration (22 %), dose adjustment (20 %) and therapeutic monitoring (16 %). The two major drug classes that led to interventions were anti-infectives for systemic use (23 %) and digestive system and metabolism drugs (22 %). Interventions mainly involved residents and all clinical staff (21 %). Among the 878 (88 %) proposed interventions requiring physician approval, 860 (98 %) were accepted. This descriptive study illustrates drug-related problems and the ability of clinical pharmacists to identify and resolve them in pediatric intensive care units in four French-speaking countries.

  7. Possible causes of variation in acrylamide concentration in French fries prepared in food service establishments: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Sanny, M; Jinap, S; Bakker, E J; van Boekel, M A J S; Luning, P A

    2012-05-01

    Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen, and its presence in a range of fried and oven-cooked foods has raised considerable health concern world-wide. Dietary intake studies observed significant variations in acrylamide concentrations, which complicate risk assessment and the establishment of effective control measures. The objective of this study was to obtain an insight into the actual variation in acrylamide concentrations in French fries prepared under typical conditions in a food service establishment (FSE). Besides acrylamide, frying time, frying temperature, and reducing sugars were measured and the actual practices at receiving, thawing and frying during French fries preparation were observed and recorded. The variation in the actual frying temperature contributed most to the variation in acrylamide concentrations, followed by the variation in actual frying time; no obvious effect of reducing sugars was found. The lack of standardised control of frying temperature and frying time (due to inadequate frying equipment) and the variable practices of food handlers seem to contribute most to the large variation and high acrylamide concentrations in French fries prepared in a restaurant type of FSE as compared to chain fast-food services, and institutional caterers. The obtained insights in this study can be used to develop dedicated control measures in FSE, which may contribute to a sustainable reduction in the acrylamide intake.

  8. A cross-linguistic study of the development of gesture and speech in Zulu and French oral narratives.

    PubMed

    Kunene Nicolas, Ramona; Guidetti, Michèle; Colletta, Jean-Marc

    2017-01-01

    The present study reports on a developmental and cross-linguistic study of oral narratives produced by speakers of Zulu (a Bantu language) and French (a Romance language). Specifically, we focus on oral narrative performance as a bimodal (i.e., linguistic and gestural) behaviour during the late language acquisition phase. We analyzed seventy-two oral narratives produced by L1 Zulu and French adults and primary school children aged between five and ten years old. The data were all collected using a narrative retelling task. The results revealed a strong effect of age on discourse performance, confirming that narrative abilities improve with age, irrespective of language. However, the results also showed cross-linguistic differences. Zulu oral narratives were longer, more detailed, and accompanied by more co-speech gestures than the French narratives. The parallel effect of age and language on gestural behaviour is discussed and highlights the importance of studying oral narratives from a multimodal perspective within a cross-linguistic framework.

  9. Entrepreneurs and Enterprises: The Making of a Course Unit in Business French--A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bousquet, Gilles

    A unit in college-level business French is designed to call on students' imagination and desire to become entrepreneurs, while providing information on the structure and environment of a company. The core of the unit is the creation of a fictitious company whose operation lends itself to a variety of exercises tailored to the needs of students at…

  10. Sources of Writing Anxiety: A Study on French Language Teaching Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aslim Yetis, Veda

    2017-01-01

    Conducted on French Language Teaching students, this research aims to determine the causes of writing anxiety. Designed in accordance with the mixed method, a writing anxiety inventory, a language proficiency exam, a retrospective composing-process questionnaire, a writing attitude scale and semi-structured interviews were used. After identifying…

  11. Technical Objects between Categorisation and Learning: An Exploratory Case Study in French Middle School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Impedovo, M. A.; Andreucci, C.; Delserieys-Pedregosa, A.; Coiffard, C.; Ginestié, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this article we present exploratory research carried out in order to understand how students (from 12 to 14 years old) relate to technical objects. It uses technical objects that are part of everyday life and mediated reality. A questionnaire was administered to 57 students in French classes. The questionnaire was composed of three parts: 1)…

  12. The epidemiology of septic shock in French intensive care units: the prospective multicenter cohort EPISS study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction To provide up-to-date information on the prognostic factors associated with 28-day mortality in a cohort of septic shock patients in intensive care units (ICUs). Methods Prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study in ICUs from 14 French general (non-academic) and university teaching hospitals. All consecutive patients with septic shock admitted between November 2009 and March 2011 were eligible for inclusion. We prospectively recorded data regarding patient characteristics, infection, severity of illness, life support therapy, and discharge. Results Among 10,941 patients admitted to participating ICUs between October 2009 and September 2011, 1,495 (13.7%) patients presented inclusion criteria for septic shock and were included. Invasive mechanical ventilation was needed in 83.9% (n = 1248), inotropes in 27.7% (n = 412), continuous renal replacement therapy in 32.5% (n = 484), and hemodialysis in 19.6% (n = 291). Mortality at 28 days was 42% (n = 625). Variables associated with time to mortality, right-censored at day 28: age (for each additional 10 years) (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-1.38), immunosuppression (HR = 1.63; 95%CI: 1.37-1.96), Knaus class C/D score versus class A/B score (HR = 1.36; 95%CI:1.14-1.62) and Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (HR = 1.24 for each additional point; 95%CI: 1.21-1.27). Patients with septic shock and renal/urinary tract infection had a significantly longer time to mortality (HR = 0.56; 95%CI: 0.42-0.75). Conclusion Our observational data of consecutive patients from real-life practice confirm that septic shock is common and carries high mortality in general ICU populations. Our results are in contrast with the clinical trial setting, and could be useful for healthcare planning and clinical study design. PMID:23561510

  13. Individual and contextual covariates of burnout: a cross-sectional nationwide study of French teachers

    PubMed Central

    Vercambre, Marie-Noël; Brosselin, Pauline; Gilbert, Fabien; Nerrière, Eléna; Kovess-Masféty, Viviane

    2009-01-01

    Background Limited information on the covariates of burnout syndrome in French teachers is available. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relative contributions of individual and contextual factors on the three burnout dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, and reduced personal accomplishment. Methods The source data come from an epidemiological postal survey on physical and mental health conducted in 2005 among 20,099 education workers (in activity or retired) selected at random from the health plan records of the national education system. The response rate was 52.4%. Teachers in activity currently giving classes to students who participated in the survey (n = 3,940) were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire including the Maslach Burnout Inventory. 2,558 teachers provided complete data (64.9%). Variables associated with high emotional exhaustion (highest quartile of score), high depersonalization (highest quartile), and reduced personal accomplishment (lowest quartile) were evaluated using multivariate logistic regression. Studied variables referred to demographic characteristics, socio-professional environment, job dissatisfaction, experienced difficulties at work, and teaching motivations. Results Different variables were associated with each burnout dimension. Female teachers were more susceptible to high emotional exhaustion and reduced personal accomplishment, whereas male teachers were more susceptible to high depersonalization. Elementary school teachers were more susceptible to high emotional exhaustion, but less susceptible to high depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment than their higher school level counterparts. Experienced difficulties with pupils were associated with all three dimensions. A socio-economically underprivileged school neighbourhood was also related to high emotional exhaustion and high depersonalization. Conclusion Programs to enhance teaching environment might be an interesting

  14. Effect of retirement on major chronic conditions and fatigue: French GAZEL occupational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Westerlund, Hugo; Vahtera, Jussi; Ferrie, Jane E; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Pentti, Jaana; Melchior, Maria; Leineweber, Constanze; Jokela, Markus; Siegrist, Johannes; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Kivimäki, Mika

    2010-11-23

    To determine, using longitudinal analyses, if retirement is followed by a change in the risk of incident chronic diseases, depressive symptoms, and fatigue. Design Prospective study with repeat measures from 7 years before to 7 years after retirement. Large French occupational cohort (the GAZEL study), 1989-2007. Participants 11 246 men and 2858 women. Respiratory disease, diabetes, coronary heart disease and stroke, mental fatigue, and physical fatigue, measured annually by self report over the 15 year observation period; depressive symptoms measured at four time points. The average number of repeat measurements per participant was 12.1. Repeated measures logistic regression with generalised estimating equations showed that the cumulative prevalence of self reported respiratory disease, diabetes, and coronary heart disease and stroke increased with age, with no break in the trend around retirement. In contrast, retirement was associated with a substantial decrease in the prevalence of both mental fatigue (odds ratio for fatigue one year after versus one year before retirement 0.19, 95% confidence interval 0.18 to 0.21) and physical fatigue (0.27, 0.26 to 0.30). A major decrease was also observed in depressive symptoms (0.60, 0.53 to 0.67). The decrease in fatigue around retirement was more pronounced among people with a chronic disease before retirement. Longitudinal modelling of repeat data showed that retirement did not change the risk of major chronic diseases but was associated with a substantial reduction in mental and physical fatigue and depressive symptoms, particularly among people with chronic diseases.

  15. Effect of retirement on major chronic conditions and fatigue: French GAZEL occupational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Vahtera, Jussi; Ferrie, Jane E; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Pentti, Jaana; Melchior, Maria; Leineweber, Constanze; Jokela, Markus; Siegrist, Johannes; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Kivimäki, Mika

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine, using longitudinal analyses, if retirement is followed by a change in the risk of incident chronic diseases, depressive symptoms, and fatigue. Design Prospective study with repeat measures from 7 years before to 7 years after retirement. Setting Large French occupational cohort (the GAZEL study), 1989-2007. Participants 11 246 men and 2858 women. Main outcome measures Respiratory disease, diabetes, coronary heart disease and stroke, mental fatigue, and physical fatigue, measured annually by self report over the 15 year observation period; depressive symptoms measured at four time points. Results The average number of repeat measurements per participant was 12.1. Repeated measures logistic regression with generalised estimating equations showed that the cumulative prevalence of self reported respiratory disease, diabetes, and coronary heart disease and stroke increased with age, with no break in the trend around retirement. In contrast, retirement was associated with a substantial decrease in the prevalence of both mental fatigue (odds ratio for fatigue one year after versus one year before retirement 0.19, 95% confidence interval 0.18 to 0.21) and physical fatigue (0.27, 0.26 to 0.30). A major decrease was also observed in depressive symptoms (0.60, 0.53 to 0.67). The decrease in fatigue around retirement was more pronounced among people with a chronic disease before retirement. Conclusions Longitudinal modelling of repeat data showed that retirement did not change the risk of major chronic diseases but was associated with a substantial reduction in mental and physical fatigue and depressive symptoms, particularly among people with chronic diseases. PMID:21098617

  16. Drug-induced progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy: a case/noncase study in the French pharmacovigilance database.

    PubMed

    Colin, Olivier; Favrelière, Sylvie; Quillet, Alexandre; Neau, Jean-Philippe; Houeto, Jean-Luc; Lafay-Chebassier, Claire; Pérault-Pochat, Marie-Christine

    2017-04-01

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is an often fatal demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. As effective treatment is unavailable, identification of all drugs that could be associated with PML is essential. The objective of this study was to investigate the putative association of reports of PML and drugs. We used the case/noncase method in the French PharmacoVigilance database (FPVD). Cases were reports of PML in the FPVD between January 2008 and December 2015. Noncases were all other reports during the same period. To assess the association between PML and drug intake, we calculated an adverse drug report odds ratio (ROR) with its 95% confidence interval. We have studied the delay of onset of PML for each drug concerned. Among the 101 cases of PML, 39 drugs were mentioned as suspect. The main therapeutic classes suspected with significant ROR were antineoplastic agents (n = 85), immunosuppressants (n = 67), and corticosteroids. A latent interval from the time of drug initiation to the development of PML is established: the median time to onset was 365 days (123-1095 days). The onset of PML is highly variable and differs among drug classes [from 1 to 96 months (IQR: 39.0-126)]. An association between PML and some immunosuppressant drugs was found as expected, but also with antineoplastic agents and glucocorticoids. An important delay of PML onset after stopping treatment is suspected and should alert prescribers. Prescribers but also patients should be informed about the potential associations with all these drugs. Monitoring could be necessary for many drugs to early detect PML.

  17. The multinational second Diabetes, Attitudes, Wishes and Needs study: results of the French survey

    PubMed Central

    Reach, Gérard; Consoli, Silla M; Halimi, Serge; Colas, Claude; Duclos, Martine; Fontaine, Pierre; Martineau, Caroline; Avril, Carole; Tourette-Turgis, Catherine; Pucheu, Sylvie; Brunet, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Aim The second Diabetes, Attitudes, Wishes and Needs (DAWN2™) multinational cross-sectional study was aimed at generating insights to facilitate innovative efforts by people with diabetes (PWD), family members (FMs), and health care professionals (HCPs) to improve self-management and psychosocial support in diabetes. Here, the French data from the DAWN2™ study are described. Methods In France, 500 PWD (80 with type 1 diabetes [T1] and 420 with type 2 diabetes [T2]), 120 FMs, and 288 HCPs were recruited. The questionnaires assessed the impact of diabetes on quality of life and mood, self-management, attitudes/beliefs, and care/support. Results Diabetes negatively impacted the emotional well-being of 59% of people with T1 versus 45% of people with T2 (P<0.05) and about half of FMs. A high level of distress was felt by about half of PWD and FMs. About half of HCPs reported assessing depression in their patients. Sixty-two percent of FMs considered managing diabetes to be a burden. Hypoglycemia was a source of concern for 64% of people with T1 and 73% of FMs of insulin users. About two-thirds of non-insulin-medicated people with T2 agreed to start insulin if prescribed, while half of HCPs preferred to delay insulin initiation. A discrepancy between HCPs’ perceptions of their interactions with their patients and PWD’s recollection of these interactions with regard to patients’ personal needs and distress was also observed. Conclusion While distress remains under-assessed by HCPs, the negative impact of diabetes on the lives of PWD and FMs clearly induces distress on both groups. These findings provide new understanding of barriers precluding optimal management of diabetes. Developing strategies to overcome these barriers is now warranted. PMID:25709415

  18. Study of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds at the French Guiana Tropical Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corain Lopes, Paula Regina; Guenther, Alex; Turnipseed, Andrew; Bonal, Damien; Serça, Dominique; Burban, Benôit; Siebicke, Lukas; Emmons, Louisa; Bustillos, José Oscar W. V.

    2013-04-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOCs) emissions play an important role in regional air quality and global atmospheric chemistry. In addition, these natural VOC emissions serve important biological functions including attracting and repelling pollinators and herbivores. Some biological organisms use ambient air as a communication medium and the oxidation of these compounds brings about the concentration gradients sensed by insects and other organisms. Isoprene is the predominant BVOC emitted by vegetation and tropical forests are the dominant global source. This compound is very reactive in the atmosphere and contributes to the reactions that control tropospheric oxidant concentrations and thus the concentrations and lifetimes of longer-lived species. This paper presents a study on the seasonal variations in isoprene and some other significant BVOCs such as α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, e-β ocimene and longifolene, measured at the Guyaflux Tower located in a wet tropical forest in Paracou French Guiana (5o16´54´´N, 52o54´44´´W), during the year of 2011, using the Relaxed Eddy Accumulation technique at approximately 20 meters high above the canopy. The results show a lower concentration of isoprene during the month of February and March which correspond to the wet season with an average of 0,545 μg/m3 and 0,341 μg/m3, respectively followed by a slight increase in middle April (still wet season) and a higher concentration later in mid-June. The same behavior was observed for α-pinene with higher concentrations for the same periods as isoprene however with a smaller increase. All the other compounds had concentrations below 1 μg/m3during the whole year. The monoterpene, e-β ocimene, was observed and is known as a stress compound but the vegetation at the site did not face any known severe stress condition such as excessive drought or flooding. Concerning the fluxes, the results showed that just a small amount of BVOCs were deposited by wet or dry

  19. Study of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds at the French Guiana Tropical Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corain Lopes, P.; Guenther, A. B.; Turnipseed, A.; Burban, B.; Bonal, D.; Serca, D.; Emmons, L. K.; Bustillos, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOCs) emissions play an important role in regional air quality and global atmospheric chemistry. In addition, these natural VOC emissions serve important biological functions including attracting and repelling pollinators and herbivores. Some biological organisms use ambient air as a communication medium and the oxidation of these compounds brings about the concentration gradients sensed by insects and other organisms. Isoprene is the predominant BVOC emitted by vegetation and tropical forests are the dominant global source. This compound is very reactive in the atmosphere and contributes to the reactions that control tropospheric oxidant concentrations and thus the concentrations and lifetimes of longer-lived species. This paper presents a study of isoprene and some other significant BVOCs such as α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, e-β ocimene and longifolene, measured at the Paracou Tower located in a wet tropical forest in Cayenne, French Guiana, during the year of 2011, using the Relaxed Eddy Accumulation technique at 30 meters high above the canopy. The results show a lower concentration of isoprene during the month of February and March which correspond to the wet season with an average of 0,545 μg/m3 and 0,341 μg/m3, respectively with a slight increase in middle April which is a period of transition between wet and dry and a higher concentration later in mid-June which corresponds to the transition from wet to dry season (Figure 1). The same behavior was observed for α-pinene with higher concentrations for the same periods as isoprene however with a smaller increase. All the other compounds had concentrations below 1 μg/m3 during the whole year. The monoterpene, e-β ocimene, was observed and is known as a stress compound but the vegetation at the site did not face any known severe stress condition such as excessive drought or flooding. Concerning the fluxes, the results showed that just a small amount of BVOCs were

  20. A study of fluid intake from beverages in a sample of healthy French children, adolescents and adults

    PubMed Central

    Bellisle, F; Thornton, S N; Hébel, P; Denizeau, M; Tahiri, M

    2010-01-01

    Background/Objectives: To assess the intake of fluid in healthy French children, adolescents, adults and seniors, considering amounts, types of beverages, time and place of consumption. Subjects/Methods: Data regarding fluid intake were extracted and analyzed from the National Intake Survey, which was conducted in quota samples of the French population (Comportement et Consommations Alimentaires en France study). Seven-day questionnaires were administered to free-living individuals in 2002–2003. A total of 566 children (aged 6–11 years), 333 adolescents (aged 12–19 years), 831 adults (aged 20–54 years) and 443 seniors (aged ⩾55 years) were included in this study. Results: The average total intake of fluid was 1–1.3 l per day depending on age groups. Water accounted for about one-half of daily fluid intake. The contribution of other types of beverages varied with age (for example, dairy drinks in children and adolescents; alcoholic drinks in adults and seniors). Intake of sodas (including regular and light) was highest in adolescents (169 ml a day). Beverages were mainly consumed at home during meals. Conclusions: This is the first description of fluid intake in French children, adolescents, adults and seniors, considering amounts, types of beverages, time and place of intake. It shows that water is the main source of fluid in all age groups. Selection of various types of beverages is different according to age. PMID:20160751

  1. A comparison study of Zika virus outbreaks in French Polynesia, Colombia and the State of Bahia in Brazil.

    PubMed

    He, Daihai; Gao, Daozhou; Lou, Yijun; Zhao, Shi; Ruan, Shigui

    2017-03-21

    Zika virus (ZIKV) disease outbreaks occurred in French Polynesia in 2013-2014 and in Brazil and Colombia in 2015-2016, respectively. Using our recently developed ZIKV disease model, we simulated the reported ZIKV infection cases from French Polynesia, Colombia and the State of Bahia of Brazil. Moreover, we estimated that the infection attack rates were 78.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 63.5-86.3%) in French Polynesia which closely matches a previous serological study; 20.8% (95% CI: 1.1-50.0%) in Colombia which suggests that the attack rate was most likely less than 50%; and 32.4% (95% CI: 2.5-94.2%) in the State of Bahia in Brazil which suggests that the attack rate is unidentifiable with monthly data in Bahia. Furthermore, we found that the association of precipitation and ZIKV outbreak was more evident in Colombia than the other two places. These results are helpful for us to understand the possible evolution, to control the on-going outbreaks, to prevent the potential geographic spread, and to study the ecological and epidemiological characteristics of ZIKV.

  2. Chromosome 11-q24 region in Tourette syndrome: association and linkage disequilibrium study in the French Canadian population.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Anzaldúa, Adriana; Rivière, Jean-Baptiste; Dubé, Marie-Pierre; Joober, Ridha; Saint-Onge, Judith; Dion, Yves; Lespérance, Paul; Richer, Francois; Chouinard, Sylvain; Rouleau, Guy Armand

    2005-10-15

    Previous studies have found association and linkage between Tourette syndrome (TS) and markers at the 11q24 region, mainly with markers D11S1377 and D11S933. In order to determine if these positive findings could be replicated in our sample, we undertook a family-based association study in 199 French Canadian TS nuclear families. We genotyped 572 individuals from 174 complete and 25 incomplete TS trios. TDT analysis failed to detect an association between TS and six markers from 11q24. Furthermore, no haplotype combining alleles from D11S1377, D11S933, or any of the other four markers was associated with the disorder. Linkage disequilibrium analysis showed evidence of historical recombination between every contiguous pair of markers, indicating that these genetic variants are probably in equilibrium in the French Canadian population. Further analysis in additional families, with different methodologies (linkage and association) will be required in order to determine if the 11q24 region harbors a susceptibility locus for TS. If it does, this defect may not be frequent in the French Canadian population due to locus heterogeneity.

  3. Clinicopathological characteristics of incidental prostate cancer discovered from radical cystoprostatectomy specimen: a multicenter French study.

    PubMed

    Pignot, Géraldine; Salomon, Laurent; Neuzillet, Yann; Masson-Lecomte, Alexandra; Lebacle, Cédric; Patard, Jean-Jacques; Lunardi, Pierre; Rischmann, Pascal; Pasticier, Gilles; Bernhard, Jean-Christophe; Cohen, Jérémy; Timsit, Marc-Olivier; Verkarre, Virginie; Peyronnet, Benoit; Verhoest, Gregory; Le Goux, Constance; Zerbib, Marc; Brecheteau, François; Bigot, Pierre; Larre, Stéphane; Murez, Thibault; Thuret, Rodolphe; Lacarriere, Emeric; Champy, Cécile; Roupret, Morgan; Comperat, Eva; Berger, Julien; Descazeaud, Aurélien; Toledano, Harry; Bastide, Cyrille; Lavilledieu, Sébastien; Avances, Christophe; Delage, Francky; Valeri, Antoine; Molimard, Benoit; Houlgatte, Alain; Gres, Pascal; Donnaint, Alain; Kleinclauss, François; Legal, Sophie; Doerfler, Arnaud; Koutlidis, Nicolas; Cormier, Luc; Hetet, Jean-François; Colls, Philippe; Arvin-Berod, Alexis; Rambeaud, Jean-Jacques; Quintens, Hervé; Soulie, Michel; Pfister, Christian

    2014-02-01

    The present study assessed the incidence and histopathological features of incidentally diagnosed prostate cancer (PCa) in specimens from radical cystoprostatectomy (RCP) for bladder cancer. The patient outcomes also were evaluated. We retrospectively reviewed the histopathological features and survival data of 4,299 male patients who underwent a RCP for bladder cancer at 25 French centers between January 1996 and June 2012. No patients had preoperative clinical or biological suspicion of PCa. Among the 4,299 RCP specimens, PCa was diagnosed in 931 patients (21.7%). Most tumors (90.1%) were organ-confined (pT2), whereas 9.9% of them were diagnosed at a locally advanced stage (≥pT3). Gleason score was <6 in 129 cases (13.9%), 6 in 575 cases (61.7%), 7 (3 + 4) in 149 cases (16.0%), 7 (4 + 3) in 38 cases (4.1%), and >7 in 40 cases (4.3%). After a median follow-up of 25.5 months (interquartile range 14.2-47.4), 35.4% of patients had bladder cancer recurrence and 23.8% died of bladder cancer. Only 16 patients (1.9%) experienced PCa biochemical recurrence during follow-up, and no preoperative predictive factor was identified. No patients died from PCa. The rate of incidentally diagnosed PCa in RCP specimens was 21.7%. The majority of these PCas were organ-confined. PCa recurrence occurred in only 1.9% of cases during follow-up.

  4. How to improve the prevention of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting? The French NAVI study.

    PubMed

    Vanbockstael, Julie; Coquan, Elodie; Gouerant, Sophie; Allouache, Djelila; Faveyrial, Audrey; Noal, Sabine; Delcambre, Corinne; Galais, Marie-Pierre; Héron, Jean-François; Lefebvre, Anne-Charlotte; Sevin, Emmanuel; Hrab, Ioana; Polycarpe, Florence; André, Michel; Kaluzinski, Laure; Gervais, Radj; Gunzer, Katharina; Vié, Brigitte; Saucier, Gilles; Lemenand, Noëmie; Grellard, Jean-Michel; Clarisse, Bénédicte; Dugué, Audrey Emmanuelle; Joly, Florence

    2016-03-01

    Chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) still remain frequent. The procedure for announcing the diagnosis (PAD) was an emblematic measure of the first French Plan Cancer aiming at providing patients with time to listen, information after cancer diagnosis, and discussion on treatments and their side effects. We aimed at assessing the risk factors of CINV, focusing on patients' satisfaction with the PAD. This prospective multicentre study assessed the frequency and intensity of CINV among chemonaïve patients during the first cycle of treatment. CINV was defined by ≥1 emetic episode or reported nausea intensity ≥3 on a 0-10 scale. Multivariate analysis was used to identify factors related to global CINV onset including satisfaction with the PAD (satisfaction score ≥the median on a 0-10 scale). Data from 291 patients (women, 85.2%; mean age, 57 years) were analyzed. Most patients (69.4%) received highly emetogenic chemotherapy regimens and 77.7% received antiemetic drugs consistent with international guidelines. Acute, delayed and overall CINV were experienced by 40.4, 34.8 and 52.4% of patients, respectively. Sixty-seven per cent of patients were satisfied with the PAD. No relation was noted between PAD satisfaction and CINV onset. The nausea and vomiting dimension of the QLQ-C30 questionnaire before chemotherapy (OR 3.62), motion sickness history (OR 2.73), highly emetogenic CT (OR 2.73), anxiety (OR 1.99) and younger age (OR 1.96) were independent predictive factors. Although patients were mostly satisfied with the PAD, half of them experienced CINV. A state of anxiety could be identified during the PAD to be managed.

  5. Acidosis and nutritional status in hemodialyzed patients. French Study Group for Nutrition in Dialysis.

    PubMed

    Chauveau, P; Fouque, D; Combe, C; Laville, M; Canaud, B; Azar, R; Cano, N; Aparicio, M; Leverve, X

    2000-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of more than 30% of French dialysis patients (N = 7,123), we evaluated the relationships between predialysis plasma bicarbonate concentration and nutritional markers. Data including age, gender, cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD), time on dialysis, body mass index (BMI), blood levels of midweek predialysis albumin, prealbumin, and bicarbonate were collected. Normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR), dialysis adequacy parameters, and estimation of lean body mass (LBM) were computed from pre- and postbicarbonate-dialysis urea and creatinine levels according to the classical formulas of Garred. Average values (+/- 1 SD) were age 61 +/- 16 years, BMI 23.3 +/- 4.6 kg/m2, dialysis time 12.4 +/- 2.7 h/week, HCO3 22.8 +/- 3.5 mmol/L, albumin 38.7 +/- 5.3 g/L, prealbumin 340 +/- 90 mg/L, Kt/V 1.36 +/- 0.36, nPCR 1.13 +/- 0.32 g/kg BW/day, and LBM 0.86 +/- 0.21% of ideal LBM. A highly significant negative correlation was observed between predialysis bicarbonate levels (within a range of 16-30 mmol/L, 95% of this population) and nPCR confirmed by analysis of variance using bicarbonate classes (p < 0.0001). Bicarbonate was also negatively correlated with albumin, prealbumin, BMI, and LBM. No relationship was noted between bicarbonate and Kt/V despite a positive correlation between Kt/V and nPCR. It is likely that a persistent acidosis observed despite standard bicarbonate dialysis was caused by a high dietary protein intake which results in an increased acid load, but also overcomes the usual catabolic effects of acidosis.

  6. Angiostrongylus cantonensis eosinophilic meningitis: a clinical study of 42 consecutive cases in French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Oehler, Erwan; Ghawche, Frédéric; Delattre, Alex; Berberian, Anthony; Levy, Marc; Valour, Florent

    2014-06-01

    In endemic areas, eosinophilic meningitis is mainly caused by Angiostrongylus cantonensis. We describe a series of this poorly-known condition. Retrospective cohort study (2000-2012) including all patients diagnosed with eosinophilic meningitis in French Polynesia. Forty-two patients (males: 61.9%, age: 22 (IQR 17-32)) were diagnosed with a serologically proven (n=13) or probable A. cantonensis meningitis, mostly during the dry season (66.6%) and following the consumption of or prolonged contact with an intermediate/paratenic host (64.3%). No differential diagnosis was found in probable cases, in whom serological tests were performed earlier (7.5 days (6.5-10)) compared to positive patients (7.5 (6.5-10) versus 11 (7-30) days, p=0.02). The most commonly reported symptom was headache (92.8%). Fever (7.1%) and biological inflammatory syndrome (14.3%) were rare. Blood eosinophil count was 1200/mm(3) (900-2548). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis disclosed a protein level of 0.9 g/L (0.7-1.1), a CSF/plasma glucose ratio of 0.50 (0.40-0.55), and 500 leucocytes/mm(3) (292-725; eosinophils: 42.0% (29.5-60); lymphocytes: 46.5% (32.5-59.0)). Thirteen cases (31.0%) were severe, with 11 focal neurological deficits. A delayed hospital referral (OR 1.13, p=0.05) was associated with severity. A. cantonensis meningitis must be evocated in young patients with meningitic syndrome, severe headache, and CSF inflammation with predominance of eosinophils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Mastocytosis among elderly patients: A multicenter retrospective French study on 53 patients.

    PubMed

    Rouet, Audrey; Aouba, Achille; Damaj, Gandhi; Soucié, Erinn; Hanssens, Katia; Chandesris, Marie-Olivia; Livideanu, Cristina Bulai; Dutertre, Marine; Durieu, Isabelle; Grandpeix-Guyodo, Catherine; Barète, Stéphane; Bachmeyer, Claude; Soria, Angèle; Frenzel, Laurent; Fain, Olivier; Grosbois, Bernard; de Gennes, Christian; Hamidou, Mohamed; Arlet, Jean-Benoit; Launay, David; Lavigne, Christian; Arock, Michel; Lortholary, Olivier; Dubreuil, Patrice; Hermine, Olivier; Georgin-Lavialle, Sophie

    2016-06-01

    Mastocytosis is a heterogeneous group of diseases with a young median age at diagnosis. Usually indolent and self-limited in childhood, the disease can exhibit aggressive progression in mid-adulthood. Our objectives were to describe the characteristics of the disease when diagnosed among elderly patients, for which rare data are available.The French Reference Center conducted a retrospective multicenter study on 53 patients with mastocytosis >69 years of age, to describe their clinical, biological, and genetic features.The median age of our cohort of patients was 75 years. Mastocytosis variants included were cutaneous (n = 1), indolent systemic (n = 5), aggressive systemic (n = 11), associated with a hematological non-mast cell disease (n = 34), and mast cell leukemia (n = 2). Clinical manifestations were predominantly mast cell activation symptoms (75.5%), poor performance status (50.9%), hepatosplenomegaly (50.9%), skin involvement (49.1%), osteoporosis (47.2%), and portal hypertension and ascites (26.4%). The main biological features were anemia (79.2%), thrombocytopenia (50.9%), leucopenia (20.8%), and liver enzyme abnormalities (32.1%). Of the 40 patients tested, 34 (85%), 2 (5%), and 4 (10%) exhibited the KIT D816V mutant, other KIT mutations and the wild-type form of the KIT gene, respectively. Additional sequencing detected significant genetic defects in 17 of 26 (65.3%) of the patients with associated hematological non-mast cell disease, including TET2, SRSF2, IDH2, and ASLX1 mutations. Death occurred in 19 (35.8%) patients, within a median delay of 9 months, despite the different treatment options available.Mastocytosis among elderly patients has a challenging early detection, rare skin involvement, and/or limited skin disease; it is heterogeneous and has often an aggressive presentation with nonfortuitous associated myeloid lineage malignant clones, and thus a poor overall prognosis.

  8. Case study of a chinese dust plume reaching the french alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grousset, F.; Ginoux, P.; Bory, A.; Biscaye, P.

    2003-04-01

    By combining reconstruction of airmass back-trajectories from dust deposition sites in Europe and measurements of the (Nd) isotopic composition of deposited dust particles, potential sources of different Saharan dust events can be identified. The study of "red dust" events collected in France allowed us to identify distinct North African source areas (e.g. Lybia vs. Mauritania). Surprisingly, the airmass trajectory of one dust event (6 March 90) was distinct from the others, and revealed a Chinese origin. The Nd isotopic composition of this dust was consistent with the range of isotopic compositions of Chinese loess. The ENd(o) of the Chinese desert samples (-9.5 to -16.3) may explain the isotopic composition of the 6 March 90 dust event (ENd(o) = -12.9). Indeed, the Takla-Makan in western China, one of the largest deserts in the world, is characterized by persistent dust activity with a maximum intensity in Spring and emits dust with an isotopic composition of -9.5 to -11.5. This seasonal signal is consistent with the isotopic composition of the 6 March 90 dust event, especially when possibly admixed with the dust from a Saharan plume. Moreover, an atmospheric global model (GOCART) simulation reveals that a dust plume left China before 25 February 90 and flew over the Pacific Ocean, flew over North America around the February/March transition and reached the French Alps by 6 March 90, revealing that intercontinental dust and pollutant transport may occur across the Pacific Ocean and the North Atlantic, at the Westerlies latitudes.

  9. Study of Internet use by customers of a large French store for computers.

    PubMed

    Romo, Lucia; Mauro, Françoise; McLoughlin, Mary; Adès, Jean; Lejoyeaux, Michel

    2002-12-01

    The objective of this work was to study the relation to the Internet of subjects who own a computer and who use it for professional or personal reasons. We interviewed 150 customers of the biggest French store that specializes in computers. Each day, the mean of duration for connecting time was 6.2 h (SD = 4). Customers were connected 3.7 h (SD = 3.3) between 8:00 a.m. and 6:00 p.m., 1.8 h (SD = 1.6) between 6:00 p.m. and 11:00 p.m., and 0.5 hours at night (SD = 1.3). Men were more often connected between 6:00 p.m. and 11:00 p.m. We found a negative correlation between age and duration of connection to internet. Age was negatively correlated to the time of connection between 6:00 p.m. and 11:00 p.m. and between 11:00 a.m. and 8:00 a.m. The number of days of holidays was negatively correlated to total time of connection (p < 0.001) and to connection between 6:00 p.m. and 11:00 p.m. (p = 0.04). No correlation was found between the time spent watching television or speaking on a cellular phone and parameters of Internet use. High consumers of games are connected 3.4 h every evening and 1.2 h each night. They spend, in addition, 30 min each day connected to virtual casinos. The typical high consumer of the Internet is young and interested in games on-line, he takes fewer days of holiday than others, and he sends and receives more e-mails than other computer users.

  10. Mixed dyslipidemia among patients using lipid-lowering therapy in French general practice: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Van Ganse, Eric; Laforest, Laurent; Burke, Thomas; Phatak, Hemant; Souchet, Thierry

    2007-08-01

    Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides (TGs) are associated with an increased incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD). However, limited data are available about the prevalence of dyslipidemias related to LDL-C, HDL-C, and TGs among French patients treated with lipid-lowering agents. This paper describes the prevalence of various types of dyslipidemias among patients treated with lipid-lowering agents in French general practice. This was a cross-sectional, observational study conducted using retrospective data collection at the time of enrollment. Eligible patients were those treated pharmacologically for dyslipidemia in the Cegedim Strategic Data general practice network. Fasting lipid values and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors were gathered by investigators using an ad hoc questionnaire. European guidelines were used to define various types of dyslipidemias. Polytomous logistic regression was used to assess the associations between different dyslipidemias and diabetes mellitus, a history of CHD, and the number of CV risk factors. A total of 946 patients had a complete lipid profile and valid data for determining CV risk status. The mean (SD) age of these patients was 64.0 (9.9) years, and 55.7% of the patients were men. At least 1 abnormality in LDL-C, HDL-C, or TGs was present in 791 (83.6 %) of the 946 patients. The rates of elevated LDL-C, low HDL-C, and elevated TGs were 73.2%, 16.9%, and 30.3%, respectively (these groups are not mutually exclusive). Among those who did not reach the LDL-C goal, 38.7% had dyslipidemias with low HDL-C, elevated TGs, or both. Compared with having a normal lipid profile, each additional CV risk factor increased the likelihood of the following types of dyslipidemias: low HDL-C and/or elevated TGs, but normal LDL-C (odds ratio [OR], 1.36; 95% CI, 1.03-1.79); elevated LDL-C and TGs, but normal HDL-C (OR, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.24-2.02); and all 3 lipid abnormalities

  11. Burnout, associated comorbidities and coping strategies in French community pharmacies—BOP study: A nationwide cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Balayssac, David; Pereira, Bruno; Virot, Julie; Collin, Aurore; Alapini, David; Cuny, Damien; Gagnaire, Jean-Marc; Authier, Nicolas; Vennat, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    Background Work-related stress and burnout syndromes are unfortunately common comorbidities found in health professionals. However, burnout syndrome has only been partly and episodically assessed for community pharmacists whereas these professionals are exposed to patients’ demands and difficulties every day. Prevalence of burnout, associated comorbidities and coping strategies were assessed in pharmacy teams (pharmacists and pharmacy technicians) in French community pharmacies. Methods This online survey was performed by emails sent to all French community pharmacies over 3 months. The survey assessed the prevalence of burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory—MBI—questionnaire), anxiety, depression and strategies for coping with work-related stress. Results Of the 1,339 questionnaires received, 1,322 were completed and useable for the analysis. Burnout syndrome was detected in 56.2% of respondents and 10.5% of them presented severe burnout syndrome. Severe burnout syndrome was significantly associated with men, large urban areas and the number of hours worked. Depression and anxiety were found in 15.7% and 42.4% of respondents, respectively. These co-morbidities were significantly associated with severe burnout syndrome. Higher MBI scores were significantly associated with medical consultations and medicinal drug use. Conversely, respondents suffering from burnout syndrome declared they resorted less to non-medical strategies to manage their work-related stress (leisure, psychotherapy, holidays and time off). Conclusion This study demonstrated that community pharmacists and pharmacy technicians presented high prevalence of burnout syndrome, such as many healthcare professionals. Unfortunately, burnout syndrome was associated with several comorbidities (anxiety, depression and alcohol abuse) and the consumption of health resources. The psychological suffering of these healthcare professionals underlines the necessity to deploy a strategy to detect and manage

  12. Burnout, associated comorbidities and coping strategies in French community pharmacies-BOP study: A nationwide cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Balayssac, David; Pereira, Bruno; Virot, Julie; Collin, Aurore; Alapini, David; Cuny, Damien; Gagnaire, Jean-Marc; Authier, Nicolas; Vennat, Brigitte

    2017-01-01

    Work-related stress and burnout syndromes are unfortunately common comorbidities found in health professionals. However, burnout syndrome has only been partly and episodically assessed for community pharmacists whereas these professionals are exposed to patients' demands and difficulties every day. Prevalence of burnout, associated comorbidities and coping strategies were assessed in pharmacy teams (pharmacists and pharmacy technicians) in French community pharmacies. This online survey was performed by emails sent to all French community pharmacies over 3 months. The survey assessed the prevalence of burnout (Maslach Burnout Inventory-MBI-questionnaire), anxiety, depression and strategies for coping with work-related stress. Of the 1,339 questionnaires received, 1,322 were completed and useable for the analysis. Burnout syndrome was detected in 56.2% of respondents and 10.5% of them presented severe burnout syndrome. Severe burnout syndrome was significantly associated with men, large urban areas and the number of hours worked. Depression and anxiety were found in 15.7% and 42.4% of respondents, respectively. These co-morbidities were significantly associated with severe burnout syndrome. Higher MBI scores were significantly associated with medical consultations and medicinal drug use. Conversely, respondents suffering from burnout syndrome declared they resorted less to non-medical strategies to manage their work-related stress (leisure, psychotherapy, holidays and time off). This study demonstrated that community pharmacists and pharmacy technicians presented high prevalence of burnout syndrome, such as many healthcare professionals. Unfortunately, burnout syndrome was associated with several comorbidities (anxiety, depression and alcohol abuse) and the consumption of health resources. The psychological suffering of these healthcare professionals underlines the necessity to deploy a strategy to detect and manage burnout in community pharmacy.

  13. De la television pour comprendre les Francais: cours experimental (Understanding the French Through a Study of Television: An Experimental Course).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mariet, Francois

    1986-01-01

    A college French civilization course based on the important role of television in French contemporary culture, as formative of cultural habits, and on its similar importance to contemporary American students is described. (MSE)

  14. Risks of non-lethal weapon use: case studies of three French victims of stinger grenades.

    PubMed

    Scolan, V; Herry, C; Carreta, M; Stahl, C; Barret, L; Romanet, J P; Paysant, F

    2012-11-30

    The development of non-lethal weapons started in the 1960s. In France, they have been used by the police for about 10 years. We relate the cases of three French women, victims of stinger grenades, non-lethal weapons recently adopted by the French law enforcement to distract and disperse crowds. The three victims presented serious injuries requiring emergency surgical care. One lost her eye. Based on these cases, we discuss the lethal character of these weapons and propose measures to be taken to prevent their dramatic consequences. Although the danger is obviously less than for firearms, stinger grenades are nonetheless potentially lethal and cause serious physical injuries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. An Assessment of the Measurement Equivalence of English and French Versions of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale in Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Delisle, Vanessa C.; Kwakkenbos, Linda; Hudson, Marie; Baron, Murray; Thombs, Brett D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale scores in English- and French-speaking Canadian systemic sclerosis (SSc) patients are commonly pooled in analyses, but no studies have evaluated the metric equivalence of the English and French CES-D. The study objective was to examine the metric equivalence of the CES-D in English- and French-speaking SSc patients. Methods The CES-D was completed by 1007 English-speaking and 248 French-speaking patients from the Canadian Scleroderma Research Group Registry. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to assess the factor structure in both samples. The Multiple-Indicator Multiple-Cause (MIMIC) model was utilized to assess differential item functioning (DIF). Results A two-factor model (Positive and Negative affect) showed excellent fit in both samples. Statistically significant, but small-magnitude, DIF was found for 3 of 20 CES-D items, including items 3 (Blues), 10 (Fearful), and 11 (Sleep). Prior to accounting for DIF, French-speaking patients had 0.08 of a standard deviation (SD) lower latent scores for the Positive factor (95% confidence interval [CI]−0.25 to 0.08) and 0.09 SD higher scores (95% CI−0.07 to 0.24) for the Negative factor than English-speaking patients. After DIF correction, there was no change on the Positive factor and a non-significant increase of 0.04 SD on the Negative factor for French-speaking patients (difference = 0.13 SD, 95% CI−0.03 to 0.28). Conclusions The English and French versions of the CES-D, despite minor DIF on several items, are substantively equivalent and can be used in studies that combine data from English- and French-speaking Canadian SSc patients. PMID:25036894

  16. Antibiotic Susceptibility and Mechanisms of Erythromycin Resistance in Clinical Isolates of Streptococcus agalactiae: French Multicenter Study

    PubMed Central

    De Mouy, Dany; Cavallo, Jean-Didier; Leclercq, Roland; Fabre, Roland

    2001-01-01

    Among 126 Streptococcus agalactiae isolates collected in 10 French laboratories in 1999, 27 (21.4%) had macrolide resistance related to the presence of erm(B) (11 strains), erm(A) subclass erm(TR) (10 strains), and mef(A) genes (2 strains) and the presence of combinations of erm(B) and erm(A) genes or mef(A) genes (3 strains). PMID:11451709

  17. Comparison of French training and non-training general practices: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Letrilliart, Laurent; Rigault-Fossier, Pauline; Fossier, Benoit; Kellou, Nadir; Paumier, Françoise; Bois, Christophe; Polazzi, Stéphanie; Schott, Anne-Marie; Zerbib, Yves

    2016-04-27

    As the medicine practiced in hospital settings has become more specialized, training in primary care is becoming increasingly essential for medical students, especially for future general practitioners (GPs). Only a few limited studies have investigated the representativeness of medical practices delivering this training. The aim of this study was to assess the representativeness of French GP trainers in terms of socio-demographics, patients and activities. We conducted a cross-sectional study covering all private GPs practicing in the Rhône-Alpes region of France in 2011. This population consisted of 4992 GPs, including 623 trainers and 4369 non-trainers, managing 8,198,684 individual patients. Data from 2011 to 2012 were provided by the Regional Health Care Insurance (RHCI). We compared GP trainers with non-trainers using the Pearson chi-square test for qualitative variables and the Student t-test for quantitative variables GP trainers do not differ from non-trainers for gender, but they tend to be younger, more frequently in mid-career, and more likely to practice in a rural area. Their patients are broadly representative of patients attending general practice for age (with the exception of a higher consultation rate for infants), but patients with medical fee exemption status relating to low income are underrepresented. GP trainers have a heavier workload in terms of office visits and on-call duties. They prescribe a higher proportion of generic drugs, perform more electrocardiograms and cervical smears, and fewer plaster casts. GP trainers show better performance in diabetes follow-up, and to a lesser extent for seasonal flu vaccination and mammograms. GPs and patients of training practices are globally representative, which is particularly critical in countries such as France, where the length of specialty training in a general practice setting is still limited to a few months. In addition, GP trainers tend to have better clinical performance, which conforms

  18. Lexical learning of the English language: a PET study in healthy French subjects.

    PubMed

    Raboyeau, Gaëlle; Marie, Nathalie; Balduyck, Sébastien; Gros, Hélène; Démonet, Jean-François; Cardebat, Dominique

    2004-08-01

    To investigate the neural correlates of word learning in adults, 10 right-handed French subjects who had learned English without mastering it performed an English and a French naming task during two PET sessions, one before (PET1) and the second after (PET2) a 4-week lexical training in English. Behavioral performance was collected during the two PET exams and 2 months after (T3). At T2, performance on English naming increased in all subjects; this improvement persisted at T3, with no correlation between English performance at T2 and T3. Cerebral activation during French naming mainly showed a left frontal temporal network. The pattern specifically associated with English lexical learning included, in addition to the anterior cingulate cortex involved in attentional processing and BAs 4/6 reflecting speech output, the right cerebellum and the left insular cortex that are linked to speech gesture learning, and the right medial temporal regions, likely to reflect the involvement of episodic memory during verbal learning. Correlations between English T2/T1 performance and English T2/T1 rCBF changes reinforced the hypothesis of intervention of episodic memory since they interested right frontal, hippocampal, and lateral temporal regions. 'Predictive' correlations between English T3/T2 performance and English T2/T1 rCBF changes showed, in good reminders, increased activities in the left posterior superior temporal sulcus and middle temporal cortex probably related to efficient semantic storage of learned words.

  19. Old French for Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Barbara Nelson

    A list of six main benefits of the study of Old French at the undergraduate level follows a discussion of the value, function, and goals of such a program. The advantages discussed result in: (1) a first-hand acquaintance with medieval masterpieces, (2) a sense of continuity in the history of literature, (3) improved techniques in critical…

  20. Hereditary angioedema and lupus: A French retrospective study and literature review.

    PubMed

    Gallais Sérézal, Irène; Bouillet, Laurence; Dhôte, Robin; Gayet, Stéphane; Jeandel, Pierre-Yves; Blanchard-Delaunay, Claire; Martin, Ludovic; Mekinian, Arsène; Fain, Olivier

    2015-06-01

    Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a rare genetic disorder that is primarily caused by a defect in the C1 inhibitor (C1-INH). The recurrent symptoms are subcutaneous edema and abdominal pain. Laryngeal edema, which can also occur, is life threatening if it goes untreated. HAE can be associated with some inflammatory and autoimmune disorders, particularly lupus. The aim of this study was to describe cases of lupus among HAE patients in France and to perform a literature review of lupus and HAE studies. Case detection and data collection (a standardized form) were performed, thanks to the French Reference Center for Kinin-related angioedema. Data were collected from 6 patients with type 1 HAE and lupus in France; no cases of systemic lupus erythematosus were reported. In the literature review, 32 cases of lupus combined with HAE were identified, including 26 female patients. The median patient age at the time of first reported HAE symptoms and at diagnosis were 17.5 years (range, 9-41 years) and 19 years (range, 9-64 years), respectively for our 6 patients and 14 years (range, 3-30 years) and 17 years (range, 7-48 years), respectively, for the literature review. The clinical manifestations of HAE were mainly abdominal pain (83% in our patients vs 47% in the literature) and edema of the limbs (83% vs 38%). The C4 levels were low (for 100% of our cases vs 93% in the literature). Eighteen patients in the literature demonstrated HAE symptoms prior to the lupus onset vs 5 for our patients. The mean patient age at lupus onset was 20 years (range, 13-76 years) for our patients and 19.5 years (range, 1-78 years) in the literature, respectively. In the literature, 81% of the patients had skin manifestations, 25% had renal involvement and 28% received systemic steroids to treat lupus. Treatment with danazol did not modify the clinical expression of lupus. The association between lupus and HAE is a rare but not unanticipated event. Patients are often symptomatic for HAE before

  1. Report on the AATF National Survey of Graduate Studies in French/Francophone Culture and Civilization (FFCC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durand, Alain-Philippe

    2003-01-01

    Presents the results of a survey of the teaching of French/Francophone Culture and Civilization (FFCC) in French graduate programs in the United States. The survey was commissioned by the American Association of Teachers of French Commission on Cultural Competence. (Author/VWL)

  2. Strategie pour une etude de la chanson francaise (A Strategy for the Study of the French Song)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Alan

    1977-01-01

    Teaching a song has been relegated to the "reward for learning the subjunctive" category in most French classes. A well defined program, including a sample lesson plan, integrating the song into the French course is offered. Four objectives of such a program are outlined. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  3. An Empirical Study of Readers' Associations with Multilingual Advertising: The Case of French, German and Spanish in Dutch Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hornikx, Jos; van Meurs, Frank; Starren, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    In multilingual advertising, a foreign language is often used for symbolic purposes. In non-French-speaking countries, for instance, French is said to be associated with charm and style. The assumption is that the associations carried by the foreign language are transferred to the product that is advertised. A product advertised using French would…

  4. Breast cancer subtype of French women is not influenced by socioeconomic status: A population-based-study

    PubMed Central

    Auguste, Aviane; Cortet, Marion; Dabakuyo-Yonli, Tienhan Sandrine; Launay, Ludivine; Arnould, Laurent; Desmoulins, Isabelle; Roignot, Patrick; Darut-Jouve, Ariane; Poillot, Marie-Laure; Bertaut, Aurélie; Arveux, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Context The molecular subtype of breast tumours plays a major role in cancer prognosis and treatment options. Triple negative tumours (TN) carry the worst prognosis and affects most frequently women of low socioeconomic status (SES). Studies have shown that non-biologic factors, such as the socioeconomic status could have an influence on tumour biology. To this date no study has been done investigating this association in French women. The objective is to study the association between the SES and the molecular tumour subtype of breast cancer patients in the French county of Côte d’Or. This study benefits from the population data from the Côte d’Or breast cancer registry known for its strict quality control policy. Methods Invasive breast cancer cases between 2003 and 2013 were extracted from the Breast cancer registry database in Côte d’Or. A multivariate analysis was conducted using a hierarchical polytomous regression for the multinomial outcomes for the cancer subtype with HR+/HER2 as reference category. Results A total of 4553 cases were included in our study. There was no significant association found between SES and tumour subtype in French women at diagnosis. Women older than 75 years were less likely to have a TN and HR+/HER2+ breast cancer (OR = 0.66; CI95% = [0.46–0.94] and OR = 0.51; CI95% = [0.37–0.70] respectively). Women with TN tumour subtype had significantly less lymph node invasion when compared to HR+/HER2- subtype (OR = 0.71; CI95% = [0.54–0.92]). Conclusion No significant association was found between socioeconomic status and molecular subtype. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanisms associated with developing each tumour subtype. PMID:28199325

  5. Severe intestinal malabsorption associated with olmesartan: a French nationwide observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Basson, Mickael; Mezzarobba, Myriam; Weill, Alain; Ricordeau, Philippe; Allemand, Hubert; Alla, Francois; Carbonnel, Franck

    2016-10-01

    Severe sprue-like enteropathy associated with olmesartan has been reported, but there has been no demonstration of an increased risk by epidemiological studies. To assess, in a nationwide patient cohort, the risk of hospitalisation for intestinal malabsorption associated with olmesartan compared with other angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) and ACE inhibitors (ACEIs). From the French National Health Insurance claim database, all adult patients initiating ARB or ACEI between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2012 with no prior hospitalisation for intestinal malabsorption, no serology testing for coeliac disease and no prescription for a gluten-free diet product were included. Incidence of hospitalisation with a discharge diagnosis of intestinal malabsorption was the primary endpoint. 4 546 680 patients (9 010 303 person-years) were included, and 218 events observed. Compared with ACEI, the adjusted rate ratio of hospitalisation with a discharge diagnosis of intestinal malabsorption was 2.49 (95% CI 1.73 to 3.57, p<0.0001) in olmesartan users. This adjusted rate ratio was 0.76 (95% CI 0.39 to 1.49, p=0.43) for treatment duration shorter than 1 year, 3.66 (95% CI 1.84 to 7.29, p<0.001) between 1 and 2 years and 10.65 (95% CI 5.05 to 22.46, p<0.0001) beyond 2 years of exposure. Median length of hospital stay for intestinal malabsorption was longer in the olmesartan group than in the other groups (p=0.02). Compared with ACEI, the adjusted rate ratio of hospitalisation for coeliac disease was 4.39 (95% CI 2.77 to 6.96, p<0.0001) in olmesartan users and increased with treatment duration. Olmesartan is associated with an increased risk of hospitalisation for intestinal malabsorption and coeliac disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  6. [Crosscultural aspects of bipolar disorder: results of a comparative study between French and Tunisian patients].

    PubMed

    Douki, S; Nacef, F; Triki, T; Dalery, J

    2012-06-01

    Bipolar disorders are one of the most potentially severe psychiatric disorders, implying a high degree of morbidity and incapacity for patients. Indeed, the World Health Organization in 1996 ranked them as the sixth most disabling condition worldwide. Major advances have been achieved in their understanding and management. However, too many patients do not yet benefit from them. As a matter of fact, bipolar disorders are still underestimated and under-recognized, being too often misdiagnosed with major depression or schizophrenia; the DSM-IV acknowledges the trend of clinicians to overdiagnose schizophrenia (rather than bipolar disorder), especially in ethnic groups and young people. Indeed, cultural factors may impact the symptomatology and the course of the disease. In particular, it has been shown by many authors that schizophrenia-like features are more likely to be found in southern countries. Similarly, the same authors have reported more manic than depressive episodes during the course of bipolar disorder. We aimed at comparing individuals with bipolar disorder living in two distinct geographic and cultural environments, namely France and Tunisia. Our study included two samples of 40 patients each, natives from the country, who were admitted during 2007 to the hospitals of Razi (Tunis, Tunisia) and Le Vinatier (Lyon, France) and suffering from a bipolar disorder according to the DSM-IV criteria. The French sample was constituted by all the patients meeting the inclusion criteria and the Tunisian one was selected by matching the patients by gender and duration of the disorder. Our results were consistent with the existing literature, showing many similarities and some marked differences such as a greater rate of manic episodes in the onset and during the course of the illness as well. The main result was the type of the first episode: mania in three quarter cases in Tunisia and depressive in the same proportion in France. The same figures applied to the

  7. Does personality predict mortality? Results from the GAZEL French prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Nabi, Hermann; Kivimäki, Mika; Zins, Marie; Elovainio, Marko; Consoli, Silla M.; Cordier, Sylvaine; Ducimetière, Pierre; Goldberg, Marcel; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2008-01-01

    Background Majority of studies on personality and physical health have focused on one or two isolated personality traits. We aim to test the independent association of 10 personality traits, from three major conceptual models, with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the French GAZEL cohort. Methods A total of 14,445 participants, aged 39–54 in 1993, completed the personality questionnaires composed of the Bortner Type-A scale, the Buss-Durkee-Hostility-Inventory (for total, neurotic and reactive hostility), and the Grossarth-Maticek-Eysenck-Personality- Stress-Inventory that assesses six personality types (cancer-prone, coronary heart disease (CHD)-prone, ambivalent, healthy, rational, anti-social). The association between personality traits and mortality, during a mean follow-up of 12.7 years, was assessed using the Relative Index of Inequality (RII) in Cox regression. Results In models adjusted for age, sex, marital status and education, all-cause and causespecific mortality were predicted by “total hostility”, its “neurotic hostility” component as well as by “CHD-prone”, “ambivalent” “antisocial”, and “healthy” personality types. After mutually adjusting personality traits for each other, only high “neurotic hostility” remained a robust predictor of excess mortality from all causes (RII=2.62; 95% CI=1.68–4.09) and external causes (RII=3.24; 95% CI=1.03–10.18). “CHD-prone” (RII=2.23; 95% CI=0.72– 6.95) and “anti-social” (RII=2.13; 95% CI 0.61–6.58) personality types were associated with cardiovascular mortality and with mortality from external causes, respectively, but confidence intervals were wider. Adjustment for potential behavioural mediators had only a modest effect on these associations. Conclusions Neurotic hostility, CHD-prone personality and antisocial personality were all predictive of mortality outcomes. Further research is required to determine the precise mechanisms that contribute to these

  8. Combined adverse effects of cascading events on systems' functionality: an insular case study, French West Indies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desramaut, Nicolas; Wang, Justin; Gehl, Pierre; Marti, Jose; Baills, Audrey; Reveillere, Arnaud

    2013-04-01

    In our modern societies, lifelines play a vital role, even in normal conditions. Therefore, during crises, the dependency to critical infrastructures is likely to be exacerbated. Indeed, in order to provide quick emergency services to the population, systems have to be functional. However, even if not directly damaged, in order to be functional, elements of the different systems have to receive enough resources but also to be able to supply their own services. In a multi-risk approach, this necessity to take into account systemic vulnerability to assess the real impact of natural hazards on society is even made more obvious. For example, impacts of one hazard, taken separately, might not significantly affect societies, but might reduce redundancy, and therefore could increase functional vulnerability to other hazards. The present study aims at analyzing the effects of cascading events on the behaviour of interdependent systems and on the capacities of the health care system to treat the victims. In order to work on a close system, an insular context (Guadeloupe, French West Indies) has been selected. The hazard cascading scenario consists of a M6.3 earthquake striking Basse-Terre, and triggering landslides in the mountainous areas where antecedent precipitations have made the area prone to slide. Damages due to earthquakes have been estimated for the 5 considered systems (buildings, healthcare system, electrical network, water supply network and transportation). Due to their localization in mountainous areas, landslides would affect only transportation networks, with closure of roads. The inter- and intra-dependencies of systems have been modeled thanks to the I2Sim platform developed at UBC. The functionality of each element is therefore the consequence of the physical (direct damage) but also functional (indirect) damage. Analyses are performed for different strategies of resources allocations, and one of the final results is the impact of the induced landslides

  9. Complications after the treatment of endometrial cancer: a prospective study using the French-Italian glossary.

    PubMed

    Piovano, Elisa; Fuso, Luca; Poma, Cinzia Baima; Ferrero, Annamaria; Perotto, Stefania; Tripodi, Elisa; Volpi, Eugenio; Zanfagnin, Valentina; Zola, Paolo

    2014-03-01

    The evaluation of treatment complications is crucial in modern oncology because they heavily influence the every day life of patients. Several authors confirmed the reproducibility of the French-Italian glossary to score the complications in patients with endometrial cancer after radiotherapy (RT), but the treatment of endometrial carcinoma is primarily surgical and chemotherapy is often used for high-risk disease. This study aimed to analyze the incidence of complications in our patients treated for endometrial cancer and to verify whether the glossary is a suitable instrument in the description of complications after surgery, RT, and chemotherapy. The data of patients affected by endometrial cancer treated in the Gynecology and Obstetrics Academic Department, Azienda Ospedaliera Mauriziano Umberto I in Turin from 2000 to 2009 (with surgery alone or integrated treatments) were prospectively collected, and complications were described using the glossary. Every patient included in the analyses had a minimum of 18 months follow-up. Of the 271 patients, 68 (25%) experienced at least 1 complication with 87 overall complications. Most of the complications were mild (63%) and were found in the urinary (30%) or cutaneous systems (30%). Forty-four (50%) complications appeared within 1 year after treatment, but 9 (10%) complications appeared after 60 months of follow-up. Patients who were submitted to both surgery and RT showed a trend of higher rate of at least 1 complication (19/58 [32.7%]) if compared with surgery alone (36/135 [26.6%]), even if the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.09). The incidence of complications in patients treated or not with lymphadenectomy was not statistically different (P = 0.088), whereas patients treated with laparotomy had a higher rate of cutaneous complications if compared with the laparoscopic approach (P = 0.018). The glossary included all observed complications. One every 4 women treated for endometrial cancer

  10. A Replication Study for Association of LBX1 locus with Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis in French-Canadian Population.

    PubMed

    Nada, Dina; Julien, Cédric; Samuels, Mark E; Moreau, Alain

    2017-06-09

    A case-control association study. To investigate the relationship between LBX1 polymorphisms and Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) in French-Canadian population. It is widely accepted that genetic factors contribute to AIS. Although the LBX1 locus is so far the most successfully replicated locus in different AIS cohorts, these associations were replicated mainly in Asian populations, with few studies in Caucasian populations of European descent. We recruited 1568 participants (667 AIS patients and 901 healthy controls) in the French-Canadian population. Genomic data was generated using the Illumina Human Omni 2.5 M BeadChip. An additional 121 AIS cases and 51 controls were genotyped for specific SNPs by multiplex PCR using standard procedures. BEAGLE 3 was used to impute the following markers: rs7893223, rs11190878 and rs678741 against the 1000-genomes European cohort phased genotypes given that they were absent in our GWAS panel. Resulting genotypes were combined then used for single marker and haplotyped-based association. Four markers showed association with AIS in our cohort at this locus; rs11190870 the most studied marker, rs7893223, rs594791, and rs11190878. When we restricted the analysis to severe cases only, four additional SNPs showed associations: rs11598177, rs1322331, rs670206 and rs678741. In addition, we analyzed the associations of the observed haplotypes and dihaplotypes formed by these SNPs. The haplotype TTAAGAAA and its homozygous dihaplotype showed the highest association with our severe group and was the highest risk haplotype. The haplotype CCGCAGGG was significantly more associated with the control group, and its homozygous or heterozygous dihaplotype was less frequent in the severe group compared to the control group, suggesting that CCGCAGGG may represent a protective haplotype. We have replicated the association of the LBX1 locus with AIS in French-Canadian population, a novel European descent cohort, which is known for its unique

  11. The daily cost of ICU patients: A micro-costing study in 23 French Intensive Care Units.

    PubMed

    Lefrant, Jean-Yves; Garrigues, Bernard; Pribil, Céline; Bardoulat, Isabelle; Courtial, Frédéric; Maurel, Frédérique; Bazin, Jean-Étienne

    2015-06-01

    To estimate the daily cost of intensive care unit (ICU) stays via micro-costing. A multicentre, prospective, observational, cost analysis study was carried out among 21 out of 23 French ICUs randomly selected from French National Hospitals. Each ICU randomly enrolled 5 admitted adult patients with a simplified acute physiology II score ≥ 15 and with at least one major intensive care medical procedure. All health-care human resources used by each patient over a 24-hour period were recorded, as well as all medications, laboratory analyses, investigations, tests, consumables and administrative expenses. All resource costs were estimated from the hospital's perspective (reference year 2009) based on unitary cost data. One hundred and four patients were included (mean age: 62.3 ± 14.9 years, mean SAPS II: 51.5 ± 16.1, mean SOFA on the study day: 6.9 ± 4.3). Over 24 hours, 29 to 186 interventions per patient were performed by different caregivers, leading to a mean total time spent for patient care of 13:32 ± 05:00 h. The total daily cost per patient was € 1425 ± € 520 (95% CI = € 1323 to € 1526). ICU human resources represented 43% of total daily cost. Patient-dependent expenses (€ 842 ± € 521) represented 59% of the total daily cost. The total daily cost was correlated with the daily SOFA score (r = 0.271, P = 0.006) and the bedside-time given by caregivers (r = 0.716, P < 0.0001). The average cost of one day of ICU care in French National Hospitals is strongly correlated with the duration of bedside-care carried out by human resources. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Topex/Poseidon satellite - Enabling a joint U.S.-French mission for global ocean study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Ralph L.

    1990-01-01

    A joint U.S./French mission, which represents a merging of the prior NASA Topex and CNES Poseidon progams, is described. The Topex/Poseidon satellite will contribute to two of the World Climate Research Program's phases: the World Ocean Circulation Experiment and the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere experiment. The satellite's instruments will measure the ocean currents and their variability on the global basis via satellite altimetry and precision orbit determinations. The paper describes the satellite configuration and characteristics and the mission instruments and system elements. The Topex/Poseidon's design diagrams and block diagrams are included.

  13. Effect of an FTO polymorphism on fat mass, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in the French MONICA Study.

    PubMed

    Legry, Vanessa; Cottel, Dominique; Ferrières, Jean; Arveiler, Dominique; Andrieux, Nicolas; Bingham, Annie; Wagner, Aline; Ruidavets, Jean-Bernard; Ducimetière, Pierre; Amouyel, Philippe; Meirhaeghe, Aline

    2009-07-01

    We investigated the association between the rs9939609 (T>A) polymorphism in the FTO (fat mass- and obesity-associated) gene and obesity- and type 2 diabetes mellitus-related phenotypes in the French Multinational MONItoring of Trends and Determinants in CArdiovascular Disease (MONICA) Study (n = 3367). In the study, TA or AA subjects had higher body mass index (BMI) (P = .017), waist circumference (P = .017), and hip (P = .01) circumference in an A allele dose-dependent manner. The A allele was also significantly associated with higher plasma insulin levels (P = .05), higher insulin resistance index (homeostasis model assessment) (P = .02), and higher systolic blood pressure (P = .003); but these associations disappeared after adjustment for BMI. In the study, 598 subjects were obese (BMI >or=30 kg/m(2)); and 2769 subjects were not obese (BMI <30 kg/m(2)). Subjects bearing the A allele of rs9939609 had a higher risk of obesity (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 1.29 [1.06-1.58], P = .01) compared with TT subjects. Moreover, the homozygous AA genotype of rs9939609 was associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (odds ratio = 1.45 [1.05-1.99], P = .02, 283 subjects with and 2601 subjects without type 2 diabetes mellitus), independently of BMI. In conclusion, the role of the A allele of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism on the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus was confirmed in the French MONICA Study.

  14. Genotype and Phenotype Studies in Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa (adRP) of the French Canadian Founder Population.

    PubMed

    Coussa, Razek Georges; Chakarova, Christina; Ajlan, Radwan; Taha, Mohammed; Kavalec, Conrad; Gomolin, Julius; Khan, Ayesha; Lopez, Irma; Ren, Huanan; Waseem, Naushin; Kamenarova, Kunka; Bhattacharya, Shomi S; Koenekoop, Robert K

    2015-12-01

    The French Canadian population of Quebec is a unique, well-known founder population with religious, linguistic, and geographic isolation. The genetics of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in Quebec is not well studied thus far. The purpose of our study was to establish the genetic architecture of autosomal dominant RP (adRP) and to characterize the phenotypes associated with new adRP mutations in Quebec. Sanger sequencing of the commonly mutated currently known adRP genes was performed in a clinically well-characterized cohort of 60 adRP French Canadian families. Phenotypes were analyzed by projected visual acuity (best corrected), Goldmann visual fields, optical coherence tomography (OCT), fundus autofluorescence (FAF), and ERG. The potential effect of the novel mutations was assessed using in silico bioinformatic tools. The pathogenicity of all variants was then confirmed by segregation analysis within the families, when available. We identified the causal mutation/gene in 24 of our adRP families, as 24 (40%) of 60 patients had adRP mutations in six known adRP genes. Eleven (46%) of these mutations were in RHO, four mutations (17%) were found in SNRNP200, three mutations (12.5%) in PRPH2/RDS, three mutations (12.5%) in TOPORS, two mutations (8%) in PRPF31, and one mutation (4%) in IMPDH1. Four mutations were novel. We identified new mutations in RHO (p.S270I), PRPF31 (p.R288W), IMPDH1 (p.Q318H), and TOPORS (p.H889R); the rest were previously reported. We present the genotype-phenotype characteristics of the four novel missense mutations. This is the first large screening of adRP genes in the founder population of Quebec. Our prevalence of known adRP genes is 40% in the French Canadian population, which is lower than in other adRP populations around the world, illustrating the uniqueness of the French Canadian population. Our findings are crucial in expanding the current understanding of the genotypic-phenotypic spectrum of RP and documenting the genetic architecture of

  15. Educational and occupational outcomes of childhood cancer survivors 30 years after diagnosis: a French cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Agnes; Berger, Claire; Auquier, Pascal; Michel, Gérard; Fresneau, Brice; Sètchéou Allodji, Rodrigue; Haddy, Nadia; Rubino, Carole; Vassal, Gilles; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique; Thouvenin-Doulet, Sandrine; Casagranda, Léonie; Pacquement, Hélène; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Oberlin, Odile; Guibout, Catherine; de Vathaire, Florent

    2016-04-26

    Although survival from childhood cancer has increased, little is known on the long-term impact of treatment late effects on occupational attainment or work ability. A total of 3512 five-year survivors treated before the age of 19 years in 10 French cancer centres between 1948 and 2000 were identified. Educational level, employment status and occupational class of survivors were assessed by a self-reported questionnaire. These outcome measures were compared with sex-age rates recorded in the French population, using indirect standardisation. Paternal occupational class was also considered to control for the role of survivors' socioeconomic background on their achievement. Multivariable analyses were conducted to explore clinical characteristics associated with the outcomes. A total of 2406 survivors responded to the questionnaire and survivors aged below 25 years were included in the current analysis. Compared with national statistics adjusted on age and sex, male survivors were more likely to be college graduates (39.2% vs 30.9% expected; P<0.001). This higher achievement was not observed either for leukaemia or central nervous system (CNS) tumour survivors. Health-related unemployment was higher for survivors of CNS tumour (28.1% vs 4.3%; P<0.001) but not for survivors of other diagnoses. Survivors of non-CNS childhood cancer had a similar or a higher occupational class than expected. Survivors treated for CNS tumour or leukaemia, especially when treatment included cranial irradiation, might need support throughout their lifespan.

  16. Educational and occupational outcomes of childhood cancer survivors 30 years after diagnosis: a French cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Agnes; Berger, Claire; Auquier, Pascal; Michel, Gérard; Fresneau, Brice; Sètchéou Allodji, Rodrigue; Haddy, Nadia; Rubino, Carole; Vassal, Gilles; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique; Thouvenin-Doulet, Sandrine; Casagranda, Léonie; Pacquement, Hélène; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Oberlin, Odile; Guibout, Catherine; de Vathaire, Florent

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although survival from childhood cancer has increased, little is known on the long-term impact of treatment late effects on occupational attainment or work ability. Methods: A total of 3512 five-year survivors treated before the age of 19 years in 10 French cancer centres between 1948 and 2000 were identified. Educational level, employment status and occupational class of survivors were assessed by a self-reported questionnaire. These outcome measures were compared with sex–age rates recorded in the French population, using indirect standardisation. Paternal occupational class was also considered to control for the role of survivors' socioeconomic background on their achievement. Multivariable analyses were conducted to explore clinical characteristics associated with the outcomes. Results: A total of 2406 survivors responded to the questionnaire and survivors aged below 25 years were included in the current analysis. Compared with national statistics adjusted on age and sex, male survivors were more likely to be college graduates (39.2% vs 30.9% expected; P<0.001). This higher achievement was not observed either for leukaemia or central nervous system (CNS) tumour survivors. Health-related unemployment was higher for survivors of CNS tumour (28.1% vs 4.3% P<0.001) but not for survivors of other diagnoses. Survivors of non-CNS childhood cancer had a similar or a higher occupational class than expected. Conclusions: Survivors treated for CNS tumour or leukaemia, especially when treatment included cranial irradiation, might need support throughout their lifespan. PMID:27115571

  17. Chemoprophylaxis and treatment of African canine trypanosomosis in French military working dogs: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Watier-Grillot, Stéphanie; Herder, Stéphane; Marié, Jean-Lou; Cuny, Gérard; Davoust, Bernard

    2013-05-01

    African trypanosomosis is a major threat to livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa. Although the disease mainly concerns cattle, dogs can also be infected by Trypanosoma spp. transmitted by tsetse flies. Between 1997 and 2003, the parasite Trypanosoma congolense was identified in French military dogs sent to Africa. On infected dogs, the diagnosis was made during the mission or just after the return to France, depending on when the symptoms appeared. The high incidence and mortality rate among these dogs led veterinarians of the French Health Service to implement a systematic chemoprophylaxis beginning in 2004. Between 2004 and 2011, the chemoprophylaxis was carried out on more than 400 military dogs. The protocol of chemoprophylaxis relies on the use of isometamidium chloride (Trypamidium(®), Merial). The drug has been used successfully at the dosage of 1mg/kg body weight by deep intramuscular injection, every two or three months. In addition, dogs are given collars impregnated with deltamethrin (Scalibor(®), MSD Animal Health). Isometamidium chloride was also used successfully in the treatment of military dogs infected with T. congolense, with a full recovery and without any relapses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Eating patterns in French subjects studied by the "weekly food diary" method.

    PubMed

    Bellisle, F; Dalix, A; de Castro, J M

    1999-02-01

    The "weekly food diary" was translated and adapted for use by French subjects. This validated method requires subjects to record every food and drink intake over 1 week, with several descriptors of the physical, psychological and social circumstances. Ten male [age 23. 6+/-2.3 years, body mass index (BMI) 20.7+/-0.6] and 16 female (age 23.3+/-0.6 years, BMI 20+/-0.6) students completed four weekly diaries over 1 year, one per season. Data were processed using a specially designed software. Breakfast was important, (about 400 kcalories). Lunch and dinner were almost equal in energy content but alcohol was consumed mainly with dinner. Meal size correlated positively with premeal hunger, number of people present, duration of premeal interval and time of day. Postmeal satiety correlated positively with meal size, aftermeal stomach content, and negatively with time of day, postmeal hunger and duration of sleep the preceding night. These observations allow hypotheses to be developed about mechanisms of intake in a French population and cross-cultural comparisons to be made. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  19. Research Perspectives on Core French: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapkin, Sharon; Mady, Callie; Arnott, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the research literature on core French in three main areas: student diversity, delivery models for the core French program, and instructional approaches. These topics are put into context through a discussion of studies on community attitudes to French as a second language (FSL), dissatisfaction with core French outcomes and…

  20. Research Perspectives on Core French: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapkin, Sharon; Mady, Callie; Arnott, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the research literature on core French in three main areas: student diversity, delivery models for the core French program, and instructional approaches. These topics are put into context through a discussion of studies on community attitudes to French as a second language (FSL), dissatisfaction with core French outcomes and…

  1. Supportive care organisation in France: an in depth study by the French speaking association for supportive care in cancer (AFSOS).

    PubMed

    Scotté, F; Hervé, C; Oudard, S; Bugat, M E; Bugat, R; Farsi, F; Namer, M; Tourani, J M; Tournigand, C; Yazbek, G; Richard, S; Krakowski, I

    2013-03-01

    Supportive care in cancer (SCC) was further enhanced in the Second National Cancer Act decreed in December 2009. The aim of our study was to assess current SCC efficacy. The French speaking association for supportive care in cancer (AFSOS) conducted an observational study to evaluate practices, organisations and information given to patients. A specific 32 point questionnaire was sent to 1621 French physicians (MDs) caring for cancer patients. Three different organisations were evaluated: the individual MDs, the transversal team and its particular structure specialised in global patient care specifically developed at comprehensive cancer centres - CCC. During their disease, 68% of patients received SCC, which was more available during the palliative period (90%) than at the diagnosis (44%). Our results found that 71% of cancer departments had a specific interdisciplinary cross-team to provide SCC, particularly in CCC (62%; p=0.01) while 37% had specific inpatient units. A specific organisation dedicated to home care was greater in CCC than in public or private centres (69%, 45%, 20% respectively; p=0.01). Adverse event information was performed more by an oncologist than other specialists (p=0.01). Our results suggest that the specific SCC organisation could be a useful management tool to improve supportive care for cancer patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A validation study of memory and executive functions indexes in French-speaking healthy young and older adults.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Alexandra; Caza, Nicole

    2014-03-01

    Medial temporal lobe (MTL)/memory and frontal lobe (FL)/executive functions indexes are used to measure changes related to cognitive aging. These indexes are based on composite scores of neuropsychological tests validated in English-speaking populations, and their use in aging research is growing in popularity. This study aimed at validating the MTL/memory and FL/executive functions indexes in French-speaking adults. Ninety-eight healthy participants (32 young and 66 older adults) were tested on eight neuropsychological tests, three associated with MTL/memory functions and five associated with FL/executive functions. Factor analysis indicated that residual scores independent of age and associated with MTL/memory functions grouped under one factor, and residual scores associated with FL/executive functions grouped under another factor. Bootstrapping analysis with 1,000 resamples confirmed stability for seven neuropsychological tests. This study provides the first validation of the MTL/memory and FL/executive functions composite scores in French-speaking adults, which may be used to assess cognitive changes in aging research.

  3. Learning to Read in English and French: Emergent Readers in French Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Sheila Cira; Koh, Poh Wee; Deacon, S. Hélène; Chen, Xi

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the predictors of word reading in English and French for 69 children in early total French immersion from first through third grade. The influence of phonological awareness, orthographic processing, and vocabulary in English and French on the achievement and growth of word reading in the 2 languages were…

  4. A comparative study of the characteristics of French fries produced by deep fat frying and air frying.

    PubMed

    Teruel, Maria del Rocio; Gordon, Michael; Linares, Maria Belen; Garrido, Maria Dolores; Ahromrit, Araya; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2015-02-01

    Air frying is being projected as an alternative to deep fat frying for producing snacks such as French fries. In air frying, the raw potato sections are essentially heated in hot air containing fine oil droplets, which dehydrates the potato and attempts to impart the characteristics of traditionally produced French fries, but with a substantially lower level of fat absorbed in the product. The aim of this research is to compare: (1) the process dynamics of air frying with conventional deep fat frying under otherwise similar operating conditions, and (2) the products formed by the 2 processes in terms of color, texture, microstructure, calorimetric properties, and sensory characteristics. Although, air frying produced products with a substantially lower fat content but with similar moisture contents and color characteristics, it required much longer processing times, typically 21 min in relation to 9 min in the case of deep fat frying. The slower evolution of temperature also resulted in lower rates of moisture loss and color development reactions. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies revealed that the extent of starch gelatinization was also lower in the case of air fried product. In addition, the 2 types of frying also resulted in products having significantly different texture and sensory characteristics. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  5. Dengue seroprevalence in the French West Indies: a prospective study in adult blood donors.

    PubMed

    L'Azou, Maïna; Jean-Marie, Janick; Bessaud, Maël; Cabié, André; Césaire, Raymond; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Courbil, Rémi; Richard, Pascale

    2015-06-01

    Using an anti-dengue immunoglobulin G (IgG) indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, seroprevalence was determined among 783 adult blood donors in the French Caribbean islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique in 2011. Overall, 93.5% [91.5; 95.1] samples were positive for dengue antibodies, 90.7% (350 of 386) in Martinique and 96.2% (382 of 397) in Guadeloupe. Only 30% of these adults recalled having had dengue disease before. Serotype-specific neutralization assays applied to a subset of IgG-positive samples indicated that a majority (77 of 96; 80%) reacted to the four serotypes. These seroprevalence findings are the first reported for Guadeloupe and Martinique and are consistent with the dengue epidemiology in these territories.

  6. Dengue Seroprevalence in the French West Indies: A Prospective Study in Adult Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    L'Azou, Maïna; Jean-Marie, Janick; Bessaud, Maël; Cabié, André; Césaire, Raymond; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Courbil, Rémi; Richard, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    Using an anti-dengue immunoglobulin G (IgG) indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, seroprevalence was determined among 783 adult blood donors in the French Caribbean islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique in 2011. Overall, 93.5% [91.5; 95.1] samples were positive for dengue antibodies, 90.7% (350 of 386) in Martinique and 96.2% (382 of 397) in Guadeloupe. Only 30% of these adults recalled having had dengue disease before. Serotype-specific neutralization assays applied to a subset of IgG-positive samples indicated that a majority (77 of 96; 80%) reacted to the four serotypes. These seroprevalence findings are the first reported for Guadeloupe and Martinique and are consistent with the dengue epidemiology in these territories. PMID:25846291

  7. [Breast augmentation by implants: a review of surgical practices. A study among French plastic surgeons].

    PubMed

    Chekaroua, K; Delay, E

    2005-10-01

    In the framework of the 2005 report on mammary implants prepared by the Société française de chirurgie plastique reconstructrice et esthétique (SOF.CPRE), we conducted a survey among french plastic surgeons involved in the field. We elaborated a questionnaire that we distributed twice to the 600 members of the society; a total of 261 responded. Analysis of the data collected provides information on the socioprofessional characteristics of the responding surgeons, and on the devices, products and techniques they use. Finally, the survey has permitted to identify their qualitative perception of breast implant products currently available. Ranking these items by order of frequency provides a snapshot of the current procedures and practices in use for breast augmentation surgery in France.

  8. [Cardiac tolerance of moxifloxacin: Clinical experience from a large observational French study in usual medical practice (IMMEDIAT study)].

    PubMed

    Veyssier, P; Voirot, P; Begaud, B; Funck-Brentano, C

    2006-10-01

    Moxifloxacin (Izilox) is prescribed for bacterial respiratory tract infections. ECG analysis done in clinical trials showed a mean QT prolongation at 6 ms that could lead to Torsades de Pointe. However, Izilox was well tolerated during clinical trials. To confirm the correct safety profile of Izilox in a large sample of patients, a French PMS study - MMEDIAT - was carried out in usual medical practice. This prospective observational uncontrolled and monitored study was conducted in 13,578 patients with respiratory tract infection and treated with moxifloxacin 400 mg daily (duration: 5 to 10 days in accordance to the Market Authorization). Any clinical event being potentially a surrogate of a ventricular rhythm disorder ("critical event") were collected and analyzed by a Scientific Committee in charge to determine the potential cardiac origin of the reported event and to establish a causal relationship with the treatment. Among 13,578 patients, 1046 adverse events (678 patients [5%]) were reported, including 854 drug related events (564 patients [4.15%]). Of these 1046 adverse events, 95 (62 patients [0.46%]) were serious. A total of 189 critical adverse events (159 patients [1.2%]) were reviewed by the Scientific Committee. After analysis, 34 adverse events (28 patients [0.21%]) were assessed from potential cardiac origin. Of these 34 adverse events, 25 (19 patients [0.14%]) were assessed as drug-related: palpitations [13 patients], tachycardia [4 patients], malaise [4 patients], vertigo [3 patients] and pallor [1 patient]. All adverse events were transient and had favourable outcome. This PMS study confirmed that Izilox is well-tolerated in usual medical practice, in adequation with the safety data obtained in clinical trials.

  9. Vigie-Ciel : a french citizen network to study meteors and meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouley, S.; Zanda, B.; Colas, F.; Vaubaillon, J.; Marmo, C.; Vernazza, P.; Gattacceca, J.

    2013-12-01

    Vigie Ciel is a french citizen network supported by the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (MNHN) and the Université Paris-Sud (UPsud). It is based on the scientific FRIPON program developed by Paris Observatory (Fireball Recovery and Planetary Inter Observation Network) which has for main goal to (i) determine the source region(s) of the various meteorite classes, (ii) collect both fresh and rare meteorite types and (iii) perform scientific outreach. This will be achieved by building the densest camera network in the world, based on state of the art technologies and associated with a participative network for meteorite recovery. We propose to install a network of 100 digital cameras covering the entire French territory to compute impact locations with accuracy of the order of one kilometer. Considering that there are 5 to 25 falls over France per year (~15 on average), during the same time, we will observe ~50 falls out of which we realistically expect to find 10 meteorites. Our project is original in several ways. (i) It is inter-disciplinary, involving experts in meteoritics, asteroidal science as well as fireball observation and dynamics. It will thus create new synergies between prominent institutions and/or laboratories, namely between MNHN, Paris Observatory and Université Paris-Sud in the Parisian region; and between CEREGE and LAM in the Provence region. Overall, scientists from over 25 laboratories will be involved, covering a mix of scientific disciplines and all the regions of France. (ii) It will generate a large body of data, feeding databases of interest to several disciplines (e.g. bird migration, variations of the luminosity of the brightest stars, observation of space debris, meteorology...). (iii) It will for the first time involve the general public (including schools) in the search for the meteorite falls, thus boosting the interest in meteorite and asteroid related science.

  10. [Exploratory study of amitriptyline resistance in depressed patients: results of WHO French collaborating center on depressions resistant to treatments].

    PubMed

    Loas, G; Rose, D; Nowaczkowski, P; Lernout, P; Duron, B

    1996-06-01

    A multicountry, multicentre double-blind study in a group of depressives, coordinated by the Mental Health Division of the World Health Association (WHO) has been done. The goal of the study is to determine whether the therapeutic effects of amitriptyline can be enhanced and potentiated by combining it with an antioxydant (gingko biloba). An exploratory study has preceded the main study which had the objective to estimate the proportion of non-response patient to amitriptyline. We report the results concerning the French center. 23 inpatients meet the ICD-10 criteria for depression (F32 and F33) and were treated during 6 weeks by amitriptyline with the initial daily dose of 50 mg until the maximum dose of 200 mg. The proportion of non-responsive patient to amitriptyline was 34.78 (95% confidence interval : 15.32 to 54.24%), all clinically deteriorated.

  11. Resveratrol: French Paradox Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Catalgol, Betul; Batirel, Saime; Taga, Yavuz; Ozer, Nesrin Kartal

    2012-01-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenol that plays a potentially important role in many disorders and has been studied in different diseases. The research on this chemical started through the “French paradox,” which describes improved cardiovascular outcomes despite a high-fat diet in French people. Since then, resveratrol has been broadly studied and shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and anti-angiogenic effects, with those on oxidative stress possibly being most important and underlying some of the others, but many signaling pathways are among the molecular targets of resveratrol. In concert they may be beneficial in many disorders, particularly in diseases where oxidative stress plays an important role. The main focus of this review will be the pathways affected by resveratrol. Based on these mechanistic considerations, the involvement of resveratrol especially in cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and possibly in longevity will be is addressed. PMID:22822401

  12. Use of the Foreign Studies: Transposition of the Results, Prediction of the Therapeutic Effects in the French Population, Modelling of the Public Health Interest.

    PubMed

    Massol, Jacques; Zylberman, Myriam; Goehrs, Jean-Marie

    2006-01-01

    More and more frequently, the health authorities and the French assessment agencies are led to issue Marketing Authorizations (MAs), give opinions on the eligibility for reimbursement of drugs or to draft recommendations for clinical practice based on the results of foreign studies. The results of these studies are more or less difficult to transpose to French practice. These difficulties generate varying degrees of uncertainty concerning the effect to be expected of a drug. A more or less extensive loss of effect is sometimes even predictable. Some of the difficulties in transposition are discussed in this article and proposals for action are made in order to allow one, in the long term, to predict in the most precise manner possible the effects to be expected from a drug in the French population and be able to verify this prediction at an interval from its eligibility for reimbursement.

  13. Le francais parle dans la ville de Quebec: une etude sociolinguistique (The Spoken French in the City of Quebec: A Sociolinguistic Study). Publication G-1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deshaies, Denise

    This study is divided into two major sections. The first, the study of language in a sociolinguistic perspective, includes: (1) an analysis of the attitudes associated with linguistic variation, and a review of (2) studies conducted in French Quebec, (3) the linguistic and cultural deficit theories, (4) the theory of cross-linguistic and…

  14. Dietary acrylamide intake during pregnancy and anthropometry at birth in the French EDEN mother-child cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kadawathagedara, M; Tong, A Chan Hon; Heude, B; Forhan, A; Charles, M-A; Sirot, V; Botton, J; The Eden Mother-Child Cohort Study Group

    2016-08-01

    Acrylamide is a contaminant formed in a wide variety of carbohydrate-containing foods during frying or baking at high temperatures. Recent studies have suggested reduced foetal growth after exposure to high levels of acrylamide during pregnancy. To study the relationship between maternal dietary acrylamide intake during pregnancy and their offspring's anthropometry at birth. In our population of 1471 mother-child pairs from two French cities, Nancy and Poitiers, dietary acrylamide intake during pregnancy was assessed by combining maternal food frequency questionnaires with data on food contamination at the national level, provided by the second "French Total Diet Study". Newborns weighing less than the 10th percentile, according to a customised definition, were defined as small for gestational age (SGA). Linear and logistic regression models were used to study continuous and binary outcomes respectively, adjusting for the study centre, maternal age at delivery, height, education, parity, smoking during pregnancy, the newborn's gestational age at birth and sex. The median and interquartile range of dietary acrylamide intake were 19.2μg/day (IQR, 11.8;30.3). Each 10μg/day increase in acrylamide intake was associated with an odds-ratio for SGA of 1.11 (95% Confidence Interval: 1.03,1.21), birth length change of -0.05cm (95% CI: -0.11,0.00) and birth weight change of -9.8g (95% CI: -21.3,1.7). Our results, consistent with both experimental and epidemiological studies, add to the evidence of an effect of acrylamide exposure on the risk of SGA and suggest an effect on foetal growth, for both weight and length. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Realisation of voicing by French-speaking CI children after long-term implant use: An acoustic study.

    PubMed

    Grandon, Bénédicte; Vilain, Anne; Lœvenbruck, Hélène; Schmerber, Sébastien; Truy, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Studies of speech production in French-speaking cochlear-implanted (CI) children are very scarce. Yet, difficulties in speech production have been shown to impact the intelligibility of these children. The goal of this study is to understand the effect of long-term use of cochlear implant on speech production, and more precisely on the coordination of laryngeal-oral gestures in stop production. The participants were all monolingual French children: 13 6;6- to 10;7-year-old CI children and 20 age-matched normally hearing (NH) children. We compared /p/, /t/, /k/, /b/, /d/ and /g/ in word-initial consonant-vowel sequences, produced in isolation in two different tasks, and we studied the effects of CI use, vowel context, task and age factors (i.e. chronological age, age at implantation and duration of implant use). Statistical analyses show a difference in voicing production between groups for voiceless consonants (shorter Voice Onset Times for CI children), with significance reached only for /k/, but no difference for voiced consonants. Our study indicates that in the long run, use of CI seems to have limited effects on the acquisition of oro-laryngeal coordination needed to produce voicing, except for specific difficulties located on velars. In a follow-up study, further acoustic analyses on vowel and fricative production by the same children reveal more difficulties, which suggest that cochlear implantation impacts frequency-based features (second formant of vowels and spectral moments of fricatives) more than durational cues (voicing).

  16. Selected Essays and Curriculum Units: Foreign Language Instruction through the Study of Literary Texts. French, German, Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silber, Ellen S., Ed.; Krug, Clara, Ed.

    This guide presents essays and curriculum units designed for use by secondary and college teachers of French, German, and Spanish as a foreign language. The first section of the work includes two essays, in French, and eight curriculum units based on the stories of Guy de Maupassant. The second section contains seven curriculum units that…

  17. Selected Essays and Curriculum Units: Foreign Language Instruction through the Study of Literary Texts. French, German, Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silber, Ellen S., Ed.; Krug, Clara, Ed.

    This guide presents essays and curriculum units designed for use by secondary and college teachers of French, German, and Spanish as a foreign language. The first section of the work includes two essays, in French, and eight curriculum units based on the stories of Guy de Maupassant. The second section contains seven curriculum units that…

  18. A survey of French general practitioners and a qualitative study on their use and assessment of predictive clinical scores

    PubMed Central

    Sarazin, Marianne; Chiappe, Solange Gonzalez; Kasprzyk, Marie; Mismetti, Patrick; Lasserre, Andréa

    2013-01-01

    Background Predictive clinical scores, diagnostic as well as prognostic, are considered to be useful tools for making decisions under conditions of uncertainty. They are not intended to replace clinical judgment or medical experience, but to help physicians in the interpretation of clinical information. The general practitioner (GP), the gateway to care in the French health system, should be the main beneficiary of their utilization. However, there is no information on the prevalence of their use in general practice in France. Methods A national, transversal epidemiological survey was conducted by electronic mail among GPs belonging to the French Sentinelles network. GPs were asked about their use of scores, the context of their utilization and the expected benefit. A qualitative study (focus groups) was also carried out with three groups of GPs within the context of continuous medical education. Results The study consisted of 358 GPs. They were questioned on their use of seven predictive clinical scores (six diagnostic and one prognostic). Clinical scores were used by 75% of GPs, with no statistical difference with regard to their age or sex. The most often used were: the Mini Mental Status Examination (MMSE) (95%), Fagerström test (90%), Hamilton scale (65%), McIsaac scores (61%), DETA/CAGE (45%), Simple Calculated Osteoporosis Risk Estimation (SCORE) for osteoporosis (33%), and the only prognostic score CHADS2 (28%). Clinical scores were especially used when elderly people were involved (77%) and when the diagnosis was uncertain (63%). The qualitative study gave additional information on the barriers and obstacles to the use of predictive clinical scores. Conclusion This study, the first one in France, gives information on the perception of clinical scores and on the rationale for their use by GPs. Suggestions to improve the situation (availability and rate of utilization of clinical scores) are provided. PMID:23837004

  19. Parkinson disease male-to-female ratios increase with age: French nationwide study and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moisan, Frédéric; Kab, Sofiane; Mohamed, Fatima; Canonico, Marianne; Le Guern, Morgane; Quintin, Cécile; Carcaillon, Laure; Nicolau, Javier; Duport, Nicolas; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Boussac-Zarebska, Marjorie; Elbaz, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Background Parkinson’s disease (PD) is 1.5 times more frequent in men than women. Whether age modifies this ratio is unclear. We examined whether male-to-female (M–F) ratios change with age through a French nationwide prevalence/incidence study (2010) and a meta-analysis of incidence studies. Methods We used French national drug claims databases to identify PD cases using a validated algorithm. We computed M–F prevalence/incidence ratios overall and by age using Poisson regression. Ratios were regressed on age to estimate their annual change. We identified all PD incidence studies with age/sex-specific data, and performed a meta-analysis of M–F ratios. Results On the basis of 149 672 prevalent (50% women) and 25 438 incident (49% women) cases, age-standardised rates were higher in men (prevalence=2.865/1000; incidence=0.490/1000 person-years) than women (prevalence=1.934/1000; incidence=0.328/1000 person-years). The overall M–F ratio was 1.48 for prevalence and 1.49 for incidence. Prevalence and incidence M–F ratios increased by 0.05 and 0.14, respectively, per 10 years of age. Incidence was similar in men and women under 50 years (M–F ratio <1.2, p>0.20), and over 1.6 (p<0.001) times higher in men than women above 80 years (p trend <0.001). A meta-analysis of 22 incidence studies (14 126 cases, 46% women) confirmed that M– F ratios increased with age (0.26 per 10 years, p trend=0.005). Conclusions Age-increasing M–F ratios suggest that PD aetiology changes with age. Sex-related risk/protective factors may play a different role across the continuum of age at onset. This finding may inform aetiological PD research. PMID:26701996

  20. A Comparative Study of the Academic Performance of Secondary School Pupils at Grade Twelve Level in English, French and Zambian Languages (1998-2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chishiba, G. M.; Mukuka, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The study compared the performance of pupils at grade 12 level in Zambian languages, French and English during a period of ten years (1998-2008). Grade 12 is the final year of Secondary School Education in Zambia. This exercise was aimed at establishing the language with the best performance during the aforementioned period. The study, which was…

  1. A Comparative Study of the Academic Performance of Secondary School Pupils at Grade Twelve Level in English, French and Zambian Languages (1998-2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chishiba, G. M.; Mukuka, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The study compared the performance of pupils at grade 12 level in Zambian languages, French and English during a period of ten years (1998-2008). Grade 12 is the final year of Secondary School Education in Zambia. This exercise was aimed at establishing the language with the best performance during the aforementioned period. The study, which was…

  2. Comparative study of mercury accumulation in dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from French Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts.

    PubMed

    Andre, J; Boudou, A; Ribeyre, F; Bernhard, M

    1991-05-15

    Total mercury concentrations (Hgt) have been determined in liver, kidneys, skeletal muscle, melon, stomach and intestine of 35 specimens of Stenella coeruleoalba stranded on French Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts. Very high mercury levels, with concentrations reaching 80 mg Hgt kg(-1) fresh weight (FW) in muscle and about 1500 mg Hgt kg(-1) FW in liver tissue, were observed. Liver has the highest concentration, followed by muscle and kidney. The lowest concentrations were found in the melon. The levels observed in the Mediterranean specimens are among the highest observed in marine organisms and confirm previous reports of high mercury levels in marine mammals from the Mediterranean. Comparison between Hgt accumulation levels in these two geographic groups of dolphins shows that Mediterranean individuals have much higher concentrations than specimens from the Atlantic. These differences provide additional confirmation for the higher Hgt concentrations observed previously in other pelagic species (tuna, sardine, anchovy, etc.) from the Mediterranean Sea. Taking into consideration the pelagic habitat of the dolphin and the local influence of anthropogenic mercury sources it seems reasonable to assume that the main source of the high mercury concentrations observed in Mediterranean biota is natural mercury deposits located in many regions of the Mediterranean basin.

  3. A Descriptive Study of Gambling Among Emerging Adult Males in French-Speaking Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Tomei, Alexander; Tichelli, Emmanuel; Ewering, Neil; Nunweiler-Hardegger, Sophie; Simon, Olivier

    2015-09-01

    The aims were twofold: to examine the gambling habits of emerging adult males in the French-speaking regions of Switzerland and to what extent these habits predict problem gambling within this population. We also evaluated problem gambling rates and provided data concerning variables such as gambling location, level of information about problem gambling and awareness of treatment centers. 606 Swiss male conscripts, aged 18-22 years, completed a self-report questionnaire. This was administered during their army recruitment day in 2012. Problem gambling was assessed through the Problem Gambling Severity Index (PGSI) (Ferris and Wynne 2001). 78.5% of the respondents were lifetime gamblers, 56.1% were past-year gamblers. Four out of ten past-year gamblers played in private spaces and in back rooms. The PGSI indicated that 10.8% of past-year gamblers presented with moderate gambling problems, whilst 1.4% appeared to be problem gamblers. The majority of respondents had never received information about problem gambling. Moreover, they were unaware of the existence of treatment centers for problem gambling in their region. PGSI scores were significantly predicted by the variety of games played. Problem gambling rates among young men appear to be higher than those of the general Swiss population. This confirms that emerging adult males are a particularly vulnerable population with regards to gambling addiction. The implications of this are considered for youth gambling-prevention programs.

  4. Ciguatera risk management in French Polynesia: the case study of Raivavae Island (Australes Archipelago).

    PubMed

    Chinain, Mireille; Darius, H Taiana; Ung, André; Fouc, Mote Tchou; Revel, Taina; Cruchet, Philippe; Pauillac, Serge; Laurent, Dominique

    2010-10-01

    Based on epidemiological data available through long-term monitoring surveys conducted by both the Public Health Directorate and the Louis Malardé Institute, ciguatera is highly endemic in French Polynesia, most notably in Raivavae (Australes) which appears as a hot spot of ciguatera with an average incidence rate of 140 cases/10,000 population for the period 2007-2008. In order to document the ciguatera risk associated with Raivavae lagoon, algal and toxin-based field monitoring programs were conducted in this island from April 2007 to May 2008. Practically, the distribution, abundance and toxicity of Gambierdiscus populations, along with the toxicity levels in 160 fish distributed within 25 distinct species, were assessed in various sampling locations. Herbivores such as Scarids (parrotfish) and Acanthurids (unicornfish) were rated as high-risk species based on receptor-binding assay toxicity data. A map of the risk stratification within the Raivavae lagoon was also produced, which indicates that locations where both natural and man-made disturbances have occurred remained the most susceptible to CFP incidents. Our findings also suggest that, locally, the traditional knowledge about ciguatera may not be scientifically complete but is functionally correct. Community education resulted in self-regulating behaviour towards avoidance of high-risk fish species and fishing locations.

  5. The Chartres Study: I. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among French school-age children.

    PubMed

    Fombonne, E

    1994-01-01

    A survey of child psychiatric disorders was conducted in a community sample of 2441 French school-aged children selected from 18 public and private schools; children attending special classes were oversampled. A two-stage survey design was used to identify disorders. Measures were the Child Behavior Checklist and the Rutter teacher scale for screening. The Isle of Wight parental interview was used in the second phase for 217 home interviews, along with the Children Global Assessment Scale as an index of impaired functioning. Response rates were excellent, and non-respondents in the screening phase were shown to have higher levels of psychopathology as gauged by their teacher scale scores. Several weights were used in the analysis to adjust for differential probabilities of selection and participation in each survey phase. The overall prevalence rate among 8-11-year-olds was estimated to be 12.4% (5.9% for more severe disorders), with roughly equal rates of disruptive and emotional disorders (6.5% and 5.9%). Prevalence was higher in boys (15.0%) than in girls (9.5%), owing to a threefold increase in their frequency of conduct disturbances. Rates of disturbance were twice as high among children with special educational needs, while no difference was found between private and public schools. The frequency of behavioural problems appeared to be similar in the urban and semi-rural subsamples.

  6. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivations in primary care: an explanatory study among French general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Sicsic, Jonathan; Le Vaillant, Marc; Franc, Carine

    2012-12-01

    Like many other OECD nations, France has implemented a pay-for-performance (P4P) model in primary care. However, the benefits have been debated, particularly regarding the possibly undesirable effects of extrinsic motivation (EM) on intrinsic motivation (IM). To examine the relationship between French GPs' IM and EM based on an intrinsic motivation composite score (IMCS) developed for this purpose. If a negative relationship is found, P4P schemes could have side effects on GPs' IM that is a key determinant of quality of care. From data on 423 GPs practicing in a region of France, IM indicators are selected using a multiple correspondence analysis and aggregated from a multilevel model. Several doctors' characteristics have significant impacts on IMCS variability, especially group practice and salaried practice. Qualitative EM variables are negatively correlated with the IMCS: GPs who report not being satisfied with their income or feeling "often" constrained by patients' requests in terms of consultations length and office appointments obtain a lower mean IMCS than other GPs. Our results provide a cautionary message to regulators who should take into account the potential side effects of increasing EM through policies such as P4P. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Folate, vitamin B12 and postmenopausal breast cancer in a prospective study of French women

    PubMed Central

    Lajous, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle; Sabia, Severine; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise

    2006-01-01

    Objective Adequate folate intake may be important for breast cancer prevention. Its protective effect may be influenced by factors associated with folate metabolism. We sought to evaluate folate intake in relation to breast cancer risk and examine whether the relation is affected by alcohol and intake of vitamin B2 and B12. Methods A prospective cohort analysis of folate intake was conducted among 62,739 postmenopausal women in the French E3N cohort who had completed a validated food frequency questionnaire in 1993. During nine years’ follow-up, 1,812 cases of pathology-confirmed breast cancer were documented through follow-up questionnaires. Nutrients were categorized in quintiles and energy-adjusted using the regression-residual method. Cox model-derived relative risks (RRs) were adjusted for known breast cancer determinants. Results The multivariate RR for extreme quintiles of folate intake was was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.67–0.90; p-trend = 0.001) [Median intake for Q1 = 296 μg/day and Q5 = 522 μg/day]. There was no evidence to support effect modification by alcohol or B2 intake. The decreasing trend was most marked in women with higher folate and vitamin B12 intake. However, test for interaction was not statistically significant (p = 0.29) Conclusions High folate intake was associated with decreased breast cancer risk. Vitamin B12 intake may modify this association. PMID:17006726

  8. Validity of the French version of the Core Outcome Measures Index for low back pain patients: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Genevay, Stéphane; Marty, Marc; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Foltz, Violaine; Mahieu, Geneviève; Demoulin, Christophe; Fontana, Agnieszka Gierasimowicz; Norberg, Michael; de Goumoëns, Pierre; Cedraschi, Christine; Rozenberg, Sylvie

    2014-10-01

    Among the many questionnaires available to evaluate low back pain (LBP) patients, the Core Outcome Measures Index (COMI) has the unique advantage to investigate five dimensions using seven short questions. The aim of this study was to explore additional properties of the questionnaire in a French-speaking non-surgical population. This study was conducted on 168 patients suffering from subacute or chronic LBP and followed up for 6 months in three French-speaking countries. In addition to basic psychometric properties (e.g., construct validity, floor and ceiling effect, reproducibility), internal validity was analyzed by a factor analysis using Cronbach's alpha. Responsiveness and sensitivity to change were assessed through minimal detectable change (MDC), effect size, and Minimal Clinically Important Improvement (MCII). We used an anchor-based method with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to assess MCII and the Patient Acceptable Symptom State. Construct validity, reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.87), reproducibility and the absence of floor and ceiling effects were confirmed. Factor analysis indicated a one-dimensional construct that validates the use of a sum score. The MDC (2.1) was inferior to the MCII (2.3). The limit below which the patient claims to be in a fair condition (Patient Acceptable Symptom State) was set at 3. The COMI is a self-report questionnaire with the capacity to easily and quickly explore several dimensions in patients with LBP that can be then summarized in a meaningful sum score. Additional knowledge provided by our study should encourage the widespread use of the COMI among the spine community.

  9. Acute clinical events in 299 homozygous sickle cell patients living in France. French Study Group on Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Neonato, M G; Guilloud-Bataille, M; Beauvais, P; Bégué, P; Belloy, M; Benkerrou, M; Ducrocq, R; Maier-Redelsperger, M; de Montalembert, M; Quinet, B; Elion, J; Feingold, J; Girot, R

    2000-09-01

    A subset of 299 patients with homozygous sickle cell anaemia, enrolled in the cohort of the French Study Group on sickle cell disease (SCD), was investigated in this study. The majority of patients were children (mean age 10.1 +/- 5.8 yr) of first generation immigrants from Western and Central Africa, the others originated from the French West Indies (20.2%). We report the frequency of the main clinical events (mean follow-up 4.2 +/- 2.2 yr). The prevalence of meningitis-septicaemia and osteomyelitis was, respectively, 11.4% and 12% acute chest syndrome was observed in 134 patients (44.8%). Twenty patients (6.7%) developed stroke with peak prevalence at 10-15 yr of age. One hundred and seventy-two patients (58%) suffered from one or more painful sickle cell crises, while the others (42.5%) never suffered from pain. The overall frequency of acute anaemic episodes was 50.5%, (acute aplastic anaemia 46%; acute splenic sequestration 26%). A group of 27 patients were asymptomatic (follow-up > 3 yr). Epistatic mechanisms influencing SCD were studied. Coinherited alpha-thalassemia strongly reduced the risk of stroke (p <0.001) and increased that of painful crises (p < 0.02). There was a low prevalence of Senegal and Bantu (CAR) betas-chromosomes in patients with meningitis (p <0.04) and osteomyelitis (p < 0.03). Prevalence of Senegal betas-chromosomes was lower in the asymptomatic group of 27 patients (p < 0.02). The patients come from a population of unmixed immigrants in whom the beta-globin gene haplotype strongly reflects the geographic origin and identifies subgroups with a homogenous genetic background. Thus the observed effects might result more from differences in as yet unidentified determinants in the genetic background than from the direct linkage with differences in the beta-globin gene locus.

  10. Genetic hemochromatosis is a rare disease entity among French Basques: a center-based study from the general hospital of Basque County.

    PubMed

    Bauduer, F; Scribans, C; Renoux, M; Borot, N

    2001-08-01

    A center-based study from the general hospital of Basque country has been performed to evaluate the importance of genetic hemochromatosis among French Basques. A sample of 37 patients from 34 families fulfilling the diagnosis criteria of hemochromatosis was obtained. Only four of them were of Basque origin: two homozygotes for C282Y, one homozygote for H63D, and one heterozygote for C282Y. These results suggest a significant lower prevalence of genetic hemochromatosis in Basques than in people from other French regions (P=0.001). They underline further the biological specificity of this population.

  11. The argumentative connective même in French: an experimental study in eight- to ten-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Bassano, D; Champaud, C

    1989-10-01

    This study examines how children understand the argumentative function of the French connective même ('even'). Two completion tasks, related to the argumentative properties of the morpheme, were used: (1) to infer the conclusion of an 'even' sentence, and (2) to infer the argument position. Two main factors likely to influence the comprehension were investigated: the semantic context, and the syntactic form--affirmative vs negative. The argumentative function of même was globally mastered at the age of eight, but comprehension depends on semantic context. Performances were better for negative sentences, which suggests that negation plays a facilitating role; the specific properties of the negative expression pas même/même pas ('not even') in discourse are discussed.

  12. Keys to successful implementation of a French national quality indicator in health care organizations: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Waelli, Mathias; Gomez, Marie-Léandre; Sicotte, Claude; Zicari, Adrian; Bonnefond, Jean-Yves; Lorino, Philippe; Minvielle, Etienne

    2016-10-06

    Several countries have launched public reporting systems based on quality indicators (QIs) to increase transparency and improve quality in health care organizations (HCOs). However, a prerequisite to quality improvement is successful local QI implementation. The aim of this study was to explore the pathway through which a mandatory QI of the French national public reporting system, namely the quality of the anesthesia file (QAF), was put into practice. Seven ethnographic case studies in French HCOs combining in situ observations and 37 semi-structured interviews. A significant proportion of potential QAF users, such as anesthetists or other health professionals were often unaware of quality data. They were, however, involved in improvement actions to meet the QAF criteria. In fact, three intertwined factors influenced QAF appropriation by anesthesia teams and impacted practice. The first factor was the action of clinical managers (chief anesthetists and head of department) who helped translate public policy into local practice largely by providing legitimacy by highlighting the scientific evidence underlying QAF, achieving consensus among team members, and pointing out the value of QAF as a means of work recognition. The two other factors related to the socio-material context, namely the coherence of information systems and the quality of interpersonal ties within the department. Public policy tends to focus on the metrological validity of QIs and on ranking methods and overlooks QI implementation. However, effective QI implementation depends on local managerial activity that is often invisible, in interaction with socio-material factors. When developing national quality improvement programs, health authorities might do well to specifically target these clinical managers who act as invaluable mediators. Their key role should be acknowledged and they ought to be provided with adequate resources.

  13. Feedback on the management of the 2011 measles outbreak by French military general practitioners: an evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Genicon, C; Meynard, J-B; Duron, S; Haus-Cheymol, R; Ollivier, L; Le Goff, C; Pollot, E; Bel, J-C; De Laval, F; Decam, C; Migliani, R; Mayet, A

    2014-04-01

    Preventive measures were implemented in the French armed forces to limit the measles outbreak that occurred in 2010 and 2011. This study aimed to obtain feedback concerning the management of this outbreak by the French military general practitioners. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the general practitioners (GPs) in military units located in metropolitan France. The 60 military units that reported at least one measles case in 2011 were included. Data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. The acceptance of preventive measures against measles was good (measures "totally justified" for 77.8%) and most of the military GPs considered that the outbreak had no significant impact on their activities. The management of measles cases was perceived as not very problematic but difficulties were encountered in the identification of contacts around cases (48.1% of respondents) and in the identification of vaccine recipients among these contacts (more than 80% of respondents reporting difficulties in the collection of measles and vaccination histories). The organization of vaccination around cases was also perceived as difficult. Preventive measures around measles cases were well accepted by the military GPs, which could reflect their preparedness in the face of the outbreak. However, vaccination did not seem to be well understood or accepted by military patients, underlining the essential role of military GPs in patient information. Difficulties in the collection of vaccination and measles histories among contacts could be overcome by an early transcription of individual medical records in the military medical files of newly enlisted personnel. A more generalized use of oral fluid testing devices, which can be shipped at ambient temperature, would simplify diagnosis in the armed forces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. A French observational study of botulinum toxin use in the management of children with cerebral palsy: BOTULOSCOPE.

    PubMed

    Chaléat-Valayer, Emmanuelle; Parratte, Bernard; Colin, Cyrille; Denis, Angélique; Oudin, Séverine; Bérard, C; Bernard, J C; Bourg, V; Deleplanque, B; Dulieu, I; Evrard, P; Filipetti, P; Flurin, V; Gallien, P; Héron-Long, B; Hodgkinson, I; Husson, I; Jaisson-Hot, I; Maupas, E; Meurin, F; Monnier, G; Pérennou, D; Pialoux, B; Quentin, V; Moreau, M Simonetta; Schneider, M; Yelnik, Alain; Marque, Philippe

    2011-09-01

    Dystonia and spasticity are common symptoms in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP), whose management is a challenge to overcome in order to enable the harmonized development of motor function during growth. To describe botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) use and efficacy as a treatment of focal spasticity in CP children in France. This prospective observational study included 282 CP children mostly administered according to French standards with BTX-A in lower limbs. Realistic therapeutic objectives were set with parents and children together before treatment initiation and assessed using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Child management was recorded and the efficacy of injections was assessed during a 12-month follow-up period by physicians (Modified Ashworth Scale, joint range of motion, Physician Rating Scale, Gillette Functional Assessment Questionnaire and Gross Motor Function Measure-66) and by patients/parents (Visual Analogue Scale). BTX-A treatment was administered in different muscle localizations at once and at doses higher than those recommended by the French Health Authorities. Children were treated in parallel by physiotherapy, casts and ortheses. Injections reduced spasticity and improved joint range of motion, gait pattern and movement capacity. Pain was reduced after injections. BTX-A administration was safe: no botulism-like case was reported. The log of injected children who were not included in the study suggested that a large population could benefit from BTX-A management. We showed here the major input of BTX-A injections in the management of spasticity in CP children. The results are in favor of the use of BTX-A as conservative safe and efficient treatment of spasticity in children, which enables functional improvement as well as pain relief. Copyright © 2011 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Calcium carbonate, but not sevelamer, is associated with better outcomes in hemodialysis patients: results from the French ARNOS study.

    PubMed

    Jean, Guillaume; Lataillade, Dominique; Genet, Leslie; Legrand, Eric; Kuentz, François; Moreau-Gaudry, Xavier; Fouque, Denis

    2011-10-01

    A favorable survival effect of phosphate binders (PBs) on incident hemodialysis (HD) patients was recently reported, but no definitive advantages of calcium-based or noncalcium-based PBs have been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the prescription of PBs using calcium carbonate (CaCO(3) ) or sevelamer HCl (SV) on survival. Baseline PB prescription was recorded using a cross-sectional analysis of prevalent HD patients from the regional Association Régionale des Néphrologues OStéodystrophie French cohort. A prospective 42-month survival analysis study was performed. In July 2005, 1347 HD patients were included. CaCO(3) , SV, and mixed PBs were prescribed in 55%, 42%, and 24% of cases, respectively, and 26% were not prescribed PBs. Using a Cox proportional model adjusted for several parameters, CaCO(3) use was found to be associated with less mortality (HR, 0.64 [0.4-0.78]), but not in the case of SV use (HR, 1.13 [0.92-1.3]). SV prescription was associated with higher mortality than CaCO(3) (HR, 1.46 [1.1-1.9]). CaCO3, but not sevelamer prescription, is associated with a favorable effect on survival in a French HD population. This novel result can be partly accounted for by the differences in mineral metabolism disorder management that exist between randomized controlled trials and "real life" conditions. © 2011 The Authors; Hemodialysis International © 2011 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  16. Divergences on the environmental impact associated to the production of maritime pine wood in Europe: French and Portuguese case studies.

    PubMed

    González-García, Sara; Dias, Ana Cláudia; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, María Teresa; Arroja, Luis

    2014-02-15

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has become a common methodology to evaluate the environmental performance of forest systems in recent years. This study aims to estimate the environmental profile associated with maritime pine wood production in two representative European countries: Portugal and France. Different forest management regimes based on low and high intensive conditions were evaluated and differences in logging equipment, biomass yield and lifespan were also reported. The study was completed with a sensitivity analysis based on two allocation approaches (economic and volumetric) since biomass from thinning processes is harvested and can be used as a co-product. The production of maritime pine in Portugal under low intensity conditions should present the best environmental results with reductions of 50-94% in comparison with the worst scenario. It is mainly associated with the absence of forest activities in periods previous to the logging stage. French intensive forest scenario ranks as the second best alternative of pine wood production. The remaining scenarios reported worse results in terms of environmental impacts mostly due to the remarkable repetition of a selection of those forest activities with large fuel requirement (mainly on site preparation and stand establishment and tending). Regardless of the scenario, logging related activities such as final cutting and forwarding were identified as the hotspots mainly due to the fuel requirements. Fertilizer production (if required), thinning and cleaning processes reported also remarkable contributions to the categories under assessment. In addition, an economic estimation for each forest management scenario has been performed mainly considering fuel, machinery and labor costs. According to the results, the Portuguese low intensive scenario is the best choice together with the French intensive scenario under an economic point of view because of the lowest production costs per functional unit. Activities

  17. Quality of travel health advice in a French travel medicine and vaccine center: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Bouldouyre, Marie-Anne; De Verdière, Nathalie Colin; Pavie, Juliette; De Castro, Nathalie; Ponscarme, Diane; Hamane, Samia; Rachline, Anne; Ferret, Samuel; Molina, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    The number of international trips undertaken by French citizens is rising and we wished to assess the appropriateness of advices given to travelers in a vaccine and travel medicine center in France. We conducted a 3-month prospective study in one center in Paris where prescriptions and advice to travelers are given by trained physicians in travel medicine who have access to a computerized decision support system (Edisan). A questionnaire was used to record trip characteristics, patients' demographics, and prescriptions. Main outcome measure was the adequacy of prescriptions for malaria prophylaxis, yellow fever, and hepatitis A vaccines to French guidelines. A total of 730 subjects were enrolled in this study, with a median age of 28 years. Travel destinations were sub-Saharan Africa (58%), Asia (21%), and South America (18%). Among the 608 patients (83%) traveling to malaria-endemic areas, malaria prophylaxis was in accordance with guidelines in 578/608 patients (95.1%, 95% CI: 93-96.5), and doxycycline was the regimen of choice (48%). Inappropriate malaria prophylaxis was given to eight patients, one of whom developed plasmodium falciparum malaria. All 413 patients (100%, 95% CI: 99-100) traveling to yellow fever-endemic areas who needed vaccination were correctly vaccinated. However, three patients received yellow fever vaccination without indication. Also, 442 of 454 patients (97.4%, 95% CI: 95.4-98.5) eligible to receive hepatitis A vaccination were immunized. Appropriate advice for malaria prophylaxis, yellow fever, and hepatitis A vaccinations was provided in a travel medicine and vaccine center where trained physicians used a computerized decision support system. Even in this setting, however, errors can occur and professional practices should be regularly assessed to improve health care. © 2012 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  18. Resultats de l'enquete nationale sur les programmes de formation des enseignants de francais langue seconde au Canada (Results of the National Study for Teacher Education Programs for French Second Language Teachers in Canada).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutin, France; Chinien, Christian; Boutin, Jean-Luc

    The implications of Canada's national study of core French instruction for second language (L2) teacher education in that country are examined. Literature on the study's impact on language teaching philosophy and policy and on French immersion instruction is reviewed, and a survey of 36 Canadian schools of education is reported. The questionnaire…

  19. An extensive study of the genetic diversity within seven French wine grape variety collections.

    PubMed

    Pelsy, Frédérique; Hocquigny, Stéphanie; Moncada, Ximena; Barbeau, Gérard; Forget, Dominique; Hinrichsen, Patricio; Merdinoglu, Didier

    2010-04-01

    The process of vegetative propagation used to multiply grapevine varieties produces, in most cases, clones genetically identical to the parental plant. Nevertheless, spontaneous somatic mutations can occur in the regenerative cells that give rise to the clones, leading to consider varieties as populations of clones that conform to a panel of phenotypic traits. Using two sets of nuclear microsatellite markers, the present work aimed at evaluating and comparing the intravarietal genetic diversity within seven wine grape varieties: Cabernet franc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Chenin blanc, Grolleau, Pinot noir, Riesling, Savagnin, comprising a total number of 344 accessions of certified clones and introductions preserved in French repositories. Ten accessions resulted in being either self-progeny, possible offspring of the expected variety or misclassified varieties. Out of the 334 remaining accessions, 83 displayed genotypes different from the varietal reference, i.e., the microsatellite profile shared by the larger number of accessions. They showed a similarity value ranging from 0.923 to 0.992, and thus were considered as polymorphic monozygotic clones. The fraction of polymorphic clones ranged from 2 to 75% depending on the variety and the set of markers, the widest clonal diversity being observed within the Savagnin. Among the 83 polymorphic clones, 29 had unique genotype making them distinguishable; others were classified in 21 groups sharing the same genotype. All microsatellite markers were not equally efficient to show diversity within clone collections and a standard set of five microsatellite markers (VMC3a9, VMC5g7, VVS2, VVMD30, and VVMD 32) relevant to reveal clonal polymorphism is proposed.

  20. Outcomes after surgery for central neurocytoma: results of a French multicentre retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Lubrano, Vincent; François, Patrick; Loundou, Anderson; Vasiljevic, Alexandre; Roche, Pierre-Hugues

    2013-07-01

    Central neurocytoma (CN) is a rare intraventricular tumour. Surgery has been highly recommended for CN, although it entails a significant chance to harm the patient. We aimed to provide new data that would support surgical decision-making and optimise patient information about outcomes after surgery. Under the auspices of the French Society of Neurosurgery, we conducted a multi-institutional database search in 23 academic hospitals. In all, we reviewed the relevant clinical and radiological data of 82 patients who were operated on for CN between 1984 and 2008, and had their diagnosis confirmed by central pathological review. The median follow-up was 61 months (range, 6-96 months). Gross total resection (GTR) was achieved in 48 % of the patients, and subtotal resection (STR) in 52 %. The 5-year overall survival rate was 93.8 % (95 % CI, 93.7-93.9). The 5-year progression-free survival rate was 92.1 % (95 % CI, 91.90-92.2) in patients who underwent GTR, compared with 55.3 % (95 % CI, 55.1-55.5) in patients who had STR (p = 0.01). The overall perioperative complication rate was 66 %. The main causes of postoperative disability were some degree of postoperative paresis and/or aphasia (39 %), memory difficulties (29 %) and temporary hydrocephalus (26 %). GTR was not associated with an increased rate of postoperative complications compared with STR. At last follow-up, Karnofsky Performance Score was at least equal to 80 for 90.6 % of the tested patients. Our series emphasised that maximal surgical resection of CNs offers favourable benefit-risk ratio. These data are of importance to properly counsel patients regarding expected outcomes, and to plan relevant preoperative and postoperative investigations like language and memory function evaluation.

  1. Towards a French Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breach, H. T.

    1972-01-01

    Contends that secondary school students lose their appeal for French as they advance in school. Suggests that French teachers endeavor to motivate students by focusing more attention on their students and less on their own credentials. (DS)

  2. Towards a French Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breach, H. T.

    1972-01-01

    Contends that secondary school students lose their appeal for French as they advance in school. Suggests that French teachers endeavor to motivate students by focusing more attention on their students and less on their own credentials. (DS)

  3. French Computer Terminology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Eugene F.

    1985-01-01

    Characteristics, idiosyncrasies, borrowings, and other aspects of the French terminology for computers and computer-related matters are discussed and placed in the context of French computer use. A glossary provides French equivalent terms or translations of English computer terminology. (MSE)

  4. Early Diagenetic Imprint on Temperature Proxies in Holocene Corals: A Case Study from French Polynesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, R. J.; Eisenhauer, A.; Liebetrau, V.; Fietzke, J.; Boehm, F.; Wall, M.; Krause, S.; Rueggeberg, A.; Dullo, C.; Samankassou, E.

    2014-12-01

    Coral based reconstructions of sea surface temperatures (SST) using Sr/Ca, U/Ca and δ18O ratios are an important tool for quantitative reconstructions of past climate. However, post-depositional alteration of coral aragonite due to early diagenesis is restricting the accuracy of calibrated proxies even on relatively young corals. Here we present Mid to Late Holocene SST reconstructions using well dated (U/Th: ~70yr to 5.4ka) fossil Porites collected from the Society Islands, French Polynesia. Microscopic observations and microprobe mapping show the presence of aragonite needles inside the coral pores. They are characterized by high Sr/Ca ratios of up to 14.7±0.3mmol/mol, shifting the corresponding SST to ~6.2±1.1°C. Inhomogeneous distribution of Sr/Ca reflects partial dissolution, pore fluid percolation and re-precipitation of Sr within the coral. The resulting effect of early diagenesis on the SST records is reflected by significant temperature offsets up to ±6°C. A relative SST reconstruction is still feasible by normalizing the records to their individual mean value. Latter approach shows that all three records are in phase with simultaneous SST variability of up to ±2.4°C with respect to the Holocene mean value. Low SSTs are observed between ~4.4 to ~4.9ka BP and ~2.8 to ~3.4ka BP. Relatively high temperatures are observed at ~5ka BP, between ~3.7 and 3.9ka BP as well as at ~1.8ka BP to ~2.6ka BP. This indicates SST oscillations with the periodicity of 1500yrs in the Society island record which is in general accord with the solar activity reconstructed from 10Be and 14C production (Vonmoos et al., 2006, JGR 111, A10105). In particular, the relatively high SST reconcile empirically determined sea level variations (Rashid et al., 2014, G3, 15) indicating a higher sea level than predicted from numerical modelling taking only "Glacial Isostatic Adjustment" into account as the primary controlling factor for the Late Holocene sea level variation.

  5. Change in physical activity and weight in relation to retirement: the French GAZEL Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kivimäki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Ferrie, Jane E; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Pentti, Jaana; Westerlund, Hugo; Vahtera, Jussi

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine the trajectories of physical activity from preretirement to postretirement and to further clarify whether the changes in physical activity are associated with changes in body weight. Design Prospective. Setting French national gas and electricity company (GAZEL cohort). Participants From the original sample of 20 625 employees, only those retiring between 2001 and 2008 on a statutory basis were selected for the analyses (analysis 1: n=2711, 63% men; analysis 2: n=3812, 75% men). Persons with data on at least one preretirement and postretirement measurement of the outcome were selected. Primary and secondary outcome measures All outcome data were gathered by questionnaires. In analysis 1, the annual prevalence of higher physical activity (walking ≥5 km/week) 4 years before and after retirement was analysed. In analysis 2, changes in leisure-time sport activities (engagement, frequency and manner) from preretirement to postretirement were analysed with simultaneous changes in body weight (kilogram). Results In analysis 1 (n=2711), prevalence estimates for 4 years before and 4 years after retirement showed that higher leisure-time physical activity (walking at least 5 km/week) increased by 36% in men and 61% in women during the transition to retirement. This increase was also observed among people at a higher risk of physical inactivity, such as smokers and those with elevated depressive symptoms. In a separate sample (analysis 2, n=3812), change in weight as a function of preretirement and postretirement physical activity was analysed. Weight gain preretirement to postretirement was 0.85 (95% CI 0.48 to 1.21) to 1.35 (0.79 to 1.90) kg greater among physically inactive persons (decrease in activity or inactive) compared with those physically active (p<0.001). Conclusions Retirement transition may be associated with beneficial changes in lifestyle and may thus be a good starting point to preventive interventions in various groups of

  6. La Culture Canadienne-Francaise = French Canadian Culture. Interim Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussiere, Adrien L., Ed.

    Materials about the culture specific to French-speaking people in Canada are presented as part of the cultural component of the prescribed second language curriculum. The materials follow the suggested sequence of studying the "French Fact" in Alberta in grade 7, the study of French settlements in Canada in grade 8, and in-depth study of…

  7. [Higher dialysate calcium is not associated with mortality in hemodialysis patients: results from the French ARNOS study].

    PubMed

    Jean, Guillaume; Lataillade, Dominique; Genet, Leslie; Legrand, Eric; Kuentz, François; Moreau-Gaudry, Xavier; Fouque, Denis

    2013-04-01

    Finding the optimal dialysate calcium (DCa) in haemodialysis (HD) patients remains a therapeutic challenge. Besides, the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Pattern Study (DOPPS) has reported a greater mortality rate using higher DCa doses. The objective was to assess the impact of DCa prescription on survival. Baseline DCa prescriptions were recorded using a cross-sectional analysis of HD patients from the regional ARNOS French cohort. A prospective 42-month survival analysis study was performed. In July 2005, 1294 HD patients were included in this study. DCa at doses of 1.25, 1.5, and 1.75 mmol/L was prescribed in 13.6%, 74.1%, and 12.3% patients, respectively. Using a Cox proportional model adjusted for several parameters, DCa was found to be not significantly associated with survival. Patients receiving 1.75 mmol/L DCa were more frequently treated with online haemodiafiltration, cinacalcet, and shorter dialysis sessions; they had a more frequent history of parathyroidectomy and lower calcium levels. The DCa prescription remained stable after 12 months in 80% of cases. This is an observational study; therefore, only baseline data were recorded for analysis. Higher DCa concentration is not associated with mortality, in contrast to the findings by DOPPS. Prescribing DCa on an individual basis according to various mineral metabolism parameters and treatments appears to be safe irrespective of the DCa dosage. Copyright © 2012 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. Impact of hypovitaminosis D and alfacalcidol therapy on survival of hemodialysis patients: results from the French ARNOS study.

    PubMed

    Jean, G; Lataillade, D; Genet, L; Legrand, E; Kuentz, F; Moreau-Gaudry, X; Fouque, D

    2011-01-01

    In chronic kidney disease and dialysis patients, vitamin D deficiency is associated with mortality. In some observational studies, calcitriol analogue therapy was associated with a better survival rate in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) levels and alfacalcidol therapy with HD patients' outcomes. We measured baseline 25-OHD levels using a cross-sectional analysis in 648 HD prevalent patients from the regional ARNOS French cohort. A 42-month survival analysis was applied according to serum 25-OHD level and calcitriol analogue therapy. The prevalence of 25-OHD insufficiency <30 ng/ml was high (73%), with only 22% taking native vitamin D supplementation. A baseline 25-OHD level above the median value (18 ng/ml) was associated with lower all-cause mortality [hazard ratio (HR), 0.73 (0.5-0.96); p = 0.02] after adjustment for age, gender, dialysis vintage, calcemia, phosphatemia, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Only in monovariate analysis was low-dose oral alfacalcidol therapy associated with a better survival rate in patients with and without 25-OHD deficiency [HR, 0.7 (0.5-0.92); p = 0.05]. Our study shows that, among prevalent HD patients, low 25-OHD levels affect mortality. Alfacalcidol therapy, especially in small doses, may provide compensation, but this needs to be further confirmed using prospective controlled studies comparing native and active vitamin D compounds. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Longitudinal study of associations between perceived health status and self reported diseases in the French Gazel cohort

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, P; Gueguen, A; Schmaus, A; Nakache, J; Goldberg, M

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—Although perceived health status is an indicator widely used in epidemiological studies, its relation to various diseases is not well known. The objective of this study is to examine these relations in detail.
DESIGN—Marginal models used for a longitudinal study of the association between three health scales and 47 diseases among 12 164 men and 44 diseases among 4415 women.
SETTING—French Gazel cohort during the period from 1991 to 1996.
MAIN RESULTS—The general health status scale was significantly associated with 43 diseases among men, and 31 among women. Some of these significantly associated diseases were physical (for example, cancer and cerebrovascular accident) and others, psychological (for example, depression). The mental fatigue scale was more specifically associated with psychological disorders, including sleep problems, depression, and nervous diseases. Moreover, modifications in subjects' assessment of their health from one year to the next were generally associated with modifications in reported diseases.
CONCLUSION—Although the mechanism that relates the presence of a disease to perceived health status remains in question, these results show clearly that there is a close association between these two domains that justifies the use of perceived health as a proxy for self reported diseases.


Keywords: marginal model; health scale; self rated disease PMID:11238577

  10. Staphylococcus Aureus Carriage in French Athletes at Risk of CA-MRSA Infection: a Prospective, Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Couvé-Deacon, E; Postil, D; Barraud, O; Duchiron, C; Chainier, D; Labrunie, A; Pestourie, N; Preux, P M; François, B; Ploy, M C

    2017-08-16

    Staphylococcus aureus (SA) is a leading cause of infectious diseases in sports teams. In recent decades, community-associated SA (CA-SA) strains have emerged worldwide and have been responsible for outbreaks in sports teams. There are very few data on the prevalence of these strains in France, and none on the carriage among athletes. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the SA carriage proportion among athletes practicing sports at risk for CA-SA infection in a French county, and determined the methicillin-resistant and/or CA-SA proportion. We also analyzed SA carriage according to risks factors and studied the SA clonality in a sample of our population. We included 300 athletes; SA carriage proportion was 61% (n = 183) and one was MRSA carrier (0.33%). The MRSA strain belonged to the clonal complex ST5. None of the strain produced Panton Valentine Leucocidin, and we did not find clonal distribution within the teams. Interestingly, we found a high throat-only carriage (n = 57), 31.1% of the SA carriers. We found a high SA carriage with a local epidemiology quite different than that reported in a similar population in the USA. Further studies on SA carriage should include throat sampling. The approved protocol was registered on ClinicalTrial.gov , NCT01148485.

  11. On line clinical reasoning assessment with Script Concordance test in urology: results of a French pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Sibert, Louis; Darmoni, Stefan J; Dahamna, Badisse; Hellot, Marie-France; Weber, Jacques; Charlin, Bernard

    2006-01-01

    Background The Script Concordance test (SC) test is an assessment tool that measures the capacity to solve ill-defined problems, that is, reasoning in a context of uncertainty. This study assesses the feasibility, reliability and validity of the SC test made available on the Web to French urologists. Methods A 97 items SC test was developed based on major educational objectives of French urology training programmes. A secure Web site was created with two sequential modules: a) The first one for the reference panel to elaborate the scoring system; b) The second for candidates with different levels of experience in urology: Board certified urologists, chief-residents, residents, medical students. All participants were recruited on a voluntary basis. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics of the participants' scores and factorial analysis of variance (ANOVA) to study differences between groups' means. Reliability was evaluated with Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Results The on line SC test has been operational since June 2004. Twenty-six faculty members constituted the reference panel. During the following 10 months, 207 participants took the test online (124 urologists, 29 chief-residents, 38 residents, 16 students). No technical problem was encountered. Forty-five percent of the participants completed the test partially only. Differences between the means scores for the 4 groups were statistically significant (P = 0.0123). The Bonferroni post-hoc correction indicated that significant differences were present between students and chief-residents, between students and urologists. There were no differences between chief-residents and urologists. Reliability coefficient was 0.734 for the total group of participants. Conclusion Feasibility of Web-based SC test was proved successful by the large number of participants who participated in a few months. This Web site has permitted to quickly confirm reliability of the SC test and develop strategy to improve

  12. Study of Groundwater Circulation Using Stable Isotopes : the Example of the Punaruu Watershed (Tropical Oceanic Island of Tahiti, French Polynesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sichoix, L.; Hildenbrand, A.; Marlin, C.; Gillot, P. Y.; Pheulpin, L.; Barriot, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The increasing demand for drinking and industrial water, especially in the most populated areas of the tropical oceanic Island of Tahiti in French Polynesia (South central Pacific), makes it necessary to conduct hydrological and hydrogeological studies on water resources and management. Our investigation area represents the second largest watershed of Tahiti called Punaruu. The largest industrial zone of Tahiti occupies the minor low valley of this catchment and is particularly impacted by dredging of the stream and rock removals since several decades whereas the major high part is naturally well preserved. This study aims to identify the main infiltration areas of the aquifers of this industrial zone as well as the areas at low elevations to be protected from potential pollutions. During the period between May 2013 and July 2015, we have collected rainwater samples from five rain gauges located at elevations ranging from 0 to 1420 m. We have also performed water sampling from the main rivers and three springs up to altitudes of 800 m as well as six pumping boreholes in the industrial zone. Chemical (major elements) and stable isotopic (δ18O and δ2H) analyses have been done from all these water samples and help us to constrain a conceptual model of groundwater circulation within such a complex discontinuous volcanic structure.

  13. Acoustic-phonetics of coronal stops: A cross-language study of Canadian English and Canadian French

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundara, Megha

    2005-08-01

    The study was conducted to provide an acoustic description of coronal stops in Canadian English (CE) and Canadian French (CF). CE and CF stops differ in VOT and place of articulation. CE has a two-way voicing distinction (in syllable initial position) between simultaneous and aspirated release; coronal stops are articulated at alveolar place. CF, on the other hand, has a two-way voicing distinction between prevoiced and simultaneous release; coronal stops are articulated at dental place. Acoustic analyses of stop consonants produced by monolingual speakers of CE and of CF, for both VOT and alveolar/dental place of articulation, are reported. Results from the analysis of VOT replicate and confirm differences in phonetic implementation of VOT across the two languages. Analysis of coronal stops with respect to place differences indicates systematic differences across the two languages in relative burst intensity and measures of burst spectral shape, specifically mean frequency, standard deviation, and kurtosis. The majority of CE and CF talkers reliably and consistently produced tokens differing in the SD of burst frequency, a measure of the diffuseness of the burst. Results from the study are interpreted in the context of acoustic and articulatory data on coronal stops from several other languages.

  14. Superficial Fungal Infections in a French Teaching Hospital in Grenoble Area: Retrospective Study on 5470 Samples from 2001 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Faure-Cognet, O; Fricker-Hidalgo, H; Pelloux, H; Leccia, M T

    2016-02-01

    Superficial fungal infections are predominantly caused by dermatophytes, but the spectrum of species involved is depending on geographic areas and lifestyle. Only few studies have recently described the French epidemiology of these infections, especially dermatophytosis. To determine the epidemiological situation of superficial fungal infections and the spectrum of dermatophytes in Grenoble area. A retrospective study of mycological laboratory records from January 2001 to December 2011 was carried out among patients with suspected fungal infections in the Grenoble University Hospital. Samples (skin scrapings, nail clippings and hair specimens) were collected, and mycological analyses were carried out by conventional methods. A total of 5470 samples collected from 3740 patients were analysed. Among the 1984 (36.3 %) positive cultures, dermatophytes were identified in 1348/1984 (67.9 %) samples, non-dermatophytes in 636/1984 (32.1 %) samples (yeasts 24.4 %, moulds 7.7 %). Toenails and feet were the most frequent localizations collected (2032 samples, 37.1 %, 1181 samples, 21.5 %). These data show the predominance (more than 92.6 %) of anthropophilic dermatophytes (Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton interdigitale and Trichophyton tonsurans). Trichophyton rubrum was the most commonly (78.6 %) isolated dermatophyte. Among zoophilic dermatophytes, Trichophyton verrucosum and Microsporum persicolor were regularly isolated.

  15. Acoustic-phonetics of coronal stops: a cross-language study of Canadian English and Canadian French.

    PubMed

    Sundara, Megha

    2005-08-01

    The study was conducted to provide an acoustic description of coronal stops in Canadian English (CE) and Canadian French (CF). CE and CF stops differ in VOT and place of articulation. CE has a two-way voicing distinction (in syllable initial position) between simultaneous and aspirated release; coronal stops are articulated at alveolar place. CF, on the other hand, has a two-way voicing distinction between prevoiced and simultaneous release; coronal stops are articulated at dental place. Acoustic analyses of stop consonants produced by monolingual speakers of CE and of CF, for both VOT and alveolar/dental place of articulation, are reported. Results from the analysis of VOT replicate and confirm differences in phonetic implementation of VOT across the two languages. Analysis of coronal stops with respect to place differences indicates systematic differences across the two languages in relative burst intensity and measures of burst spectral shape, specifically mean frequency, standard deviation, and kurtosis. The majority of CE and CF talkers reliably and consistently produced tokens differing in the SD of burst frequency, a measure of the diffuseness of the burst. Results from the study are interpreted in the context of acoustic and articulatory data on coronal stops from several other languages.

  16. Distinguishing colonization from infection with Staphylococcus aureus in diabetic foot ulcers with miniaturized oligonucleotide arrays: a French multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Sotto, Albert; Richard, Jean-Louis; Messad, Nourredine; Molinari, Nicolas; Jourdan, Nathalie; Schuldiner, Sophie; Sultan, Ariane; Carrière, Christian; Canivet, Bertrand; Landraud, Luce; Lina, Gérard; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe

    2012-03-01

    To extend our previous work on evaluating the use of oligonucleotide arrays to discriminate colonization from infection owing to Staphylococcus aureus in diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). Patients admitted to 14 French diabetic foot departments for a DFU were screened for entry into the study. At admission, ulcers were classified based on clinical examination according to the Infectious Diseases Society of America system. Only patients with monomicrobial culture for S. aureus were included. In persons with an uninfected ulcer, a second wound bacterial specimen was obtained 1 month later. Using oligonucleotide arrays, S. aureus resistance and virulence genes were determined, and each isolate was affiliated to a clonal complex (CC). S. aureus was initially isolated from 75 uninfected and 120 infected ulcers; 35 were methicillin resistant. A total of 44 (59%) strains from uninfected DFUs belonged to CC5/CC8 clones vs. 6 (5%) from infected DFUs (P < 0.001). During follow-up, 57 (76%) of uninfected DFUs healed or had a favorable outcome; the strain in 49 (86%) of them belonged to CC5/CC8. Conversely, 18 (24%) had a poor outcome but not a single strain belonged to CC5/CC8 clone. Moreover, lukDE was significantly associated with a favorable outcome of the wound. As suggested by our previous study, the use of DNA arrays appears to be a promising technique that might help distinguishing uninfected from infected wounds, predicting ulcer outcome and then contributing to a more adequate use of antibiotics.

  17. Pregnancy outcomes in prenatally diagnosed 47, XXX and 47, XYY syndromes: a 30-year French, retrospective, multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Gruchy, Nicolas; Blondeel, Eleonore; Le Meur, Nathalie; Joly-Hélas, Géraldine; Chambon, Pascal; Till, Marianne; Herbaux, Martine; Vigouroux-Castera, Adeline; Coussement, Aurélie; Lespinasse, James; Amblard, Florence; Jimenez Pocquet, Mélanie; Lebel-Roy, Camille; Carré-Pigeon, Frédérique; Flori, Elisabeth; Mugneret, Francine; Jaillard, Sylvie; Yardin, Catherine; Harbuz, Radu; Collonge-Rame, Marie-Agnès; Vago, Philippe; Valduga, Mylène; Leporrier, Nathalie; Vialard, François

    2016-06-01

    Sex chromosome aneuploidies are frequently detected fortuitously in a prenatal diagnosis. Most cases of 47, XXX and 47, XYY syndromes are diagnosed in this context, and parents are thus faced with an unexpected situation. The objective of the present study was to characterize a French cohort of prenatally diagnosed cases of 47, XXX and 47, XYY and to evaluate the termination of pregnancy (TOP) rate before and after France's implementation of multidisciplinary centres for prenatal diagnosis in 1997. This retrospective study identified respectively 291 and 175 cases of prenatally diagnosed 47, XXX and 47, XYY between 1976 and 2012. For each case, the indication, maternal age, karyotype and outcome were recorded. Most diagnoses of the two conditions were fortuitous. The occurrence of 47, XXX was associated with advanced maternal age. The overall TOP rate was higher for 47, XXX (22.9%) than for 47, XYY (14.6%), although this difference was not statistically significant. However, the TOP rates fell significantly after 1997 (from 41.1% to 11.8% for 47, XXX and from 25.8% to 6.7% for 47, XYY). The TOP rates after prenatal diagnoses of 47, XXX and 47, XYY fell significantly after 1997, following France's implementation of multidisciplinary centres for prenatal diagnosis. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Reading Speed of Contracted French Braille

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laroche, Louise; Boule, Jacinthe; Wittich, Walter

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to address three hypotheses: (1) The reading speed of both readers of French braille and readers of French print will be faster in the silent condition; however, this gain in speed will be larger for print readers; (2) Individuals who acquired braille before age 10 will display faster reading speeds at lower error rates…

  19. Reading Speed of Contracted French Braille

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laroche, Louise; Boule, Jacinthe; Wittich, Walter

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to address three hypotheses: (1) The reading speed of both readers of French braille and readers of French print will be faster in the silent condition; however, this gain in speed will be larger for print readers; (2) Individuals who acquired braille before age 10 will display faster reading speeds at lower error rates…

  20. Left Dislocation in Near-Native French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the upper limits of SLA--specifically, mastery of the syntax-discourse interface in successful endstate learners of second-language (L2) French (near-native speakers). Left dislocation (LD) is a syntactic means of structuring spoken French discourse by marking topic. Its use requires speakers to coordinate…

  1. Left Dislocation in Near-Native French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the upper limits of SLA--specifically, mastery of the syntax-discourse interface in successful endstate learners of second-language (L2) French (near-native speakers). Left dislocation (LD) is a syntactic means of structuring spoken French discourse by marking topic. Its use requires speakers to coordinate…

  2. Old French for Undergraduates at the University of Minnesota, Morris.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, David E.

    Old French for undergraduates, as it is offered to students at the University of Minnesota, Morris, represents a break with tradition. A rationale for the program and course descriptions accentuate benefits accrued from undergraduate medieval studies. Syllabuses for French 80, The History of the Language; French 90, Directed Medieval Studies; and…

  3. Three Approaches to Teaching French: Evaluation and Overview of Studies Related to the Federally-Funded Extensions of the Second Language Learning (French) Programs in the Carleton and Ottawa School Boards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, H. H.; And Others

    In 1973-75, as a result of federal grants, the four major boards of education in Ontario experimented with different approaches to the teaching of French, and an evaluation of the experimental programs was also undertaken. The present report is an overview and evaluation of the entire research effort. Three approaches to French instruction have…

  4. FEMIC (Fibromes Embolises aux MICrospheres calibrees): Uterine Fibroid Embolization using Tris-acryl Microspheres. A French Multicenter Study

    SciTech Connect

    Joffre, Francis; Tubiana, Jean-Michel; Pelage, Jean-Pierre

    2004-11-15

    Purpose: A French multicenter registry was set up to confirm the safety and efficacy of large calibrated tris-acryl gelatin microspheres for embolization of symptomatic fibroids. Methods: Technical recommendations included embolization using large microspheres (>500 {mu}m) with no secondary embolization agent. Postprocedural pain, clinical improvement and adverse events were prospectively evaluated during a follow-up period of at least 6 months.Results: Eighty-five women complaining of fibroid-related symptoms entered the study. In seven women, a secondary embolization agent was used in addition to microspheres. Complete resolution of menorrhagia was achieved in 84% of women at 24 months and significant uterine and fibroid volume reductions were noted after 6 months (37% and 73%, respectively). Three women experienced definitive amenorrhea (4%) and two women required hysteroscopic resection of a fibroid. Eight women were treated by hysterectomy because of treatment failure. In seven of these women, treatment failure was explained by an additional cause of symptoms including diffuse adenomyosis, endometrial hyperplasia or ovarian artery supply to the fibroids.Conclusion: Limited uterine artery embolization using large microspheres has good clinical success rate with low postprocedural pain and complications. Women can expect excellent midterm results with a high level of symptom control and significant fibroid volume reduction. Confidence in the end-point recommended here may require the experience of several cases.

  5. Birth characteristics and childhood malignant central nervous sytem tumors: the ESCALE study (French Society for Childhood Cancer).

    PubMed

    Mallol-Mesnard, Nathalie; Menegaux, Florence; Lacour, Brigitte; Hartmann, Olivier; Frappaz, Didier; Doz, François; Bertozzi, Anne-Isabelle; Chastagner, Pascal; Hémon, Denis; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2008-01-01

    Determining the role of pre- and perinatal factors in the aetiology of childhood malignant central nervous (CNS) tumors, using data from the French national case-control study, ESCALE. ESCALE included all children in France less than 15 years old with a diagnosis of acute leukaemia, lymphoma, malignant CNS tumor, or neuroblastoma (2003-2004). In all, 209 malignant CNS tumor cases (80% of the eligible cases) and 1681 population-based controls (71%) were included using quotas ensuring frequency matching with the cases by age and gender. Case and control mothers were interviewed using a standardised telephone interview, which elicited birth characteristics, congenital malformation, maternal reproductive history, and use of assisted reproductive technologies for the index child. The cases and controls did not differ in terms of gestational age at birth, birth weight, birth order, breastfeeding, or parental age at birth. There was no association between assisted reproduction for the index child and malignant CNS tumor (OR=1.1 [0.6-2.2]). A positive association between a maternal history of one miscarriage and malignant CNS tumor was observed (OR=1.4 [1.0-2.0], p<0.05), especially for glial cell tumors (other glioma: OR=2.0 [1.1-3.6]). The results suggest a possible association between a maternal history of one miscarriage and the risk of malignant CNS tumor.

  6. Total counts, culturable and viable, and non-culturable microflora of a French mineral water: a case study.

    PubMed

    Defives, C; Guyard, S; Oularé, M M; Mary, P; Hornez, J P

    1999-06-01

    The changes in bacterial counts during the storage of a natural mineral water from a French spring were studied. Samples were taken from the spring and the bottling line. Viable cultivable (VC) bacteria were counted on R2A medium. Total counts, viable and dead bacteria were counted using the LIVE/DEAD Bac Light VIABILITY kit and epifluorescence microscopy. Viable but non-cultivable (VNC) bacteria were estimated by difference between viable and VC counts. Isolates were clustered by phenotype. The microflora in the spring water increased from < 10-3 x 10(5) bacteria ml-1 after 6 d in storage and then stabilized. Mechanical bottling increased the allochthonous bacteria in the water that stabilized at 10(5) bacteria ml-1. Maximal growth is controlled by the low concentration of nutrients in the mineral water and the lysis of dead cells. The allochthonous bacteria came from the aquifer and colonized the filling line. The changes in the VC and VNC populations showed that the bacteria used starvation-survival and entry into the VNC state to adapt to the bottling stress and the enclosed oligotrophic environment.

  7. Neural correlates of the perception of contrastive prosodic focus in French: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Dohen, Marion; Lœvenbruck, Hélène; Sato, Marc; Pichat, Cédric; Baciu, Monica

    2013-10-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study aimed at examining the cerebral regions involved in the auditory perception of prosodic focus using a natural focus detection task. Two conditions testing the processing of simple utterances in French were explored, narrow-focused versus broad-focused. Participants performed a correction detection task. The utterances in both conditions had exactly the same segmental, lexical, and syntactic contents, and only differed in their prosodic realization. The comparison between the two conditions therefore allowed us to examine processes strictly associated with prosodic focus processing. To assess the specific effect of pitch on hemispheric specialization, a parametric analysis was conducted using a parameter reflecting pitch variations specifically related to focus. The comparison between the two conditions reveals that brain regions recruited during the detection of contrastive prosodic focus can be described as a right-hemisphere dominant dual network consisting of (a) ventral regions which include the right posterosuperior temporal and bilateral middle temporal gyri and (b) dorsal regions including the bilateral inferior frontal, inferior parietal and left superior parietal gyri. Our results argue for a dual stream model of focus perception compatible with the asymmetric sampling in time hypothesis. They suggest that the detection of prosodic focus involves an interplay between the right and left hemispheres, in which the computation of slowly changing prosodic cues in the right hemisphere dynamically feeds an internal model concurrently used by the left hemisphere, which carries out computations over shorter temporal windows.

  8. Cognitive self-regulation and social functioning among French children: A longitudinal study from kindergarten to first grade.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Blandine; Guimard, Philippe; Florin, Agnès

    2017-03-01

    This study adds to the body of research examining the links between two components of cognitive self-regulation (inhibitory control and verbal working memory) and social functioning (social integration, social problem solving, and prosocial skills) and focuses on children's sex as a moderator of the association between cognitive self-regulation and social functioning. The participants (N = 131) were French schoolchildren followed from kindergarten (Mage = 68.36 months, SD = 3.33 months) through Grade 1. Using hierarchical regression analyses, three major findings were revealed: (1) inhibitory control was a better predictor than verbal working memory of prosocial skills assessed by peers using the sociometric technique as well as by teachers using questionnaires, after controlling for sex, mother's education, and verbal and non-verbal IQ; (2) the prosocial skills assessed by teachers in kindergarten contributed more to explaining the prosocial skills and peer acceptance assessed in Grade 1 than cognitive self-regulation; and (3) sex did not moderate the relationship between cognitive self-regulation and social functioning. These results suggest that developing strong cognitive self-regulation, especially inhibitory control and prosocial skills, in young children schooled in France could be beneficial for their social development. © 2017 The Institute of Psychology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Afro-Caribbean pemphigus: epidemiological data from a 5-year prospective study on the island of Guadeloupe (French West Indies).

    PubMed

    Cordel, Nadège; Maire, Cyril; le Gilbert, Daniè; Courville, Philippe; Tressières, Benoît

    2013-11-01

    There are no reported epidemiological data regarding autoimmune pemphigus in the Afro-Caribbean population. To present the epidemiology of autoimmune pemphigus on the island of Guadeloupe (French West Indies, 400,736 inhabitants, mostly black Caribbean of African European descent). Five-year prospective study. Inclusion of the incident cases when directly referred to the Dermatology Department or secondarily referred by their private practice dermatologist once identified by the computerized databases of the Guadeloupian pathology laboratories. World-population-standardized incidence was 6.96 (95% CI: 3.41-10.52) for pemphigus vulgaris and 3.75 (95% CI: 1.12-6.39) for pemphigus foliaceus. Patients usually live in the rural countryside, whereas 75% of the population of Guadeloupe Island live in an urban environment. We report a high incidence of autoimmune pemphigus in Guadeloupe, especially for the foliaceus type, and the existence of particular epidemiological features such as the rural countryside habitat. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  10. Impact of drug maintenance treatment on injection practices among French HIV-infected IDUs. The MANIF 2000 Study Group.

    PubMed

    Reynaud-Maurupt, C; Carrieri, M P; Gastaud, J A; Pradier, C; Obadia, Y; Moatti, J P

    2000-08-01

    Drug maintenance treatment (DMT) has only been recently introduced in France (methadone programmes in March 1995, buprenorphine prescriptions in ambulatory medicine in February 1996) in relation to risk reduction policies for HIV infection among intravenous drug users (IDUs). Impact of DMT was assessed in the period of inclusion (October 1995-December 1997) of a French cohort of patients HIV infected through intravenous drug use the MANIF 2000 study). Among the 429 patients, 48.2% were ex-IDUs, 20.3% were active users not in DMT and 31.5% were in DMT. A majority (73.3%) of patients in DMT had persisted in their injection behaviours and their social and psychological characteristics were similar to those of active users not in DMT. Among the 186 active IDUs, those in DMT were more likely to have injected cocaine (42.4%) and buprenorphine or methadone (21.3%) than those who were not (respectively 27.6% and 2.4%), and 23.6% declared direct needle-sharing behaviours during the prior six months. Among younger IDUs (< or = 33 years of age) (n = 100), needle-sharing was associated with polydrug use and cocaine injection but was not significantly reduced by participation in DMT. These results suggest the need for taking into account differences between type of HIV-infected drug users and developing appropriate multidrug maintenance treatment programmes, which may imply adaptations of current dosages of methadone and buprenorphine.

  11. Experimental study of rock erodibility - diagenetic grade relationship, application to the Annot sandstone, French-Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steer, P.; Cattin, R.; Gibert, B.; Labaume, P.; Loggia, D.; Soliva, R.; Taboada, A.; Jolivet, M.; Lavé, J.; Sizun, J.

    2009-12-01

    In the large scale studies of landscape evolution, rock erodibility is a key parameter which controls the capacity of a rock to be eroded under the action of erosive agents. This parameter is primary controlled by lithology. However it also integrates both microscopic and macroscopic parameters, as grain cohesion or fracture density. Despite its extensive use in erosion law for field or numerical studies, quantifying river bedrock erodibility is still an ongoing issue. Previous studies have highlighted the first order control of rock nature on bedrock erodibility. Here we rather investigate the effect of diagenetic grade using both laboratory measurements and erodibility data collected on the field with a Schmidt hammer. We consider Scmidt hammer measurements as a proxy for erodibility. Our approach is applied to the well-studied Annot sandstones localized in the southern part of the external French-Italian Alps. Due to thrust front propagation in the external Alpine domain, this Upper Eocene-Lower Oligocene foreland basin formation has been partly buried below allochthonous units during the Oligocene. Exhumed by thrusting during the late Miocene, this formation now exhibits a clear diagenetic gradient increasing from west to east. Taking advantage of availability of a wide petrographic and petrophysical data set, we study the spatial variation of the Annot sandstone erodibility to the estimated diagenetic grade. Our preliminary results reveal that erodibility is closely correlated to the diagenetic grade, with the external (western) part of the Annot sandstones exhibiting higher erodibility than the internal (eastern) part. At the scale of the outcrop, erodibility is characterized by a high variability which statistically does not correlate with density, elastic parameters, porosity or minerals content. We rather suggest that for equivalent diagenetic grade, erodibility is controlled by the density of fracturation.

  12. Negation in Near-Native French: Variation and Sociolinguistic Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how adult second language (L2) speakers of French with near-native proficiency realize verbal negation, a well-known sociolinguistic variable in contemporary spoken French. Data included 10 spontaneous informal conversations between near-native speakers of French and native speakers (NSs) closely acquainted with them.…

  13. On the Status of the Word in French Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochet, Bernard

    1977-01-01

    French linguists generally agree that the word in French has no phonetic or phonological status. This article examines this position and studies several vowel-consonant sequences, mute-"e" deletion and post-consonantal deletion and suggests that the role of French word-boundaries is more important than is generally acknowledged. (CHK)

  14. Teaching French to Franco-Americans: A Controversial Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickel, Raymond A.

    1965-01-01

    A study of bilingualism among third-generation Americans of French-Canadian extraction briefly examines their linguistic superiority in French over monolingual students and appraises the appropriate psychological approaches to teaching this special group. The article suggests that an "educated standard French" be presented as an alternative to…

  15. Negation in Near-Native French: Variation and Sociolinguistic Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how adult second language (L2) speakers of French with near-native proficiency realize verbal negation, a well-known sociolinguistic variable in contemporary spoken French. Data included 10 spontaneous informal conversations between near-native speakers of French and native speakers (NSs) closely acquainted with them.…

  16. Reevaluating the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromberg, Roland N.

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes previous interpretations concerning the French Revolution. Discusses several weaknesses of the Marxist views in light of recent philosophical and sociological thinking about social change. (RKM)

  17. Reevaluating the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromberg, Roland N.

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes previous interpretations concerning the French Revolution. Discusses several weaknesses of the Marxist views in light of recent philosophical and sociological thinking about social change. (RKM)

  18. French String Grammar. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Univ., NY. Linguistic String Project.

    This work reports on an initial study of the possibility of providing a suitable framework for the teaching of a foreign language grammar through string analysis, using French as the target language. Analysis of a string word list (word-class sequences) yields an overall view of the grammar. Details are furnished in a set of restrictions which…

  19. Could a short training intervention modify opinions about mental illness? A case study on French health professionals.

    PubMed

    Villani, Murielle; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane

    2017-04-08

    In France, negative views on schizophrenia are pervasive, even among health professionals. Prior research suggests that the level of prejudice is lower when the illness is described with the example of a specific individual. This finding highlights the importance of designing local, targeted destigmatization campaigns. The present study aims to evaluate the benefits of a short intervention offering contact with psychiatric services users on reducing the stigma about mentally ill people, among a sample of Health Administrators and Students. Data were collected before (Time 0) and after (Time 1) a short training intervention program proposed to a sample of 121 Health Services Administrators and Students. This four-day workshop explained the multiple causes of mental illness, the clinical implications of psychosis and various mental disorders, the subjective experience of mental illness and the legal evolutions of users' rights. The intervention was strongly based on live testimonies from users. Using a French version of the Attitudes to Mental Illness scale, we compared attitudes before and after the training intervention among 58 trainees having answered our questionnaire at Time 0 and Time 1. After the training, a significantly lower endorsement of stigmatizing statements compared to baseline was found in one third (9 out of 27) of the items. These results plead for further research about the potential benefits of initiatives like this short intervention program on significantly reducing stigmatizing attitudes towards mentally ill people among Health Administrators and Students. The present study highlights the importance of further studying the effect of targeted interventions that offer first hand contact with persons with mental illness.

  20. The activity of French Research Ethics Committees and characteristics of biomedical research protocols involving humans: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Decullier, Evelyne; Lhéritier, Véronique; Chapuis, François

    2005-01-01

    Background Clinical trials throughout the world must be evaluated by research ethics committees. No one has yet attempted to clearly quantify at the national level the activity of ethics committees and describe the characteristics of the protocols submitted. The objectives of this study were to describe 1) the workload and the activity of Research Ethics Committees in France, and 2) the characteristics of protocols approved on a nation-wide basis. Methods Retrospective cohort of 976 protocols approved by a representative sample of 25/48 of French Research Ethics Committees in 1994. Protocols characteristics (design, study size, investigator), number of revisions requested by the ethics committee before approval, time to approval and number of amendments after approval were collected for each protocol by trained research assistant using the committee's files and archives. Results Thirty-one percent of protocols were approved with no modifications requested in 16 days (95% CI: 14–17). The number of revisions requested by the committee, and amendments submitted by the investigator was on average respectively 39 (95% CI: 25–53) and 37 (95% CI: 27–46), per committee and per year. When revisions were requested, the main reasons were related to information to the patient (28%) and consent modalities (18%). Drugs were the object of research in 68% of the protocols examined. The majority of the research was national (80%) with a predominance of single-centre studies. Workload per protocol has been estimated at twelve and half hours on average for administrative support and at eleven and half hours for expertise. Conclusion The estimated workload justifies specific and independent administrative and financial support for Research Ethics Committees. PMID:16229743

  1. Switches to English during French Service Encounters: Relationships with L2 French Speakers' Willingness to Communicate and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaughton, Stephanie; McDonough, Kim

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated second language (L2) French speakers' service encounters in the multilingual setting of Montreal, specifically whether switches to English during French service encounters were related to L2 speakers' willingness to communicate or motivation. Over a two-week period, 17 French L2 speakers in Montreal submitted…

  2. The Impact of L2 Dialect on Learning French Vowels: Native English Speakers Learning Quebecois and European French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Wendy; Smith, Laura Catharine

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how a second language (L2) dialect affects how accurately the L2 is perceived and produced. Specifically, the study examined differences between the production and perception of French vowels /i/, /y/, and /u/ by learners of either Quebec French (QF) or European French (EF). These vowels differ across the two varieties, both…

  3. French Experience Before 1968. Case Studies on Innovation in Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grignon, C.; Passeron, J. C.

    This volume is the fourth in a series of case studies published by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. Chapter 1 discusses the aims of the study, including the concepts of innovation and change, the role of pilot experiments in the development of the university system, and the methods used for this critical analysis of…

  4. The Effects of Inventory on Vowel Perception in French and Spanish: An MEG Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacquard, Valentine; Walter, Mary Ann; Marantz, Alec

    2007-01-01

    Production studies have shown that speakers of languages with larger phoneme inventories expand their acoustic space relative to languages with smaller inventories [Bradlow, A. (1995). A comparative acoustic study of English and Spanish vowels. "Journal of the Acoustical Society of America," 97(3), 1916-1924; Jongman, A., Fourakis, M., & Sereno,…

  5. The Effects of Inventory on Vowel Perception in French and Spanish: An MEG Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacquard, Valentine; Walter, Mary Ann; Marantz, Alec

    2007-01-01

    Production studies have shown that speakers of languages with larger phoneme inventories expand their acoustic space relative to languages with smaller inventories [Bradlow, A. (1995). A comparative acoustic study of English and Spanish vowels. "Journal of the Acoustical Society of America," 97(3), 1916-1924; Jongman, A., Fourakis, M., & Sereno,…

  6. How French physicians manage with a future change in the primary vaccination of infants against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and poliomyelitis? A qualitative study with focus groups

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As in other European countries, the French vaccination schedule changes according to epidemiological and socio-economic situations. Further changes are planned for 2013, including the withdrawal of one dose for primary vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, polio, pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae. A partnership between the French Technical Vaccination Committee and the French Institute for Health and Medical Research designed a study to assess primary care physicians’ agreement about this modification. Methods Qualitative study with focus groups and semi-structured interviews in France. Four focus groups were conducted with physicians, supplemented by four individual interviews. Results The physicians of the survey had accepted the suggested vaccination schedule well. A few concerns had been underlined: fear of less follow-up care for infants resulting from the removal of one visit driven by the primary vaccination; fear of loss of vaccine efficacy; suspicion of the existence of financial arguments at the origin of this change; and adjustment to current vaccination schedule. Several suggestions were made: providing strong support from health authorities; developing stable and simple recommendations; providing effective tools for monitoring patient’s vaccination status. Conclusions Physicians’ opinions suggested a good acceptance of a possible change about primary vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, polio, pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae. Physicians’ suggestions resulted from this qualitative study on a new vaccination schedule. It showed how that their involvement was feasible for preparing the implementation of a new vaccination schedule. PMID:23782853

  7. Evolution of the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the French armed forces in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Christen, Jacques-Robert; Mura, Marie; Roudaut, Gwenaëlle; Drogoul, Anne-Sophie; Demar, Magalie; Briolant, Sébastien; Garnotel, Eric; Simon, Fabrice; Pommier De Santi, Vincent

    2016-07-01

    Two cross-sectional studies were performed 2 years apart in French military personnel deployed from France to French Guiana. In 2011, military medical centres in French Guiana reported 40 cases of intestinal parasitism in service members returning from illegal gold mining sites in the rainforest. In 2013, 48 out of 132 service members returning from French Guiana after a 4-month mission had eosinophilia and seven were infected with hookworm. A presumptive first-line treatment with albendazole could be the most pragmatic strategy.

  8. [Thyroid hormone levels and thyroid dysfunction of French adults participating in the SU.VI.MAX study].

    PubMed

    Valeix, P; Dos Santos, C; Castetbon, K; Bertrais, S; Cousty, C; Hercberg, S

    2004-12-01

    Abnormal thyroid function has important public health consequences. However, the various degrees of thyroid dysfunction remain unsettled. The SU.VI.MAX cohort provided a unique opportunity to conduct a cross-sectional study of abnormal thyroid function in a large representative population of 11256 men and women representing the geographic distribution of the French continental adult population. Thyroid status was measured, in fasting blood samples, at baseline in 1994-1995. Serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels (abnormal < 0.4 mU/l or > or =4.0 mU/l) and free thyroxine (fT4) were both performed in duplicate on the same sample. Subjects with previous or present thyroid diseases or who were taking thyroid hormones or antithyroid drugs (n=920) were excluded (8.1%). Thus, the final study group consisted of 10346 subjects, 4121 men aged 45-60 years (mean +/-SD) (51.8+/-4.7 yrs), 2641 women aged 35-44 years (40.6+/-2.8 yrs), and 3584 women aged 45-60 years (51.4+/-4.4 yrs). Median (2.5th and 97.5th percentiles) for TSH (mU/l) were 1.52 (0.20-4.54) for men, 1.78 (0.22-5.54) for women aged 35-44 years, and 1.96 (0.22-6.80) for women aged 45-60 years. The TSH distribution of women was shifted to the right compared with men. Arithmetic mean fT4 (+/-SD) was 10.7+/-1.7 ng/l (13.8 +/-2.2 pmol/l) for men and 10.9+/-1.8 ng/l (14.0+/-2.3 pmol/l) for women. The prevalence of abnormal TSH values in men, and in women (35-44 yrs and 45-60 yrs) were TSH<0.4 mU/l 7.0%, 5.3% and 4.4%; TSH 4.0-9.9 mU/l 4.0%, 7.2% and 11.1% and TSH > or =10.0 mU/l 0.2%, 0.4% and 0.7%, respectively. Geometric mean serum TSH and arithmetic mean serum fT4 concentrations showed significant overall inter-regional differences for men and women (p<0.0001). There was also an inter-regional difference in the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction for men (p=0.003), and for the older group of women (i.e. > or =45 yrs) (p=0.04) exclusively. Over the age of 45 years, the women: men ratio for unrecognized elevated TSH levels (> or

  9. Guillain-Barré Syndrome outbreak associated with Zika virus infection in French Polynesia: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Cao-Lormeau, V M; Blake, A; Mons, S; Lastere, S; Roche, C; Vanhomwegen, J; Dub, T; Baudouin, L; Teissier, A; Larre, P; Vial, A L; Decam, C; Choumet, V; Halstead, S K; Willison, H J; Musset, L; Manuguerra, J C; Despres, P; Fournier, E; Mallet, H P; Musso, D; Fontanet, A; Neil, J; Ghawché, F

    2016-04-09

    Between October, 2013, and April, 2014, French Polynesia experienced the largest Zika virus outbreak ever described at that time. During the same period, an increase in Guillain-Barré syndrome was reported, suggesting a possible association between Zika virus and Guillain-Barré syndrome. We aimed to assess the role of Zika virus and dengue virus infection in developing Guillain-Barré syndrome. In this case-control study, cases were patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome diagnosed at the Centre Hospitalier de Polynésie Française (Papeete, Tahiti, French Polynesia) during the outbreak period. Controls were age-matched, sex-matched, and residence-matched patients who presented at the hospital with a non-febrile illness (control group 1; n=98) and age-matched patients with acute Zika virus disease and no neurological symptoms (control group 2; n=70). Virological investigations included RT-PCR for Zika virus, and both microsphere immunofluorescent and seroneutralisation assays for Zika virus and dengue virus. Anti-glycolipid reactivity was studied in patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome using both ELISA and combinatorial microarrays. 42 patients were diagnosed with Guillain-Barré syndrome during the study period. 41 (98%) patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had anti-Zika virus IgM or IgG, and all (100%) had neutralising antibodies against Zika virus compared with 54 (56%) of 98 in control group 1 (p<0.0001). 39 (93%) patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had Zika virus IgM and 37 (88%) had experienced a transient illness in a median of 6 days (IQR 4-10) before the onset of neurological symptoms, suggesting recent Zika virus infection. Patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome had electrophysiological findings compatible with acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) type, and had rapid evolution of disease (median duration of the installation and plateau phases was 6 [IQR 4-9] and 4 days [3-10], respectively). 12 (29%) patients required respiratory assistance. No

  10. Scientific Productivity and Academic Promotion: A Study on French and Italian Physicists. NBER Working Paper No. 16341

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lissoni, Francesco; Mairesse, Jacques; Montobbio, Fabio; Pezzoni, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the determinants of scientific productivity (number of articles and journals' impact factor) for a panel of about 3600 French and Italian academic physicists active in 2004-05. Endogeneity problems concerning promotion and productivity are addressed by specifying a generalized Tobit model, in which a selection probit equation…

  11. The Argumentative Connective "Meme" in French: An Experimental Study in Eight- to Ten-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassano, Dominique; Champaud, Christian

    1989-01-01

    Examines how children understand the argumentative function of the French connective meme (even). Two completion tasks, related to the argumentative properties of the morpheme, were used: 1) to infer the conclusion of an "even" sentence, and 2) to infer the argument position. (34 references) (Author/CB)

  12. Inductive/Deductive Learning by Considering the Role of Gender--A Case Study of Iranian French-Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahmatian, Rouhollah; Zarekar, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    This article defines the objective of discovering the first preferred styles of Iranian learners of French as a Foreign Language (FFL) as regards inductive or deductive learning; and secondly, the difference between gender-based learning tendencies. Considering these points as target variables, the questionnaire developed by Felder and Silverman…

  13. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF FOUR SYSTEMS OF LANGUAGE LABORATORY EQUIPMENT IN TEACHING FRENCH PRONUNCIATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHOQUETTE, CHARLES A.; YOUNG, CLARENCE W.

    A SERIES OF SEVEN EXPERIMENTS TESTED THE RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF USING FOUR TYPES OF LANGUAGE LABORATORY EQUIPMENT FEATURING INACTIVATED OR ACTIVATED FEEDBACK (IF OR AF) OR LONG OR SHORT DELAY PLAYBACK (LD OR SD) IN LEARNING TO PRONOUNCE FRENCH. AFTER PRELIMINARY EXPERIMENTATION, THREE REPLICATION EXPERIMENTS WERE CONDUCTED WITH PAID JUNIOR…

  14. The Role of Form and Meaning in the Processing of Written Morphology: A Priming Study in French Developing Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quemart, Pauline; Casalis, Severine; Cole, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    Three visual priming experiments using three different prime durations (60 ms in Experiment 1, 250 ms in Experiment 2, and 800 ms in Experiment 3) were conducted to examine which properties of morphemes (form and/or meaning) drive developing readers' processing of written morphology. French third, fifth, and seventh graders and adults (the latter…

  15. Concurrent Models and Cross-Linguistic Analogies in the Study of Prepositional Stranding in French in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otheguy, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Prepositions can be found with and without adjacent complements in many forms of popular spoken French. The alternation appears in main clauses ("il veut pas payer pour ca [approximately] il veut pas payer pour" "he doesn't want to pay for [it]") and, though with a more restricted social and geographic distribution, in relative…

  16. The Argumentative Connective "Meme" in French: An Experimental Study in Eight- to Ten-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassano, Dominique; Champaud, Christian

    1989-01-01

    Examines how children understand the argumentative function of the French connective meme (even). Two completion tasks, related to the argumentative properties of the morpheme, were used: 1) to infer the conclusion of an "even" sentence, and 2) to infer the argument position. (34 references) (Author/CB)

  17. Computer Experiments in Transformational Grammar; French I. Department of Computer and Communication Sciences Natural Language Studies No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morin, Yves Ch.

    Described in this paper is the implementation of Querido's French grammar ("Grammaire I, Description transformationelle d'un sous-ensemble du Francais," 1969) on the computer system for transformational grammar at the University of Michigan (Friedman 1969). The purpose was to demonstrate the ease of transcribing a relative formal grammar into the…

  18. The French Version of the Autism-Spectrum Quotient in Adolescents: A Cross-Cultural Validation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonie, Sandrine; Kassai, Behrouz; Pirat, Elodie; Bain, Paul; Robinson, Janine; Gomot, Marie; Barthelemy, Catherine; Charvet, Dorothee; Rochet, Thierry; Tatou, Mohamed; Assouline, Brigitte; Cabrol, Stephane; Chabane, Nadia; Arnaud, Valerie; Faure, Patricia; Manificat, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    We assessed the accuracy of the French version of the "Autism Spectrum Quotient" ("AQ") in adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) compared to healthy controls and adolescents with psychiatric disorders (PDs). Three groups of adolescents, aged 11-18, were assessed: 116 with AS/HFA (93 with IQ…

  19. The Role of Form and Meaning in the Processing of Written Morphology: A Priming Study in French Developing Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quemart, Pauline; Casalis, Severine; Cole, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    Three visual priming experiments using three different prime durations (60 ms in Experiment 1, 250 ms in Experiment 2, and 800 ms in Experiment 3) were conducted to examine which properties of morphemes (form and/or meaning) drive developing readers' processing of written morphology. French third, fifth, and seventh graders and adults (the latter…

  20. Hemispheric Asymmetries Depend on the Phonetic Feature: A Dichotic Study of Place of Articulation and Voicing in French Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedoin, Nathalie; Ferragne, Emmanuel; Marsico, Egidio

    2010-01-01

    Dichotic listening experiments show a right-ear advantage (REA), reflecting a left-hemisphere (LH) dominance. However, we found a decrease in REA when the initial stop consonants of two simultaneous French CVC words differed in voicing rather than place of articulation (Experiment 1). This result suggests that the right hemisphere (RH) is more…

  1. Hemispheric Asymmetries Depend on the Phonetic Feature: A Dichotic Study of Place of Articulation and Voicing in French Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedoin, Nathalie; Ferragne, Emmanuel; Marsico, Egidio

    2010-01-01

    Dichotic listening experiments show a right-ear advantage (REA), reflecting a left-hemisphere (LH) dominance. However, we found a decrease in REA when the initial stop consonants of two simultaneous French CVC words differed in voicing rather than place of articulation (Experiment 1). This result suggests that the right hemisphere (RH) is more…

  2. Scientific Productivity and Academic Promotion: A Study on French and Italian Physicists. NBER Working Paper No. 16341

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lissoni, Francesco; Mairesse, Jacques; Montobbio, Fabio; Pezzoni, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the determinants of scientific productivity (number of articles and journals' impact factor) for a panel of about 3600 French and Italian academic physicists active in 2004-05. Endogeneity problems concerning promotion and productivity are addressed by specifying a generalized Tobit model, in which a selection probit equation…

  3. Assessment of schoolchildren's exposure to traffic-related air pollution in the French Six Cities Study using a dispersion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pénard-Morand, Céline; Schillinger, Charles; Armengaud, Alexandre; Debotte, Ginette; Chrétien, Eve; Pellier, Serge; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    The purpose of this work was to estimate exposure to traffic-related air pollution (TAP), of the 6683 schoolchildren included in a cross-sectional epidemiological study conducted in six French cities to determine the effects of urban air pollution (AP) on respiratory and allergic health. Annual mean concentrations of benzene, CO, NO 2, NO x, PM 10 and SO 2 were calculated, in front of the 108 schools attended by the children, by the validated STREET 5 software, which combines data on regional and local components of AP. STREET contains a database of emissions estimated by the IMPACT 2.0 software developed by ADEME-France and results of ambient concentrations modelled by the WinMISKAM 4.2 dispersion model. The input data required were background AP, traffic conditions (daily traffic density; average speed; percentage of gridlocks and proportion of each type of vehicle) and dispersion conditions (topography of the street segments modelled and meteorology). Emissions of air pollutants in front of the 108 schools were considerably scattered. Calculated concentrations (μg m -3) also varied considerably at: [1.0-5.1] for benzene, [303.8-988.1] for CO, [17.8-78.9] for NO 2, [23.3-195.2] for NO x, [10.0-52.0] for PM 10 and [2.4-16.4] for SO 2. About 64% (29%, respectively) of the schools had annual mean concentrations of NO 2 (PM 10, respectively) exceeding the European quality objectives (40 and 30 μg m -3, respectively). These exposure indicators, capable of identifying small area variations in AP contrary to surrogate measures usually used in epidemiology, will enable better studies on the impact of urban AP on health.

  4. Cardiac rehabilitation and 5-year mortality after acute coronary syndromes: The 2005 French FAST-MI study.

    PubMed

    Pouche, Marion; Ruidavets, Jean-Bernard; Ferrières, Jean; Iliou, Marie-Christine; Douard, Hervé; Lorgis, Luc; Carrié, Didier; Brunel, Philippe; Simon, Tabassome; Bataille, Vincent; Danchin, Nicolas

    2016-03-01

    Clinical studies have shown a beneficial effect of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) on mortality. To study the effect of CR prescription at discharge on 5-year mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Participants, from the 2005 French FAST-MI hospital registry, were 2894 survivors at discharge, divided according to AMI type: ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI; n=1523) and non-STEMI (NSTEMI; n=1371). The effect of CR prescription on mortality was analysed using a Cox proportional hazards model. At discharge, 22.1% of patients had a CR prescription. Patients referred to CR were younger (62.4 vs. 67.5years), were more frequently men and more had presented with STEMI (67.8% vs. 48.3%) than non-referred patients. Ninety-four (14.7%) deaths occurred among patients referred to CR and 585 (25.9%) among non-referred patients (P<0.001). After multivariable adjustment, the association between CR and mortality remained significant (hazard ratio [HR] 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.60-0.96). Analyses stratified by sex, age (<60 vs.≥60years) and AMI type showed that the inverse association was stronger in men (HR 0.64, 95% CI 0.48-0.87) than in women (HR 0.95, 95% CI 0.64-1.39), in younger (HR 0.34, 95% CI 0.15-0.77) than in older patients (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.65-1.07) and in NSTEMI (HR 0.63, 95% CI 0.46-0.88) than in STEMI (HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.69-1.40). After hospitalization for AMI, referral to CR remains a significant predictor of improved patient survival; some subgroups seem to gain greater benefit. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Feasibility and performance study for a space-borne 1645 nm OPO for French-German satellite mission MERLIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsen, Florian; Heinzig, Matthias; Livrozet, Marie J.; Löhring, Jens; Wüppen, Jochen; Büdenbender, Christian; Fix, Andreas; Jungbluth, Bernd; Hoffmann, Hans-Dieter

    2014-05-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental analysis of a pulsed 1645 nm optical parametric oscillator (OPO) to prove the feasibility of such a device for a spaceborne laser transmitter in an integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar system. The investigation is part of the French-German satellite mission MERLIN (Methane Remote Sensing Lidar Mission). As an effective greenhouse gas, methane plays an important role for the global climate. The architecture of the OPO is based on a conceptual design developed by DLR, consisting of two KTA crystals in a four-mirror-cavity. Using numerical simulations, we studied the performance of such a setup with KTP and investigated means to optimize the optical design by increasing the efficiency of the OPO and decreasing the fluence on the optical components. For the experimental testing of the OPO, we used the INNOSlab-based ESA pre-development model ATLAS as pump laser at 1064 nm. The OPO obtained 9.2 mJ pulse energy at 1645 nm from 31.5 mJ of the pump and a pump pulse duration of 42 ns. This corresponds to an optical/optical efficiency of 29%. After the pump pulse was reduced to 24 ns, a similar OPO performance could be obtained by adapting the pump beam radius. In recent experiments with optimized optical design the OPO obtained 12.5 mJ pulse energy at 1645 nm from 32.0 mJ of the pump, corresponding to an optical/optical efficiency of 39%. Two different methods were applied to study the laser damage thresholds of the optical elements used.

  6. Long-term effectiveness and safety of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (anakinra) in Schnitzler's syndrome: a French multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Néel, Antoine; Henry, Benoit; Barbarot, Sebastien; Masseau, Agathe; Perrin, François; Bernier, Claire; Kyndt, Xavier; Puechal, Xavier; Weiller, Pierre-Jean; Decaux, Olivier; Ninet, Jacques; Hot, Arnaud; Aouba, Achille; Astudillo, Leonardo; Berthelot, Jean-Marie; Bonnet, Fabrice; Brisseau, Jean-Marie; Cador, Bérangère; Closs-Prophette, Fabienne; Dejoie, Thomas; de Korwin, Jean-Dominique; Dhote, Robin; Fior, Renato; Grosbois, Bernard; Hachulla, Eric; Hatron, Pierre-Yves; Jardel, Henry; Launay, David; Lorleac'h, Adrien; Pottier, Pierre; Moulis, Guillaume; Serratrice, Jacques; Smail, Amar; Hamidou, Mohamed

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the long-term effectiveness and safety of IL1Ra in Schnitzler syndrome (SchS). Between 2010 and 2012, we performed a nationwide survey among French internal medicine departments to identify SchS patients. We retrospectively analyzed the long-term efficacy and safety of IL1Ra and the outcome of patients that did not receive this treatment. Forty-two patients were included in the study, 29 of whom received IL1Ra. The mean age at disease onset was 59.9years. Disease manifestations included urticaria (100%), fever (76%), bone/joint pain (86%), bone lesions (76%), anemia (67%), and weight loss (60%). The monoclonal gammopathy was overwhelmingly IgM kappa (83%). The mean follow-up was 9.5years (range: 1.6-35). Two patients developed Waldenström's macroglobulinemia and one developed AA amyloidosis. All of the 29 patients who received IL1Ra responded dramatically. After a median follow-up of 36months (range: 2-79), the effectiveness remained unchanged. All patients remained on anti-IL-1 therapy. Twenty-four patients (83%) went into complete remission and five (17%) into partial remission. Three patients experienced grade 3-4 neutropenia. Six patients developed severe infections. No lymphoproliferative diseases occurred while on IL1Ra. When last seen, all patients without anakinra had an active disease with variable impact on their quality of life. Their median corticosteroids dosage was 6mg/d (range: 5-25). IL1Ra is effective in SchS, with a sharp corticosteroid-sparing effect. Treatment failures should lead to reconsider the diagnosis. Long-term follow-up revealed no loss of effectiveness and a favorable tolerance profile. The long-term effects on the risk of hemopathy remain unknown.

  7. Observational Study of a French and Belgian Multicenter Cohort of 23 Patients Diagnosed in Adulthood With Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Durel, Cécile-Audrey; Aouba, Achille; Bienvenu, Boris; Deshayes, Samuel; Coppéré, Brigitte; Gombert, Bruno; Acquaviva-Bourdain, Cécile; Hachulla, Eric; Lecomte, Frédéric; Touitou, Isabelle; Ninet, Jacques; Philit, Jean-Baptiste; Messer, Laurent; Brouillard, Marc; Girard-Madoux, Marie-Hélène; Moutschen, Michel; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Hutin, Pascal; Duffau, Pierre; Trolliet, Pierre; Hatron, Pierre-Yves; Heudier, Philippe; Cevallos, Ramiro; Lequerré, Thierry; Brousse, Valentine; Lesire, Vincent; Audia, Sylvain; Maucort-Boulch, Delphine; Cuisset, Laurence; Hot, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and biological features of Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) in patients diagnosed in adulthood. This is a French and Belgian observational retrospective study from 2000 to 2014. To constitute the cohort, we cross-check the genetic and biochemical databases. The clinical, enzymatic, and genetic data were gathered from medical records. Twenty-three patients were analyzed. The mean age at diagnosis was 40 years, with a mean age at onset of symptoms of 3 years. All symptomatic patients had fever. Febrile attacks were mostly associated with arthralgia (90.9%); lymphadenopathy, abdominal pain, and skin lesions (86.4%); pharyngitis (63.6%); cough (59.1%); diarrhea, and hepatosplenomegaly (50.0%). Seven patients had psychiatric symptoms (31.8%). One patient developed recurrent seizures. Three patients experienced renal involvement (13.6%). Two patients had angiomyolipoma (9.1%). All but one tested patients had elevated serum immunoglobulin (Ig) D level. Twenty-one patients had genetic diagnosis; most of them were compound heterozygote (76.2%). p.Val377Ile was the most prevalent mutation. Structural articular damages and systemic AA amyloidosis were the 2 most serious complications. More than 65% of patients displayed decrease in severity and frequency of attacks with increasing age, but only 35% achieved remission. MKD diagnosed in adulthood shared clinical and genetic features with classical pediatric disease. An elevated IgD concentration is a good marker for MKD in adults. Despite a decrease of severity and frequency of attacks with age, only one-third of patients achieved spontaneous remission. PMID:26986117

  8. Social deprivation and stroke severity on admission: a French cohort study in Burgundy and the West Indies - Guyana region.

    PubMed

    Béjot, Y; Guilloteau, A; Joux, J; Lannuzel, A; Mimeau, E; Mislin-Tritsch, C; Fournel, I; Bonithon-Kopp, C

    2017-05-01

    Although there is growing and convincing evidence that socially deprived patients are at higher risk of stroke and worse outcomes, it remains controversial whether or not they suffer more severe stroke. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of social deprivation on initial clinical severity in patients with stroke. A total of 1536 consecutive patients with an acute first-ever stroke (both ischaemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage) were prospectively enrolled from six French study centers. Stroke severity on admission was measured by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score. Social deprivation was assessed at the individual level by the Evaluation de la Précarité et des Inégalités de santé dans les Centres d'Examen de Santé (EPICES) score, a validated multidimensional questionnaire, and several additional single socioeconomic indicators. Polytomous logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association between social deprivation and stroke severity. In univariate analysis, the EPICES score (P = 0.039) and level of education (P = 0.018) were the only two socioeconomic variables associated with stroke severity. Multivariate analysis of the association between EPICES and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores showed that more deprived patients presented a significantly higher risk of both mild and moderate/severe stroke (odds ratio for mild versus minor stroke, 1.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.84; odds ratio for moderate/severe versus minor stroke, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.92). A non-significant trend towards a higher risk of both mild and moderate/severe stroke in less educated patients was observed. Social deprivation was associated with a more severe clinical presentation in patients with stroke. These findings may contribute to the worse outcome after stroke in deprived patients, and underline the need for strategies to reduce social inequalities for stroke. © 2017 EAN.

  9. Comorbidities against Quality Control of VKA Therapy in Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation: A French National Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Rouaud, Agnes; Hanon, Olivier; Boureau, Anne-Sophie; Chapelet, Guillaume Gilles; de Decker, Laure

    2015-01-01

    Background Given the prevalence of non-valvular atrial fibrillation in the geriatric population, thromboembolic prevention by means of vitamin K antagonists (VKA) is one of the most frequent daily concerns of practitioners. The effectiveness and safety of treatment with VKA correlates directly with maximizing the time in therapeutic range, with an International Normalized Ratio (INR) of 2.0-3.0. The older population concentrates many of factors known to influence INR rate, particularly concomitant medications and concurrent medical conditions, also defined as comorbidities. Objective Determine whether a high burden on comorbidities, defined by a Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) of 3 or greater, is associated a lower quality of INR control. Study-Design Cross-sectional study. Settings French geriatric care units nationwide. Participants 2164 patients aged 80 and over and treated with vitamin K antagonists. Measurements Comorbidities were assessed using the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI). The recorded data included age, sex, falls, kidney failure, hemorrhagic event, VKA treatment duration, and the number and type of concomitant medications. Quality of INR control, defined as time in therapeutic range (TTR), was assessed using the Rosendaal method. Results 487 patients were identified the low-quality control of INR group. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, low-quality control of INR was independently associated with a CCI ≥3 (OR = 1.487; 95% CI [1.15; 1.91]). The other variables associated with low-quality control of INR were: hemorrhagic event (OR = 3.151; 95% CI [1.64; 6.07]), hospitalization (OR = 1.614, 95% CI [1.21; 2.14]). Conclusion An elevated CCI score (≥3) was associated with low-quality control of INR in elderly patients treated with VKA. Further research is needed to corroborate this finding. PMID:25789771

  10. Characteristics and management of outpatients with history of or current atrial fibrillation: the observational French EPHA study.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Ariel; Dallongeville, Jean; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle; Bouée, Stéphane; Le Heuzey, Jean-Yves

    2010-01-01

    Limited French data are available for the different clinical types (paroxysmal, persistent and permanent) of atrial fibrillation and their comorbidities (AF). To provide contemporary insights into the characteristics and management of outpatients with a history of or current AF in France. EPHA is a national, observational, cross-sectional, multicentre descriptive study with retrospective data collection relating to the management, treatment and hospitalization of patients with AF. One thousand three hundred and thirty-one patients (mean age: 74 +/- 11 years [55.7% > or =75 years]; 58.8% men) were included into the study between February 2009 and May 2009; their data were collected during the past 12 months. Of these, 38.2% had paroxysmal AF, 10.0% persistent AF and 51.8% permanent AF. Most patients had at least one cardiovascular risk factor (80.8%). Almost all patients (96.6%) had received an antiarrhythmic drug in the previous year, of which 59.6% received a rhythm control strategy (class I, class III) with or without rate control strategy (class II, class IV, digitalis) and 40.6% received a rate control strategy exclusively. Almost all (94.4%) patients were treated with an antithrombotic: 83.4% with a vitamin K antagonist and 21.9% with antiplatelet therapy. Almost one-fifth (18.4%) of patients had been hospitalized related to AF at least once in the previous year. Patients with paroxysmal and persistent AF were hospitalized more frequently (20.0% and 31.1%, respectively) than patients with permanent AF (14.8%). About half of the patients had paroxysmal or persistent AF. Four-fifths of AF patients had at least one cardiovascular risk factor. The use of antiarrhythmic and antithrombotic treatments was very high. The rhythm control strategy was preferred in patients with paroxysmal or persistent AF. Copyright 2010. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Outcomes of patients with Goodpasture syndrome: A nationwide cohort-based study from the French Society of Hemapheresis.

    PubMed

    Huart, Antoine; Josse, Anne-Gaëlle; Chauveau, Dominique; Korach, Jean-Michel; Heshmati, Farhad; Bauvin, Eric; Cointault, Olivier; Kamar, Nassim; Ribes, David; Pourrat, Jacques; Faguer, Stanislas

    2016-09-01

    The overall and renal outcomes of patients with Goodpasture syndrome (GS), a rare autoimmune disorder characterized by circulating anti-GBM antibodies and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and/or pulmonary hemorrhage, have mostly been reported in small-sized cohorts or by aggregating patients receiving a variety of therapies that include aggressive (i.e., combined plasma exchanges, corticosteroids, and cyclophosphamide) and less aggressive (i.e., either plasma exchanges or immunosuppressive drugs, or no treatment). To address the prognosis of GS patients with relatively homogeneous management including plasma exchanges, we conducted a multicenter retrospective study on GS patients included in the registry of the French Society of Hemapheresis. 122 patients were included (kidney alone (n = 28), lung alone (n = 5), or combined involvement (n = 89)). All 122 patients received plasma exchanges (median number of sessions: 13 [9-17]), either alone (n = 8) or associated with combined corticosteroids and oral or IV cyclophosphamide (n = 101) or with corticosteroids alone (n = 12) or cyclophosphamide alone (n = 2). One-year survival was 86.9%. 7/16 patients died from severe infection. In multivariate analyses (Cox's regression model), being aged <60 years, and number of plasma exchanges were correlated to overall survival. The use of alternative immunosuppressive drugs (because of refractory or relapsing GS) was correlated to mortality at one year. Superiority of oral cyclophosphamide compared to intravenous intake was close to significant. Using a logistic regression model, renal survival in patients alive at 1 year was only predicted by serum creatinine <500 μmol/L at presentation. This large series describes the predictive factors for overall and renal survival of GS patients treated by plasma exchanges. Interventional studies that compare oral and intravenous cyclophosphamide, as well as testing new immunosuppressive therapies, are warranted

  12. State of the art on forest and shallow landslide interactions illustrated by two studies in the French Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, F.; Dorren, L.; Lopez, J.; Allegra, C.

    2009-04-01

    landslide prevention and mitigation and due to the lack of scientific knowledge on the interaction between forest stands and landslide activities, there is a real need of research axis specifically devoted to the tree main effects cited before. The main objective of these thematically research axis should be an efficient integration of the effect of the forest vegetation in the modelling of shallow landslide dynamic. This presentation deals with the state of the art on forest and landslide interaction illustrated by two studies conducted in the French Alps. The first one attempts to reduce a gap in the scientific knowledge by quantifying the hazard of landslide occurrence considering vegetation effects, in the Combeloup forest on the French Alps, using a physically based spatial modelling approach. The second one present the added value of dendrogeomorphological analyse to evaluate the past activities of landslide terrain in relationship with the evolution of the forest cover.

  13. Balloon study, design and development at the French Space Agency (CNES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocquerez, Philippe; Casteras, Christophe; Dartiguelongue, Bernard; Facon, Ghislaine; Letrenne, Gérard; Tockert, Christian

    2001-08-01

    The CNES Balloon Division activity covers all aspects, from aerostatic systems study, development and production to launch bases and operations. This activity is conducted according to the following organisation: - management in Toulouse Space Centre - gondola department for study, development and procurement of flight trains and gondolas, in Toulouse. It benefits from the technical capabilities and competencies of the Toulouse Space Centre - balloon vehicle department, development and procurement of aerostatic vehicles in Toulouse, balloon manufacturing plant on permanent subcontractor premises (Zodiac International, at Ayguesvives near Toulouse) and dedicated balloon material test laboratory on permanent subcontractor premises (ONERA-DESP in Toulouse); - operations department, home-based in Aire sur l'Adour, with two launch bases (Aire sur l'Adour and Gapp), and mobile balloon launch systems for operations abroad. This paper presents the main activities and recent achievements in the field of aerostatic vehicles study and developments.

  14. Does adoption of electronic health records improve organizational performances of hospital surgical units? Results from the French e-SI (PREPS-SIPS) study.

    PubMed

    Plantier, Morgane; Havet, Nathalie; Durand, Thierry; Caquot, Nicolas; Amaz, Camille; Philip, Irène; Biron, Pierre; Perrier, Lionel

    2017-02-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) are increasingly being adopted by healthcare systems worldwide. In France, the "Hôpital numérique 2012-2017" program was implemented as part of a strategic plan to modernize health information technology (HIT), including promotion of widespread EHR use. With significant upfront investment costs as well as ongoing operational expenses, it is important to assess this system in terms of its ability to result in improvements in hospital performances. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of EHR use on the organizational performances of acute care hospital surgical units throughout France. This retrospective study was based on data derived from three national databases for year the 2012: IPAQSS (Indicators of improvement in the quality and the management of healthcare, "IPAQSS"), Hospi-Diag (French hospital performance indicators), and the national accreditation database. National data and methodological support were provided by the French Ministry of Health (DGOS) and the French National Authority for Health (HAS). Multivariate linear models were used to assess four organizational performance indicators: the occupancy rate of surgical inpatient beds, operating room utilization, the activity per surgeon, and the activity per both nurse anesthetist and anesthesiologist which were dependent variables. Several independent variables were taken into account, including the degree of EHR use. The models revealed a significant positive impact of EHR use on operating room utilization and bed occupancy rates for surgical inpatient units. No significant association was found between the activity per surgeon or the activity per nurse anesthetist and anesthesiologist with EHR use. All four organizational performance indicators were impacted by the type of hospital, the geographical region, and the severity of the pathologies. We were able to verify the purported potential benefits of EHR use on the organizational performances of surgical

  15. Early Perception of Written Syllables in French: An Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doignon-Camus, Nadege; Bonnefond, Anne; Touzalin-Chretien, Pascale; Dufour, Andre

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined whether written syllable units are perceived in first steps of letter string processing. An illusory conjunction experiment was conducted while event-related potentials were recorded. Colored pseudowords were presented such that there was a match or mismatch between the syllable boundaries and the color boundaries. The…

  16. Evaluating Evidence from a Historical Chemical Controversy: A Study in a French High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archila, Pablo Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the importance of evaluating evidence for enriching critical thinking in the chemistry classroom. The purpose of the study was to examine the usefulness of a historical chemical controversy in promoting students' assessment of evidence. The investigation was conducted in a high school in Melun, France. 63 participants (24…

  17. English-French Bilingual Education: The Elgin Study through Grade Five

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barik, Henri C.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Presents the results of the 1974-75 evaluation of the bilingual education program initiated in 1970 by the Elgin County Board of Education in St. Thomas, Ontario. The study covers grades 2 to 5 and is a follow-up to previous evaluations. (Author/CFM)

  18. Evaluating Evidence from a Historical Chemical Controversy: A Study in a French High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archila, Pablo Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the importance of evaluating evidence for enriching critical thinking in the chemistry classroom. The purpose of the study was to examine the usefulness of a historical chemical controversy in promoting students' assessment of evidence. The investigation was conducted in a high school in Melun, France. 63 participants (24…

  19. Health Workforce Development: A Needs Assessment Study in French Speaking African Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chastonay, Philippe; Moretti, Roberto; Zesiger, Veronique; Cremaschini, Marco; Bailey, Rebecca; Pariyo, George; Kabengele, Emmanuel Mpinga

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, WHO alerted the world to a global health workforce crisis, demonstrated through critical shortages of health workers, primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa (WHO in World Health Report, 2006). The objective of our study was to assess, in a participative way, the educational needs for public health and health workforce development among potential…

  20. Early Perception of Written Syllables in French: An Event-Related Potential Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doignon-Camus, Nadege; Bonnefond, Anne; Touzalin-Chretien, Pascale; Dufour, Andre

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined whether written syllable units are perceived in first steps of letter string processing. An illusory conjunction experiment was conducted while event-related potentials were recorded. Colored pseudowords were presented such that there was a match or mismatch between the syllable boundaries and the color boundaries. The…

  1. Health Workforce Development: A Needs Assessment Study in French Speaking African Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chastonay, Philippe; Moretti, Roberto; Zesiger, Veronique; Cremaschini, Marco; Bailey, Rebecca; Pariyo, George; Kabengele, Emmanuel Mpinga

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, WHO alerted the world to a global health workforce crisis, demonstrated through critical shortages of health workers, primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa (WHO in World Health Report, 2006). The objective of our study was to assess, in a participative way, the educational needs for public health and health workforce development among potential…

  2. [Fibrinogen and pentoxifylline. Results of a French cooperative exploratory study of stage II arteritis].

    PubMed

    Soria, J; Lancrenon, S; Chassoux, G

    1989-01-01

    A collaborative exploratory study was undertaken by 139 private angiologists in 427 out-patients with PVD stage II treated for 90 days with Pentoxifylline 1 200 mg per day. In 306 patients (71,6%) the fibrinogen level was decreased by 0,21 g/l in mean (p less than 0.01). This significant decrease is correlated to the global improvement (p less than 0.01) and is within the magnitude of difference that is associated between vascular death and comparative groups in recent epidemiologic studies. In 121 patients (28, 4%) of the non responders in whom the claudication was not improved or was even worsened, no change in the fibrinogen level was seen.

  3. Qualitative approach to patient-reported outcomes in oncology: protocol of a French study.

    PubMed

    Orri, Massimiliano; Sibeoni, Jordan; Labey, Mathilde; Bousquet, Guilhem; Verneuil, Laurence; Revah-Levy, Anne

    2015-07-10

    The past decade has been characterised by movement from a doctor-centred to a patient-centred approach to treatment outcomes, in which doctors try to see the illness through their patients' eyes. Patients, family members and doctors are the three participants in cancer care, but their perspectives about what have been helpful during cancer treatment have never simultaneously and explicitly compared in the same qualitative study. The aim of this study project is to explore patients' perspectives about the care they receive, as well as families' and doctors' perspectives about what have been helpful for the patient. These three points of view will be compared and contrasted in order to analyse the convergences and divergences in these perspectives. This is a national multicentre qualitative study. Participants will be constituted by three different subsamples: (1) patients with cancer (skin, breast, urological and lung cancers), (2) their relatives, and (3) their referring physicians. Recruitment will follow the purposive sample technique, and the final sample size will be determined by data saturation. Data will be collected through open-ended semistructured interviews and independently analysed with NVivo V.10 software by three researchers according to the principles of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. The research protocol received approval from the University Paris Descartes review board (IRB number: 20140600001072), and participants will provide written consent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to focus on the simultaneous exploration of the separate points of view of patients, families and doctors about the care received during the cancer care journey. We expect that our findings will help to improve communication and relationships between doctors, patients and families. Comparison of these three points of view will provide information about the convergences and divergences of these perspectives and how to address the needs of all

  4. Qualitative approach to patient-reported outcomes in oncology: protocol of a French study

    PubMed Central

    Orri, Massimiliano; Sibeoni, Jordan; Labey, Mathilde; Bousquet, Guilhem; Verneuil, Laurence; Revah-Levy, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The past decade has been characterised by movement from a doctor-centred to a patient-centred approach to treatment outcomes, in which doctors try to see the illness through their patients’ eyes. Patients, family members and doctors are the three participants in cancer care, but their perspectives about what have been helpful during cancer treatment have never simultaneously and explicitly compared in the same qualitative study. The aim of this study project is to explore patients’ perspectives about the care they receive, as well as families’ and doctors’ perspectives about what have been helpful for the patient. These three points of view will be compared and contrasted in order to analyse the convergences and divergences in these perspectives. Methods and analysis This is a national multicentre qualitative study. Participants will be constituted by three different subsamples: (1) patients with cancer (skin, breast, urological and lung cancers), (2) their relatives, and (3) their referring physicians. Recruitment will follow the purposive sample technique, and the final sample size will be determined by data saturation. Data will be collected through open-ended semistructured interviews and independently analysed with NVivo V.10 software by three researchers according to the principles of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Ethics and dissemination The research protocol received approval from the University Paris Descartes review board (IRB number: 20140600001072), and participants will provide written consent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to focus on the simultaneous exploration of the separate points of view of patients, families and doctors about the care received during the cancer care journey. We expect that our findings will help to improve communication and relationships between doctors, patients and families. Comparison of these three points of view will provide information about the convergences and

  5. Video Games, Internet and Social Networks: A Study among French School students

    PubMed

    Dany, Lionel; Moreau, Laure; Guillet, Clémentine; Franchina, Carmelo

    2016-11-25

    Aim : Screen-based media use is gradually becoming a public health issue, especially among young people.Method : A local descriptive observational study was conducted in 11 colleges of the Bouches-du-Rhône department. All middle high school students were asked to fill in a questionnaire comprising questions about their demographic characteristics, their screen-based media use (Internet, video games, social networks), any problematic use (video games and social networks), self-esteem and quality of life.Results : A total of 950 college students (mean age : 12.96 years) participated in the research. The results show a high level and a very diverse screen-based media use. Boys more frequently played video games and girls go more frequently used social networks. The levels of problematic use were relatively low for all middle high school students. The level of problematic video game use was significantly higher in boys, and the level of problematic social network use was higher in girls.Conclusion : Differences in the use of video games or social networks raise the general issue of gender differences in society. This study indicates the need for more specific preventive interventions for screen-based media use. The addictive “nature” of certain practices needs to be studied in more detail.

  6. [The commitment of French general practitioners to vaccination: the DIVA study (Determinants of Vaccination Intentions)].

    PubMed

    Martinez, Luc; Tugaut, Béatrice; Raineri, François; Arnould, Benoit; Seyler, Didier; Arnould, Pascale; Benmedjahed, Khadra; Coindard, Guillaume; Denis, François; Gallais, Jean-Luc; Duhot, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Vaccination is an effective way to reduce morbidity and mortality related to infectious diseases. In France, primary care physicians are the main administrators of vaccines. Our objective was to conduct an exploratory qualitative study with primary care physicians to identify determinants of their commitment to vaccination. A qualitative research study was conducted with 36 primary care physicians from different geographical regions in France. Six focus group discussions, following a semi-structured interview guide, were held. Qualitative analysis based on coding of the transcribed discussions was performed to identify the factors influencing primary care physicians’ attitudes toward vaccination. These factors were then organized into themes. Saturation was also evaluated. Diphtheria, tetanus, poliomyelitis, measles, mumps, rubella, hepatitis B, tuberculosis, pneumococcal infections, meningococcus, human papillomavirus, rotavirus, pertussis, varicella and flu vaccinations were all discussed in each focus group. Saturation was reached from the fourth focus group. Forty identified determinants were divided into six themes: vaccine characteristics, disease characteristics, primary care physicians’ past experience, practical aspects, expected benefits and primary care physician-patient relationship. This study identified the behavioural and organizational determinants influencing primary care physicians’ attitudes toward vaccination. These attitudes and determinants varied according to diseases and vaccines. The identified determinants and themes were used as a basis for the development of a questionnaire evaluating the Determinant of Vaccination Intentions (DIVA) of primary care physicians.

  7. The French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltimore City Public Schools, MD.

    This outline on the French Revolution is designed to illustrate how this period of French history influenced various aspects of contemporary culture. Four main sections are treated: (1) ideas that led to the Revolution, (2) the reigns of the Bourbon kings, (3) the Revolution, and (4) the rise of Napoleon as a reaction to chaos. A list of 16mm…

  8. Skiing in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Paulette

    1984-01-01

    A high school French program conducted entirely in French on local ski slopes is based on the philosophy that language is a social tool for communicative purposes and can best be learned in social interaction. The successful program uses teamwork, an open attitude toward language learning, non-stressful evaluation, and innovative techniques. (MSE)

  9. French in Quebec.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Anglejan, Alison

    1979-01-01

    Discusses language legislation in Canada where French and English are both official languages, and in Quebec province where French has been declared the sole official language. Outlines the conflicts and the impact of these differing laws on Quebec, its population, and its relations with the rest of Canada. (JMF)

  10. Demythifying French Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, William H.

    1984-01-01

    Focuses on several myths and fallacies prevalent in the field of French grammar. The importance of keeping up-to-date with language and grammatical usage is stressed, since the rules of language do change. Thus, the validity of the linguistic content of French grammar books must be questioned, so that any outmoded or invalid concepts can be…

  11. French Phonology. Programmed Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Robert

    This self-instructional course is designed to help students in attaining a high degree of competence in French pronunciation and a basic knowledge of how French sounds correspond to the writing system. The material is divided into ten chapters. Each chapter has three parts. Part One is the presentation of a short dialogue for memorization. It…

  12. Illustrated French Idioms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsa, Serge M.

    Designed to promote an awareness of the everyday French language, this supplementary textbook was developed to enable students of French to use idiomatic expressions from the early learning stages to the more advanced levels. The units are arranged as follows according to the verb component of the expression: "avoir,""etre,""faire," the three…

  13. Feasibility and performance study for a space-borne 1645nm OPO for French-German satellite mission MERLIN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livrozet, Marie J.; Elsen, Florian; Wüppen, Jochen; Löhring, Jens; Büdenbender, Christian; Fix, Andreas; Jungbluth, Bernd; Hoffmann, Dieter

    2014-02-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental analysis of a pulsed 1645 nm optical parametric oscillator (OPO) conducted to prove the feasibility of such a device for a spaceborne laser transmitter in an integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar system. The investigation is part of the French-German satellite mission MERLIN (Methane Remote Sensing Lidar Mission). As an effective greenhouse gas, methane plays an important role for the global climate. The architecture of the OPO is based on a conceptual design developed by DLR, consisting of two KTA crystals in a four-mirror-cavity. One of the cavity mirrors is piezo-driven to provide single frequency operation of the OPO. Using numerical simulations, we studied the performance and alignment tolerances of such a setup with KTP and KTA and investigated means to optimize the optical design by increasing the efficiency and decreasing the fluence on the optical components. For the experimental testing of the OPO, we used the INNOSlab-based ESA pre-development model ATLAS as pump laser at 1064 nm. At a pulse frequency of 25 Hz this MOPA delivers a pump energy up to 45 mJ with a beam quality factor of about M² = 1.3. With KTP as nonlinear crystal the OPO obtained 9.2 mJ pulse energy at 1645 nm from 31.5 mJ of the pump and a pump pulse duration of 42 ns. This corresponds to an optical/optical efficiency of 29%. After the pump pulse was reduced to 24 ns a similar OPO performance could be obtained by adapting the pump beam radius.

  14. Severe traumatic brain injury, frontal lesions, and social aspects of language use: a study of French-speaking adults.

    PubMed

    Dardier, Virginie; Bernicot, Josie; Delanoë, Anaïg; Vanberten, Mélanie; Fayada, Catherine; Chevignard, Mathilde; Delaye, Corinne; Laurent-Vannier, Anne; Dubois, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the social (pragmatic) aspects of language use by French-speaking individuals with frontal lesions following a severe traumatic brain injury. Eleven participants with traumatic brain injury performed tasks in three areas of communication: production (interview situation), comprehension (direct requests, conventional indirect requests, and hints), and metapragmatic knowledge. The results of the patients pointed out some strengths (turn-taking in production, and request comprehension, including hints and the speaker's intention) and some weaknesses (topic maintenance in production and metapragmatic knowledge). The patients' good comprehension of requests and their difficulty expressing metapragmatic knowledge suggest that they differ from controls in how they "explain the world": their knowledge of the event sequence was not based on verbally expressible knowledge about the relationship between the structural characteristics of a request utterance and those of its social production context. The pragmatic skills of persons with traumatic brain injury seem to vary across tasks: these individuals have specific strengths and weaknesses in different domains. In addition, marked interindividual differences were noted among the patients: three of them had only one weak point, topic maintenance. These interindividual differences were not systematically linked to performance on executive function tests, but lesion unilaterality (right or left) seems to help preserve patients' pragmatic and metapragmatic skills. The discussion stresses the need to take each patient's strengths and weaknesses into account in designing remediation programs. As a result of this activity, the reader will be able to explain the social/pragmatic aspects of language in typical and atypical participants with TBI. As a result of this activity, the reader will be able to identify social/pragmatic weaknesses and strengths. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc

  15. Pesticide residues intake of French adults under increased consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables--a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Barnat, Saida; Boisset, Michel; Casse, Francine; Catteau, Michel; Lecerf, Jean-Michel; Veschambre, Daniel; Periquet, Alain

    2010-02-01

    The increase of fresh vegetable and fruit (FVF) intake could contribute to the prevention of obesity and several major pathologies and thus represents a major public health goal in industrial countries. Nutritional recommendations for increased consumption of FVF could lead to ingestion of unwanted amounts of pesticides. This study was undertaken to evaluate theoretical exposure of French adults to pesticide residues under increasing amounts of FVF intake. Balanced menus with 200 - 400 - 600 - 800 and 1200 g FVF/day were established. Amounts of active substances brought by every FVF vector, at the maximum residue level (MRL) were summed up to determine the intake for each active substance. Values were compared to the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) to point out any potential over exposure. A maximalistic approach was adopted and no reducing factor due to processing was taken into account. It was found that under minimal recommended consumption of fruit and vegetables (400 g/d), no active substance reached the ADI, but 18 vs 144 were over 10% of the ADI. Raising FVF to 600 g/d increased the number of active substances over 10 % of the ADI to 24, but again in no case was the ADI exceeded. Doubling the intake to 800 g/d gives values over the ADI for 2 active substances only (cyhexatin and thirame). It was concluded that the increase in fruit and vegetables up to 800 g per day should not expose adults over the ADIs for a majority of authorized pesticides. In this regard, residues levels of ten active substances in fruit and vegetables should deserve particular attention.

  16. Brachytherapy versus prostatectomy in localized prostate cancer: Results of a French multicenter prospective medico-economic study

    SciTech Connect

    Buron, Catherine; Le Vu, Beatrice; Cosset, Jean-Marc; Peiffert, Didier; Delannes, Martine; Flam, Thierry; Guerif, Stephane; Salem, Naji; Chauveinc, Laurent; Livartowski, Alain . E-mail: alain.livartowski@curie.net

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To prospectively compare health-related quality of life (HRQOL), patient-reported treatment-related symptoms, and costs of iodine-125 permanent implant interstitial brachytherapy (IB) with those of radical prostatectomy (RP) during the first 2 years after these treatments for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 435 men with localized low-risk prostate cancer, from 11 French hospitals, treated with IB (308) or RP (127), were offered to complete the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer core Quality of Life Questionnaire QLQ-C30 version 3 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the prostate cancer specific EORTC QLQ-PR25 module before and at the end of treatment, 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after treatment. Repeated measures analysis of variance and analysis of covariance were conducted on HRQOL changes. Comparative cost analysis covered initial treatment, hospital follow-up, outpatient and production loss costs. Results: Just after treatment, the decrease of global HRQOL was less pronounced in the IB than in the RP group, with a 13.5 points difference (p < 0.0001). A difference slightly in favor of RP was observed 6 months after treatment (-7.5 points, p = 0.0164) and was maintained at 24 months (-8.2 points, p = 0.0379). Impotence and urinary incontinence were more pronounced after RP, whereas urinary frequency, urgency, and urination pain were more frequent after IB. Mean societal costs did not differ between IB ( Euro 8,019 at T24) and RP ( Euro 8,715 at T24, p = 0.0843) regardless of the period. Conclusions: This study suggests a similar cost profile in France for IB and RP but with different HRQOL and side effect profiles. Those findings may be used to tailor localized prostate cancer treatments to suit individual patients' needs.

  17. Drug safety of rosiglitazone and pioglitazone in France: a study using the French PharmacoVigilance database

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), rosiglitazone (RGZ) and pioglitazone (PGZ) are widely used as hypoglycemic drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of our study was to investigate the profile of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) related to TZDs and to investigate potential risk factors of these ADRs. Methods Type 2 diabetic patients were identified from the French Database of PharmacoVigilance (FPVD) between 2002 and 2006. We investigated ADR related to TZD, focusing on 4 ADR: edema, heart failure, myocardial infarction and hepatitis corresponding to specific WHO-ART terms. Results Among a total of 99,284 adult patients in the FPVD, 2295 reports concerned type 2 diabetic patients (2.3% of the whole database), with 161 (7%) exposed to TZDs. The frequency of edema and cardiac failure was significantly higher with TZDs than in other patients (18% and 7.4% versus 0.8% and 0.1% respectively, p < 0.001) whereas the frequency of hepatitis was similar (5.9% versus 4%, NS). A multiple logistic regression model taking into account potential confounding factors (age, gender, drug exposure and co-morbidities) found that TZD exposure remained associated with heart failure and edema, but not with hepatitis or myocardial infarction. Conclusions Thiazolidinediones exposure is associated with an increased risk of edema and heart failure in patients with type 2 diabetes even when recommendations for use are respected. In contrast, the risk of hepatic reactions and myocardial infarction with this class of drugs seems to be similar to other hypoglycemic agents. PMID:21609444

  18. Carbohydrate intake, glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in a prospective study of French women.

    PubMed

    Lajous, Martin; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fabre, Alban; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Romieu, Isabelle

    2008-05-01

    Diets high in carbohydrates may result in chronically elevated insulin concentrations and may affect breast cancer risk by stimulation of insulin receptors or through insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I)-mediated mitogenesis. Insulin response to carbohydrate intake is increased in insulin-resistant states such as obesity. We sought to evaluate carbohydrate intake, glycemic index (GI), and glycemic load (GL) and subsequent overall and hormone-receptor-defined breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women. A prospective cohort analysis of dietary carbohydrate and fiber intakes was conducted among 62 739 postmenopausal women from the E3N French study who had completed a validated dietary history questionnaire in 1993. During a 9-y period, 1812 cases of pathology-confirmed breast cancer were documented through follow-up questionnaires. Nutrients were categorized into quartiles and energy-adjusted with the regression-residual method. Cox model-derived relative risks (RRs) were adjusted for known determinants in breast cancer. Dietary carbohydrate and fiber intakes were not associated with overall breast cancer risk. Among overweight women, we observed an association between GI and breast cancer (RR(Q1-Q4): 1.35; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.82; P for trend = 0.04). For women in the highest category of waist circumference, the RR(Q1-Q4) was 1.28 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.67; P for trend = 0.10) for carbohydrates, 1.35 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.75; P for trend = 0.01) for GI, and 1.37 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.77; P for trend = 0.003) for GL. We also observed a direct association between carbohydrate intake, GL, and estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer risk. Rapidly absorbed carbohydrates are associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk among overweight women and women with large waist circumference. Carbohydrate intake may also be associated with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer.

  19. Aerosol Study over the Gulf of Guinea Region during DACCIWA Using a Mini Lidar onboard the French Aircraft ATR42

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, X.; Chazette, P.; Flamant, C.; Totems, J.; Denjean, C.; Meynadier, R.; Perrin, T.; Laurens, M.

    2016-12-01

    The EU-funded project DACCIWA (Dynamics-Aerosol-Chemistry-Cloud Interactions in West Africa) aims to investigate the relationship between weather, climate and air pollution in southern West Africa. As part of this campaign, three research aircraft based in Lomé (Togo) flew targeted missions over West Africa from 27 June to 16 July 2016. In this area aerosols, having a mixing of natural and anthropogenic sources, exert an important influence on the local weather and climate, mainly due to the aerosol-cloud interactions. A mini backscattered lidar system onboard one research aircraft (the French aircraft ATR42) performed aerosols measurements over the Gulf of Guinea region. The main objective was to study aerosol properties in different chemical landscapes: from the background state over the Gulf of Guinea (marine aerosols or mix between marine aerosols and biomass burning aerosols) to ship/flaring emissions to the coastal strip of polluted megacities to the agricultural areas and forest areas further north, and eventually dust from Sahel/Sahara. Different aerosol origins were identified by using the coupling between the lidar cross-polarized channels and a set of back trajectories analyses. The aircraft conducted flights at low ( 1 km above the mean sea level -amsl) and high altitudes ( 5 km amsl), allowing the coupling of in situ and remote sensing data to assess the properties of the aerosol layers. During several flights, depolarizing aerosol layers from the northeast were observed between 2.5 and 4 km amsl, which highlight the significant contribution of dust-like particles to the aerosol load in the coastal region. The air masses originating from the southeast were loaded with biomass burning aerosols from Central Africa, which seem to be mixed with other aerosol types. The flight sampling strategy and related lidar investigations will be presented. The retrieved aerosol distributions and properties, and the aerosol type identification will be discussed.

  20. Comparison of idiopathic (isolated) aortitis and giant cell arteritis-related aortitis. A French retrospective multicenter study of 117 patients.

    PubMed

    Espitia, Olivier; Samson, Maxime; Le Gallou, Thomas; Connault, Jérôme; Landron, Cedric; Lavigne, Christian; Belizna, Cristina; Magnant, Julie; de Moreuil, Claire; Roblot, Pascal; Maillot, François; Diot, Elisabeth; Jégo, Patrick; Durant, Cécile; Masseau, A; Brisseau, Jean-Marie; Pottier, Pierre; Espitia-Thibault, Alexandra; Santos, Anabele Dos; Perrin, François; Artifoni, Mathieu; Néel, Antoine; Graveleau, Julie; Moreau, Philippe; Maisonneuve, Hervé; Fau, Georges; Serfaty, Jean-Michel; Hamidou, Mohamed; Agard, Christian

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the study was to compare clinical/imaging findings and outcome in patients with idiopathic (isolated aortitis, IA) and with giant cell arteritis (GCA)-related aortitis. Patients from 11 French internal medicine departments were retrospectively included. Aortitis was defined by aortic wall thickening >2mm and/or an aortic aneurysm on CT-scan, associated to inflammatory syndrome. Patients with GCA had at least 3 ACR criteria. Aortic events (aneurysm, dissection, aortic surgeries) were reported, and free of aortic events-survival were compared. Among 191 patients with non-infectious aortitis, 73 with GCA and 44 with IA were included. Patients with IA were younger (65 vs 70 years, p=0.003) and comprised more past/current smokers (43 vs 15%, p=0.0007). Aortic aneurisms were more frequent (38% vs 20%, p=0.03), and aortic wall thickening was more pronounced in IA. During follow-up (median=34 months), subsequent development of aortic aneurysm was significantly lower in GCA when compared to IA (p=0.009). GCA patients required significantly less aortic surgery during follow-up than IA patients (p=0.02). Mean age, sex ratio, inflammatory parameters, and free of aortic aneurism survival were equivalent in patients with IA ≥ 60 years when compared to patients with GCA-related aortitis. IA is more severe than aortitis related to GCA, with higher proportions of aortic aneurism at diagnosis and during follow-up. IA is a heterogeneous disease and its prognosis is worse in younger patients <60 years. Most patients with IA ≥ 60 years share many features with GCA-related aortitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Socioeconomic environment and cancer incidence: a French population-based study in Normandy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The struggle against social inequalities is a priority for many international organizations. The objective of the study was to quantify the cancer burden related to social deprivation by identifying the cancer sites linked to socioeconomic status and measuring the proportion of cases associated with social deprivation. Methods The study population comprised 68 967 cases of cancer diagnosed between 1997 and 2009 in Normandy and collected by the local registries. The social environment was assessed at an aggregated level using the European Deprivation Index (EDI). The association between incidence and socioeconomic status was assessed by a Bayesian Poisson model and the excess of cases was calculated with the Population Attributable Fraction (PAF). Results For lung, lips-mouth-pharynx and unknown primary sites, a higher incidence in deprived was observed for both sexes. The same trend was observed in males for bladder, liver, esophagus, larynx, central nervous system and gall-bladder and in females for cervix uteri. The largest part of the incidence associated with deprivation was found for cancer of gall-bladder (30.1%), lips-mouth-pharynx (26.0%), larynx (23.2%) and esophagus (19.6%) in males and for unknown primary sites (18.0%) and lips-mouth-pharynx (12.7%) in females. For prostate cancer and melanoma in males, the sites where incidence increased with affluence, the part associated with affluence was respectively 9.6% and 14.0%. Conclusions Beyond identifying cancer sites the most associated with social deprivation, this kind of study points to health care policies that could be undertaken to reduce social inequalities. PMID:24524213

  2. Socioeconomic environment and cancer incidence: a French population-based study in Normandy.

    PubMed

    Bryere, Josephine; Dejardin, Olivier; Bouvier, Veronique; Colonna, Marc; Guizard, Anne-Valérie; Troussard, Xavier; Pornet, Carole; Galateau-Salle, Françoise; Bara, Simona; Launay, Ludivine; Guittet, Lydia; Launoy, Guy

    2014-02-13

    The struggle against social inequalities is a priority for many international organizations. The objective of the study was to quantify the cancer burden related to social deprivation by identifying the cancer sites linked to socioeconomic status and measuring the proportion of cases associated with social deprivation. The study population comprised 68 967 cases of cancer diagnosed between 1997 and 2009 in Normandy and collected by the local registries. The social environment was assessed at an aggregated level using the European Deprivation Index (EDI). The association between incidence and socioeconomic status was assessed by a Bayesian Poisson model and the excess of cases was calculated with the Population Attributable Fraction (PAF). For lung, lips-mouth-pharynx and unknown primary sites, a higher incidence in deprived was observed for both sexes. The same trend was observed in males for bladder, liver, esophagus, larynx, central nervous system and gall-bladder and in females for cervix uteri. The largest part of the incidence associated with deprivation was found for cancer of gall-bladder (30.1%), lips-mouth-pharynx (26.0%), larynx (23.2%) and esophagus (19.6%) in males and for unknown primary sites (18.0%) and lips-mouth-pharynx (12.7%) in females. For prostate cancer and melanoma in males, the sites where incidence increased with affluence, the part associated with affluence was respectively 9.6% and 14.0%. Beyond identifying cancer sites the most associated with social deprivation, this kind of study points to health care policies that could be undertaken to reduce social inequalities.

  3. Hyperechogenic fetal bowel: a large French collaborative study of 682 cases.

    PubMed

    Simon-Bouy, B; Satre, V; Ferec, C; Malinge, M C; Girodon, E; Denamur, E; Leporrier, N; Lewin, P; Forestier, F; Muller, F

    2003-09-01

    Hyperechogenic fetal bowel is detected in 0.1-1.8% of pregnancies during the second or third trimester. This ultrasound sign is associated with cystic fibrosis or other conditions (e.g., chromosomal anomalies, viral infection) but no large-scale prospective studies have been conducted. This 1997-1998 multicenter study in 22 molecular biology laboratories identified 682 cases of hyperechogenic fetal bowel detected by routine ultrasound examination during the second (86%) or third trimester. The fetal bowel was considered hyperechogenic when its echogenicity was broadly similar to, or greater than, that of the surrounding bone. Karyotyping, screening for viral infection, and screening for cystic fibrosis mutations were performed in all cases. Pregnancy outcome and postnatal follow-up were obtained in 656 of the 682 cases (91%). In 447 cases (65.5%), a normal birth was observed. Multiple malformations were observed in 47 cases (6.9%), a significant chromosomal anomaly was noted in 24 (3.5%), cystic fibrosis in 20 (3%), and viral infection in 19 (2.8%). In utero unexplained fetal death occurred in 1.9% of cases, toxemia in 1.2%, IUGR in 4.1%, and premature birth in 6.2%. This study demonstrates that this ultrasound sign is potentially associated with medically significant outcomes. Having established that the bowel is hyperechogenic, recommended investigations should include a detailed scan with Doppler measurements, fetal karyotyping, cystic fibrosis screening, and infectious disease screening. After birth, newborns require pediatric examination because a surgical treatment may be necessary. This should be combined with clear counseling of the parents.

  4. Nation-wide study of the occurrence of Listeria monocytogenes in French soils using culture-based and molecular detection methods.

    PubMed

    Locatelli, Aude; Depret, Géraldine; Jolivet, Claudy; Henry, Sonia; Dequiedt, Samuel; Piveteau, Pascal; Hartmann, Alain

    2013-06-01

    Soil is a potential reservoir of human pathogens and a possible source of contamination of animals, crops and water. In order to study the distribution of Listeria monocytogenes in French soils, a real-time PCR TaqMan assay targeting the phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase (prs) gene of L. monocytogenes was developed for the specific detection and quantification of this bacterium within a collection of 1315 soil DNAs originated from the French Soil Quality Monitoring Network. The prs real-time PCR TaqMan assay was specific for L. monocytogenes and could quantify accurately down to 10(4)L. monocytogenes per gram of dry soil. Among the 1315 soil DNAs, prs was not detected. This suggested that the level of L. monocytogenes in French soils is generally less than 10(4)L. monocytogenes per gram of dry soil. In order to confirm this hypothesis, we investigated the occurrence of L. monocytogenes in samples collected in the Burgundy region by culture-based and molecular detection methods on the same samples. By using cultivation-based detection, 17% of samples were positive for the presence of L. monocytogenes while only 2% were found positive by the molecular detection method. L. monocytogenes was repeatedly isolated from cow pasture soils but not from cultivated soils, meadows or forest soils. Isolates were grouped in the serovar 1/2a or 3a and 4b or 4d or 4e. Taken as a whole, molecular detection results globally demonstrate that the level of L. monocytogenes in French soils does not exceed 10(4)CFU per gram of dry soil. However, in comparison with culture-based method, PCR-based detection underestimates the occurrence of L. monocytogenes in soils. Soil sampling procedure also appears critical and may also lead to the underestimation of the incidence of L. monocytogenes.

  5. Risk assessment in ramps for heavy vehicles--A French study.

    PubMed

    Cerezo, Veronique; Conche, Florence

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the results of a study dealing with the risk for heavy vehicles in ramps. Two approaches are used. On one hand, statistics are applied on several accidents databases to detect if ramps are more risky for heavy vehicles and to define a critical value for longitudinal slope. χ(2) test confirmed the risk in ramps and statistical analysis proved that a longitudinal slope superior to 3.2% represents a higher risk for heavy vehicles. On another hand, numerical simulations allow defining the speed profile in ramps for two types of heavy vehicles (tractor semi-trailer and 2-axles rigid body) and different loads. The simulations showed that heavy vehicles must drive more than 1000 m on ramps to reach their minimum speed. Moreover, when the slope is superior to 3.2%, tractor semi-trailer presents a strong decrease of their speed until 50 km/h. This situation represents a high risk of collision with other road users which drive at 80-90 km/h. Thus, both methods led to the determination of a risky configuration for heavy vehicles: ramps with a length superior to 1000 m and a slope superior to 3.2%. An application of this research work concerns design methods and guidelines. Indeed, this study provides threshold values than can be used by engineers to make mandatory specific planning like a lane for slow vehicles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Playing board games, cognitive decline and dementia: a French population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dartigues, Jean François; Foubert-Samier, Alexandra; Le Goff, Mélanie; Viltard, Mélanie; Amieva, Hélène; Orgogozo, Jean Marc; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Helmer, Catherine

    2013-08-29

    To study the relationship between board game playing and risk of subsequent dementia in the Paquid cohort. A prospective population-based study. In the Bordeaux area in South Western France. 3675 non-demented participants at baseline. The risk of dementia during the 20 years of follow-up. Among 3675 non-demented participants at baseline, 32.2% reported regular board game playing. Eight-hundred and forty participants developed dementia during the 20 years of follow-up. The risk of dementia was 15% lower in board game players than in non-players (HR=0.85, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.99; p=0.04) after adjustment on age, gender, education and other confounders. The statistical significance disappeared after supplementary adjustment on baseline mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and depression (HR=0.96, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.12; p=0.61). However, board game players had less decline in their MMSE score during the follow-up of the cohort (β=0.011, p=0.03) and less incident depression than non-players (HR=0.84; 95% CI 0.72 to 0.98; p<0.03). A possible beneficial effect of board game playing on the risk of dementia could be mediated by less cognitive decline and less depression in elderly board game players.

  7. [Hyperechogenic fetal bowel: Which fetal and neonatal outcome? A French study of 149 cases].

    PubMed

    Bleu, G; Coulon, C; Vaast, P; Bourgeot, P; Sfeir, R; Boute, O; Houfflin-Debarge, V

    2015-06-01

    In case of hyperechogenic fetal bowel (HFB), invasive procedures such as amniocentesis are often proposed to detect an underlying cause. Our goal is to study etiologies and prognosis of HFB according to antenatal sonographic findings in order to evaluate the relevance of antenatal assessment. It is a retrospective monocentric study lead from 2008 to 2012, including all patients with a suspicion of HFB on routine sonography. We analysed the antenatal and neonatal results, distinguishing four situations: isolated HFB, HFB+other digestive anomalies, HFB+vascular pathology, HFB+other associated anomalies. For 149 patients, HBF was confirmed. Sixty-nine were isolated HFB, 24 associated with other digestive anomalies, 16 with vascular pathology and 40 with other anomalies. Pregnancy outcomes were different with 92.8, 41.7, 0 and 45.0% of healthy newborns. In the case of isolated HBF, we noted 2.9% cystic fibrosis and 2.9% congenital infection. Isolated HBF seems to have a better prognosis than associated forms. However, prenatal investigations to eliminate cystic fibrosis or congenital infection should be offered and may be initially non-invasive, if a larger series confirmed the absence of dyschromosomy in this population. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Prevalence and Treatment Management of Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in Cancer Patients: Results of the French Candidoscope Study

    SciTech Connect

    Gligorov, Joseph; Bastit, Laurent; Gervais, Honorine; Henni, Mehdi; Kahila, Widad; Lepille, Daniel; Luporsi, Elisabeth; Sasso, Giuseppe; Varette, Charles; Azria, David

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this pharmaco-epidemiological study was to evaluate the prevalence of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Signs and symptoms of OPC were noted for all patients. Antifungal therapeutic management was recorded in OPC patients. Patients receiving local antifungal treatments were monitored until the end of treatment. Results: Enrolled in the study were 2,042 patients with solid tumor and/or lymphoma treated with chemotherapy and/or another systemic cancer treatment and/or radiotherapy. The overall prevalence of OPC was 9.6% (95% confidence interval, 8.4%-11.0%]in this population. It was most frequent in patients treated with combined chemoradiotherapy (22.0%) or with more than two cytotoxic agents (16.9%). Local antifungal treatments were prescribed in 75.0% of OPC patients as recommended by guidelines. The compliance to treatment was higher in patients receiving once-daily miconazole mucoadhesive buccal tablet (MBT; 88.2%) than in those treated with several daily mouthwashes of amphotericin B (40%) or nystatin (18.8%). Conclusion: OPC prevalence in treated cancer patients was high. Local treatments were usually prescribed as per guidelines. Compliance to local treatments was better with once-daily drugs.

  9. Retrospective study of metal contamination time trends in the French part of the Bay of Biscay.

    PubMed

    Boutier, Bernard; Quintin, Jean-Yves; Rozuel, Emmanuelle; Dominique, Auger; Bretaudeau-Sanjuan, Jane

    2011-12-01

    Two cores were sampled in the Bay of Biscay: one a few miles off the Gironde estuary (pointe de la Coubre), the other near the Spanish border (Capbreton canyon) to study past variations in sediment contamination. Radiochronology (210Pb, 137Cs) and total metal determinations by ICP-MS allowed the study of time trends for metal concentrations in sediment. Off the Gironde, during the time interval recorded by the core (1958-1999), all metal concentrations remained less than OSPAR background values. Some variations occurred along the Cd and Zn profiles, which may correspond to a very attenuated signal from the Gironde outputs. This suggests that this area was not submitted to any significant anthropogenic input of metals between 1958 and 1999. In the canyon of Capbreton, the undisturbed part of the core recorded the influence of surface deposition between 1977 and 1999. From as early as 1977 high lead and mercury concentrations were noticed. Mercury concentrations increased until 1992, then decreased until 1999. This marks a drop of inputs in 1992, but the final concentration remained elevated. Lead had important concentrations (more than twice the OSPAR reference) all along the core and began to decrease only in the upper level of the unmixed layer. This shows a late (near 1998) drop of lead inputs. Other metals (Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr) stayed at a much lower level: less than the OSPAR reference for Cu, Cr and Ni or not far from the OSPAR reference for Cd and Zn.

  10. How errors on meteorological variables impact simulated ecosystem fluxes: a case study for six French sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Ciais, P.; Peylin, P.; Viovy, N.; Longdoz, B.; Bonnefond, J. M.; Rambal, S.; Klumpp, K.; Olioso, A.; Cellier, P.; Maignan, F.; Eglin, T.; Calvet, J. C.

    2011-03-01

    We analyze how biases of meteorological drivers impact the calculation of ecosystem CO2, water and energy fluxes by models. To do so, we drive the same ecosystem model by meteorology from gridded products and by ''true" meteorology from local observation at eddy-covariance flux sites. The study is focused on six flux tower sites in France spanning across a 7-14 °C and 600-1040 mm yr-1 climate gradient, with forest, grassland and cropland ecosystems. We evaluate the results of the ORCHIDEE process-based model driven by four different meteorological models against the same model driven by site-observed meteorology. The evaluation is decomposed into characteristic time scales. The main result is that there are significant differences between meteorological models and local tower meteorology. The seasonal cycle of air temperature, humidity and shortwave downward radiation is reproduced correctly by all meteorological models (average R2=0.90). At sites located near the coast and influenced by sea-breeze, or located in altitude, the misfit of meteorological drivers from gridded dataproducts and tower meteorology is the largest. We show that day-to-day variations in weather are not completely well reproduced by meteorological models, with R2 between modeled grid point and measured local meteorology going from 0.35 (REMO model) to 0.70 (SAFRAN model). The bias of meteorological models impacts the flux simulation by ORCHIDEE, and thus would have an effect on regional and global budgets. The forcing error defined by the simulated flux difference resulting from prescribing modeled instead than observed local meteorology drivers to ORCHIDEE is quantified for the six studied sites and different time scales. The magnitude of this forcing error is compared to that of the model error defined as the modeled-minus-observed flux, thus containing uncertain parameterizations, parameter values, and initialization. The forcing error is the largest on a daily time scale, for which it is

  11. The French Chronic Kidney Disease-Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (CKD-REIN) cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, Bénédicte; Combe, Christian; Jacquelinet, Christian; Briançon, Serge; Fouque, Denis; Laville, Maurice; Frimat, Luc; Pascal, Christophe; Herpe, Yves-Edouard; Deleuze, Jean-François; Schanstra, Joost; Pisoni, Ron L.; Robinson, Bruce M.; Massy, Ziad A.

    2014-01-01

    Background While much has been learned about the epidemiology and treatment of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the last 30 years, chronic kidney disease (CKD) before the end-stage has been less investigated. Not enough is known about factors associated with CKD progression and complications, as well as its transition to ESRD. We designed the CKD-renal epidemiology and information network (REIN) cohort to provide a research platform to address these key questions and to assess clinical practices and costs in patients with moderate or advanced CKD. Methods A total of 46 clinic sites and 4 renal care networks participate in the cohort. A stratified selection of clinic sites yields a sample that represents a diversity of settings, e.g. geographic region, and public versus for-profit and non-for-profit private clinics. In each site, 60–90 patients with CKD are enrolled at a routine clinic visit during a 12-month enrolment phase: 3600 total, including 1800 with Stage 3 and 1800 with Stage 4 CKD. Follow-up will continue for 5 years, including after initiation of renal replacement therapy. Data will be collected from medical records at inclusion and at yearly intervals, as well as from self-administered patient questionnaires and provider-level questionnaires. Patients will also be interviewed at baseline, and at 1, 3 and 5 years. Healthcare costs will also be determined. Blood and urine samples will be collected and stored for future studies on all patients at enrolment and at study end, and at 1 and 3 years in a subsample of 1200. Conclusions The CKD-REIN cohort will serve to improve our understanding of the biological, clinical and healthcare system determinants associated with CKD progression and adverse outcomes as well as of international variations in collaboration with the CKD Outcome and Practice Pattern Study (CKDopps). It will foster CKD epidemiology and outcomes research and provide evidence to improve the health and quality of life of patients with CKD and

  12. The French Chronic Kidney Disease-Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (CKD-REIN) cohort study.

    PubMed

    Stengel, Bénédicte; Combe, Christian; Jacquelinet, Christian; Briançon, Serge; Fouque, Denis; Laville, Maurice; Frimat, Luc; Pascal, Christophe; Herpe, Yves-Edouard; Deleuze, Jean-François; Schanstra, Joost; Pisoni, Ron L; Robinson, Bruce M; Massy, Ziad A

    2014-08-01

    While much has been learned about the epidemiology and treatment of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the last 30 years, chronic kidney disease (CKD) before the end-stage has been less investigated. Not enough is known about factors associated with CKD progression and complications, as well as its transition to ESRD. We designed the CKD-renal epidemiology and information network (REIN) cohort to provide a research platform to address these key questions and to assess clinical practices and costs in patients with moderate or advanced CKD. A total of 46 clinic sites and 4 renal care networks participate in the cohort. A stratified selection of clinic sites yields a sample that represents a diversity of settings, e.g. geographic region, and public versus for-profit and non-for-profit private clinics. In each site, 60-90 patients with CKD are enrolled at a routine clinic visit during a 12-month enrolment phase: 3600 total, including 1800 with Stage 3 and 1800 with Stage 4 CKD. Follow-up will continue for 5 years, including after initiation of renal replacement therapy. Data will be collected from medical records at inclusion and at yearly intervals, as well as from self-administered patient questionnaires and provider-level questionnaires. Patients will also be interviewed at baseline, and at 1, 3 and 5 years. Healthcare costs will also be determined. Blood and urine samples will be collected and stored for future studies on all patients at enrolment and at study end, and at 1 and 3 years in a subsample of 1200. The CKD-REIN cohort will serve to improve our understanding of the biological, clinical and healthcare system determinants associated with CKD progression and adverse outcomes as well as of international variations in collaboration with the CKD Outcome and Practice Pattern Study (CKDopps). It will foster CKD epidemiology and outcomes research and provide evidence to improve the health and quality of life of patients with CKD and the performances of the

  13. Total versus subtotal gastrectomy for adenocarcinoma of the gastric antrum. A French prospective controlled study.

    PubMed Central

    Gouzi, J L; Huguier, M; Fagniez, P L; Launois, B; Flamant, Y; Lacaine, F; Paquet, J C; Hay, J M

    1989-01-01

    In a multicentric trial the postoperative mortality and the 5-year survival of elective total gastrectomy (TG) was compared with subtotal gastrectomy (SG) for adenocarcinoma of the antrum operated on with intent of cure. Two hundred and one patients were included in the study; 32 were excluded after pathologic examination (linitis plastica, superficial cancer, lymphoma). One hundred sixty-nine patients remained for analysis, with 93 undergoing TG and 76 undergoing SG. Elective TG did not increase postoperative mortality (1.3%) compared with SG (3.2%). There was no difference in the 5-year survival rate (48%). Analysis of survival showed no difference in the two techniques when related to nodal involvement and serosal extension. It is concluded that both TG and SG can be performed safely in patients with adenocarcinoma of the antrum; however TG did not increase the survival rate. PMID:2644898

  14. [Hemolysis interferences on frequently required stat analysis: a French multicentric study].

    PubMed

    Poupon, Carole; Lefèvre, Guillaume; Ngo-François, Sandrine; Alibeu, Catherine; Barbé, Françoise; Bourbonneux, Valery; Cartier, Régine; Morin, Christine; Szymanowicz, Anton; Vuillaume, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Hemolysis should lead to changes in test results. Our study evaluated the impact of hemolysis on 26 blood measurements of stat biochemistry markers (sodium, potassium, chloride, urea, creatinine, glucose, total protein, calcium, magnesium, inorganic phosphorus, uric acid, C-reactive protein, total bilirubin, ASAT, ALAT, LDH, creatine kinase, alkaline phosphatase, γ glutamyl-transferase, lipase, alcohol, iron, β hCG, troponins, natriuretic peptides) determined with 13 different types of instruments in 17 hospital laboratories. Four pools of samples (collected from lithium heparin or EDTA or sodium fluoride tubes, according to the measured parameters) were overloaded with five increasing concentrations of whole blood lysate (final concentration from 0 to 2.000 mg/dL). Replication was performed for each assay, average values were calculated and differences between results with and without lysate were analyzed. A difference exceeding the square root of the sum of both squared analytic and biologic imprecisions for each analyte, was judged to be significant. Except homogeneous and expected impact of hemolysis on certain parameters like potassium, LDH... (due to their intra-erythrocyte concentration) a heterogeneous effect was found for other parameters, according to the analyzer and/or to the methodology. In summary, this study confirms the importance of mastering the measurement of the hemolysis and leads to several recommendations: (i) biologists should have a good knowledge of the impact of hemolysis on the measurements they perform, depending on their chosen analyzers; (ii) if an interference is noticed, it is recommended to add to the result a relevant comment and to check that the comment is properly edited in the laboratory computer software and appears on printed and transmitted results.

  15. The patient, the doctor, and the patient's loyalty: a qualitative study in French general practice.

    PubMed

    Gérard, Laura; François, Mathilde; de Chefdebien, Marine; Saint-Lary, Oliver; Jami, Alain

    2016-11-01

    The term loyalty can be defined as the attachment that characterises someone who consistent in their feelings, affections, or habits. By introducing the Declaration of General Practitioner (or preferred doctor declaration) in 2004, France adopted a formal incentive for patients to be faithful to their doctor since it entailed optimal coverage of medical care by their national health insurance There has been no research evaluating the impact of this measure and to determine the components of doctor-patient loyalty. To explore what builds and maintains patients' loyalty to their GP. Qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews close to Paris (the département of Yvelines'), France. Twenty-eight patients were interviewed in five surgeries of self-employed GPs with different demographics. Interviews were transcribed and a thematic analysis conducted to categorise the data. Phenomenological analysis was used to analyse the transcripts. Patient loyalty is based mainly on trust. Trust can be reinforced by certain comforting factors such as the ability to listen, a sense of carefulness, and the quality of care. Loyalty is both a dynamic construct and a relational exchange subject to various influences. Patients find advantages in being loyal. The model of the 'family doctor' has always been the archetype of loyalty for several generations within one family. A GP's inability to meet all of the patient's requirements is not necessarily a determining factor in breaking the patient's loyalty. Loyalty is more complex than commonly assumed and involves dimensions of trust, listening, quality of care, availability, and familiarity. The observations drawn out from this study warrant a larger scale investigation. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  16. Spontaneous disclosure of BRCA1/2 genetic test results to employers: a French prospective study.

    PubMed

    Eisinger, François; Fabre, Roxane; Lasset, Christine; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Julian-Reynier, Claire; Nogues, Catherine

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the patterns of disclosure of BRCA1/2 genetic test results to employers by unaffected carriers. In a national prospective cohort study on unaffected BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, disclosure to employers was assessed prospectively, using self-administered questionnaires, up to 2 years after their test results were delivered by cancer geneticists. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox-regression analysis were used to assess the factors associated with time to disclosure to the employer. Mean age of the 146 women BRCA1/2 carriers who were employed when their test results were delivered was 37.1 years (range: 19-57). At the end of the second year of follow-up, 47 of them (32.2%) had disclosed their results to their employers; median time to disclosure was 6 months. Reasons spontaneously expressed were first to inform the employer that medical surveillance/surgery was necessary for cancer risk management although these carriers did not actually have cancer. After multivariate adjustment on age, women with a lower educational level (HRadj=2.00, P=0.026) and those who had undergone prophylactic surgery during the 2 years of follow-up (HRadj=2.18, P=0.019) had disclosed their BRCA status to their employers earlier and more frequently. One-third of the female carriers not affected by breast/ovarian cancer disclosed their BRCA1/2 genetic test results spontaneously to their employers, mainly to inform them that they were disease-free but required medical surveillance or a surgical intervention to reduce the risk of cancer.

  17. Sensory quality of fresh French and Dutch market tomatoes: a preference mapping study with Italian consumers.

    PubMed

    Sinesio, Fiorella; Cammareri, Maria; Moneta, Elisabetta; Navez, Brigitte; Peparaio, Marina; Causse, Mathilde; Grandillo, Silvana

    2010-01-01

    Sensory properties are important elements to evaluate the qualities of vegetable products and are also determinant factors in purchasing decision. Here we report the Italian results of a preference mapping study conducted within a larger European project with the aim of describing the preferences of European consumers in regard to the diversity of traditional and modern tomato varieties, available on the market. This study has allowed the assessment of fruit quality at 3 levels: objective description of sensory properties, consumer preference tests, and physicochemical measurements. A set of 16 tomato cultivars, with different fruit sizes and shapes, was described and classified according to 18 sensory attributes including flavor, appearance, and texture characteristics. The same cultivars were evaluated by 179 consumers in a "preference mapping" experiment with the goal of identifying the preferred varieties and the reasons for the choice. The consumer data are referred to hedonic ratings (aspect liking and overall liking), familiarity for the analyzed cultivars, and individual features collected by a questionnaire. A hierarchical analysis of the clusters allowed to distinguish, within the sampled Italian consumers, 4 segments with different preferences which represented 19%, 25%, 41%, and 15% of the population, respectively. A partial least square regression model allowed the identification of the sensory attributes that best described consumer cluster preferences for tomato cultivars. Both texture and flavor descriptors were important drivers of consumer preferences, but the relevance (predictive value) of individual descriptors to model tomato liking was different for each consumer segment. Information on demographic and behavioral characteristics, usage habits, and factors relevant for purchasing were also provided on the 4 groups of consumers.

  18. Patients' knowledge about paracetamol (acetaminophen): a study in a French hospital emergency department.

    PubMed

    Boudjemai, Y; Mbida, P; Potinet-Pagliaroli, V; Géffard, F; Leboucher, G; Brazier, J-L; Allenet, B; Charpiat, B

    2013-07-01

    Paracetamol is the most widely used analgesic and antipyretic drug. In France, little is known concerning patients' knowledge and beliefs about paracetamol. To determine how much outpatients attending an emergency department know about paracetamol. A semi-structured questionnaire was applied to patients consulting for non-severe medical or traumatic conditions. Thirty-three (45%) of 73 participating patients knew that paracetamol was the active ingredient of the medication they used to reduce pain and/or fever. Three patients thought 2g was the maximum recommended single dose; 25% thought that a delay between two doses ≤ 3 hours was recommended and 15% thought the maximum daily dose was > 4 g. While 8% cited liver toxicity as a side effect, 38% did not believe an excessive dose could be fatal. Two patients correctly answered all questions and five gave no correct answer. Outpatients attending an emergency department (ED) have poor knowledge about paracetamol. This situation is disturbing and our results may serve as an eye opener to healthcare professionals. They emphasize the need for research programs with the following objectives: a) to determine the actual content of the message delivered by healthcare professionals; b) to study conditions under which this message is issued; c) to analyze how patients understand key messages and what their behavioral response is. In ED patients, the level of knowledge about paracetamol is insufficient to ensure its safe use in ambulatory care. Further studies are needed to determine the causes and to permit better patient education. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Epidemiology of filamentous fungal infections in burned patients: A French retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Schaal, J V; Leclerc, T; Soler, C; Donat, N; Cirrode, A; Jault, P; Bargues, L

    2015-06-01

    Filamentous fungal infections (FFI) seem to become more frequent in burn patients, in whom they are usually accepted to cause severe. However published data regarding their incidence and consequences in that context remain scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of mould infections in our burn centre, and to review characteristics and outcomes of patients with such infections. This retrospective single-centre study reviews all patients admitted in our centre with acute burns (2000-2011) and positive culture for moulds. Wound infections were defined as follows: fungal wound colonisations (FWC) for positive mycological cultures without signs of wound infection; fungal wound infections (FWI) for positive mycological cultures with local signs of wound infection; disseminated infection (DI) for FWI with a positive blood culture or a positive galactomannan (for aspergillosis) or severe sepsis or secondary organ localisation(s). Among 1849 patients, 31 patients presented a FFI. For 29 patients (93%), positive fungal samples were cutaneous: 20 Aspergillosis ASP (5 FWC, 8 FWI and 7 DI), 9 mucormycosis MMC (3 FWC and 6 FWI) and 3 fusariosis FUS (3 FWI). Two patients presented a catheter colonisation or a pulmonary colonisation (Aspergillus fumigatus). Incidence of FFI was 1.7%. Total body surface area burned, full-thickness burn surface area, Unit Burn Standard, Tobiasen score and SAPS2 (respectively 55% [40-73], 45% [30-63], 180 [129-259], 11 [8-12] and 50 [40-62]) were markedly higher than in burned patients without FFI hospitalised during the same time period. 30% of the patients with burn wound ASP (6/22) died. Mean length of stay was 111±67 days. FFI are essentially cutaneous, infrequent and occur in the most severe burned patients. ASP seems to be more serious than other FFI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  20. Driving behaviors and on-duty road accidents: a French case-control study.

    PubMed

    Fort, Emmanuel; Chiron, Mireille; Davezies, Philippe; Bergeret, Alain; Charbotel, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    A case-control study was carried out to identify driving behaviors associated with the risk of on-duty road accident and to compare driving behaviors according to the type of journey (on duty, commuting, and private) for on-duty road accident victims. Cases were recruited from the Rhône Road Trauma Registry between January 2004 and October 2005 and were on duty at the time of the accident. Control subjects were recruited from the electoral rolls of the case subjects' constituencies of residence. Cases' and controls' driving behavior data were collected by self-administered questionnaire. A logistic regression was performed to identify behavioral risk factors for on-duty road accidents, taking into account age, sex, place of residence, road accident risk exposure, socio-occupational category, and type of road user. A second analysis focused specifically on the case subjects, comparing their self-assessed usual behaviors according to the type of journey. Significant factors for multivariate analysis of on-duty road accidents were female gender, history of on-duty road accidents during the previous 10 years, severe time pressure at work, and driving a vehicle not belonging to the driver. On-duty road accident victims reported behavioral risk factors more frequently in relation to driving for work than driving for private reasons or commuting: nonsystematic seat belt use, cell phone use at least once daily while driving, and history of accidents with injury during the previous 10 years. This study provides knowledge on behavioral risk factors for on-duty road accidents and differences in behavior according to the type of journey for subjects who have been on-duty road accident victims. These results will be useful for the design of on-duty road risk prevention.

  1. Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infections in a French Hospital: A 12-Year Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Blanc, Peggy; Dutronc, Hervé; Peuchant, Olivia; Dauchy, Frédéric-Antoine; Cazanave, Charles; Neau, Didier; Wirth, Gaëtane; Pellegrin, Jean-Luc; Morlat, Philippe; Mercié, Patrick; Tunon-de-Lara, José-Manuel; Doutre, Marie-Sylvie; Pélissier, Philippe; Dupon, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Background Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are environmental organisms associated with a range of infections. Reports of NTM epidemiology are mainly focused on pulmonary infections and isolations, and extrapulmonary infections are less frequently described. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of NTM infections at the Bordeaux University Hospital, France, between January 2002 and December 2013. We used the microbiologic component of the American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America's pulmonary NTM disease criteria to define cases of pulmonary NTM, and patients with isolates from a normally sterile site were classified as having extrapulmonary disease. Results In our setting, 170 patients were included. Pulmonary cases predominated (54.1%), followed by skin and soft tissue infections (22.9%), disseminated cases (10.6%), lymphadenitis (7.7%), bone and joint infections (2.9%) and the remaining 1.8% catheter-related infections. Overall, 16 NTM species were isolated. Mycobacterium avium (31.8%) and M. intracellulare (20%) were the most common species identified, followed by M. marinum (13.5%), M. kansasii (10.6%), M. xenopi (9.4%), rapidly growing mycobacteria (9.4%) and other slowly growing mycobacteria (5.3%). In general, NTM isolates were largely prevalent in people older than 50 (62.4%); patients aged 1–10 year-old exclusively yielded M. avium from lymph nodes, almost cases having being diagnosed after 2007. Among the 121 patients with complete follow-up, 78 (64.5%), 24 (19.8%), and 19 (15.7%) were cured, experienced relapse, or died, respectively. Conclusion In our study, extrapulmonary NTM infections represented almost half of cases, consisting mainly in skin and soft tissue infections. The increase lymphadenitis cases in children after 2007 could be linked to the cessation of mandatory BCG vaccination in France. We observed similar cure rates (64%) between pulmonary and extrapulmonary infections. PMID:27959960

  2. Transportation noise and annoyance related to road traffic in the French RECORD study.

    PubMed

    Méline, Julie; Van Hulst, Andraea; Thomas, Frédérique; Karusisi, Noëlla; Chaix, Basile

    2013-10-02

    Road traffic and related noise is a major source of annoyance and impairment to health in urban areas. Many areas exposed to road traffic noise are also exposed to rail and air traffic noise. The resulting annoyance may depend on individual/neighborhood socio-demographic factors. Nevertheless, few studies have taken into account the confounding or modifying factors in the relationship between transportation noise and annoyance due to road traffic. In this study, we address these issues by combining Geographic Information Systems and epidemiologic methods. Street network buffers with a radius of 500 m were defined around the place of residence of the 7290 participants of the RECORD Cohort in Ile-de-France. Estimated outdoor traffic noise levels (road, rail, and air separately) were assessed at each place of residence and in each of these buffers. Higher levels of exposure to noise were documented in low educated neighborhoods. Multilevel logistic regression models documented positive associations between road traffic noise and annoyance due to road traffic, after adjusting for individual/neighborhood socioeconomic conditions. There was no evidence that the association was of different magnitude when noise was measured at the place of residence or in the residential neighborhood. However, the strength of the association between neighborhood noise exposure and annoyance increased when considering a higher percentile in the distribution of noise in each neighborhood. Road traffic noise estimated at the place of residence and road traffic noise in the residential neighborhood (75th percentile) were independently associated with annoyance, when adjusted for each other. Interactions of effects indicated that the relationship between road traffic noise exposure in the residential neighborhood and annoyance was stronger in affluent and high educated neighborhoods. Overall, our findings suggest that it is useful to take into account (i) the exposure to transportation noise

  3. Transportation noise and annoyance related to road traffic in the French RECORD study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Road traffic and related noise is a major source of annoyance and impairment to health in urban areas. Many areas exposed to road traffic noise are also exposed to rail and air traffic noise. The resulting annoyance may depend on individual/neighborhood socio-demographic factors. Nevertheless, few studies have taken into account the confounding or modifying factors in the relationship between transportation noise and annoyance due to road traffic. In this study, we address these issues by combining Geographic Information Systems and epidemiologic methods. Street network buffers with a radius of 500 m were defined around the place of residence of the 7290 participants of the RECORD Cohort in Ile-de-France. Estimated outdoor traffic noise levels (road, rail, and air separately) were assessed at each place of residence and in each of these buffers. Higher levels of exposure to noise were documented in low educated neighborhoods. Multilevel logistic regression models documented positive associations between road traffic noise and annoyance due to road traffic, after adjusting for individual/neighborhood socioeconomic conditions. There was no evidence that the association was of different magnitude when noise was measured at the place of residence or in the residential neighborhood. However, the strength of the association between neighborhood noise exposure and annoyance increased when considering a higher percentile in the distribution of noise in each neighborhood. Road traffic noise estimated at the place of residence and road traffic noise in the residential neighborhood (75th percentile) were independently associated with annoyance, when adjusted for each other. Interactions of effects indicated that the relationship between road traffic noise exposure in the residential neighborhood and annoyance was stronger in affluent and high educated neighborhoods. Overall, our findings suggest that it is useful to take into account (i) the exposure to transportation noise

  4. Electricity production by intermittent renewable sources: a synthesis of French and German studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grand, D.; Le Brun, Ch.; Vidil, R.; Wagner, F.

    2016-09-01

    Wind and solar electricity is produced without direct CO2 emissions. However, the introduction of this electricity in the grid is delicate due to the intermittent character of its sources. Wind and solar production is characterized by multiple, strong variations in the electric power. These variations put stress on the grid where the total production of electricity must always be equal to the consumption. We present a synthesis of five studies conducted for Germany and France with different assumptions of electricity mixes, all with large shares of wind and solar power. These mixes are subjected to the dynamics of wind and solar production as recorded in 2010 (Germany), 2012 and 2013 (Germany and France). Common structural trends are exhibited when the results of simulations (instantaneous power distributions and average annual values) are expressed as a percentage of the annual reduced load to be produced by these intermittent energies. We focus on the evaluation of these trends and the resulting constraints on the grid. The results obtained make it possible to anticipate the problems brought about by a large share of renewable intermittent energies in the production of electricity. They show the need for backup production in order to complement the intermittent sources. This leads to CO2 emissions unless storage systems of large capacity are available.

  5. French retrospective multicentric study of neonatal hemochromatosis: importance of autopsy and autoimmune maternal manifestations.

    PubMed

    Collardeau-Frachon, Sophie; Heissat, Sophie; Bouvier, Raymonde; Fabre, Monique; Baruteau, Julien; Broue, Pierre; Cordier, Marie-Pierre; Debray, Dominique; Debiec, Hanna; Ronco, Pierre; Guigonis, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    Neonatal hemochromatosis is a rare disease that causes fetal loss and neonatal death in the 1st weeks of life and is one of the most common causes of liver failure in the neonate. The diagnosis is mostly made retrospectively, based on histopathologic features of severe liver fibrosis associated with hepatic and extrahepatic siderosis. Several etiologies may underlie this phenotype, including a recently hypothesized gestational alloimmune disease. Fifty-one cases of liver failure with intrahepatic siderosis in fetuses and neonates were analyzed retrospectively. Maternal and infant data were collected from hospitalization and autopsy reports. All available slides were reviewed independently by 3 pathologists. Immunologic studies were performed on maternal sera collected immediately after delivery. The diagnosis of neonatal haemochromatosis was retained in 33 cases, including 1 case with Down syndrome and 1 case with myofibromas. Liver siderosis was inversely proportional to fibrosis progression. In fetuses, iron storage was more frequent in the thyroid than in the pancreas. Perls staining in labial salivary glands was positive in 1 of 5 cases. Abnormal low signal intensity by magnetic resonance imaging was detected in the pancreas in 2 of 7 cases. Renal tubular dysgenesis was observed in 7 of 23 autopsy cases. Chronic villitis was seen in 7 of 15 placentas. Half of the mothers presented with an autoimmune background and/or autoantibodies in their sera. Our work highlights the importance of autopsy in cases of neonatal hemochromatosis and marshals additional data in support of the hypothesis that neonatal hemochromatosis could reflect maternal immune system dysregulation.

  6. A French crop-exposure matrix for use in epidemiological studies on pesticides: PESTIMAT.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Isabelle; Carles, Camille; Blanc-Lapierre, Audrey; Fabbro-Peray, Pascale; Druet-Cabanac, Michel; Boutet-Robinet, Elisa; Soulat, Jean-Marc; Bouvier, Ghislaine; Lebailly, Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Pesticide exposure assessment is a key methodological issue for epidemiological studies. The history of pesticide has proven difficult to obtain from individuals' report because of the wide range of active ingredients (AIs). We developed a crop-exposure matrix, which intends to reconstitute parameters of pesticide exposure in France since 1950. PESTIMAT is composed of tables crossing crops and AIs by year and providing the following metrics: (1) probability (proportion of farmers having used the AIs); (2) frequency (number of treatment days); and (3) intensity (application rate of the AIs in kg/ha). Metrics were obtained by the combination of six sources: (i) registration information from the Agriculture Ministry; (ii) information from agricultural bodies on products marketed; (iii) agricultural recommendations by the Plant Health Protection body; (iv) treatment calendars provided by farmers; (v) data from associations of farmers; and (vi) data from the industry. To date, 529 AIs usable between 1950 and 2010 are included in PESTIMAT: 160 fungicides; 160 herbicides; and 209 insecticides. When combined with duration and determinants of intensity, the metrics in PESTIMAT will make it possible to calculate exposure scores and to search for dose-effect relationships, an important criterion for causality judgment in epidemiology.

  7. Digestive-tract sarcoidosis: French nationwide case-control study of 25 cases.

    PubMed

    Ghrenassia, Etienne; Mekinian, Arsene; Chapelon-Albric, Catherine; Levy, Pierre; Cosnes, Jacques; Sève, Pascal; Lefèvre, Guillaume; Dhôte, Robin; Launay, David; Prendki, Virginie; Morell-Dubois, Sandrine; Sadoun, Danielle; Mehdaoui, Anas; Soussan, Michael; Bourrier, Anne; Ricard, Laure; Benamouzig, Robert; Valeyre, Dominique; Fain, Olivier

    2016-07-01

    Digestive tract sarcoidosis (DTS) is rare and case-series are lacking. In this retrospective case-control study, we aimed to compare the characteristics, outcome, and treatment of patients with DTS, nondigestive tract sarcoidosis (NDTS), and Crohn disease.We included cases of confirmed sarcoidosis, symptomatic digestive tract involvement, and noncaseating granuloma in any digestive tract. Each case was compared with 2 controls with sarcoidoisis without digestive tract involvement and 4 with Crohn disease.We compared 25 cases of DTS to 50 controls with NDTS and 100 controls with Crohn disease. The major digestive clinical features were abdominal pain (56%), weight loss (52%), nausea/vomiting (48%), diarrhea (32%), and digestive bleeding (28%). On endoscopy of DTS, macroscopic lesions were observed in the esophagus (9%), stomach (78%), duodenum (9%), colon, (25%) and rectum (19%). As compared with NDTS, DTS was associated with weight loss (odds ratio [OR] 5.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-23.3) and the absence of thoracic adenopathy (OR 5.0; 95% CI 1.03-25). As compared with Crohn disease, DTS was associated with Afro-Caribbean origin (OR 27; 95% CI 3.6-204) and the absence of ileum or colon macroscopic lesions (OR 62.5; 95% CI 10.3-500). On the last follow-up, patients with DTS showed no need for surgery (versus 31% for patients with Crohn disease; P = 0.0013), and clinical digestive remission was frequent (76% vs. 35% for patients with Crohn disease; P = 0.0002).The differential diagnosis with Crohn disease could be an issue with DTS. Nevertheless, the 2 diseases often have different clinical presentation and outcome.

  8. Lignification and mycorrhization in Devonian-Carboniferous times. Studies on French material.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strullu-Derrien, C.; Gerrienne, P.; Strullu, D. G.

    2009-04-01

    One of the most important events in the history of Life is the colonisation of the land by plants; the earliest steps occurred about 460 million years ago. A few million years later, during the Devonian period, plants became more and more abundant. Tracheophytes evolved from small dichotomous axes with terminal sporangia to plants reaching 40 m in height. The evolution of large erect plants with tree-habit was achieved by the Pseudosporochnales (Monilophytes) during the Middle Devonian and the Archaeopteridales (Lignophytes) at the end of the Devonian. We describe here a possible early representative of the Lignophytes from the Lower Devonian from the Chateaupanne quarry (Anjou, Armorican massif, France). Pyritized axes show well-preserved anatomy. The primary xylem is centrarch or mesarch and is circular in transverse section. It is surrounded by a zone of radially aligned cells that is interpreted as a simple secondary xylem. Both primary and secondary (?) xylems comprise P-type tracheids. The link with symbiotic fungi goes back to the dawn of the land plants. The evidence of paramycorrhizae occurring in the prostrate axes of Aglaophyton major from the Rhynie Chert dated to the early Devonian. Aglaophyton however did not possess tracheids that characterize the tracheophytes. By Late Devonian and Carboniferous times, various rooting structures had evolved in tracheophytes. Our reinvestigation of historical thin sections from silicified material from the Late Pennsylvanian of Grand'Croix (Central massif, France) provides evidence for the mycorrhizal status of Radiculites-type Cordaitalean rootlets. These rootlets are characterized by a cortical reticulum of cell wall thickenings named phi-thickenings. This lignified reticulum is an important feature used to distinguish Cordaitalean rootlets from underground parts of other plants. As a result, our study demonstrates the oldest evidence for mycorrhizal association in the conifer clade.

  9. Impact of Expert Pathologic Review of Lymphoma Diagnosis: Study of Patients From the French Lymphopath Network.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Camille; Baron, Marine; Amara, Nadia; Haioun, Corinne; Dandoit, Mylène; Maynadié, Marc; Parrens, Marie; Vergier, Beatrice; Copie-Bergman, Christiane; Fabiani, Bettina; Traverse-Glehen, Alexandra; Brousse, Nicole; Copin, Marie-Christine; Tas, Patrick; Petrella, Tony; Rousselet, Marie-Christine; Brière, Josette; Charlotte, Fréderic; Chassagne-Clement, Catherine; Rousset, Thérèse; Xerri, Luc; Moreau, Anne; Martin, Antoine; Damotte, Diane; Dartigues, Peggy; Soubeyran, Isabelle; Peoch, Michel; Dechelotte, Pierre; Michiels, Jean-François; de Mascarel, Antoine; Berger, Françoise; Bossard, Céline; Arbion, Flavie; Quintin-Roué, Isabelle; Picquenot, Jean-Michel; Patey, Martine; Fabre, Blandine; Sevestre, Henri; Le Naoures, Cécile; Chenard-Neu, Marie-Pierre; Bastien, Claire; Thiebault, Sylvie; Martin, Laurent; Delage, Manuela; Filleron, Thomas; Salles, Gilles; Molina, Thierry Jo; Delsol, Georges; Brousset, Pierre; Gaulard, Philippe

    2017-06-20

    Purpose To prospectively assess the clinical impact of expert review of lymphoma diagnosis in France. Materials and Methods From January 2010 to December 2013, 42,145 samples from patients with newly diagnosed or suspected lymphomas were reviewed, according to the 2008 WHO classification, in real time by experts through the Lymphopath Network. Changes in diagnosis between referral and expert review were classified as major or minor according to their potential impact on patient care. Results The 42,145 reviewed samples comprised 36,920 newly diagnosed mature lymphomas, 321 precursor lymphoid neoplasms, 314 myeloid disorders, and 200 nonhematopoietic neoplasms, with 4,390 benign lesions. There were 4,352 cutaneous and 32,568 noncutaneous lymphomas. The most common mature noncutaneous lymphomas were diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (32.4%), follicular lymphomas (15.3%), classic Hodgkin lymphomas (13%), peripheral T-cell lymphomas (6.3%) of which angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphomas (2.3%) were the most frequent, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas (5.8%). A diagnostic change between referral and expert review occurred in 19.7% of patients, with an estimated impact on patient care for 17.4% of patients. This rate was significantly higher for patients sent with a provisional diagnosis seeking expert second opinion (37.8%) than for patients sent with a formal diagnosis (3.7%). The most frequent discrepancies were misclassifications in lymphoma subtype (41.3%), with 12.3% being misclassifications among small B-cell lymphoma entities. Fewer than 2% of changes were between benign and malignant lymphoid conditions. Minor changes (2.3%) mostly consisted of follicular lymphoma misgrading and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma subtype misclassification. Conclusion To our knowledge, this study provides the largest ever description of the distribution of lymphoma entities in a western country and highlights how expert review significantly contributes to a precise lymphoma

  10. Cutaneous Invasive Aspergillosis: Retrospective Multicenter Study of the French Invasive-Aspergillosis Registry and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Bernardeschi, Céline; Foulet, Francoise; Ingen-Housz-Oro, Saskia; Ortonne, Nicolas; Sitbon, Karine; Quereux, Gaëlle; Lortholary, Olivier; Chosidow, Olivier; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Invasive aspergillosis (IA) has poor prognosis in immunocompromised patients. Skin manifestations, when present, should contribute to an early diagnosis. The authors aimed to provide prevalence data and a clinical and histologic description of cutaneous manifestations of primary cutaneous IA (PCIA) and secondary CIA (SCIA) in a unique clinical series of IA and present the results of an exhaustive literature review of CIA. Cases of proven and probable IA with cutaneous manifestations were retrospectively extracted from those registered between 2005 and 2010 in a prospective multicenter aspergillosis database held by the National Reference Center for Invasive Mycoses and Antifungals, Pasteur Institute, France. Patients were classified as having PCIA (i.e., CIA without extracutaneous manifestations) or SCIA (i.e., disseminated IA). Among the 1,410 patients with proven or probable IA, 15 had CIA (1.06%), 5 PCIA, and 10 SCIA. Hematological malignancies were the main underlying condition (12/15). Patients with PCIA presented infiltrated and/or suppurative lesions of various localizations not related to a catheter site (4/5), whereas SCIA was mainly characterized by disseminated papules and nodules but sometimes isolated nodules or cellulitis. Histologic data were available for 11 patients, and for 9, similar for PCIA and SCIA, showed a dense dermal polymorphic inflammatory infiltrate, with the epidermis altered in PCIA only. Periodic acid Schiff and Gomori-Grocott methenamine silver nitrate staining for all but 2 biopsies revealed hyphae compatible with Aspergillus. Aspergillus flavus was isolated in all cases of PCIA, with Aspergillus fumigatus being the most frequent species (6/10) in SCIA. Two out 5 PCIA cases were treated surgically. The 3-month survival rate was 100% and 30% for PCIA and SCIA, respectively. Our study is the largest adult series of CIA and provides complete clinical and histologic data for the disease. Primary cutaneous IA should be

  11. Cutaneous Invasive Aspergillosis: Retrospective Multicenter Study of the French Invasive-Aspergillosis Registry and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Bernardeschi, Céline; Foulet, Francoise; Ingen-Housz-Oro, Saskia; Ortonne, Nicolas; Sitbon, Karine; Quereux, Gaëlle; Lortholary, Olivier; Chosidow, Olivier; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2015-07-01

    Invasive aspergillosis (IA) has poor prognosis in immunocompromised patients. Skin manifestations, when present, should contribute to an early diagnosis. The authors aimed to provide prevalence data and a clinical and histologic description of cutaneous manifestations of primary cutaneous IA (PCIA) and secondary CIA (SCIA) in a unique clinical series of IA and present the results of an exhaustive literature review of CIA. Cases of proven and probable IA with cutaneous manifestations were retrospectively extracted from those registered between 2005 and 2010 in a prospective multicenter aspergillosis database held by the National Reference Center for Invasive Mycoses and Antifungals, Pasteur Institute, France. Patients were classified as having PCIA (i.e., CIA without extracutaneous manifestations) or SCIA (i.e., disseminated IA). Among the 1,410 patients with proven or probable IA, 15 had CIA (1.06%), 5 PCIA, and 10 SCIA. Hematological malignancies were the main underlying condition (12/15). Patients with PCIA presented infiltrated and/or suppurative lesions of various localizations not related to a catheter site (4/5), whereas SCIA was mainly characterized by disseminated papules and nodules but sometimes isolated nodules or cellulitis. Histologic data were available for 11 patients, and for 9, similar for PCIA and SCIA, showed a dense dermal polymorphic inflammatory infiltrate, with the epidermis altered in PCIA only. Periodic acid Schiff and Gomori-Grocott methenamine silver nitrate staining for all but 2 biopsies revealed hyphae compatible with Aspergillus. Aspergillus flavus was isolated in all cases of PCIA, with Aspergillus fumigatus being the most frequent species (6/10) in SCIA. Two out 5 PCIA cases were treated surgically. The 3-month survival rate was 100% and 30% for PCIA and SCIA, respectively. Our study is the largest adult series of CIA and provides complete clinical and histologic data for the disease. Primary cutaneous IA should be recognized early

  12. Nutritional status assessment during Alzheimer's disease: results after one year (the REAL French Study Group).

    PubMed

    Guerin, O; Soto, M E; Brocker, P; Robert, P H; Benoit, M; Vellas, B

    2005-01-01

    Weight loss and malnutrition are frequent and serious complications of Alzheimer's disease. The aim of the present article was to describe the cognitive and behavioural characteristics of the test population within the frame of the PHRC REAL.FR cohort (for Réseau sur la Maladie d'Alzheimer Français), depending on their nutritional state, and to consider their evolution one year after the original inclusion. The study population' stratification was done in three groups according to their Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) score: malnutrition group (MNA < 17.5), at risk of malnutrition group (MNA 17.5-23.5), and normal nutritional status group (MNA > or = 23.5). 561 patients were evaluated at inclusion time, 393 at one year. The evaluation included the following scales: Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Activities Daily Living (ADL), Instrumental Activities Daily Living (IADL), Neuro Psychiatric Inventory (NPI) and Zarit scale (ZARIT). Comparison and descriptive analysis for each MNA group at baseline and at one year has been performed. at baseline, the well-nourished and the malnutrition risk groups are significantly different concerning age, IADL and NPI; the well-nourished and undernutrition groups are different concerning MMSE, NPI and Zarit; the malnutrition risk and undernutrition groups are only different concerning NPI. At one year, the well-nourished and the malnutrition risk and undernutrition groups are different concerning one lonely variable, the NPI, in a significant way. The comparison of the three groups between baseline and one-year evaluation demonstrate for the well-nourished group an aggravation of MMSE, ADL, IADL, NPI, for the malnutrition risk group of MMSE and IADL, and for the undernutrition group of MMSE, IADL and NPI. Among the patients suffering from Alzheimer's disease, the most malnutritioned worsen highly on cognitive and functional capacities. Furthermore, the nutritional aggravation seems

  13. Accident study of torrential protective structures based on the French RTM database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boncompain, Ingrid; Quefféléan, Yann; Carladous, Simon

    2017-04-01

    Torrential protective structures such as dikes, sediment traps, and check dams aim to reduce damage on elements at risk. They are built given a reference scenario. Nevertheless, this scenario can be exceeded or structures can fail because of their design or their ageing. We later talk about "accidents". The 1996 Aras disaster near Biescas (Spain) showed that consequences can be significant: 35 of 40 check dams were destroyed which involved 87 fatalities in a campsite. The accident probability and its consequences must be taken into account to analyze risk. Databases are useful tools to extract needed information. In France, the Restoration of Mountainous Areas department (RTM) has been public funded to develop a database, specific to mountainous areas (the Alps and the Pyrenees). Almost 12 500 check dams, 80 sediment traps and 600 dikes were registered in public forests in 2011. These samples were assumed significant for check dams and sediment traps but not for dikes because the most part was missing. In parallel, more than 31 000 torrential events were registered. Given these elements, an accident study was developed. We first extracted 1 925 events with accidents on protective structures: 39 % occurred during the 19th century and 53 % have occurred since 1900. Sediment traps were involved in 37 events, check dams in 336, and dikes in 1488. Then, a detailed analysis was specifically carried out for check dams. Event phenomena were extracted: torrential flood, liquid flood, snow avalanche, rock fall, and landslide. Accident typology was also specified: scouring, breaking of several check dams, total or partial destruction of one structure, overflowing. Causes of accidents on check dams were first analyzed. Torrential floods were responsible of 85 % of events (284 of 336) even if other phenomena must be also taken into account. Almost 45 % of events (152 of 336) involved total destruction of one or several check dams. Taking into account events for the last 150

  14. Prevalence and association of asthma and allergic sensitization with dietary factors in schoolchildren: data from the french six cities study.

    PubMed

    Saadeh, Danielle; Salameh, Pascale; Caillaud, Denis; Charpin, Denis; De Blay, Frédéric; Kopferschmitt, Christine; Lavaud, François; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Baldi, Isabelle; Raherison, Chantal

    2015-09-30

    The prevalence of asthma and allergy has recently risen among children. This increase in prevalence might be related to various factors, particularly diet. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence and association of asthma and allergic sensitization with dietary factors in the French Six Cities Study. Cross-sectional studies were performed among 7432 schoolchildren aged 9-11 years in Bordeaux, Clermont-Ferrand, Créteil, Marseille, Reims, and Strasbourg. Parental questionnaires, based on the International Study on Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC), were used to collect information on allergic diseases and potential exposure factors including a food frequency questionnaire to evaluate dietary habits. Skin prick testing to common allergens for allergic sensitization and bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) testing to exercise were performed. Confounders control was performed with multiple logistic regressions. Asthma symptoms, asthma and allergic sensitization were more prevalent in boys than in girls and were more prevalent in the South than in the North of France. After adjustment for confounders, fruit juice intake was associated with a low prevalence of lifetime asthma (ORa [95 % CI]; 0.73 [0.56-0.97]), butter intake was positively associated with atopic wheeze (1.48 [1.07-2.05]) and having lunch at the canteen 1-2 times/week compared to never or occasionally was associated with a lower prevalence of past year wheeze (0.71 [0.52-0.96]), lifetime asthma (0.76 [0.60-0.96]) and allergic sensitization (0.80 [0.67-0.95]). Meat intake was inversely related to past year wheeze among atopic children (0.68 [0.50-0.98]) while fast food consumption and butter intake were associated with an increase prevalence of asthma (2.39 [1.47-3.93] and 1.51 [1.17-2.00] respectively). Fish intake was associated with a lower prevalence of asthma among non-atopic children (0.61 [0.43-0.87]. None of the dietary factors was associated with BHR. Diet is associated with

  15. The use of computerised 24 h dietary recalls in the French SU.VI.MAX Study: number of recalls required.

    PubMed

    Mennen, L I; Bertrais, S; Galan, P; Arnault, N; Potier de Couray, G; Hercberg, S

    2002-07-01

    The 24 h dietary recall is a widely used method to estimate nutritional intakes in epidemiological studies. The objective of the present study was to estimate the number of recalls necessary for an accurate estimation of nutrient intake in French adults followed for 4 y. Participants of the SU.VI.MAX study (intervention study on the effects of antioxidant supplementation on chronic diseases) who completed a 24 h dietary recall every 2 months for at least 1 y. Inter- and intra-individual variance ratios (S(w)/S(b)) were calculated by analysis of variance for two time periods: year 1 and 2 (n=4955) and year 3 and 4 (n=1458). The number of recalls necessary was calculated using an accuracy of 0.9. The highest intra-individual/inter-individual variance ratio in the first period was seen for beta-carotene and the lowest for carbohydrate. The number of recalls necessary was five for carbohydrate and calcium intake and 16 for beta-carotene. For proteins, total and saturated fat, fibre, vitamin C and iron eight recalls were required, while nine, 11 and 10 recalls were necessary for mono- and polyunsaturated fat and vitamin E, respectively. The variance ratios in the second period were all lower and fewer recalls were therefore required. The same difference in number of recalls required between the two time periods was observed when only those subjects were included who completed at least 18 recalls (n=727). These results indicate that for an accurate estimation of carbohydrate intake only, already five recalls are necessary. Fewer recalls may be needed during long-time follow-up. The SU.VI.MAX Study has support from public and private sectors: Fruit d'Or Recherche, Candia, Lipton, Kellogg's, Céréal, CERIN, Estée Lauder, L'Oréal, Peugeot, Jet Service, RP Scherer, Sodexho, France Telecom, Santogen, Becton Dickinson, Fould Springer, Boehringer Diagnostic, Seppic Givaudan Lavirotte, Le grand Canal, Danone and Knorr.

  16. Poesies et chansons francaises: base pour l'etude de la langue et de la civilisation (French Poetry and Songs: Basis for the Study of Language and Civilization)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Jacqueline C.

    1977-01-01

    Notes the linguistic and cultural advantages of using songs, poems and rhymes as aids in learning French. Some teaching methods, instructional uses and learning exercises are suggested. (Text is in French.) (CHK)

  17. Chine: Les Chances du Francais (The Fortunes of the French Language in China).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuning, Zhang

    1996-01-01

    Examines the current situation in China surrounding the teaching of French as a Foreign Language. After the decline of French teaching subsequent to the Cultural Revolution, the language returned to favor around 1970. Chinese students are infatuated with French; many study it as a first or second foreign language. Additionally, French literature…

  18. Call Me "Madame": Re-Presenting Culture in the French Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siskin, H. Jay

    2007-01-01

    This study examines autobiographies of American teachers of French in order to make explicit their beliefs regarding French language and culture. The themes of class and power are prominent in these teachers' belief systems, as is the desire for self-transformation through mastery of French and miming a subset of French behaviors. These notions…

  19. Chine: Les Chances du Francais (The Fortunes of the French Language in China).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuning, Zhang

    1996-01-01

    Examines the current situation in China surrounding the teaching of French as a Foreign Language. After the decline of French teaching subsequent to the Cultural Revolution, the language returned to favor around 1970. Chinese students are infatuated with French; many study it as a first or second foreign language. Additionally, French literature…

  20. [Effects of chronic uranium internal exposure on mortality: results of a pilot study among French nuclear workers].

    PubMed

    Guseva Canu, I; Zhivin, S; Garsi, J-P; Caër-Lorho, S; Samson, E; Collomb, P; Acker, A; Laurier, D

    2014-12-01

    This article presents the mortality data compiled among a cohort of workers at risk of internal uranium exposure and discusses the extent to which this exposure might differentiate them from other nuclear workers. The cohort consisted of 2897 Areva-NC-Pierrelatte plant workers, followed from 1st January 1968 through 31st December 2006 (79,892 person-years). Mortality was compared with that of the French population, by calculating Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI95%). External radiation exposure was reconstructed using external dosimetry archives. Internal uranium exposure was assessed using a plant-specific job-exposure-matrix, considering six types of uranium compounds according to their nature (natural and reprocessed uranium [RPU] and solubility [fast-F, moderate-M, and slow-S]). Exposure-effect analyses were performed for causes of death known to be related to external radiation exposure (all cancers and circulatory system diseases) and cancer of uranium target-organs (lung and hematopoietic and lymphatic tissues, HLT). A significant deficit of mortality from all causes (SMR=0.58; CI95% [0.53-0.63]), all cancers (SMR=0.72; CI95% [0.63-0.82]) and smoking related cancers was observed. Non-significant 30%-higher increase of mortality was observed for cancer of pleura (SMR=2.32; CI95 % [0.75-5.41]), rectum and HLT, notably non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (SMR=1.38; CI95 % [0.63-2.61]) and chronic lymphoid leukemia (SMR=2.36; CI95% [0.64-6.03]). No exposure-effect relationship was found with external radiation cumulative dose. A significant exposure-effect relationship was observed for slowly soluble uranium, particularly RPU, which was associated with an increase in mortality risk reaching 8 to 16% per unit of cumulative exposure score and 10 to 15% per year of exposure duration. The Areva-NC-Pierrelatte workers cohort presents a non-significant over-mortality from HLT cancers, notably of lymphoid origin, unrelated to external radiation

  1. Associations between liking for fat, sweet or salt and obesity risk in French adults: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lampuré, Aurélie; Castetbon, Katia; Deglaire, Amélie; Schlich, Pascal; Péneau, Sandrine; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2016-07-04

    Individual sensory liking appears to be an important determinant of dietary intake and may consequently influence weight status. Cross-sectional studies have shown positive association between fat liking and weight status and equivocal results regarding salt and sweet liking. Moreover, the contribution of dietary intake to explain this relationship has not been studied yet. We investigated the prospective association between sensory liking for fat, sweet or salt and the onset of obesity over 5 years in adults, and the mediating effect of dietary intake. We prospectively examine the risk of obesity among 24,776 French adults participating in the NutriNet-Santé cohort study. Liking scores and dietary data were assessed at baseline using a validated web-based questionnaire and 24 h records, respectively. Self-reported anthropometric data were collected using web-based questionnaire, each year during 5 years. Associations between quartiles of liking for fat, sweet or salt and obesity risk, and the mediating effect of diet were assessed by multivariate Cox proportional hazards models stratified by gender, adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. In both genders, sensory liking for fat was associated with an increased risk of obesity (hazard ratios for quartile 4 compared to quartile 1, men: HR(Q4vs.Q1) = 2.39 (95% CI 1.39,4.11) P-trend = 0.0005, women: HR(Q4vs.Q1) = 2.02 (1.51,2.71) P-trend = <0.0001). Dietary intake explained 32% in men and 52% in women of the overall variation of liking for fat in obesity. Sensory liking for sweet was associated with a decreased risk of obesity (men: HR(Q4vs.Q1) = 0.51 (0.31,0.83) P-trend = 0.01, women: HR(Q4vs.Q1) = 0.72 (0.54,0.96) P-trend = 0.035). No significant association between salt liking and the risk of obesity was found. Unlike sweet and salt liking, higher liking for fat appears to be a major risk factor of obesity, largely explained by dietary intake. Our findings emphasize the

  2. French Antilles and Guiana.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    Attention in this discussion of French Antilles and Guiana is directed to the following: geography; the people; history; government; political conditions; the economy; and relations with the US. In 1988, the population of Martinique, the official name, numbered 351,105 with an annual growth rate in 1988 of 1.71%. The population of Guadeloupe, the official name, numbered 337,524 in January 1988 with an annual growth rate in 1987 of 1.2%. French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique, as overseas departments of France since 1946, are integral parts of the French Republic. In 1972, the metropolitan departments of France were combined into 22 regions, with an elected regional council for each region. As integral parts of the French Republic, the political systems of the 3 French Caribbean departments are essentially extensions of those of metropolitan France. Guadeloupe and Martinique owed their colonial prosperity to agriculture, primarily sugar. Martinique no longer exports sugar, but sugar still accounts for 20% of Guadeloupe's export earnings. In Martinique, sugar has been replaced as an export crop by bananas and pineapples. Bananas now account for almost 50% of Guadeloupe's total export earnings. In French Guiana, the impact of the French National Space Agency's Guiana Space Center has been great. US policy toward these overseas departments is inseparable from its overall policy of friendly relations with France.

  3. A Local Evaluation of Primary School French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, J. D.; Welsh, Jennifer

    1972-01-01

    A local study concludes that primary school French does not confer a lasting advantage but its contribution lies in the enlargement of interest rather that as a preparation for secondary school work. (JB)

  4. A Local Evaluation of Primary School French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, J. D.; Welsh, Jennifer

    1972-01-01

    A local study concludes that primary school French does not confer a lasting advantage but its contribution lies in the enlargement of interest rather that as a preparation for secondary school work. (JB)

  5. Analysis of Stream Channel Geometry Temporal and Spatial Evolution after Historic Dam Removal - two French case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slawson, Deborah; Manière, Louis; Marchandeau, Florent

    2014-05-01

    IRSTEA, in partnership with the French Office national de l'eau et des milieux aquatiques (ONEMA), has begun a study of channel geomorphology in small streams where dams have been removed or breached between two and 200 years ago, without any subsequent restoration of the channel in the legacy sediments. A preliminary analysis of two sites in the Morvan, Burgundy, will be presented; a dam breached at the beginning of the 20th century and another in the last decade. Using ergodic reasoning, historical and recent upstream and downstream channel geometry is being used to predict the future temporal and spatial scales of channel physical habitat restoration. With the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), dam removal has become a more frequently used method for restoring stream ecological continuity. In France, these obstacles are ubiquitous in medium and small streams and considerably reduce lateral and longitudinal connectivity. Improvement in the hydromorphologically controlled, physical habitat, particularly flow and sediment transport regimes, is often essential to improvement in stream biology. However, dam removal may cause long-term disturbances in flow and sediment transport regimes. In the absence of channel restoration measures in addition to dam removal, these disturbances may result in long-term negative impacts on fish, macroinvertebrate, and riparian plant physical habitat. These negative impacts may include channel incision and lowering of the water table, disconnection from floodplains, increased stream power and bed scouring, and increased sediment load from headcutting and bank erosion. Over time, these negative impacts may resolve themselves. However, the time frame necessary for reestablishing adequate physical habitat is not well-known. Some studies have indicated that many decades or longer may be required, depending on a variety of factors. Under the WFD, the REstoring rivers FOR effective catchment Management (REFORM

  6. Low-penetrance alleles predisposing to sporadic colorectal cancers: a French case-controlled genetic association study

    PubMed Central

    Küry, Sébastien; Buecher, Bruno; Robiou-du-Pont, Sébastien; Scoul, Catherine; Colman, Hélène; Le Neel, Tanguy; Le Houérou, Claire; Faroux, Roger; Ollivry, Jean; Lafraise, Bernard; Chupin, Louis-Dominique; Sébille, Véronique; Bézieau, Stéphane

    2008-01-01

    Background Sporadic colorectal cancers (CRC) are multifactorial diseases resulting from the combined effects of numerous genetic, environmental and behavioral risk factors. Genetic association studies have suggested low-penetrance alleles of extremely varied genes to be involved in susceptibility to CRC in Caucasian populations. Methods Through a large genetic association study based on 1023 patients with sporadic CRC and 1121 controls, we tested a panel of these low-penetrance alleles to find out whether they could determine "genotypic profiles" at risk for CRC among individuals of the French population. We examined 52 polymorphisms of 35 genes – drawn from inflammation, xenobiotic detoxification, one-carbon, insulin signaling, and DNA repair pathways – for their possible contribution to colorectal carcinogenesis. The risk of cancer associated with these polymorphisms was assessed by calculation of odds ratios (OR) using multivariate analyses and logistic regression. Results Whereas all these polymorphisms had previously been found to be associated with CRC risk, especially in Caucasian populations, we were able to replicate the association for only five of them. Three SNPs were shown to increase CRC risk: PTGS1 c.639C>A (p.Gly213Gly), IL8 c.-352T>A, and MTHFR c.1286A>C (p.Ala429Glu). On the contrary, two other SNPs, PLA2G2A c.435+230C>T and PPARG c.1431C>T (p.His477His), were associated with a decrease in CRC risk. Further analyses highlighted genotypic combinations having a greater predisposing effect on CRC (OR 1.97, 95%CI 1.31–2.97, p = 0.0009) than the allelic variants that were examined separately. Conclusion The identification of CRC-predisposing combinations, composed of alleles PTGS1 c.639A, PLA2G2A c.435+230C, PPARG c.1431C, IL8 c.-352A, and MTHFR c.1286C, highlights the importance of inflammatory processes in susceptibility to sporadic CRC, as well as a possible crosstalk between inflammation and one-carbon pathways. PMID:18992148

  7. Immersion Education in the Context of an Endangered Language: A Linguistic Study of the Oral Production of French Immersion Students in Louisiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betters, Jennifer R.

    2016-01-01

    In the past century, French has shifted from being the native language of many Louisianans to being an endangered dialect. Since the creation of the state agency CODOFIL (Council for the Development of French in Louisiana) in the 1960's, efforts have been made to revitalize French in Louisiana, and since the 1980's, some parishes have offered…

  8. Immersion Education in the Context of an Endangered Language: A Linguistic Study of the Oral Production of French Immersion Students in Louisiana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betters, Jennifer R.

    2016-01-01

    In the past century, French has shifted from being the native language of many Louisianans to being an endangered dialect. Since the creation of the state agency CODOFIL (Council for the Development of French in Louisiana) in the 1960's, efforts have been made to revitalize French in Louisiana, and since the 1980's, some parishes have offered…

  9. French for Business and Journalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacombe, Anne

    1977-01-01

    A description of a university course in French whose object is to give students some facility in current French as found in newspapers, magazines, radio and films; and to introduce them to contemporary French civilization. Methods used are reading, translation, synopsis writing, correspondence and interviews. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  10. Important Variables When Screening for Students at Suicidal Risk: Findings from the French Cohort of the SEYLE Study

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Tubiana, Alexandra; Cohen, Renaud F.; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    Due to early detection of mental ill-health being an important suicide preventive strategy, the multi-centre EU funded “Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe” (SEYLE) study compared three school-based mental health promotion programs to a control group. In France, 1007 students with a mean age of 15.2 years were recruited from 20 randomly assigned schools. This paper explores the French results of the SEYLE’s two-stage screening program (ProfScreen) and of the cross-program suicidal emergency procedure. Two-hundred-thirty-five ProfScreen students were screened using 13 psychopathological and risk behaviour scales. Students considered at risk because of a positive finding on one or more scales were offered a clinical interview and, if necessary, referred for treatment. A procedure for suicidal students (emergency cases) was set up to detect emergencies in the whole cohort (n = 1007). Emergency cases were offered the same clinical interview as the ProfScreen students. The interviewers documented their reasons for referrals in a short report. 16,2% of the ProfScreen students (38/235) were referred to treatment and 2,7% of the emergency cases (27/1007) were also referred to treatment due to high suicidal risk. Frequent symptoms in those students referred for evaluation were depression, alcohol misuse, non-suicidal self-injuries (NSSI), and suicidal behaviours. According to the multivariate regression analysis of ProfScreen, the results show that the best predictors for treatment referral were NSSI (OR 2.85), alcohol misuse (OR 2.80), and depressive symptoms (OR 1.13). Analysis of the proportion for each scale of students referred to treatment showed that poor social relationships (60%), anxiety (50%), and suicidal behaviours (50%) generated the highest rate of referrals. Qualitative analysis of clinician’s motivations to refer a student to mental health services revealed that depressive symptoms (51%), anxiety (38%), suicidal behaviours (40%), and

  11. Epidemiology of sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle, medical history, and colon cancer: a case-control study among French Canadians in Montreal.

    PubMed

    Ghadirian, P; Maisonneuve, P; Perret, C; Lacroix, A; Boyle, P

    1998-01-01

    Colon cancer is the second most common cancer in both men and women in North America and other developed countries. In a population-based case-control study of colon cancer among French Canadians in greater Montreal, a total of 402 cases and 668 controls were interviewed. The cancer cases were identified through the admission offices of five major Francophone teaching hospitals in Montreal from 1989 to 1993. The controls, matched by age, sex, place of residence, and language, were selected by a modified random digit dialing method. The results show that subjects who had ever been married had a lower risk for colon cancer (odds ratio [OR]: 0.58; 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 0.48-0.84) than did individuals who had never been married. A significant association (OR: 1.90; p for trend = 0.003) was found between the height of subjects and the risk of colon cancer. The OR for individuals with a family history of colorectal cancer was 2.78 with a p value of 0.01. A direct and significant association (OR: 2.01) was found among constipation, use of laxatives (OR: 1.41), and the risk of colon cancer. Among women, a suggestive inverse association was detected between the number of full-term pregnancies and the risk of colon cancer in female subjects (the OR for five or more pregnancies was 0.58 with a p for trend of 0.08). There was also a suggestive linear trend (increased age-decreased risk) between age at menarche and the risk of colon cancer. No association was apparent between other sociodemographic characteristics and the risk of colon cancer. In conclusion, married individuals had lower risk for colon cancer, perhaps due to food habits or other characteristics of being single. Higher height and weight history 10 years before the diagnosis of cancer are risk factors for breast cancer, while both current weight and body mass index seem to be protective. Positive family history of colon cancer increased the risk of colon cancer significantly.

  12. Climate and Allergic Sensitization to Airborne Allergens in the General Population: Data from the French Six Cities Study.

    PubMed

    Charpin, Denis; Ramadour, Myriam; Lavaud, François; Raherison, Chantal; Caillaud, Denis; de Blay, Frederic; Pauli, Gabrielle; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2017-01-01

    The results of international epidemiological surveys show large geographical variations in skin test reactivity but do not provide a rationale for such variations. To assess the relationship between climate and allergic sensitization in schoolchildren. In the present study, we analyzed data from a multicenter, epidemiological survey that included 6,461 schoolchildren, aged 9-11 years, living in 6 French cities scattered around France. The protocol also included a battery of skin prick tests to common airborne allergens. The crude prevalence of sensitization to each allergen was estimated for each city and then adjusted for potential confounding factors. This analysis was repeated for monosensitization and for allergens grouped into 2 categories: indoor allergens, i.e., house dust mite (HDM), cat, and cockroach allergens, and outdoor allergens, i.e., birch pollen, grass pollen, and Alternaria. We also grouped cities according to their location on the coast, i.e., Marseille and Bordeaux, or inland, i.e., Créteil, Clermont-Ferrand, Reims, and Strasbourg. A difference in prevalence of sensitization to each airborne allergen or allergens grouped into indoor and outdoor categories was found between cities, even after adjusting for potential confounding factors. Also, a higher prevalence of sensitization to HDM, cat dander, and, broadly speaking, indoor allergens, was found in children living on the coast than in those living inland, whereas they showed a lower prevalence of sensitization to birch pollen. Between-city differences in the prevalence of monosensitization were also statistically significant. Children living in coastal cities had a higher rate of monosensitization to indoor allergens and a lower prevalence of sensitization to birch pollen. The higher prevalence of allergic sensitization in children from coastal cities is most likely due to climatic conditions, such as proximity from sea and humidity. Differences in sensitization to birch allergens could be

  13. Topical Corticosteroid Concerns Among Parents of Children with Psoriasis versus Atopic Dermatitis: A French Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Moawad, Sandra; Mahé, Emmanuel; Aubert-Wastiaux, Hélène; Phan, Alice; Maruani, Annabel; Chiaverini, Christine; Bodemer, Christine; Mazereeuw-Hautier, Juliette; Lasek-Duriez, Audrey; Droitcourt, Catherine; Barbarot, Sébastien; Beauchet, Alain; Bursztejn, Anne-Claire

    2017-08-28

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) and psoriasis are chronic inflammatory cutaneous disorders for which the gold standard treatment is topical corticosteroids. Although fears about topical corticosteroids are known to be a primary cause of poor therapeutic adherence in AD, this has not been evaluated in psoriasis. TOPICOP is a helpful and easy-to-use tool for the evaluation of topical corticosteroid concerns (TCC). It may help clinicians improve adherence to treatment and correct misconceptions. We aimed to compare the TCC of parents of children with psoriasis or AD using the TOPICOP scale and a visual analog scale (VAS). We performed a cross-sectional multicenter study in nine French hospitals from 1 October 2015 to 31 May 2016. The TOPICOP scale was developed for patients with AD and comprises 12 questions to assess patients' worries and beliefs about topical corticosteroids, with a maximum score of 36. We used a standardized questionnaire to collect epidemiologic and medical data, and the parents completed the TOPICOP scale and VAS (score 0-10). A total of 122 children were enrolled (61 patients in each group). The mean Physician Global Assessment was 2.1 in the psoriasis group, and the mean SCORing AD index was 33.3 in the AD group. The TOPICOP score was 16.0 in the psoriasis group and 18.8 in the AD group (p = 0.10). The VAS score was 5.6 and 5.1 in the psoriasis and AD groups, respectively (p = 0.18). The mean TOPICOP score was higher if the mother answered (p < 0.0001; odds ratio 12.3; 95% confidence interval 9.2-15.5). In the AD group, the mean TOPICOP score was higher if follow-up for the child was as an outpatient (p = 0.018). In the psoriasis group, the mean TOPICOP score was higher if patients were seen for the first time (p = 0.047). Using the TOPICOP questionnaire and a VAS, we found the level of TCC for the parents of pediatric patients with psoriasis to be similar to that for parents of pediatric patients with AD. As TCC is an issue in patients with

  14. First-ever population-based study on status epilepticus in French Island of La Reunion (France) - incidence and fatality.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Devender; Tchalla, Achille Edem; Mignard, Claude; Marin, Benoît; Mignard, Didier; Jallon, Pierre; Preux, Pierre-Marie

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to determine the incidence and case-fatality of first-ever status epilepticus (SE) among the general population living in La Reunion Island, a French overseas territory in the Indian Ocean near Madagascar. We recruited cases (1st July 2004-30th June 2005) in a population-based manner using neurology, neurosurgery, electroencephalogram, emergency, paediatric and neuroradiology services; emergency medical aid service; emergency and admission service of private and public clinics; neurologists (public and private); private paediatricians and practitioners of various rural hospitals. All cases had an electroencephalogram (EEG) and were assessed by an epileptologist. Standard definition and classification schemes were used. Those with known epilepsy were not part of this analysis. Sixty-five cases (males: n=41, 63.1%) had epileptologist-confirmed SE, with 38.5% (n=25) being >60 years of age. Global incidence rate was 8.52/100 000 (95% confidence interval 6.5-10.5). A bimodal age distribution with high frequency and incidence among young (<10 years age) (frequency: 12.3%; incidence 6.6/100,000) and aged (>60 years) (frequency: 40.0%; incidence 35.0/100,000) was observed. We found that 60%, 32.3%, 6.7% had convulsive, partial and non-convulsive SE respectively (1% remained unclassified). Of the cases identified, 44.6%, 38.5%, 16.9% had unprovoked, provoked or cryptogenic seizures respectively. The most important aetiological factors identified included: stroke (27.7%), alcoholism/toxicity (18.5%), cryptogenic (16.9%), infections (10.8%). Mortality was 18.5%. The incidence of SE incidence in La Reunion Island was lower than that described elsewhere. The status type was found to be dependent on aetiology and age. The study confirms that SE is more frequent in men and in older adults and is associated with significant short-term case mortality. Copyright © 2014 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Important Variables When Screening for Students at Suicidal Risk: Findings from the French Cohort of the SEYLE Study.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Tubiana, Alexandra; Cohen, Renaud F; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta

    2015-09-30

    Due to early detection of mental ill-health being an important suicide preventive strategy, the multi-centre EU funded "Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe" (SEYLE) study compared three school-based mental health promotion programs to a control group. In France, 1007 students with a mean age of 15.2 years were recruited from 20 randomly assigned schools. This paper explores the French results of the SEYLE's two-stage screening program (ProfScreen) and of the cross-program suicidal emergency procedure. Two-hundred-thirty-five ProfScreen students were screened using 13 psychopathological and risk behaviour scales. Students considered at risk because of a positive finding on one or more scales were offered a clinical interview and, if necessary, referred for treatment. A procedure for suicidal students (emergency cases) was set up to detect emergencies in the whole cohort (n = 1007). Emergency cases were offered the same clinical interview as the ProfScreen students. The interviewers documented their reasons for referrals in a short report. 16,2% of the ProfScreen students (38/235) were referred to treatment and 2,7% of the emergency cases (27/1007) were also referred to treatment due to high suicidal risk. Frequent symptoms in those students referred for evaluation were depression, alcohol misuse, non-suicidal self-injuries (NSSI), and suicidal behaviours. According to the multivariate regression analysis of ProfScreen, the results show that the best predictors for treatment referral were NSSI (OR 2.85), alcohol misuse (OR 2.80), and depressive symptoms (OR 1.13). Analysis of the proportion for each scale of students referred to treatment showed that poor social relationships (60%), anxiety (50%), and suicidal behaviours (50%) generated the highest rate of referrals. Qualitative analysis of clinician's motivations to refer a student to mental health services revealed that depressive symptoms (51%), anxiety (38%), suicidal behaviours (40%), and negative life

  16. Poor air quality in classrooms related to asthma and rhinitis in primary schoolchildren of the French 6 Cities Study.

    PubMed

    Annesi-Maesano, Isabella; Hulin, Marion; Lavaud, François; Raherison, Chantal; Kopferschmitt, Christine; de Blay, Frederic; Charpin, Denis André; Denis, Caillaud

    2012-08-01

    Relationships between indoor air quality (IAQ) found in schools and the allergic and respiratory health of schoolchildren have been insufficiently explored. A survey was conducted in a large sample of classrooms of primary schools in France to provide objective assessments of IAQ to which young schoolchildren are exposed in classrooms, and to relate exposure to major air pollutants found in classrooms to asthma and allergies of schoolchildren. Concentrations of fine particles with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM(2.5)), nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and three aldehydes were objectively assessed in 401 randomly chosen classrooms in 108 primary schools attended by 6590 children (mean age 10.4 years, SD ±0.7) in the French 6 Cities Study. The survey incorporated a medical visit including skin prick testing (SPT) for common allergens, a test for screening exercise-induced asthma (EIA) and a standardised health questionnaire completed by parents. Children were differently exposed to poor air quality in classrooms, with almost 30% being highly exposed according to available standards. After adjusting for confounders, past year rhinoconjunctivitis was significantly associated with high levels of formaldehyde in classrooms (OR 1.19; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.36). Additionally, an increased prevalence of past year asthma was found in the classrooms with high levels of PM(2.5) (OR 1.21; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.39), acrolein (OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.38) and NO(2) (OR 1.16; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.41) compared with others. The relationship was observed mostly for allergic asthma as defined using SPT. A significant positive correlation was found between EIA and the levels of PM(2.5) and acrolein in the same week. In this random sample, air quality in classrooms was poor, varied significantly among schools and cities, and was related to an increased prevalence of clinical manifestations of asthma and rhinitis in schoolchildren. Children with a background of allergies seemed at increased risk.

  17. Poor air quality in classrooms related to asthma and rhinitis in primary schoolchildren of the French 6 Cities Study

    PubMed Central

    Hulin, Marion; Lavaud, François; Raherison, Chantal; Kopferschmitt, Christine; de Blay, Frederic; André Charpin, Denis; Denis, Caillaud

    2012-01-01

    Background Relationships between indoor air quality (IAQ) found in schools and the allergic and respiratory health of schoolchildren have been insufficiently explored. A survey was conducted in a large sample of classrooms of primary schools in France to provide objective assessments of IAQ to which young schoolchildren are exposed in classrooms, and to relate exposure to major air pollutants found in classrooms to asthma and allergies of schoolchildren. Methods Concentrations of fine particles with aerodynamic diameter ≤2.5 μm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and three aldehydes were objectively assessed in 401 randomly chosen classrooms in 108 primary schools attended by 6590 children (mean age 10.4 years, SD ±0.7) in the French 6 Cities Study. The survey incorporated a medical visit including skin prick testing (SPT) for common allergens, a test for screening exercise-induced asthma (EIA) and a standardised health questionnaire completed by parents. Results Children were differently exposed to poor air quality in classrooms, with almost 30% being highly exposed according to available standards. After adjusting for confounders, past year rhinoconjunctivitis was significantly associated with high levels of formaldehyde in classrooms (OR 1.19; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.36). Additionally, an increased prevalence of past year asthma was found in the classrooms with high levels of PM2.5 (OR 1.21; 95% CI 1.05 to 1.39), acrolein (OR 1.22; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.38) and NO2 (OR 1.16; 95% CI 0.95 to 1.41) compared with others. The relationship was observed mostly for allergic asthma as defined using SPT. A significant positive correlation was found between EIA and the levels of PM2.5 and acrolein in the same week. Conclusions In this random sample, air quality in classrooms was poor, varied significantly among schools and cities, and was related to an increased prevalence of clinical manifestations of asthma and rhinitis in schoolchildren. Children with a background of allergies

  18. Searching for a link between the L-BMAA neurotoxin and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a study protocol of the French BMAALS programme

    PubMed Central

    Delzor, Aurélie; Couratier, Philippe; Boumédiène, Farid; Nicol, Marie; Druet-Cabanac, Michel; Paraf, François; Méjean, Annick; Ploux, Olivier; Leleu, Jean-Philippe; Brient, Luc; Lengronne, Marion; Pichon, Valérie; Combès, Audrey; El Abdellaoui, Saïda; Bonneterre, Vincent; Lagrange, Emmeline; Besson, Gérard; Bicout, Dominique J; Boutonnat, Jean; Camu, William; Pageot, Nicolas; Juntas-Morales, Raul; Rigau, Valérie; Masseret, Estelle; Abadie, Eric; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Marin, Benoît

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neurone disease. It occurs in two forms: (1) familial cases, for which several genes have been identified and (2) sporadic cases, for which various hypotheses have been formulated. Notably, the β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA) toxin has been postulated to be involved in the occurrence of sporadic ALS. The objective of the French BMAALS programme is to study the putative link between L-BMAA and ALS. Methods and analysis The programme covers the period from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2011. Using multiple sources of ascertainment, all the incident ALS cases diagnosed during this period in the area under study (10 counties spread over three French regions) were collected. First, the standardised incidence ratio will be calculated for each municipality under concern. Then, by applying spatial clustering techniques, overincidence and underincidence zones of ALS will be sought. A case–control study, in the subpopulation living in the identified areas, will gather information about patients’ occupations, leisure activities and lifestyle habits in order to assess potential risk factors to which they are or have been exposed. Specimens of drinking water, food and biological material (brain tissue) will be examined to assess the presence of L-BMAA in the environment and tissues of ALS cases and controls. Ethics and dissemination The study has been reviewed and approved by the French ethical committee of the CPP SOOM IV (Comité de Protection des Personnes Sud-Ouest & Outre-Mer IV). The results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international conferences. PMID:25180055

  19. Teaching Middle School French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Marilyn L.

    1975-01-01

    Author described some of the techniques she used for teaching French at Roosevelt Junior High School, West Palm Beach. She also explained how these techniques helped students to maintain an early desire to learn a foreign language. (Author/RK)

  20. The French Strategic Dilemma.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    crisis . The language of French strategic doctrine is that of dissuasion (deterrence). The French talk publicly much less about warfighting (and employment...threaten vital lines of supply in a crisis situation. Nuclear forces would not *-"e necessarily be useful In deterring Soviet actions in this regard. Rather...34 in Pierre Lellouche, ed., Pacifisme et Dissuasion (Paris: Economica , 1983), pp. 253-266. C. % 6. See Pierre Lacoste, Strategie Navale (Paris: Fernand

  1. Affective norms for French words (FAN).

    PubMed

    Monnier, Catherine; Syssau, Arielle

    2014-12-01

    The present study provides affective norms for a large corpus of French words (N = 1,031) that were rated on emotional valence and emotional arousal by 469 French young adults. Ratings were made using the Self-Assessment Manikin (Lang, 1980). By combining evaluations of valence and arousal, and including ratings provided by male and female young adults, this database complements and extends existing French-language databases. The response reliability for the two affective dimensions was good, and the consistency between the present and previous ratings was high. We found a strong quadratic relationship between the valence and arousal ratings. Perceptions of the affective content of a word were partly linked to sex. This new affective database (FAN) will enable French-speaking researchers to select suitable materials for studies of how the character of affective words influences their cognitive processing. FAN is available as an online supplement downloadable with this article.

  2. The longitudinal development of clusters in French.

    PubMed

    Demuth, Katherine; McCullough, Elizabeth

    2009-03-01

    Studies of English and German find that children tend to acquire word-final consonant clusters before word-initial consonant clusters. This order of acquisition is generally attributed to articulatory, frequency and/or morphological factors. This contrasts with recent experimental findings from French, where two-year-olds were better at producing word-initial than word-final clusters (Demuth & Kehoe, 2006). The purpose of the present study was to examine French-speaking children's longitudinal acquisition of clusters to determine if these results replicate developmentally. Analysis of spontaneous speech productions from two French-speaking children between one and three years confirmed the earlier acquisition of initial clusters, even when sonority factors were controlled. The findings suggest that French-speaking children acquire complexity at the beginnings of words before complexity appears word-finally. The role of frequency, morphological, structural and input factors is discussed.

  3. Teaching Literacy Skills to French Minimally Verbal School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders with the Serious Game SEMA-TIC: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Serret, Sylvie; Hun, Stéphanie; Thümmler, Susanne; Pierron, Prescillia; Santos, Andreia; Bourgeois, Jérémy; Askenazy, Florence

    2017-01-01

    Learning to read is very challenging for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), but also very important, as it can give them access to new knowledge. This is even more challenging in minimally verbal children, who do not have the verbal abilities to learn through usual methods. To address the learning of literacy skills in French minimally verbal school-aged children with ASD, we designed the serious game SEMA-TIC, which relies on non-verbal cognitive skills and uses specific learning strategies adapted to the features of autistic individuals. This study investigated the usability of SEMA-TIC (in terms of adaptability, efficiency, and effectiveness) for the acquisition of literacy skills in French minimally verbal school-aged children with ASD. Twenty-five children with ASD and no functional language participated in the study. Children in the training group received the SEMA-TIC training over 23 weeks (on average), while no intervention was provided to children in the non-training group. Results indicated that SEMA-TIC presents a suitable usability, as all participants were able to play (adaptability), to complete the training (efficiency) and to acquire significant literacy skills (effectiveness). Indeed, the literacy skills in the training group significantly improved after the training, as measured by specific experimental tasks (alphabet knowledge, word reading, word-non-word discrimination, sentence reading and word segmentation; all p ≤ 0.001) compared to the non-training group. More importantly, 3 out of 12 children of the training group could be considered as word decoders at the end of the intervention, whereas no children of the non-training group became able to decode words efficiently. The present study thus brings preliminary evidence that French minimally verbal school-aged children with ASD are able to learn literacy skills through SEMA-TIC, a specific computerized intervention consisting in a serious game based on non-verbal cognitive

  4. Teaching Literacy Skills to French Minimally Verbal School-Aged Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders with the Serious Game SEMA-TIC: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Serret, Sylvie; Hun, Stéphanie; Thümmler, Susanne; Pierron, Prescillia; Santos, Andreia; Bourgeois, Jérémy; Askenazy, Florence

    2017-01-01

    Learning to read is very challenging for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), but also very important, as it can give them access to new knowledge. This is even more challenging in minimally verbal children, who do not have the verbal abilities to learn through usual methods. To address the learning of literacy skills in French minimally verbal school-aged children with ASD, we designed the serious game SEMA-TIC, which relies on non-verbal cognitive skills and uses specific learning strategies adapted to the features of autistic individuals. This study investigated the usability of SEMA-TIC (in terms of adaptability, efficiency, and effectiveness) for the acquisition of literacy skills in French minimally verbal school-aged children with ASD. Twenty-five children with ASD and no functional language participated in the study. Children in the training group received the SEMA-TIC training over 23 weeks (on average), while no intervention was provided to children in the non-training group. Results indicated that SEMA-TIC presents a suitable usability, as all participants were able to play (adaptability), to complete the training (efficiency) and to acquire significant literacy skills (effectiveness). Indeed, the literacy skills in the training group significantly improved after the training, as measured by specific experimental tasks (alphabet knowledge, word reading, word-non-word discrimination, sentence reading and word segmentation; all p ≤ 0.001) compared to the non-training group. More importantly, 3 out of 12 children of the training group could be considered as word decoders at the end of the intervention, whereas no children of the non-training group became able to decode words efficiently. The present study thus brings preliminary evidence that French minimally verbal school-aged children with ASD are able to learn literacy skills through SEMA-TIC, a specific computerized intervention consisting in a serious game based on non-verbal cognitive

  5. Food and nutrient intakes of French frequent seafood consumers with regard to fish consumption recommendations: results from the CALIPSO study.

    PubMed

    Sirot, Véronique; Dumas, Céline; Leblanc, Jean-Charles; Margaritis, Irène

    2011-05-01

    Besides providing n-3 fatty acids with nutritional and health benefits, seafood consumption may contribute to the reduction of nutrient prevalences of inadequacy. To evaluate the contributions of seafood and other food groups to nutrient intakes of frequent seafood consumers, food consumption was evaluated through an FFQ on 991 French men and women (18-81 years) consuming seafood at least twice a week. Intakes, prevalence of inadequacies, risks of upper limit excess and food contributions to intakes were assessed for thirty-three nutrients. Mean fat contributions to total energy intakes (38·3 and 39·0 % for men and women, respectively) met French recommendations, but mean carbohydrate intakes (40·9 and 39·7 %, respectively) were insufficient. Micronutrient inadequacies were lower than in the French general population, the highest being for vitamin C (41·3 and 40·1 % for men and women, respectively), vitamin E (35·0 and 35·3 % for men and women, respectively) and Mg (37·5 and 25·5 % for men and women, respectively). Upper safety limits (USL) were exceeded mostly for Zn (6·2 %), Ca (3·7 %), retinol (2·0 %) and Cu (0·9 %). Mean contributions of seafood to vitamin D, B12, I and Se intakes ranged 40-65 %. Molluscs and crustaceans significantly contributed to vitamin B12 (13·7 %), Cu (11·4 %), Fe (11·5 %), Zn (8·4 %) and I (6·1 %) intakes, and canned fish contributed to vitamin D intake (13·4 %). Besides fish, contributions of mollusc and crustacean consumption to nutrient intakes should be considered from a public health viewpoint. Consuming seafood at least twice a week induces moderate inadequacies and risks of exceeding USL for some micronutrients, whereas macronutrient intakes remained imbalanced.

  6. Development of a French Version of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System-Revised: A Pilot Study of Palliative Care Patients' Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Nekolaichuk, Cheryl; Huot, Ann; Gratton, Valérie; Bush, Shirley H; Tarumi, Yoko; Watanabe, Sharon M

    2017-09-01

    The Edmonton Symptom Assessment System-revised (ESAS-r) is a nine-item self-report symptom intensity tool developed for palliative care patients, with the option of adding a 10th patient-specific symptom. Due to growing international uptake, the ESAS-r has been translated into different languages. There has not been agreement, however, regarding a standard process for translation into multiple languages, which also includes patients' perspectives. The purpose of this study was to develop a French version of the ESAS-r, using a standardized translation protocol, and to obtain palliative care patients' perspectives regarding this translated tool. We developed a French version of the ESAS-r, using a standard translation method, involving both professional translators (n = 2) and bilingual palliative care experts (n = 3). Fifteen Francophone participants recruited from palliative care sites in two urban centers in Canada completed the ESAS-r and provided feedback on the translation, in the presence of a trained interviewer. Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data, respectively. Fifteen Francophone participants were recruited from palliative care sites in two urban centers in Canada. Participants completed the ESAS-r and provided feedback on the translation in the presence of a trained interviewer. Descriptive statistics and thematic analysis were used to analyze the quantitative and qualitative data, respectively. Based on participants' concerns, translations for four of the nine symptoms were revised: drowsiness, nausea, lack of appetite, and shortness of breath. Concerns expressed for three additional symptoms (depression, anxiety, and well-being) were related to overall difficulty rating these symptoms, not specific to the translation. The French version of the ESAS-r is a credible tool for symptom assessment in Francophone patients. The study findings provide a vital step in the development of

  7. [The French lessons of anatomy].

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Alain

    2003-01-01

    The "Lessons of Anatomy" can be considered as a step of Medicine to Art. For several centuries the exhibition of a corpse's dissection was printed on the title-page of published works. Since the seventeenth century, the "Lessons of Anatomy" became a picture on the title-page in order to highlight the well-known names of the european anatomists. The study is limited to the French Lessons of Anatomy found in books or pictures after the invention of printing.

  8. A study of the 3-year incidence of diabetic retinopathy in a French diabetic population seen at Lariboisière Hospital, Paris.

    PubMed

    Perol, J; Balkau, B; Guillausseau, P-J; Massin, P

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated the incidence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) over a 3-year period in a French population that was followed by OPHDIAT®, and assessed the clinical and biological risk factors associated with incident retinopathy. The studied patients were screened for DR during hospitalization for their annual diabetes check-up in the endocrinology department by two examinations three years apart. DR screening used the OPHDIAT® telemedical network, and the examination included clinical and biological data. A total of 254 patients were studied. At the 3-year follow-up, the incidence was 14.0%, (CI: 9.5-18.4%). Longer duration of diabetes and the presence of micro- or macroalbuminuria were significantly associated with incident retinopathy (P<0.05). Other potential risk factors were not statistically significantly related to DR progression, and only treatment with insulin showed a trend towards significance (P<0.20). This study provides the first French data on the incidence of DR, which was estimated after a 3-year follow-up at 14.0%. Longer duration of time from the onset of diabetes and higher baseline albuminuria were the only statistically significant risk factors found for the incidence of DR after our 3-year study. Nevertheless, microalbuminuria should be more widely used in ophthalmological practice in the assessment of DR, as is already the case for both blood pressure and HbA(1c). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Venus transits - A French view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Débarbat, Suzanne

    2005-04-01

    After a careful study of Mars observations obtained by Tycho Brahé (1546-1601), Kepler (1571-1630) discovered the now-called Kepler's third law. In 1627 he published his famous Tabulae Rudolphinae, a homage to his protector Rudolph II (1552-1612), tables (Kepler 1609, 1627) from which he predicted Mercury and Venus transits over the Sun. In 1629 Kepler published his Admonitio ad Astronomos Advertisement to Astronomers (Kepler 1630), Avertissement aux Astronomes in French Au sujet de phénomènes rares et étonnants de l'an 1631: l'incursion de Vénus et de Mercure sur le Soleil. This was the beginning of the interest of French astronomers, among many others, in such transits, mostly for Venus, the subject of this paper in which dates are given in the Gregorian calendar.

  10. The role of form and meaning in the processing of written morphology: A priming study in French developing readers.

    PubMed

    Quémart, Pauline; Casalis, Séverine; Colé, Pascale

    2011-08-01

    Three visual priming experiments using three different prime durations (60ms in Experiment 1, 250ms in Experiment 2, and 800ms in Experiment 3) were conducted to examine which properties of morphemes (form and/or meaning) drive developing readers' processing of written morphology. French third, fifth, and seventh graders and adults (the latter as a control group) performed lexical decision tasks in which targets were preceded by morphological (e.g., tablette-TABLE, "little table-table"), pseudoderived (e.g., baguette-BAGUE, "little stick-ring"), orthographic control (e.g., abricot-ABRI, "apricot-shelter"), and semantic control (e.g., Tulipe-FLEUR, "tulip-flower") primes. Across all groups, different patterns of priming were observed in both morphological and orthographic/semantic control conditions, suggesting that they all process morphemes as units when reading. In developing readers, the processing of written morphology is triggered by the form properties of morphemes, and their semantic properties are activated later in the time course of word recognition. In adults, patterns of priming were similar except that the activation of the form properties of morphemes decreased earlier in the time course of word recognition. Taken together, these findings indicate that French developing readers process both the form and meaning properties of morphemes when reading and support a progressive quantitative change in the development of morphological processing over the course of reading development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The French Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children.

    PubMed

    Putois, Benjamin; Leslie, Wendy; Gustin, Marie Paule; Challamel, Marie-Josèphe; Raoux, Aude; Guignard-Perret, Anne; Weick, Diane; Sauzeau, Jean-Baptiste; Herbillon, Vania; Zourou, Filio; Spruyt, Karen; Franco, Patricia

    2017-04-01

    The psychometric properties of the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC) have been shown to be accurate, even when translated into several languages. The aim of the present study was to translate, adapt, and validate the SDSC for a French-speaking population. After forward- and back-translation, the tool was further translated and adapted into the French language. It was then pretested in terms of clarity on 33 French-speaking parents. Pretesting demonstrated that the questionnaire was well understood, indicating good clarity. During the validation phase, a total of 447 French-speaking parents of children aged between 4 and 16  years completed the SDSC. Among these, 66 children were diagnosed with sleep disorders by a pediatric specialist after a sleep consultation and polysomnographic recordings. The factor analysis revealed five factors: difficulty in initiating and maintaining sleep (DIMS), sleep breathing disorders (SBD), disorders of excessive somnolence (DOES), parasomnias (PARA) and non-restorative sleep (NRS). This psychometric structure is reliable and logical in comparison with the experts' diagnoses. Convergent validity, divergent and internal reliability are very good. Inter-parental concordance in scoring the child's sleep problem does show differences in the ways in which parents report their children's sleep patterns. Cut-off was calculated for the total score (45). This study validated a 25-item French version of the questionnaire. The French SDSC could therefore be used to aid screening of sleep disorders in the general population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Is dengue and malaria co-infection more severe than single infections? A retrospective matched-pair study in French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Dengue and malaria are two major arthropod-borne infections in tropical areas, but dual infections were only described for the first time in 2005. Reports of these concomitant infections are scarce and there is no evidence of more severe clinical and biological pictures than single infections. Methods To compare co-infections to dengue alone and malaria alone, a retrospective matched-pair study was conducted between 2004 and 2010 among patients admitted in the emergency department of Cayenne hospital, French Guiana. Results 104 dengue and malaria co-infection cases were identified during the study period and 208 individuals were matched in two comparison groups: dengue alone and malaria alone. In bivariate analysis, co-infection clinical picture was more severe than separated infections, in particular using the severe malaria WHO criteria. In multivariate analysis, independent factors associated with co-infection versus dengue were: masculine gender, CRP level > 50 mg/L, thrombocytopaenia < 50 109/L, and low haematocrit <36% and independent factors significantly associated with co-infections versus malaria were red cells transfusion, low haematocrit < 36%, thrombocytopaenia < 50 109/L and low Plasmodium parasitic load < 0.001%. Conclusions In the present study, dengue and malaria co-infection clinical picture seems to be more severe than single infections in French Guiana, with a greater risk of deep thrombocytopaenia and anaemia. PMID:22549018

  13. A new set of 299 pictures for psycholinguistic studies: French norms for name agreement, image agreement, conceptual familiarity, visual complexity, image variability, age of acquisition, and naming latencies.

    PubMed

    Bonin, Patrick; Peereman, Ronald; Malardier, Nathalie; Méot, Alain; Chalard, Marylène

    2003-02-01

    Pictures are often used as stimuli in studies of perception, language, and memory. Since performances on different sets of pictures are generally contrasted, stimulus selection requires the use of standardized material to match pictures across different variables. Unfortunately, the number of standardized pictures available for empirical research is rather limited. The aim of the present study is to provide French normative data for a new set of 299 black-and-white drawings. Alario and Ferrand (1999) were closely followed in that the pictures were standardized on six variables name agreement, image agreement, conceptual familiarity, visual complexity, image variability, and age of acquisition. Objective frequency measures are also provided for themost common names associated with the pictures. Comparative analyses between our results and the norms obtained in other, similar studies are reported. Finally, naming latencies corresponding to the set of pictures were also collected from French native speakers, and correlational/multiple-regression analyses were performed on naming latencies. This new set of standardized pictures is available on the Internet (http://leadserv.u-bourgogne.fr/bases/pictures/) and should be of great use to researchers when they select pictorial stimuli.

  14. Contribution of Organic Food to the Diet in a Large Sample of French Adults (the NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study).

    PubMed

    Baudry, Julia; Méjean, Caroline; Allès, Benjamin; Péneau, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-10-21

    In developed countries, the demand for organic products continues to substantially increase each year. However, little information is available regarding the level of consumption of organic food and its relative share of the whole diet. Our aim was to provide, using individual consumption data, a detailed description of organic food consumption among French adults. Conventional and organic intakes were assessed using an organic food frequency questionnaire administered to 28,245 French adults participating in the NutriNet-Santé study. P values of Student t-test or Chi-square for the difference between genders were reported. Less than 12% of the respondents reported never consuming organic food in the past year. Women consumed on average 20% organic food in their whole diet per day while men consumed an average of 18%. The proportion of vegetables consumed that came from organic sources was 31% among women and 28% among men. Overall, the estimate of the contribution of organic food from products of plant origin was higher than that from products of animal origin. Our study provides a framework for the exploration of organic consumption and its correlates and can serve as a basis for future studies investigating relationships between the level of organic food consumption and health outcomes.

  15. Contribution of Organic Food to the Diet in a Large Sample of French Adults (the NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study)

    PubMed Central

    Baudry, Julia; Méjean, Caroline; Allès, Benjamin; Péneau, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-01-01

    In developed countries, the demand for organic products continues to substantially increase each year. However, little information is available regarding the level of consumption of organic food and its relative share of the whole diet. Our aim was to provide, using individual consumption data, a detailed description of organic food consumption among French adults. Conventional and organic intakes were assessed using an organic food frequency questionnaire administered to 28,245 French adults participating in the NutriNet-Santé study. P values of Student t-test or Chi-square for the difference between genders were reported. Less than 12% of the respondents reported never consuming organic food in the past year. Women consumed on average 20% organic food in their whole diet per day while men consumed an average of 18%. The proportion of vegetables consumed that came from organic sources was 31% among women and 28% among men. Overall, the estimate of the contribution of organic food from products of plant origin was higher than that from products of animal origin. Our study provides a framework for the exploration of organic consumption and its correlates and can serve as a basis for future studies investigating relationships between the level of organic food consumption and health outcomes. PMID:26506372

  16. Studies of radon-exposed miner cohorts using a biologically based model: comparison of current Czech and French data with historic data from China and Colorado.

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, W F; Tomásek, L; Rogel, A; Laurier, D; Tirmarche, M

    2004-12-01

    The biologically based two-stage clonal expansion (TSCE) model is used to analyze lung cancer in several miners studies, two new ones (Czech, French) and two historic ones (Chinese, Colorado). In all cases, the model assumptions are identical. An action of radiation on initiation, promotion, and transformation is allowed. While all four studies indicate a highly significant action of radiation on promotion, the action on initiation is not significant in the French cohort, and barely significant in the Colorado miners cohort. No action on transformation is found in the Colorado miners, while the other data sets indicate a borderline significance. The model can describe all the data sets adequately, with different model parameters. The observed patterns in exposure, time since beginning of exposure, birth year, age and calendar year are reproduced well. The doubling exposure rate for initiation is about 3.5 WLM/year in the new data sets, while it is higher in the historic data sets. For transformation the doubling rate is about 20 WLM/year for the new data sets, while again the historic data give higher estimates. The action of radiation on promotion is quite different in the four data sets. These differences also induce different risk estimates at low exposures. The larger power of the new studies at these low exposures, compared to the historic data requires less extrapolation when the risk at very low exposures is estimated.

  17. Effect of a Mediterranean diet during pregnancy on fetal growth and preterm delivery: results from a French Caribbean Mother-Child Cohort Study (TIMOUN).

    PubMed

    Saunders, Lauren; Guldner, Laurence; Costet, Nathalie; Kadhel, Philippe; Rouget, Florence; Monfort, Christine; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Multigner, Luc; Cordier, Sylvaine

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that a Mediterranean dietary pattern during pregnancy may influence pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MD) during pregnancy on fetal growth restriction (FGR) and preterm delivery (PTD) in a French Caribbean island where the population is largely of African descent and presents dietary patterns similar to MD. Using data from the TIMOUN Mother-Child Cohort Study conducted in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) between 2004 and 2007, we analysed data for 728 pregnant women who delivered liveborn singletons without any major congenital malformations. Degree of adherence to MD during pregnancy was evaluated with a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire based on nine dietary criteria. Multiple logistic regression models were used to analyse birth outcomes while taking potential confounders into account. Overall there was no association between MD adherence during pregnancy and the risk of PTD or FGR. However, pre-pregnancy body mass index was a strong effect modifier, and MD adherence was associated with a decreased risk of PTD specifically in overweight and obese women (adjusted odds ratio 0.7, 95% confidence interval 0.6, 0.9) (P heterogeneity <0.01). These results suggest that Caribbean diet during pregnancy may carry some benefits of MD and may contribute to reduce the risk of PTD in overweight and obese pregnant women. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Efficacy and Tolerance of Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor α Agents in Cutaneous Sarcoidosis: A French Study of 46 Cases.

    PubMed

    Heidelberger, Valentine; Ingen-Housz-Oro, Saskia; Marquet, Alicia; Mahevas, Matthieu; Bessis, Didier; Bouillet, Laurence; Caux, Frédéric; Chapelon-Abric, Catherine; Debarbieux, Sébastien; Delaporte, Emmanuel; Duval-Modeste, Anne-Bénédicte; Fain, Olivier; Joly, Pascal; Marchand-Adam, Sylvain; Monfort, Jean-Benoît; Noël, Nicolas; Passeron, Thierry; Ruivard, Marc; Sarrot-Reynauld, Françoise; Verrot, Denis; Bouvry, Diane; Fardet, Laurence; Chosidow, Olivier; Sève, Pascal; Valeyre, Dominique

    2017-07-01

    Evidence for the long-term efficacy and safety of anti-tumor necrosis factor α agents (anti-TNF) in treating cutaneous sarcoidosis is lacking. To determine the efficacy and safety of anti-TNF in treating cutaneous sarcoidosis in a large observational study. STAT (Sarcoidosis Treated with Anti-TNF) is a French retrospective and prospective multicenter observational database that receives data from teaching hospitals and referral centers, as well as several pneumology, dermatology, and internal medicine departments. Included patients had histologically proven sarcoidosis and received anti-TNF between January 2004 and January 2016. We extracted data for patients with skin involvement at anti-TNF initiation. Response to treatment was evaluated for skin and visceral involvement using the ePOST (extra-pulmonary Physician Organ Severity Tool) severity score (from 0 [not affected] to 6 [very severe involvement]). Epidemiological and cutaneous features at baseline, efficacy, steroid-sparing, safety, and relapses were recorded. The overall cutaneous response rate (OCRR) was defined as complete (final cutaneous ePOST score of 0 or 1) or partial response (ePOST drop ≥2 points from baseline but >1 at last follow-up). Among 140 patients in the STAT database, 46 had skin involvement. The most frequent lesions were lupus pernio (n = 21 [46%]) and nodules (n = 20 [43%]). The median cutaneous severity score was 5 and/or 6 at baseline. Twenty-one patients were treated for skin involvement and 25 patients for visceral involvement. Reasons for initiating anti-TNF were failure or adverse effects of previous therapy in 42 patients (93%). Most patients received infliximab (n = 40 [87%]), with systemic steroids in 28 cases (61%) and immunosuppressants in 32 cases (69.5%). The median (range) follow-up was 45 (3-103) months. Of the 46 patients with sarcoidosis and skin involvement who were treated with anti-TNF were included, median (range) age was 50 (14-78) years, and 33

  19. Coagulopathy and transfusion requirements in war related penetrating traumatic brain injury. A single centre study in a French role 3 medical treatment facility in Afghanistan.

    PubMed

    Bordes, J; Joubert, C; Esnault, P; Montcriol, A; Nguyen, C; Meaudre, E; Dulou, R; Dagain, A

    2017-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury associated coagulopathy is frequent, either in isolated traumatic brain injury in civilian practice and in combat traumatic brain injury. In war zone, it is a matter of concern because head and neck are the second most frequent site of wartime casualty burden. Data focusing on transfusion requirements in patients with war related TBI coagulopathy are limited. A descriptive analysis was conducted of 77 penetrating traumatic brain injuries referred to a French role 3 medical treatment facility in Kabul, Afghanistan, deployed on the Kabul International Airport (KaIA), over a 30 months period. On 77 patients, 23 died during the prehospital phase and were not included in the study. Severe traumatic brain injury represented 50% of patients. Explosions were the most common injury mechanism. Extracranial injuries were present in 72% of patients. Traumatic brain injury coagulopathy was diagnosed in 67% of patients at role 3 admission. Red blood cell units (RBCu) were transfused in 39 (72%) patients, French lyophilized plasma (FLYP) in 41 (76%), and fresh whole blood (FWB) in 17 (31%). The results of this study support previous observations of coagulopathy as a frequent complication of traumatic brain injury. The majority of patients with war related penetrating traumatic brain injury presented with extracranial lesions. Most of them required a high level of transfusion capacity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Translating Word-Play: French-English, English-French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, W. Terrence

    1986-01-01

    The linguistic complexity of humor is illustrated with examples of word play translated from French to English and English to French. Examples from the writings of James Joyce and Marcel Proust are highlighted. (CB)

  1. Translating Word-Play: French-English, English-French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, W. Terrence

    1986-01-01

    The linguistic complexity of humor is illustrated with examples of word play translated from French to English and English to French. Examples from the writings of James Joyce and Marcel Proust are highlighted. (CB)

  2. Occupation and head and neck cancer risk in men: results from the ICARE study, a French population-based case-control study.

    PubMed

    Paget-Bailly, Sophie; Guida, Florence; Carton, Matthieu; Menvielle, Gwenn; Radoï, Loredana; Cyr, Diane; Schmaus, Annie; Cénée, Sylvie; Papadopoulos, Alexandra; Févotte, Joëlle; Pilorget, Corinne; Velten, Michel; Guizard, Anne-Valérie; Stücker, Isabelle; Luce, Danièle

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the associations between occupations and head and neck (HN) cancer risk in men. ICARE is a French population-based case-control study on HN cancer. Analyses included 1833 cases and 2747 controls. Complete occupational history was collected. Odds ratios (ORs) were estimated for occupations and industries ever held and according to duration of employment. Elevated ORs, increasing with duration of employment, were observed for several occupations, including cleaners (OR = 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0 to 2.8), launderers (OR = 6.8; CI, 1.3 to 34.4), firefighters (OR = 3.9; CI, 1.4 to 11.2), several agricultural occupations, welders (OR = 1.9; CI, 1.3 to 2.8), structural metal preparers and erectors (OR = 2.1; CI, 1.2 to 3.7), rubber workers (OR = 2.0; CI, 1.0 to 3.9), several construction occupations, and material-handling equipment operators (OR = 1.8; CI, 1.1 to 2.9). Analyses by industry corroborated these findings. These results confirmed the role of occupational exposures in HN cancer.

  3. French Antilles and Guiana.

    PubMed

    1983-11-01

    This discussion of French Antilles and Guiana cover the following: the people, geography, history, government, political conditions, economy, and relations with the US. In 1983 the population totaled 303,000 with an annual growth rate of 0.09%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 12.6/1000 and life expectancy 68 years. About 98% of the people of Martinique are of Afro European or Afro European Indian descent. The remainder are the old planter families and a sizable number of metropolitan French. Most of the work force are employed in agriculture or food processing and associated industries. Most permanent residents of Guadeloupe are of mixed Afro European descent. A few thousand Metropolitan French reside there. Most French Guianese live along the coast, about 1/2 of them in the capital. Martinique is the northernmost of the Windward Islands, which are part of the Lesser Antilles chain in the Caribbean Sea southeast of Puerto Rico. Guadeloupe comprises 2 of the Leeward Islands, which are also part of the Lesser Antilles chain. French Guiana is located on the northern coast of South America, a few degrees north of the Equator. Indians were the 1st known indigenous inhabitants of French Guiana and the French Antilles. Columbus sighted Guadeloupe in 1493, Martinique in 1493 or 1502, and the Guiana coast probably during his 3rd voyage in 1498. French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique, as overseas departments of France since 1946, are integral parts of the French Republic. Their relationship to Metropolitan France is somewhat similar to that of Alaska and Hawaii to the counterminous US. Each department has a general council composed of 1 representative elected by each canton. Guadeloupe and Martinique each elect 2 senators to the French Senate and 3 deputies to the National Assembly. French Guiana elects 1 senator and 1 deputy. In each of the 3 departments exist individuals and small political parties that advocate immediate independence, but their adherents form only

  4. Mid-life occupational grade and quality of life following retirement: a 16-year follow-up of the French GAZEL study

    PubMed Central

    Platts, Loretta G.; Webb, Elizabeth; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel; Netuveli, Gopalakrishnan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This article aims to contribute to the literature on life course influences upon quality of life by examining pathways linking social position in middle age to quality of life following retirement in French men and women. Method: Data are from the GAZEL cohort study of employees at the French national gas and electricity company. A finely grained measure of occupational grade in 1989 was obtained from company records. Annual self-completion questionnaires provided information on quality of life in 2005, measured with the CASP-19 scale, and on participants’ recent circumstances 2002–2005: mental health, physical functioning, wealth, social status, neighbourhood characteristics, social support and social participation. Path analysis using full information maximum likelihood estimation was performed on 11,293 retired participants. Results: Higher occupational grade in 1989 was associated, in a graded relationship, with better quality of life 16 years later. This association was accounted for by individuals’ more recent circumstances, particularly their social status, mental health, physical functioning and wealth. Conclusion: The graded relationship between occupational grade in mid-life and quality of life after labour market exit was largely accounted for by more recent socio-economic circumstances and state of health. The results support a pathway model for the development of social disparities in quality of life, in which earlier social position shapes individual circumstances in later life. PMID:25220504

  5. Is there any impact of HLA-DPB1 disparity in 10/10 HLA-matched unrelated hematopoietic SCT? Results of a French multicentric retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Gagne, K; Loiseau, P; Dubois, V; Dufossé, F; Perrier, P; Dormoy, A; Jollet, I; Renac, V; Masson, D; Picard, C; Lafarge, X; Hanau, D; Quainon, F; Delbos, F; Coeffic, B; Absi, Léna; Eliaou, J-F; Moalic, V; Fort, M; de Matteis, M; Theodorou, I; Hau, F; Batho, A; Pedron, B; Caillat-Zucman, S; Marry, E; Raus, N; Yakoub-Agha, I; Cesbron, A

    2015-02-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the impact of HLA-DPB1 mismatches in a large cohort of 1342 French patients who underwent 10/10 HLA-matched unrelated HSCT. A significant impact of HLA-DPB1 allelic mismatches (2 vs 0) was observed in severe acute GVHD (aGVHDIII-IV) (risk ratio (RR)=1.73, confidence interval (CI) 95% 1.09-2.73, P=0.019) without impact on OS, TRM, relapse and chronic GVHD (cGVHD). According to the T-cell epitope 3 (TCE3)/TCE4 HLA-DPB1 disparity algorithm, 37.6% and 58.4% pairs had nonpermissive HLA-DPB1, respectively. TCE3 and TCE4 disparities had no statistical impact on OS, TRM, relapse, aGVHD and cGVHD. When TCE3/TCE4 disparities were analyzed in the graft-vs-host or host-vs-graft (HVG) direction, only a significant impact of TCE4 nonpermissive disparities in the HVG direction was observed on relapse (RR=1.34, CI 95% 1.00-1.80, P=0.048). In conclusion, this French retrospective study shows an adverse prognosis of HLA-DPB1 mismatches (2 vs 0) on severe aGVHD and of nonpermissive TCE4 HVG disparities on relapse after HLA-matched 10/10 unrelated HSCT.

  6. Spectrum and impact of health problems during deployment: a prospective, multicenter study of French soldiers operating in Afghanistan, Lebanon and Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Olivier; Roqueplo, Cédric; Rapp, Christophe

    2014-01-01

    More than 15 000 French soldiers are continuously deployed abroad. Along with combat-related injuries, they are exposed to non-combat-related diseases with an underestimated burden. Our objectives were to assess the incidence and impact of health problems on their operating capacity. A prospective multicenter study was conducted over more than three months in Lebanon, Côte d'Ivoire and Afghanistan including exclusively French soldiers. We collected 4349 consultations (Afghanistan {n = 719}, Lebanon {n = 1401} and Côte d'Ivoire {n = 2229}) encompassing 4600 health problems. Injuries (21%), diarrhea (19%), dermatoses (17.5%) and respiratory tract infections (10.45%) were the most frequent health issues. Infectious diseases represented 41% of all health problems. Almost nine out of ten patients were managed as outpatients. Ten combat-related deaths were observed. We reported 68 (1.5%) medical repatriations of which 28 and 26 were psychiatric and trauma cases respectively. Partial or complete incapacity was estimated 724 days/1000 men/month. Etiological spectrum was similar in all three countries however, the incidence of diarrhea (p < 0.05) as well as inpatient management and medical evacuation rates were higher (p < 0.0001) in Afghanistan. There was a wide spectrum of health problems occurring during military deployments with a predominance of common infections. Non-combat-related pathology represented an important burden for the loss of operating capacity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Understanding of others' knowledge in French and Japanese children: a comparative study with a disambiguation task on 16-38-month-olds.

    PubMed

    Norimatsu, H; Blin, R; Hashiya, K; Sorsana, Ch; Kobayashi, H

    2014-11-01

    In order to explain the cultural differences reported in the results of false-belief tasks, we attempted to verify the 'task bias hypothesis' suggested by certain studies (e.g. Tardif et al. (2004). Journal of Child Language, 31, 779-800; Rubio-Fernandez & Geurts (2013). Psychological Science, 24(1), 27-33. doi 10.1177/0956797612447819). At the same time, we aimed to observe the theory of mind (ToM) ability of infants and young children under the age of three in verbal communication. To this end, we propose a new protocol to test young children's ToM ability, with particular attention paid to the linguistic aspect of the task. This original disambiguation task using proper nouns (first names) was tested on a total of 32 children aged between 16 and 38 months, in France and Japan. The results revealed that after the age of 30 months children begin to correctly interpret nouns while simultaneously taking into account their partner's knowledge (50% of the French and 29% of the Japanese children were successful), whereas this remains difficult for younger children (no child under 30 months was successful). The analysis of error types has shown that 'memory bias' was dominant in younger children in particular and 'association bias' was rarely observed across all ages. Given that the results of French and Japanese children did not differ significantly, we assume that this new task design could minimise the influence of cultural difference caused by the characteristics of different languages.

  8. Drug interactions between antihypertensive drugs and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents: a descriptive study using the French Pharmacovigilance database.

    PubMed

    Fournier, Jean-Pascal; Sommet, Agnès; Durrieu, Geneviève; Poutrain, Jean-Christophe; Lapeyre-Mestre, Maryse; Montastruc, Jean-Louis

    2014-04-01

    Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between antihypertensive drugs and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) can lead to adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Guidelines are available to help prescribers deal with these drug associations, but their implementation is not well evaluated. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of NSAIDs exposure in patients treated with antihypertensive drugs, using the French Pharmacovigilance database, and explore the ADRs related to DDIs between antihypertensive drugs and NSAIDs. Over the 11, 442 notifications of ADRs recorded in this database in patients treated with oral antihypertensive drugs between 2008 and 2010, 517 (4.5 and 95% CI: 4.1-4.9) also included exposure to NSAIDs. These subjects were more frequently women, took more drugs in general, and were younger and less frequently treated with antiplatelet drugs. In 24.2% of them (125 patients), a DDI between NSAIDs and antihypertensive drugs was potentially the cause of the reported ADR. Acute renal failure caused by DDIs between NSAIDs and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), or diuretics was the most frequently reported ADR (20.7%). Finally, in the French Pharmacovigilance database, around one-fourth of associations NSAIDs  +  antihypertensive drugs are associated with a 'serious' ADR (mainly acute renal failure), suggesting that this well-known DDI is not enough taken into account by prescribers.

  9. The French version of the autism-spectrum quotient in adolescents: a cross-cultural validation study.

    PubMed

    Sonié, Sandrine; Kassai, Behrouz; Pirat, Elodie; Bain, Paul; Robinson, Janine; Gomot, Marie; Barthélémy, Catherine; Charvet, Dorothée; Rochet, Thierry; Tatou, Mohamed; Assouline, Brigitte; Cabrol, Stéphane; Chabane, Nadia; Arnaud, Valérie; Faure, Patricia; Manificat, Sabine

    2013-05-01

    We assessed the accuracy of the French version of the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ) in adolescents with Asperger syndrome (AS) and high-functioning autism (HFA) compared to healthy controls and adolescents with psychiatric disorders (PDs). Three groups of adolescents, aged 11-18, were assessed: 116 with AS/HFA (93 with IQ ≥ 85 and 20 with 70 ≤ IQ < 85), 39 with other PDs, and 199 healthy controls. The AS/HFA group scored significantly higher than the healthy control and PD groups. A cut-off score of 26 was used to differentiate the autism group from healthy controls with 0.89 sensitivity and 0.98 specificity. Scores did not vary by age or sex.

  10. [Multidisciplinary team meetings settings on the management of women at high risk of inherited breast cancer. A French study].

    PubMed

    Gillmann, Fanchon; Cordier, Christophe; Taris, Nicolas; Mathelin, Carole; Maugard, Christine M

    2016-06-01

    In France, 126 centers for cancer genetics coordinate genetic testing and high-risk cancer surveillance for individuals and their families with hereditary cancer syndromes. Since 2012, the French National Cancer Institute (INCa) supports 17 projects to promote and manage the monitoring of individuals genetically predisposed to cancer. They were assigned 4 missions by INCa including expertise for difficult cases. We initiated a national survey to assess how the oncogenetic clinics responded to the 4th mission for women at high risk of developing breast cancers. We sent the survey to all the French oncogeneticists. We aimed at evaluating the modalities and the extent of implementation of the Multidisciplinary team (MDT) meetings regarding the management of women who have genetically higher risks to develop breast cancer. Fourteen people from 12 administrative regions, who represent 10 of the 17 projects, answered the form. Eleven participants reported the submission of medical cases in Oncogenetics MDT meetings (79 %), 5 in senology MDT meetings (36 %), 5 in MDT meetings dedicated to patients at high risk for breast cancer (36 %) and 2 in network meetings (14 %). Some structures discuss medical cases through different MDT meetings. Although MDT meetings are valuable practices to optimize treatment or management options for patients, its settings might be subject to difficulties to federate the appropriate-number of participants as well as cost-effectiveness issues. This survey thus suggests the need of a standardized process of MDT meetings while taking account specificities of oncogenetics. Copyright © 2016 Société Française du Cancer. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. French for Marketing. Using French in Media and Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, R. E.; Chebli-Saadi, M.

    The textbook, entirely in French, is designed to help prepare anglophone students for French language usage in the media and telecommunications. It is organized according to two major themes. The first part addresses the French of advertising; chapter topics include the actors in advertising (agencies, announcers, supports), forms of advertising,…

  12. French for Marketing. Using French in Media and Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, R. E.; Chebli-Saadi, M.

    The textbook, entirely in French, is designed to help prepare anglophone students for French language usage in the media and telecommunications. It is organized according to two major themes. The first part addresses the French of advertising; chapter topics include the actors in advertising (agencies, announcers, supports), forms of advertising,…

  13. The French Revolution and the French Language: A Paradox?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djite, Paulin

    1992-01-01

    Explores the relationship between revolutionary ideals and the subsequent expansion and promotion of the French language. It is shown, through a linguistic and sociopolitical history of the French Revolution and the French language, that there is no incompatibility between the two and that the movement of Francophonie is a continuation of France's…

  14. The French Revolution and the French Language: A Paradox?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djite, Paulin

    1992-01-01

    Explores the relationship between revolutionary ideals and the subsequent expansion and promotion of the French language. It is shown, through a linguistic and sociopolitical history of the French Revolution and the French language, that there is no incompatibility between the two and that the movement of Francophonie is a continuation of France's…

  15. French nuclear physics accelerator opens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumé, Belle

    2016-12-01

    A new €140m particle accelerator for nuclear physics located at the French Large Heavy Ion National Accelerator (GANIL) in Caen was inaugurated last month in a ceremony attended by French president François Hollande.

  16. [About the relationship between medicine and social sciences: the French Foundation for the Study of Human Problems or Carrel Foundation (1941-1945)].

    PubMed

    Drouard, A

    1994-01-01

    Nobel Prize winner for medicine in 1912, author of a widely acclaimed best seller which was published in English and in French in 1935, Man, the Unknown, Alexis Carrel was Regent of the French Foundation for the Study of Human Problems from 1942 to 1944, during the Second World War in France. The Foundation, known as the "Carrel Foundation", was created as a financially autonomous public establishment with full legal status and had a dual mission: to stkudy "all possible means of safeguarding, improving and developing the French population" (1) and to "synthesize efforts undertaken by its own members or by others and to develop the science of man" (2). Considering its short official existence and the exceptional circumstances of the period, the scientific work of the Foundation is impressive: the demographical analyses undertaken by R. Gessain, P. Tincent, and J. Bourgeois; the pioneer work of J. Sutter in nutrition; J. Merlet's work on group settings; the Gallup polls undertaken by J. Stoetzel's team; and the work and publications of the F. Perroux Department of Bio-Sociology, without failing to mention the study carried out on a group of one hundred thousand children. Amongst the effects of the Foundation, one must mention the National Institute of Demographic Studies (INED) and with it, the establishment of one of the most active and productive research groups in the Social and Human Sciences in France. There are other initiatives and activities which form part of the Foundation's inheritance: the creation in 1947 by Dr A. Gros, former Vice-regent of the Foundation, of the group of "Advisers in Synthesis"; the jkoint creation ten years later by D Gros and G. Berger of the group and the publication "Prospective"; the wide multidisciplinary study undertaken by the (DGRST) "Délégation Générale à la Recherche Scientifique et Technique" undertaken in 1960 thanks to the initiative of R. Gessain and of J. Sutter; and the Monaco Forums on Social Sciences, not to

  17. Incidence of adverse events in antipsychotic-naïve children and adolescents treated with antipsychotic drugs: a French multicentre naturalistic study protocol (ETAPE)

    PubMed Central

    Menard, Marie-Line; Thümmler, Susanne; Giannitelli, Marianna; Olliac, Bertrand; Bonnot, Olivier; Cohen, David; Askenazy, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In France, over recent years, the prescription rate of antipsychotic (AP) remained stable in children and adolescents. Prescription of second-generation antipsychotics increased, whereas prescription of first-generation antipsychotics decreased. Off-label prescriptions are very frequent in this population. Adverse events (AEs) in youth treated with AP are common and may be severe. AEs have hitherto been poorly monitored in naturalistic studies independent from industry. Method and analysis We describe a French prospective multicentre study in an AP-naïve paediatric population named Etude de la Tolérance des AntiPsychotique chez l'Enfant (ETAPE). The study started in April 2013. So far, 200 patients have been included. The inclusion criteria are: male or female inpatients aged from 6 to 18 years, treated with an AP drug for less than 28 days, never been treated or having received AP for less than 3 months, discontinued at least 6 months prior to inclusion. These assessments of AE are performed at inclusion, as well as at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the introduction of the AP. The monitoring period will end in May 2016. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee ‘Sud Méditerrané V’ (number 12.082) and by the French National Agency for Medicines and Health Products Safety (number 2012-004546-15). All patients and their parents signed informed consent on enrolment in the study. We will submit the results of the study to relevant journals and offer national and international presentations. This study will enable better characterisation of the prescription of AP drugs. The results will further help to develop quality standards and recommendations for monitoring AE during the prescription of AP. Trial registration number NCT02007928. PMID:27053275

  18. America's Tolerance for French Radicalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolin, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The publication of Francois Cusset's "French Theory" raises a series of fascinating questions concerning the trans-Atlantic transmission and circulation of ideas. Most important, it impels everyone to inquire why for a time French thought managed to flourish in American universities while French intellectuals rapidly abandoned the entire…

  19. Aspects of Bordeaux French Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochet, Bernard

    Among the characteristics which set Bordeaux French apart from Standard French are the rules governing the behavior of its mid-vowels. These rules are much simpler and more extensive (in that they also apply to unstressed vowels) than in Standard French. Their application is, however, systematically conditioned by the presence or absence of word…

  20. Patient-Reported Treatment Satisfaction with Rivaroxaban for Stroke Prevention in Atrial Fibrillation. A French Observational Study, the SAFARI Study

    PubMed Central

    Hanon, Olivier; Chaussade, Edouard; Gueranger, Pierre; Gruson, Elise; Bonan, Sabrina; Gay, Alain

    2016-01-01

    Background For antithrombotic treatments, Patient Reported Outcomes (PRO) and patient satisfaction with treatment are essential data for physicians because of the strong relationship between patient satisfaction and adherence to treatment. The impact of rivaroxaban on patient satisfaction and quality of life was not sufficiently documented in phase III studies. There is a need for further data in this field especially in real life conditions. Methods The SAFARI study is composed of patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF), previously treated with vitamin K antagonist (VKA) and switched to rivaroxaban. Patient satisfaction with anticoagulant therapy was measured by the Anti-Clot Treatment Scale (ACTS), a validated 15-item patient-reported scale including a 12-item ACTS Burdens scale and a 3-item ACTS Benefits scale. Satisfaction of medication was compared between baseline and 1, 3 and 6 months. Results Study population was composed of 405 patients. Mean age was 74.8 (standard deviation = 9.0) years and 63.0% were male. Mean CHA2DS2-VASc score was 3.4 (1.5) and mean HAS-BLED score was 2.9 (1.0). After 3 months of treatment with rivaroxaban, patient satisfaction improved compared with VKA: mean ACTS burdens scores significantly increased by 8.3 (8.9) points (p<0.0001) and ACTS benefits scale by 0.4 (2.9) (p<0.001). Compared with baseline, the improvement in ACTS burdens and benefits became apparent at 1 month (46.5 vs. 53.6 p<0.001 and 10.4 vs. 10.7, p<0.05 respectively) and persisted at 6 months (46.5 vs. 54.76 p<0.001 and 10.4 vs. 10.8 p = 0.02 respectively). Rivaroxaban persistence was 88.7% at 6 months. Conclusions SAFARI data support a good risk-benefit balance for rivaroxaban, with a good safety profile and encourage PRO design studies. The switch from VKA to rivaroxaban improved patient satisfaction at 1, 3 and 6 months after rivaroxaban initiation among patients with AF, particularly in reducing patient-reported anticoagulation burden. PMID:27935987