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Sample records for french intermede study

  1. Ethnobotany in Intermedical Spaces: The Case of the Fulni-ô Indians (Northeastern Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Soldati, Gustavo Taboada; Paulino de Albuquerque, Ulysses

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the Fulni-ô medical system and introduced its intermedical character based on secondary data published in the literature. Then we focused on the medicinal plants known to the ethnic group, describing the most important species, their therapeutic uses and the body systems attributed to them. We based this analysis on the field experience of the authors in the project Studies for the Environmental and Cultural Sustainability of the Fulni-ô Medical System: Office of Medicinal Plant Care. This traditional botanical knowledge was used to corroborate the hybrid nature of local practices for access to health. We show that intermedicality is a result not only of the meeting of the Fulni-ô medical system with Biomedicine but also of its meeting with other traditional systems. Finally, we discuss how traditional botanical knowledge may be directly related to the ethnogenesis process led by the Fulni-ô Indians in northeastern Brazil. PMID:21961025

  2. Stimulating Student Interest in Physiology: The Intermedical School Physiology Quiz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Hwee-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ) was initiated in 2003 during the author's last sabbatical from the University of Malaya. At this inaugural event, there were just seven competing teams from Malaysian medical schools. The challenge trophy for the IMSPQ is named in honor of Prof. A. Raman, who was the first Malaysian Professor of…

  3. Social Studies in French Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Wayne; Lee, William B.

    1978-01-01

    Examines current educational goals, curricula, and methodology of French social studies education. Investigates influences of the student riots of 1968, and considers what effect these reforms will have on the future of French education. (Author/JK)

  4. A Film Study Option for HSC French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connole, Pat

    1974-01-01

    In 1974, after a trial period of two years, the study of two selected French feature films will be offered as an option to the study of prescribed texts in Higher School Certificate French in Victoria. (Author)

  5. Misconceptions Highlighted among Medical Students in the Annual International Intermedical School Physiology Quiz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Hwee-Ming; Durairajanayagam, Damayanthi

    2012-01-01

    The annual Intermedical School Physiology Quiz (IMSPQ), initiated in 2003, is now an event that attracts a unique, large gathering of selected medical students from medical schools across the globe. The 8th IMSPQ, in 2010, hosted by the Department of Physiology, University of Malaya, in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, had 200 students representing 41…

  6. French Basic Course. Area Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This volume provides the prescribed cultural background that is part of the final phase of the Basic Course in French. The texts provide the basis for discussions and personal research through which students become acquainted with various aspects of the French-speaking world and learn the referential meaning of words and expressions as they are…

  7. French-Algonquian Interaction in Canada: A Michif Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the language contact situation between Algonquian languages and French in Canada. Michif, a French-Plains Cree mixed language, is used as a case study for linguistic results of language contact. The paper describes the phonological, morphological, and syntactic conflict sites between the grammars of Plains Cree and French, as…

  8. STUDIES OF THE LIFE WORK OF FOUR CONTEMPORARY FRENCH AUTHORS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NOSTRAND, HOWARD L.

    REPORTED ARE ANALYSES OF THE WORKS OF FOUR CONTEMPORARY FRENCH AUTHORS (RENE MARILL ALBERES, YVES BONNEFOY, MICHEL BUTOR, AND JEAN BRULLER UNDER THE PSEUDONYM VERCORS). THE ANALYSES WERE PREPARED IN FRENCH BY THE INDIVIDUAL AUTHORS FOR THE FRENCH CULTURE RESEARCH PROJECT, A LANGUAGE RESEARCH EFFORT. THE STUDIES ILLUSTRATE THE AUTHORS' THEMES IN…

  9. A Modern Curriculum in French Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Robert J.

    The French department, commonly viewed by chairmen and faculty as the conveyor of culture, is admonished to revamp its curriculum and attempt to embrace a broader, more humane understanding of the nature of culture. With the traditional, belletristic, college French curriculum having been rejected in favor of programs based on "cogency, cohesion,…

  10. "Bad French" and Nice Guys: A Morphophonetic Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Pierre; Tennant, Jeff

    1990-01-01

    A study investigated variation from certain morphophonological and phonetic features normally associated with familiar, popular, or vulgar speech as they occur in a prestigious variety of French (spoken on a French literary talk show). Phonostylistic variation in the speech of host and guests is examined. (Author/MSE)

  11. Studies in French Grammar and Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benguerel, Andre-Pierre; Grundstrom, Allan W.

    The monograph contains two papers. The first presents a generative grammar for verbal forms in French. It consists of an ordered set of rewrite rules and a set of tables. It generates all existing verbal forms without generating any non-existing ones. The departure from an ordinary generative grammar lies in the use of a tabular form for…

  12. Dietary acrylamide exposure of the French population: results of the second French Total Diet Study.

    PubMed

    Sirot, Véronique; Hommet, Frédéric; Tard, Alexandra; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2012-03-01

    Acrylamide is a heat-induced carcinogen compound that is found in some foods consequently to cooking or other thermal processes. In the second French Total Diet Study (TDS), acrylamide was analysed in 192 food samples collected in mainland France to be representative of the population diet and prepared "as consumed". Highest mean concentrations were found in potato chips/crisps (954 μg/kg), French fries and other fried potatoes (724 μg/kg), and salted biscuits other than potato chips (697 μg/kg). Exposure of general adult and child populations was assessed by combining analytical results with national consumption data. Mean acrylamide exposure was assessed to be 0.43±0.33 μg/kg of body weight (bw) per day for adults and 0.69±0.58 μg/kg bw/day for children. Although the exposure assessed is lower than in previous evaluations, the calculated margins of exposure, based on benchmark dose limits defined for carcinogenic effects, remain very low especially for young children (below 100 at the 95th percentile of exposure), indicating a health concern. It is therefore advisable to continue efforts in order to reduce dietary exposure to acrylamide.

  13. Disciplinary and Research Subjects in French Doctoral Dissertations in Press and Media Studies: A Bibliometric Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herubel, Jean-Pierre V. M.

    2007-01-01

    For English-speaking researchers, French doctoral dissertations can represent a "terra incognita." For this reason, a retrospective bibliometric study of French dissertations in press and media studies offers a useful profile of available research to researchers concentrating in studies of the press and other media. The present study offers a…

  14. Subject-Verb Agreement, Object Clitics and Wh-Questions in Bilingual French-Greek SLI: The Case Study of a French-Greek-Speaking Child with SLI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stavrakaki, Stavroula; Chrysomallis, Marie-Annick; Petraki, Evangelia

    2011-01-01

    In this study we investigate the linguistic performance of a school age French-Greek simultaneous bilingual boy with specific language impairment (SLI) on the production of subject-verb agreement, object clitic pronouns and wh-questions. In addition, we compare his performance on these linguistic structures with that of two French-Greek bilingual…

  15. The Development of a Phonological Illusion: A Cross-Linguistic Study with Japanese and French Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazuka, Reiko; Cao, Yvonne; Dupoux, Emmanuel; Christophe, Anne

    2011-01-01

    In adults, native language phonology has strong perceptual effects. Previous work has shown that Japanese speakers, unlike French speakers, break up illegal sequences of consonants with illusory vowels: they report hearing "abna" as "abuna". To study the development of phonological grammar, we compared Japanese and French infants in a…

  16. Syntactic Comprehension in Reading and Listening: A Study with French Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casalis, Severine; Leuwers, Christel; Hilton, Heather

    2013-01-01

    This study examined syntactic comprehension in French children with dyslexia in both listening and reading. In the first syntactic comprehension task, a partial version of the Epreuve de Comprehension syntaxico-semantique (ECOSSE test; French adaptation of Bishop's test for receptive grammar test) children with dyslexia performed at a lower level…

  17. A Case-Study in Family French-Immersion and Academic Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldas, Stephen J.; Caron-Caldas, Suzanne

    A study described, analyzed, and evaluated a project to rear three French-English bilingual children in a predominantly English-speaking environment. Using weekly tape recordings of spontaneous dinnertime conversation, a ratio of French-to-English utterances was calculated, and correlated with linguistically significant events documented in field…

  18. Emergency Care for Homeless Patients: A French Multicenter Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Feral-Pierssens, Anne-Laure; Aubry, Adeline; Truchot, Jennifer; Raynal, Pierre-Alexis; Boiffier, Mathieu; Hutin, Alice; Leleu, Agathe; Debruyne, Geraud; Joly, Luc-Marie; Juvin, Philippe; Riou, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To determine whether homeless patients experience suboptimal care in the emergency department (ED) by the provision of fewer health care resources. Methods. We conducted a prospective multicenter cohort study in 30 EDs in France. During 72 hours in March 2015, all homeless patients that visited the participating EDs were included in the study. The primary health care service measure was the order by the physician of a diagnostic investigation or provision of a treatment in the ED. Secondary measures of health care services included ED waiting time, number and type of investigations per patient, treatment in the ED, and discharge disposition. Results. A total of 254 homeless patients and 254 nonhomeless patients were included. After excluding homeless patients that attended the ED for the sole purpose of housing, we analyzed 214 homeless and 214 nonhomeless. We found no significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of health care resource consumption, and for our secondary endpoints. Conclusions. We did not find significant differences in the level of medical care delivered in French EDs to homeless patients compared with matched nonhomeless patients. PMID:26985613

  19. CLIM-RUN: Tourism cas study over the French Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, C.

    2012-04-01

    Climate information for societal use has becoming a major challenge for tourism management and adaptation in a context of strong climate variability and change. Within the CLIMRUN EU FP7, a case study on summer tourism in the French Alps has been identify. I will introduce the bottom-up approach use in the project where stakeholders and local users meet with climate experts. From those meetings, they thus identify the climate dependence and information which impact their summer activities over this region. All the activities are located in a mountainous region where outdoor leisure is the main economic driver of the region. It has emerged that the climate requirements are as well on past as on future climate information. On one side, the past climate parameters are found to be an invaluable information to evaluate the climate dependence of the different activities. A better knowledge as well as a growing interest in climate variability has been express to quantify the climate dependence on their activities. On the other side, the future climate information requested mainly on seasonal to decadal timescale. A particular interest has been express on the snow cover at the end of the winter season, evolution of heavy precipitations, heatwave, air temperatures and well as the water temperature of the mountainous lakes. Those climate variables are used to create comfort index under climate change. All those targeted climate information are based on on-going projects as well as future model development.

  20. Car Crashes and Central Disorders of Hypersomnolence: A French Study

    PubMed Central

    Lopez, Regis; Pesenti, Carole; Plazzi, Giuseppe; Drouot, Xavier; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Beziat, Severine; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Background Drowsiness compromises driving ability by reducing alertness and attentiveness, and delayed reaction times. Sleep-related car crashes account for a considerable proportion of accident at the wheel. Narcolepsy type 1 (NT1), narcolepsy type 2 (NT2) and idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) are rare central disorders of hypersomnolence, the most severe causes of sleepiness thus being potential dangerous conditions for both personal and public safety with increasing scientific, social, and political attention. Our main objective was to assess the frequency of recent car crashes in a large cohort of patients affected with well-defined central disorders of hypersomnolence versus subjects from the general population. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study in French reference centres for rare hypersomnia diseases and included 527 patients and 781 healthy subjects. All participants included needed to have a driving license, information available on potential accident events during the last 5 years, and on potential confounders; thus analyses were performed on 282 cases (71 IH, 82 NT2, 129 NT1) and 470 healthy subjects. Results Patients reported more frequently than healthy subjects the occurrence of recent car crashes (in the previous five years), a risk that was confirmed in both treated and untreated subjects at study inclusion (Untreated, OR = 2.21 95%CI = [1.30–3.76], Treated OR = 2.04 95%CI = [1.26–3.30]), as well as in all disease categories, and was modulated by subjective sleepiness level (Epworth scale and naps). Conversely, the risk of car accidents of patients treated for at least 5 years was not different to healthy subjects (OR = 1.23 95%CI = [0.56–2.69]). Main risk factors were analogous in patients and healthy subjects. Conclusion Patients affected with central disorders of hypersomnolence had increased risk of recent car crashes compared to subjects from the general population, a finding potentially reversed by long-term treatment. PMID:26052938

  1. Subject-verb agreement, object clitics and wh-questions in bilingual French-Greek SLI: the case study of a French-Greek-speaking child with SLI.

    PubMed

    Stavrakaki, Stavroula; Chrysomallis, Marie-Annick; Petraki, Evangelia

    2011-05-01

    In this study we investigate the linguistic performance of a school age French-Greek simultaneous bilingual boy with specific language impairment (SLI) on the production of subject-verb agreement, object clitic pronouns and wh-questions. In addition, we compare his performance on these linguistic structures with that of two French-Greek bilingual children with typical development matched on language age. Furthermore, we discuss the performance of the child with SLI in the light of published data from monolingual French and Greek school-age children with SLI, as reported in the relevant literature. The results indicated that the performance of the bilingual French-Greek-speaking child with SLI was highly comparable to that of bilingual French-Greek typically developing children and monolingual children with SLI speaking French or Greek. In addition, the results revealed a language effect on the performance of the bilingual child with SLI on subject-verb agreement, object clitics and wh-questions. We adopt a comparative linguistic approach to interpret the results and argue that the specific linguistic properties of Greek and French were significant determinants for the manifestation of SLI in each language. We suggest that bilingualism per se did not aggravate the language deficits in this child with SLI. Finally, we discuss the clinical implications of our study for language intervention in bilingual individuals with SLI.

  2. An Annotated Bibliography of Recent Studies on French Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitz, Margaret Collins

    1979-01-01

    Presents works dealing with various aspects of French women, including their role in society, history, politics, employment, and education. Entries are grouped under the following categories: (1) bibliographies; (2) general works; (3) documents (anthologies, biographies, memoirs); (4) recent titles; (5) reviews; and (6) research. (AM)

  3. Linguistic Effects of Globalization: A Case Study of French for Specific Purposes (FSP) in Kenyan Vocational Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulenda, Mubalama

    2013-01-01

    The study of French for Specific Purposes (FSP) is a topical subject in this era of globalization. Kenya requires people who can communicate in French in the various specialized areas. It has become crucial in Kenya to respond to the French language needs of students learning tourism and hospitality among other domains which have already shown an…

  4. A Longitudinal Study of the Use of the First Language (L1) in French Foreign Language (FL) Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Erin; Storch, Neomy

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated teachers' use of the first language (L1) in two French foreign language (FL) intermediate level classes at two Australian universities. A native French-speaking teacher (NS) and a non-native French-speaking teacher (NNS) were observed and audio-recorded approximately every two weeks over a 12- week semester.…

  5. Vocational identity and psychological adjustment: a study in French adolescents and emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Lannegrand-Willems, Lyda; Perchec, Cyrille; Marchal, Clotilde

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present research was to study vocational identity in French adolescent and emerging adult students by using a French adaptation of the Vocational Identity Status Assessment (VISA), and to analyze the links between vocational identity formation and negative and positive psychological adjustment. Participants were 1077 French students who completed self-report scales about vocational identity, depression and satisfaction with life. The French version of the VISA showed good psychometric properties and six identity statuses were derived by means of cluster analysis: achievement, foreclosure, moratorium, searching moratorium, diffused diffusion and carefree diffusion. The main findings show that diffused diffusion and moratorium represent the dark sides of identity because of their negative psychological adjustment, and that the two processes of reconsideration of commitment were differently associated with psychological adjustment. These findings demonstrate that clinical interventions should be adapted to the individual's identity profile.

  6. Orthographic transparency and grapheme-phoneme conversion: An ERP study in Arabic and French readers.

    PubMed

    Simon, Grégory; Bernard, Christian; Lalonde, Robert; Rebaï, Mohamed

    2006-08-01

    Numerous behavioral studies have suggested that orthographic transparency of a language is liable to influence the use of grapheme-phoneme conversion during reading. In order to test this hypothesis, the effect of orthographic transparency on event-related potentials was assessed by comparing French to Arab readers. Indeed, French language, contrary to Arabic one, was expected to favor the use of grapheme-phoneme rules during reading. Our results demonstrated that the N320, a component implicated in phonologic transcription, was modulated by orthographic transparency. Indeed, during reading in their mother tongue, only French subjects clearly elicited a N320. Moreover, the comparisons between activations elicited by Arabic words in Arab subjects and French monolingual people also confirm that the N170 component represents an important orthographic stage. The implications of these results on bilinguism and visual word recognition models are discussed.

  7. Gender stereotyping in television advertisements: a study of French and Danish television.

    PubMed

    Furnham, A; Babitzkow, M; Uguccioni, S

    2000-02-01

    Two similar, but not identical, content analyses of the portrayals of men and women in French and Danish television advertisements are reported. By partially replicating and extending past investigations conducted in America, Australia, Britain, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Italy, Kenya, and New Zealand, it was predicted that there would be more gender stereotyping in French television advertisements and less gender stereotyping in Danish television advertisements. In the first study, 165 French television advertisements were analyzed by following established coding categories (A. Furnham & E. Skae, 1997; L. Z. McArthur & B. G. Resko, 1975). Contrary to prediction, the results showed that traditional gender role portrayal on French television was no different from that found in other countries. Separate statistical analyses were carried out for visually versus aurally classified central figures, yet this yielded relatively few significant differences. In the second study, a sample of 151 Danish advertisements was analyzed; results showed that Danish television was generally less gender stereotypic than French television in its portrayal of women. Exactly half (5) of the coding categories showed significant differences. Finally, an international statistical comparison between these two studies and similar research in Australia, Britain, and Italy was carried out. The methodological implications of these results are discussed as well as the theoretical issues arising from other studies of this sort. PMID:10713902

  8. Electronic Mail, a New Written-Language Register: A Study with French-Speaking Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volckaert-Legrier, Olga; Bernicot, Josie; Bert-Erboul, Alain

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which the linguistic forms used by adolescents in electronic mail (e-mail) differ from those used in standard written language. The study was conducted in French, a language with a deep orthography that has strict, addressee-dependent rules for using second person personal pronouns (unfamiliar…

  9. Teaching Business French through Case Studies: Presentation of a Marketing Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federico, Salvatore; Moore, Catherine

    The use of case studies as a means for teaching business French is discussed. The approach is advocated because of the realism of case studies, which are based on actual occurrences. Characteristics of a good case are noted: it tells a story, focuses on interest-arousing issues, is set in the past 10 years, permits empathy with the main…

  10. Graphophonological Processes in Dyslexic Readers of French: A Longitudinal Study of the Explicitness Effect of Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daigle, Daniel; Berthiaume, Rachel; Plisson, Anne; Demont, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Given the well-acknowledged phonological deficit found in dyslexic children, this study was aimed at investigating graphophonological processes in dyslexic readers of French over a 1-year period. Among the different types of phonological processing can be distinguished those related to phonological awareness based on knowledge of the oral language…

  11. French as a Second Language: Nine-Year Program of Studies (Grade 4 to Grade 12)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The nine-year program of studies for French as a Second Language (FSL) is a legal document that specifies from Grade 4 to 12 what Alberta students are expected to acquire as attitudes and linguistic, cultural, and strategic knowledge as they develop and demonstrate their communicative skills. This document contains an introduction, a rationale,…

  12. The Rise and Fall of Mathematical Enrolments in the French Educational System: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnoux, Pierre; Duverney, Daniel; Holton, Derek

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we start by considering the relevant parts of the French educational system and the data relating to science at the end of secondary school and the early years of university. We show an increase, till 1995, and then a decline in the study of mathematics at baccalaureate and university level. However, our main conclusions relate to…

  13. The First Language in Science Class: A Quasi-Experimental Study in Late French Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Miles; Cormier, Marianne; Bourque, Jimmy

    2011-01-01

    This article reports analysis of data collected from a quasi-experimental study in 2 Canadian late French immersion science classes. We examine if, how, and when the first language (L1) is used when students in the first years of their second language learning talk about complex science concepts. We compare differences in groups following a…

  14. A Comparative Study of French and Turkish Students' Ideas on Acid-Base Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokelez, Aytekin

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this comparative study was to determine the knowledge that French and Turkish upper secondary-school students (grades 11 and 12) acquire on the concept of acid-base reactions. Following an examination of the relevant curricula and textbooks in the two countries, 528 students answered six written questions about the acid-base concept.…

  15. Blended Learning and Disciplinarity: Negotiating Connections in French Studies in Regional Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Neil; Rolls, Alistair

    2012-01-01

    In this article, we outline the challenges facing French Studies in regional Australian universities resulting from an increasingly vocational curriculum and doubts about the cost-effectiveness of language learning in higher education. These pressures have resulted in a process of discipline restructuring and significant cuts in the numbers of…

  16. Chinese-French Case Study of English Language Learning via Wikispaces, Animoto and Skype

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartwell, Laura M.; Zou, Bin

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the learning experience of Chinese and French students participating in a computer mediated communication (CMC) collaboration conducted in English and supported by Wikispaces, Animoto, and Skype. Several studies have investigated CMC contexts in which at least some participants were native speakers. Here, we address the…

  17. Motivation to Study Core French: Comparing Recent Immigrants and Canadian-Born Secondary School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mady, Callie J.

    2010-01-01

    As the number of Allophone students attending public schools in Canada continues to increase (Statistics Canada, 2008), it is clear that a need exists in English-dominant areas to purposefully address the integration of these students into core French. I report the findings of a mixed-method study that was conducted to assess and compare the…

  18. Upper Secondary French Students, Chemical Transformations and the "Register of Models": A Cross-Sectional Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cokelez, Aytekin; Dumon, Alain; Taber, Keith S.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify how upper secondary school French students (Grade 10-12) interpret chemical transformation with regards to the changes within molecules and atoms, and in terms of intramolecular and/or intermolecular bond breaking. In order to identify and describe the students' assimilated knowledge, four questions were…

  19. The Acquisition of Pronouns by French Children: A Parallel Study of Production and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zesiger, Pascal; Zesiger, Laurence Chillier; Arabatzi, Marina; Baranzini, Lara; Cronel-Ohayon, Stephany; Franck, Julie; Frauenfelder, Ulrich Hans; Hamann, Cornelia; Rizzi, Luigi

    2010-01-01

    This study examines syntactic and morphological aspects of the production and comprehension of pronouns by 99 typically developing French-speaking children aged 3 years, 5 months to 6 years, 5 months. A fine structural analysis of subject, object, and reflexive clitics suggests that whereas the object clitic chain crosses the subject chain, the…

  20. Integrating Formal and Functional Approaches to Language Teaching in French Immersion: An Experimental Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Elaine M.; Shapson, Stan M.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated the effect on French language proficiency of an integrated formal, analytic and functional, communicative approach to second language teaching in the immersion classroom. Impetus for the study arises from previous research indicating that immersion children show persistent weaknesses in their grammatical skills despite the fluent,…

  1. Estimated dietary exposure to principal food mycotoxins from the first French Total Diet Study.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, J-C; Tard, A; Volatier, J-L; Verger, P

    2005-07-01

    This study reports estimates on dietary exposure from the first French Total Diet Study (FTDS) and compares these estimates with both existing tolerable daily intakes for these toxins and the intakes calculated during previous French studies. To estimate the dietary exposure of the French population to the principal mycotoxins in the French diet (as consumed), 456 composite samples were prepared from 2280 individual samples and analysed for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins and patulin. Average and high percentile intakes were calculated taking account of different eating patterns for adults, children and vegetarians. The results showed that contaminant levels observed in the foods examined 'as consumed' complied fully with current European legislation. However, particular attention needs to be paid to the exposure of specific population groups, such as children and vegans/macrobiotics, who could be exposed to certain mycotoxins in quantities that exceed the tolerable or weekly daily intake levels. This observation is particularly relevant with respect to ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. For these mycotoxins, cereals and cereal products were the main contributors to high exposure. PMID:16019841

  2. Estimated dietary exposure to principal food mycotoxins from the first French Total Diet Study.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, J-C; Tard, A; Volatier, J-L; Verger, P

    2005-07-01

    This study reports estimates on dietary exposure from the first French Total Diet Study (FTDS) and compares these estimates with both existing tolerable daily intakes for these toxins and the intakes calculated during previous French studies. To estimate the dietary exposure of the French population to the principal mycotoxins in the French diet (as consumed), 456 composite samples were prepared from 2280 individual samples and analysed for aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, trichothecenes, zearalenone, fumonisins and patulin. Average and high percentile intakes were calculated taking account of different eating patterns for adults, children and vegetarians. The results showed that contaminant levels observed in the foods examined 'as consumed' complied fully with current European legislation. However, particular attention needs to be paid to the exposure of specific population groups, such as children and vegans/macrobiotics, who could be exposed to certain mycotoxins in quantities that exceed the tolerable or weekly daily intake levels. This observation is particularly relevant with respect to ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol and zearalenone. For these mycotoxins, cereals and cereal products were the main contributors to high exposure.

  3. A cost/benefit study of paratuberculosis certification in French cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Barbara; Pouillot, Régis; Durand, Benoît

    2004-01-01

    Paratuberculosis has received increasing attention in France because of the important losses this disease may provoke. The use of certification schemes has proven its effectiveness for the protection of healthy herds against diseases transmitted mainly by trade. The economic justification of such schemes in the particular case of paratuberculosis is studied, for French cattle herds, using a cost/benefit approach. The basic economical hypotheses and estimates have been proposed and carefully examined by a working group composed of paratuberculosis experts and field specialists. By adopting the point of view of a breeder that buys animals, we first estimated the benefits resulting from the non-introduction of the disease. They were then compared with the costs resulting from the fact that the vendor reports its own certification costs on the price of the animals he sells. Two average herds (the mean French beef herd and the mean French dairy herd), and two certification levels were studied. The results show that, currently, the use of the certification is not very economically profitable in French cattle herds. This conclusion, however should be reappraised if the certification costs decrease, for example with the commercialization of diagnostic tests on mixtures.

  4. Quantification of metal loading in French Gulch, Summit County, Colorado, using a tracer-injection study, July 1996. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kimball, B.A.; Runkel, R.L.; Gerner, L.J.

    1999-10-01

    The objective of this report is to present a description of the complex hydrology of the French Gulch site using the tracer-injection study and the synoptic sampling. In particular, the tracer injection allows for evaluation of the effect of the hydrology on the fate and transport of the metals in French Gulch.

  5. Study of SGD along the French Mediterranean coastline using airborne TIR images and in situ analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Beek, Pieter; Stieglitz, Thomas; Souhaut, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Although submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been investigated in many places of the world, very few studies were conducted along the French coastline of the Mediterranean Sea. Almost no information is available on the fluxes of water and chemical elements associated with these SGD and on their potential impact on the geochemical cycling and ecosystems of the coastal zones. In this work, we combined the use of airborne thermal infrared (TIR) images with in situ analyses of salinity, temperature, radon and radium isotopes to study SGD at various sites along the French Mediterranean coastline and in coastal lagoons. These analyses allowed us to detect SGD sites and to quantify SGD fluxes (that include both the fluxes of fresh groundwater and recirculated seawater). In particular, we will show how the Ra isotopes determined in the La Palme lagoon were used to estimate i) the residence time of waters in the lagoon and ii) SGD fluxes.

  6. The Study of Chinese in a Provincial French Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutrait, Noel

    1978-01-01

    A discussion of Chinese instruction in a Bordeaux lycee. Specific questions addressed are: enrollment; reasons for studying Chinese; the study of the written and spoken language; the need for an appropriate textbook; teaching culture; and the need to organize Chinese as a regular course in the curriculum. (AMH)

  7. Wild gudgeons (Gobio gobio) from French rivers are contaminated by microplastics: preliminary study and first evidence.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Wilfried; Bender, Coline; Porcher, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Marine ecosystem contamination by microplastics is extensively documented. However few data is available on the contamination of continental water bodies and associated fauna. The aim of this study was to address the occurrence of microplastics in digestive tract of gudgeons (Gobio gobio) from French rivers. These investigations confirm that continental fish ingested microplastics while 12% of collected fish are contaminated by these small particles. Further works are needed to evaluate the occurence of this contamination.

  8. Confirmed Beliefs or False Assumptions? A Study of Home Stay Experiences in the French Study Abroad Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diao, Wenhao; Freed, Barbara; Smith, Leigh

    2011-01-01

    The past 20 years have witnessed enormous growth in a diverse array of studies which explore the linguistic impact of study abroad (SA) experiences. During this period a multitude of research projects have investigated SLA/L2 learning in SA, in a number of different languages (Russian, Japanese, French, Spanish, English), utilizing diverse…

  9. Morphostructural study of the Belledonne faults system (French Alps).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billant, Jérémy; Bellier, Olivier; Hippolyte, Jean-Claude; Godard, Vincent; Manchuel, Kevin

    2016-04-01

    The NE trending Belledonne faults system, located in the Alps, is a potentially active faults system that extends from the Aiguilles Rouges and Mont Blanc massifs in the NE to the Vercors massif in the SW (subalpine massifs). It includes the Belledonne border fault (BBF), defined by an alignment of micro earthquakes (ML≤3.5) along the eastern part of the Grésivaudan valley (Thouvenot et al., 2003). Focal mechanisms and their respective depths tend to confirm a dextral strike-slip faulting at crustal scale. In the scope of the Sigma project (http://projet-sigma.com/index.html, EDF), this study aims at better constraining the geometry, kinematic and seismogenic potential of the constitutive faults of the Belledonne fault system, by using a multidisciplinary approach that includes tectonics, geomorphology and geophysics. Fault kinematic analysis along the BBF (Billant et al., 2015) and the Jasneuf fault allows the determination of a strike-slip tectonic regime characterised by an ENE trending σ1 stress axes, which is consistent with stress state deduced from the focal mechanisms. Although no morphological anomalies could be related to recent faulting along the BBF, new clues of potential Quaternary deformations were observed along the other faults of the system: -right lateral offset of morphologic markers (talwegs...) along the NE trending Arcalod fault located at the north-eastern terminations of the BBF; -left lateral offset of the valley formed by the Isère glacier along the NW trending Brion fault which is consistent with its left-lateral slip inferred from the focal mechanisms; -fault scarps and right lateral offsets of cliffs bordering a calcareous plateau and talwegs along the four fault segments of the NE trending Jasneuf fault located at the south-western termination of the BBF in the Vercors massif. Some offsets were measured using a new method that does not require the identification of piercing points and take advantage of the high resolution

  10. Predictive factors of unprotected sex for female sex workers: first study in French Guiana, the French territory with the highest HIV prevalence.

    PubMed

    Parriault, Marie-Claire; Basurko, Célia; Melle, Astrid Van; Gaubert-Maréchal, Emilie; Rogier, Stéphanie; Couppié, Pierre; Nacher, Mathieu

    2015-07-01

    French Guiana is the French territory that is most affected by HIV. AIDS incidence is much higher than in mainland France and sex work seems to be an important driver of the epidemic. The objective of this study was to describe consistent condom use among female sex workers with their clients and their intimate partners and to identify determinants of non-use of condoms. An HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Attitudes, Behaviours and Practices survey was conducted in 2009-2010 among sex workers in French Guiana. A total of 477 sex workers were interviewed. Female sex workers were more likely to use condoms with their clients (97%) than with their intimate partners (45%). The factors associated with non-consistent condom use with the intimate partner were having had an abortion, feeling at risk for HIV, not evaluating one's own risk for HIV, living as a couple, being Dominican, and not feeling comfortable asking intimate partners to use condoms. Although a high proportion of female sex workers declared using condoms with commercial partners, there is still room for improvement in the prevention of transmission with both commercial and intimate partners.

  11. French Immersion Studies: From Second-Language Acquisition (SLA) to Social Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Sylvie

    2008-01-01

    French immersion in Canada was instituted by parents in Quebec who wished their children to learn French in order to have social, political, and economic advantages. Several learning theories and research methods, especially those related to second-language acquisition (SLA), have been used in the field of French immersion. More recently,…

  12. Early Predictors of Biliteracy Development in Children in French Immersion: A 4-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jared, Debra; Cormier, Pierre; Levy, Betty Ann; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2011-01-01

    English language predictors of English and French reading development were investigated in a group of 140 children who were enrolled in French immersion programs. Children were first tested in kindergarten, and their reading achievement was tested yearly in both English and French from Grades 1 to 3, with word-level and passage-level measures that…

  13. Le "Francais Populaire" and French as a Second Language: A Comparative Study of Language Simplification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenemer, Virginia Lynn

    The French of English speaking students of French as a second language is compared with "francais populaire" (FP) in order to determine similarities in their tendency toward simplified grammar and morphology. Simplifying characteristics that are typical of FP were obtained from French working class sources, while simplification patterns of French…

  14. Dietary patterns in the French adult population: a study from the second French national cross-sectional dietary survey (INCA2) (2006-2007).

    PubMed

    Gazan, R; Béchaux, C; Crépet, A; Sirot, V; Drouillet-Pinard, P; Dubuisson, C; Havard, S

    2016-07-01

    Identification and characterisation of dietary patterns are needed to define public health policies to promote better food behaviours. The aim of this study was to identify the major dietary patterns in the French adult population and to determine their main demographic, socio-economic, nutritional and environmental characteristics. Dietary patterns were defined from food consumption data collected in the second French national cross-sectional dietary survey (2006-2007). Non-negative-matrix factorisation method, followed by a cluster analysis, was implemented to derive the dietary patterns. Logistic regressions were then used to determine their main demographic and socio-economic characteristics. Finally, nutritional profiles and contaminant exposure levels of dietary patterns were compared using ANOVA. Seven dietary patterns, with specific food consumption behaviours, were identified: 'Small eater', 'Health conscious', 'Mediterranean', 'Sweet and processed', 'Traditional', 'Snacker' and 'Basic consumer'. For instance, the Health-conscious pattern was characterised by a high consumption of low-fat and light products. Individuals belonging to this pattern were likely to be older and to have a better nutritional profile than the overall population, but were more exposed to many contaminants. Conversely, individuals of Snacker pattern were likely to be younger, consumed more highly processed foods, had a nutrient-poor profile but were exposed to a limited number of food contaminants. The study identified main dietary patterns in the French adult population with distinct food behaviours and specific demographic, socio-economic, nutritional and environmental features. Paradoxically, for better dietary patterns, potential health risks cannot be ruled out. Therefore, this study demonstrated the need to conduct a risk-benefit analysis to define efficient public health policies regarding diet.

  15. Dietary patterns in the French adult population: a study from the second French national cross-sectional dietary survey (INCA2) (2006-2007).

    PubMed

    Gazan, R; Béchaux, C; Crépet, A; Sirot, V; Drouillet-Pinard, P; Dubuisson, C; Havard, S

    2016-07-01

    Identification and characterisation of dietary patterns are needed to define public health policies to promote better food behaviours. The aim of this study was to identify the major dietary patterns in the French adult population and to determine their main demographic, socio-economic, nutritional and environmental characteristics. Dietary patterns were defined from food consumption data collected in the second French national cross-sectional dietary survey (2006-2007). Non-negative-matrix factorisation method, followed by a cluster analysis, was implemented to derive the dietary patterns. Logistic regressions were then used to determine their main demographic and socio-economic characteristics. Finally, nutritional profiles and contaminant exposure levels of dietary patterns were compared using ANOVA. Seven dietary patterns, with specific food consumption behaviours, were identified: 'Small eater', 'Health conscious', 'Mediterranean', 'Sweet and processed', 'Traditional', 'Snacker' and 'Basic consumer'. For instance, the Health-conscious pattern was characterised by a high consumption of low-fat and light products. Individuals belonging to this pattern were likely to be older and to have a better nutritional profile than the overall population, but were more exposed to many contaminants. Conversely, individuals of Snacker pattern were likely to be younger, consumed more highly processed foods, had a nutrient-poor profile but were exposed to a limited number of food contaminants. The study identified main dietary patterns in the French adult population with distinct food behaviours and specific demographic, socio-economic, nutritional and environmental features. Paradoxically, for better dietary patterns, potential health risks cannot be ruled out. Therefore, this study demonstrated the need to conduct a risk-benefit analysis to define efficient public health policies regarding diet. PMID:27189191

  16. First epidemiological study on occupational radar exposure in the French Navy: a 26-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dabouis, Vincent; Arvers, Philippe; Debouzy, Jean-Claude; Sebbah, Charles; Crouzier, David; Perrin, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective cohort study deals with the causes of death among 57,000 military personnel who served in the French Navy surface vessels and were observed over the period 1975-2000. We successively compared the mortality rate and the specific causes of death between two groups differing in their potential exposure levels to radar. Occupational exposure was defined according to the on-board workplace (radar and control groups). The age-adjusted death ratios of the navy personnel were compared. For all causes of death, the results showed that 885 deaths in the radar group and 299 in the control group occurred (RR = 1.00 (95% CI: 0.88-1.14)). RRs were 0.92 (95% CI: 0.69-1.24) for neoplasms. For the duration of follow-up, the results did not show an increased health risk for military personnel exposed to higher levels of radio frequencies in the radar group, but the number of deaths was very small for some cancer sites.

  17. First epidemiological study on occupational radar exposure in the French Navy: a 26-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dabouis, Vincent; Arvers, Philippe; Debouzy, Jean-Claude; Sebbah, Charles; Crouzier, David; Perrin, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective cohort study deals with the causes of death among 57,000 military personnel who served in the French Navy surface vessels and were observed over the period 1975-2000. We successively compared the mortality rate and the specific causes of death between two groups differing in their potential exposure levels to radar. Occupational exposure was defined according to the on-board workplace (radar and control groups). The age-adjusted death ratios of the navy personnel were compared. For all causes of death, the results showed that 885 deaths in the radar group and 299 in the control group occurred (RR = 1.00 (95% CI: 0.88-1.14)). RRs were 0.92 (95% CI: 0.69-1.24) for neoplasms. For the duration of follow-up, the results did not show an increased health risk for military personnel exposed to higher levels of radio frequencies in the radar group, but the number of deaths was very small for some cancer sites. PMID:26216082

  18. Impact of Resident Rotations on Critically Ill Patient Outcomes: Results of a French Multicenter Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Guidet, Bertrand; Aegerter, Philippe; Mentec, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The impact of resident rotation on patient outcomes in the intensive care unit (ICU) has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to address this question using a large ICU database. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the French CUB-REA database. French residents rotate every six months. Two periods were compared: the first (POST) and fifth (PRE) months of the rotation. The primary endpoint was ICU mortality. The secondary endpoints were the length of ICU stay (LOS), the number of organ supports, and the duration of mechanical ventilation (DMV). The impact of resident rotation was explored using multivariate regression, classification tree and random forest models. Results 262,772 patients were included between 1996 and 2010 in the database. The patient characteristics were similar between the PRE (n = 44,431) and POST (n = 49,979) periods. Multivariate analysis did not reveal any impact of resident rotation on ICU mortality (OR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.94; 1.07, p = 0.91). Based on the classification trees, the SAPS II and the number of organ failures were the strongest predictors of ICU mortality. In the less severe patients (SAPS II<24), the POST period was associated with increased mortality (OR = 1.65, 95%CI = 1.17–2.33, p = 0.004). After adjustment, no significant association was observed between the rotation period and the LOS, the number of organ supports, or the DMV. Conclusion Resident rotation exerts no impact on overall ICU mortality at French teaching hospitals but might affect the prognosis of less severe ICU patients. Surveillance should be reinforced when treating those patients. PMID:27627449

  19. Comparing Written Competency in Core French and French Immersion Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappin-Fortin, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have compared the written competency of French immersion students and their core French peers, and research on these learners at a postsecondary level is even scarcer. My corpus consists of writing samples from 255 students from both backgrounds beginning a university course in French language. The writing proficiency of core French…

  20. Effect of frying instructions for food handlers on acrylamide concentration in French fries: an explorative study.

    PubMed

    Sanny, M; Luning, P A; Jinap, S; Bakker, E J; van Boekel, M A J S

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain insight into the effect of frying instructions on food handlers' control decisions in restaurants and to investigate the impact of control decisions on the variation and concentration of acrylamide in French fries. The concentrations of acrylamide and reducing sugars were analyzed, the frying temperature and time were measured, and thawing practices were observed. The results obtained before and after instructions were provided to the food handlers were compared for restaurants as a group and for each restaurant. Frying instructions supported food handlers' decisions to start frying when the oil temperature reached 175°C; all handlers started frying at the correct temperature. However, the effect of the instructions on the food handlers' decisions for frying time differed; most handlers increased the frying time beyond 240 s to achieve crispier French fries with a final color dictated by their preference. Providing instructions did not result in a significant difference in the mean concentration of acrylamide in French fries for the restaurants as a group. However, data analyzed for each restaurant revealed that when food handlers properly followed the instructions, the mean concentration of acrylamide was significantly lower (169 μg/kg) than that before instructions were provided (1,517 μg/kg). When food handlers did not complying with the frying instructions, mean acrylamide concentrations were even higher than those before instructions were provided. Two different strategies were developed to overcome the noncompliant behavior of food handlers: establishing requirements for the features of commercial fryers and strict monitoring of compliance with instructions. PMID:23462084

  1. Effect of frying instructions for food handlers on acrylamide concentration in French fries: an explorative study.

    PubMed

    Sanny, M; Luning, P A; Jinap, S; Bakker, E J; van Boekel, M A J S

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to obtain insight into the effect of frying instructions on food handlers' control decisions in restaurants and to investigate the impact of control decisions on the variation and concentration of acrylamide in French fries. The concentrations of acrylamide and reducing sugars were analyzed, the frying temperature and time were measured, and thawing practices were observed. The results obtained before and after instructions were provided to the food handlers were compared for restaurants as a group and for each restaurant. Frying instructions supported food handlers' decisions to start frying when the oil temperature reached 175°C; all handlers started frying at the correct temperature. However, the effect of the instructions on the food handlers' decisions for frying time differed; most handlers increased the frying time beyond 240 s to achieve crispier French fries with a final color dictated by their preference. Providing instructions did not result in a significant difference in the mean concentration of acrylamide in French fries for the restaurants as a group. However, data analyzed for each restaurant revealed that when food handlers properly followed the instructions, the mean concentration of acrylamide was significantly lower (169 μg/kg) than that before instructions were provided (1,517 μg/kg). When food handlers did not complying with the frying instructions, mean acrylamide concentrations were even higher than those before instructions were provided. Two different strategies were developed to overcome the noncompliant behavior of food handlers: establishing requirements for the features of commercial fryers and strict monitoring of compliance with instructions.

  2. Separation between HIV-positive women and their children: the French prospective study, 1986 through 1993.

    PubMed Central

    Blanche, S; Mayaux, M J; Veber, F; Landreau, A; Courpotin, C; Vilmer, E; Ciraru-Vigneron, N; Flock, C; Tricoire, J; Noseda, G; Retbi, J M; Rouzioux, C

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. We studied the risk and circumstances of separation (due to either maternal death or drug use) between women infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 and their children. METHODS. This analysis was based on the French Prospective Study of Infants Born to HIV-seropositive Women (1986 through 1993). Data recorded at each follow-up visit included the mother's effective presence with the child and the child's care after separation. RESULTS. A child's cumulative risk of long-term or permanent separation from his or her mother was 37% at 60 months. Maternal drug use was associated with an added risk during the child's first years (adjusted relative risk [RR]=3.4, 95% confidence interval [CI]=2.3, 5.0). The risk among drug users was even higher when the mother used injection drugs during pregnancy (adjusted RR=2.9, 95% CI=1.9, 4.3). Risk of early separation related to drug use tended to diminish since survey initiation. After separation, 57% of the children were placed through child welfare services and 43% were cared for by relatives. CONCLUSIONS. In the French Prospective Study, 2% to 3% of HIV-infected children were separated each year from their mothers as a result of the mothers death from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Separations related to drug use have decreased over the years, and the family is becoming the most frequent carer after separation. PMID:8604763

  3. [Leprosy in French Guyana: a retrospective study from 1997 to 2006].

    PubMed

    Domergue, V; Clyti, E; Sainte-Marie, D; Huber, F; Marty, C; Couppié, P

    2008-02-01

    French Guyana borders Brazil with the second highest number of cases of leprosy in the world. The purpose of this retrospective study of leprosy cases diagnosed in Guyana between January 1997 and December 2006 was to calculate the incidence of the disease and to identify any special clinical and epidemiological features. A total of 90 new cases were recorded during the study period for a mean incidence of 0.53 cases/10,000 inhabitants/year. Since this incidence is below the 1/10,000 threshold defined by the World Health Organization, leprosy is no longer considered as a major public health issue in French Guyana. However it must be noted that while the number of "native leprosy" cases has declined, the number of Brazilian cases has increased (p<0.01). Brazilian leprosy has different epidemiological features, i.e., dominance of multibacillary forms and high incidence in gold panning and western regions of the country where the incidence is over 1/10,000 inhabitants/year.

  4. Manual wheelchair satisfaction among long-term users and caregivers: a French study.

    PubMed

    Marchiori, Claire; Bensmail, Djamel; Gagnon, Dany; Pradon, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Wheelchair mobility is a prerequisite to being able to carry out important activities and to participate in social life. Level of satisfaction with the wheelchair and overall quality of life were found to be positively associated. The aim of this study was to determine the level of satisfaction of French manual wheelchair (MW) users and caregivers with MW characteristics. A total of 132 users and 76 caregivers completed a questionnaire about their level of satisfaction with their MW characteristics. Satisfaction scores were independent of age, sex, reason for MW use, and time of use. As a whole, MW users are satisfied. However, a few parameters such as MW weight and difficulties propelling outdoors demonstrate a low level of satisfaction among users. MW weight, brakes, and height of pushing handles are the less satisfying elements among caregivers. In conclusion, the majority of French MW users are satisfied, but some characteristics, such as weight, must be optimized. Considering caregiver needs is paramount when aiming to improve MW parameters such as brakes or pushing handles. Improvement in some wheelchair parameters seems to be important in achieving improved level of satisfaction and increased participation and active lifestyle among MW users and caregivers.

  5. Dietary exposure to mycotoxins and health risk assessment in the second French total diet study.

    PubMed

    Sirot, Véronique; Fremy, Jean-Marc; Leblanc, Jean-Charles

    2013-02-01

    Mycotoxins are produced in plants by micro-fungi species, and naturally contaminated the food chain. In the second French total diet study (TDS), mycotoxins were analyzed in 577 food samples collected in mainland France to be representative of the population diet and prepared ((as consumed)). Highest mean concentrations were found in wheat and cereal-based products (bread, breakfast cereals, pasta, pastries, pizzas and savoury pastries…). Exposure of adult and child populations was assessed by combining national consumption data with analytical results, using lowerbound (LB) and upperbound (UB) assumptions for left-censorship management. Individual exposures were compared with available health-based guidance values (HBGV). Only the exposure to deoxynivalenol (DON) and its acetylated derivatives was found to significantly exceed the HBGV in LB in adults (0.5% [0.1; 0.8]) and children (5% [4; 6]). HBGV was exceeded in UB only for T-2 and HT-2 toxins by, respectively, 0.2% [0.02; 0.05] and 4% [3; 5] of adults, and 11% [9; 12] and 35% [32; 37] of children. Although the exposures assessed were generally lower than the previous French TDS, the results indicated a health concern for trichothecenes and a need to reduce dietary exposure as well as analytical limits. PMID:23137957

  6. Syntactic comprehension in reading and listening: a study with French children with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Casalis, Séverine; Leuwers, Christel; Hilton, Heather

    2013-01-01

    This study examined syntactic comprehension in French children with dyslexia in both listening and reading. In the first syntactic comprehension task, a partial version of the Epreuve de Compréhension syntaxico-sémantique (ECOSSE test; French adaptation of Bishop's test for receptive grammar test) children with dyslexia performed at a lower level in the written but not in the spoken modality, compared to reading age-matched children, suggesting a difficulty in handling syntax while reading. In the second task, syntactic processing was further explored through a test of relative clause processing, in which inflectional markers could aid in attributing roles to the elements in a complex syntactic structure. Children with dyslexia were insensitive to inflectional markers in both reading and listening, as was the reading age control group, while only the older normal reader group appeared to make use of the inflectional markers. Overall, the results support the hypothesis that difficulties in comprehension in dyslexia are strongly related to poor reading skills.

  7. The Study of the Phenomenon of Hesitation as a Cognitive Process in Iranian French Learners' Oral Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rahmatian, Rouhollah; Mehrabi, Marzieh; Safa, Parivash; Golfam, Arsalan

    2014-01-01

    Hesitation, when speaking a foreign language, is studied through its components: beginnings, pauses, and repetitions. This paper aims to identify, through the study of this phenomenon, vulnerable zones among Iranian learners when they speak French. A case study of 30 adult learners shows that hesitation is not random and at different levels (A1 to…

  8. [The influence of culture in the oral expression of pain: comparative study between French and Syrian cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Lebreuilly, Romain; Sakkour, Sam; Lebreuilly, Joëlle

    2013-03-01

    This study examines the role of culture in the perception and the verbal expression of pain among syrian and french blood-related cancer patients. The level of intensity (AVS scale) and the different aspects (Saint-Antoine Pain Questionnaire [SAPQ]) of their pain were studied. The sensory and emotional descriptors chosen by the Syrian possessed a stronger semantic content in comparison to those used by the French. The patient's cultural background, which affect the perception and verbal expression of pain should be a new indicator in the optimization of global medical management. PMID:23548892

  9. Continuing French in Grade Four: MLA Teacher's Guide. A Course of Study Including Methods, Materials, and Aids for Teaching French to Fourth-Grade Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mary P.; And Others

    This teacher's guide for use in a fourth-grade French course concentrates on the development of basic audiolingual skills. Twelve lessons, each containing an exposition, dialogue, teaching procedures, and dialogue adaptation, emphasize the use of French during classroom instruction. Lessons include: (1) a review unit, (2) "La chemise neuve," (3)…

  10. En Francais dans le texte: etude des emprunts francais en anglo-americain (In French in the Text: Study of French Borrowing in Anglo-American).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otman, Gabriel

    1989-01-01

    Analysis of the linguistic borrowing from French of American newspapers looks at the areas where vocabulary is borrowed and stereotypes are perpetuated. The alterations made in French expressions, as a result of ignorance or in order to suit American habits, are examined. (MSE)

  11. Partitivity, Atomization, and Noun-Drop: A Longitudinal Study of French Child Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valois, Daniel; Royle, Phaedra

    2009-01-01

    This article examines noun-drop constructions in French-speaking children. French being intermediate between English (which rarely allows noun-drop) and Spanish (which freely allows it) with respect to the richness of their respective morphological systems, it provides a fertile testing ground for various agreement-based analyses of noun-drop. We…

  12. Le Francais parle. Etudes sociolinguistiques (Spoken French. Sociolinguistic Studies). Current Inquiry into Languages and Linguistics 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thibault, Pierrette

    This volume contains twelve articles dealing with the French language as spoken in Quebec. The following topics are addressed: (1) language change and variation; (2) coordinating expressions in the French spoken in Montreal; (3) expressive language as source of language change; (4) the role of correction in conversation; (5) social change and…

  13. English and French Journal Abstracts in the Language Sciences: Three Exploratory Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Bonn, Sarah; Swales, John M.

    2007-01-01

    This article compares French and English academic article abstracts from the language sciences in an attempt to understand how and why language choice might affect this part-genre--both in actual use and according to authors' linguistic and rhetorical perceptions. Two corpora are used: Corpus A consists of abstracts from a French linguistics…

  14. From Crisis to Opportunity: French and Foreign Language Studies in the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Samia I.

    2003-01-01

    In response to falling enrollments in French and a diminishing pool of high school teachers, faculty at Auburn University tried to turn the tide through a series of curricular and advocacy initiatives. They introduced new French majors in education and in international trade and a collaborative major with the Consumer Affairs Department in French…

  15. Assessment of infant exposure to food chemicals: the French Total Diet Study design.

    PubMed

    Hulin, M; Bemrah, N; Nougadère, A; Volatier, J L; Sirot, V; Leblanc, J C

    2014-01-01

    As part of the previous French Total Diet Studies (TDS) focusing on exposure to food chemicals in the population aged 3 years and older, the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES) launched a specific TDS on infants to complete its overall chemical food safety programme for the general population. More than 500 chemical substances were analysed in food products consumed by children under 3 years old, including nutrients, several endocrine disruptors resulting from human activities (polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins and furans, brominated flame retardants, perfluoroalkyl acids, pesticide residues, etc.) or migrating from food contact materials such as bisphenol A or phthalates, but also natural substances such as mycotoxins, phytoestrogens and steroids. To obtain a representative and general view of infant food consumption, food items were selected based on results of a national consumption survey conducted specifically on this population. Moreover, a specific study on food was conducted on 429 households to determine which home-cooking practices are employed to prepare food consumed by infants. Overall, the targeted chemical substances were analysed in more than 450 food samples, representing the purchase and home-cooking practices of over 5500 food products. Foods included common foods such as vegetables, fruit or cakes as well as specific infant foods such as infant formula or jarred baby food. The sampling plan covered over 80% of the total diet. Specificities in infant food consumption and habits were therefore considered to define this first infant TDS. This study, conducted on a large scale and focusing on a particularly sensitive population, will provide accurate information on the dietary exposure of children under 3 years to food chemicals, especially endocrine disruptors, and will be particularly useful for risk assessment analysis under the remit of ANSES' expert committees.

  16. [Politics and inter-medicality in the Upper Xingu: from model to practice in indigenous health care].

    PubMed

    Novo, Marina Pereira

    2011-07-01

    The indigenous healthcare model in Brazil is premised on comprehensive care combined with the notion of differentiated care and provides for respect for cultural diversity, seeking to incorporate traditional therapeutic practices into the health services that serve indigenous peoples. This study aimed to determine how to reconcile universal access to health goods and services with a model of care that guarantees differentiation, without interfering in the quality of services. It is also necessary to define which parameters should be used for evaluating the quality and efficacy of such services in an intercultural context. Based on a case study - the implementation of health services in the Upper Xingu - the author addresses some issues related to the political uses and "dangers" associated with "health spaces" and the distinct concepts (indigenous and non-indigenous) of what constitutes health and quality of health services. These issues affect not only health services but also the local political situation. PMID:21808820

  17. [Politics and inter-medicality in the Upper Xingu: from model to practice in indigenous health care].

    PubMed

    Novo, Marina Pereira

    2011-07-01

    The indigenous healthcare model in Brazil is premised on comprehensive care combined with the notion of differentiated care and provides for respect for cultural diversity, seeking to incorporate traditional therapeutic practices into the health services that serve indigenous peoples. This study aimed to determine how to reconcile universal access to health goods and services with a model of care that guarantees differentiation, without interfering in the quality of services. It is also necessary to define which parameters should be used for evaluating the quality and efficacy of such services in an intercultural context. Based on a case study - the implementation of health services in the Upper Xingu - the author addresses some issues related to the political uses and "dangers" associated with "health spaces" and the distinct concepts (indigenous and non-indigenous) of what constitutes health and quality of health services. These issues affect not only health services but also the local political situation.

  18. New insights into childhood autoimmune hemolytic anemia: a French national observational study of 265 children

    PubMed Central

    Aladjidi, Nathalie; Leverger, Guy; Leblanc, Thierry; Picat, Marie Quitterie; Michel, Gérard; Bertrand, Yves; Bader-Meunier, Brigitte; Robert, Alain; Nelken, Brigitte; Gandemer, Virginie; Savel, Hélène; Stephan, Jean Louis; Fouyssac, Fanny; Jeanpetit, Julien; Thomas, Caroline; Rohrlich, Pierre; Baruchel, André; Fischer, Alain; Chêne, Geneviève; Perel, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Background Autoimmune hemolytic anemia is a rare condition in children. Little is known about its initial presentation and the subsequent progression of the disease. Design and Methods Since 2004, a national observational study has been aiming to thoroughly describe cases and identify prognostic factors. Patients from all French hematologic pediatric units have been included if they had a hemoglobin concentration less than 11 g/dL, a positive direct antiglobulin test and hemolysis. Evans’ syndrome was defined by the association of autoimmune hemolytic anemia and immunological thrombocytopenic purpura. Data from patients’ medical records were registered from birth to last follow-up. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia was classified as primary or secondary. Remission criteria, qualifying the status of anemia at last follow-up, were used with the aim of identifying a subgroup with a favorable prognosis in continuous complete remission. Results The first 265 patients had a median age of 3.8 years at diagnosis. In 74% of cases the direct antiglobulin test was IgG/IgG+C3d. Consanguinity was reported in 8% of cases and first degree familial immunological diseases in 15% of cases. Evans’ syndrome was diagnosed in 37% of cases. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia was post-infectious in 10%, immunological in 53% and primary in 37% of cases. After a median follow-up of 3 years, 4% of children had died, 28% were still treatment-dependent and 39% were in continuous complete remission. In multivariate analysis, IgG and IgG+C3d direct antiglobulin tests were associated with a lower rate of survival with continuous complete remission (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.43; 95% confidence interval, 0.21–0.86). Conclusions This nationwide French cohort is the largest reported study of childhood autoimmune hemolytic anemia. The rarity of this condition is confirmed. Subgroups with genetic predisposition and underlying immune disorders were identified. PMID:21228033

  19. Monitoring fitness levels and detecting implications for health in a French population: an observational study

    PubMed Central

    Nassif, Hala; Sedeaud, Adrien; Abidh, Elisa; Schipman, Julien; Tafflet, Muriel; Deschamps, Thibault; Maillet, Hervé; Ovigneur, Hervé; Desgorces, François-Denis; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analyse the physical fitness of a large sample of the French population across different ages. Design Observational cross-sectional study. Setting Data were collected from the Athletic Track and Field Federation, which organised events dedicated to measuring physical fitness. The events took place in 22 regions between 2006 and 2010. Participants French volunteer citizens (N=31 349) aged between 4 and 80 years old who participated in events dedicated to measuring physical fitness. Primary and secondary outcome measures We assessed the results of the following fitness tests: 20 m shuttle run, standing broad jump, repeated squat jump, 4×10 m shuttle run, speed, flexibility and push-ups in relation to age and body mass index (BMI) using Spearman's rho, a one-way analysis of variance. A bi-exponential model was used to represent the performance with age. Results Our major results showed higher performances for men and for subjects with normal BMI at all age groups except for the flexibility test. BMI was strongly correlated across all ages with physical fitness p<0.0001. Furthermore, through bi-exponential model, a mean peak performance was identified at 26.32 years of age for men and 22.18 years of age for women. Conclusions Physical fitness assessment using a simple series of tests on the general population offers an important indicator of health status. The possibility of observing the evolution of fitness levels with time provides an important monitoring method from a public health perspective. Further research is needed to reinforce and evaluate the approach. PMID:23024257

  20. The Impact of New Work Technologies on Training. Five Case Studies in French Industry. Discussion Paper No. 81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo e Oliveira, Joao Batista

    Case studies of five French firms illustrate the impact of new work technologies on training. Liquid Corporation has embarked on changes in production technology in response to market needs. Four aspects of the change process are as follows: creating the climate for change, selecting operators, defining new training requirements, and training for…

  1. Evaluating the Risks of School Dropout amongst Children in the Care of the French Child Protection System: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derivois, Daniel; Guillier-Pasut, Nathalie; Karray, Amira; Cénat, Jude-Mary; Brolles, Lisbeth; Matsuhara, Hanae

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study is to identify the best way of preventing and assessing the livelihood and risk of school dropout amongst children entrusted to the care of the French child protection system in the Département of Rhone. The sample comprised 91 children and adolescents aged 4- to 17-years-old, of whom 45 were girls. The data were…

  2. Intentional Control and Operational Constraints in Prosodic Phrasing: A Study of Picture-Elicited Narrations by French Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vion, Monique; Colas, Annie

    2009-01-01

    This study deals with the determinants of prosodic phrasing in French schoolchildren's narratives. Children (aged 7 to 11) told picture stories to a silent same-age peer. The establishment of temporal and/or causal relations between the events was more or less guided by the drawings (ordered vs. arbitrary sequences). The comprehension of the…

  3. Cross-Language Transfer of Orthographic Processing Skills: A Study of French Children Who Learn English at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commissaire, Eva; Duncan, Lynne G.; Casalis, Severine

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the nature of orthographic processing skills among French-speaking children in Grades 6 and 8 who are learning English at school as a second language (L2). Two aspects of orthographic processing skills are thought to form a convergent construct in monolingual beginning readers: word-specific knowledge (e.g. "rain-rane") and…

  4. Phrase-Final Prepositions in Quebec French: An Empirical Study of Contact, Code-Switching and Resistance to Convergence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ormel, Ellen; Hermans, Daan; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we investigate whether preposition stranding, a stereotypical non-standard feature of North American French, results from convergence with English, and the role of bilingual code-switchers in its adoption and diffusion. Establishing strict criteria for the validation of contact-induced change, we make use of the comparative…

  5. Severe Traumatic Brain Injury, Frontal Lesions, and Social Aspects of Language Use: A Study of French-Speaking Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dardier, Virginie; Bernicot, Josie; Delanoe, Anaig; Vanberten, Melanie; Fayada, Catherine; Chevignard, Mathilde; Delaye, Corinne; Laurent-Vannier, Anne; Dubois, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the social (pragmatic) aspects of language use by French-speaking individuals with frontal lesions following a severe traumatic brain injury. Eleven participants with traumatic brain injury performed tasks in three areas of communication: production (interview situation), comprehension (direct…

  6. Ambivalence about Communicating in a Second Language: A Qualitative Study of French Immersion Students' Willingness to Communicate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Burns, Carolyn; Jessome, Alison

    2011-01-01

    The defining feature of immersion language learning is the omnipresent pressure to communicate in the second language (L2), even as incipient skills are being acquired. This study uses the focused essay technique to investigate ambivalence about communicating among adolescent French immersion students (12-14 years of age). Students described…

  7. Acquisition of Derivational Lexical Rules: A Case Study of the Acquisition of French Agent Noun Forms by L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Redouane, Rabia

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates L2 learners' use of French derivational processes and their strategies as they form agent nouns. It also attempts to find out which of the acquisitional principles (conventionality, semantic transparency, formal simplicity, and productivity) advanced by Clark (1993, 2003) for various L1s acquisition of word formation…

  8. From French vocabulary to the Unified Medical Language System: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Bodenreider, Olivier; McCray, Alexa T.

    2015-01-01

    The Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) is an extensive source of biomedical knowledge developed and maintained by the U.S. National Library of Medicine (NLM). The UMLS began to include biomedical terms in other languages a few years ago. However, providing foreign terms for existing concepts is only the first step for the UMLS to become international. The current limits of the use of the UMLS in French are analyzed (partial translation, unique source of the translated concepts, improper character set, and absence of lexical resources for lexical matching tools). Some suggestions are given for French to be better integrated into the UMLS, especially for adapting the lexical resources to French. Once completed, our present work is expected to give the UMLS the capability to be effectively queried in French. PMID:10384539

  9. A Diachronic Study of Initial Stress and Other Prosodic Features in the French News Announcer Style: Corpus-Based Measurements and Perceptual Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Mareuil, Philippe Boula; Rilliard, Albert; Allauzen, Alexandre

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on prosodic evolution in the French news announcer style, based on acoustic and perceptual analysis of French audiovisual archives. A 10-hour corpus covering six decades of broadcast news is investigated automatically. Two prosodic features, which may give an impression of emphatic style, are explored: word-initial stress and…

  10. Antimalarial remedies in French Guiana: a knowledge attitudes and practices study.

    PubMed

    Vigneron, M; Deparis, X; Deharo, E; Bourdy, G

    2005-04-26

    A "knowledge attitudes and practices" study about malaria treatments was undertaken in French Guiana, along with an ethnopharmacological study. One hundred and seventeen people from five different groups and nationalities (Creole, Palikur, Galibi, Brazilian, and European) answered the questionnaire. The results were analysed using univariate and multivariate statistical analysis. First, we evaluated the overall knowledge about malaria from the interviewed people. According to bio-medical concepts, we noticed that they have a good knowledge of this illness. Secondly, we studied the treatment used by sick people during their last malaria attack. We demonstrated that, although bio-medical treatment is available in this area, people use both modern drugs and traditional remedies. Finally, preventive attitudes have been examined. One-third of the interviewed people drink regularly some herbal remedy to prevent febrile illnesses and malaria, thus displaying a strong concern about this disease. The ethnopharmacological study highlighted the frequent use of traditional remedies, along with their mode of preparation and administration. A total of 34 different species (both from flora and fauna) have been registered as antimalarial. Twenty-seven are used for curative purposes, 20 as preventive and 13 of them are used for both purposes. Quassia amara (Simaroubaceae) whose antimalarial activity has already been demonstrated was the species most frequently used as antimalarial for curative and preventive purposes.

  11. Attributable risk in men in two French case-control studies on mesothelioma and asbestos.

    PubMed

    Lacourt, Aude; Rolland, Patrick; Gramond, Céline; Astoul, Philippe; Chamming's, Soizick; Ducamp, Stéphane; Frenay, Catherine; Galateau-Sallé, Françoise; Gilg Soit Ilg, Anabelle; Imbernon, Ellen; Le Stang, Nolwenn; Pairon, Jean Claude; Goldberg, Marcel; Iwatsubo, Yuriko; Salmi, Louis-Rachid; Brochard, Patrick

    2010-11-01

    Pleural mesothelioma is a primary tumor of the pleura that is mainly due to asbestos exposure. To study the relationship between mesothelioma and occupational asbestos exposure in France, two case-control studies (A and B) were conducted. A substantial difference in the attributable risk in the population (AR(p)) was observed among men: 44.5% (95% CI: [32.6-56.4]) in study A and 83.2% (95% CI: [76.8-89.6]) in study B. As different exposure assessment expert methods were used, the main objective of this work was to re-estimate the AR(p) men in two case-control studies according to a common standardized exposure assessment by using a Job Exposure Matrix (JEM) and to assess the role of subjects' selection. The initial observed AR(p) difference was maintained: 36.3% (95% CI: [24.3-50.3]) in study A and 69.7% (95% CI: [51.7-83.2]) in study B. Further investigations highlighted the potential selection bias introduced in both studies, especially among controls. The AR(p) could be underestimated in study A and overestimated in study B. After weighting subjects according to distribution of socio-economic status in the general population for controls and according to distribution of socio-economic status of cases registered by the French National Mesothelioma Surveillance Program, re-estimated AR(p) values were 52.4% in study A and 70.2% in study B. These results provide additional information to describe the relationship between pleural mesothelioma and occupational asbestos exposure, but also confirm the importance of subjects' recruitment in case control studies, particularly control selection.

  12. Mortality from Circulatory System Diseases among French Uranium Miners: A Nested Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Drubay, Damien; Caër-Lorho, Sylvaine; Laroche, Pierre; Laurier, Dominique; Rage, Estelle

    2015-05-01

    A significant association has been observed between radon exposure and cerebrovascular disease (CeVD) mortality among French uranium miners, but risk factors for circulatory system diseases (CSD) have not been previously considered. We conducted new analyses in the recently updated (through 2007) French cohort of uranium miners (n = 5,086), which included 442 deaths from CSD, 167 of them from ischemic heart disease (IHD) and 105 from CeVD. A nested case-control study was then set up to collect and investigate the influence of these risk factors on the relationships between mortality from CSD and occupational external gamma ray and internal ionizing radiation exposure (radon and long-lived radionuclides) in this updated cohort. The nested case-control study included miners first employed after 1955, still employed in 1976 and followed up through 2007. Individual information about CSD risk factors was collected from medical files for the 76 deaths from CSD (including 26 from IHD and 16 from CeVD) and 237 miners who had not died of CSD by the end of follow-up. The exposure-risk relationships were assessed with a Cox proportional hazard model weighted by the inverse sampling probability. A significant increase in all CSD and CeVD mortality risks associated with radon exposure was observed in the total cohort [hazard ratios: HRCSD/100 working level months (WLM) = 1.11, 95% confidence interval (1.01; 1.22) and HRCeVD/100 WLM = 1.25 (1.09; 1.43), respectively]. A nonsignificant exposure-risk relationship was observed for every type of cumulative ionizing radiation exposure and every end point [e.g., HRCSD/100WLM = 1.43 (0.71; 2.87)]. The adjustment for each CSD risk factor did not substantially change the exposure-risk relationships. When the model was adjusted for overweight, hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and smoking status, the HR/100WLM for CSD, for example, was equal to 1.21 (0.54; 2.75); and when it was adjusted for risk factors selected with the

  13. Haemoptysis in adults: a 5-year study using the French nationwide hospital administrative database.

    PubMed

    Abdulmalak, Caroline; Cottenet, Jonathan; Beltramo, Guillaume; Georges, Marjolaine; Camus, Philippe; Bonniaud, Philippe; Quantin, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Haemoptysis is a serious symptom with various aetiologies. Our aim was to define the aetiologies, outcomes and associations with lung cancer in the entire population of a high-income country.This retrospective multicentre study was based on the French nationwide hospital medical information database collected over 5 years (2008-2012). We analysed haemoptysis incidence, aetiologies, geographical and seasonal distribution and mortality. We studied recurrence, association with lung cancer and mortality in a 3-year follow-up analysis.Each year, ~15 000 adult patients (mean age 62 years, male/female ratio 2/1) were admitted for haemoptysis or had haemoptysis as a complication of their hospital stay, representing 0.2% of all hospitalised patients. Haemoptysis was cryptogenic in 50% of cases. The main aetiologies were respiratory infections (22%), lung cancer (17.4%), bronchiectasis (6.8%), pulmonary oedema (4.2%), anticoagulants (3.5%), tuberculosis (2.7%), pulmonary embolism (2.6%) and aspergillosis (1.1%). Among incident cases, the 3-year recurrence rate was 16.3%. Of the initial cryptogenic haemoptysis patients, 4% were diagnosed with lung cancer within 3 years. Mortality rates during the first stay and at 1 and 3 years were 9.2%, 21.6% and 27%, respectively.This is the first epidemiological study analysing haemoptysis and its outcomes in an entire population. Haemoptysis is a life-threatening symptom unveiling potentially life-threatening underlying conditions.

  14. Graphophonological processes in dyslexic readers of French: a longitudinal study of the explicitness effect of tasks.

    PubMed

    Daigle, Daniel; Berthiaume, Rachel; Plisson, Anne; Demont, Elisabeth

    2012-07-01

    Given the well-acknowledged phonological deficit found in dyslexic children, this study was aimed at investigating graphophonological processes in dyslexic readers of French over a 1-year period. Among the different types of phonological processing can be distinguished those related to phonological awareness based on knowledge of the oral language and graphophonological processes based on correspondences between the oral and the written language. In this study, we evaluated graphophonemic and graphosyllabic processes using, in each case, two different tasks varying in the degree of cognitive constraint associated with the task (CC- vs CC+). Twenty 11 year-old dyslexic students were compared with younger normal-readers of the same reading level (RA, n=26) and to normal-readers of the same age (CA, n=24). Two variables were considered in the analyses: accuracy and response latency. Results show that dyslexic readers do process written items at the graphophonological level. Also, results indicate main effects of task (CC- vs CC+), time (T1 vs T2), and group (DYS vs RA vs CA). In general, dyslexic participants' performances are comparable to those of RA and differ from those of CA. PMID:22441904

  15. Usage patterns of aromatherapy among the French general population: A descriptive study focusing on dermal exposure.

    PubMed

    Dornic, N; Ficheux, A S; Roudot, A C; Saboureau, D; Ezzedine, K

    2016-04-01

    Although likely benefits of aromatherapy are well documented, little is known about essential oils consumption and exposure to molecules present in the oils. The aim of our study was to determine usage patterns of 12 types of essential oils among a quite large panel, sorted per sex and quintile of age from birth to 70. A survey was conducted in September 2014 among 1507 French individuals, selected to build a representative panel of the general population. The key point of our study, apart from the fact that it has never been done among general population, was the focus on dermal exposure. Information about types of essential oils used, skin areas exposed, frequencies and quantities were collected. Our work revealed that some sub-populations could be significantly exposed to molecules of toxicological concern, especially in terms of skin sensitization. This work is the first step to assess human exposure to these molecules, and will help safety authorities and risk managers to protect the population. PMID:26826550

  16. [Study on the venoms of the principal venomous snakes from French Guiana and the neutralization].

    PubMed

    Estévez, J; Magaña, P; Chippaux, J P; Vidal, N; Mancilla, R; Paniagua, J F; de Roodt, A R

    2008-10-01

    We studied some biochemical, toxic and immunological characteristics of the venoms of Bothrops atrox, Bothrops brazili and Lachesis muta, Viperidae responsible for most of the bites of venomous snakes in French Guiana. Chromatographic (HPLC) and electrophoretical profiles (SDS-PAGE), lethal, hemorrhagic, defibrinogenating, coagulant, thrombin like, proteolytic, fibrino(geno)lytic and phospholipase activities were studied. In addition, the neutralization of some toxic activities conferred by four antivenins was compared. The chromatographic and electrophoretic profiles were different for the three venoms, showing differences between Bothrops and L. muta venoms. In general, bothropic venoms showed the highest toxic and enzymatic activities, while the venom of L. muta showed the lowest lethal, hemorrhagic and coagulant activities. The enzymes of bothropic venoms responsible for gelatinolytic activity were around 50-90 kDa. All the venoms were able to hydrolyze a and beta chains of the fibrinogen, showing different patterns of degradation. Although all the antivenoms tested were effective to various degrees in neutralizing the venom of B. brazili and B. atrox, neutralization of L. muta venom was significantly better achieved using the antivenom including this venom in its immunogenic mixture. For the neutralization of L. muta venom, homologous or polyvalent antivenoms that include the "bushmaster" venom in their immunogenic mixture should be preferred. PMID:18956820

  17. Electronic mail, a new written-language register: a study with French-speaking adolescents.

    PubMed

    Volckaert-Legrier, Olga; Bernicot, Josie; Bert-Erboul, Alain

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which the linguistic forms used by adolescents in electronic mail (e-mail) differ from those used in standard written language. The study was conducted in French, a language with a deep orthography that has strict, addressee-dependent rules for using second person personal pronouns (unfamiliar and familiar forms). Data were collected from 80 adolescents ages 12 to 15 in a natural situation where they had to introduce themselves by e-mail to two addressees (peer/teacher). Participants were divided into two groups (skilled/unskilled in computer-mediated communication). Their emails contained a large number of orthographic deviations (the most frequent being neographic forms). Participants skilled in computer-mediated communication (CMC) deviated more than unskilled ones did. The number of orthographic deviations was not linked to the participants' standard writing ability. The personal-pronoun data clearly showed that adolescents used the familiar form of 'you' (tu) to address the peer and the unfamiliar form (vous) to address the teacher. We conclude that, for adolescents, e-mail constitutes a distinct written-language register. Nevertheless, the e-mail register seems to follow the pragmatic rules of standard spoken and written interaction.

  18. Benefits of cardiac rehabilitation in heart failure patients according to etiology: INCARD French study.

    PubMed

    Koukoui, François; Desmoulin, Franck; Lairy, Gérard; Bleinc, Dominique; Boursiquot, Ludovic; Galinier, Michel; Smih, Fatima; Rouet, Philippe

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the impact of heart failure (HF) etiology on the outcome of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) assessed by functional and clinical parameters. Treatment of chronic HF requires multidisciplinary approaches with a recognized role for CR. INCARD is a French study aimed at evaluating the benefits of sustainable CR in coronary (C) and noncoronary patients (NC) treated and educated during a 24-month period of follow-up. Prospective, monocentric patients with HF underwent inpatient physical training followed by a home-based program. Evaluations were performed at inclusion, discharge, 3 months after discharge, and subsequently every 6 months over the 24 months of outpatient rehabilitation.A total of 147 HF patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <40 were admitted to the CR center, 63 accepted to join INCARD (29 C and 34 NC). Although the C participants C having both an echocardiographic LVEF and an initially lower peak VO2, inpatient rehabilitation improved all functional parameters. Only NC showed an improved LVEF during the first 3 months of outpatient-follow-up. The main outcome of the outpatient rehabilitation was a trend toward stabilization of clinical and laboratory parameters with no significant difference between C and NC. This study confirms the benefits of initial HF inpatient rehabilitation and encourages prolonged outpatient monitoring. The results on functional parameters suggest exercise training should be conducted regardless of the HF etiology. PMID:25700319

  19. Benefits of cardiac rehabilitation in heart failure patients according to etiology: INCARD French study.

    PubMed

    Koukoui, François; Desmoulin, Franck; Lairy, Gérard; Bleinc, Dominique; Boursiquot, Ludovic; Galinier, Michel; Smih, Fatima; Rouet, Philippe

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the impact of heart failure (HF) etiology on the outcome of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) assessed by functional and clinical parameters. Treatment of chronic HF requires multidisciplinary approaches with a recognized role for CR. INCARD is a French study aimed at evaluating the benefits of sustainable CR in coronary (C) and noncoronary patients (NC) treated and educated during a 24-month period of follow-up. Prospective, monocentric patients with HF underwent inpatient physical training followed by a home-based program. Evaluations were performed at inclusion, discharge, 3 months after discharge, and subsequently every 6 months over the 24 months of outpatient rehabilitation.A total of 147 HF patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <40 were admitted to the CR center, 63 accepted to join INCARD (29 C and 34 NC). Although the C participants C having both an echocardiographic LVEF and an initially lower peak VO2, inpatient rehabilitation improved all functional parameters. Only NC showed an improved LVEF during the first 3 months of outpatient-follow-up. The main outcome of the outpatient rehabilitation was a trend toward stabilization of clinical and laboratory parameters with no significant difference between C and NC. This study confirms the benefits of initial HF inpatient rehabilitation and encourages prolonged outpatient monitoring. The results on functional parameters suggest exercise training should be conducted regardless of the HF etiology.

  20. The relative age effect in young French basketball players: a study on the whole population.

    PubMed

    Delorme, N; Raspaud, M

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study is to test the presence of the relative age effect (RAE) and to examine height in an overall population of the young French basketball players from 7 to 18 years old, male (n=151 259) and female (n=107 101). For the boys as for the girls, the results show a statistically significant RAE in all age categories. The effect seems more pronounced during puberty. As far as the height is concerned, players born during quarters 1 and 2 are always significantly taller than those born during quarter 4, apart from the 17-year-old female players. These results require a new look at the methodology in the statistical calculation and the interpretation of RAE. A study wanting to give a precise measurement of this effect will have to take as the expected theoretical distribution the whole population of licensed players in the corresponding years, rather than one on the global population of the country. This will avoid the hasty conclusion that an asymmetric distribution of dates of birth of professional players would be due to RAE, whereas in reality it would be representative of one existing in the population of licensed players.

  1. The utilization of ERTS-1 data for the study of the French Atlantic Littoral. [coastal water and geomorphology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demathieu, P. G.; Verger, F. H.

    1974-01-01

    The French Atlantic Littoral (FRALIT) program uses ERTS-1 data to study coastal geomorphology and waters. ERTS-1 gives an overall picture of the phenomena for the first time due mainly to channel 4 data, but the other channels also contribute valuable complementary data on superficial waters. These studies have already resulted in accurate maps of the mud transported south-westwards from the mouth of the River Loire.

  2. The psychiatric report as moral tool: a case study in a French district court.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Fabrice; Lézé, Samuel

    2014-09-01

    Mental health evaluation within a legal setting is widely seen as a power to judge. The aim of this paper is to challenge this current thesis, which was popularised by Michel Foucault, who encapsulated the notion in a brief sentence: "The sordid business of punishing is thus converted into the fine profession of curing" (Foucault, 2003: 23). On the basis of an ethnography of a French district court (between September 2008 and May 2009, n = 60 trials) including interviews with judges (n = 10) and psychiatrists (n = 10), we study the everyday penal treatment of sexual offenders using psychiatric reports. Our findings show how (i.) the expectations of the judges select the psychiatrists' skills (based on the following criteria for their reports: accessibility of knowledge, singularization and individualization of content) and (ii.) reframe the psychiatric report as a moral tool. The clinical reasoning of forensic psychiatrists in their reports offer moral affordances due to their clinical caution regarding the risk of recidivism (therapeutic and criminological reversal, moral prevention). Both the judges' evaluation and the psychiatrists' clinical authority are shaped by a moral economy of dangerousness, which eclipses the idea of lack of criminal responsibility. In conclusion, we show that these unintended effects are necessarily of interest to most clinical practitioners engaged in work as expert witnesses. PMID:24973573

  3. The psychiatric report as moral tool: a case study in a French district court.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Fabrice; Lézé, Samuel

    2014-09-01

    Mental health evaluation within a legal setting is widely seen as a power to judge. The aim of this paper is to challenge this current thesis, which was popularised by Michel Foucault, who encapsulated the notion in a brief sentence: "The sordid business of punishing is thus converted into the fine profession of curing" (Foucault, 2003: 23). On the basis of an ethnography of a French district court (between September 2008 and May 2009, n = 60 trials) including interviews with judges (n = 10) and psychiatrists (n = 10), we study the everyday penal treatment of sexual offenders using psychiatric reports. Our findings show how (i.) the expectations of the judges select the psychiatrists' skills (based on the following criteria for their reports: accessibility of knowledge, singularization and individualization of content) and (ii.) reframe the psychiatric report as a moral tool. The clinical reasoning of forensic psychiatrists in their reports offer moral affordances due to their clinical caution regarding the risk of recidivism (therapeutic and criminological reversal, moral prevention). Both the judges' evaluation and the psychiatrists' clinical authority are shaped by a moral economy of dangerousness, which eclipses the idea of lack of criminal responsibility. In conclusion, we show that these unintended effects are necessarily of interest to most clinical practitioners engaged in work as expert witnesses.

  4. Socioeconomic Indicators Are Independently Associated with Nutrient Intake in French Adults: A DEDIPAC Study

    PubMed Central

    Si Hassen, Wendy; Castetbon, Katia; Cardon, Philippe; Enaux, Christophe; Nicolaou, Mary; Lien, Nanna; Terragni, Laura; Holdsworth, Michelle; Stronks, Karien; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Studies have suggested differential associations of specific indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP) with nutrient intake and a cumulative effect of these indicators on diet. We investigated the independent association of SEP indicators (education, income, occupation) with nutrient intake and their effect modification. This cross-sectional analysis included 91,900 French adults from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Nutrient intake was estimated using three 24-h records. We investigated associations between the three SEP factors and nutrient intake using sex-stratified analysis of covariance, adjusted for age and energy intake, and associations between income and nutrient intake stratified by education and occupation. Low educated participants had higher protein and cholesterol intakes and lower fibre, vitamin C and beta-carotene intakes. Low income individuals had higher complex carbohydrate intakes, and lower magnesium, potassium, folate and vitamin C intakes. Intakes of vitamin D and alcohol were lower in low occupation individuals. Higher income was associated with higher intakes of fibre, protein, magnesium, potassium, beta-carotene, and folate among low educated persons only, highlighting effect modification. Lower SEP, particularly low education, was associated with lower intakes of nutrients required for a healthy diet. Each SEP indicator was associated with specific differences in nutrient intake suggesting that they underpin different social processes. PMID:26978393

  5. Socioeconomic Indicators Are Independently Associated with Nutrient Intake in French Adults: A DEDIPAC Study.

    PubMed

    Si Hassen, Wendy; Castetbon, Katia; Cardon, Philippe; Enaux, Christophe; Nicolaou, Mary; Lien, Nanna; Terragni, Laura; Holdsworth, Michelle; Stronks, Karien; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2016-03-01

    Studies have suggested differential associations of specific indicators of socioeconomic position (SEP) with nutrient intake and a cumulative effect of these indicators on diet. We investigated the independent association of SEP indicators (education, income, occupation) with nutrient intake and their effect modification. This cross-sectional analysis included 91,900 French adults from the NutriNet-Santé cohort. Nutrient intake was estimated using three 24-h records. We investigated associations between the three SEP factors and nutrient intake using sex-stratified analysis of covariance, adjusted for age and energy intake, and associations between income and nutrient intake stratified by education and occupation. Low educated participants had higher protein and cholesterol intakes and lower fibre, vitamin C and beta-carotene intakes. Low income individuals had higher complex carbohydrate intakes, and lower magnesium, potassium, folate and vitamin C intakes. Intakes of vitamin D and alcohol were lower in low occupation individuals. Higher income was associated with higher intakes of fibre, protein, magnesium, potassium, beta-carotene, and folate among low educated persons only, highlighting effect modification. Lower SEP, particularly low education, was associated with lower intakes of nutrients required for a healthy diet. Each SEP indicator was associated with specific differences in nutrient intake suggesting that they underpin different social processes. PMID:26978393

  6. Fusobacterium invasive infections in children: a retrospective study in two French tertiary care centres.

    PubMed

    Bailhache, M; Mariani-Kurkdjian, P; Lehours, P; Sarlangue, J; Pillet, P; Bingen, E; Faye, A

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to describe the clinical and biological characteristics and evolution of invasive Fusobacterium infections in children admitted to two French paediatric tertiary care centres. Children who were admitted from 1998 to 2009 to two tertiary care centres for invasive Fusobacterium infection were included in a retrospective study. Thirty-one children with a median age of 5.7 years (interquartile range, IQR [2.3; 9.3]) were included. Nine children had an underlying condition, most commonly sickle cell disease (n = 3) or immunodeficiency (n = 3). Two children had skin effraction prior to the infection. The major sites of infection were the head and neck (n = 14) and abdomen (n = 10). Three children suffered from atypical Lemierre's syndrome. More than half of the children had a bacterial co-infection (58 %). Six children were hospitalised in an intensive care unit, and 67 % of them had a chronic underlying disease. None of the children died. Six children with negative cultures had Fusobacterium identified through 16S RNA-PCR. Fusobacterium is responsible for severe infection in children. Microbiological diagnosis might be improved by the wider use of molecular detection.

  7. Classroom Research: GC Studies of Linoleic and Linolenic Fatty Acids Found in French Fries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowley, Janice P.; Deboise, Kristen L.; Marshall, Megan R.; Shaffer, Hannah M.; Zafar, Sara; Jones, Kevin A.; Palko, Nick R.; Mitsch, Stephen M.; Sutton, Lindsay A.; Chang, Margaret; Fromer, Ilana; Kraft, Jake; Meister, Jessica; Shah, Amar; Tan, Priscilla; Whitchurch, James

    2002-07-01

    A study of fatty-acid ratios in French fries has proved to be an excellent choice for an entry-level research class. This research develops reasoning skills and involves the subject of breast cancer, a major concern of American society. Analysis of tumor samples removed from women with breast cancer revealed high ratios of linoleic to linolenic acid, suggesting a link between the accelerated growth of breast tumors and the combination of these two fatty acids. When the ratio of linoleic to linolenic acid was approximately 9 to 1, accelerated growth was observed. Since these fatty acids are found in cooking oils, Wichita Collegiate students, under the guidance of their chemistry teacher, decided that an investigation of the ratios of these two fatty acids should be conducted. A research class was structured using a gas chromatograph for the analysis. Separation of linoleic from linolenic acid was successfully accomplished. The students experienced inductive experimental research chemistry as it applies to everyday life. The structure of this research class can serve as a model for high school and undergraduate college research curricula.

  8. Risks of non-lethal weapon use: case studies of three French victims of stinger grenades.

    PubMed

    Scolan, V; Herry, C; Carreta, M; Stahl, C; Barret, L; Romanet, J P; Paysant, F

    2012-11-30

    The development of non-lethal weapons started in the 1960s. In France, they have been used by the police for about 10 years. We relate the cases of three French women, victims of stinger grenades, non-lethal weapons recently adopted by the French law enforcement to distract and disperse crowds. The three victims presented serious injuries requiring emergency surgical care. One lost her eye. Based on these cases, we discuss the lethal character of these weapons and propose measures to be taken to prevent their dramatic consequences. Although the danger is obviously less than for firearms, stinger grenades are nonetheless potentially lethal and cause serious physical injuries.

  9. Drug-induced Depression: a Case/Non Case Study in the French Pharmacovigilance Database.

    PubMed

    Lafay-Chebassier, Claire; Chavant, François; Favrelière, Sylvie; Pizzoglio, Véronique; Pérault-Pochat, Marie-Christine

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a complex disorder with heterogeneous clinical anomalies whose neurobiological understanding still remains unclear. Medications have been implicated as potential causes of depression but for many of them, data are controversial. The present study aims to investigate association bet ween drugs and reports of depression. We used the case/non case method in the French pharmacovigilance database (FPVD) to identify drugs associated with depression. Cases were reports of depression in the FPVD between January 2007 and December 2011. Non cases were all other reports during the same period. Data were expressed as reporting odds ratio (ROR) with their 95% confidence interval. Of the 114,692 reports recorded in the FPVD during the studied period, we identified 474 cases of depression. For the majority of the patients, they were considered as "non serious" (56%) and evolution was favorable (64%). Significant RORs were found for antiepileptics (topiramate, levetiracetam), anti-infective and especially anti-retroviral drugs (efavirenz, emtricitabine, tenofovir, etravirine, raltegravir), interferons and other agents including isotretinoin, methylphenidate, sodium oxybate, varenicline, montelukast, flunarizine, adalimumab, anastrozole. Taking into account the limits of the methodology, the present study described associations with mainly expected drugs belonging to various therapeutic classes but it also found a signal with some anti-retrovirals. On the contrary, we did not find some assumed associations like cardiovascular medications, antimalarial. For most of the drugs, one or more mechanisms were found to explain these depressogenic effects on the basis of animal and human literature. Even if such associations need to be confirmed by further prospective studies, cautions are necessary for many drugs to early detect depressive symptoms. PMID:26056040

  10. Is patient education helpful in providing care for patients with rheumatoid arthritis? A qualitative study involving French nurses.

    PubMed

    Fall, Estelle; Chakroun, Nadia; Dalle, Nathalie; Izaute, Marie

    2013-09-01

    This French study explored nurses' involvement in patient education for patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The study design was qualitative. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 16 hospital nurses. Data analysis was performed according to Giorgi's descriptive phenomenological method, and supported by specific qualitative analysis software (Sphinx). The results showed the important role of hospital nurses in rheumatoid arthritis care. Patient education is a core part of nurses' work, allowing them to give patients information and emotional support. The interviewees displayed skills in helping patients learn to care for themselves. However, patient education mostly concerned patients who are already committed to their health care. Non-adherent patients warrant special attention; their acceptance of their disease, perceptions about disease and treatment, motivation, and autonomy should be specifically addressed. French nurses could benefit from more training, and could be aided by psychologists. Ambulatory services could also be developed for patient education in France, based on examples from other countries. PMID:23480278

  11. Reconstruction of individual radiation doses for a case-control study of thyroid cancer in French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Drozdovitch, Vladimir; Bouville, André; Doyon, Françoise; Brindel, Pauline; Cardis, Elisabeth; de Vathaire, Florent

    2008-05-01

    Forty-one atmospheric nuclear weapons tests (plus five safety tests) were conducted in French Polynesia between 1966 and 1974. To evaluate the potential role of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing on a high incidence of thyroid cancer observed since 1985 in French Polynesia, a population-based case-control study was performed. The study included 602 subjects, either cases or controls, all aged less than 40 y at the end of nuclear weapons testing in 1974. Radiation doses to the thyroids of the study subjects were assessed based on the available historical results of radiation measurements. These were mainly found in the annual reports on the radiological situation in French Polynesia that had been sent to the UNSCEAR Secretariat. For each atmospheric nuclear weapons test that contributed substantially to the local deposition of radionuclides, the radiation dose to the thyroid from I intake was estimated. In addition, thyroid doses from the intake of short-lived radioiodines (132I, 133I, 135I) and 132Te, external exposure from gamma-emitted radionuclides deposited on the ground, and ingestion of long-lived Cs were reconstructed. The mean thyroid dose among the study subjects was found to be around 3 mGy while the highest dose was estimated to be around 40 mGy. Doses from short-lived iodine and tellurium isotopes ranged up to 10 mGy. Thyroid doses from external exposure ranged up to 3 mGy, while those from internal exposure due to cesium ingestion did not exceed 1 mGy. The dose estimates that have been obtained are based on a rather limited number of radiation measurements performed on a limited number of islands and are highly uncertain. A thorough compilation of the results of all radiation monitoring that was performed in French Polynesia in 1966-1974 would be likely to greatly improve the reliability and the precision of the dose estimates.

  12. Risk factors of multiple system atrophy: a case-control study in French patients.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Jean-Sébastien; Vidailhet, Marie; Elbaz, Alexis; Derkinderen, Pascal; Tzourio, Christophe; Alpérovitch, Annick

    2008-04-30

    Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a rare sporadic progressive neurodegenerative disorder. MSA risk factors are poorly known. The objectives of this case-control study were to study environmental risk factors associated with MSA. Cases were recruited through five French referral centers. Controls matched for age, gender, and living area were recruited from healthy relatives of inpatients free of any parkinsonian syndrome of the same centers. Subjects were interviewed about exposure to environmental factors (pesticides, solvents, etc.), occupation and food habits, and use of anti-inflammatory drugs. Odds ratios and 95% confident intervals (OR [95% CI]) were computed using conditional logistic regression. Seventy-one cases and 71 matched controls were included. Low education level was more frequent in cases than in controls. Controls drank more alcohol than did cases (OR = 0.5 [0.2-1.1]) and the risk of MSA decreased with increasing alcohol consumption (P = 0.04). Controls ate fish and sea food more often and drank more tea than cases. Aspirin intake was more frequent among controls than did cases (OR = 0.5 [0.2-1.0]) and the risk of MSA decreased with the frequency of intake (P = 0.0002). MSA was not associated to exposure to pesticides, solvents, and other toxics neither to occupations, except plant and machine operators and assemblers (OR = 10.0 [2.1-47.5]) where the risk of MSA increased with number of years in this occupation (P = 0.004). This case-control study provided new findings about risk factors of MSA. On another hand, it did not confirm the previously reported association between MSA and exposure to pesticides.

  13. Possible causes of variation in acrylamide concentration in French fries prepared in food service establishments: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Sanny, M; Jinap, S; Bakker, E J; van Boekel, M A J S; Luning, P A

    2012-05-01

    Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen, and its presence in a range of fried and oven-cooked foods has raised considerable health concern world-wide. Dietary intake studies observed significant variations in acrylamide concentrations, which complicate risk assessment and the establishment of effective control measures. The objective of this study was to obtain an insight into the actual variation in acrylamide concentrations in French fries prepared under typical conditions in a food service establishment (FSE). Besides acrylamide, frying time, frying temperature, and reducing sugars were measured and the actual practices at receiving, thawing and frying during French fries preparation were observed and recorded. The variation in the actual frying temperature contributed most to the variation in acrylamide concentrations, followed by the variation in actual frying time; no obvious effect of reducing sugars was found. The lack of standardised control of frying temperature and frying time (due to inadequate frying equipment) and the variable practices of food handlers seem to contribute most to the large variation and high acrylamide concentrations in French fries prepared in a restaurant type of FSE as compared to chain fast-food services, and institutional caterers. The obtained insights in this study can be used to develop dedicated control measures in FSE, which may contribute to a sustainable reduction in the acrylamide intake. PMID:26434272

  14. Possible causes of variation in acrylamide concentration in French fries prepared in food service establishments: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Sanny, M; Jinap, S; Bakker, E J; van Boekel, M A J S; Luning, P A

    2012-05-01

    Acrylamide is a probable human carcinogen, and its presence in a range of fried and oven-cooked foods has raised considerable health concern world-wide. Dietary intake studies observed significant variations in acrylamide concentrations, which complicate risk assessment and the establishment of effective control measures. The objective of this study was to obtain an insight into the actual variation in acrylamide concentrations in French fries prepared under typical conditions in a food service establishment (FSE). Besides acrylamide, frying time, frying temperature, and reducing sugars were measured and the actual practices at receiving, thawing and frying during French fries preparation were observed and recorded. The variation in the actual frying temperature contributed most to the variation in acrylamide concentrations, followed by the variation in actual frying time; no obvious effect of reducing sugars was found. The lack of standardised control of frying temperature and frying time (due to inadequate frying equipment) and the variable practices of food handlers seem to contribute most to the large variation and high acrylamide concentrations in French fries prepared in a restaurant type of FSE as compared to chain fast-food services, and institutional caterers. The obtained insights in this study can be used to develop dedicated control measures in FSE, which may contribute to a sustainable reduction in the acrylamide intake.

  15. Association between Zika virus and microcephaly in French Polynesia, 2013–2015: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Cauchemez, Simon; Besnard, Marianne; Bompard, Priscillia; Dub, Timothée; Guillemette-Artur, Prisca; Eyrolle-Guignot, Dominique; Salje, Henrik; Van Kerkhove, Maria D.; Abadie, Véronique; Garel, Catherine; Fontanet, Arnaud; Mallet, Henri-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Background The emergence of Zika virus (ZIKV) in the Americas has coincided with an increase in the report of birth of infants with microcephaly. On 1 February 2016, the World Health Organization declared the suspected link between ZIKV and microcephaly a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. However, to date, precise quantification of this association is lacking. Methods We retrospectively analysed data from a ZIKV outbreak in French Polynesia in October 2013–April 2014, which was the largest ever documented prior to the outbreak in the Americas. Serological and surveillance data were used to estimate the probability of ZIKV infection for each week of the epidemic. We also conducted an exhaustive search of medical records to identify all microcephaly cases from September 2013–July 2015. Simple models were developed to determine the period during pregnancy when ZIKV infection may increase the risk of microcephaly and estimate the associated risk. Findings Sixty-six percent (95% CI: 62, 70) of Polynesians were infected by ZIKV. Of the eight microcephaly cases identified during the 23-month study period, seven (88%) occurred in the four-month period following the ZIKV outbreak. This pattern was best explained by a model that assumed ZIKV infection in the first trimester of pregnancy increased the risk of microcephaly. In this model, the risk of microcephaly associated with ZIKV infection was 95 (95 CI: 34, 191) per 10,000 women infected in the first trimester of pregnancy while the prevalence of microcephaly was 2 (95% CI: 0, 8) per 10,000 neonates. Models where the risk of microcephaly also increased if infection occurred in trimesters 2 and 3 were not significantly worse fitting than this model. Interpretation This study provides the first quantitative estimate of the risk of microcephaly in a foetus/neonate whose mother was infected by ZIKV. Funding Labex-IBEID, NIH-MIDAS, AXA Research fund and EU-PREDEMICS. PMID:26993883

  16. The epidemiology of septic shock in French intensive care units: the prospective multicenter cohort EPISS study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction To provide up-to-date information on the prognostic factors associated with 28-day mortality in a cohort of septic shock patients in intensive care units (ICUs). Methods Prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study in ICUs from 14 French general (non-academic) and university teaching hospitals. All consecutive patients with septic shock admitted between November 2009 and March 2011 were eligible for inclusion. We prospectively recorded data regarding patient characteristics, infection, severity of illness, life support therapy, and discharge. Results Among 10,941 patients admitted to participating ICUs between October 2009 and September 2011, 1,495 (13.7%) patients presented inclusion criteria for septic shock and were included. Invasive mechanical ventilation was needed in 83.9% (n = 1248), inotropes in 27.7% (n = 412), continuous renal replacement therapy in 32.5% (n = 484), and hemodialysis in 19.6% (n = 291). Mortality at 28 days was 42% (n = 625). Variables associated with time to mortality, right-censored at day 28: age (for each additional 10 years) (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-1.38), immunosuppression (HR = 1.63; 95%CI: 1.37-1.96), Knaus class C/D score versus class A/B score (HR = 1.36; 95%CI:1.14-1.62) and Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (HR = 1.24 for each additional point; 95%CI: 1.21-1.27). Patients with septic shock and renal/urinary tract infection had a significantly longer time to mortality (HR = 0.56; 95%CI: 0.42-0.75). Conclusion Our observational data of consecutive patients from real-life practice confirm that septic shock is common and carries high mortality in general ICU populations. Our results are in contrast with the clinical trial setting, and could be useful for healthcare planning and clinical study design. PMID:23561510

  17. Applying Hofstede's Cross-Cultural Theory of Organizations to School Governance: A French Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Frances C.

    This paper applies Geert Hofstede's cross-cultural theory of organizational structure and behavior to school administration, examining the governance structure of the French public school system to determine how accurately it predicts the form of that educational organization. The first section of the paper presents Hofstede's theory and his…

  18. How the French Boy Learns to Write: A Study in the Teaching of the Mother Tongue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Rollo Walter

    Because French boys command a sharper accuracy of thought and form in their speaking and writing than do young Americans of the same age, this book examines the educational system in France for the light it might shed on the teaching of English in America. Chapters consider (1) syllabi for two kindergarten-through-high-school courses in…

  19. Study of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds at the French Guiana Tropical Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corain Lopes, Paula Regina; Guenther, Alex; Turnipseed, Andrew; Bonal, Damien; Serça, Dominique; Burban, Benôit; Siebicke, Lukas; Emmons, Louisa; Bustillos, José Oscar W. V.

    2013-04-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOCs) emissions play an important role in regional air quality and global atmospheric chemistry. In addition, these natural VOC emissions serve important biological functions including attracting and repelling pollinators and herbivores. Some biological organisms use ambient air as a communication medium and the oxidation of these compounds brings about the concentration gradients sensed by insects and other organisms. Isoprene is the predominant BVOC emitted by vegetation and tropical forests are the dominant global source. This compound is very reactive in the atmosphere and contributes to the reactions that control tropospheric oxidant concentrations and thus the concentrations and lifetimes of longer-lived species. This paper presents a study on the seasonal variations in isoprene and some other significant BVOCs such as α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, e-β ocimene and longifolene, measured at the Guyaflux Tower located in a wet tropical forest in Paracou French Guiana (5o16´54´´N, 52o54´44´´W), during the year of 2011, using the Relaxed Eddy Accumulation technique at approximately 20 meters high above the canopy. The results show a lower concentration of isoprene during the month of February and March which correspond to the wet season with an average of 0,545 μg/m3 and 0,341 μg/m3, respectively followed by a slight increase in middle April (still wet season) and a higher concentration later in mid-June. The same behavior was observed for α-pinene with higher concentrations for the same periods as isoprene however with a smaller increase. All the other compounds had concentrations below 1 μg/m3during the whole year. The monoterpene, e-β ocimene, was observed and is known as a stress compound but the vegetation at the site did not face any known severe stress condition such as excessive drought or flooding. Concerning the fluxes, the results showed that just a small amount of BVOCs were deposited by wet or dry

  20. Study of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds at the French Guiana Tropical Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corain Lopes, P.; Guenther, A. B.; Turnipseed, A.; Burban, B.; Bonal, D.; Serca, D.; Emmons, L. K.; Bustillos, J. W.

    2012-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOCs) emissions play an important role in regional air quality and global atmospheric chemistry. In addition, these natural VOC emissions serve important biological functions including attracting and repelling pollinators and herbivores. Some biological organisms use ambient air as a communication medium and the oxidation of these compounds brings about the concentration gradients sensed by insects and other organisms. Isoprene is the predominant BVOC emitted by vegetation and tropical forests are the dominant global source. This compound is very reactive in the atmosphere and contributes to the reactions that control tropospheric oxidant concentrations and thus the concentrations and lifetimes of longer-lived species. This paper presents a study of isoprene and some other significant BVOCs such as α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, e-β ocimene and longifolene, measured at the Paracou Tower located in a wet tropical forest in Cayenne, French Guiana, during the year of 2011, using the Relaxed Eddy Accumulation technique at 30 meters high above the canopy. The results show a lower concentration of isoprene during the month of February and March which correspond to the wet season with an average of 0,545 μg/m3 and 0,341 μg/m3, respectively with a slight increase in middle April which is a period of transition between wet and dry and a higher concentration later in mid-June which corresponds to the transition from wet to dry season (Figure 1). The same behavior was observed for α-pinene with higher concentrations for the same periods as isoprene however with a smaller increase. All the other compounds had concentrations below 1 μg/m3 during the whole year. The monoterpene, e-β ocimene, was observed and is known as a stress compound but the vegetation at the site did not face any known severe stress condition such as excessive drought or flooding. Concerning the fluxes, the results showed that just a small amount of BVOCs were

  1. Contribution of snacks and meals in the diet of French adults: a diet-diary study.

    PubMed

    Bellisle, F; Dalix, A M; Mennen, L; Galan, P; Hercberg, S; de Castro, J M; Gausseres, N

    2003-07-01

    To investigate the relative contributions of meals and snacks in the daily intake of free-living humans, 54 French adults maintained food intake diaries for four 7-day periods. They recorded all food and fluid intakes mentioning whether, in their opinion, each intake event was a snack or a meal. The weekly food diaries also contained information on the circumstances of each event such as time and place, number of persons present, and affective states (hunger, satiety, etc.) before and after intake. On average, 2.7 meals and 1.3 snacks were consumed each day. Very few days included no snacking. Total daily energy and nutrient intake were not different between days with and days without snacks. Snacks differed from meals in several dimensions. Meals were about twice as large as snacks in energy and weight. Nutrient intake, in absolute values, was higher in meals. In proportions, however, snacks contained more CHO and less fat and proteins. Most foods were consumed in larger amounts in the context of meals but a few (sweets, cereal bars, biscuits, and sodas) were mostly consumed as snacks. Hunger was more intense before but less intense after meals than snacks. The satiety ratio was higher for snacks than meals. Time of day affected many intake parameters. For example, afternoon snacks exhibited a high satiety ratio for a modest intake. The present study describes the status of several potential determining factors at the time of snacks in humans, demonstrating a specific role for snacks, as opposed to meals, in the daily eating pattern of healthy adults. PMID:12834789

  2. Infections Revealing Complement Deficiency in Adults: A French Nationwide Study Enrolling 41 Patients.

    PubMed

    Audemard-Verger, A; Descloux, E; Ponard, D; Deroux, A; Fantin, B; Fieschi, C; John, M; Bouldouyre, A; Karkowsi, L; Moulis, G; Auvinet, H; Valla, F; Lechiche, C; Davido, B; Martinot, M; Biron, C; Lucht, F; Asseray, N; Froissart, A; Buzelé, R; Perlat, A; Boutboul, D; Fremeaux-Bacchi, V; Isnard, S; Bienvenu, B

    2016-05-01

    Complement system is a part of innate immunity, its main function is to protect human from bacterial infection. As genetic disorders, complement deficiencies are often diagnosed in pediatric population. However, complement deficiencies can also be revealed in adults but have been poorly investigated. Herein, we describe a case series of infections revealing complement deficiency in adults to study clinical spectrum and management of complement deficiencies.A nationwide retrospective study was conducted in French university and general hospitals in departments of internal medicine, infectious diseases enrolling patients older than 15 years old who had presented at least one infection leading to a complement deficiency diagnosis.Forty-one patients included between 2002 and 2015 in 19 different departments were enrolled in this study. The male-to-female ratio was 1.3 and the mean age at diagnosis was 28 ± 14 (15-67) years. The main clinical feature was Neisseria meningitidis meningitis 75% (n = 31/41) often involving rare serotype: Y (n = 9) and W 135 (n = 7). The main complement deficiency observed was the common final pathway deficiency 83% (n = 34/41). Half of the cohort displayed severe sepsis or septic shock at diagnosis (n = 22/41) but no patient died. No patient had family history of complement deficiency. The mean follow-up was 1.15 ± 1.95 (0.1-10) years. Half of the patients had already suffered from at least one infection before diagnosis of complement deficiency: meningitis (n = 13), pneumonia (n = 4), fulminans purpura (n = 1), or recurrent otitis (n = 1). Near one-third (n = 10/39) had received prophylactic antibiotics (cotrimoxazole or penicillin) after diagnosis of complement deficiency. The vaccination coverage rate, at the end of the follow-up, for N meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Haemophilius influenzae were, respectively, 90% (n = 33/37), 47% (n = 17/36), and 35% (n = 14

  3. Lexical learning of the English language: a PET study in healthy French subjects.

    PubMed

    Raboyeau, Gaëlle; Marie, Nathalie; Balduyck, Sébastien; Gros, Hélène; Démonet, Jean-François; Cardebat, Dominique

    2004-08-01

    To investigate the neural correlates of word learning in adults, 10 right-handed French subjects who had learned English without mastering it performed an English and a French naming task during two PET sessions, one before (PET1) and the second after (PET2) a 4-week lexical training in English. Behavioral performance was collected during the two PET exams and 2 months after (T3). At T2, performance on English naming increased in all subjects; this improvement persisted at T3, with no correlation between English performance at T2 and T3. Cerebral activation during French naming mainly showed a left frontal temporal network. The pattern specifically associated with English lexical learning included, in addition to the anterior cingulate cortex involved in attentional processing and BAs 4/6 reflecting speech output, the right cerebellum and the left insular cortex that are linked to speech gesture learning, and the right medial temporal regions, likely to reflect the involvement of episodic memory during verbal learning. Correlations between English T2/T1 performance and English T2/T1 rCBF changes reinforced the hypothesis of intervention of episodic memory since they interested right frontal, hippocampal, and lateral temporal regions. 'Predictive' correlations between English T3/T2 performance and English T2/T1 rCBF changes showed, in good reminders, increased activities in the left posterior superior temporal sulcus and middle temporal cortex probably related to efficient semantic storage of learned words.

  4. Strategie pour une etude de la chanson francaise (A Strategy for the Study of the French Song)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Alan

    1977-01-01

    Teaching a song has been relegated to the "reward for learning the subjunctive" category in most French classes. A well defined program, including a sample lesson plan, integrating the song into the French course is offered. Four objectives of such a program are outlined. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  5. [Malarial vectors in French Guiana: study in an epidemic focus near Cayenne (1989-1998)].

    PubMed

    Claustre, J; Venturin, C; Nadiré, M; Fauran, P

    2001-11-01

    Malaria has long constituted a major public health problem for French Guyana, limiting its demographic and economic development. From 1949 to 1960, due to chemoprophylaxis and DDT spraying in houses, the number of malaria cases decreased markedly. After 1975, important migratory movements contributed to increasing the incidence of malaria. In 1989, numerous cases were observed when some 500 immigrants settled in a formerly uninhabited area, known as Cabassou BP 134. It is located 7 km (S-E) from the main city of Cayenne and bordered by secondary forest and swamps. The entomological study initiated in 1990 included weekly biting-landing catches (3 hours) on human bait in houses from dusk onwards as well as locating breeding places around the settlement to collect larvae by dipping. Anopheles specimens were identified and the females dissected to detect infections by Plasmodium and also to determine the rate of parous specimens. Control measures included deltamethrin (15 mg/m2) and DDT (2 g/m2) spraying, every four months, of interior walls and thermal fogging of naled around the houses. Cold ULV aerosol of fenitrothion (500 ml/ha) was also used to treat the swamp borders. In April 1990, a health education programme was begun and in June, 288 impregnated bednets (deltamethrin 15 mg/m2) were treated. From 1990 to 1998, 1,588 (498 larvae + 1090 adults) Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) were collected: An. aquasalis 797 (311 L + 486 A). An. braziliensis 139 (87 L + 52 A). An. darlingi 652 (100 L + 552 A). No infected female was found among the 710 dissected. The number of malaria cases decreased abruptly in the fall of 1990 when An. darlingi disappeared and only one case due to P. vivax was detected between 1995 and 1998. An. darlingi (parous rate = 72%) appears to be the main if not the sole vector of malaria in this locality. As in the past, a focus of malaria appears when immigrants from endemic countries settle in a formerly uninhabited place where An. darlingi are breeding

  6. Combined adverse effects of cascading events on systems' functionality: an insular case study, French West Indies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desramaut, Nicolas; Wang, Justin; Gehl, Pierre; Marti, Jose; Baills, Audrey; Reveillere, Arnaud

    2013-04-01

    In our modern societies, lifelines play a vital role, even in normal conditions. Therefore, during crises, the dependency to critical infrastructures is likely to be exacerbated. Indeed, in order to provide quick emergency services to the population, systems have to be functional. However, even if not directly damaged, in order to be functional, elements of the different systems have to receive enough resources but also to be able to supply their own services. In a multi-risk approach, this necessity to take into account systemic vulnerability to assess the real impact of natural hazards on society is even made more obvious. For example, impacts of one hazard, taken separately, might not significantly affect societies, but might reduce redundancy, and therefore could increase functional vulnerability to other hazards. The present study aims at analyzing the effects of cascading events on the behaviour of interdependent systems and on the capacities of the health care system to treat the victims. In order to work on a close system, an insular context (Guadeloupe, French West Indies) has been selected. The hazard cascading scenario consists of a M6.3 earthquake striking Basse-Terre, and triggering landslides in the mountainous areas where antecedent precipitations have made the area prone to slide. Damages due to earthquakes have been estimated for the 5 considered systems (buildings, healthcare system, electrical network, water supply network and transportation). Due to their localization in mountainous areas, landslides would affect only transportation networks, with closure of roads. The inter- and intra-dependencies of systems have been modeled thanks to the I2Sim platform developed at UBC. The functionality of each element is therefore the consequence of the physical (direct damage) but also functional (indirect) damage. Analyses are performed for different strategies of resources allocations, and one of the final results is the impact of the induced landslides

  7. Neutrophilic Dermatoses in Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody-Associated Vasculitis: A French Multicenter Study of 17 Cases and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    de Boysson, Hubert; Martin Silva, Nicolas; de Moreuil, Claire; Néel, Antoine; de Menthon, Mathilde; Meyer, Olivier; Launay, David; Pagnoux, Christian; Guillevin, Loïc; Puéchal, Xavier; Bienvenu, Boris; Aouba, Achille

    2016-03-01

    A few reports suggest combination of ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV) and neutrophilic dermatoses (ND). We aimed to describe the main characteristics of patients presenting with both AAV and ND in a French cohort and through a systematic literature review, and to discuss the possible common pathogenic process involved. We conducted a retrospective study of patients with both conditions. Patients were selected via the French Internal Medicine Society (SNFMI) and the French Vasculitis Study Group (FVSG). A literature review focusing on a combination of both conditions, concentrated only on publications with well-established diagnoses and individual detailed data. Seventeen patients diagnosed with AAV and ND were identified in this cohort. Twelve patients had granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), 4 had microscopic polyangiitis (MPA) and one had eosinophilic GPA (EGPA). Eight patients, all with GPA, displayed pyoderma gangrenosum (PG). Sweet's syndrome was observed in 6 patients (4 with MPA, one with GPA and one with EGPA) and erythema elevatum diutinum in the other three (2 with GPA and 1 with MPA). The literature review identified 33 additional patients with both conditions, including 26 with GPA. Altogether, of the 50 patients (17 from our study and 33 from the literature review), 33 (66%) patients presented with PG associated with GPA in 29 cases (89%). Corticosteroids were the first-line treatment in conjunction with an immunosuppressive agent in most cases. Outcomes were good and a total of 15 patients experienced a relapse. Patients who relapsed were more likely to have ear, nose and throat manifestation than patients who did not [12/15 (80%) relapsing patients vs. 15/35 (43%) non-relapsing patients; p = 0.03)]. In our stud, the most frequent association concerned GPA and PG. ND should be considered and specifically researched within the spectrum of cutaneous manifestations observed in AAV.

  8. Eating patterns in French subjects studied by the "weekly food diary" method.

    PubMed

    Bellisle, F; Dalix, A; de Castro, J M

    1999-02-01

    The "weekly food diary" was translated and adapted for use by French subjects. This validated method requires subjects to record every food and drink intake over 1 week, with several descriptors of the physical, psychological and social circumstances. Ten male [age 23. 6+/-2.3 years, body mass index (BMI) 20.7+/-0.6] and 16 female (age 23.3+/-0.6 years, BMI 20+/-0.6) students completed four weekly diaries over 1 year, one per season. Data were processed using a specially designed software. Breakfast was important, (about 400 kcalories). Lunch and dinner were almost equal in energy content but alcohol was consumed mainly with dinner. Meal size correlated positively with premeal hunger, number of people present, duration of premeal interval and time of day. Postmeal satiety correlated positively with meal size, aftermeal stomach content, and negatively with time of day, postmeal hunger and duration of sleep the preceding night. These observations allow hypotheses to be developed about mechanisms of intake in a French population and cross-cultural comparisons to be made.

  9. Chemoprophylaxis and treatment of African canine trypanosomosis in French military working dogs: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Watier-Grillot, Stéphanie; Herder, Stéphane; Marié, Jean-Lou; Cuny, Gérard; Davoust, Bernard

    2013-05-01

    African trypanosomosis is a major threat to livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa. Although the disease mainly concerns cattle, dogs can also be infected by Trypanosoma spp. transmitted by tsetse flies. Between 1997 and 2003, the parasite Trypanosoma congolense was identified in French military dogs sent to Africa. On infected dogs, the diagnosis was made during the mission or just after the return to France, depending on when the symptoms appeared. The high incidence and mortality rate among these dogs led veterinarians of the French Health Service to implement a systematic chemoprophylaxis beginning in 2004. Between 2004 and 2011, the chemoprophylaxis was carried out on more than 400 military dogs. The protocol of chemoprophylaxis relies on the use of isometamidium chloride (Trypamidium(®), Merial). The drug has been used successfully at the dosage of 1mg/kg body weight by deep intramuscular injection, every two or three months. In addition, dogs are given collars impregnated with deltamethrin (Scalibor(®), MSD Animal Health). Isometamidium chloride was also used successfully in the treatment of military dogs infected with T. congolense, with a full recovery and without any relapses.

  10. Research Perspectives on Core French: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapkin, Sharon; Mady, Callie; Arnott, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the research literature on core French in three main areas: student diversity, delivery models for the core French program, and instructional approaches. These topics are put into context through a discussion of studies on community attitudes to French as a second language (FSL), dissatisfaction with core French outcomes and…

  11. Dengue Seroprevalence in the French West Indies: A Prospective Study in Adult Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    L'Azou, Maïna; Jean-Marie, Janick; Bessaud, Maël; Cabié, André; Césaire, Raymond; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Courbil, Rémi; Richard, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    Using an anti-dengue immunoglobulin G (IgG) indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, seroprevalence was determined among 783 adult blood donors in the French Caribbean islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique in 2011. Overall, 93.5% [91.5; 95.1] samples were positive for dengue antibodies, 90.7% (350 of 386) in Martinique and 96.2% (382 of 397) in Guadeloupe. Only 30% of these adults recalled having had dengue disease before. Serotype-specific neutralization assays applied to a subset of IgG-positive samples indicated that a majority (77 of 96; 80%) reacted to the four serotypes. These seroprevalence findings are the first reported for Guadeloupe and Martinique and are consistent with the dengue epidemiology in these territories. PMID:25846291

  12. [Breast augmentation by implants: a review of surgical practices. A study among French plastic surgeons].

    PubMed

    Chekaroua, K; Delay, E

    2005-10-01

    In the framework of the 2005 report on mammary implants prepared by the Société française de chirurgie plastique reconstructrice et esthétique (SOF.CPRE), we conducted a survey among french plastic surgeons involved in the field. We elaborated a questionnaire that we distributed twice to the 600 members of the society; a total of 261 responded. Analysis of the data collected provides information on the socioprofessional characteristics of the responding surgeons, and on the devices, products and techniques they use. Finally, the survey has permitted to identify their qualitative perception of breast implant products currently available. Ranking these items by order of frequency provides a snapshot of the current procedures and practices in use for breast augmentation surgery in France.

  13. Do orthographic cues aid language recognition? A laterality study with French-English bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Vaid, Jyotsna; Frenck-Mestre, Cheryl

    2002-07-01

    Sixteen French-English late bilinguals performed a speeded language recognition task on lateralized words that were either marked or unmarked for language on the basis of digram frequency. Response latencies were faster to orthographically marked than unmarked words, particularly in the second language (English). Furthermore, L2 marked words were responded to faster than L1 marked words. These effects were especially prominent for words presented in the left visual field. It is suggested that subjects made use of different strategies in performing the task of language recognition task, with a perceptual search strategy deployed to identify orthographically marked words, resulting in an L2 advantage for such words, and a lexical search strategy deployed for unmarked words, resulting in an L1 advantage for such words.

  14. Vigie-Ciel : a french citizen network to study meteors and meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouley, S.; Zanda, B.; Colas, F.; Vaubaillon, J.; Marmo, C.; Vernazza, P.; Gattacceca, J.

    2013-12-01

    Vigie Ciel is a french citizen network supported by the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle (MNHN) and the Université Paris-Sud (UPsud). It is based on the scientific FRIPON program developed by Paris Observatory (Fireball Recovery and Planetary Inter Observation Network) which has for main goal to (i) determine the source region(s) of the various meteorite classes, (ii) collect both fresh and rare meteorite types and (iii) perform scientific outreach. This will be achieved by building the densest camera network in the world, based on state of the art technologies and associated with a participative network for meteorite recovery. We propose to install a network of 100 digital cameras covering the entire French territory to compute impact locations with accuracy of the order of one kilometer. Considering that there are 5 to 25 falls over France per year (~15 on average), during the same time, we will observe ~50 falls out of which we realistically expect to find 10 meteorites. Our project is original in several ways. (i) It is inter-disciplinary, involving experts in meteoritics, asteroidal science as well as fireball observation and dynamics. It will thus create new synergies between prominent institutions and/or laboratories, namely between MNHN, Paris Observatory and Université Paris-Sud in the Parisian region; and between CEREGE and LAM in the Provence region. Overall, scientists from over 25 laboratories will be involved, covering a mix of scientific disciplines and all the regions of France. (ii) It will generate a large body of data, feeding databases of interest to several disciplines (e.g. bird migration, variations of the luminosity of the brightest stars, observation of space debris, meteorology...). (iii) It will for the first time involve the general public (including schools) in the search for the meteorite falls, thus boosting the interest in meteorite and asteroid related science.

  15. A comparative study of the characteristics of French fries produced by deep fat frying and air frying.

    PubMed

    Teruel, Maria del Rocio; Gordon, Michael; Linares, Maria Belen; Garrido, Maria Dolores; Ahromrit, Araya; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2015-02-01

    Air frying is being projected as an alternative to deep fat frying for producing snacks such as French fries. In air frying, the raw potato sections are essentially heated in hot air containing fine oil droplets, which dehydrates the potato and attempts to impart the characteristics of traditionally produced French fries, but with a substantially lower level of fat absorbed in the product. The aim of this research is to compare: (1) the process dynamics of air frying with conventional deep fat frying under otherwise similar operating conditions, and (2) the products formed by the 2 processes in terms of color, texture, microstructure, calorimetric properties, and sensory characteristics. Although, air frying produced products with a substantially lower fat content but with similar moisture contents and color characteristics, it required much longer processing times, typically 21 min in relation to 9 min in the case of deep fat frying. The slower evolution of temperature also resulted in lower rates of moisture loss and color development reactions. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies revealed that the extent of starch gelatinization was also lower in the case of air fried product. In addition, the 2 types of frying also resulted in products having significantly different texture and sensory characteristics. PMID:25619624

  16. A comparative study of the characteristics of French fries produced by deep fat frying and air frying.

    PubMed

    Teruel, Maria del Rocio; Gordon, Michael; Linares, Maria Belen; Garrido, Maria Dolores; Ahromrit, Araya; Niranjan, Keshavan

    2015-02-01

    Air frying is being projected as an alternative to deep fat frying for producing snacks such as French fries. In air frying, the raw potato sections are essentially heated in hot air containing fine oil droplets, which dehydrates the potato and attempts to impart the characteristics of traditionally produced French fries, but with a substantially lower level of fat absorbed in the product. The aim of this research is to compare: (1) the process dynamics of air frying with conventional deep fat frying under otherwise similar operating conditions, and (2) the products formed by the 2 processes in terms of color, texture, microstructure, calorimetric properties, and sensory characteristics. Although, air frying produced products with a substantially lower fat content but with similar moisture contents and color characteristics, it required much longer processing times, typically 21 min in relation to 9 min in the case of deep fat frying. The slower evolution of temperature also resulted in lower rates of moisture loss and color development reactions. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) studies revealed that the extent of starch gelatinization was also lower in the case of air fried product. In addition, the 2 types of frying also resulted in products having significantly different texture and sensory characteristics.

  17. Retention of New Teachers in Minority French and French Immersion Programs in Manitoba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewart, Gestny

    2009-01-01

    There is a shortage of teachers in Canada qualified to teach in French; some researchers have suggested that this shortage is due to attrition. This study examined the retention in Manitoba of new teachers qualified to teach in French. Participants were 130 graduates from the only French teacher education program in the province. Attrition was…

  18. Q fever in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Eldin, Carole; Mahamat, Aba; Demar, Magalie; Abboud, Philippe; Djossou, Félix; Raoult, Didier

    2014-10-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is present worldwide. Recent studies have shown that this bacterium is an emerging pathogen in French Guiana and has a high prevalence (24% of community-acquired pneumonia). In this review, we focus on the peculiar epidemiology of Q fever in French Guiana. We place it in the context of the epidemiology of the disease in the surrounding countries of South America. We also review the clinical features of Q fever in this region, which has severe initial presentation but low mortality rates. These characteristics seem to be linked to a unique genotype (genotype 17). Finally, we discuss the issue of the animal reservoir of C. burnetii in French Guiana, which is still unknown. Further studies are necessary to identify this reservoir. Identification of this reservoir will improve the understanding of the Q fever epidemic in French Guiana and will provide new tools to control this public health problem.

  19. Resveratrol: French Paradox Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Catalgol, Betul; Batirel, Saime; Taga, Yavuz; Ozer, Nesrin Kartal

    2012-01-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenol that plays a potentially important role in many disorders and has been studied in different diseases. The research on this chemical started through the “French paradox,” which describes improved cardiovascular outcomes despite a high-fat diet in French people. Since then, resveratrol has been broadly studied and shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and anti-angiogenic effects, with those on oxidative stress possibly being most important and underlying some of the others, but many signaling pathways are among the molecular targets of resveratrol. In concert they may be beneficial in many disorders, particularly in diseases where oxidative stress plays an important role. The main focus of this review will be the pathways affected by resveratrol. Based on these mechanistic considerations, the involvement of resveratrol especially in cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and possibly in longevity will be is addressed. PMID:22822401

  20. Parkinson disease male-to-female ratios increase with age: French nationwide study and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moisan, Frédéric; Kab, Sofiane; Mohamed, Fatima; Canonico, Marianne; Le Guern, Morgane; Quintin, Cécile; Carcaillon, Laure; Nicolau, Javier; Duport, Nicolas; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Boussac-Zarebska, Marjorie; Elbaz, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Background Parkinson’s disease (PD) is 1.5 times more frequent in men than women. Whether age modifies this ratio is unclear. We examined whether male-to-female (M–F) ratios change with age through a French nationwide prevalence/incidence study (2010) and a meta-analysis of incidence studies. Methods We used French national drug claims databases to identify PD cases using a validated algorithm. We computed M–F prevalence/incidence ratios overall and by age using Poisson regression. Ratios were regressed on age to estimate their annual change. We identified all PD incidence studies with age/sex-specific data, and performed a meta-analysis of M–F ratios. Results On the basis of 149 672 prevalent (50% women) and 25 438 incident (49% women) cases, age-standardised rates were higher in men (prevalence=2.865/1000; incidence=0.490/1000 person-years) than women (prevalence=1.934/1000; incidence=0.328/1000 person-years). The overall M–F ratio was 1.48 for prevalence and 1.49 for incidence. Prevalence and incidence M–F ratios increased by 0.05 and 0.14, respectively, per 10 years of age. Incidence was similar in men and women under 50 years (M–F ratio <1.2, p>0.20), and over 1.6 (p<0.001) times higher in men than women above 80 years (p trend <0.001). A meta-analysis of 22 incidence studies (14 126 cases, 46% women) confirmed that M– F ratios increased with age (0.26 per 10 years, p trend=0.005). Conclusions Age-increasing M–F ratios suggest that PD aetiology changes with age. Sex-related risk/protective factors may play a different role across the continuum of age at onset. This finding may inform aetiological PD research. PMID:26701996

  1. Selected Essays and Curriculum Units: Foreign Language Instruction through the Study of Literary Texts. French, German, Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silber, Ellen S., Ed.; Krug, Clara, Ed.

    This guide presents essays and curriculum units designed for use by secondary and college teachers of French, German, and Spanish as a foreign language. The first section of the work includes two essays, in French, and eight curriculum units based on the stories of Guy de Maupassant. The second section contains seven curriculum units that…

  2. The Chartres Study: I. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders among French school-age children.

    PubMed

    Fombonne, E

    1994-01-01

    A survey of child psychiatric disorders was conducted in a community sample of 2441 French school-aged children selected from 18 public and private schools; children attending special classes were oversampled. A two-stage survey design was used to identify disorders. Measures were the Child Behavior Checklist and the Rutter teacher scale for screening. The Isle of Wight parental interview was used in the second phase for 217 home interviews, along with the Children Global Assessment Scale as an index of impaired functioning. Response rates were excellent, and non-respondents in the screening phase were shown to have higher levels of psychopathology as gauged by their teacher scale scores. Several weights were used in the analysis to adjust for differential probabilities of selection and participation in each survey phase. The overall prevalence rate among 8-11-year-olds was estimated to be 12.4% (5.9% for more severe disorders), with roughly equal rates of disruptive and emotional disorders (6.5% and 5.9%). Prevalence was higher in boys (15.0%) than in girls (9.5%), owing to a threefold increase in their frequency of conduct disturbances. Rates of disturbance were twice as high among children with special educational needs, while no difference was found between private and public schools. The frequency of behavioural problems appeared to be similar in the urban and semi-rural subsamples.

  3. Acute clinical events in 299 homozygous sickle cell patients living in France. French Study Group on Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Neonato, M G; Guilloud-Bataille, M; Beauvais, P; Bégué, P; Belloy, M; Benkerrou, M; Ducrocq, R; Maier-Redelsperger, M; de Montalembert, M; Quinet, B; Elion, J; Feingold, J; Girot, R

    2000-09-01

    A subset of 299 patients with homozygous sickle cell anaemia, enrolled in the cohort of the French Study Group on sickle cell disease (SCD), was investigated in this study. The majority of patients were children (mean age 10.1 +/- 5.8 yr) of first generation immigrants from Western and Central Africa, the others originated from the French West Indies (20.2%). We report the frequency of the main clinical events (mean follow-up 4.2 +/- 2.2 yr). The prevalence of meningitis-septicaemia and osteomyelitis was, respectively, 11.4% and 12% acute chest syndrome was observed in 134 patients (44.8%). Twenty patients (6.7%) developed stroke with peak prevalence at 10-15 yr of age. One hundred and seventy-two patients (58%) suffered from one or more painful sickle cell crises, while the others (42.5%) never suffered from pain. The overall frequency of acute anaemic episodes was 50.5%, (acute aplastic anaemia 46%; acute splenic sequestration 26%). A group of 27 patients were asymptomatic (follow-up > 3 yr). Epistatic mechanisms influencing SCD were studied. Coinherited alpha-thalassemia strongly reduced the risk of stroke (p <0.001) and increased that of painful crises (p < 0.02). There was a low prevalence of Senegal and Bantu (CAR) betas-chromosomes in patients with meningitis (p <0.04) and osteomyelitis (p < 0.03). Prevalence of Senegal betas-chromosomes was lower in the asymptomatic group of 27 patients (p < 0.02). The patients come from a population of unmixed immigrants in whom the beta-globin gene haplotype strongly reflects the geographic origin and identifies subgroups with a homogenous genetic background. Thus the observed effects might result more from differences in as yet unidentified determinants in the genetic background than from the direct linkage with differences in the beta-globin gene locus.

  4. A Comparative Study of the Academic Performance of Secondary School Pupils at Grade Twelve Level in English, French and Zambian Languages (1998-2008)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chishiba, G. M.; Mukuka, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    The study compared the performance of pupils at grade 12 level in Zambian languages, French and English during a period of ten years (1998-2008). Grade 12 is the final year of Secondary School Education in Zambia. This exercise was aimed at establishing the language with the best performance during the aforementioned period. The study, which was…

  5. Divergences on the environmental impact associated to the production of maritime pine wood in Europe: French and Portuguese case studies.

    PubMed

    González-García, Sara; Dias, Ana Cláudia; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, María Teresa; Arroja, Luis

    2014-02-15

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has become a common methodology to evaluate the environmental performance of forest systems in recent years. This study aims to estimate the environmental profile associated with maritime pine wood production in two representative European countries: Portugal and France. Different forest management regimes based on low and high intensive conditions were evaluated and differences in logging equipment, biomass yield and lifespan were also reported. The study was completed with a sensitivity analysis based on two allocation approaches (economic and volumetric) since biomass from thinning processes is harvested and can be used as a co-product. The production of maritime pine in Portugal under low intensity conditions should present the best environmental results with reductions of 50-94% in comparison with the worst scenario. It is mainly associated with the absence of forest activities in periods previous to the logging stage. French intensive forest scenario ranks as the second best alternative of pine wood production. The remaining scenarios reported worse results in terms of environmental impacts mostly due to the remarkable repetition of a selection of those forest activities with large fuel requirement (mainly on site preparation and stand establishment and tending). Regardless of the scenario, logging related activities such as final cutting and forwarding were identified as the hotspots mainly due to the fuel requirements. Fertilizer production (if required), thinning and cleaning processes reported also remarkable contributions to the categories under assessment. In addition, an economic estimation for each forest management scenario has been performed mainly considering fuel, machinery and labor costs. According to the results, the Portuguese low intensive scenario is the best choice together with the French intensive scenario under an economic point of view because of the lowest production costs per functional unit. Activities

  6. Divergences on the environmental impact associated to the production of maritime pine wood in Europe: French and Portuguese case studies.

    PubMed

    González-García, Sara; Dias, Ana Cláudia; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Moreira, María Teresa; Arroja, Luis

    2014-02-15

    Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has become a common methodology to evaluate the environmental performance of forest systems in recent years. This study aims to estimate the environmental profile associated with maritime pine wood production in two representative European countries: Portugal and France. Different forest management regimes based on low and high intensive conditions were evaluated and differences in logging equipment, biomass yield and lifespan were also reported. The study was completed with a sensitivity analysis based on two allocation approaches (economic and volumetric) since biomass from thinning processes is harvested and can be used as a co-product. The production of maritime pine in Portugal under low intensity conditions should present the best environmental results with reductions of 50-94% in comparison with the worst scenario. It is mainly associated with the absence of forest activities in periods previous to the logging stage. French intensive forest scenario ranks as the second best alternative of pine wood production. The remaining scenarios reported worse results in terms of environmental impacts mostly due to the remarkable repetition of a selection of those forest activities with large fuel requirement (mainly on site preparation and stand establishment and tending). Regardless of the scenario, logging related activities such as final cutting and forwarding were identified as the hotspots mainly due to the fuel requirements. Fertilizer production (if required), thinning and cleaning processes reported also remarkable contributions to the categories under assessment. In addition, an economic estimation for each forest management scenario has been performed mainly considering fuel, machinery and labor costs. According to the results, the Portuguese low intensive scenario is the best choice together with the French intensive scenario under an economic point of view because of the lowest production costs per functional unit. Activities

  7. Motivation, Ethnic Identity, and Post-Secondary Education Language Choices of Graduates of Intensive French Language Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Erin; Noels, Kimberly A.

    2006-01-01

    This study investigates the motivation for learning French, the ethnic identities, and the decision to pursue post-secondary education in French of anglophone graduates of intensive French language programs in high school. Sixty-two graduates of either French immersion, Advanced Placement French, or the International Baccalaureate French program…

  8. Contamination of free-range ducks by chlordecone in Martinique (French West Indies): a field study.

    PubMed

    Jondreville, Catherine; Lavigne, Anaïs; Jurjanz, Stefan; Dalibard, Christophe; Liabeuf, Jean-Marie; Clostre, Florence; Lesueur-Jannoyer, Magalie

    2014-09-15

    The former use of chlordecone (CLD) in the French West Indies has resulted in long-term pollution of soils and subsequently of food chains. In contaminated areas, free-range ducks used to control weeds in orchards may be exposed to CLD through polluted soil ingestion. The question arises whether they may be consumed. Muscovy ducks were raised on a guava orchard planted on a soil moderately contaminated (410 μg CLD/kg dry matter). Ducks were raised indoor up to 6 weeks of age and allowed to range freely outdoors thereafter. Twenty-nine females were sequentially slaughtered by groups of 2 to 5 ducks, after 4, 16, 19, 22 or 26 weeks spent in the orchard or after 16-17 weeks in the orchard followed by 3, 6 or 9 weeks in a closed shelter for depuration. CLD concentration increased from 258 to 1051, 96 to 278, 60 to 169 and 48 to 145 μg/kg fresh matter (FM) as the exposure through grazing increased from 4 to 22 weeks, in liver, abdominal fat and leg with and without skin, respectively. Eggs collected in the orchard contained up to 1001 μg CLD/kg FM. All these values exceeded the Maximum Residue Limit (MRL) of 20 μg/kg FM. CLD concentration in all tissues was divided by around 10 within the 9-week confinement period. Despite this quite rapid decontamination, it is estimated that 12-13 weeks would be required to achieve the MRL in liver and in eggs, and 5-6 weeks in leg muscle. Such durations would be too long in practice. Thus, the consumption of products from free-range ducks should be avoided, even in areas mildly contaminated with CLD.

  9. Pragmatic evidence and textual arrangements: a case study of French clinical cancer guidelines.

    PubMed

    Knaapen, Loes; Cazeneuve, Hervé; Cambrosio, Alberto; Castel, Patrick; Fervers, Beatrice

    2010-08-01

    Both critics and supporters of evidence-based medicine view clinical practice guidelines as an important component of this self-defined "new paradigm" whose goal is to rationalize medicine by grounding clinical decision-making in a careful assessment of the medical literature. We present an analysis of the debates within a guideline development group (GDG) that led to the drafting, revision and publication of a French cancer guideline. Our ethnographic approach focuses on the various aspects of the dispositif (or apparatus) that defines the nature and roles of participants, procedures, topics and resources within the GDG. Debates between GDG members are framed (but not dictated) by procedural and methodological rules as well as by the reflexive critical contributions of the GDG members themselves, who justify their (tentative) recommendations by relating to its (possible or intended) audiences. Guideline production work cannot be reduced to an exchange of arguments and to consensus-seeking between pre-defined professional interests. It is about the production of a text in the material sense of the term, i.e. as a set of sentences, paragraphs, statements and formulations that GDG members constantly readjust and rearrange until closure is achieved. As such, guidelines partake in the emergence and stabilization of a new configuration of biomedical knowledge and practices grounded in the establishment of mutually constitutive links between two processes: on the one hand, the re-formatting of clinical trials into a device for producing carefully monitored evidence statements targeting specific populations and clinical indications and, on the other hand, the increasingly pervasive role of regulatory processes. PMID:20646809

  10. Resultats de l'enquete nationale sur les programmes de formation des enseignants de francais langue seconde au Canada (Results of the National Study for Teacher Education Programs for French Second Language Teachers in Canada).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boutin, France; Chinien, Christian; Boutin, Jean-Luc

    The implications of Canada's national study of core French instruction for second language (L2) teacher education in that country are examined. Literature on the study's impact on language teaching philosophy and policy and on French immersion instruction is reviewed, and a survey of 36 Canadian schools of education is reported. The questionnaire…

  11. Consistency and Word-Frequency Effects on Spelling among First- To Fifth-Grade French Children: A Regression-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lete, Bernard; Peereman, Ronald; Fayol, Michel

    2008-01-01

    We describe a large-scale regression study that examines the influence of lexical (word frequency, lexical neighborhood) and sublexical (feedforward and feedback consistency) variables on spelling accuracy among first, second, and third- to fifth-graders. The wordset analyzed contained 3430 French words. Predictors in the stepwise regression…

  12. French Computer Terminology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Eugene F.

    1985-01-01

    Characteristics, idiosyncrasies, borrowings, and other aspects of the French terminology for computers and computer-related matters are discussed and placed in the context of French computer use. A glossary provides French equivalent terms or translations of English computer terminology. (MSE)

  13. Mild cognitive impairment and anti-Alzheimer disease medications: A cross sectional study of the French National Alzheimer Databank (BNA).

    PubMed

    Tifratene, Karim; Sakarovitch, Charlotte; Rouis, Amel; Pradier, Christian; Robert, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Unlike Alzheimer's disease (AD), there are no drugs approved for the treatment of mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The objective of this study was to evaluate real world prescriptions of anti-AD medications in patients with MCI in France and to determine characteristics associated with treatment. A cross sectional study of the French National Alzheimer Databank (BNA) was conducted. Patients diagnosed with MCI by physicians of the BNA network in 2010 and 2011 were included in this study. We included 16,236 patients with a diagnosis of MCI in the study. Mean age was 76.4 years old and females were 59.5%. Nine hundred eighty five patients (6.1%) were taking an anti-AD medication. Results of a multivariate analysis show that use was associated with older age, lower MMSE score, amnestic MCI subtype, living at home, and higher education. Treatment with antidepressant drugs was also associated with anti-AD medication use (odd ratio: 1.68; 95% confidence interval: 1.44 to 1.96). "Off label" prescription of anti-AD drugs is low in France and seems to be limited to a population at risk of conversion to AD. Similar analysis will be required to monitor this practice in the future.

  14. A diachronic study of initial stress and other prosodic features in the French news announcer style: corpus-based measurements and perceptual experiments.

    PubMed

    Boula de Mareüil, Philippe; Rilliard, Albert; Allauzen, Alexandre

    2012-06-01

    This study focuses on prosodic evolution in the French news announcer style, based on acoustic and perceptual analysis of French audiovisual archives. A 10-hour corpus covering six decades of broadcast news is investigated automatically. Two prosodic features, which may give an impression of emphatic style, are explored: word-initial stress and penultimate vowel lengthening, especially before a pause. Objective measurements suggest that the following features have decreased since the 40s: mean pitch, pitch rise associated with initial stress, vowel duration characterizing an emphatic initial stress, and prepausal penultimate lengthening. The onsets of stressed initial syllables have become longer while speech rate (measured at the phonemic level) has not changed. This puzzling outcome raises interesting questions for research on French prosody, suggesting that the durational correlates of word-initial stress have changed over time, in the French news announcer style. Three perceptual experiments were conducted using prosody transplantation (copy of fundamental frequency and duration parameters on a synthetic voice), delexicalization and imitation. Rather than manipulating the parameters of,say, word-initial stress, we selected a subset of the corpus to represent the different decades under investigation. Results show that, among other factors, fundamental frequency and duration correlates of prosody contribute to distinguishing early recordings from more recent ones.The higher the pitch and the greater the pitch movements associated with word-initial stress, the more the speech samples are perceived as dating back to the 40s or 50s. PMID:22783635

  15. Gender Differences in Motivation to Learn French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissau, Scott

    2006-01-01

    There is concern among second language educators in Canada that male students are losing interest in studying French as a second language (FSL). In response, in the fall of 2003, a study was conducted to investigate gender differences in second language (L2) motivation among Grade 9 core French students. Building upon the traditional model of L2…

  16. La Culture Canadienne-Francaise = French Canadian Culture. Interim Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussiere, Adrien L., Ed.

    Materials about the culture specific to French-speaking people in Canada are presented as part of the cultural component of the prescribed second language curriculum. The materials follow the suggested sequence of studying the "French Fact" in Alberta in grade 7, the study of French settlements in Canada in grade 8, and in-depth study of Quebec…

  17. Healthy elderly French women living at home have secondary hyperparathyroidism and high bone turnover in winter. EPIDOS Study Group.

    PubMed

    Chapuy, M C; Schott, A M; Garnero, P; Hans, D; Delmas, P D; Meunier, P J

    1996-03-01

    It was recently demonstrated that calcium and vitamin D supplements were capable of decreasing the incidence of hip fractures in institutionalized elderly subjects through a reduction of senile secondary hyperparathyroidism. As there are no appropriate data to recommend such a supplement to the elderly living at home, the aim of this study was to determine the incidence of senile secondary hyperparathyroidism in old French women from the general community, its relation to vitamin D status, and its contribution to bone turnover. Four hundred and forty women, aged 75-90 yr, were randomly selected from the general community by mailing from electoral listing in 5 French cities whose latitude varies from 49 degrees 9N to 43 degrees 6N. At the end of the winter, with previous hip fractures or those who were institutionalized were excluded. The results obtained in these women were compared to those obtained in 59 institutionalized old women and 54 younger healthy women. In the five cities for the women living at home, we found a mean PTH value greater than that obtained in young women (63 +/- 28 vs. 43 +/- 15 pg/ml; P = 0.001), but lower that that found in institutionalized women (76 +/- 49 pg/mL; P = 0.05). The mean 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) level was not different in subjects from the 5 cities, but in all of them it was significantly greater than that found in 59 institutionalized women (42.5 +/- 25.0 vs. 15.5 +/- 6.5 nmol/L; P = 0.0001) but lower than that in young adults (P < 0.001). The main determinants of PTH were in equal ratio, i.e. age (r = 0.19; P < 0.001), 25OHD, and, to a lesser degree, creatinine clearance (r = 0.10; P = 0.03). For 25OHD, the main determinant was the personal outdoor score and, to a lesser extent, the amount of daily sunlight in the city. The mean values of biochemical markers of bone turnover, bone alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and Crosslaps, were significantly increased compared with the results obtained in young women, and

  18. Acoustic-phonetics of coronal stops: A cross-language study of Canadian English and Canadian French

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundara, Megha

    2005-08-01

    The study was conducted to provide an acoustic description of coronal stops in Canadian English (CE) and Canadian French (CF). CE and CF stops differ in VOT and place of articulation. CE has a two-way voicing distinction (in syllable initial position) between simultaneous and aspirated release; coronal stops are articulated at alveolar place. CF, on the other hand, has a two-way voicing distinction between prevoiced and simultaneous release; coronal stops are articulated at dental place. Acoustic analyses of stop consonants produced by monolingual speakers of CE and of CF, for both VOT and alveolar/dental place of articulation, are reported. Results from the analysis of VOT replicate and confirm differences in phonetic implementation of VOT across the two languages. Analysis of coronal stops with respect to place differences indicates systematic differences across the two languages in relative burst intensity and measures of burst spectral shape, specifically mean frequency, standard deviation, and kurtosis. The majority of CE and CF talkers reliably and consistently produced tokens differing in the SD of burst frequency, a measure of the diffuseness of the burst. Results from the study are interpreted in the context of acoustic and articulatory data on coronal stops from several other languages.

  19. Study of Groundwater Circulation Using Stable Isotopes : the Example of the Punaruu Watershed (Tropical Oceanic Island of Tahiti, French Polynesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sichoix, L.; Hildenbrand, A.; Marlin, C.; Gillot, P. Y.; Pheulpin, L.; Barriot, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    The increasing demand for drinking and industrial water, especially in the most populated areas of the tropical oceanic Island of Tahiti in French Polynesia (South central Pacific), makes it necessary to conduct hydrological and hydrogeological studies on water resources and management. Our investigation area represents the second largest watershed of Tahiti called Punaruu. The largest industrial zone of Tahiti occupies the minor low valley of this catchment and is particularly impacted by dredging of the stream and rock removals since several decades whereas the major high part is naturally well preserved. This study aims to identify the main infiltration areas of the aquifers of this industrial zone as well as the areas at low elevations to be protected from potential pollutions. During the period between May 2013 and July 2015, we have collected rainwater samples from five rain gauges located at elevations ranging from 0 to 1420 m. We have also performed water sampling from the main rivers and three springs up to altitudes of 800 m as well as six pumping boreholes in the industrial zone. Chemical (major elements) and stable isotopic (δ18O and δ2H) analyses have been done from all these water samples and help us to constrain a conceptual model of groundwater circulation within such a complex discontinuous volcanic structure.

  20. Neural correlates of the perception of contrastive prosodic focus in French: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Dohen, Marion; Lœvenbruck, Hélène; Sato, Marc; Pichat, Cédric; Baciu, Monica

    2013-10-01

    This functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study aimed at examining the cerebral regions involved in the auditory perception of prosodic focus using a natural focus detection task. Two conditions testing the processing of simple utterances in French were explored, narrow-focused versus broad-focused. Participants performed a correction detection task. The utterances in both conditions had exactly the same segmental, lexical, and syntactic contents, and only differed in their prosodic realization. The comparison between the two conditions therefore allowed us to examine processes strictly associated with prosodic focus processing. To assess the specific effect of pitch on hemispheric specialization, a parametric analysis was conducted using a parameter reflecting pitch variations specifically related to focus. The comparison between the two conditions reveals that brain regions recruited during the detection of contrastive prosodic focus can be described as a right-hemisphere dominant dual network consisting of (a) ventral regions which include the right posterosuperior temporal and bilateral middle temporal gyri and (b) dorsal regions including the bilateral inferior frontal, inferior parietal and left superior parietal gyri. Our results argue for a dual stream model of focus perception compatible with the asymmetric sampling in time hypothesis. They suggest that the detection of prosodic focus involves an interplay between the right and left hemispheres, in which the computation of slowly changing prosodic cues in the right hemisphere dynamically feeds an internal model concurrently used by the left hemisphere, which carries out computations over shorter temporal windows. PMID:22488985

  1. Urinary p-cresol is elevated in young French children with autism spectrum disorder: a replication study.

    PubMed

    Gabriele, Stefano; Sacco, Roberto; Cerullo, Sonia; Neri, Cristina; Urbani, Andrea; Tripi, Gabriele; Malvy, Joëlle; Barthelemy, Catherine; Bonnet-Brihault, Frédérique; Persico, Antonio M

    2014-09-01

    The aromatic compound p-cresol (4-methylphenol) has been found elevated in the urines of Italian autistic children up to 8 years of age. The present study aims at replicating these initial findings in an ethnically distinct sample and at extending them by measuring also the three components of urinary p-cresol, namely p-cresylsulfate, p-cresylglucuronate and free p-cresol. Total urinary p-cresol, p-cresylsulfate and p-cresylglucuronate were significantly elevated in 33 French autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cases compared with 33 sex- and age-matched controls (p < 0.05). This increase was limited to ASD children aged ≤8 years (p < 0.01), and not older (p = 0.17). Urinary levels of p-cresol and p-cresylsulfate were associated with stereotypic, compulsive/repetitive behaviors (p < 0.05), although not with overall autism severity. These results confirm the elevation of urinary p-cresol in a sizable set of small autistic children and spur interest into biomarker roles for p-cresol and p-cresylsulfate in autism.

  2. FEMIC (Fibromes Embolises aux MICrospheres calibrees): Uterine Fibroid Embolization using Tris-acryl Microspheres. A French Multicenter Study

    SciTech Connect

    Joffre, Francis; Tubiana, Jean-Michel; Pelage, Jean-Pierre

    2004-11-15

    Purpose: A French multicenter registry was set up to confirm the safety and efficacy of large calibrated tris-acryl gelatin microspheres for embolization of symptomatic fibroids. Methods: Technical recommendations included embolization using large microspheres (>500 {mu}m) with no secondary embolization agent. Postprocedural pain, clinical improvement and adverse events were prospectively evaluated during a follow-up period of at least 6 months.Results: Eighty-five women complaining of fibroid-related symptoms entered the study. In seven women, a secondary embolization agent was used in addition to microspheres. Complete resolution of menorrhagia was achieved in 84% of women at 24 months and significant uterine and fibroid volume reductions were noted after 6 months (37% and 73%, respectively). Three women experienced definitive amenorrhea (4%) and two women required hysteroscopic resection of a fibroid. Eight women were treated by hysterectomy because of treatment failure. In seven of these women, treatment failure was explained by an additional cause of symptoms including diffuse adenomyosis, endometrial hyperplasia or ovarian artery supply to the fibroids.Conclusion: Limited uterine artery embolization using large microspheres has good clinical success rate with low postprocedural pain and complications. Women can expect excellent midterm results with a high level of symptom control and significant fibroid volume reduction. Confidence in the end-point recommended here may require the experience of several cases.

  3. Reading Speed of Contracted French Braille

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laroche, Louise; Boule, Jacinthe; Wittich, Walter

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to address three hypotheses: (1) The reading speed of both readers of French braille and readers of French print will be faster in the silent condition; however, this gain in speed will be larger for print readers; (2) Individuals who acquired braille before age 10 will display faster reading speeds at lower error rates…

  4. Reading Interests in French of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Ann C.

    This paper describes an investigation conducted to determine student preferences for types of reading content in the study of French. The subjects were 438 students enrolled in elementary French courses in five universities. Reading interests were determined with a questionnaire consisting of brief descriptions of thirty items representing five…

  5. Developing the Curriculum for Intensive French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netten, Joan; Germain, Claude

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the way in which the curriculum for intensive French was developed. Reference is made to its similarities to and differences from both the multidimensional curriculum proposed by the National Core French Study and the communicative approach. The importance of learning outcomes stated in terms of communicative outcomes…

  6. Listening to French and the Serial Position Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrott, Carl L.

    This study sought to determine the extent of the serial position effect in listening to French and to specify the relationship between problem areas in listening to French and the position effect. The study addressed three hypotheses relative to the serial position effect and listening to French: (1) Was there a significant difference between the…

  7. Assessment of dietary exposure to annatto (E160b), nitrites (E249-250), sulphites (E220-228) and tartaric acid (E334) in the French population: the second French total diet study.

    PubMed

    Bemrah, N; Vin, K; Sirot, V; Aguilar, F; Ladrat, A-C; Ducasse, C; Gey, J-L; Rétho, C; Nougadere, A; Leblanc, J-C

    2012-01-01

    The results of the assessment of the dietary exposure to annatto, nitrites, tartaric acid and sulphites within the framework of the second French total diet study (TDS) are reported. These 4 additives were selected from the Bemrah et al. study [Bemrah N, Leblanc JC, Volatier JL. 2008. Assessment of dietary exposure in the French population to 13 selected food colours, preservatives, antioxidants, stabilizers, emulsifiers and sweeteners. Food Addit Contam B. 1(1):2-14] on 13 food additives which identified a possible health risk for annatto, sulphites and nitrites and a lack of data for tartaric acid. Among the composite samples selected for the whole TDS, 524 were analysed for additives (a sample was analysed for a given additive when it was identified as a major contributor for this additive only): 130 for tartaric acid, 135 for nitrites, 59 for annatto and 200 for sulphites. Estimated concentrations (minimum lower bound to maximum upper bound) vary nationally from 0 to 9 mg/kg for annatto, 0 to 420 mg/kg for tartaric acid, 0 to 108 mg/kg for sulphites and 0 to 3.4 mg/kg for nitrites. Based on the analytical results, the dietary exposure was calculated for adults and children, separately, using lower bound and upper bound assumptions. The European ADIs for these 4 additives were not exceeded except for the dietary exposure for sulphites among 2.9% of the adult population, where the major contributors were alcoholic drinks and especially wine under both hypotheses (lower and upper bound).

  8. Dengue encephalitis in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Hommel, D; Talarmin, A; Deubel, V; Reynes, J M; Drouet, M T; Sarthou, J L; Hulin, A

    1998-01-01

    Thousands of cases of dengue fever (DF) and several cases of dengue haemorrhagic fever were recorded in French Guiana during the recent outbreak of dengue-2 virus (1991-1992) and in subsequent years. One case with clinical signs typical of classical DF with neurological complications is reported in this study. The neurological features (encephalitis) appeared during the acute phase, 2 days after the onset of fever. Dengue-2 virus was detected in both the cerebrospinal fluid and blood sample. This case was fatal. This first reported case of classical DF with encephalitis in French Guiana is a new demonstration of the potential neurovirulence of dengue viruses.

  9. The Effects of Inventory on Vowel Perception in French and Spanish: An MEG Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hacquard, Valentine; Walter, Mary Ann; Marantz, Alec

    2007-01-01

    Production studies have shown that speakers of languages with larger phoneme inventories expand their acoustic space relative to languages with smaller inventories [Bradlow, A. (1995). A comparative acoustic study of English and Spanish vowels. "Journal of the Acoustical Society of America," 97(3), 1916-1924; Jongman, A., Fourakis, M., & Sereno,…

  10. Rituximab: Recommendations of the French Vasculitis Study Group (FVSG) for induction and maintenance treatments of adult, antineutrophil cytoplasm antibody-associated necrotizing vasculitides.

    PubMed

    Charles, Pierre; Bienvenu, Boris; Bonnotte, Bernard; Gobert, Pierre; Godmer, Pascal; Hachulla, Éric; Hamidou, Mohamed; Harlé, Jean-Robert; Karras, Alexandre; Lega, Jean-Christophe; Le Quellec, Alain; Mahr, Alfred D; Mouthon, Luc; Papo, Thomas; Puéchal, Xavier; Pugnet, Gregory; Samson, Maxime; Sibilia, Jean; Terrier, Benjamin; Vandergheynst, Frederick; Guillevin, Loïc

    2013-10-01

    Increasing rituximab prescription for ANCA-associated necrotizing vasculitides justifies the publication of recommendations for clinicians. Rituximab is approved in the United States to induce and maintain remission. In Europe, rituximab was recently approved for remission induction. However, governmental agencies' approvals cannot replace clinical practice guidelines. Herein, the French Vasculitis Study Group Recommendations Committee, comprised of physicians with extensive experience in the treatment of vasculitides, presents its consensus guidelines based on literature analysis, the results of prospective therapeutic trials and personal experience.

  11. How French physicians manage with a future change in the primary vaccination of infants against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and poliomyelitis? A qualitative study with focus groups

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background As in other European countries, the French vaccination schedule changes according to epidemiological and socio-economic situations. Further changes are planned for 2013, including the withdrawal of one dose for primary vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, polio, pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae. A partnership between the French Technical Vaccination Committee and the French Institute for Health and Medical Research designed a study to assess primary care physicians’ agreement about this modification. Methods Qualitative study with focus groups and semi-structured interviews in France. Four focus groups were conducted with physicians, supplemented by four individual interviews. Results The physicians of the survey had accepted the suggested vaccination schedule well. A few concerns had been underlined: fear of less follow-up care for infants resulting from the removal of one visit driven by the primary vaccination; fear of loss of vaccine efficacy; suspicion of the existence of financial arguments at the origin of this change; and adjustment to current vaccination schedule. Several suggestions were made: providing strong support from health authorities; developing stable and simple recommendations; providing effective tools for monitoring patient’s vaccination status. Conclusions Physicians’ opinions suggested a good acceptance of a possible change about primary vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, polio, pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae. Physicians’ suggestions resulted from this qualitative study on a new vaccination schedule. It showed how that their involvement was feasible for preparing the implementation of a new vaccination schedule. PMID:23782853

  12. Teaching French to Franco-Americans: A Controversial Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickel, Raymond A.

    1965-01-01

    A study of bilingualism among third-generation Americans of French-Canadian extraction briefly examines their linguistic superiority in French over monolingual students and appraises the appropriate psychological approaches to teaching this special group. The article suggests that an "educated standard French" be presented as an alternative to…

  13. Guided Learners of French and the Acquisition of Emphatic Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleeman, Petra

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the acquisition and use of emphatic constructions by advanced guided learners of French, in particular (Dutch) first grade university students of French are studied and compared to the acquisition and use of emphatic constructions by (Dutch) secondary school pupils learning French in a purely institutional situation. It is shown that…

  14. Student Engagement in an Ottawa French Immersion High School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makropoulos, Josee

    2010-01-01

    This article makes a contribution to the field of French immersion studies by examining the engagement realities of two groups of students in an Ottawa French immersion high school program: those with and without a parent who makes them eligible for minority French language instruction as outlined by Section 23 of the "Canadian Charter of Rights…

  15. Observational Study of a French and Belgian Multicenter Cohort of 23 Patients Diagnosed in Adulthood With Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Durel, Cécile-Audrey; Aouba, Achille; Bienvenu, Boris; Deshayes, Samuel; Coppéré, Brigitte; Gombert, Bruno; Acquaviva-Bourdain, Cécile; Hachulla, Eric; Lecomte, Frédéric; Touitou, Isabelle; Ninet, Jacques; Philit, Jean-Baptiste; Messer, Laurent; Brouillard, Marc; Girard-Madoux, Marie-Hélène; Moutschen, Michel; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Hutin, Pascal; Duffau, Pierre; Trolliet, Pierre; Hatron, Pierre-Yves; Heudier, Philippe; Cevallos, Ramiro; Lequerré, Thierry; Brousse, Valentine; Lesire, Vincent; Audia, Sylvain; Maucort-Boulch, Delphine; Cuisset, Laurence; Hot, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and biological features of Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) in patients diagnosed in adulthood. This is a French and Belgian observational retrospective study from 2000 to 2014. To constitute the cohort, we cross-check the genetic and biochemical databases. The clinical, enzymatic, and genetic data were gathered from medical records. Twenty-three patients were analyzed. The mean age at diagnosis was 40 years, with a mean age at onset of symptoms of 3 years. All symptomatic patients had fever. Febrile attacks were mostly associated with arthralgia (90.9%); lymphadenopathy, abdominal pain, and skin lesions (86.4%); pharyngitis (63.6%); cough (59.1%); diarrhea, and hepatosplenomegaly (50.0%). Seven patients had psychiatric symptoms (31.8%). One patient developed recurrent seizures. Three patients experienced renal involvement (13.6%). Two patients had angiomyolipoma (9.1%). All but one tested patients had elevated serum immunoglobulin (Ig) D level. Twenty-one patients had genetic diagnosis; most of them were compound heterozygote (76.2%). p.Val377Ile was the most prevalent mutation. Structural articular damages and systemic AA amyloidosis were the 2 most serious complications. More than 65% of patients displayed decrease in severity and frequency of attacks with increasing age, but only 35% achieved remission. MKD diagnosed in adulthood shared clinical and genetic features with classical pediatric disease. An elevated IgD concentration is a good marker for MKD in adults. Despite a decrease of severity and frequency of attacks with age, only one-third of patients achieved spontaneous remission. PMID:26986117

  16. Observational Study of a French and Belgian Multicenter Cohort of 23 Patients Diagnosed in Adulthood With Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Durel, Cécile-Audrey; Aouba, Achille; Bienvenu, Boris; Deshayes, Samuel; Coppéré, Brigitte; Gombert, Bruno; Acquaviva-Bourdain, Cécile; Hachulla, Eric; Lecomte, Frédéric; Touitou, Isabelle; Ninet, Jacques; Philit, Jean-Baptiste; Messer, Laurent; Brouillard, Marc; Girard-Madoux, Marie-Hélène; Moutschen, Michel; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Hutin, Pascal; Duffau, Pierre; Trolliet, Pierre; Hatron, Pierre-Yves; Heudier, Philippe; Cevallos, Ramiro; Lequerré, Thierry; Brousse, Valentine; Lesire, Vincent; Audia, Sylvain; Maucort-Boulch, Delphine; Cuisset, Laurence; Hot, Arnaud

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and biological features of Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) in patients diagnosed in adulthood. This is a French and Belgian observational retrospective study from 2000 to 2014. To constitute the cohort, we cross-check the genetic and biochemical databases. The clinical, enzymatic, and genetic data were gathered from medical records. Twenty-three patients were analyzed. The mean age at diagnosis was 40 years, with a mean age at onset of symptoms of 3 years. All symptomatic patients had fever. Febrile attacks were mostly associated with arthralgia (90.9%); lymphadenopathy, abdominal pain, and skin lesions (86.4%); pharyngitis (63.6%); cough (59.1%); diarrhea, and hepatosplenomegaly (50.0%). Seven patients had psychiatric symptoms (31.8%). One patient developed recurrent seizures. Three patients experienced renal involvement (13.6%). Two patients had angiomyolipoma (9.1%). All but one tested patients had elevated serum immunoglobulin (Ig) D level. Twenty-one patients had genetic diagnosis; most of them were compound heterozygote (76.2%). p.Val377Ile was the most prevalent mutation. Structural articular damages and systemic AA amyloidosis were the 2 most serious complications. More than 65% of patients displayed decrease in severity and frequency of attacks with increasing age, but only 35% achieved remission. MKD diagnosed in adulthood shared clinical and genetic features with classical pediatric disease. An elevated IgD concentration is a good marker for MKD in adults. Despite a decrease of severity and frequency of attacks with age, only one-third of patients achieved spontaneous remission. PMID:26986117

  17. Outcomes of patients with Goodpasture syndrome: A nationwide cohort-based study from the French Society of Hemapheresis.

    PubMed

    Huart, Antoine; Josse, Anne-Gaëlle; Chauveau, Dominique; Korach, Jean-Michel; Heshmati, Farhad; Bauvin, Eric; Cointault, Olivier; Kamar, Nassim; Ribes, David; Pourrat, Jacques; Faguer, Stanislas

    2016-09-01

    The overall and renal outcomes of patients with Goodpasture syndrome (GS), a rare autoimmune disorder characterized by circulating anti-GBM antibodies and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and/or pulmonary hemorrhage, have mostly been reported in small-sized cohorts or by aggregating patients receiving a variety of therapies that include aggressive (i.e., combined plasma exchanges, corticosteroids, and cyclophosphamide) and less aggressive (i.e., either plasma exchanges or immunosuppressive drugs, or no treatment). To address the prognosis of GS patients with relatively homogeneous management including plasma exchanges, we conducted a multicenter retrospective study on GS patients included in the registry of the French Society of Hemapheresis. 122 patients were included (kidney alone (n = 28), lung alone (n = 5), or combined involvement (n = 89)). All 122 patients received plasma exchanges (median number of sessions: 13 [9-17]), either alone (n = 8) or associated with combined corticosteroids and oral or IV cyclophosphamide (n = 101) or with corticosteroids alone (n = 12) or cyclophosphamide alone (n = 2). One-year survival was 86.9%. 7/16 patients died from severe infection. In multivariate analyses (Cox's regression model), being aged <60 years, and number of plasma exchanges were correlated to overall survival. The use of alternative immunosuppressive drugs (because of refractory or relapsing GS) was correlated to mortality at one year. Superiority of oral cyclophosphamide compared to intravenous intake was close to significant. Using a logistic regression model, renal survival in patients alive at 1 year was only predicted by serum creatinine <500 μmol/L at presentation. This large series describes the predictive factors for overall and renal survival of GS patients treated by plasma exchanges. Interventional studies that compare oral and intravenous cyclophosphamide, as well as testing new immunosuppressive therapies, are warranted.

  18. Evaluating Evidence from a Historical Chemical Controversy: A Study in a French High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archila, Pablo Antonio

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the importance of evaluating evidence for enriching critical thinking in the chemistry classroom. The purpose of the study was to examine the usefulness of a historical chemical controversy in promoting students' assessment of evidence. The investigation was conducted in a high school in Melun, France. 63 participants (24…

  19. Health Workforce Development: A Needs Assessment Study in French Speaking African Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chastonay, Philippe; Moretti, Roberto; Zesiger, Veronique; Cremaschini, Marco; Bailey, Rebecca; Pariyo, George; Kabengele, Emmanuel Mpinga

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, WHO alerted the world to a global health workforce crisis, demonstrated through critical shortages of health workers, primarily in Sub-Saharan Africa (WHO in World Health Report, 2006). The objective of our study was to assess, in a participative way, the educational needs for public health and health workforce development among potential…

  20. The Argumentative Connective "Meme" in French: An Experimental Study in Eight- to Ten-Year-Old Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassano, Dominique; Champaud, Christian

    1989-01-01

    Examines how children understand the argumentative function of the French connective meme (even). Two completion tasks, related to the argumentative properties of the morpheme, were used: 1) to infer the conclusion of an "even" sentence, and 2) to infer the argument position. (34 references) (Author/CB)

  1. Hemispheric Asymmetries Depend on the Phonetic Feature: A Dichotic Study of Place of Articulation and Voicing in French Stops

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedoin, Nathalie; Ferragne, Emmanuel; Marsico, Egidio

    2010-01-01

    Dichotic listening experiments show a right-ear advantage (REA), reflecting a left-hemisphere (LH) dominance. However, we found a decrease in REA when the initial stop consonants of two simultaneous French CVC words differed in voicing rather than place of articulation (Experiment 1). This result suggests that the right hemisphere (RH) is more…

  2. The Role of Form and Meaning in the Processing of Written Morphology: A Priming Study in French Developing Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quemart, Pauline; Casalis, Severine; Cole, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    Three visual priming experiments using three different prime durations (60 ms in Experiment 1, 250 ms in Experiment 2, and 800 ms in Experiment 3) were conducted to examine which properties of morphemes (form and/or meaning) drive developing readers' processing of written morphology. French third, fifth, and seventh graders and adults (the latter…

  3. Concurrent Models and Cross-Linguistic Analogies in the Study of Prepositional Stranding in French in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Otheguy, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Prepositions can be found with and without adjacent complements in many forms of popular spoken French. The alternation appears in main clauses ("il veut pas payer pour ca [approximately] il veut pas payer pour" "he doesn't want to pay for [it]") and, though with a more restricted social and geographic distribution, in relative clauses ("j'avais…

  4. Scientific Productivity and Academic Promotion: A Study on French and Italian Physicists. NBER Working Paper No. 16341

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lissoni, Francesco; Mairesse, Jacques; Montobbio, Fabio; Pezzoni, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the determinants of scientific productivity (number of articles and journals' impact factor) for a panel of about 3600 French and Italian academic physicists active in 2004-05. Endogeneity problems concerning promotion and productivity are addressed by specifying a generalized Tobit model, in which a selection probit equation…

  5. French String Grammar. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Univ., NY. Linguistic String Project.

    This work reports on an initial study of the possibility of providing a suitable framework for the teaching of a foreign language grammar through string analysis, using French as the target language. Analysis of a string word list (word-class sequences) yields an overall view of the grammar. Details are furnished in a set of restrictions which…

  6. 1975 Textbooks for French Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jack Davis

    Four 1975 textbooks for French civilization courses are cited including price, suggested level, format and a listing of contents. A review of one text follows: Rey and Santoni, "Quand les Francais parlent: Langue en contexte, culture en contraste," Newbury House Publishers. The reviewer states that this book is basically a sociological study of…

  7. State of the art on forest and shallow landslide interactions illustrated by two studies in the French Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, F.; Dorren, L.; Lopez, J.; Allegra, C.

    2009-04-01

    landslide prevention and mitigation and due to the lack of scientific knowledge on the interaction between forest stands and landslide activities, there is a real need of research axis specifically devoted to the tree main effects cited before. The main objective of these thematically research axis should be an efficient integration of the effect of the forest vegetation in the modelling of shallow landslide dynamic. This presentation deals with the state of the art on forest and landslide interaction illustrated by two studies conducted in the French Alps. The first one attempts to reduce a gap in the scientific knowledge by quantifying the hazard of landslide occurrence considering vegetation effects, in the Combeloup forest on the French Alps, using a physically based spatial modelling approach. The second one present the added value of dendrogeomorphological analyse to evaluate the past activities of landslide terrain in relationship with the evolution of the forest cover.

  8. Qualitative approach to patient-reported outcomes in oncology: protocol of a French study

    PubMed Central

    Orri, Massimiliano; Sibeoni, Jordan; Labey, Mathilde; Bousquet, Guilhem; Verneuil, Laurence; Revah-Levy, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The past decade has been characterised by movement from a doctor-centred to a patient-centred approach to treatment outcomes, in which doctors try to see the illness through their patients’ eyes. Patients, family members and doctors are the three participants in cancer care, but their perspectives about what have been helpful during cancer treatment have never simultaneously and explicitly compared in the same qualitative study. The aim of this study project is to explore patients’ perspectives about the care they receive, as well as families’ and doctors’ perspectives about what have been helpful for the patient. These three points of view will be compared and contrasted in order to analyse the convergences and divergences in these perspectives. Methods and analysis This is a national multicentre qualitative study. Participants will be constituted by three different subsamples: (1) patients with cancer (skin, breast, urological and lung cancers), (2) their relatives, and (3) their referring physicians. Recruitment will follow the purposive sample technique, and the final sample size will be determined by data saturation. Data will be collected through open-ended semistructured interviews and independently analysed with NVivo V.10 software by three researchers according to the principles of Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Ethics and dissemination The research protocol received approval from the University Paris Descartes review board (IRB number: 20140600001072), and participants will provide written consent. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to focus on the simultaneous exploration of the separate points of view of patients, families and doctors about the care received during the cancer care journey. We expect that our findings will help to improve communication and relationships between doctors, patients and families. Comparison of these three points of view will provide information about the convergences and

  9. The Impact of L2 Dialect on Learning French Vowels: Native English Speakers Learning Quebecois and European French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Wendy; Smith, Laura Catharine

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how a second language (L2) dialect affects how accurately the L2 is perceived and produced. Specifically, the study examined differences between the production and perception of French vowels /i/, /y/, and /u/ by learners of either Quebec French (QF) or European French (EF). These vowels differ across the two varieties, both…

  10. Switches to English during French Service Encounters: Relationships with L2 French Speakers' Willingness to Communicate and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaughton, Stephanie; McDonough, Kim

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated second language (L2) French speakers' service encounters in the multilingual setting of Montreal, specifically whether switches to English during French service encounters were related to L2 speakers' willingness to communicate or motivation. Over a two-week period, 17 French L2 speakers in Montreal submitted…

  11. Risk assessment in ramps for heavy vehicles--A French study.

    PubMed

    Cerezo, Veronique; Conche, Florence

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the results of a study dealing with the risk for heavy vehicles in ramps. Two approaches are used. On one hand, statistics are applied on several accidents databases to detect if ramps are more risky for heavy vehicles and to define a critical value for longitudinal slope. χ(2) test confirmed the risk in ramps and statistical analysis proved that a longitudinal slope superior to 3.2% represents a higher risk for heavy vehicles. On another hand, numerical simulations allow defining the speed profile in ramps for two types of heavy vehicles (tractor semi-trailer and 2-axles rigid body) and different loads. The simulations showed that heavy vehicles must drive more than 1000 m on ramps to reach their minimum speed. Moreover, when the slope is superior to 3.2%, tractor semi-trailer presents a strong decrease of their speed until 50 km/h. This situation represents a high risk of collision with other road users which drive at 80-90 km/h. Thus, both methods led to the determination of a risky configuration for heavy vehicles: ramps with a length superior to 1000 m and a slope superior to 3.2%. An application of this research work concerns design methods and guidelines. Indeed, this study provides threshold values than can be used by engineers to make mandatory specific planning like a lane for slow vehicles.

  12. Risk assessment in ramps for heavy vehicles--A French study.

    PubMed

    Cerezo, Veronique; Conche, Florence

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents the results of a study dealing with the risk for heavy vehicles in ramps. Two approaches are used. On one hand, statistics are applied on several accidents databases to detect if ramps are more risky for heavy vehicles and to define a critical value for longitudinal slope. χ(2) test confirmed the risk in ramps and statistical analysis proved that a longitudinal slope superior to 3.2% represents a higher risk for heavy vehicles. On another hand, numerical simulations allow defining the speed profile in ramps for two types of heavy vehicles (tractor semi-trailer and 2-axles rigid body) and different loads. The simulations showed that heavy vehicles must drive more than 1000 m on ramps to reach their minimum speed. Moreover, when the slope is superior to 3.2%, tractor semi-trailer presents a strong decrease of their speed until 50 km/h. This situation represents a high risk of collision with other road users which drive at 80-90 km/h. Thus, both methods led to the determination of a risky configuration for heavy vehicles: ramps with a length superior to 1000 m and a slope superior to 3.2%. An application of this research work concerns design methods and guidelines. Indeed, this study provides threshold values than can be used by engineers to make mandatory specific planning like a lane for slow vehicles. PMID:26994373

  13. Relationships between substance initiation sequence and further substance use: A French nationwide retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Attaiaa, Lalla-Asma; Beck, Francois; Richard, Jean-Baptiste; Marimoutou, Catherine; Mayet, Aurélie

    2016-06-01

    The Gateway theory (GT) proposes that tobacco or alcohol use lead to cannabis use, which can itself be followed by other illicit drugs (OID) onset. Aim of this study was to evaluate if the order of initiation sequence could influence further substance use. Data from a 2010 population-based survey were used (22,774 subjects aged 15-64). Using reported ages at initiations, 7 sequences were identified: initiation of tobacco only (T), cannabis or OID only, tobacco followed by cannabis (T-C), cannabis followed by tobacco (C-T), alternative 2-substance sequences, gateway sequence (T-C-OID) and 3-substance alternative sequences. Logistics regressions were performed to study the impact of sequence on further use (tobacco, alcohol, cannabis and OID), and substance use disorders (SUD) (tobacco, alcohol and cannabis). The most observed sequences were T (45.5%), T-C (20.5%), C-T (5.1%) and T-C-OID (3.5%). Further use and SUD likelihoods, whatever the substance considered, increased with the number of substances previously initiated. However, for a same number of substances initiated, current use and SUD likelihoods did not significantly vary according to sequence. Polysubstance initiation appears as a better predictor of further use and SUD than the initiation sequence, questioning the GT and being more in line with a common liability to substance use. PMID:26826476

  14. Prevalence and Treatment Management of Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in Cancer Patients: Results of the French Candidoscope Study

    SciTech Connect

    Gligorov, Joseph; Bastit, Laurent; Gervais, Honorine; Henni, Mehdi; Kahila, Widad; Lepille, Daniel; Luporsi, Elisabeth; Sasso, Giuseppe; Varette, Charles; Azria, David

    2011-06-01

    Purpose: The aim of this pharmaco-epidemiological study was to evaluate the prevalence of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Signs and symptoms of OPC were noted for all patients. Antifungal therapeutic management was recorded in OPC patients. Patients receiving local antifungal treatments were monitored until the end of treatment. Results: Enrolled in the study were 2,042 patients with solid tumor and/or lymphoma treated with chemotherapy and/or another systemic cancer treatment and/or radiotherapy. The overall prevalence of OPC was 9.6% (95% confidence interval, 8.4%-11.0%]in this population. It was most frequent in patients treated with combined chemoradiotherapy (22.0%) or with more than two cytotoxic agents (16.9%). Local antifungal treatments were prescribed in 75.0% of OPC patients as recommended by guidelines. The compliance to treatment was higher in patients receiving once-daily miconazole mucoadhesive buccal tablet (MBT; 88.2%) than in those treated with several daily mouthwashes of amphotericin B (40%) or nystatin (18.8%). Conclusion: OPC prevalence in treated cancer patients was high. Local treatments were usually prescribed as per guidelines. Compliance to local treatments was better with once-daily drugs.

  15. The French Chronic Kidney Disease-Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (CKD-REIN) cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, Bénédicte; Combe, Christian; Jacquelinet, Christian; Briançon, Serge; Fouque, Denis; Laville, Maurice; Frimat, Luc; Pascal, Christophe; Herpe, Yves-Edouard; Deleuze, Jean-François; Schanstra, Joost; Pisoni, Ron L.; Robinson, Bruce M.; Massy, Ziad A.

    2014-01-01

    Background While much has been learned about the epidemiology and treatment of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the last 30 years, chronic kidney disease (CKD) before the end-stage has been less investigated. Not enough is known about factors associated with CKD progression and complications, as well as its transition to ESRD. We designed the CKD-renal epidemiology and information network (REIN) cohort to provide a research platform to address these key questions and to assess clinical practices and costs in patients with moderate or advanced CKD. Methods A total of 46 clinic sites and 4 renal care networks participate in the cohort. A stratified selection of clinic sites yields a sample that represents a diversity of settings, e.g. geographic region, and public versus for-profit and non-for-profit private clinics. In each site, 60–90 patients with CKD are enrolled at a routine clinic visit during a 12-month enrolment phase: 3600 total, including 1800 with Stage 3 and 1800 with Stage 4 CKD. Follow-up will continue for 5 years, including after initiation of renal replacement therapy. Data will be collected from medical records at inclusion and at yearly intervals, as well as from self-administered patient questionnaires and provider-level questionnaires. Patients will also be interviewed at baseline, and at 1, 3 and 5 years. Healthcare costs will also be determined. Blood and urine samples will be collected and stored for future studies on all patients at enrolment and at study end, and at 1 and 3 years in a subsample of 1200. Conclusions The CKD-REIN cohort will serve to improve our understanding of the biological, clinical and healthcare system determinants associated with CKD progression and adverse outcomes as well as of international variations in collaboration with the CKD Outcome and Practice Pattern Study (CKDopps). It will foster CKD epidemiology and outcomes research and provide evidence to improve the health and quality of life of patients with CKD and

  16. Brachytherapy versus prostatectomy in localized prostate cancer: Results of a French multicenter prospective medico-economic study

    SciTech Connect

    Buron, Catherine; Le Vu, Beatrice; Cosset, Jean-Marc; Peiffert, Didier; Delannes, Martine; Flam, Thierry; Guerif, Stephane; Salem, Naji; Chauveinc, Laurent; Livartowski, Alain . E-mail: alain.livartowski@curie.net

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To prospectively compare health-related quality of life (HRQOL), patient-reported treatment-related symptoms, and costs of iodine-125 permanent implant interstitial brachytherapy (IB) with those of radical prostatectomy (RP) during the first 2 years after these treatments for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 435 men with localized low-risk prostate cancer, from 11 French hospitals, treated with IB (308) or RP (127), were offered to complete the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer core Quality of Life Questionnaire QLQ-C30 version 3 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the prostate cancer specific EORTC QLQ-PR25 module before and at the end of treatment, 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after treatment. Repeated measures analysis of variance and analysis of covariance were conducted on HRQOL changes. Comparative cost analysis covered initial treatment, hospital follow-up, outpatient and production loss costs. Results: Just after treatment, the decrease of global HRQOL was less pronounced in the IB than in the RP group, with a 13.5 points difference (p < 0.0001). A difference slightly in favor of RP was observed 6 months after treatment (-7.5 points, p = 0.0164) and was maintained at 24 months (-8.2 points, p = 0.0379). Impotence and urinary incontinence were more pronounced after RP, whereas urinary frequency, urgency, and urination pain were more frequent after IB. Mean societal costs did not differ between IB ( Euro 8,019 at T24) and RP ( Euro 8,715 at T24, p = 0.0843) regardless of the period. Conclusions: This study suggests a similar cost profile in France for IB and RP but with different HRQOL and side effect profiles. Those findings may be used to tailor localized prostate cancer treatments to suit individual patients' needs.

  17. Suspected community-acquired pneumonia in an ambulatory setting (CAPA): a French prospective observational cohort study in general practice

    PubMed Central

    Partouche, Henri; Buffel du Vaure, Céline; Personne, Virginie; Le Cossec, Chloé; Garcin, Camille; Lorenzo, Alain; Ghasarossian, Christian; Landais, Paul; Toubiana, Laurent; Gilberg, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Background: Few studies have addressed the pragmatic management of ambulatory patients with suspected community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) using a precise description of the disease with or without chest X-ray (X-ray) evidence. Aims: To describe the characteristics, clinical findings, additional investigations and disease progression in patients with suspected CAP managed by French General Practitioners (GPs). Methods: The patients included were older than 18 years, with signs or symptoms suggestive of CAP associated with recent-onset unilateral crackles on auscultation or a new opacity on X-ray. They were followed for up to 6 weeks. Descriptive analyses of all patients and according to their management with X-rays were carried out. Results: From September 2011 to July 2012, 886 patients have been consulted by 267 GPs. Among them, 278 (31%) were older than 65 years and 337 (38%) were at increased risk for invasive pneumococcal disease. At presentation, the three most common symptoms, cough (94%), fever (93%), and weakness or myalgia (81%), were all observed in 70% of patients. Unilateral crackles were observed in 77% of patients. Among patients with positive radiography (64%), 36% had no unilateral crackles. A null CRB-65 score was obtained in 62% of patients. Most patients (94%) initially received antibiotics and experienced uncomplicated disease progression regardless of their management with X-rays. Finally, 7% of patients were hospitalised and 0.3% died. Conclusions: Most patients consulting GPs for suspected CAP had the three following most common symptoms: cough, fever, and weakness or myalgia. More than a third of them were at increased risk for invasive pneumococcal disease. With or without X-rays, most patients received antibiotics and experienced uncomplicated disease progression. PMID:25763466

  18. Study of the behavior of thermal shield support system for the French CPO series plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bellet, S.; Roux, P.; Bhandari, D.R.; Schwirian, R.E.; Yu, C.; Matarazzo, J.C.; Singleton, N.R.

    1996-12-01

    Degradation/failure of thermal shield support system in PWRs has been observed in the US as well as in foreign plants. In almost all the cases, remedial actions were put in place at very high economic costs to the utilities only after the failures had occurred. This paper presents the results of a comprehensive study to predict the long term behavior of a thermal shield support system due to flow-induced vibratory loads and thermal transients. Excellent agreement from the system finite model between the measured plant test data on the barrel/thermal shield beam and shell mode frequencies and the flexure strains confirms the basic structural behavior and physics of the flow induced vibrations. Loads and stresses on the support bolts and the flexures were determined to predict the fatigue life of the components.

  19. Electricity production by intermittent renewable sources: a synthesis of French and German studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grand, D.; Le Brun, Ch.; Vidil, R.; Wagner, F.

    2016-09-01

    Wind and solar electricity is produced without direct CO2 emissions. However, the introduction of this electricity in the grid is delicate due to the intermittent character of its sources. Wind and solar production is characterized by multiple, strong variations in the electric power. These variations put stress on the grid where the total production of electricity must always be equal to the consumption. We present a synthesis of five studies conducted for Germany and France with different assumptions of electricity mixes, all with large shares of wind and solar power. These mixes are subjected to the dynamics of wind and solar production as recorded in 2010 (Germany), 2012 and 2013 (Germany and France). Common structural trends are exhibited when the results of simulations (instantaneous power distributions and average annual values) are expressed as a percentage of the annual reduced load to be produced by these intermittent energies. We focus on the evaluation of these trends and the resulting constraints on the grid. The results obtained make it possible to anticipate the problems brought about by a large share of renewable intermittent energies in the production of electricity. They show the need for backup production in order to complement the intermittent sources. This leads to CO2 emissions unless storage systems of large capacity are available.

  20. Environmental gamma-ray measurement methods for French nuclear installation impact studies

    SciTech Connect

    Gauthier, D.; Bourdeau, F.; Caput, C.

    1982-04-01

    Due to the development of the nuclear industry and current concern for the environment, studies need to be carried out on the impact of new nuclear power plants. One of the elements of this impact is external irradiation, which should be measured before installations are put into operation. Four measurement devices are compared: a scintillometer using a composite crystal, which takes into account the photon ionization power as a function of the energy (SCINTOMAT 6134 BEFIC); a tissue equivalent ionization chamber with magnesium fluoride polyethylene walls (CET 72 SAPHYMO-SRAT); a big ionization chamber filled with air at atmospheric pressure (CD 43 ALCATEL); and a pressurized gas ionization chamber made of a 25.4-cm-diam sphere containing argon at a 25-atm pressure STP (RSS 111 Reuter Stokes). For purposes of environmental measurements, the most important criteria of comparison are sensivity, relative fluctuation, and velocity of response, so that low dose rates can be measured when the device is set up in a truck moving at low speed for regional mapping. The comparison shows that the pressurized gas ionization chamber comes the closest to meeting the required conditions.

  1. Digestive-tract sarcoidosis: French nationwide case-control study of 25 cases.

    PubMed

    Ghrenassia, Etienne; Mekinian, Arsene; Chapelon-Albric, Catherine; Levy, Pierre; Cosnes, Jacques; Sève, Pascal; Lefèvre, Guillaume; Dhôte, Robin; Launay, David; Prendki, Virginie; Morell-Dubois, Sandrine; Sadoun, Danielle; Mehdaoui, Anas; Soussan, Michael; Bourrier, Anne; Ricard, Laure; Benamouzig, Robert; Valeyre, Dominique; Fain, Olivier

    2016-07-01

    Digestive tract sarcoidosis (DTS) is rare and case-series are lacking. In this retrospective case-control study, we aimed to compare the characteristics, outcome, and treatment of patients with DTS, nondigestive tract sarcoidosis (NDTS), and Crohn disease.We included cases of confirmed sarcoidosis, symptomatic digestive tract involvement, and noncaseating granuloma in any digestive tract. Each case was compared with 2 controls with sarcoidoisis without digestive tract involvement and 4 with Crohn disease.We compared 25 cases of DTS to 50 controls with NDTS and 100 controls with Crohn disease. The major digestive clinical features were abdominal pain (56%), weight loss (52%), nausea/vomiting (48%), diarrhea (32%), and digestive bleeding (28%). On endoscopy of DTS, macroscopic lesions were observed in the esophagus (9%), stomach (78%), duodenum (9%), colon, (25%) and rectum (19%). As compared with NDTS, DTS was associated with weight loss (odds ratio [OR] 5.8; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-23.3) and the absence of thoracic adenopathy (OR 5.0; 95% CI 1.03-25). As compared with Crohn disease, DTS was associated with Afro-Caribbean origin (OR 27; 95% CI 3.6-204) and the absence of ileum or colon macroscopic lesions (OR 62.5; 95% CI 10.3-500). On the last follow-up, patients with DTS showed no need for surgery (versus 31% for patients with Crohn disease; P = 0.0013), and clinical digestive remission was frequent (76% vs. 35% for patients with Crohn disease; P = 0.0002).The differential diagnosis with Crohn disease could be an issue with DTS. Nevertheless, the 2 diseases often have different clinical presentation and outcome. PMID:27442665

  2. French in Gabon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, John

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the usage of French in Gabon. As in other nations of francophone Africa, French is the language of upward social mobility in Gabon, and it offers access to the international community. However, one factor peculiar to Gabon is the virtual absence of a Gabonese national language, which promotes a greater dependency upon a mastery of the…

  3. French in Quebec.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Anglejan, Alison

    1979-01-01

    Discusses language legislation in Canada where French and English are both official languages, and in Quebec province where French has been declared the sole official language. Outlines the conflicts and the impact of these differing laws on Quebec, its population, and its relations with the rest of Canada. (JMF)

  4. Skiing in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Paulette

    1984-01-01

    A high school French program conducted entirely in French on local ski slopes is based on the philosophy that language is a social tool for communicative purposes and can best be learned in social interaction. The successful program uses teamwork, an open attitude toward language learning, non-stressful evaluation, and innovative techniques. (MSE)

  5. Analysis of Stream Channel Geometry Temporal and Spatial Evolution after Historic Dam Removal - two French case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slawson, Deborah; Manière, Louis; Marchandeau, Florent

    2014-05-01

    IRSTEA, in partnership with the French Office national de l'eau et des milieux aquatiques (ONEMA), has begun a study of channel geomorphology in small streams where dams have been removed or breached between two and 200 years ago, without any subsequent restoration of the channel in the legacy sediments. A preliminary analysis of two sites in the Morvan, Burgundy, will be presented; a dam breached at the beginning of the 20th century and another in the last decade. Using ergodic reasoning, historical and recent upstream and downstream channel geometry is being used to predict the future temporal and spatial scales of channel physical habitat restoration. With the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD), dam removal has become a more frequently used method for restoring stream ecological continuity. In France, these obstacles are ubiquitous in medium and small streams and considerably reduce lateral and longitudinal connectivity. Improvement in the hydromorphologically controlled, physical habitat, particularly flow and sediment transport regimes, is often essential to improvement in stream biology. However, dam removal may cause long-term disturbances in flow and sediment transport regimes. In the absence of channel restoration measures in addition to dam removal, these disturbances may result in long-term negative impacts on fish, macroinvertebrate, and riparian plant physical habitat. These negative impacts may include channel incision and lowering of the water table, disconnection from floodplains, increased stream power and bed scouring, and increased sediment load from headcutting and bank erosion. Over time, these negative impacts may resolve themselves. However, the time frame necessary for reestablishing adequate physical habitat is not well-known. Some studies have indicated that many decades or longer may be required, depending on a variety of factors. Under the WFD, the REstoring rivers FOR effective catchment Management (REFORM

  6. French Antilles and Guiana.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    Attention in this discussion of French Antilles and Guiana is directed to the following: geography; the people; history; government; political conditions; the economy; and relations with the US. In 1988, the population of Martinique, the official name, numbered 351,105 with an annual growth rate in 1988 of 1.71%. The population of Guadeloupe, the official name, numbered 337,524 in January 1988 with an annual growth rate in 1987 of 1.2%. French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique, as overseas departments of France since 1946, are integral parts of the French Republic. In 1972, the metropolitan departments of France were combined into 22 regions, with an elected regional council for each region. As integral parts of the French Republic, the political systems of the 3 French Caribbean departments are essentially extensions of those of metropolitan France. Guadeloupe and Martinique owed their colonial prosperity to agriculture, primarily sugar. Martinique no longer exports sugar, but sugar still accounts for 20% of Guadeloupe's export earnings. In Martinique, sugar has been replaced as an export crop by bananas and pineapples. Bananas now account for almost 50% of Guadeloupe's total export earnings. In French Guiana, the impact of the French National Space Agency's Guiana Space Center has been great. US policy toward these overseas departments is inseparable from its overall policy of friendly relations with France.

  7. Important Variables When Screening for Students at Suicidal Risk: Findings from the French Cohort of the SEYLE Study.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Tubiana, Alexandra; Cohen, Renaud F; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta

    2015-10-01

    Due to early detection of mental ill-health being an important suicide preventive strategy, the multi-centre EU funded "Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe" (SEYLE) study compared three school-based mental health promotion programs to a control group. In France, 1007 students with a mean age of 15.2 years were recruited from 20 randomly assigned schools. This paper explores the French results of the SEYLE's two-stage screening program (ProfScreen) and of the cross-program suicidal emergency procedure. Two-hundred-thirty-five ProfScreen students were screened using 13 psychopathological and risk behaviour scales. Students considered at risk because of a positive finding on one or more scales were offered a clinical interview and, if necessary, referred for treatment. A procedure for suicidal students (emergency cases) was set up to detect emergencies in the whole cohort (n = 1007). Emergency cases were offered the same clinical interview as the ProfScreen students. The interviewers documented their reasons for referrals in a short report. 16,2% of the ProfScreen students (38/235) were referred to treatment and 2,7% of the emergency cases (27/1007) were also referred to treatment due to high suicidal risk. Frequent symptoms in those students referred for evaluation were depression, alcohol misuse, non-suicidal self-injuries (NSSI), and suicidal behaviours. According to the multivariate regression analysis of ProfScreen, the results show that the best predictors for treatment referral were NSSI (OR 2.85), alcohol misuse (OR 2.80), and depressive symptoms (OR 1.13). Analysis of the proportion for each scale of students referred to treatment showed that poor social relationships (60%), anxiety (50%), and suicidal behaviours (50%) generated the highest rate of referrals. Qualitative analysis of clinician's motivations to refer a student to mental health services revealed that depressive symptoms (51%), anxiety (38%), suicidal behaviours (40%), and negative life

  8. Important Variables When Screening for Students at Suicidal Risk: Findings from the French Cohort of the SEYLE Study

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Tubiana, Alexandra; Cohen, Renaud F.; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    Due to early detection of mental ill-health being an important suicide preventive strategy, the multi-centre EU funded “Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe” (SEYLE) study compared three school-based mental health promotion programs to a control group. In France, 1007 students with a mean age of 15.2 years were recruited from 20 randomly assigned schools. This paper explores the French results of the SEYLE’s two-stage screening program (ProfScreen) and of the cross-program suicidal emergency procedure. Two-hundred-thirty-five ProfScreen students were screened using 13 psychopathological and risk behaviour scales. Students considered at risk because of a positive finding on one or more scales were offered a clinical interview and, if necessary, referred for treatment. A procedure for suicidal students (emergency cases) was set up to detect emergencies in the whole cohort (n = 1007). Emergency cases were offered the same clinical interview as the ProfScreen students. The interviewers documented their reasons for referrals in a short report. 16,2% of the ProfScreen students (38/235) were referred to treatment and 2,7% of the emergency cases (27/1007) were also referred to treatment due to high suicidal risk. Frequent symptoms in those students referred for evaluation were depression, alcohol misuse, non-suicidal self-injuries (NSSI), and suicidal behaviours. According to the multivariate regression analysis of ProfScreen, the results show that the best predictors for treatment referral were NSSI (OR 2.85), alcohol misuse (OR 2.80), and depressive symptoms (OR 1.13). Analysis of the proportion for each scale of students referred to treatment showed that poor social relationships (60%), anxiety (50%), and suicidal behaviours (50%) generated the highest rate of referrals. Qualitative analysis of clinician’s motivations to refer a student to mental health services revealed that depressive symptoms (51%), anxiety (38%), suicidal behaviours (40%), and

  9. A Local Evaluation of Primary School French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, J. D.; Welsh, Jennifer

    1972-01-01

    A local study concludes that primary school French does not confer a lasting advantage but its contribution lies in the enlargement of interest rather that as a preparation for secondary school work. (JB)

  10. Chine: Les Chances du Francais (The Fortunes of the French Language in China).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuning, Zhang

    1996-01-01

    Examines the current situation in China surrounding the teaching of French as a Foreign Language. After the decline of French teaching subsequent to the Cultural Revolution, the language returned to favor around 1970. Chinese students are infatuated with French; many study it as a first or second foreign language. Additionally, French literature…

  11. Call Me "Madame": Re-Presenting Culture in the French Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siskin, H. Jay

    2007-01-01

    This study examines autobiographies of American teachers of French in order to make explicit their beliefs regarding French language and culture. The themes of class and power are prominent in these teachers' belief systems, as is the desire for self-transformation through mastery of French and miming a subset of French behaviors. These notions…

  12. Searching for a link between the L-BMAA neurotoxin and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a study protocol of the French BMAALS programme

    PubMed Central

    Delzor, Aurélie; Couratier, Philippe; Boumédiène, Farid; Nicol, Marie; Druet-Cabanac, Michel; Paraf, François; Méjean, Annick; Ploux, Olivier; Leleu, Jean-Philippe; Brient, Luc; Lengronne, Marion; Pichon, Valérie; Combès, Audrey; El Abdellaoui, Saïda; Bonneterre, Vincent; Lagrange, Emmeline; Besson, Gérard; Bicout, Dominique J; Boutonnat, Jean; Camu, William; Pageot, Nicolas; Juntas-Morales, Raul; Rigau, Valérie; Masseret, Estelle; Abadie, Eric; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Marin, Benoît

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neurone disease. It occurs in two forms: (1) familial cases, for which several genes have been identified and (2) sporadic cases, for which various hypotheses have been formulated. Notably, the β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (L-BMAA) toxin has been postulated to be involved in the occurrence of sporadic ALS. The objective of the French BMAALS programme is to study the putative link between L-BMAA and ALS. Methods and analysis The programme covers the period from 1 January 2003 to 31 December 2011. Using multiple sources of ascertainment, all the incident ALS cases diagnosed during this period in the area under study (10 counties spread over three French regions) were collected. First, the standardised incidence ratio will be calculated for each municipality under concern. Then, by applying spatial clustering techniques, overincidence and underincidence zones of ALS will be sought. A case–control study, in the subpopulation living in the identified areas, will gather information about patients’ occupations, leisure activities and lifestyle habits in order to assess potential risk factors to which they are or have been exposed. Specimens of drinking water, food and biological material (brain tissue) will be examined to assess the presence of L-BMAA in the environment and tissues of ALS cases and controls. Ethics and dissemination The study has been reviewed and approved by the French ethical committee of the CPP SOOM IV (Comité de Protection des Personnes Sud-Ouest & Outre-Mer IV). The results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international conferences. PMID:25180055

  13. French Expansion in North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaenen, Cornelius J.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the French colonization in North America. Presents background information on New France, focusing on the French in Canada. Covers topics, such as how the French became interested in North American expansion, the French in Louisiana, colonial economics, and the reasons for the collapse of New France. Includes a bibliography. (CMK)

  14. French Dictionaries. Series: Specialised Bibliographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaar, R. M.

    This is a list of French monolingual, French-English and English-French dictionaries available in December 1975. Dictionaries of etymology, phonetics, place names, proper names, and slang are included, as well as dictionaries for children and dictionaries of Belgian, Canadian, and Swiss French. Most other specialized dictionaries, encyclopedias,…

  15. Fewer Mistakes in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, Ron

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the government-approved simplification of French spelling, and describes rectifications of spelling problems frequently found in forming or using accents, verbs, hyphens, noun plurals, and other anomalies. (CB)

  16. French Tape Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaney, Robert, Comp.

    This tape catalog is a complete list of all French-related titles appearing in the National Center for Audio Tapes 1974-76 catalog. Wherever possible, each tape is briefly described. Price and ordering information is included. (PMP)

  17. French Vocabulary Lists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, J.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews French vocabulary lists and bilingual dictionaries and evaluates their usefulness for the preparation of materials for the language laboratory as well as for any programed approach to vocabulary teaching. (FB)

  18. A French multicenter study of over 700 patients with 22q11 deletions diagnosed using FISH or aCGH.

    PubMed

    Poirsier, Céline; Besseau-Ayasse, Justine; Schluth-Bolard, Caroline; Toutain, Jérôme; Missirian, Chantal; Le Caignec, Cédric; Bazin, Anne; de Blois, Marie Christine; Kuentz, Paul; Catty, Marie; Choiset, Agnès; Plessis, Ghislaine; Basinko, Audrey; Letard, Pascaline; Flori, Elisabeth; Jimenez, Mélanie; Valduga, Mylène; Landais, Emilie; Lallaoui, Hakima; Cartault, François; Lespinasse, James; Martin-Coignard, Dominique; Callier, Patrick; Pebrel-Richard, Céline; Portnoi, Marie-France; Busa, Tiffany; Receveur, Aline; Amblard, Florence; Yardin, Catherine; Harbuz, Radu; Prieur, Fabienne; Le Meur, Nathalie; Pipiras, Eva; Kleinfinger, Pascale; Vialard, François; Doco-Fenzy, Martine

    2016-06-01

    Although 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS) is the most recurrent human microdeletion syndrome associated with a highly variable phenotype, little is known about the condition's true incidence and the phenotype at diagnosis. We performed a multicenter, retrospective analysis of postnatally diagnosed patients recruited by members of the Association des Cytogénéticiens de Langue Française (the French-Speaking Cytogeneticists Association). Clinical and cytogenetic data on 749 cases diagnosed between 1995 and 2013 were collected by 31 French cytogenetics laboratories. The most frequent reasons for referral of postnatally diagnosed cases were a congenital heart defect (CHD, 48.6%), facial dysmorphism (49.7%) and developmental delay (40.7%). Since 2007 (the year in which array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) was introduced for the routine screening of patients with intellectual disability), almost all cases have been diagnosed using FISH (96.1%). Only 15 cases (all with an atypical phenotype) were diagnosed with aCGH; the deletion size ranged from 745 to 2904 kb. The deletion was inherited in 15.0% of cases and was of maternal origin in 85.5% of the latter. This is the largest yet documented cohort of patients with 22q11.2DS (the most commonly diagnosed microdeletion) from the same population. French cytogenetics laboratories diagnosed at least 108 affected patients (including fetuses) per year from among a national population of ∼66 million. As observed for prenatal diagnoses, CHDs were the most frequently detected malformation in postnatal diagnoses. The most common CHD in postnatal diagnoses was an isolated septal defect.

  19. First report of the predominance of clonal complex 398 Staphylococcus aureus strains in osteomyelitis complicating diabetic foot ulcers: a national French study.

    PubMed

    Senneville, E; Brière, M; Neut, C; Messad, N; Lina, G; Richard, J-L; Sotto, A; Lavigne, J-P

    2014-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen cultured from diabetic foot infection including diabetic foot osteomyelitis. This French multicentre study determined the genetic content of S. aureus isolated from 157 consecutive cases admitted to 12 diabetic foot centres between 2008 and 2011. We describe for the first time the emergence of the CC398 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus clone, the main clone in diabetic foot osteomyelitis, and its tropism for bone. This clone spreads to humans from an animal source through its intrinsic virulence. This adaptation of S. aureus isolates looks to be a worrisome problem and should be carefully monitored.

  20. Aggressive/hostile personality traits and injury accidents: an eight-year prospective study of a large cohort of French employees -- the GAZEL cohort

    PubMed Central

    Nabi, Hermann; Consoli, Silla M.; Chiron, Mireille; Lafont, Sylviane; Zins, Marie; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Chastang, Jean-François

    2006-01-01

    Background Aggressiveness on the roads and/or anger behind the wheel are considered to be a major traffic safety problem in several countries. However, the psychological mechanisms of anger and/or aggression on the roads remain largely unclear. This study examines a large cohort of French employees followed over the 1994–2001 period to establish whether psychometric measures of aggression/hostility were significantly associated with an increased risk of injury accidents (I-A). Methods A total of 11 754 participants aged from 39 to 54 in 1993 were included in this study. Aggression/hostility was measured in 1993 using the French version of the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI). Driving behaviors and I-A were recorded in 2001. Sociodemographic and alcohol consumption data were available from the cohort annual follow-up. The relationship between aggression/hostility scores and I-A was assessed using Negative Binomial regression models with time-dependent covariates. Results The overall BDHI scoring was not statistically predictive of subsequent I-A: adjusted rate ratios (aRR) = 1.02, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.81–1.28 for participants with intermediate scores and 1.25, 95% CI 0.98–1.61 for those with high scores, both compared to those with low scores. The only BDHI subscales found to be associated with I-A were “irritability” (aRR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.02–1.75 for participants with high scores) and “negativism” (aRR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.01–1.71 for participants with high scores). Conclusion Overall aggression/hostility personality traits did not predict injury accidents in this large cohort of French employees, suggesting that aggressiveness on the roads and/or anger behind the wheel extends beyond the individual’s general propensity for aggression. PMID:16332284

  1. Motives for regular physical activity in women and men: a qualitative study in French adults with type 2 diabetes, belonging to a patients' association.

    PubMed

    Ferrand, Claude; Perrin, Claire; Nasarre, Sandra

    2008-09-01

    Patients' associations are an integral but often overlooked component of the French healthcare system dominated by the medical profession. Very few patients' associations exist to enable patients to self-manage into physical activity programmes. The aim of this qualitative study was to examine perceived motives for regular physical activity in male and female individuals, with type 2 diabetes involved in one French patients' association, called 'Move for Health'. Twenty-three adults (14 women and 9 men) with type 2 diabetes ranging in age from 35 to 78 volunteered to participate. The participants undertook regular physical activities autonomously with some medico-sporting educators' help. Results showed that participants reported intrinsic motives such as enjoyment, interest, fun, stimulation and highlighted gender differences. Female participants were more likely than male participants to emphasise the importance of emotional support obtained from the group meetings, and the pleasure of doing something together, and male participants emphasised the knowledge acquisition and skill development for disease control. Moreover, female participants indicated the importance of the sense of well-being and the positive body image related to regular physical activity, and male participants underlined the strength of the relationship between physical activity and health-promoting behaviours. This study provides insights into how gender motives are related to the interest and usefulness of physical activities in the management of diabetes. Findings lend support to the setting up of this type of patients' association in the French healthcare system and underline its contribution to self-determination and the behaviour change process in people with diabetes.

  2. French Programs: Some Major Issues. Evaluation and Synthesis of Studies Related to the Experimental Programs for the Teaching of French as a Second Language in the Carleton-Ottawa School Boards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, H. H.; And Others

    This report presents an overview of three major research projects on the instruction of French as a second language. The projects are being carried out in the schools of the Ottawa Roman Catholic Separate School Board, the Carleton Roman Catholic Separate School Board, and the Carleton and Ottawa Boards of Education. The projects are concerned…

  3. Statistical study of topographical and glaciological parameters controlling the glacial retreat in the French Alps since the end of the 1960s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardent, Marie; Deline, Philip; Ployon, Estelle; Sabatier, Pierre; Schoeneich, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    Glacial retreat is one of the most evident impacts of climate change in high mountain areas. In the French Alps, data about glacier extensions were recently updated in the context of the new French glacier inventory. This inventory is based on manual delineation of the French National Geographical Institute (IGN) 50-cm-pixel orthophotographies from 2006 to 2009 and IGN 1/25 000 topographical maps from the end of the 1960s (1967-1971). Data are integrated in a GIS and topographic parameters are extracted from the IGN 25-m-DEM for the glacier surface extension of the end of the 1960s and the ASTER 30-m-GDEM for the 2006-2009 extension. The present (2006-2009) glacier surface area in the French Alps is 275.5 km². This surface decreased by 26% since the end of the 1960s when the glacier extension was 373 km². The surface area of 82% of the glaciers is < 0.5 km² and covered 19 % of the total glaciated area, whereas glaciers > 2.5 km² account for 3.5 % of the glacier number and 47 % of the total glacier area. Glaciers with a length < 1 km represent 76 % of the total glacier number while glaciers > 2 km in length represent 10 % of this total. Glaciers > 1 km² have a gentle mean slope than glaciers < 0.1 km² (22° and 33°, respectively). Most of the present glaciers are exposed to NW-N-NE (60 % in surface area and >70 % in number). Average minimal (i.e. fronts), mean and maximal elevation of French Alpine glaciers is 2840 m (σ = 286 m), 3019 m (σ = 240 m), and 3210 m (σ = 289 m), respectively. Finally, more than 11 % of the surface area of the present glacier is debris-covered. Retreat rate mainly seems related on the glacier size classes or the aspect, and varies from one massif to another: glacier shrinkage in the Ecrins massif was more than three times stronger than in the French area of the Mont Blanc massif. We use a statistical approach in order to pinpoint topographical and glaciological controls on the glacier retreat. First, a bivariate analysis was used

  4. Contribution of Organic Food to the Diet in a Large Sample of French Adults (the NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study).

    PubMed

    Baudry, Julia; Méjean, Caroline; Allès, Benjamin; Péneau, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-10-21

    In developed countries, the demand for organic products continues to substantially increase each year. However, little information is available regarding the level of consumption of organic food and its relative share of the whole diet. Our aim was to provide, using individual consumption data, a detailed description of organic food consumption among French adults. Conventional and organic intakes were assessed using an organic food frequency questionnaire administered to 28,245 French adults participating in the NutriNet-Santé study. P values of Student t-test or Chi-square for the difference between genders were reported. Less than 12% of the respondents reported never consuming organic food in the past year. Women consumed on average 20% organic food in their whole diet per day while men consumed an average of 18%. The proportion of vegetables consumed that came from organic sources was 31% among women and 28% among men. Overall, the estimate of the contribution of organic food from products of plant origin was higher than that from products of animal origin. Our study provides a framework for the exploration of organic consumption and its correlates and can serve as a basis for future studies investigating relationships between the level of organic food consumption and health outcomes.

  5. Contribution of Organic Food to the Diet in a Large Sample of French Adults (the NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study).

    PubMed

    Baudry, Julia; Méjean, Caroline; Allès, Benjamin; Péneau, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-10-01

    In developed countries, the demand for organic products continues to substantially increase each year. However, little information is available regarding the level of consumption of organic food and its relative share of the whole diet. Our aim was to provide, using individual consumption data, a detailed description of organic food consumption among French adults. Conventional and organic intakes were assessed using an organic food frequency questionnaire administered to 28,245 French adults participating in the NutriNet-Santé study. P values of Student t-test or Chi-square for the difference between genders were reported. Less than 12% of the respondents reported never consuming organic food in the past year. Women consumed on average 20% organic food in their whole diet per day while men consumed an average of 18%. The proportion of vegetables consumed that came from organic sources was 31% among women and 28% among men. Overall, the estimate of the contribution of organic food from products of plant origin was higher than that from products of animal origin. Our study provides a framework for the exploration of organic consumption and its correlates and can serve as a basis for future studies investigating relationships between the level of organic food consumption and health outcomes. PMID:26506372

  6. Contribution of Organic Food to the Diet in a Large Sample of French Adults (the NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study)

    PubMed Central

    Baudry, Julia; Méjean, Caroline; Allès, Benjamin; Péneau, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Hercberg, Serge; Lairon, Denis; Galan, Pilar; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2015-01-01

    In developed countries, the demand for organic products continues to substantially increase each year. However, little information is available regarding the level of consumption of organic food and its relative share of the whole diet. Our aim was to provide, using individual consumption data, a detailed description of organic food consumption among French adults. Conventional and organic intakes were assessed using an organic food frequency questionnaire administered to 28,245 French adults participating in the NutriNet-Santé study. P values of Student t-test or Chi-square for the difference between genders were reported. Less than 12% of the respondents reported never consuming organic food in the past year. Women consumed on average 20% organic food in their whole diet per day while men consumed an average of 18%. The proportion of vegetables consumed that came from organic sources was 31% among women and 28% among men. Overall, the estimate of the contribution of organic food from products of plant origin was higher than that from products of animal origin. Our study provides a framework for the exploration of organic consumption and its correlates and can serve as a basis for future studies investigating relationships between the level of organic food consumption and health outcomes. PMID:26506372

  7. Venus transits - A French view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Débarbat, Suzanne

    2005-04-01

    After a careful study of Mars observations obtained by Tycho Brahé (1546-1601), Kepler (1571-1630) discovered the now-called Kepler's third law. In 1627 he published his famous Tabulae Rudolphinae, a homage to his protector Rudolph II (1552-1612), tables (Kepler 1609, 1627) from which he predicted Mercury and Venus transits over the Sun. In 1629 Kepler published his Admonitio ad Astronomos Advertisement to Astronomers (Kepler 1630), Avertissement aux Astronomes in French Au sujet de phénomènes rares et étonnants de l'an 1631: l'incursion de Vénus et de Mercure sur le Soleil. This was the beginning of the interest of French astronomers, among many others, in such transits, mostly for Venus, the subject of this paper in which dates are given in the Gregorian calendar.

  8. Description of the type of chemical restraint used by French veterinarians to perform hip dysplasia screening radiographs. A retrospective study based on 3302 radiographs.

    PubMed

    Maitre, P; Genevois, J-P; Remy, D; Carozzo, C; Arnault, F; Buttin, P; Viguier, E; Fau, D

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the type of chemical restraint used by French practitioners to perform official hip screening radiographs, to determine the proportion of dogs under general anesthesia versus dogs under sedation, and to search for a difference in hip dysplasia (HD) prevalence between the two groups. From September 2005 to August 2008, 3302 conventional ventrodorsal hip extended radiographs sent for official scoring to the same panellist were selected because information related to the type of chemical restraint had been provided. There were 2825 dogs under general anesthesia and 477 were sedated. Chemical restraint used by French veterinarians to perform HD screening radiographs is mainly based on general intra-venous anesthesia with an alpha2 agonist associated with ketamine. A single injection of alpha2 agonist is also mostly used for dogs which are radiographed while under sedation. A very low (1.7%) difference in HD prevalence was noted between the anesthetized and the sedated group. Except for acepromazine, which has been demonstrated to provide insufficient muscle relaxation to show evidence of hip laxity, the protocols seem acceptable as regards the Federation Cynologique Internationale requirements for HD screening. PMID:20585709

  9. Understanding of others' knowledge in French and Japanese children: a comparative study with a disambiguation task on 16-38-month-olds.

    PubMed

    Norimatsu, H; Blin, R; Hashiya, K; Sorsana, Ch; Kobayashi, H

    2014-11-01

    In order to explain the cultural differences reported in the results of false-belief tasks, we attempted to verify the 'task bias hypothesis' suggested by certain studies (e.g. Tardif et al. (2004). Journal of Child Language, 31, 779-800; Rubio-Fernandez & Geurts (2013). Psychological Science, 24(1), 27-33. doi 10.1177/0956797612447819). At the same time, we aimed to observe the theory of mind (ToM) ability of infants and young children under the age of three in verbal communication. To this end, we propose a new protocol to test young children's ToM ability, with particular attention paid to the linguistic aspect of the task. This original disambiguation task using proper nouns (first names) was tested on a total of 32 children aged between 16 and 38 months, in France and Japan. The results revealed that after the age of 30 months children begin to correctly interpret nouns while simultaneously taking into account their partner's knowledge (50% of the French and 29% of the Japanese children were successful), whereas this remains difficult for younger children (no child under 30 months was successful). The analysis of error types has shown that 'memory bias' was dominant in younger children in particular and 'association bias' was rarely observed across all ages. Given that the results of French and Japanese children did not differ significantly, we assume that this new task design could minimise the influence of cultural difference caused by the characteristics of different languages. PMID:25238662

  10. Description of the type of chemical restraint used by French veterinarians to perform hip dysplasia screening radiographs. A retrospective study based on 3302 radiographs.

    PubMed

    Maitre, P; Genevois, J-P; Remy, D; Carozzo, C; Arnault, F; Buttin, P; Viguier, E; Fau, D

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the type of chemical restraint used by French practitioners to perform official hip screening radiographs, to determine the proportion of dogs under general anesthesia versus dogs under sedation, and to search for a difference in hip dysplasia (HD) prevalence between the two groups. From September 2005 to August 2008, 3302 conventional ventrodorsal hip extended radiographs sent for official scoring to the same panellist were selected because information related to the type of chemical restraint had been provided. There were 2825 dogs under general anesthesia and 477 were sedated. Chemical restraint used by French veterinarians to perform HD screening radiographs is mainly based on general intra-venous anesthesia with an alpha2 agonist associated with ketamine. A single injection of alpha2 agonist is also mostly used for dogs which are radiographed while under sedation. A very low (1.7%) difference in HD prevalence was noted between the anesthetized and the sedated group. Except for acepromazine, which has been demonstrated to provide insufficient muscle relaxation to show evidence of hip laxity, the protocols seem acceptable as regards the Federation Cynologique Internationale requirements for HD screening.

  11. Is there any impact of HLA-DPB1 disparity in 10/10 HLA-matched unrelated hematopoietic SCT? Results of a French multicentric retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Gagne, K; Loiseau, P; Dubois, V; Dufossé, F; Perrier, P; Dormoy, A; Jollet, I; Renac, V; Masson, D; Picard, C; Lafarge, X; Hanau, D; Quainon, F; Delbos, F; Coeffic, B; Absi, Léna; Eliaou, J-F; Moalic, V; Fort, M; de Matteis, M; Theodorou, I; Hau, F; Batho, A; Pedron, B; Caillat-Zucman, S; Marry, E; Raus, N; Yakoub-Agha, I; Cesbron, A

    2015-02-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the impact of HLA-DPB1 mismatches in a large cohort of 1342 French patients who underwent 10/10 HLA-matched unrelated HSCT. A significant impact of HLA-DPB1 allelic mismatches (2 vs 0) was observed in severe acute GVHD (aGVHDIII-IV) (risk ratio (RR)=1.73, confidence interval (CI) 95% 1.09-2.73, P=0.019) without impact on OS, TRM, relapse and chronic GVHD (cGVHD). According to the T-cell epitope 3 (TCE3)/TCE4 HLA-DPB1 disparity algorithm, 37.6% and 58.4% pairs had nonpermissive HLA-DPB1, respectively. TCE3 and TCE4 disparities had no statistical impact on OS, TRM, relapse, aGVHD and cGVHD. When TCE3/TCE4 disparities were analyzed in the graft-vs-host or host-vs-graft (HVG) direction, only a significant impact of TCE4 nonpermissive disparities in the HVG direction was observed on relapse (RR=1.34, CI 95% 1.00-1.80, P=0.048). In conclusion, this French retrospective study shows an adverse prognosis of HLA-DPB1 mismatches (2 vs 0) on severe aGVHD and of nonpermissive TCE4 HVG disparities on relapse after HLA-matched 10/10 unrelated HSCT.

  12. French Antilles and Guiana.

    PubMed

    1983-11-01

    This discussion of French Antilles and Guiana cover the following: the people, geography, history, government, political conditions, economy, and relations with the US. In 1983 the population totaled 303,000 with an annual growth rate of 0.09%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 12.6/1000 and life expectancy 68 years. About 98% of the people of Martinique are of Afro European or Afro European Indian descent. The remainder are the old planter families and a sizable number of metropolitan French. Most of the work force are employed in agriculture or food processing and associated industries. Most permanent residents of Guadeloupe are of mixed Afro European descent. A few thousand Metropolitan French reside there. Most French Guianese live along the coast, about 1/2 of them in the capital. Martinique is the northernmost of the Windward Islands, which are part of the Lesser Antilles chain in the Caribbean Sea southeast of Puerto Rico. Guadeloupe comprises 2 of the Leeward Islands, which are also part of the Lesser Antilles chain. French Guiana is located on the northern coast of South America, a few degrees north of the Equator. Indians were the 1st known indigenous inhabitants of French Guiana and the French Antilles. Columbus sighted Guadeloupe in 1493, Martinique in 1493 or 1502, and the Guiana coast probably during his 3rd voyage in 1498. French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique, as overseas departments of France since 1946, are integral parts of the French Republic. Their relationship to Metropolitan France is somewhat similar to that of Alaska and Hawaii to the counterminous US. Each department has a general council composed of 1 representative elected by each canton. Guadeloupe and Martinique each elect 2 senators to the French Senate and 3 deputies to the National Assembly. French Guiana elects 1 senator and 1 deputy. In each of the 3 departments exist individuals and small political parties that advocate immediate independence, but their adherents form only

  13. French for Marketing. Using French in Media and Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, R. E.; Chebli-Saadi, M.

    The textbook, entirely in French, is designed to help prepare anglophone students for French language usage in the media and telecommunications. It is organized according to two major themes. The first part addresses the French of advertising; chapter topics include the actors in advertising (agencies, announcers, supports), forms of advertising,…

  14. Incidence of adverse events in antipsychotic-naïve children and adolescents treated with antipsychotic drugs: a French multicentre naturalistic study protocol (ETAPE)

    PubMed Central

    Menard, Marie-Line; Thümmler, Susanne; Giannitelli, Marianna; Olliac, Bertrand; Bonnot, Olivier; Cohen, David; Askenazy, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In France, over recent years, the prescription rate of antipsychotic (AP) remained stable in children and adolescents. Prescription of second-generation antipsychotics increased, whereas prescription of first-generation antipsychotics decreased. Off-label prescriptions are very frequent in this population. Adverse events (AEs) in youth treated with AP are common and may be severe. AEs have hitherto been poorly monitored in naturalistic studies independent from industry. Method and analysis We describe a French prospective multicentre study in an AP-naïve paediatric population named Etude de la Tolérance des AntiPsychotique chez l'Enfant (ETAPE). The study started in April 2013. So far, 200 patients have been included. The inclusion criteria are: male or female inpatients aged from 6 to 18 years, treated with an AP drug for less than 28 days, never been treated or having received AP for less than 3 months, discontinued at least 6 months prior to inclusion. These assessments of AE are performed at inclusion, as well as at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the introduction of the AP. The monitoring period will end in May 2016. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee ‘Sud Méditerrané V’ (number 12.082) and by the French National Agency for Medicines and Health Products Safety (number 2012-004546-15). All patients and their parents signed informed consent on enrolment in the study. We will submit the results of the study to relevant journals and offer national and international presentations. This study will enable better characterisation of the prescription of AP drugs. The results will further help to develop quality standards and recommendations for monitoring AE during the prescription of AP. Trial registration number NCT02007928. PMID:27053275

  15. [Effects of an educational campaign on cardiovascular risk factors in a French town (Epernon, study town). Methods and preliminary results: prevalence and level of risk factors].

    PubMed

    Bruckert, E; Emmerich, J; Thomas, D; Charpak, Y; Bichon, L; Clergeot, A

    1994-01-01

    The authors report the methods and preliminary findings of a study scheduled to last 5 years, which aims to evaluate cardiovascular risk factor changes in response to an education program. The population sample consisted of 961 subjects, from Epernon itself (the study town) and from two control towns. The assessment criteria were reported at the beginning of the study and then again after 2 and 5 years. They consisted of an analysis of medical events and of biomedical and dietary data and a detailed analysis of behavior with regard to health and socio-economic variables. Preliminary data show that the samples were similar in Epernon and the control towns and also comparable to some French epidemiological data. There is a striking difference between the percentage of subjects aware of their blood pressure (65.5%) and blood cholesterol (13.4%) levels.

  16. [About the relationship between medicine and social sciences: the French Foundation for the Study of Human Problems or Carrel Foundation (1941-1945)].

    PubMed

    Drouard, A

    1994-01-01

    Nobel Prize winner for medicine in 1912, author of a widely acclaimed best seller which was published in English and in French in 1935, Man, the Unknown, Alexis Carrel was Regent of the French Foundation for the Study of Human Problems from 1942 to 1944, during the Second World War in France. The Foundation, known as the "Carrel Foundation", was created as a financially autonomous public establishment with full legal status and had a dual mission: to stkudy "all possible means of safeguarding, improving and developing the French population" (1) and to "synthesize efforts undertaken by its own members or by others and to develop the science of man" (2). Considering its short official existence and the exceptional circumstances of the period, the scientific work of the Foundation is impressive: the demographical analyses undertaken by R. Gessain, P. Tincent, and J. Bourgeois; the pioneer work of J. Sutter in nutrition; J. Merlet's work on group settings; the Gallup polls undertaken by J. Stoetzel's team; and the work and publications of the F. Perroux Department of Bio-Sociology, without failing to mention the study carried out on a group of one hundred thousand children. Amongst the effects of the Foundation, one must mention the National Institute of Demographic Studies (INED) and with it, the establishment of one of the most active and productive research groups in the Social and Human Sciences in France. There are other initiatives and activities which form part of the Foundation's inheritance: the creation in 1947 by Dr A. Gros, former Vice-regent of the Foundation, of the group of "Advisers in Synthesis"; the jkoint creation ten years later by D Gros and G. Berger of the group and the publication "Prospective"; the wide multidisciplinary study undertaken by the (DGRST) "Délégation Générale à la Recherche Scientifique et Technique" undertaken in 1960 thanks to the initiative of R. Gessain and of J. Sutter; and the Monaco Forums on Social Sciences, not to

  17. Teaching French via American Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berwald, Jean-Pierre

    1974-01-01

    Outlines the methods of using football in teaching French in the American classroom by using French Canadian newspapers and other visual media available in the United States, in addition to specific language activities. (LG)

  18. America's Tolerance for French Radicalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolin, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The publication of Francois Cusset's "French Theory" raises a series of fascinating questions concerning the trans-Atlantic transmission and circulation of ideas. Most important, it impels everyone to inquire why for a time French thought managed to flourish in American universities while French intellectuals rapidly abandoned the entire paradigm.…

  19. Know Your Laws. French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.; Ledun, Andree

    This French language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three levels of the…

  20. Teaching Materials for French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, E. W., Comp.

    The materials described are designed for use in all areas of French language teaching and are obtainable in the United Kingdom. Sources may be located in the book through a subject-area index and through an alphabetically arranged title index. Included in each of the 687 entries are the entry's number, author's name, title of the publication,…

  1. Association of screen time with self-perceived attention problems and hyperactivity levels in French students: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Guichard, Elie; Kurth, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether high levels of screen time exposure are associated with self-perceived levels of attention problems and hyperactivity in higher education students. Design Cross-sectional study among participants of the i-Share cohort. Setting French-speaking students of universities and higher education institutions. Participants 4816 graduate students who were at least 18 years old. Exposure Screen time was assessed by self-report of the average time spent on five different screen activities on smartphone, television, computer and tablet and categorised into quartiles. Main outcome measure We used the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Self-Report Scale (ASRS-v1.1) concerning students’ behaviour over the past 6 months to measure self-perceived levels of attention problems and hyperactivity. Responses were summarised into a global score as well as scores for attention problems and hyperactivity. Results The 4816 participants of this study had a mean age of 20.8 years and 75.5% were female. Multivariable ordinary regression models showed significant associations of screen time exposure with quintiles of the total score of self-perceived attention problems and hyperactivity levels as well as the individual domains. Compared to the lowest screen time exposure category, the ORs (95% CI) were 1.58 (1.37 to 1.82) for each increasing level of quintiles of the global score, 1.57 (1.36 to 1.81) for increasing quintiles of attention levels and 1.25 (1.09 to 1.44) for increasing quartiles of hyperactivity. Conclusions Results of this large cross-sectional study among French university and higher education students show dose-dependent associations between screen time and self-perceived levels of attention problems and hyperactivity. Further studies are warranted to evaluate whether interventions could positively influence these associations. PMID:26920440

  2. A Language of Our Own: The Genesis of Michif, the Mixed Cree-French Language of the Canadian Metis. Oxford Studies in Anthropological Linguistics, 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakker, Peter

    The Michif language, spoken by descendants of French Canadian fur traders and the Cree and Ojibwe Indians of western Canada and the northern United States, is a difficult and unique language because it uses French for nouns and Cree for verbs, therefore comprising two different sets of grammatical rules. This book employs historical research and…

  3. An Exploratory Study on the Role of L1 Chinese and L2 English in the Cross-Linguistic Influence in L3 French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cai, Hansong; Cai, Luna Jing

    2015-01-01

    This research investigates cross-linguistic influence in the comprehension of L3 French past tense. A close examination was made on the L1 (Chinese) and L2 (English) transfer patterns among 20 English majors in their early acquisition of L3 French passé compose (PC). Data were collected through introspective think-aloud protocol in a comprehension…

  4. Sanctification of "the accursed". Drinking habits of the French existentialists in the 1940s (a case study).

    PubMed

    Arppe, T

    1998-01-01

    The chapter deals with the drinking habits of the French existentialists during and after World War II (roughly from 1943 to 1948). It attempts to show that the phenomenon cannot be understood separately from their lifestyle as a whole, which in this case (as I claim) is primarily manifested through a certain (mythical) structure of meanings related to the category of the sacred. Jean-Paul Sartre's position as the leading intellectual figure of the time is also to be seen as a result of his ambiguous reputation as a "prophet" and a "criminal" in the yellow press. What is involved is a single mythical structure, where "decadent" life is precisely one aspect of sanctification. On the other hand, Sartre's "bohemian lifestyle" and his desire to break bourgeois habits can be seen as a variant of the bourgeois myth of the artistic lifestyle created in the 19th century. From this angle, existentialism can in a certain sense be considered the last hybrid expression of the "transgressive" myth of rebellion which this sort of lifestyle had crystallized.

  5. Absorption, metabolism, and effects at transcriptome level of a standardized French oak wood extract, Robuvit, in healthy volunteers: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Natella, Fausta; Leoni, Guido; Maldini, Mariateresa; Natarelli, Lucia; Comitato, Raffaella; Schonlau, Frank; Virgili, Fabio; Canali, Raffaella

    2014-01-15

    The consumption of wine and spirits, traditionally aged in oak barrels, exposes humans to roburin ingestion. These molecules belong to a class of ellagitannins (ETs), and their only known source is oak wood. Very little is currently known about roburin bioavailability and biological activity. We reported for the first time human absorption of roburins from a French oak wood (Quercus robur) water extract (Robuvit) by measuring the increase of total phenols (from 0.63 ± 0.06 to 1.26 ± 0.18 μg GAE equiv/mL plasma) and the appearance of roburin metabolites (three different glucoronidate urolithins and ellagic acid), in plasma, after 5 days of supplementation. Robuvit supplementation induced also the increase of plasma antioxidant capacity from 1.8 ± 0.05 to 1.9 ± 0.01 nmol Trolox equiv/mL plasma. Moreover, utilizing a combined ex vivo cell culture approach, we assessed the effect of Q. robur metabolites (present in human serum after supplementation) on gene expression modulation, utilizing an Affymetrix array matrix, in endothelial, neuronal, and keratinocyte cell lines. The functional analysis reveals that Robuvit metabolites affect ribosome, cell cycle, and spliceosome pathways.

  6. Factors associated with early menarche: results from the French Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Puberty is a transition period making physiological development a challenge adolescents have to face. Early pubertal development could be associated with higher risks of poor health. Our objective was to examine risk behaviours, physical and psychological determinants associated with early menarche (<11 years). Methods Early menarche was assessed in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children French cross-sectional survey. Data were collected in 2006 by anonymous self-reported standardized questionnaire from a nationally representative sample of 1072 15 years old girls in school classrooms. Family environment, school experience, physical and psychological factors, risk behaviours (substance use and sexual initiation) were recorded. Logistic regression models were applied (analysing for crude and adjusted relationships between early menarche and risk behaviours controlled for family context). Results Median age at menarche was 13.0 years; 57 girls (5.3%) were early-matured. Controlled for familial environment, early menarche was associated with having had more than two life-drunkenness episodes (adjusted OR = 2.5 [1.3-4.6]), early sexual initiation (adjusted OR = 2.8 [1.3-6.0]) and overweight (adjusted OR = 7.3 [3.6-14.9]). Conclusion Early-maturing girls may affiliate with older adolescents, hence engage in risk behaviours linked to their appearance rather than their maturity level. Factors associated with early menarche highlight the need to focus attention on early-matured girls to prevent further health problems linked to risk behaviours. PMID:20353570

  7. A preliminary study of viral metagenomics of French bat species in contact with humans: identification of new mammalian viruses.

    PubMed

    Dacheux, Laurent; Cervantes-Gonzalez, Minerva; Guigon, Ghislaine; Thiberge, Jean-Michel; Vandenbogaert, Mathias; Maufrais, Corinne; Caro, Valérie; Bourhy, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    The prediction of viral zoonosis epidemics has become a major public health issue. A profound understanding of the viral population in key animal species acting as reservoirs represents an important step towards this goal. Bats harbor diverse viruses, some of which are of particular interest because they cause severe human diseases. However, little is known about the diversity of the global population of viruses found in bats (virome). We determined the viral diversity of five different French insectivorous bat species (nine specimens in total) in close contact with humans. Sequence-independent amplification, high-throughput sequencing with Illumina technology and a dedicated bioinformatics analysis pipeline were used on pooled tissues (brain, liver and lungs). Comparisons of the sequences of contigs and unassembled reads provided a global taxonomic distribution of virus-related sequences for each sample, highlighting differences both within and between bat species. Many viral families were present in these viromes, including viruses known to infect bacteria, plants/fungi, insects or vertebrates, the most relevant being those infecting mammals (Retroviridae, Herpesviridae, Bunyaviridae, Poxviridae, Flaviviridae, Reoviridae, Bornaviridae, Picobirnaviridae). In particular, we detected several new mammalian viruses, including rotaviruses, gammaretroviruses, bornaviruses and bunyaviruses with the identification of the first bat nairovirus. These observations demonstrate that bats naturally harbor viruses from many different families, most of which infect mammals. They may therefore constitute a major reservoir of viral diversity that should be analyzed carefully, to determine the role played by bats in the spread of zoonotic viral infections.

  8. [Optimizing good use and costs of anticancer drugs: A French inter regional study of the Observatory of Cancer].

    PubMed

    Grudé, Françoise; Bessard, Réjane; Bourgeois, Hugues; Douillard, Jean-Yves; Gamelin, Erik; Metges, Jean-Philippe; Riché, Christian; Vidal, Anne-Marie

    2013-03-01

    Optimizing the care management of patients is a major issue for our society. In Brittany-Pays-de-la-Loire (almost 10% of French population), an observatory of cancer has been created in 2003. Its main objective was the follow-up of expensive drugs. The knowledge of the use of these drugs in clinical practice has led to development of a thesaurus of good use. Thus, regular exchanges between clinicians have almost totally reduced not medically justified prescriptions by the thesaurus after and before administration to patient. The thesaurus has given away to national guidelines from 2007. For example, in these two regions, optimization of the use of gemcitabine and bevacizumab has allowed to save respectively 2.5 millions euros between 2005 and 2008 and 3 millions euros between 2009 and 2010 (breast cancer only). Optimizing the use of anticancer drugs has allowed a real health economy without any bad impact on patient management. Respecting medical ethics, the main objective remains to optimize health care. This highly participation of clinicians currently allows to reflect together on the relevance of the last chemotherapy.

  9. Estimating drinking-water ingestion and dermal contact with water in a French population of pregnant women: the EDDS cohort study.

    PubMed

    Albouy-Llaty, Marion; Dupuis, Antoine; Grignon, Claire; Strezlec, Sylvie; Pierre, Fabrice; Rabouan, Sylvie; Migeot, Virginie

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study, a part of the Endocrine Disruptor Deux-Sèvres (EDDS) cohort study, was to estimate water-use habits of pregnant French women. The study population consisted of 132 pregnant women living in Deux-Sèvres (France) in 2012-2013, in areas where drinking water is exclusively produced by surface water. Drinking-water data included ingested water (tap, bottled and filtered) and ingestion place (home, work and elsewhere). Dermal contact with water included showering, bathing, swimming, spa use, hand-washing and other water activities. Data were collected through face-to-face interviews at second and third trimesters of pregnancy with a 1-day-recall questionnaire. Intertrimestral differences in water-use habits were assessed. Predictors of water ingestion and duration of dermal contact with water were assessed with multiple linear regressions. At the second trimester of pregnancy, the mean total drinking-water ingestion was 1.8±0.6 l per day (mean and SD), 71% of which was tap water. Total drinking-water ingestion was not different between both trimesters but ingestion place differed. Dermal contact with water estimate was 188±118 and 173±92 min/week at second and third trimesters, respectively. Smoking increased water ingestion 777 ml/day 95% CI (171-1384). Duration of dermal contact in spring was 30 min/week 95% CI (13-48) higher than in winter. Obese women spend 26 min/week 95% CI (2-50) more showering than women with recommended weight. Our estimates of pregnant French women's exposure to water will help researchers to better assess water pollutant risks.

  10. Epidemiological survey of the orthopaedic status of severe haemophilia A and B patients in France. The French Study Group. secretariat.haemophiles@cch.ap-hop-paris.fr.

    PubMed

    Molho, P; Rolland, N; Lebrun, T; Dirat, G; Courpied, J P; Croughs, T; Duprat, I; Sultan, Y

    2000-01-01

    One hundred and 16 patients contributed to an analysis of the impact of the consequences of severe haemophilia A or B (factor levels < 2%) on orthopaedic status, resources consumed in relation to this status and resultant cost, and quality of life as perceived by the patient, using the MOS 36-Item-Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). This French cross-sectional study involved outpatients regularly attending a haemophilia treatment centre. Data were collected retrospectively over a period of 1 year by the physician of the haemophilia treatment centre. Patients had a mean age of 23, and consisted of 50% students, 25% salaried workers, 17.2% with no professional activity and 7.8% physically impaired; 82.8% of them had type A haemophilia. Mean pain score was 2.5 per patient for the six main joints; 7.7 for the clinical score and 18.8 for the radiological score, with a mean number of bleeds of 16.3 per year per patient. During the year prior to inclusion, and because of their orthopaedic status, 22.4% of patients were hospitalized, 76.7% attended for an outpatient visit and 76.7% required at least one special investigation; 97.4% received replacement therapy, 41.4% required treatment for joint pain and 42.2% orthopaedic equipment. The less affected dimensions were the physical function (76.8 +/- 22. 2) and the social relations (76.1 +/- 23.1). Least good quality of life scores concerned the pain (60.2 +/- 25.2), perception of general health (59.3 +/- 23.1) and vitality (57.8 +/- 19.5) dimensions. The age was a discriminant criterion since quality of life was better in patients of the 18-23 age group for five dimensions. Mean annual treatment costs of a patient with severe haemophilia were determined as 425 762 French francs ($73 029). Loss of production was estimated at a mean of 4609 French francs ($791) per active patient over the course of the year. Results showed indirect evidence of the usefulness of early home treatment.

  11. Building a Writing Community through Learning of French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissoonauth-Bedford, Anu.; Stace, Ray

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a pilot study designed to develop writing proficiency in French via collaborative writing activities at intermediate level at the University of Wollongong in Australia. Twenty four students in the final year of French studies program took part in this innovative approach which integrates multimodal functionality of the…

  12. Acoustical Measurements of Selected Intonation Contours of French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howie, John M.

    Recent studies of rising intonation contours in French, in particular the acoustical differences that serve to distinguish Yes/No questions from other rising intonations are reviewed. The preliminary results of a pilot study of rising intonations in French, in which average curves were obtained from spectrographic measurements of fundamental…

  13. Current developments in French ethnopsychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Gesine; Nadig, Maya; Moro, Marie Rose

    2011-07-01

    French ethnopsychoanalytic approaches to therapy with immigrants combine the psychoanalytical interest in subjectivity with a specific concern for cultural factors and with the role migration plays as a crucial life event. Recent approaches consider culture as profoundly hybrid and use the notions of ''métissage'' and ''décentrage'' as central concepts. This article presents extracts from a qualitative study of ethnopsychoanalytic therapies with immigrant families. The authors argue that the ethnopsychoanalytic approach helps to open new ways of considering cultural hybridity and create a third space where experiences ''from the margins'' may be verbalized.

  14. [The French lessons of anatomy].

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Alain

    2003-01-01

    The "Lessons of Anatomy" can be considered as a step of Medicine to Art. For several centuries the exhibition of a corpse's dissection was printed on the title-page of published works. Since the seventeenth century, the "Lessons of Anatomy" became a picture on the title-page in order to highlight the well-known names of the european anatomists. The study is limited to the French Lessons of Anatomy found in books or pictures after the invention of printing. PMID:14626253

  15. Toxoplasma Seroconversion with Negative or Transient Immunoglobulin M in Pregnant Women: Myth or Reality? A French Multicenter Retrospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Cimon, B.; Chemla, C.; Darde, M. L.; Delhaes, L.; L'Ollivier, C.; Godineau, N.; Houze, S.; Paris, L.; Quinio, D.; Robert-Gangneux, F.; Villard, O.; Villena, I.; Candolfi, E.; Pelloux, H.

    2013-01-01

    Classically, Toxoplasma infection is associated with high levels of specific IgM antibody and a rise in specific IgG levels 1 to 3 weeks later. Atypical IgG seroconversion, without IgM detection or with transient IgM levels, has been described during serologic follow-up of seronegative pregnant women and raises difficulties in interpreting the results. To evaluate the frequency and the characteristics of these atypical cases of seroconversion, an investigation was conducted within the French National Reference Center for Toxoplasmosis, from which 26 cases collected from 12 laboratories belonging to the network were identified. The aim of this work was to retrospectively analyze the results of serologic testing, the treatments administered, and the results of prenatal and postnatal follow-up for these women. In each case, IgG antibodies were detected using both screening and confirmatory tests. IgM antibodies were not detected in 15 cases, and the levels were equivocal or low-positive in 11 cases. The IgG avidity results were low in 16 cases and high in one case. Most of the pregnant women (22/26) were treated with spiramycin from the time that IgG antibodies appeared until delivery. Amniotic fluid was analyzed for Toxoplasma gondii DNA by PCR in 11/26 cases, and the results were negative in all cases. Congenital toxoplasmosis was ruled out in 12/26 newborns. There was no abnormality observed at birth for 10 newborns and no information available for 4 newborns. In conclusion, when the interpretation of serological results is so difficult, it seems cautious to initiate treatment by spiramycin and to follow the pregnant women and their newborns. PMID:23616461

  16. Professional and medical outcomes for French train drivers after "person under train" accidents: three year follow up study

    PubMed Central

    Cothereau, C; de Beaurepaire, C; Payan, C; Cambou, J; Rouillon, F; Conso, F

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To investigate psychiatric disorders, somatic health, and professional effects in French train drivers having experienced a "person under train" accident, and somatic health and professional effects. Methods: A total of 202 train drivers were evaluated several times: immediately after the event, three months later, and one, two, and three years later. These drivers were compared with 186 train drivers not exposed to that psychotraumatic shock. The evaluations relied primarily on the GHQ-28 and MINI questionnaires. Results: In the exposed group, at the first evaluation, the prevalence of post-traumatic stress was 4%; scores ⩾5 on the GHQ-28 were significantly higher than in the non-exposed group (32% versus 6%), for both the overall result and three sub-scores (somatic symptoms, anxiety and sleep, and psychosocial functioning). All these differences disappeared within a year. Vulnerability factors concerned prior traumas, acute and lasting life events, and the particular occupational situation where the driver is not accompanied but drives the train away alone in the aftermath of the accident. Over 95% of subjects had no short, medium, or long term impairment of their occupational fitness. Conclusions: Most of the psycho-behavioural disorders were observed in the immediate aftermath of the accident and disappeared within a year. The driver's occupational future does not seem to be affected by the "person under train" accident. Consideration of a traumatic accident as a job related risk and close psychological support of drivers after an accident probably increase the subject's ability to recover from the event. PMID:15150387

  17. Associations of Plasma Concentrations of Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene and Polychlorinated Biphenyls with Prostate Cancer: A Case–Control Study in Guadeloupe (French West Indies)

    PubMed Central

    Emeville, Elise; Giusti, Arnaud; Coumoul, Xavier; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Blanchet, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Background: Long-term exposure to persistent pollutants with hormonal properties (endocrine-disrupting chemicals; EDCs) may contribute to the risk of prostate cancer (PCa). However, epidemiological evidence remains limited. Objectives: We investigated the relationship between PCa and plasma concentrations of universally widespread pollutants, in particular p,p´-dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE) and the non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl congener 153 (PCB-153). Methods: We evaluated 576 men with newly diagnosed PCa (before treatment) and 655 controls in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). Exposure was analyzed according to case–control status. Associations were assessed by unconditional logistic regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors. Missing data were handled by multiple imputation. Results: We estimated a significant positive association between DDE and PCa [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.53; 95% CI: 1.02, 2.30 for the highest vs. lowest quintile of exposure; ptrend = 0.01]. PCB-153 was inversely associated with PCa (OR = 0.30; 95% CI: 0.19, 0.47 for the highest vs. lowest quintile of exposure values; ptrend < 0.001). Also, PCB-153 was more strongly associated with low-grade than with high-grade PCa. Conclusions: Associations of PCa with DDE and PCB-153 were in opposite directions. This may reflect differences in the mechanisms of action of these EDCs; and although our findings need to be replicated in other populations, they are consistent with complex effects of EDCs on human health. Citation: Emeville E, Giusti A, Coumoul X, Thomé JP, Blanchet P, Multigner L. 2015. Associations of plasma concentrations of dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene and polychlorinated biphenyls with prostate cancer: a case–control study in Guadeloupe (French West Indies). Environ Health Perspect 123:317–323; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408407 PMID:25493337

  18. Parameterization of a numerical 2-D debris flow model with entrainment: a case study of the Faucon catchment, Southern French Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussin, H. Y.; Luna, B. Quan; van Westen, C. J.; Christen, M.; Malet, J.-P.; van Asch, Th. W. J.

    2012-10-01

    The occurrence of debris flows has been recorded for more than a century in the European Alps, accounting for the risk to settlements and other human infrastructure that have led to death, building damage and traffic disruptions. One of the difficulties in the quantitative hazard assessment of debris flows is estimating the run-out behavior, which includes the run-out distance and the related hazard intensities like the height and velocity of a debris flow. In addition, as observed in the French Alps, the process of entrainment of material during the run-out can be 10-50 times in volume with respect to the initially mobilized mass triggered at the source area. The entrainment process is evidently an important factor that can further determine the magnitude and intensity of debris flows. Research on numerical modeling of debris flow entrainment is still ongoing and involves some difficulties. This is partly due to our lack of knowledge of the actual process of the uptake and incorporation of material and due the effect of entrainment on the final behavior of a debris flow. Therefore, it is important to model the effects of this key erosional process on the formation of run-outs and related intensities. In this study we analyzed a debris flow with high entrainment rates that occurred in 2003 at the Faucon catchment in the Barcelonnette Basin (Southern French Alps). The historic event was back-analyzed using the Voellmy rheology and an entrainment model imbedded in the RAMMS 2-D numerical modeling software. A sensitivity analysis of the rheological and entrainment parameters was carried out and the effects of modeling with entrainment on the debris flow run-out, height and velocity were assessed.

  19. The making of a French manager.

    PubMed

    Barsoux, J L; Lawrence, P

    1991-01-01

    France's recent successes make it more important than ever to understand what makes its managers tick. This year, France surpassed Japan and the U.K. in acquisitions of U.S. companies. And many French companies are world leaders, including Michelin and L'Oreal. According to the authors, who have studied the French model of management development, the system stands as a coherent whole. Its clear logic and rules provide unambiguous signals that shape managerial action. Thus French industry has a focus and sense of purpose that the rest of the world should not underestimate as a key to strong economic performance. In France, management is a "state of mind" rather than an interpersonally demanding exercise. It is managers' cleverness, not skills, that distinguishes them. And these managers are not simply born. They are molded through an elaborate education and induction into the managerial elite. Alumni of the grandes écoles dominate the upper echelons. These elite colleges have grueling entrance exams resembling Japan's "examination hell." Graduates automatically enter the tight-knit cadre circle--the managerial elite who enjoy the same social prestige as doctors or lawyers. French managers prefer to put things in writing, even informal interactions. They excel in quantitative expression, at ease with putting figures to proposals. Hierarchy in French companies is often literal--the head of L'Air Liquide works on the top floor, while the typing pool is in the basement.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Seismic and mechanical studies of the artificially triggered rockfall at Mount Néron (French Alps, December 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottelin, P.; Jongmans, D.; Daudon, D.; Mathy, A.; Helmstetter, A.; Bonilla-Sierra, V.; Cadet, H.; Amitrano, D.; Richefeu, V.; Lorier, L.; Baillet, L.; Villard, P.; Donzé, F.

    2014-12-01

    The eastern limestone cliff of Mount Néron (French Alps) was the theater for two medium-size rockfalls between summer and winter 2011. On 14 August 2011, a ~2000 m3 rock compartment detached from the cliff, fell 100 m below and propagated down the slope. Although most of the fallen rocks deposited on the upper part of the slope, some blocks of about 15 m in size were stopped by a ditch and an earthen barrier after a run-out of 800 m. An unstable overhanging ~2600 m3 compartment remained attached to the cliff and was blasted on 13 December 2011. During this artificially triggered event, 7 blocks reached the same ditch, with volumes ranging from 0.8 to 12 m3. A semi-permanent seismic array located about 2.5 km from the site recorded the two events, providing a unique opportunity to understand and to compare the seismic phases generated during natural and artificially triggered rockfalls. Both events have signal duration of ~100 s with comparable maximum amplitudes recorded at large distances (computed local magnitude of 1.14 and 1.05, respectively), most of the energy lying below 20 Hz. Remote sensing techniques (photogrammetry and lidar) were employed before and after the provoked rockfall, allowing the volume and fracturing to be characterized. This event was filmed by two video cameras, and the generated ground motions were recorded using two temporary 3C seismic sensors and three seismic arrays deployed at the slope toe. Videos and seismogram processing provided estimates of the propagation velocity during the successive rockfall phases, which ranges from 12 to 30 m s-1. The main seismic phases were obtained from combined video and seismic signal analyses. The two most energetic phases are related to the ground impact of fallen material after free fall, and to individual rock block impacts into the ditch and the earthen barrier. These two phases are characterized by similar low-frequency content but show very different particle motions. The discrete element

  1. Seismic and mechanical studies of the artificially triggered rockfall at the Mount Néron (French Alps, December 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottelin, P.; Jongmans, D.; Daudon, D.; Mathy, A.; Helmstetter, A.; Bonilla-Sierra, V.; Cadet, H.; Amitrano, D.; Richefeu, V.; Lorier, L.; Baillet, L.; Villard, P.; Donzé, F.

    2014-02-01

    The eastern limestone cliff of Mount Néron (French Alps) was the theatre of two medium-size rockfalls between summer and winter 2011. On 14 August 2011, a ~ 2000 m3 rock compartment detached from the cliff, fell 100 m below and propagated down the slope. Although most of the fallen rocks deposited in the upper part of the slope, about 15 meter-size blocks were stopped by a ditch and an earthen barrier after a runout of 800 m. An unstable overhanging ~ 2600 m3 compartment remained attached to the cliff and was blasted on 13 December 2011. During this artificially triggered event, 7 blocks reached the same ditch, with volumes ranging from 0.8 to 12 m3. A semi-permanent seismic array located about 2.5 km from the site recorded the two events, providing a unique opportunity to understand and to compare the seismic phases generated during natural and artificially triggered rockfalls. Both events have signal duration of ~ 100 s with comparable maximum amplitudes recorded at large distances (computed local magnitude of 1.14 and 1.05, respectively), most of the energy lying below 20 Hz. Remote sensing techniques (photogrammetry and LiDAR) were employed before and after the provoked rockfall, allowing the volume and fracturing to be characterized. This event was filmed by two video cameras and the generated ground motions were recorded using two temporary 3C seismic sensors and 3 seismic arrays deployed at the slope toe. Movie and seismogram processing provided estimates of the propagation velocity during the successive rockfall phases, which ranges from 12 m s-1 to 30 m s-1. The main seismic phases were obtained from combined video and seismic signal analyses. The two most energetic phases are related to the ground impact of fallen material after free-fall, and to individual rock block impacts into the ditch and the earthen barrier. These two phases are characterized by similar low-frequency content but show very different particle motions. The discrete element technique

  2. Multilingualism and Web Advertising: Addressing French-Speaking Consumers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Drawing inferences from both quantitative and qualitative data, this study examines the extent to which American companies tailor their Web advertising for global audiences with a particular focus on French-speaking consumers in North America, Europe, Africa, the Caribbean and French Polynesia. Explored from a sociolinguistic and social semiotic…

  3. Structural Influences on Initial Accent Placement in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astesano, Corine; Bard, Ellen Gurman; Turk, Alice

    2007-01-01

    In addition to the phrase-final accent (FA), the French phonological system includes a phonetically distinct Initial Accent (IA). The present study tested two proposals: that IA marks the onset of phonological phrases, and that it has an independent rhythmic function. Eight adult native speakers of French were instructed to read syntactically…

  4. Rocky Mountain House French Immersion Camp: A Process Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klink, Patricia; And Others

    This report examines the implementation of a five-day French immersion program whose goal was to expose rural secondary school students to French in cultural context, in order to develop cultural understanding and effective communication. Findings of the study show: (1) 14 percent of the program time was spent on instructional activity, 20 percent…

  5. Facebook-Induced Motivation Shifts in a French Online Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubry, James

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the effects of instructor's self-disclosure using the Facebook social networking online platform on students' motivation types in an online language course. The participants were 104 beginning French students enrolled in an online French course at a major research university in the southeast U.S. The participants were…

  6. Do 11-Month-Old French Infants Process Articles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halle, Pierre A.; Durand, Catherine; de Boysson-Bardies, Benedicte

    2008-01-01

    The first part of this study examined (Parisian) French-learning 11-month-old infants' recognition of the six definite and indefinite French articles: "le", "la", "les", "un", "une", and "des". The six articles were compared with pseudoarticles in the context of disyllabic or monosyllabic nouns, using the Head-turn Preference Procedure. The pseudo…

  7. The Role of Texture in French Spectral Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besharse, Kari E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the essential role of texture in French spectral music and its contribution to musical evolution and form in specific works by Gerard Grisey, Tristan Murail, Philippe Hurel, and Kaija Saariaho. The use of texture in French spectral music is placed in a historical context by exploring the new ways that texture is employed in…

  8. Using Conventional Sequences in L2 French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsberg, Fanny

    2010-01-01

    By means of a phraseological identification method, this study provides a general description of the use of conventional sequences (CSs) in interviews at four different levels of spoken L2 French as well as in interviews with native speakers. Use of conventional sequences is studied with regard to overall quantity, category distribution and type…

  9. French perspectives on psychiatric classification.

    PubMed

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the role of the French schools in the development of psychiatric nosology. Boissier de Sauvages published the first French treatise on medical nosology in 1763. Until the 1880s, French schools held a pre-eminent position in the development of psychiatric concepts. From the 1880s until World War I, German-speaking schools exerted the most influence, featuring the work of major figures such as Emil Kraepelin and Eugen Bleuler. French schools were probably hampered by excessive administrative and cultural centralization. Between the 1880s and the 1930s, French schools developed diagnostic categories that set them apart from international classifications. The main examples are Bouffée Délirante, and the complex set of chronic delusional psychoses (CDPs), including chronic hallucinatory psychosis. CDPs were distinguished from schizophrenia by the lack of cognitive deterioration during evolution. Modern French psychiatry is now coming into line with international classification, such as DSM-5 and the upcoming ICD-11.

  10. Aerodynamic characteristics of French consonants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demolin, Didier; Hassid, Sergio; Soquet, Alain

    2001-05-01

    This paper reports some aerodynamic measurements made on French consonants with a group of ten speakers. Speakers were recorded while saying nonsense words in phrases such as papa, dis papa encore. The nonsense words in the study combined each of the French consonants with three vowels /i, a, u/ to from two syllables words with the first syllable being the same as the second. In addition to the audio signal, recordings were made of the oral airflow, the pressure of the air in the pharynx above the vocal folds and the pressure of the air in the trachea just below the vocal folds. The pharyngeal pressure was recorded via a catheter (i.d. 5 mm) passed through the nose so that its open end could be seen in the pharynx below the uvula. The subglottal pressure was recorded via a tracheal puncture between the first and the second rings of the trachea or between the cricoid cartilage and the first tracheal ring. Results compare subglottal presssure, pharyngeal pressure, and airflow values. Comparisons are made between values obtained with male and female subjects and various types of consonants (voiced versus voiceless at the same place of articulation, stops, fricatives, and nasals).

  11. French and European American Child-Mother Play: Culture and Gender Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suizzo, Marie-Anne; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2006-01-01

    Research on French and European American mothers' childrearing practices, and potential effects of these differences on children's behavioral development, is scarce. This study compared 33 French and 39 European American 20-month-old children and their mothers on exploratory, symbolic, and social play and interaction. French children engaged in…

  12. Syntax and Discourse in Near-Native French: Clefts and Focus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Bryan

    2012-01-01

    This study examines aspects of the syntax-discourse interface in near-native French. Two cleft structures--"c'est" clefts and "avoir" clefts--are examined in experimental and spontaneous conversational data from 10 adult Anglophone learners of French and ten native speakers of French. "C'est" clefts mark focus, and "avoir" clefts introduce new…

  13. French and Spanish-Speaking Children Use Different Visual and Motor Units during Spelling Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Sonia; Valdois, Sylviane

    2006-01-01

    This study used a copying task to examine spelling acquisition in French and Spanish from a perception and action perspective. Experiment 1 compared French and Spanish-speaking monolingual children's performance. Experiment 2 analysed the behaviour of bilingual children when copying words in French and Spanish. Gaze lift analysis showed that in…

  14. French Bilingual Classes in Vietnam: Issues and Debates about an Innovative Language Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normand-Marconnet, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Despite a long historical French presence in Vietnam, only 0.5% of Vietnamese people speak French today. As in other countries of South East Asia, language instruction in Vietnam has mainly focused on English for several decades. This paper provides an overview of a project called "French bilingual classes". The main aim of the study is…

  15. Acquisition of Complement Clitics and Tense Morphology in Internationally Adopted Children Acquiring French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, K.; Genesee, F.; Kasparian, K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the language development of children adopted from China to examine possible early age effects with respect to their use of complement clitics, lexical diversity and verb morphology. We focused on these aspects of French because they distinguish second language learners of French and native French-speaking children with…

  16. The Effects of Collaborative Models in Second Life on French Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Indy Y. T.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Chia-Jui, Chu

    2015-01-01

    French is the ninth most widely used language globally, but French-learning environments in Taiwan have been insufficient. Language acquisition is easier in a natural setting, and so such a setting should be available to language learners wherever possible. This study aimed to (1) create an authentic environment for learning French in Second Life…

  17. Acquiring Orthographic Processing through Word Reading: Evidence from Children Learning to Read French and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasquarella, Adrian; Deacon, Helene; Chen, Becky X.; Commissaire, Eva; Au-Yeung, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the within-language and cross-language relationships between orthographic processing and word reading in French and English across Grades 1 and 2. Seventy-three children in French Immersion completed measures of orthographic processing and word reading in French and English in Grade 1 and Grade 2, as well as a series of control…

  18. Raising FLAGS: Renewing Core French at the Pre-Service Teacher Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    A new program for core French teacher candidates called FLAGS (French Language and Global Studies) was established at the University of British Columbia (UBC) in 2007. The program is intended for those who are keen to teach core French and possess rudimentary proficiency in the language but may not necessarily have the same proficiency or prior…

  19. Native and Nonnative Interpretation of Pronominal Forms: Evidence from French and Turkish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimke, Sarah; Colonna, Saveria

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of grammatical role and discourse-level cues on the interpretation of different pronominal forms in native speakers of French, native speakers of Turkish, and Turkish learners of French. In written questionnaires, we found that native speakers of French were influenced by discourse-level cues when interpreting…

  20. Changing clinical and biological manifestations of dengue during the dengue-2 epidemic in French Polynesia in 1996/97--description and analysis in a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Deparis, X; Murgue, B; Roche, C; Cassar, O; Chungue, E

    1998-11-01

    In August 1996 dengue-2 virus was detected in French Polynesia for the first time since 1976. A prospective study was conducted from November 1996 to April 1997. Each time one of 7 physicians suspected dengue, the patient was enrolled and epidemiological, clinical and biological data were recorded. Dengue diagnosis was confirmed by virus isolation and IgM detection. The aims of this study were to find clinical and biological predictive factors constituting a specific profile of dengue (DF) and dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF/DSS) and to assess the possibility of diagnosing dengue at primary health care level using clinical criteria and basic laboratory parameters. Of 298 clinically suspect cases, 196 (66%) were confirmed as dengue. The association of macular rash, pruritus, low platelet count and leukopenia was statistically predictive of dengue but not clinically, since these four signs occur in many other viral infections. As the prevalence of clinical and biological manifestations varied over time in our study, a specific profile useful for dengue diagnosis cannot be defined. With six cases of DHF, the morbidity of this dengue-2 outbreak was very low despite the sequential infection scheme DEN-3/DEN-2. The clinical expression of dengue could depend on a specific virus strain circulating in a specific population in a particular place, with varying virulence over time.

  1. [French immigration policy].

    PubMed

    Weil, P

    1994-01-01

    From the late nineteenth century through 1974, France permitted immigration to furnish workers and to compensate for the low level of fertility. Intense immigration from North Africa, the economic crisis of the 1970s, and other factors led to policy changes in 1974. French immigration policy since 1974 has fluctuated between guaranteeing foreigners equal rights regardless of their religion, race, culture, or national origin, and attempting to differentiate among immigrants depending on their degree of assimilability to French culture. From 1974 to 1988, France had five different policies regarding whether to permit new immigration and what to do about illegal immigrants. In July 1984, the four major political parties unanimously supported a measure in Parliament that definitively guaranteed the stay in France of legal immigrants, whose assimilation thus assumed priority. Aid for return to the homeland was no longer to be widely offered, and immigration of unskilled workers was to be terminated except for those originating in European Community countries. Major changes of government in 1988 and 1993 affected only the modalities of applying these principles. The number of immigrants has fluctuated since 1974. Unskilled workers, the only category whose entrance was specifically controlled by the 1984 measures, have declined from 174,000 in 1970 to 25,000 in the early 1990s. The number of requests for political asylum declined from 60,000 in 1989 to 27,000 in 1993, and in 1991, 15,467 persons were granted refugee status. The number of immigrants of all types permitted to remain in France declined from 250,000 or 3000 per year in the early 1970s to around 110,000 at present. Although the decline is significant, it appears insufficient to the government in power since 1993. Although migratory flows are often explained as the product of imbalance in the labor market or in demographic growth, the French experience suggests that government policies, both in the sending and

  2. Vocabulary Breadth in French L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Annabelle

    2008-01-01

    Vocabulary is one of the building blocks of language and is a necessary component of learners' development. This paper aims to describe the development of the L2 lexicon from the first year of learning French as a foreign language at school to the last year of undergraduate studies at university by setting out what learners know and how this…

  3. French as a Second Language Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaruk, Walter A.; And Others

    The handbook is a service publication for teachers of French as a second language. Each of five articles addresses a specific issue. "Teaching and Learning Strategies" (Walter A. Lazaruk) reviews the four skills approach used in second language learning. A communication model of teaching, used alongside study of the language itself, is…

  4. French Women in Physics: Status and Actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, C.; Pépin, A.; Ducloy, M.; Giacobino, E.; Leduc, M.

    2009-04-01

    We present statistics on the underrepresentation of females entering scientific studies and on the persistence of a glass ceiling for women physicists—and female scientists in general—in France. We also examine actions taken by French research institutions, associations, companies, and professional societies since 2005 to improve these situations.

  5. Syntactic Categorization in French-Learning Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Rushen; Melancon, Andreane

    2010-01-01

    Recent work showed that infants recognize and store function words starting from the age of 6-8 months. Using a visual fixation procedure, the present study tested whether French-learning 14-month-olds have the knowledge of syntactic categories of determiners and pronouns, respectively, and whether they can use these function words for…

  6. Upper Stephanian volcanism and sedimentation in the French Massif Central (France): A high resolution ion microprobe U-Th-Pb study of volcanic tuffs and its tectonic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruguier, O.; Becq-Giraudon, J. F.; Champenois, M.; Deloule, E.; Ludden, J.; Mangin, D.

    2003-04-01

    Post-convergence evolution of the Variscan belt is characterized by the development of numerous intramontane coal-bearing basins containing volcano-sedimentary successions. As these basins are widely distributed in the whole Variscan belt, they represent important tectonic markers that can be used to bracket the phases of extensional tectonics affecting basement country rocks. A series of five volcanic ash layers interbedded in stephanian sedimentary basins from the southern part of the French Massif Central (France) have been studied by high resolution ion-microprobe analyses of zircons in order to constrain the age of basin formation and sedimentation. Weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages for the five studied tuffs are indistinguishable at the 95% confidence level and range from 295.5±5.1 Ma (Graissessac) to 297.9±5.1 Ma (Roujan-Neffies). These U-Pb ages support the argument for intense magmatic activity in the southern part of the French Massif Central during the period 295--300 Ma which is contemporaneous with volcanic events identified in other parts of the Variscan Belt. This suggests magma generation by orogenic belt scale phenomenoms. Inherited zircons were identified in two out of the five dated tuff horizons and support a model involving a anatexis of basement source rocks with ages of ca. 2400 Ma (Jaujac basin), 1900 and 340 Ma (Graissessac basin). One possible xenocrystic grain, ca. 600 Ma old was also detected in zircons from the Graissessac bentonite. The Proterozoic components indicate a Gondwanan affinity for the deep seated material. Apatite concentrates and single zircon grains, analysed for their chemical composition, further indicate magma generation from the continental crust and, at least for the Jaujac basin, with participation of a mafic component. Contemporaneous eruption of mafic and silicic magmas is thought to be related to replenishment of magmatic chambers at depth by influx of mafic, mantle-derived, magmas triggering the upper Stephanian

  7. The French Revolution on Film: American and French Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harison, Casey

    2005-01-01

    It is not hard to locate negative or condescending images of the French Revolution in aspects of popular American culture, including film. Despite a handful of instances where nuanced or ambiguous "messages" may be identified, the number of American film interpretations of the French Revolution that might be judged historically "valid" is…

  8. Invitation Refusals in Cameroon French and Hexagonal French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenkia, Bernard Mulo

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of regional pragmatic variation in French are lacking to date the focus has been on a limited range of speech acts, including apologies, requests, compliments and responses to compliments. The present paper, a systematic analysis of invitation refusals across regional varieties of French, is designed to add to the research on…

  9. Spectators' identification with French sports teams: a French adaptation of the sport spectator identification scale.

    PubMed

    Bernache-Assollant, Iouri; Bouchet, Patrick; Lacassagne, Marie-Françoise

    2007-02-01

    Due to the works of Wann and colleagues, spectators' identification with teams has taken on a central role in the study of sports spectators' thought and behavior. However, no research in this area has measured identification with sports teams in the French context. Two studies attempted to develop a valid and reliable French version of the Sport Spectator Identification Scale (SSIS) developed by Wann and Branscombe in 1993 to measure team identification. In Study 1, 200 physical education students completed a French translation of the SSIS and several questions concerning their involvement, investment, and evaluation of the team's future performance. Results showed that the French translation of the SSIS is a reliable and one-dimensional instrument: strong relationships were found between identification with professional French teams and these variables. In Study 2, 143 physical education students completed the SSIS with a National sport team as the target team. Results confirmed the psychometric properties of the scale and indicated that persons who strongly identify with the National soccer team reported more involvement with the team and were more optimistic about future performances than persons low in identification.

  10. [A survey about determinants of 2009 pandemic influenza A(H1N1) vaccination among French general practionners patients. Motivac study].

    PubMed

    Partouche, Henri; Benainous, Olivier; Barthe, Juliette; Pierret, Janine; Rigal, Laurent; Michaloux, Maud; Gilberg, Serge

    2011-12-01

    The influenza A/H1N1 2009 immunization campaign did not have the accession of the French population resulting in a very low rate of immunization coverage. We conducted a cross-sectional study in spring 2010 to identify factors that led general practitionners (GPs) and their adult patients to be vaccinated or not; 43 GPs in France, included 668 patients; 29 GPs (67%) and 108 patients (16.5%) have been vaccinated; among 238 patients under vaccine priority indication 17% were vaccinated; 48% of patients thought they could receive effective treatment for influenza, 36% felt that the vaccine protected against influenza but 27% thought it did not meet usual safety criteria. A higher level of education, the belief of an effective protection with vaccination, the positive GP's opinion and behavior (OR 4,21 IC95% [1.4-14]; p=0.012), the receipt of an invitation to immunization (OR 7, 1 IC95% [1.73-58.4] and the active seek of information (OR 8.05, IC95% [2.8-27]) were significantly associated with vaccination. Regarding this immunization campaign few patients n=87 (13.7%) did trust the state heath agency. Our study confirms the distrust of the vaccine and suggests the decisive role of the GPs to achieve adequate levels of immunization coverage.

  11. Can POCIS be used in Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) monitoring networks? A study focusing on pesticides in a French agricultural watershed.

    PubMed

    Poulier, Gaëlle; Lissalde, Sophie; Charriau, Adeline; Buzier, Rémy; Delmas, François; Gery, Kéwin; Moreira, Aurélie; Guibaud, Gilles; Mazzella, Nicolas

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the main current limitations in the application of the Polar Organic Chemical Integrative Sampler (POCIS) in regulatory monitoring programmes were evaluated. POCIS were exposed from March to December by successive periods of 14 days in the River Trec (Lot et Garonne, France) and analysed for 34 pesticides. The study of the uncertainty related to the POCIS data was performed and we concluded that it might be up to 138%, which is higher than European Union requirements but this issue was adequately counterbalanced by the gain of temporal representativeness. Comparison with data from the official monitoring programme from the French Water Agency showed that the POCIS is already suitable for both operational and investigative monitoring. The sampled fraction issue, and then compliance with Environmental Quality Standards, was also addressed. It was confirmed that POCIS samples only the dissolved fraction of dimethenamid and showed that for compounds like atrazine, desethylatrazine and metolachlor, the POCIS concentration is equivalent to the whole water concentration. For dimethenamid, which exhibited a tendency to adsorb on suspended matter, a method was suggested to assess the raw water concentration from the POCIS measure. Finally, an innovative procedure for using passive sampler data for compliance checks in the framework of surveillance monitoring is proposed.

  12. Long-term association of food and nutrient intakes with cognitive and functional decline: a 13-year follow-up study of elderly French women.

    PubMed

    Vercambre, Marie-Noël; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Ritchie, Karen; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Berr, Claudine

    2009-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the potential long-term impact of dietary habits on age-related decline among 4809 elderly women (born between 1925 and 1930) in the 'Etude Epidémiologique de Femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale' (E3N) study, a French epidemiological cohort. In 1993, an extensive diet history self-administered questionnaire was sent to all participants, and in 2006 another questionnaire on instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and recent cognitive change was sent to a close relative or friend of each woman. Logistic models adjusted for socio-demographic, lifestyle and health factors were performed to evaluate associations between habitual dietary intakes and two outcomes of interest based on the informant response: recent cognitive decline and IADL impairment. Recent cognitive decline was associated with lower intakes of poultry, fish, and animal fats, as well as higher intakes of dairy desserts and ice-cream. IADL impairment was associated with a lower intake of vegetables. The odds of recent cognitive decline increased significantly with decreasing intake of soluble dietary fibre and n-3 fatty acids but with increasing intake of retinol. The odds of IADL impairment increased significantly with decreasing intakes of vitamins B2, B6 and B12. These results are consistent with a possible long-term neuroprotective effect of dietary fibre, n-3 polyunsaturated fats and B-group vitamins, and support dietary intervention to prevent cognitive decline. PMID:19203415

  13. The acquisition of consonants in Québécois French: a cross-sectional study of pre-school aged children.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Andrea A N; Sutton, Ann; Trudeau, Natacha; Thordardottir, Elin

    2011-04-01

    This study provides a systematic description of French consonant acquisition in a large cohort of pre-school aged children: 156 children aged 20-53 months participated in a picture-naming task. Five analyses were conducted to study consonant acquisition: (1) consonant inventory, (2) consonant accuracy, (3) consonant acquisition, (4) a comparison of consonant inventory to consonant acquisition, and (5) a comparison to English cross-sectional data. Results revealed that more consonants emerge at an earlier age in word initial position, followed by medial position, and then word final position. Consonant accuracy underwent the greatest changes before the age of 36 months, and achieved a relative plateau towards 42 months. The acquisition of consonants revealed that four early consonants were acquired before the age of 36 months (i.e., /t, m, n, z/); 12 intermediate consonants were acquired between 36 and 53 months (i.e., /p, b, d, k, g, ν, f, v, [symbol in text], l, w, ч/); and four consonants were acquired after 53 months (/s, з, ∫, j/). In comparison to English data, language specific patterns emerged that influence the order and pace of phonological acquisition. These findings highlight the important role of language specific developmental data in understanding the course of consonant acquisition.

  14. Prospective study of the duration and magnitude of viraemia in children hospitalised during the 1996-1997 dengue-2 outbreak in French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Murgue, B; Roche, C; Chungue, E; Deparis, X

    2000-04-01

    The magnitude and duration of viraemia in children admitted to the hospital with dengue was studied during a dengue 2 outbreak in French Polynesia in 1996-1997. Forty-nine patients from whom at least 3 plasma samples were available were included in the study. Based on analysis of IgG-ELISA and haemagglutination inhibition assay, 21 of these were primary and 28 were secondary infections. According to World Health Organization criteria, 42 were dengue fever and 7 were dengue haemorrhagic fever. Virus was detectable by reverse transcription-PCR in all patients for at least the first 3 days of the onset of fever, but was never detected after the 6th day (mean duration = 4.4 days). Plasma virus titers ranged from 1.7-5.6 Log(10) TCID(50)/ml. A significant difference was not observed in the magnitude and duration of viraemia in patients with primary versus secondary infections. The severity of the illness, however, was correlated with both criteria.

  15. Low dose oestrogen combined oral contraception and risk of pulmonary embolism, stroke, and myocardial infarction in five million French women: cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Dalichampt, Marie; Raguideau, Fanny; Ricordeau, Philippe; Blotière, Pierre-Olivier; Rudant, Jérémie; Alla, François; Zureik, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the risk of pulmonary embolism, ischaemic stroke, and myocardial infarction associated with combined oral contraceptives according to dose of oestrogen (ethinylestradiol) and progestogen. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Data from the French national health insurance database linked with data from the French national hospital discharge database. Participants 4 945 088 women aged 15-49 years, living in France, with at least one reimbursement for oral contraceptives and no previous hospital admission for cancer, pulmonary embolism, ischaemic stroke, or myocardial infarction, between July 2010 and September 2012. Main outcome measures Relative and absolute risks of first pulmonary embolism, ischaemic stroke, and myocardial infarction. Results The cohort generated 5 443 916 women years of oral contraceptive use, and 3253 events were observed: 1800 pulmonary embolisms (33 per 100 000 women years), 1046 ischaemic strokes (19 per 100 000 women years), and 407 myocardial infarctions (7 per 100 000 women years). After adjustment for progestogen and risk factors, the relative risks for women using low dose oestrogen (20 µg v 30-40 µg) were 0.75 (95% confidence interval 0.67 to 0.85) for pulmonary embolism, 0.82 (0.70 to 0.96) for ischaemic stroke, and 0.56 (0.39 to 0.79) for myocardial infarction. After adjustment for oestrogen dose and risk factors, desogestrel and gestodene were associated with statistically significantly higher relative risks for pulmonary embolism (2.16, 1.93 to 2.41 and 1.63, 1.34 to 1.97, respectively) compared with levonorgestrel. Levonorgestrel combined with 20 µg oestrogen was associated with a statistically significantly lower risk than levonorgestrel with 30-40 µg oestrogen for each of the three serious adverse events. Conclusions For the same dose of oestrogen, desogestrel and gestodene were associated with statistically significantly higher risks of pulmonary embolism but not arterial

  16. French intensive truck garden

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T D

    1983-01-01

    The French Intensive approach to truck gardening has the potential to provide substantially higher yields and lower per acre costs than do conventional farming techniques. It was the intent of this grant to show that there is the potential to accomplish the gains that the French Intensive method has to offer. It is obvious that locally grown food can greatly reduce transportation energy costs but when there is the consideration of higher efficiencies there will also be energy cost reductions due to lower fertilizer and pesticide useage. As with any farming technique, there is a substantial time interval for complete soil recovery after there have been made substantial soil modifications. There were major crop improvements even though there was such a short time since the soil had been greatly disturbed. It was also the intent of this grant to accomplish two other major objectives: first, the garden was managed under organic techniques which meant that there were no chemical fertilizers or synthetic pesticides to be used. Second, the garden was constructed so that a handicapped person in a wheelchair could manage and have a higher degree of self sufficiency with the garden. As an overall result, I would say that the garden has taken the first step of success and each year should become better.

  17. Spotlight: French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    May, J F

    1988-01-01

    French Polynesia is a group of 4 archipelagos in the South Pacific with an estimated 1987 population of 176,600. Its people are mainly Tahitians, Polynesians, Chinese, Europeans, and persons of mixed heritage. More than half of the population live in the Society Islands. About half of the population is less than 20 years old and slightly more than 5% is older than 60. Due to a recent decline in fertility, the rate of natural increase is moderate--about 2.5% annually. In the early 1980s, about two thirds of women in Tahiti aged 15-49 used a modern method of contraception. It remains to be seen whether this pattern will spread to the entire area. Projections by the World Bank, assuming little decline in mortality, yield a total population of 400,000 by the year 2030. The major challenge for French Polynesia is to develop the many small islands spread across an ocean territory half the size of the contiguous 48 states of the U.S. Tourist-related activities have replaced traditional income-generating such as production of coconuts, mother-of-pearl, and vanilla. The value of exports from the area make up only 5% of the value of imports. To extract the potentially huge food and mineral resources from the ocean, enormous infusions of capital will be necessary.

  18. Environmental script affects lateral asymmetry of word recognition: A study of French-Hebrew bilinguals tested in Israel and in France.

    PubMed

    Siéroff, Eric; Haehnel-Benoliel, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    A written word is identified more easily when it is presented in the right than in the left visual field. This right visual field superiority (RVFS) may be explained by the left hemisphere's role in reading and by reading direction in left-to-right scripts. However, the comparison of left-to-right and right-to-left scripts had not resulted in systematic differences. It had also been found that the linguistic environment has an effect on visuospatial bias. We hypothesized that the linguistic environment might also affect RVFS. In an identification task, French and Hebrew words were presented in each visual field to four groups of 24 neurologically healthy participants, all of whom read French and Hebrew as a first or second language: native French speakers in France, native French speakers in Israel, native Hebrew speakers in Israel, and native Hebrew speakers in France. Results showed a greater RVFS with French than with Hebrew words in all groups except the native Hebrew speakers in Israel. Thus, at least for native Hebrew speakers, the country where participants lived also had an effect on the differential RVFS between languages, suggesting an effect of environmental script or reading practice. PMID:25496428

  19. French in the Ivory Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djite, Paulin G.

    1989-01-01

    Overviews the Ivory Coast's sociolinguistic situation. Standard French, restricted to the elite, is threatened by the local lingua franca. The spread and functional allocations of Dyula and Popular French support the point that the pervasive use of a language does not always lead to its adoption as a national language. (CB)

  20. French for Journalists: Classroom Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodina, Herta

    The use of authentic materials for an advanced French course for students of journalism and communication has the drawback that authentic French sources assume a regular, informed readership sharing the same culture and history. A solution found at Ohio University is to use a publication that bridges the two cultures, such as the "Journal francais…

  1. Cancer patients' willingness to pay for blood transfusions at home: results from a contingent valuation study in a French cancer network.

    PubMed

    Havet, Nathalie; Morelle, Magali; Remonnay, Raphaël; Carrere, Marie-Odile

    2012-06-01

    Home blood transfusion may be an interesting alternative to hospital transfusion, especially when given with curative or palliative intent or for terminal care in advanced-stage cancer patients. However, there is limited information about patients' attitude toward this type of care. The purpose of this study was to measure French cancer patients' willingness to pay (WTP) for home blood transfusion and to analyze determinants of their choice. A contingent valuation survey was administered to 139 patients receiving transfusions in the framework of a regional home care network or in the hospital outpatient department. Participation was high (90%). Most patients (65%) had received home care, including 43% blood transfusions. Just under half of the patients gave a zero WTP, among which we identified 8 protest bidders. The median WTP for home blood transfusion was 26.5 per patient. In multivariate analysis, long home-hospital distance, poor quality of life, and previous experience of home care were identified as important factors in determining how much more patients would be willing to pay for transfusion at home. These results demonstrate the benefits of developing domiciliary services to improve patient well-being, notably for the weakest among them. The significant impact of previous home care experience on WTP is probably related to the strong involvement of physicians from the blood center and to their active contribution to a high-level homecare network. Some of our findings could be useful for policy decision-making regarding home care. PMID:21660563

  2. Assessing the impact of updating approaches of the performances on a real-time flood forecasting model: a study on 178 French catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthet, L.; Andréassian, V.; Perrin, C.

    2009-04-01

    We present the comparison of performances obtained by a real-time operational rainfall-runoff model running with different updating methods based on the assimilation of past observed streamflow data. The tested updating techniques are: (i) direct state updating, (ii) parameter updating and (iii) output updating (various methods ranging from simple regressions to ARIMA models and artificial neural network (ANN) approach). The comparison is drawn over a large sample of 178 French catchments encompassing the hydroclimatic variability of the country. The model is a continuous one, specifically designed to be run in 'forecasting' mode. We study specifically the impact of the updating method on model performance. Characteristic times of the updating techniques are defined and then compared to characteristic times of the model, the catchment and to the desired lead times. This approach helps to understand when and where a given updating technique is appropriate. The comparison gives results we believe useful for operational forecaster to choose their real-time flood forecasting system.

  3. Acquisition of Requests and Apologies in Spanish and French: Impact of Study Abroad and Strategy-Building Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Andrew D.; Shively, Rachel L.

    2007-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess the impact of a curricular intervention on study-abroad students' use of language- and culture-learning strategies and on their acquisition of requests and apologies. The intervention consisted of a brief face-to-face orientation to learning speech acts, a self-study guidebook on language and culture…

  4. French validation of the critical care family needs inventory.

    PubMed

    Coutu-Wakulczyk, G; Chartier, L

    1990-03-01

    This study is a contribution to the French validation of Molter and Leske Critical Care Family Needs Inventory (CCFNI). The importance of this validation study is based on the presumption that evaluation of family needs relies on the use of measures that are reliable and valid for a specific population. The preliminary validation of the French text of the CCFNI was carried out by back translation method of the French form into English by three translators. Then the final French version was selected. The study was conducted in the surgical intensive care unit of the University Hospital in Sherbrooke, Canada. The sample consisted of 207 voluntary subjects selected from adult members of the immediate family visiting a patient in the intensive care unit. The data collection was spread over a 10-week period. The French version of the CCFNI was given to subjects for self-reporting at the end of a 15-minute face-to-face interview. The reliability of the French version yielded 0.91 as Cronbach alpha coefficient. The Spearman-Brown split-half coefficient was 0.89, and the Guttman split-half coefficient was 0.88. Principal-component analysis and factorial matrices were used to examine the clustering structure of the French version of this instrument.

  5. The Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale: Factor Validity and Reliability in a French Sample of Adolescents with Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J. S.; Begarie, Jerome

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the factor validity and reliability of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) within a sample of adolescents with mild to moderate Intellectual Disability (ID). A total sample of 189 adolescents (121 boys and 68 girls), aged between 12 and 18 years old, with mild to moderate ID were…

  6. A Cross-Cultural Study on Meaning and the Nature of Children's Experiences in Australian and French Swimming Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Richard

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a study conducted in Australia and France that inquired into the meaning and the nature of children's experiences of being in swimming clubs with a focus on the positive aspects of membership that keep them in their clubs. Three-month long case studies were conducted in a club in Australia and in a club in France, employing…

  7. Is What's Good for the Goose Good for the Gander? The Case of Male and Female Encouragement to Study French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissau, Scott

    2007-01-01

    Male disinterest in second and foreign language programs has been well documented in recent years. The influence of encouragement to study languages also has been thoroughly investigated. There is, however, little research that connects these two phenomena. This study investigated if gender differences exist in the amount of encouragement students…

  8. The Effectiveness of Written Recasts in the Second Language Acquisition of Aspectual Distinctions in French: A Follow-Up Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayoun, Dalila

    2004-01-01

    This follow-up study on the acquisition of the aspectual distinction between the pass compos (PC) and the imparfait (IMP) investigates the differential outcomes of the results presented in an earlier study, Ayoun (2001), by pursuing two lines of research: the effectiveness of written recasts versus models and traditional grammar instruction, and…

  9. Why Children Join and Stay in Sports Clubs: Case Studies in Australian, French and German Swimming Clubs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Richard L.; Harvey, Stephen; Memmert, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This article builds upon research on youth sport clubs conducted from a socio-cultural perspective by reporting on a study that inquired into the reasons why children aged 9-12 joined swimming clubs in France, Germany and Australia. Comprising three case studies it employed a mixed method approach with results considered within the framework of…

  10. Status of French reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ballagny, A.

    1997-08-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm{sup 3}. The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} as soon as its present stock of UO{sub 2} fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU.

  11. Comparative in vitro activity of Meropenem, Imipenem and Piperacillin/tazobactam against 1071 clinical isolates using 2 different methods: a French multicentre study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Meropenem is a carbapenem that has an excellent activity against many gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic, facultative, and anaerobic bacteria. The major objective of the present study was to assess the in vitro activity of meropenem compared to imipenem and piperacillin/tazobactam, against 1071 non-repetitive isolates collected from patients with bacteremia (55%), pneumonia (29%), peritonitis (12%) and wound infections (3%), in 15 French hospitals in 2006. The secondary aim of the study was to compare the results of routinely testings and those obtained by a referent laboratory. Method Susceptibility testing and Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs) of meropenem, imipenem and piperacillin/tazobactam were determined locally by Etest method. Susceptibility to meropenem was confirmed at a central laboratory by disc diffusion method and MICs determined by agar dilution method for meropenem, imipenem and piperacillin/tazobactam. Results Cumulative susceptibility rates against Escherichia coli were, meropenem and imipenem: 100% and piperacillin/tazobactam: 90%. Against other Enterobacteriaceae, the rates were meropenem: 99%, imipenem: 98% and piperacillin/tazobactam: 90%. All Staphylococci, Streptococci and anaerobes were susceptible to the three antibiotics. Against non fermeters, meropenem was active on 84-94% of the strains, imipenem on 84-98% of the strains and piperacillin/tazobactam on 90-100% of the strains. Conclusions Compared to imipenem, meropenem displays lower MICs against Enterobacteriaceae, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Except for non fermenters, MICs90 of carbapenems were <4 mg/L. Piperacillin/tazobactam was less active against Enterobacteriaceae and Acinetobacter but not P. aeruginosa. Some discrepancies were noted between MICs determined by Etest accross centres and MICs determined by agar dilution method at the central laboratory. Discrepancies were more common for imipenem testing and more frequently related to a few

  12. A preliminary investigation of farm-level risk factors for cattle condemnation at the slaughterhouse: a case-control study on French farms.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, Jean-Baptiste; Calavas, Didier; Mialet, Sylvie; Gay, Emilie; Dupuy, Céline

    2013-11-01

    The financial impact of condemnation for farmers and the importance of efficiency in the meat inspection process to guarantee food safety are well known. Identifying farm-level risk factors for condemnation are useful in order to find a way for farmers to potentially reduce their condemnation rates and to build a risk-based farm classification for veterinary services to target both meat inspection and farms inspections. To our knowledge, this has not yet been done, probably due to a lack of available meat inspection data. A preliminary investigation was performed through a case-control study on 36 French farms, from a dairy production region to identify farm-level risk factors for high condemnation rates (i.e. more than 45% of cattle with at least one portion of the carcass condemned). Multivariable exact logistic regression was performed to take into account the small sample size. The final model identified two significant risk factors. The odds of having a high condemnation rate was at least twice as greater for farmers who did not adhere to the quality charter of an international retailer and was significantly higher when the most qualified worker on the farm had a degree in agriculture. This latter effect was unexpected and is reviewed in the discussion section. The protective effect of the quality charter could be explained by the annual control of farms performed to guarantee compliance with good farming practices in the adhering farms. It led us to believe that compliance with well known good farming practices could be a way for farmers to reduce their condemnation rates. This study is a preliminary investigation performed on a small sample size of farms that were mainly dairy farms. It is a first step for further investigations that need to be done on this topic at a larger scale to fill the current lack of knowledge.

  13. Risk of neuroblastoma, birth-related characteristics, congenital malformations and perinatal exposures: A pooled analysis of the ESCALE and ESTELLE French studies (SFCE).

    PubMed

    Rios, Paula; Bailey, Helen D; Orsi, Laurent; Lacour, Brigitte; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique; Levy, Dominique; Corradini, Nadège; Leverger, Guy; Defachelles, Anne-Sophie; Gambart, Marion; Sirvent, Nicolas; Thebaud, Estelle; Ducassou, Stéphane; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2016-11-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB), an embryonic tumour arising from neural crest cells, is the most common malignancy among infants. The aetiology of NB is largely unknown. We conducted a pooled analysis to explore whether there is an association between NB and preconception and perinatal factors using data from two French national population-based case-control studies. The mothers of 357 NB cases and 1783 controls younger than 6 years, frequency-matched by age and gender, responded to a telephone interview that focused on demographic, socioeconomic and perinatal characteristics, childhood environment, life-style and maternal reproductive history. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. After controlling for matching variables, study of origin and potential confounders, being born either small (OR 1.4 95% CI 1.0-2.0) or large (OR 1.5 95% CI 1.1-2.2) for gestational age and, among children younger than 18 months, having congenital malformations (OR 3.6 95% CI 1.3-8.9), were significantly associated with NB. Inverse associations were observed with breastfeeding (OR 0.7 95% CI 0.5-1.0) and maternal use of any supplements containing folic acid, vitamins or minerals (OR 0.5 95% CI 0.3-0.9) during the preconception period. Our findings reinforce the hypothesis that fetal growth anomalies and congenital malformations may be associated with an increased risk of NB. Further investigations are needed in order to clarify the role of folic acid supplementation and breastfeeding, given their potential importance in NB prevention. PMID:27342419

  14. Integration of production and financial models to analyse the financial impact of livestock diseases: a case study of Schmallenberg virus disease on British and French dairy farms

    PubMed Central

    Häsler, Barbara; Alarcon, Pablo; Raboisson, Didier; Waret-Szkuta, Agnes; Rushton, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Aims and objectives The aim of the study was to investigate and compare the financial impact of Schmallenberg disease for different dairy production types in the United Kingdom and France. Materials and methods Integrated production and financial models for dairy cattle were developed and applied to Schmallenberg virus (SBV) disease in a British and French context. The five main production systems that prevail in these two countries were considered. Their respective gross margins measuring the holding's profitability were calculated based on public benchmarking, literature and expert opinion data. A partial budget analysis was performed within each production model to estimate the impact of SBV in the systems modelled. Two disease scenarios were simulated: low impact and high impact. Results The model gross margin obtained per cow space and year ranged from £1014 to £1484 for the UK and from £1037 to £1890 for France depending on the production system considered. In the UK, the net SBV disease costs in £/cow space/year for an average dairy farm with 100 milking spaces were estimated between £16.3 and £51.4 in the high-impact scenario and between £8.2 and £25.9 in the low-impact scenario. For France, the net SBV disease costs in £/cow space/year ranged from £19.6 to £48.6 in the high-impact scenario and £9.7 to £22.8 in the low-impact scenario, respectively. Conclusion The study illustrates how the combination of production and financial models allows assessing disease impact taking into account differing management and husbandry practices and associated price structures in the dairy sector. It supports decision-making of farmers and veterinarians who are considering disease control measures as it provides an approach to estimate baseline disease impact in common dairy production systems in the UK and France. PMID:26392883

  15. The Intensity of Primary Care for Heart Failure Patients: A Determinant of Readmissions? The CarPaths Study: A French Region-Wide Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Solecki, Kamila; Papinaud, Laurence; Georgescu, Vera; Roubille, François; Mercier, Gregoire

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to classify patients with heart failure (HF) by the style of primary care they receive. Methods and Results We used the claim data (SNIIRAM: Système National d’Information Inter-Régime de l’Assurance Maladie) of patients living in a French region. We evaluated three concepts. First, baseline clinical status with age and Charlson index. Second, primary care practice style with mean delay between consultations, quantity of nursing care, and variability of diuretic dose. Third, clinical outcomes with death during follow-up, readmission for HF, and rate of unforeseen consultations. The baseline clinical status and the clinical outcomes were included to give an insight in the reasons for, and performance of, primary care practice style. Patients were classified using a hierarchical ascending classification based on principal components. A total of 2,751 patients were included in this study and were followed for a median of 22 months. The mean age was 78 y (SD: 12); 484 (18%) died, and 818 (30%) were readmitted for HF. We found three different significant groups characterized by their need for care and the intensity of practice style: group 1 (N = 734) was “low need-low intensity”; group 2 (N = 1,060) was “high need-low intensity”; and group 3 (N = 957) was “high need-high intensity”. Their readmission rates were 17%, 41% and 28%, respectively. Conclusions This study evaluated the link between primary care, clinical status and main clinical outcomes in HF patients. In higher need patients, a low-intensity practice style was associated with poorer clinical outcomes. PMID:27727296

  16. Measuring U-series Disequilibrium in Weathering Rinds to Study the Influence of Environmental Factors to Weathering Rates in Tropical Basse-Terre Island (French Guadeloupe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, J.; Ma, L.; Sak, P. B.; Gaillardet, J.; Chabaux, F. J.; Brantley, S. L.

    2015-12-01

    Chemical weathering is a critical process to global CO2 consumption, river/ocean chemistry, and nutrient import to biosphere. Weathering rinds experience minimal physical erosion and provide a well-constrained system to study the chemical weathering process. Here, we applied U-series disequilibrium dating method to study weathering advance rates on the wet side of Basse-Terre Island, French Guadeloupe, aiming to understand the role of the precipitation in controlling weathering rates and elucidate the behavior and immobilization mechanisms of U-series isotopes during rind formation. Six weathering clasts from 5 watersheds with mean annual precipitation varying from 2000 to 3000 mm/yr were measured for U-series isotope ratios and major element compositions on linear core-to-rind transects. One sample experienced complete core-to-rind transformation, while the rest clasts contain both rinds and unweathered cores. Our results show that the unweathered cores are under U-series secular equilibrium, while all the rind materials show significant U-series disequilibrium. For most rinds, linear core-to-rind increases of (230Th/232Th) activity ratios suggest a simple continuous U addition history. However, (234U/238U) and (238U/232Th) trends in several clasts show evidences of remobilization of Uranium besides the U addition, complicating the use of U-series dating method. The similarity between U/Th ratios and major elements trends like Fe, Al, P in some transects and the ongoing leaching experiments suggest that redox and organic colloids could control the mobilization of U-series isotopes in the rinds. Rind formation ages and weathering advance rate (0.07-0.29mm/kyr) were calculated for those rinds with a simple U-addition history. Our preliminary results show that local precipitation gradient significantly influenced the weathering advance rate, revealing the potential of estimating weathering advance rates at a large spatial scale using the U-series dating method.

  17. Occurrence of perfluorinated alkylated substances in breast milk of French women and relation with socio-demographical and clinical parameters: results of the ELFE pilot study.

    PubMed

    Antignac, Jean-Philippe; Veyrand, Bruno; Kadar, Hanane; Marchand, Philippe; Oleko, Amivi; Le Bizec, Bruno; Vandentorren, Stéphanie

    2013-05-01

    A previously developed and validated methodology based on liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry was used for determine the concentration levels of 14 perfluoroalkylated substances (PFASs) in a set of 48 breast milk samples collected from French women in the frame of the ELFE pilot study. In accordance with other similar studies conducted at european and international levels, PFOS, PFOA, and PFHxS were detected and quantified in most of the analyzed samples (90%, 98% and 100%, respectively), and appeared as major contributors to the total PFAS exposure (38%, 37%, 25%, respectively), whereas the other targeted PFAS were very rarely, if not, found at the limits of detection of the method. Also in agreement with other published data, the concentration levels measured for the detected substances varied from <0.05 to 0.33μg/L for PFOS (median=0.079), from <0.05 to 0.22μg/L for PFOA (median=0.075), and from 0.04 to 0.07μg/L for PFHxS (median=0.050). On the basis of this relatively limited data set, no statistically significant relation was observed between these exposure levels and developmental outcomes, in particular the weight at birth. Similarly, no relation was observed between the measured PFAS levels and various socio-demographical parameters including the consumption of seafood, alcohol, smoking, or socio-economical level. These results suggest a need for further research and better knowledge regarding the sources, pharmacokinetics, and factors of exposure for other substances belonging to this class of emerging contaminants. PMID:23473698

  18. Risk of neuroblastoma, birth-related characteristics, congenital malformations and perinatal exposures: A pooled analysis of the ESCALE and ESTELLE French studies (SFCE).

    PubMed

    Rios, Paula; Bailey, Helen D; Orsi, Laurent; Lacour, Brigitte; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique; Levy, Dominique; Corradini, Nadège; Leverger, Guy; Defachelles, Anne-Sophie; Gambart, Marion; Sirvent, Nicolas; Thebaud, Estelle; Ducassou, Stéphane; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2016-11-01

    Neuroblastoma (NB), an embryonic tumour arising from neural crest cells, is the most common malignancy among infants. The aetiology of NB is largely unknown. We conducted a pooled analysis to explore whether there is an association between NB and preconception and perinatal factors using data from two French national population-based case-control studies. The mothers of 357 NB cases and 1783 controls younger than 6 years, frequency-matched by age and gender, responded to a telephone interview that focused on demographic, socioeconomic and perinatal characteristics, childhood environment, life-style and maternal reproductive history. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. After controlling for matching variables, study of origin and potential confounders, being born either small (OR 1.4 95% CI 1.0-2.0) or large (OR 1.5 95% CI 1.1-2.2) for gestational age and, among children younger than 18 months, having congenital malformations (OR 3.6 95% CI 1.3-8.9), were significantly associated with NB. Inverse associations were observed with breastfeeding (OR 0.7 95% CI 0.5-1.0) and maternal use of any supplements containing folic acid, vitamins or minerals (OR 0.5 95% CI 0.3-0.9) during the preconception period. Our findings reinforce the hypothesis that fetal growth anomalies and congenital malformations may be associated with an increased risk of NB. Further investigations are needed in order to clarify the role of folic acid supplementation and breastfeeding, given their potential importance in NB prevention.

  19. Comparison of Coaches' Perceptions and Officials Guidance towards Health Promotion in French Sport Clubs: A Mixed Method Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Hoye, A.; Heuzé, J.-P.; Larsen, T.; Sarrazin, P.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the call to improve health promotion (HP) in sport clubs in the existing literature, little is known about sport clubs' organizational capacity. Grounded within the setting-based framework, this study compares HP activities and guidance among 10 football clubs. At least three grassroots coaches from each club (n = 68) completed the Health…

  20. Effects of Collaborative Mentoring on the Articulation of Training and Classroom Situations: A Case Study in the French School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalies, Sebastien; Bertone, Stefano; Flavier, Eric; Durand, Marc

    2008-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of a collaborative mentoring sequence on the professional development of a preservice teacher (PT). The analysis of data from observation and self-confrontation interviews identified work rules [Wittgenstein, L. (1996). In G. E. M. Anscomb & G. H. Von Wright (Eds.), "Remarques philosophiques" ["Philosophical…

  1. Computer-Mediated Synchronous and Asynchronous Corrective Feedback Provided by Trainee Teachers to Learners of French: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidal, Julie; Thouësny, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate whether trainee teachers' practices, with respect to multimodal feedback, differ from current research, and to what extent it may affect students' language development. More specifically, the goal of the present study is threefold: (1) it observes how trainee teachers responded, whether synchronously, asynchronously,…

  2. Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation, Orientation and Achievements in L2 of Arab Learners of English, French and German: A Study from Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreishan, Lana J.; Al-Dhaimat, Yahya

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research is to explore Jordanian undergraduate students' intrinsic and extrinsic motivations and instrumental and integrative orientations toward learning English, French, and German as foreign languages. The paper also reflects on how subtypes of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations relate to orientations and examines possible…

  3. Processing Tense/Aspect-Agreement Violations On-Line in the Second Language: A Self-Paced Reading Study with French and German L2 Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Leah; Liszka, Sarah Ann

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report the results of a self-paced reading experiment designed to investigate the question of whether or not advanced French and German learners of English as a second language (L2) are sensitive to tense/aspect mismatches between a fronted temporal adverbial and the inflected verb that follows (e.g. *"Last week, James has…

  4. From eradication to containment: invasion of French Polynesia by Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) and releases of two natural enemies: a 17-year case study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel), was discovered on Tahiti Island, French Polynesia, in 1996. Two other economically important Bactrocera species were previously established: B. kirki (Froggatt) in 1928, and B. tryoni (Froggatt), Queensland fruit fly, in 1970. This situation provi...

  5. The french educational satellite arsene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danvel, M.; Escudier, B.

    ARSENE (Ariane, Radio-amateur, Satellite pour l'ENseignement de l'Espace) is a telecommunications satellite for Amateur Space Service. Its main feature is that more than 100 students from French engineering schools and universities have been working since 1979 for definition phase and satellite development. The highest IAF awards has been obtained by "ARSENE students" in Tokyo (1980) and Rome (1981). The French space agency, CNES and French aerospace industries are supporting the program. The European Space Agency offered to place ARSENE in orbit on the first Ariane mark IV launch late 1985.

  6. The genetic diversity of three peculiar populations descending from the slave trade: Gm study of Noir Marron from French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Brucato, Nicolas; Tortevoye, Patricia; Plancoulaine, Sabine; Guitard, Evelyne; Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia; Larrouy, Georges; Gessain, Antoine; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel

    2009-10-01

    The Noir Marron communities are the direct descendants of African slaves brought to the Guianas during the four centuries (16th to 19th) of the Atlantic slave trade. Among them, three major ethnic groups have been studied: the Aluku, the Ndjuka and the Saramaka. Their history led them to share close relationships with Europeans and Amerindians, as largely documented in their cultural records. The study of Gm polymorphisms of immunoglobulins may help to estimate the amount of gene flow linked to these cultural exchanges. Surprisingly, very low levels of European contribution (2.6%) and Amerindian contribution (1.7%) are detected in the Noir Marron gene pool. On the other hand, an African contribution of 95.7% redraws their origin to West Africa (F(ST) < or = 0.15). This highly preserved African gene pool of the Noir Marron is unique in comparison to other African American populations of Latin America, who are notably more admixed.

  7. Polyphasic study of Zymomonas mobilis strains revealing the existence of a novel subspecies Z. mobilis subsp. francensis subsp. nov., isolated from French cider.

    PubMed

    Coton, Monika; Laplace, Jean-Marie; Auffray, Yanick; Coton, Emmanuel

    2006-01-01

    Zymomonas mobilis strains recently isolated from French 'framboisé' ciders were compared with collection strains of the two defined subspecies, Z. mobilis subsp. mobilis and Z. mobilis subsp. pomaceae, using a polyphasic approach. Six strains isolated from six different regions of France were compared with three strains of Z. mobilis subsp. mobilis, including the type strain LMG 404T, and four strains of Z. mobilis subsp. pomaceae, including the type strain LMG 448T, using phenotypic and genotypic methods. For phenotypic characterization, both physiological tests and SDS-PAGE protein profiles revealed significant differences between the two known subspecies and the French isolates; three distinct groups were observed. These findings were further confirmed by random amplified polymorphic DNA and repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR genotyping methods in which the French isolates were clearly distinguished from the other two subspecies. Sequence analysis of a fragment ranging from 604 to 617 nucleotides corresponding to the 16S-23S rRNA gene intergenic spacer region (ISR), a 592 nucleotide HSP60 gene fragment and a 1044 nucleotide gyrB gene fragment confirmed the presence of three distinct groups. The French strains exhibited almost 94 % similarity to the ISR, 90 % to HSP60 and 86 % to gyrB sequences of the three collection strains of Z. mobilis subsp. mobilis and 87, 84 and 80 % sequence similarity, respectively, was observed with the four Z. mobilis subsp. pomaceae strains. Based on both the phenotypic and genotypic results, the French strains are proposed to represent a novel subspecies, Zymomonas mobilis subsp. francensis subsp. nov. Strain AN0101T (= LMG 22974T = CIP 108684T) was designated as the type strain. PMID:16403876

  8. Walk Score, Transportation Mode Choice, and Walking Among French Adults: A GPS, Accelerometer, and Mobility Survey Study

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Dustin T.; Méline, Julie; Kestens, Yan; Day, Kristen; Elbel, Brian; Trasande, Leonardo; Chaix, Basile

    2016-01-01

    Background: Few studies have used GPS data to analyze the relationship between Walk Score, transportation choice and walking. Additionally, the influence of Walk Score is understudied using trips rather than individuals as statistical units. The purpose of this study is to examine associations at the trip level between Walk Score, transportation mode choice, and walking among Paris adults who were tracked with GPS receivers and accelerometers in the RECORD GPS Study. Methods: In the RECORD GPS Study, 227 participants were tracked during seven days with GPS receivers and accelerometers. Participants were also surveyed with a GPS-based web mapping application on their activities and transportation modes for all trips (6969 trips). Walk Score, which calculates neighborhood walkability, was assessed for each origin and destination of every trip. Multilevel logistic and linear regression analyses were conducted to estimate associations between Walk Score and walking in the trip or accelerometry-assessed number of steps for each trip, after adjustment for individual/neighborhood characteristics. Results: The mean overall Walk Scores for trip origins were 87.1 (SD = 14.4) and for trip destinations 87.1 (SD = 14.5). In adjusted trip-level associations between Walk Score and walking only in the trip, we found that a walkable neighborhood in the trip origin and trip destination was associated with increased odds of walking in the trip assessed in the survey. The odds of only walking in the trip were 3.48 (95% CI: 2.73 to 4.44) times higher when the Walk Score for the trip origin was “Walker’s Paradise” compared to less walkable neighborhoods (Very/Car-Dependent or Somewhat Walkable), with an identical independent effect of trip destination Walk Score on walking. The number of steps per 10 min (as assessed with accelerometry) was cumulatively higher for trips both originating and ending in walkable neighborhoods (i.e., “Very Walkable”). Conclusions: Walkable

  9. Between psychology and pedagogy: "moral orthopedics" and case studies of children in fin-de-siècle French medicine.

    PubMed

    Rose, Anna Christina

    2011-02-01

    In the latter decades of the 19th century, European physicians debated a controversial practice that mixed placebos with suggestion therapy to treat children diagnosed with neurotic disorders and behavioral problems. Designed to optimize suggestibility in juvenile patients, this "moral orthopedics" offered parents and therapists the message that children could be saved from becoming victims of their own personalities, of familial neuroses, or even of public health problems. Case studies, published in medical journals and books, circulated accounts of innovative strategies to treat childhood hysteria and to change habits that were considered destructive. Moral orthopedics actualized the insight that suggestibility could be therapeutically productive for juvenile subjects. However, because its adherents sought to manipulate patients' behavior and health by influencing unconscious thought, moral orthopedics provoked questions of expertise and disciplinary propriety among domains of medicine, law, and philosophy. This article reconstructs the controversy surrounding moral orthopedics by examining case studies. I argue that adherents of moral orthopedics did overcome philosophical objections raised against the method, and that they did so through what physician Edgar B6rillon referred to as "education of the will."

  10. Risk factors of acute diarrhoea in summer--a nation-wide French case-control study.

    PubMed Central

    Yazdanpanah, Y.; Beaugerie, L.; Boëlle, P. Y.; Letrilliart, L.; Desenclos, J. C.; Flahault, A.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for acute diarrhoea (AD) during the summer in France. A matched case-control study was conducted at a national level among patients of 500 general practitioners (GPs). From July to September 1996, 468 case-control pairs were included. Cases were more likely than controls (i) to live away from their main residence (OR 3.0; 95% CI 1.6-5.7), (ii) to have returned from a country at high risk of AD (OR 4.6; CI 0.9-23.1), and (iii) to have been in contact with a case of AD (OR 2.0; CI 1.3-3.1). A significantly decreased risk of AD was found for consumption of well-cooked chicken (OR 0.5; CI 0.3-0.8) and raw or undercooked home-made egg-containing products (OR 0.6; CI 0.4-0.8). These findings suggest that travel to high-risk areas, or travel within France, and being in contact with a case of AD, are risk factors for the occurrence of AD in summer in France. PMID:10982064

  11. Is Navoban (tropisetron) as effective as Zofran (ondansetron) in cisplatin-induced emesis? The French Navoban Study Group.

    PubMed

    Marty, M; Kleisbauer, J P; Fournel, P; Vergnenegre, A; Carles, P; Loria-Kanza, Y; Simonetta, C; de Bruijn, K M

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the antiemetic effectiveness and tolerability of Navoban (tropisetron) and Zofran (ondansetron) following high-dose (> or = 50 mg/m2) cisplatin chemotherapy. In a randomised, multi-centre, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel group study, 117 evaluable chemotherapy-naive patients who received Navoban were compared with 114 who received Zofran. Patient diary cards were used to assess both acute (Day 1) and delayed (Days 2-6) nausea and vomiting. Total control of acute vomiting was achieved in 54% of Navoban and 65% of Zofran patients (p = 0.052), and total control of acute nausea in 66% and 62% respectively (p = 0.655). Total control of delayed vomiting was achieved in 44% of Navoban patients and 46% of Zofran patients (p = 0.765), and of delayed nausea in 56% and 47% respectively (p = 0.207). Both reactions combined were totally prevented during the entire 6-day trial period in 22% of Navoban and 24% of Zofran patients (NS), while a further 42% of patients in both groups remained largely free from both nausea and emesis. The few adverse reactions (e.g. headache, constipation, diarrhoea) were mainly mild and typical of the 5-HT3-receptor antagonists. In conclusion, there were no significant differences in efficacy and tolerability between Navoban 5 mg once daily and the highest recommended dose of Zofran (32 mg on Day 1, followed by 8 mg three times a day). PMID:7749165

  12. Teaching for Content: Greek Mythology in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giauque, Gerald S.

    An intermediate-level university French course in Greek mythology was developed to (1) improve student skills in reading, writing, speaking, and comprehending French, (2) familiarize students with Greek mythology, and (3) prepare students to deal better with allusions to Greek mythology in French literature. The texts used are a French translation…

  13. 7 CFR 993.7 - French prunes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false French prunes. 993.7 Section 993.7 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.7 French prunes. French prunes means: (a) Prunes produced from plums of the following varieties of plums: French (Prune d'Agen, Petite Prune d'Agen), Coates...

  14. 7 CFR 993.7 - French prunes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.7 French prunes. French prunes means: (a) Prunes produced from plums of the following varieties of plums: French (Prune d'Agen, Petite Prune d'Agen), Coates (Cox... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false French prunes. 993.7 Section 993.7...

  15. Do socioeconomic factors shape weight and obesity trajectories over the transition from midlife to old age? Results from the French GAZEL cohort study123

    PubMed Central

    Sabia, Séverine; Stringhini, Silvia; Kivimaki, Mika; Westerlund, Hugo; Vahtera, Jussi; Guéguen, Alice; Zins, Marie; Goldberg, Marcel; Nabi, Hermann; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2010-01-01

    Background: Obesity is a contemporary epidemic that does not affect all age groups and sections of society equally. Objective: The objective was to examine socioeconomic differences in trajectories of body mass index (BMI; in kg/m2) and obesity between the ages of 45 and 65 y. Design: A total of 13,297 men and 4532 women from the French GAZEL (Gaz de France Electricité de France) cohort study reported their height in 1990 and their weight annually over the subsequent 18 y. Changes in BMI and obesity between ages 45 and 49 y, 50 and 54 y, 55 and 59 y, and 60 and 65 y as a function of education and occupational position (at age 35 y) were modeled by using linear mixed models and generalized estimating equations. Results: BMI and obesity rates increased between the ages of 45 and 65 y. In men, BMI was higher in unskilled workers than in managers at age 45 y; this difference in BMI increased from 0.82 (95% CI: 0.66, 0.99) at 45 y to 1.06 (95% CI: 0.85, 1.27) at 65 y. Men with a primary school education compared with those with a high school degree at age 45 y had a 0.75 (95% CI: 0.51, 1.00) higher BMI, and this difference increased to 1.32 (95% CI: 1.03,1.62) at age 65 y. Obesity rates were 3.35% and 7.68% at age 45 y and 9.52% and 18.10% at age 65 y in managers and unskilled workers, respectively; the difference in obesity increased by 4.25% (95% CI: 1.87, 6.52). A similar trend was observed in women. Conclusions: Weight continues to increase in the transition between midlife and old age; this increase is greater in lower socioeconomic groups. PMID:20484455

  16. Use of Fibrates Monotherapy in People with Diabetes and High Cardiovascular Risk in Primary Care: A French Nationwide Cohort Study Based on National Administrative Databases

    PubMed Central

    Roussel, Ronan; Chaignot, Christophe; Weill, Alain; Travert, Florence; Hansel, Boris; Marre, Michel; Ricordeau, Philippe; Alla, François; Allemand, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim According to guidelines, diabetic patients with high cardiovascular risk should receive a statin. Despite this consensus, fibrate monotherapy is commonly used in this population. We assessed the frequency and clinical consequences of the use of fibrates for primary prevention in patients with diabetes and high cardiovascular risk. Design Retrospective cohort study based on nationwide data from the medical and administrative databases of French national health insurance systems (07/01/08-12/31/09) with a follow-up of up to 30 months. Methods Lipid-lowering drug-naive diabetic patients initiating fibrate or statin monotherapy were identified. Patients at high cardiovascular risk were then selected: patients with a diagnosis of diabetes and hypertension, and >50 (men) or 60 (women), but with no history of cardiovascular events. The composite endpoint comprised myocardial infarction, stroke, amputation, or death. Results Of the 31,652 patients enrolled, 4,058 (12.8%) received a fibrate. Age- and gender-adjusted annual event rates were 2.42% (fibrates) and 2.21% (statins). The proportionality assumption required for the Cox model was not met for the fibrate/statin variable. A multivariate model including all predictors was therefore calculated by dividing data into two time periods, allowing Hazard Ratios to be calculated before (HR<540) and after 540 days (HR>540) of follow-up. Multivariate analyses showed that fibrates were associated with an increased risk for the endpoint after 540 days: HR<540 = 0.95 (95% CI: 0.78–1.16) and HR>540 = 1.73 (1.28–2.32). Conclusion Fibrate monotherapy is commonly prescribed in diabetic patients with high cardiovascular risk and is associated with poorer outcomes compared to statin therapy. PMID:26398765

  17. Impact of the 2008-2012 French Alzheimer Plan on the use of cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers in research memory center: the PLM Study.

    PubMed

    Gabelle, Audrey; Dumurgier, Julien; Vercruysse, Olivier; Paquet, Claire; Bombois, Stéphanie; Laplanche, Jean-Louis; Peoc'h, Katell; Schraen, Susanna; Buée, Luc; Pasquier, Florence; Hugon, Jacques; Touchon, Jacques; Lehmann, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    The French Alzheimer's Disease Plan aims, in an unprecedented national effort, to develop research, promote optimal diagnosis, and take better care of patients. In order to evaluate the clinical interest and use of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers, a data-sharing project, the PLM (Paris-North, Lille and Montpellier) study has emerged through collaboration between these memory centers, already involved in this field. The revised Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosis criteria include CSF biomarkers, but little is known about their use in routine clinical practice. To evaluate their interest and diagnostic accuracy in routine AD diagnosis, a cohort of 677 patients from Montpellier was first analyzed. The results were then validated through the analysis of a second cohort of 638 patients from Lille and Paris-Nord. Diagnoses of AD and other dementias were established by multidisciplinary expert teams, based on neuropsychological exams and structural brain imaging, blinded from CSF results. CSF amyloid-β, tau, and p-tau concentrations were measured for all patients. Receiver-operating characteristic curves were used to define cut-offs and evaluate the ability of each biomarker to discriminate AD from other diagnoses. We showed that p-tau outperformed other biomarkers for discriminating AD from non-AD patients and presents a clear clinical interest. The other biomarkers also showed relevant variations especially when the differential AD diagnoses were taken into account. Altogether we could demonstrate in both mono-centric and multi-centric cohorts from memory clinics the capacity of CSF biomarkers to discriminate AD from non-AD patients in clinical routine with a high sensitivity and specificity.

  18. New and old complex recombinant HIV-1 strains among patients with primary infection in 1996–2006 in France: The French ANRS CO06 primo cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Frange, Pierre; Galimand, Julie; Vidal, Nicole; Goujard, Cécile; Deveau, Christiane; Souala, Faouzi; Peeters, Martine; Meyer, Laurence; Rouzioux, Christine; Chaix, Marie-Laure

    2008-01-01

    Background Prevalence of HIV-1 non-B subtypes has increased overtime in patients diagnosed at the time of primary infection (PHI) in France. Our objective was to characterize in detail non-B strains which could not be genetically classified into the known subtypes/Circulating Recombinant Forms (CRFs). Methods Among 744 patients enrolled in the ANRS PRIMO Cohort since 1996, 176 (23.7%) were infected with HIV-1 non-B strains. The subtype/CRF could not be identified in RT for 15 (2%). The V3-V5 env region was sequenced and 3 strains (04FR-KZS, 06FR-CRN, 04FR-AUK) were full-length sequenced. Phylogenetic and bootscan analyses were used to characterize the mosaic structures. Results Among V3-V5 sequences, 6 were divergent A, 2 distantly related to E or D, 2 C, 1 B and 2 remained unclassified. 04FR-KZS, isolated in a Congolese woman infected in France, clustered with 2 previously described viruses from the Democratic Republic of Congo. They represent CRF27_cpx involving A/E/G/H/J/K/U subtypes. 06FR-CRN, isolated in a homosexual Caucasian patient, was a B/C/U recombinant involving a Brazilian C strain. 04FR-AUK, isolated in a Congolese patient infected in France, was a A/K/CRF09/U recombinant clustering from gag to vif with HIV-1 MAL. Others PHI were further observed in 2006–2007 with 1 KZS and 5 CRN-like viruses, suggesting their spread in France. Conclusion This study illustrates the increasing HIV-1 diversity in France associating new (06FR-CRN) and old (CRF27_cpx and "MAL-like" 04FR-AUK) strains, which are rare in their region of origin but may have a possible founder effect in France. Our results strengthen the French guidelines recommending viro-epidemiological surveillance of HIV-1 diversity. PMID:18673538

  19. Effectiveness of Front-Of-Pack Nutrition Labels in French Adults: Results from the NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ducrot, Pauline; Méjean, Caroline; Julia, Chantal; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Touvier, Mathilde; Fezeu, Léopold; Hercberg, Serge; Péneau, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    Background To date, no consensus has emerged on the most appropriate front-of-pack (FOP) nutrition label to help consumers in making informed choices. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of the label formats currently in use: nutrient-specific, graded and simple summary systems, in a large sample of adults. Methods The FOP label effectiveness was assessed by measuring the label acceptability and understanding among 13,578 participants of the NutriNet-Santé cohort study, representative of the French adult population. Participants were exposed to five conditions, including four FOP labels: Guideline Daily Amounts (GDA), Multiple Traffic Lights (MTL), 5-Color Nutrition Label (5-CNL), Green Tick (Tick), and a “no label” condition. Acceptability was evaluated by several indicators: attractiveness, liking and perceived cognitive workload. Objective understanding was assessed by the percentage of correct answers when ranking three products according to their nutritional quality. Five different product categories were tested: prepared fish dishes, pizzas, dairy products, breakfast cereals, and appetizers. Differences among the label effectiveness were compared with chi-square tests. Results The 5-CNL was viewed as the easiest label to identify and as the one requiring the lowest amount of effort and time to understand. GDA was considered as the least easy to identify and to understand, despite being the most attractive and liked label. All FOP labels were found to be effective in ranking products according to their nutritional quality compared with the “no label” situation, although they showed differing levels of effectiveness (p<0.0001). Globally, the 5-CNL performed best, followed by MTL, GDA and Tick labels. Conclusions The graded 5-CNL label was considered as easy to identify, simple and rapid to understand; it performed well when comparing the products’ nutritional quality. Therefore, it is likely to present advantages in real shopping situations where

  20. The role of method of production and resolution of the DEM on slope-units delineation for landslide susceptibility assessment - Ubaye Valley, French Alps case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlögel, Romy; Marchesini, Ivan; Alvioli, Massimiliano; Reichenbach, Paola; Rossi, Mauro; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Landslide susceptibility assessment forms the basis of any hazard mapping, which is one of the essential parts of quantitative risk mapping. For the same study area, different susceptibility maps can be achieved depending on the type of susceptibility mapping methods, mapping unit, and scale. In the Ubaye Valley (South French Alps), we investigate the effect of resolution and method of production of the DEM to delineate slope units for landslide susceptibility mapping method. Slope units delineation has been processed using multiple combinations of circular variance and minimum area size values, which are the input parameters for a new software for terrain partitioning. We rely on this method taking into account homogeneity of aspect direction inside each unit and inhomogeneity between different units. We computed slope units delineation for 5, 10 and 25 meters resolution DEM, and investigate statistical distributions of morphometric variables within the different polygons. Then, for each different slope units partitioning, we calibrated a landslide susceptibility model, considering landslide bodies and scarps as a dependent variable (binary response). This work aims to analyse the role of DEM resolution on slope-units delineation for landslide susceptibility assessment. Area Under the Curve of the Receiver Operating Characteristic is investigated for the susceptibility model calculations. In addition, we analysed further the performance of the Logistic Regression Model by looking at the percentage of significant variable in the statistical analyses. Results show that smaller slope units have a better chance of containing a smaller number of thematic and morphometric variables, allowing for an easier classification. Reliability of the models according to the DEM resolution considered as well as scarp area and landslides bodies presence/absence as dependent variable are discussed.

  1. Proteins, dietary acid load, and calcium and risk of postmenopausal fractures in the E3N French women prospective study.

    PubMed

    Dargent-Molina, Patricia; Sabia, Sèverine; Touvier, Mathilde; Kesse, Emmanuelle; Bréart, Gérard; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine

    2008-12-01

    Excess dietary proteins and "acid ash" diets have been suspected to increase the risk of osteoporosis, but experimental and epidemiological evidence is mixed. We aimed to determine whether the association between protein intake and the overall acid-base equilibrium of the diet (as renal net acid excretion [RNAE] estimate) and fracture risk vary according to calcium intake. During an average of 8.37 +/- 1.73 yr of follow-up, 2408 women reported a fracture (excluding high-impact trauma) among 36,217 postmenopausal women from the E3N prospective study. We used Cox regression models to study the interaction between calcium and, respectively, proteins and RNAE, from the 1993 dietary questionnaire for fracture risk determination, adjusting for potential confounders. There was no overall association between fracture risk and total protein or RNAE. However, in the lowest quartile of calcium (<400 mg/1000 kcal), high protein intake was associated with a significant increased fracture risk (RR = 1.51 for highest versus lowest quartile; 95% CI, 1.17-1.94). An increasing fracture risk with increasing animal protein intake was also observed (trend, p < 0.0001). A similar pattern of interaction for fracture risk was observed between RNAE and calcium. In this Western population of postmenopausal women with normal to high protein intake and fairly high calcium intake, there was no overall association between total protein or RNAE and fracture risk. However, there was some evidence that high protein-high acid ash diets were associated with an increased risk of fracture when calcium intake was low (<400 mg/1000 kcal). PMID:18665794

  2. Familial history of cancer and childhood acute leukemia: a French population-based case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Ripert, Mahaut; Menegaux, Florence; Perel, Yves; Méchinaud, Françoise; Plouvier, Emmanuel; Gandemer, Virginie; Lutz, Patrick; Vannier, Jean-Pierre; Lamagnére, Jean-Pierre; Margueritte, Geneviève; Boutard, Patrick; Robert, Alain; Armari-Alla, Corinne; Munzer, Martine; Millot, Frédéric; de Lumley, Lionel; Berthou, Christian; Rialland, Xavier; Pautard, Brigitte; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2007-01-01

    Objective A case-control study was conducted to investigate the role of a familial history of cancer in the etiology of childhood acute leukemia (AL). Methods The history of cancer in the relatives of 472 cases was compared to that of 567 population-based controls. Recruitment was frequency matched on age, gender and region. The familial history of cancer in each child’s relatives was reported by the mother in response to a standardized self-administered questionnaire. Results A familial history of solid tumor in first- or second-degree relatives was associated with an increased risk of ALL (OR=1.6 [1.2–2.1]), while a familial history of hematopoietic malignancies in first- or second-degree relatives was associated with an increased risk of AML (OR=4.3 [1.4–13]). The ORs for the histories of cancer increased with the number of relatives with cancer (OR=1.5 [1.1–2.0] for one relative and OR=2.3 [1.3–3.8] for two relatives or more; ptrend<0.0001). Significant associations between childhood AL and familial history of genital cancers and brain tumor were also observed (OR=2.7 [1.2–5.8], OR=10.7 [1.3–86], respectively). Conclusion This study supports the hypothesis that a familial history of cancer may play a role in the etiology of childhood acute leukemia. It also evidences some specific associations that require further investigation. PMID:17923819

  3. Day-care, early common infections and childhood acute leukaemia: a multicentre French case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Perrillat, F; Clavel, J; Auclerc, M F; Baruchel, A; Leverger, G; Nelken, B; Philippe, N; Schaison, G; Sommelet, D; Vilmer, E; Hémon, D

    2002-01-01

    We conducted a case–control study to investigate the role of early infections in the aetiology of childhood acute leukaemias. The study included 280 incident cases (240 acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and 40 acute non-lymphoblastic leukaemia) and 288 hospital controls, frequency matched by age, gender, hospital, catchment area of the hospital and ethnic origin. Data were obtained from standardised face-to-face interviews of the mothers. The interviews included questions on early common infections, day-care attendance, breast-feeding, birth order and infantile diseases. Odds ratios were estimated using an unconditional regression model including the stratification variables, parental socio-economic status and perinatal characteristics. Birth order was not associated with childhood leukaemia (acute lymphoblastic or acute non-lymphoblastic). A statistically-significant inverse association was observed between childhood leukaemia and day-care attendance (odds ratio=0.6, 95% Confidence Interval=(0.4–1.0)), repeated early common infections (⩾4 per year before age two, odds ratio=0.6 (0.4–1.0)), surgical procedures for ear–nose–throat infections before age two (odds ratio=0.5 (0.2–1.0)) and prolonged breast-feeding (⩾6 months, odds ratio=0.5 (0.2–1.0)). In the multivariate model including day-care attendance, early common infections and breast-feeding, results concerning breast-feeding remained unchanged. A statistically significant interaction between day-care attendance and repeated early common infections was observed. When the interaction was taken into account, the simple effects of day-care and early common infections disappeared (odds ratio=1.1 (0.5–2.3) and odds ratio=0.8 (0.5–1.3), respectively) while the joint effect of day-care attendance and early common infections was negatively associated with childhood leukaemia (odds ratio=0.3 (0.1–0.8)). All the above associations were observed both for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and acute non

  4. Cause of death in patients with atrial fibrillation admitted to French hospitals in 2012: a nationwide database study

    PubMed Central

    Fauchier, Laurent; Samson, Adeline; Chaize, Gwendoline; Gaudin, Anne-Françoise; Vainchtock, Alexandre; Bailly, Cécile; Cotté, Francois-Emery

    2015-01-01

    Objective Most patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) have risk factors and coexisting conditions that increase their mortality risk. We performed a cause-of-death analysis to identify predictors of mortality in hospitalised patients with AF in France. Methods and results In this retrospective, population-based cross-sectional study, the Programme de médicalisation des systèmes d'information was used to identify 533 044 adults with a diagnosis of AF or atrial flutter hospitalised for any reason in France from January through December 2012. Stepwise multivariable analyses were performed to identify determinants of mortality. The mean age was 78.0±11.4 years, 47.1% were women, and the mean CHA2DS2-VASc score was 4.0±1.8. During hospitalisation, 9.4% (n=50 165) of the patients died, 34% due to a cardiovascular event, most often heart failure (16.6%), stroke/transient ischaemic attack/systemic embolism (9.8%) or vascular or ischaemic disease (4.0%). The strongest predictors of overall death were age ≥75 years (OR 2.57, 95% CI 2.47 to 2.68), renal failure (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.81 to 1.89), cancer (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1.78 to 1.85) and lung disease (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.55 to 1.62). Conclusions Cardiovascular events were the most common cause of death, occurring in one-third of patients, in this comprehensive study of hospitalised patients with AF. Despite the high risk of stroke in this population, only 10% died from stroke/transient ischaemic attack/systemic embolism. The strongest predictors of overall death were non-cardiovascular. Physicians should be encouraged to focus on preventable serious and disabling cardiovascular events (such as stroke) as well as on potentially fatal non-cardiovascular comorbidities. PMID:26688739

  5. Dialect Effects in Speech Perception: The Role of Vowel Duration in Parisian French and Swiss French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joanne L.; Mondini, Michele; Grosjean, Francois; Dommergues, Jean-Yves

    2011-01-01

    The current experiments examined how native Parisian French and native Swiss French listeners use vowel duration in perceiving the /[openo]/-/o/ contrast. In both Parisian and Swiss French /o/ is longer than /[openo]/, but the difference is relatively large in Swiss French and quite small in Parisian French. In Experiment 1 we found a parallel…

  6. Multiple myeloma: the quality of care is linked to geographical and organisational determinants. A study in a French registry.

    PubMed

    Puyade, M; Defossez, G; Guilhot, F; Ingrand, P

    2016-09-01

    Multiple myeloma is a haematological malignancy whose care is spread over several specialities and provided by centres that various sizes, which raises the issue of equal opportunities in care access. Incident cases of myeloma between 2008 and 2010 were exhaustively identified by the Poitou-Charentes Cancer Registry. To ascertain the quality of care, the diagnosis, staging, and treatment administered were compared to international recommendations. Three hundred and sixty-seven patients were included. The diagnostic procedure exhibited 98% compliance, the staging 58%, and treatment 89%. Concerning diagnostic and staging, non-compliance with recommendations was associated to the failure to perform collegiate case assessments in multidisciplinary team (MDT) meetings [OR 2.15 (1.15-4.04)], care provided at a secondary centre, and a distance between home and the centre of 5-25 km [2.16 (1.06-4.40)] and 25-50 km [2.86 (1.37-6.01)]. Regarding treatment, non-compliance with recommendations was associated with care provided at a secondary centre [5.28 (2.03-13.75)]. Finally, diagnosis, staging and treatment quality improved over time. This study underlines the need to improve the organisation of the healthcare offer, so that patients can receive the best possible care. MDT seems to be the main means to improve quality of care. PMID:26603508

  7. Comparison of coaches' perceptions and officials guidance towards health promotion in French sport clubs: a mixed method study.

    PubMed

    Van Hoye, A; Heuzé, J-P; Larsen, T; Sarrazin, P

    2016-06-01

    Despite the call to improve health promotion (HP) in sport clubs in the existing literature, little is known about sport clubs' organizational capacity. Grounded within the setting-based framework, this study compares HP activities and guidance among 10 football clubs. At least three grassroots coaches from each club (n = 68) completed the Health Promoting Sports Clubs scale to assess their perceptions of HP; an official (n = 10) was interviewed about club's activities and official's guidance provided to coaches. A concurrent embedded design with quantitative results guiding the qualitative analysis was used. Despite no significant differences regarding coaches' perceptions of HP between the 10 sport clubs, except for the policy dimension, officials' interviews revealed some contradictions. Sport participation was recognized as automatically promoting HP, meaning that sport practice entails many benefits, without questioning the nature of the activities. HP was considered as a secondary aim in regard to sport performance, leading to the lack of written policies, partnerships and sporadic HP activities. Future interventions should consider: (i) the creation of required policy and long-term vision; (ii) the link between HP and sport performance; (iii) the rootedness of sport clubs within their community and (iv) guidelines towards HP from sport federations.

  8. Exposure to vinyl chloride monomer: results of a cohort study after a seven year follow up. The French VCM Group.

    PubMed Central

    Laplanche, A; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Contassot, J C; Lanouzière, C

    1992-01-01

    In 1980 a prospective cohort study of exposed and non-exposed subjects was initiated in France by the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM U287) in collaboration with occupational physicians from the companies involved. The aim was to evaluate the association between mortality and cancer morbidity and occupational exposure to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). A total of 1100 subjects exposed to VCM and 1100 non-exposed controls matched for age (to two years), plant, and physician were followed up for seven years (8299 and 8202 person years for exposed subjects and controls respectively) for vital status and health and occupational state. Forty deaths occurred among exposed and 43 among non-exposed subjects (relative risk (RR) = 1.0; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.6-1.5). Forty eight and 32 cases of cancer were reported among exposed and non-exposed subjects, respectively (RR = 1.3; 95% CI 0.8-2.1). Three cases of angiosarcoma of the liver occurred in the exposed group. Eight cases of lung cancer occurred among exposed subjects and six among non-exposed subjects. Fourteen cases of Raynaud's disease were found among exposed and one among non-exposed subjects and the difference was significant. One hundred and twenty three and 93 cases of cardiovascular disease (Raynaud's disease excluded) occurred in the exposed and non-exposed groups respectively (RR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.0-1.8); this difference was mainly due to hypertension. The test for an increasing risk with increased exposure was significant. The percentages of diseases of the respiratory system did not differ between the two groups (RR = 1.1; 95% CI 0.7-1.8). PMID:1536821

  9. Exposure to vinyl chloride monomer: results of a cohort study after a seven year follow up. The French VCM Group.

    PubMed

    Laplanche, A; Clavel-Chapelon, F; Contassot, J C; Lanouzière, C

    1992-02-01

    In 1980 a prospective cohort study of exposed and non-exposed subjects was initiated in France by the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM U287) in collaboration with occupational physicians from the companies involved. The aim was to evaluate the association between mortality and cancer morbidity and occupational exposure to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). A total of 1100 subjects exposed to VCM and 1100 non-exposed controls matched for age (to two years), plant, and physician were followed up for seven years (8299 and 8202 person years for exposed subjects and controls respectively) for vital status and health and occupational state. Forty deaths occurred among exposed and 43 among non-exposed subjects (relative risk (RR) = 1.0; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.6-1.5). Forty eight and 32 cases of cancer were reported among exposed and non-exposed subjects, respectively (RR = 1.3; 95% CI 0.8-2.1). Three cases of angiosarcoma of the liver occurred in the exposed group. Eight cases of lung cancer occurred among exposed subjects and six among non-exposed subjects. Fourteen cases of Raynaud's disease were found among exposed and one among non-exposed subjects and the difference was significant. One hundred and twenty three and 93 cases of cardiovascular disease (Raynaud's disease excluded) occurred in the exposed and non-exposed groups respectively (RR = 1.4; 95% CI 1.0-1.8); this difference was mainly due to hypertension. The test for an increasing risk with increased exposure was significant. The percentages of diseases of the respiratory system did not differ between the two groups (RR = 1.1; 95% CI 0.7-1.8).

  10. Assessment of apixaban plasma levels by laboratory tests: suitability of three anti-Xa assays. A multicentre French GEHT study.

    PubMed

    Gouin-Thibault, Isabelle; Flaujac, Claire; Delavenne, Xavier; Quenet, Sara; Horellou, Marie-Hélenè; Laporte, Silvy; Siguret, V; Lecompte, T

    2014-02-01

    While laboratory monitoring is not required in patients treated with apixaban, a direct factor-Xa inhibitor, assessment of its concentration is useful in some critical situations. However, few data are available on its effect on coagulation tests and on the suitability of anti-Xa assays for its quantification. It was the objective of this study to identify laboratory tests suitable for apixaban concentration assessment. Coagulation tests - PT and aPTT- and anti-Xa assays were performed in apixaban-spiked plasma samples. To evaluate the sensitivity of PT and aPTT to apixaban, we conducted a first monocenter part, with a wide range of concentrations (50-1,000 ng/ml), a large panel of reagents (20 reagents), and two coagulometers (STAR®, Stago and ACL TOP®, IL), and a second multicenter part involving 13 laboratories using either a common PT reagent (RecombiPlastin2G®) or the local PT and aPTT reagents. In the multicentre part, five blinded apixaban-spiked plasma samples (0/100/200/400/800 ng/ml - checked by HPLC-MS/MS) were used; apixaban concentrations were measured with three anti-Xa assays, apixaban calibrators and controls (Stago). PT and aPTT tests using a large panel of reagents displayed a low sensitivity to a wide range of apixaban concentrations. The concentrations to double PT ranged from 400 to >1,000 ng/ml with the 10 reagents. With the three anti-Xa assays, inter-laboratory precision and accuracy were below 11% and 12%, respectively. In conclusion, whereas PT and aPTT tests were not sensitive enough to detect apixaban, the three anti-Xa assays tested using lyophilised apixaban calibrators and controls allowed to reliably quantify a wide range of apixaban concentrations.

  11. Nutri-Bébé 2013 Study Part 2. How do French mothers feed their young children?

    PubMed

    Bocquet, A; Vidailhet, M

    2015-10-01

    Nutri-Baby SFAE 2013 is the 5th edition of a survey conducted every 8 years since 1981 by SFAE (Secteur Français des Aliments de l'Enfance) in collaboration with an opinion poll institute (SOFRES) for the feeding behavior part of the study and with CREDOC for calculating nutrient intake: 1,188 mothers of infants and young children from 15 days to 3 years of age were interviewed in 2013. The present paper is limited to the behavioral part of the investigation on the observance by mothers of pediatric recommendations. Overall, the "2013 mother" is self-confident (76% declare being confident in their experience and instinct). They are aware of the recommendations of healthcare professionals, but the family circle is also influential. Although growing-up milk is more widely consumed than in 2005 (+8%), cow's milk (half-skimmed and not whole milk), even if it is introduced 2 months later than in 2005, is still consumed by 34% of children at 12-17 months of age and by 64% of 24 - to 29-month-old children. Milk is still frequently warmed up in a microwave oven. Breastfeeding mothers or those who breastfed more frequently give growing-up milk and home-cooked foods and afterwards their children refuse different foods less frequently. Adult foods that are not adapted for children are introduced too early. Foods in morsels are proposed very late. Fried foods and sweet foods appear too early in infant meals. Consumption of infant formulas and specific baby foods is increasing, but at around 1 year of age a decrease in the consumption of these adapted foods is observed. PMID:26474671

  12. Nutri-Bébé 2013 Study Part 2. How do French mothers feed their young children?

    PubMed

    Bocquet, A; Vidailhet, M

    2015-10-01

    Nutri-Baby SFAE 2013 is the 5th edition of a survey conducted every 8 years since 1981 by SFAE (Secteur Français des Aliments de l'Enfance) in collaboration with an opinion poll institute (SOFRES) for the feeding behavior part of the study and with CREDOC for calculating nutrient intake: 1,188 mothers of infants and young children from 15 days to 3 years of age were interviewed in 2013. The present paper is limited to the behavioral part of the investigation on the observance by mothers of pediatric recommendations. Overall, the "2013 mother" is self-confident (76% declare being confident in their experience and instinct). They are aware of the recommendations of healthcare professionals, but the family circle is also influential. Although growing-up milk is more widely consumed than in 2005 (+8%), cow's milk (half-skimmed and not whole milk), even if it is introduced 2 months later than in 2005, is still consumed by 34% of children at 12-17 months of age and by 64% of 24 - to 29-month-old children. Milk is still frequently warmed up in a microwave oven. Breastfeeding mothers or those who breastfed more frequently give growing-up milk and home-cooked foods and afterwards their children refuse different foods less frequently. Adult foods that are not adapted for children are introduced too early. Foods in morsels are proposed very late. Fried foods and sweet foods appear too early in infant meals. Consumption of infant formulas and specific baby foods is increasing, but at around 1 year of age a decrease in the consumption of these adapted foods is observed.

  13. French Basic Course. Grammatical Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This index is intended for use with Volumes 1 through 8 of the French Basic Course. It facilitates the finding of grammatical references in those volumes. The items are cross-referenced and arranged in alphabetical order. (Author/AMH)

  14. Are managers' and the general public's perceptions of risk communication needs in line? A French alpine valley case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charrière, Marie; Sprague, Teresa; Bogaard, Thom; Greiving, Stefan; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Mostert, Erik

    2013-04-01

    Risk communication is a crucial element of risk management. It contributes to social capacity building by influencing the knowledge, attitude, behavior, psychology, as well as social and organizational aspects1,2. It is globally recognized that effective risk communication should address needs and requirements of targeted audiences, especially those of the public. This study compares needs and requirements related to risk communication as seen by the risk managers, with the needs and requirements as expressed by the general public. Two surveys were conducted in a mountainous region facing multi-hazards, the Ubaye valley (France). The first survey, conducted within the context of the Marie Curie Research and Training Network 'Mountain Risk', was addressed to the local community. It aimed at gathering perceptions, needs and requirements of the general public (344 respondents) on risk communication3. The second survey, conducted in the context of the Marie Curie Initial Training Network 'CHANGES', targeted risk managers (16 stakeholders of the authorities, technical services and emergency units) at both the local and the regional scale to evaluate their perceptions regarding risk communication with the general public. The needs and requirements were analyzed with respect to several dimensions: 1) the information provided to the public, 2) the legal requirements for communication, 3) the level of trust the population has in risk managers, 4) insights on awareness and preparedness, and 5) information on the media used in past communication efforts. Results of the analysis concerning the last dimension reveal that, while the general public mentioned press, official reports and technical reports as the top three media by which they received information, the risk managers cited the press but in contrast also selected radio and television. Other results indicate that a potential mismatch exists as more than 80% of the respondents of the population find all listed topics

  15. French fireball network FRIPON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colas, F.; Zanda, B.; Vaubaillon, J.; Bouley, S.; Marmo, C.; Audureau, Y.; Kwon, M. K.; Rault, J.-L.; Caminade, S.; Vernazza, P.; Gattacceca, J.; Birlan, M.; Maquet, L.; Egal, A.; Rotaru, M.; Birnbaum, C.; Cochard, F.; Thizy, O.

    2015-01-01

    FRIPON (Fireball Recovery and Interplanetary Observation Network) was recently founded by ANR (Agence Nationale de la Recherche), its aim being to connect meteoritical science with asteroidal and cometary sciences, in order to better understand our solar system formation and evolution. The main idea is to cover all the French territory to collect a large number of meteorites (one or two per year) with an accurate orbit determination, allowing to pinpoint possible parent bodies. 100 all-sky cameras will be installed at the end of 2015, creating a dense network with an average distance of 100 km between the stations. To maximize the accuracy of the orbit determination, we will mix our optical data with radar data from the GRAVES transmitter received by 25 stations (Rault et al., 2015). As the network installation and the creation of research teams for meteorites involves many persons, at least many more than our small team of professionals, we will develop a participative science network for amateurs called Vigie-Ciel (Zanda et al., 2015). It will be possible to simply use our data, participate in research campaigns or even add cameras to the FRIPON network.

  16. French perspectives on psychiatric classification

    PubMed Central

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the role of the French schools in the development of psychiatric nosology. Boissier de Sauvages published the first French treatise on medical nosology in 1763. Until the 1880s, French schools held a pre-eminent position in the development of psychiatric concepts. From the 1880s until World War I, German-speaking schools exerted the most influence, featuring the work of major figures such as Emil Kraepelin and Eugen Bleuler. French schools were probably hampered by excessive administrative and cultural centralization. Between the 1880s and the 1930s, French schools developed diagnostic categories that set them apart from international classifications. The main examples are Bouffée Délirante, and the complex set of chronic delusional psychoses (CDPs), including chronic hallucinatory psychosis. CDPs were distinguished from schizophrenia by the lack of cognitive deterioration during evolution. Modern French psychiatry is now coming into line with international classification, such as DSM-5 and the upcoming ICD-11. PMID:25987863

  17. Seeking health- and nutrition-related information on the Internet in a large population of French adults: results of the NutriNet-Santé study.

    PubMed

    Fassier, Philippine; Chhim, Anne-Sophie; Andreeva, Valentina A; Hercberg, Serge; Latino-Martel, Paule; Pouchieu, Camille; Touvier, Mathilde

    2016-06-01

    The Internet has become a major source of health and nutrition information. Little is known about the type of consulted websites (institutional v. non-institutional) and the tendency to discuss with a healthcare professional (HCP) the information found on the Internet. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate health- and nutrition-related Internet use in a large French population-based study. Data were collected in 2013 using self-administered, web-based questionnaires from 42 113 participants of the NutriNet-Santé study (mean age=51·2 years, 76 % women). Unconditional multivariate logistic regression analyses and χ 2 tests were used for comparisons. In total, 85·1 % of the subjects used the Internet to search for health and/or nutrition information, and 23·6 % used the Internet to read or post messages on health/nutrition forums. Only 16·0 % discussed with a HCP the information found online. This proportion was lower in subjects with lower educational level (OR 0·77; 95 % CI 0·72, 0·82) and lower computer skills (OR 0·70; 95 % CI 0·65, 0·76). In total, 8038 health/nutrition websites were cited, with institutional websites representing only 12·9 % of that number. Only one institutional website was present in the top 10. Older subjects (OR 1·49; 95 % CI 1·28-1·74), those with lower educational level (OR 2·08; 95 % CI 1·75, 2·50) and lower nutritional knowledge (OR 1·33; 1·12, 1·59) were more likely to cite non-institutional websites. This large population-based study showed that institutional websites were infrequently accessed and that a few participants discussed the information found online with their HCP. This particular trend was especially visible among individuals who were more vulnerable regarding misleading information. This supports the need to increase awareness of high-quality websites providing reliable health/nutrition information.

  18. First seroepidemiological study and phylogenetic characterization of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I and II infection among Amerindians in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Talarmin, A; Vion, B; Ureta-Vidal, A; Du Fou, G; Marty, C; Kazanji, M

    1999-12-01

    We investigated the serological, epidemiological and molecular aspects of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I and II (HTLV-I/II) infection in the Amerindian populations of French Guiana by testing 847 sera. No HTLV-II antibodies were detected, but five individuals (0.59%) were seropositive for HTLV-I. Analysis of the nucleotide sequences of 522 bp of the env gene and the compete LTR showed that all of the strains from French Guiana belonged to the cosmopolitan subtype A. The similarities were greater between Amerindian and Creole strains than between Amerindian and Noir-Marron strains or than between Creole and Noir-Marron strains. Phylogenetic analysis showed two clusters: one of strains from Amerindians and Creoles, which belong to the transcontinental subgroup, and the other of strains from Noirs-Marrons, belonging to the West African subgroup. Our results suggest that the Amerindian HTLV-I strains are of African origin.

  19. The perception of the French /s/-/ʃ/ contrast in early Creole-French bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Sophie; Kriegel, Sibylle; Alleesaib, Muhsina; Nguyen, Noël

    2014-01-01

    One particularity of the Mauritian Creole language is that there is no contrastive distinction between the consonants /s/ and /ʃ/, which are both pronounced /s/ in Creole. In this study, we examined the identification performance of the /s/-/ʃ/ contrast by Mauritian Creole-French bilinguals who have been exposed to French before 7 years of age, and who have been raised in a highly Creole-French bilingual society. The results showed that most of our bilingual participants identify the /s/ and /ʃ/ consonants like native French speakers. It also appeared that the way in which the two consonants are categorized can be manipulated by introducing subtle changes in the information these participants were given about the identity of the speaker that produced the stimuli. Our results are in accordance with recent studies showing native-like performance in bilinguals on a categorization task and, importantly, extend these findings to speakers of a Creole language. In addition, these results show that speech sound categorization can be influenced by information about the speaker's social identity and thus argue for models that postulate rich speech sound representations. PMID:25374557

  20. The perception of the French /s/-/ʃ/ contrast in early Creole-French bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, Sophie; Kriegel, Sibylle; Alleesaib, Muhsina; Nguyen, Noël

    2014-01-01

    One particularity of the Mauritian Creole language is that there is no contrastive distinction between the consonants /s/ and /ʃ/, which are both pronounced /s/ in Creole. In this study, we examined the identification performance of the /s/-/ʃ/ contrast by Mauritian Creole-French bilinguals who have been exposed to French before 7 years of age, and who have been raised in a highly Creole-French bilingual society. The results showed that most of our bilingual participants identify the /s/ and /ʃ/ consonants like native French speakers. It also appeared that the way in which the two consonants are categorized can be manipulated by introducing subtle changes in the information these participants were given about the identity of the speaker that produced the stimuli. Our results are in accordance with recent studies showing native-like performance in bilinguals on a categorization task and, importantly, extend these findings to speakers of a Creole language. In addition, these results show that speech sound categorization can be influenced by information about the speaker's social identity and thus argue for models that postulate rich speech sound representations. PMID:25374557

  1. Changes in leisure-time physical activity and sedentary behaviour at retirement: a prospective study in middle-aged French subjects

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Longitudinal studies on physical activity patterns around retirement age are scarce and provide divergent findings. Little is known about changes in sedentary behaviour in this context. Our aim was to investigate relationships between retirement and 3-year changes in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) patterns and sedentary behaviour in middle-aged French adults. Methods Past-year LTPA and sedentary behaviour (watching television) were assessed in 1998 and 2001 using the Modifiable Activity Questionnaire on participants in the SU.VI.MAX (Supplementation with Antioxidants and Minerals) study. A total of 698 men and 691 women aged 45-64 were included in this analysis. Comparisons were made between subjects who had retired between 1998 and 2001 and those who continued to work, using the Chi-square test, Student t-test, Wilcoxon rank test or covariance analysis where appropriate. Results 20.1% of men and 15.6% of women retired during follow-up. The baseline LTPA level was similar between subjects who retired during follow-up and those who continued to work. Mean LTPA increased by about 2 h/week in men and women who had retired, whereas no change was observed in employed persons. The positive change in LTPA following retirement was mainly related to an increase in activities of moderate intensity, such as walking. Retirement did not modify the ranking of the most frequently performed LTPAs, but the number of participants and the duration increased through retirement. In men, the increase in time spent watching TV was more than twice as high in retirees as in workers (+40.5 vs. +15.0 min/day, P < 0.0001). The same tendency was observed among women, but was borderline non-significant (+33.5 vs. +19.9 min/day, P = 0.05). In women, retirees who increased their walking duration by 2 h/week or more also decreased time spent watching TV by 11.5 min/day. Conclusions Retirement was associated with both an increase in LTPAs and in time spent watching TV, suggesting

  2. Long-term efficacy and toxicity of abacavir/lamivudine/nevirapine compared to the most prescribed ARV regimens before 2013 in a French Nationwide Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    de Boissieu, Paul; Dramé, Moustapha; Raffi, François; Cabie, André; Poizot-Martin, Isabelle; Cotte, Laurent; Garraffo, Rodolphe; Delobel, Pierre; Huleux, Thomas; Rey, David; Bani-Sadr, Firouzé

    2016-09-01

    Data on the long-term efficacy and safety of abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) and nevirapine (NVP) are scarce. This combination has the advantage of simplifying treatment and improving long-term tolerance. The aim of this study was to compare the rate of any discontinuation of antiretroviral (ARV) regimen because of virologic failure (VF), and/or adverse drug reaction (ADR) among patients receiving stable ARV regimens for at least 6 months.ABC/3TC/NVP was compared to ABC/3TC with either ritonavir-boosted darunavir (DRV/r) or ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r), unboosted ATV, or tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) with either one of the following: ATV/r, unboosted ATV, DRV/r, efavirenz (EFV), or NVP, in the French prospective multicenter Dat'AIDS cohort.The study enrolled 16,511 patients treated with following ARV regimens: ABC/3TC/NVP (n = 1089), TDF/FTC/NVP (n = 1542), ABC/3TC/DRV/r (n = 1065), ABC/3TC/ATV/r (n = 1847), ABC/3TC/ATV (n = 563), TDF/FTC/ATV/r (n = 3519), TDF/FTC/DRV/r (n = 2767), TDF/FTC/ATV (n = 419), and TDF/FTC/EFV (n = 3700). Mean follow-up was 36 ± 24 months. Patients treated with ABC/3TC/NVP received this regimen as a switch regimen in 97% of cases. By multivariable analysis, the risk of treatment discontinuation due to VF was similar between ABC/3TC/NVP and other ARV regimens, except for TDF/FTC/ATV and ABC/3TC/ATV, which were associated with a higher risk of treatment interruption due to VF (hazard ratio [HR] 1.99; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29-3.06 and HR 2.19; 95% CI 1.51-3.18, respectively). Treatment discontinuation due to ADR was lowest with the ABC/3TC/NVP regimen. Other ARV regimens were associated with a 1.80- to 3.19-fold increase in the risk of treatment discontinuation due to ADR (P < 0.0001 for all comparisons).ABC/3TC/NVP as a simplification regimen is a long-term effective regimen with lower discontinuation due to long-term toxicity compared with other standard ARV regimens. PMID

  3. How much sugar do consumers add to plain yogurts? Insights from a study examining French consumer behavior and self-reported habits.

    PubMed

    Saint-Eve, Anne; Leclercq, Hélène; Berthelo, Sébastien; Saulnier, Benjamin; Oettgen, Walther; Delarue, Julien

    2016-04-01

    In France, 50% of consumers sweeten plain yogurts prior to consumption. This study measured how much sugar consumers added under contextualized testing conditions. Participants (199 French adults who regularly consume plain yogurt adding sugar) were given a plain yogurt (125 g) at the end of a full meal and were allowed to sweeten it with their usual sweetener (caster sugar, honey, or jam). The quantities added were measured indirectly by weighing the sweetener containers before and after use; they were then converted into equivalent quantities of sucrose, or "added sugar." Participants were asked to describe their relative hunger, thirst, and liking for plain yogurt and to estimate the quantity of sweetener they had added. On average, participants added 13.6 g of sugar to their yogurts, which is higher than the 10.2 g of sugar contained in pre-sweetened commercial yogurts (125 g). More sugar was added when subjects used jam (24.4 g/yogurt, n = 36) as opposed to caster sugar (11.0 g/yogurt, n = 134) or honey (12.1 g/yogurt, n = 29). Age, socio-professional category, and BMI had a significant influence on added-sugar quantity. Based on behavior and attitude, participants could be separated into three evenly sized groups: "low sugar users" (n = 67, median = 6.1 g/yogurt), who tended to control their food intake, "medium sugar users" (n = 66, median = 11.4 g/yogurt), and "heavy sugar users" (n = 66, median = 19.9 g/yogurt) who sought immediate satisfaction. To our knowledge, this study is the first to provide robust data on the amount of sugar consumers add to plain yogurts in contextualized conditions (self preparation during a real meal). Our findings show that consumers underestimated by half the quantity of sweetener they added.

  4. The French Space Operation Act: Technical Regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinchero, J. P.; Lazare, B.

    2010-09-01

    The French Space Operation Act(FSOA) stipulates that a prime objective of the National technical regulations is to protect people, property, public health and the environment. Compliance with these technical regulations is mandatory as of 10 December 2010 for space operations by French space operators and for space operations from French territory. The space safety requirements and regulations governing procedures are based on national and international best practices and experience. A critical design review of the space system and procedures shall be carried out by the applicant, in order to verify compliance with the Technical Regulations. An independent technical assessment of the operation is delegated to CNES. The principles applied when drafting technical regulations are as follows: requirements must as far as possible establish the rules according to the objective to be obtained, rather than how it is to be achieved; requirements must give preference to international standards recognised as being the state of the art; requirements must take previous experience into account. Technical regulations are divided into three sections covering common requirements for the launch, control and return of a space object. A dedicated section will cover specific rules to be applied at the Guiana Space Centre. The main topics addressed by the technical regulations are: operator safety management system; study of risks to people, property, public health and the Earth’s environment; impact study on the outer space environment: space debris generated by the operation; planetary protection.

  5. Perspective view of span over French Creek and east abutment, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of span over French Creek and east abutment, looking NW. - Pennsylvania Railroad, French Creek Trestle, Spanning French Creek, north of Paradise Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  6. Studying relationships between environment and malaria incidence in Camopi (French Guiana) through the objective selection of buffer-based landscape characterisations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Malaria remains a major health problem in French Guiana, with a mean of 3800 cases each year. A previous study in Camopi, an Amerindian village on the Oyapock River, highlighted the major contribution of environmental features to the incidence of malaria attacks. We propose a method for the objective selection of the best multivariate peridomestic landscape characterisation that maximises the chances of identifying relationships between environmental features and malaria incidence, statistically significant and meaningful from an epidemiological point of view. Methods A land-cover map, the hydrological network and the geolocalised inhabited houses were used to characterise the peridomestic landscape in eleven discoid buffers with radii of 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000 metres. Buffer-based landscape characterisations were first compared in terms of their capacity to discriminate between sites within the geographic space and of their effective multidimensionality in variable space. The Akaike information criterion (AIC) was then used to select the landscape model best explaining the incidences of P. vivax and P. falciparum malaria. Finally, we calculated Pearson correlation coefficients for the relationships between environmental variables and malaria incidence, by species, for the more relevant buffers. Results The optimal buffers for environmental characterisation had radii of 100 m around houses for P. vivax and 400 m around houses for P. falciparum. The incidence of P. falciparum malaria seemed to be more strongly linked to environmental features than that of P. vivax malaria, within these buffers. The incidence of P. falciparum malaria in children was strongly correlated with proportions of bare soil (r = -0.69), land under high vegetation (r = 0.68) and primary forest (r = 0.54), landscape division (r = 0.48) and the number of inhabited houses (r = -0.60). The incidence of P. vivax malaria was associated only with landscape

  7. Question Form and Meaning in the Speech of Young Children Learning French. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 18.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightbown, Patsy M.

    This paper is based on a longitudinal study of the development of questions in the spontaneous speech of two anglophone boys learning French by attending French language schools. The development of form-meaning relations in information questions in the children's French L2 speech was examined and comparisons were made with the same form-meaning…

  8. Early Lexical and Syntactic Development in Quebec French and English: Implications for Cross-Linguistic and Bilingual Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thordardottir, Elin T.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Although a number of studies have been conducted on normal acquisition in French, systematic methods for analysis of French and normative group data have been lacking. Aims: To develop a systematic method for the analysis of language samples in Quebec French, and to provide preliminary normative data on early lexical and syntactic…

  9. Effect of Constructivist Teaching Method on Students' Achievement in French Listening Comprehension in Owerri North LGA of Imo State, Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uwalaka, A. J.; Offorma, G. C.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of constructivist teaching method on students' achievement in French listening comprehension in Owerri North Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Achievement in French listening comprehension over the years has been discouraging. The conventional method of teaching French Language has not improved the…

  10. Fundamental physics in space: The French contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léon-Hirtz, Sylvie

    2003-08-01

    This paper outlines the space Fundamental Physics projects developped under CNES responsability together with the french scientific community, either in the national french programme or in the french contribution to the ESA programme, mainly: -the MICROSCOPE project which aims at testing the Equivalence Principle between inertial mass and gravitational mass at a high level of precision, on a microsatellite of the MYRIADE series developped by CNES, -the PHARAO cold-atom clock which is part of the ACES project of ESA, located on an external pallett of the International Space Station, together with a swiss H-MASER and a micro-wave link making comparison with ground clocks, aimed at relativistic tests and measurement of universal constants, -the T2L2 optical link allowing to compare ultra-stable and ultra-precise clocks, -a contribution to the AMS spectrometer which searches for cosmic antimatter, on the external part of the International Space Station, -a contribution to the LISA mission of ESA for direct detection and measurement of gravitational waves by interferometry, -ground-based studies on cold-atom interferometers which could be part of the HYPER project submitted to ESA.

  11. Comparison of the performance and reliability of 18 lumped hydrological models driven by ECMWF rainfall ensemble forecasts: a case study on 29 French catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velázquez, Juan Alberto; Anctil, François; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Perrin, Charles

    2010-05-01

    provide reliable probabilistic forecasts of streamflow, based on ensemble weather predictions. The models were therefore adapted to run in a forecasting mode, i.e., to update initial conditions according to the last observed discharge at the time of the forecast, and to cope with ensemble weather scenarios. All models are lumped, i.e., the hydrological behavior is integrated over the spatial scale of the catchment, and run at daily time steps. The complexity of tested models varies between 3 and 13 parameters. The models are tested on 29 French catchments. Daily streamflow time series extend over 17 months, from March 2005 to July 2006. Catchment areas range between 1470 km2 and 9390 km2, and represent a variety of hydrological and meteorological conditions. The 12 UTC 10-day ECMWF rainfall ensemble (51 members) was used, which led to daily streamflow forecasts for a 9-day lead time. In order to assess the performance and reliability of the hydrological ensemble predictions, we computed the Continuous Ranked probability Score (CRPS) (Matheson and Winkler, 1976), as well as the reliability diagram (e.g. Wilks, 1995) and the rank histogram (Talagrand et al., 1999). Since the ECMWF deterministic forecasts are also available, the performance of the hydrological forecasting systems was also evaluated by comparing the deterministic score (MAE) with the probabilistic score (CRPS). The results obtained for the 18 hydrological models and the 29 studied catchments are discussed in the perspective of improving the operational use of ensemble forecasting in hydrology. References Bartholmes, J. and Todini, E.: Coupling meteorological and hydrological models for flood forecasting, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 9, 333-346, 2005. Cloke, H. and Pappenberger, F.: Ensemble Flood Forecasting: A Review. Journal of Hydrology 375 (3-4): 613-626, 2009. Jaun, S., Ahrens, B., Walser, A., Ewen, T., and Schär, C.: A probabilistic view on the August 2005 floods in the upper Rhine catchment, Nat. Hazards

  12. Learning to perceive English /d/ versus /edh/: A comparison of French, English, and English-French bilingual 4-year-olds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundara, Megha; Polka, Linda; Campisi, Lisa; Genesee, Fred; Marcoux, Caroline

    2002-05-01

    Recent findings show that discrimination of the English /d-edh/ does not differ for English and French infants (6-8-month-olds and 10-12-month-olds), although English adults clearly outperform French adults on this contrast, which is not phonemic in French. With respect to age effects, English listeners' perception of /d-edh/ improves between infancy and adulthood, whereas French listeners' perception remains unchanged [Polka et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109, 2190-2200 (2001)]. In the present study, we tested monolingual English, monolingual French, and early English-French bilingual 4-year-olds on the same contrast using the same stimuli and procedures to clarify when facilitative effects of language experience emerge and whether they are affected by bilingualism. Four findings are reported. First, a language effect (English>French) is evident by 4 years of age. Second, among native (English) listeners facilitative effects are evident by 4-years of age (infants<4-year-oldsFrench) listeners discrimination performance is comparable across the age groups tested (infants=4-year-olds=adults). Fourth, bilingual 4-year-olds' performance is virtually identical to that of their French-speaking peers, revealing a strong effect of bilingualism on the perception of this contrast. Several factors contributing to these findings will be discussed.

  13. French NATO policy: The next five years. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, G.

    1990-06-01

    France, having long proclaimed the need to change the European status quo, regards the potential for change in the structure of European relationships with more anxiety than do most of its allies. However, French security assumptions have not remained static. French policy has been adjusting for some time, but this movement is only partially related to the changes set loose by Soviet President Gorbachev, and can be understood only in the broader context of the security perspectives that have guided French thinking since the end of World War II. This study traces the roots of Charles de Gaulle's policies and describes the nearly 15-year-long transition away from purist Gaullism toward a new compromise between independence and integration. The author describes the adjustments taken in response, including several important steps to improve the interaction between the French military and NATO, and ways that French diplomacy of the early 1980s began to emphasize common NATO positions. The author then examines the emerging policy environment and its effects on the basic assumptions underpinning French policy. He concludes that in the future, France will be easier to work with as an ally, but will continue to seek autonomy in the East-West dialogue.

  14. Strategies for improved French-language health services

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Alain P.; Timony, Patrick E.; Serresse, Suzanne; Goodale, Natalie; Prpic, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify strategies to improve the quality of health services for Francophone patients. Design A series of semistructured key informant interviews. Setting Northeastern Ontario. Participants A total of 18 physicians were interviewed. Ten physicians were interviewed in French, 7 physicians were women, and 10 physicians were located in urban communities. Methods Purposive and snowball sampling strategies were used to conduct a series of semistructured key informant interviews with family physicians practising in communities with a large Francophone population. Principles of grounded theory were applied, guided by a framework for patient-professional communication. Results were inductively derived following an iterative data collection–data analysis process and were analyzed using a detailed thematic approach. Main findings Respondents identified several strategies for providing high-quality French-language health services. Some were unique to non–French-speaking physicians (eg, using appropriate interpreter services), some were unique to French-speaking physicians (eg, using a flexible dialect), and some strategies were common to all physicians serving French populations (eg, hiring bilingual staff or having pamphlets and posters in both French and English). Conclusion Physicians interviewed for this study provided high-quality health care by attributing substantial importance to effective communication. While linguistic patient-to-physician concordance is ideal, it might not always be possible. Thus, conscious efforts to attenuate communication barriers are necessary, and several effective strategies exist. PMID:26505060

  15. Retraining French Language Educators in the Teaching of Commercial French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marfurt, Rose Marie A.

    A retraining program for language teachers wishing to teach college-level business French is described. The course may be taught in five 5-hour weekend seminars or in a 2-week summer seminar of 12 hours per week. Since the teachers already have language skills, the course focuses on building confidence and interest in the subject matter by showing…

  16. Association between Prenatal Exposure to Antiretroviral Therapy and Birth Defects: An Analysis of the French Perinatal Cohort Study (ANRS CO1/CO11)

    PubMed Central

    Sibiude, Jeanne; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Blanche, Stéphane; Le Chenadec, Jérôme; Boullag-Bonnet, Naima; Faye, Albert; Dollfus, Catherine; Tubiana, Roland; Bonnet, Damien; Lelong, Nathalie; Khoshnood, Babak; Warszawski, Josiane

    2014-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has major benefits during pregnancy, both for maternal health and to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Safety issues, including teratogenic risk, need to be evaluated. We estimated the prevalence of birth defects in children born to HIV-infected women receiving ART during pregnancy, and assessed the independent association of birth defects with each antiretroviral (ARV) drug used. Methods and Findings The French Perinatal Cohort prospectively enrolls HIV-infected women delivering in 90 centers throughout France. Children are followed by pediatricians until 2 y of age according to national guidelines. We included 13,124 live births between 1994 and 2010, among which, 42% (n = 5,388) were exposed to ART in the first trimester of pregnancy. Birth defects were studied using both European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) and Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP) classifications; associations with ART were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Correction for multiple comparisons was not performed because the analyses were based on hypotheses emanating from previous findings in the literature and the robustness of the findings of the current study. The prevalence of birth defects was 4.4% (95% CI 4.0%–4.7%), according to the EUROCAT classification. In multivariate analysis adjusting for other ARV drugs, maternal age, geographical origin, intravenous drug use, and type of maternity center, a significant association was found between exposure to zidovudine in the first trimester and congenital heart defects: 2.3% (74/3,267), adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.2 (95% CI 1.3–3.7), p = 0.003, absolute risk difference attributed to zidovudine +1.2% (95% CI +0.5; +1.9%). Didanosine and indinavir were associated with head and neck defects, respectively: 0.5%, AOR = 3.4 (95% CI 1.1–10.4), p = 0.04; 0.9%, AOR = 3.8 (95% CI 1.1–13.8), p = 0

  17. Computer-based neuro-vision system for color classification of french fries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panigrahi, Suranjan; Wiesenborn, Dennis

    1995-01-01

    French fries are one of the frozen foods with rising demands in domestic and international markets. Color is one of the critical attributes for quality evaluation of french fries. This study discusses the development of a color computer vision system and the integration of neural network technology for objective color evaluation and classification of french fries. The classification accuracy of a prototype back-propagation network developed for this purpose was found to be 96%.

  18. Management of neutropenic patients in the intensive care unit (NEWBORNS EXCLUDED) recommendations from an expert panel from the French Intensive Care Society (SRLF) with the French Group for Pediatric Intensive Care Emergencies (GFRUP), the French Society of Anesthesia and Intensive Care (SFAR), the French Society of Hematology (SFH), the French Society for Hospital Hygiene (SF2H), and the French Infectious Diseases Society (SPILF).

    PubMed

    Schnell, David; Azoulay, Elie; Benoit, Dominique; Clouzeau, Benjamin; Demaret, Pierre; Ducassou, Stéphane; Frange, Pierre; Lafaurie, Matthieu; Legrand, Matthieu; Meert, Anne-Pascale; Mokart, Djamel; Naudin, Jérôme; Pene, Frédéric; Rabbat, Antoine; Raffoux, Emmanuel; Ribaud, Patricia; Richard, Jean-Christophe; Vincent, François; Zahar, Jean-Ralph; Darmon, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Neutropenia is defined by either an absolute or functional defect (acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome) of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and is associated with high risk of specific complications that may require intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Specificities in the management of critically ill neutropenic patients prompted the establishment of guidelines dedicated to intensivists. These recommendations were drawn up by a panel of experts brought together by the French Intensive Care Society in collaboration with the French Group for Pediatric Intensive Care Emergencies, the French Society of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, the French Society of Hematology, the French Society for Hospital Hygiene, and the French Infectious Diseases Society. Literature review and formulation of recommendations were performed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Each recommendation was then evaluated and rated by each expert using a methodology derived from the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method. Six fields are covered by the provided recommendations: (1) ICU admission and prognosis, (2) protective isolation and prophylaxis, (3) management of acute respiratory failure, (4) organ failure and organ support, (5) antibiotic management and source control, and (6) hematological management. Most of the provided recommendations are obtained from low levels of evidence, however, suggesting a need for additional studies. Seven recommendations were, however, associated with high level of evidences and are related to protective isolation, diagnostic workup of acute respiratory failure, medical management, and timing surgery in patients with typhlitis.

  19. Management of neutropenic patients in the intensive care unit (NEWBORNS EXCLUDED) recommendations from an expert panel from the French Intensive Care Society (SRLF) with the French Group for Pediatric Intensive Care Emergencies (GFRUP), the French Society of Anesthesia and Intensive Care (SFAR), the French Society of Hematology (SFH), the French Society for Hospital Hygiene (SF2H), and the French Infectious Diseases Society (SPILF).

    PubMed

    Schnell, David; Azoulay, Elie; Benoit, Dominique; Clouzeau, Benjamin; Demaret, Pierre; Ducassou, Stéphane; Frange, Pierre; Lafaurie, Matthieu; Legrand, Matthieu; Meert, Anne-Pascale; Mokart, Djamel; Naudin, Jérôme; Pene, Frédéric; Rabbat, Antoine; Raffoux, Emmanuel; Ribaud, Patricia; Richard, Jean-Christophe; Vincent, François; Zahar, Jean-Ralph; Darmon, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Neutropenia is defined by either an absolute or functional defect (acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome) of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and is associated with high risk of specific complications that may require intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Specificities in the management of critically ill neutropenic patients prompted the establishment of guidelines dedicated to intensivists. These recommendations were drawn up by a panel of experts brought together by the French Intensive Care Society in collaboration with the French Group for Pediatric Intensive Care Emergencies, the French Society of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, the French Society of Hematology, the French Society for Hospital Hygiene, and the French Infectious Diseases Society. Literature review and formulation of recommendations were performed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Each recommendation was then evaluated and rated by each expert using a methodology derived from the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method. Six fields are covered by the provided recommendations: (1) ICU admission and prognosis, (2) protective isolation and prophylaxis, (3) management of acute respiratory failure, (4) organ failure and organ support, (5) antibiotic management and source control, and (6) hematological management. Most of the provided recommendations are obtained from low levels of evidence, however, suggesting a need for additional studies. Seven recommendations were, however, associated with high level of evidences and are related to protective isolation, diagnostic workup of acute respiratory failure, medical management, and timing surgery in patients with typhlitis. PMID:27638133

  20. How To Cope with the French: Keys to Understanding French Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarro, Brian J.

    To deal successfully with the French people in business, the American must first be conversant with his own culture. The French have a tradition of firm opinions and take an intellectual view of the world. Thinking is hierarchical, as is the French society. Education emphasizes strong command of the French language and all formal aspects of French…

  1. French pharmacovigilance: Missions, organization and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Vial, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    Pharmacovigilance aims to identify unknown adverse drug reactions once clinical development is complete, in order to promote improved use of drugs, and thus a reduction in risk for every exposed patient. We describe in this article the missions of French pharmacovigilance system, including French drug agency, Regional Centers of Pharmacovigilance, health professionals, pharmaceutical companies, patients and their associations. We also develop the French pharmacovigilance organization, its perspectives and challenges, both in French and European levels.

  2. Comparison of British and French expatriate doctors’ characteristics and motivations

    PubMed Central

    Quantin, Catherine; Abbas, Rachid; Hagi, Mathieu; Breton, Gwenaelle Le; Romestaing, M; Carnet, Dider

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to analyse the migration of doctors between the UK and France, in an attempt to identify the reasons for these migrations. Design This was a cross-sectional study conducted using a self-completed questionnaire. Setting The questionnaire was sent to all British doctors practising in France and to all French doctors practising in the UK. Participants The doctors were identified, thanks to official data of the National Medical Councils. There were 244 French doctors practising in the UK and 86 British doctors practising in France. Outcome measures A questionnaire was specifically developed for the study to determine the reasons why doctors moved to the other country and their level of satisfaction with regard to their expatriation. Results A total of 98 French doctors (of 244) and 40 British doctors (of 86) returned the questionnaire. The motivations of the two studied populations were different: French doctors were attracted by the conditions offered by the National Health Service, whereas British doctors were more interested in opportunities for career advancement, moved to join a husband or wife or to benefit from favourable environmental conditions. Overall, the doctors who responded considered the expatriation a satisfactory experience. After expatriation, 84% of French doctors were satisfied with their new professional situation compared with only 58% of British doctors. Conclusions This study, which is the first of its kind and based on representative samples, has led to a clearer understanding of the migration of doctors between France and the UK. PMID:23192244

  3. French Spelling Rectifications: A Failed Coup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, Ron

    1992-01-01

    The proposed 1991 reforms to French spelling discussed in a previous issue of "Babel" have been abandoned. This article notes the history of other efforts to rectify French spelling and reviews the French Academy's decision-making process in the current effort. (LB)

  4. Driving in French for American Tourists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Philip

    This booklet is intended to assist the English-speaking tourist driving in a French-speaking country to communicate with service station attendants and to read road signs. The booklet is divided into three sections: (1) an English-French listing of parts of the car and useful expressions; (2) common European road signs; and (3) a French-English…

  5. A Comparative Evaluation of French Grammar Checkers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burston, Jack

    1996-01-01

    Four grammar checkers, all of French Canadian origin, were evaluated: "Le Correcteur 101,""GramR,""Hugo Plus," and "French Proofing Tools." Results indicate that "Le Correcteur 101" is the best French grammar checker on the market and worth its premium cost. (two references) (CK)

  6. La Langue Francaise (The French Language)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quemada, Bernard

    1975-01-01

    This annotated bibliography cites works concerning the French language, including works by foreign authors in translation, with nine major topics: bibliographies; introductory linguistics, the formation and evolution of French; phonetics and phonology, lexicography, grammar, language variation, stylistics, and translation. (Text is in French.)…

  7. Commercial French in a Liberal Arts Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrate, Jayne

    Drury College (Missouri) has developed a commercial French course that is practical, situation-oriented, and provides instruction in correspondence and translation. The course is considered part of the cultural segment of the French program. It enrolls majors in business, French, and a variety of other disciplines, and emphasizes contextual…

  8. More French, s'il vous plait!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillivray, W. Russ, Ed.

    The collection of essays on French second language instruction in Canada, directed to parents, includes: "Our Brave New World" (Andrew Kniewasser); "French in Your School: Identifying and Achieving the Right Program" (Carolyn Hodych, Jos Scott); "So, You're Worried About Becoming an Immersion Parent" (Judy Gibson); "Is Core French a Valid Option?"…

  9. English versus French: Language Rivalry in Tunisia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battenburg, John

    1997-01-01

    Examines the competition between English and French in Tunisian educational institutions and programs. Scrutinizes two periods in postprotectorate Tunisia: the introduction of English and the spread of English. Findings indicate that the decline in French linguistic influence may be accompanied by a future decrease in French political and economic…

  10. Getting It Done in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iodice, Don R.; And Others

    A first semester course in French, originally developed for executives of a major international company, is presented here. As its objective is to provide the "survival skills" useful in everyday situations in France, primary attention is given to the intelligibility and comprehensibility of communication. The context of the dialogues, vocabulary,…

  11. An Interview with Fiona French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, David

    2005-01-01

    In this interview Fiona French discusses her work and career with David Lewis. She describes early influences and stresses her lifelong love of colour and pattern. Amongst other themes she considers the factual basis of most of her books and her lack of interest in fantasy; her preference for clear, simple prose; her constant shifts in style and…

  12. A French Speaking Proficiency Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimsleur, Paul

    An attempt to test students objectively in a five-part, French, speaking proficiency test is described and discussed. Concrete nouns, abstract words, pronunciation, syntax, and fluency are tested with a combination of tape and picture stimuli. Reliability, validity, and practical questions are raised; and previous aural-oral testing procedures are…

  13. Acculturators for French, Vol. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Tullio, Thomas, Ed.

    This set of teaching units, called acculturators, is designed to introduce French language students to that culture. The acculturators deal with gestures, customs, family life, daily habits, and other aspects of culture. The intent is to aid the student in becoming as much a part of the target culture as his psychological and intellectual…

  14. French on the Advanced Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlik, Teresa Wilkinson

    1969-01-01

    Presented in this article is an outline of some of the special interest course work included in the curriculum guidelines being developed in the Atlanta Public Schools System for advanced secondary school French classes. Titles of the audiolingually-oriented courses described are--(1) "Teenagers and Teenage Life in France Today," (2) "The Arts in…

  15. Biodiversity baseline of the French Guiana spider fauna.

    PubMed

    Vedel, Vincent; Rheims, Christina; Murienne, Jérôme; Brescovit, Antonio Domingos

    2013-01-01

    The need for an updated list of spiders found in French Guiana rose recently due to many upcoming studies planned. In this paper, we list spiders from French Guiana from existing literature (with corrected nomenclature when necessary) and from 2142 spiders sampled in 12 sites for this baseline study. Three hundred and sixty four validated species names of spider were found in the literature and previous authors' works. Additional sampling, conducted for this study added another 89 identified species and 62 other species with only a genus name for now. The total species of spiders sampled in French Guiana is currently 515. Many other Morphospecies were found but not described as species yet. An accumulation curve was drawn with seven of the sampling sites and shows no plateau yet. Therefore, the number of species inhabiting French Guiana cannot yet be determined. As the very large number of singletons found in the collected materials suggests, the accumulation curve indicates nevertheless that more sampling is necessary to discover the many unknown spider species living in French Guiana, with a focus on specific periods (dry season and wet season) and on specific and poorly studied habitats such as canopy, inselberg and cambrouze (local bamboo monospecific forest).

  16. The Mini Mental State Examination at the Time of Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Diagnosis, According to Age, Education, Gender and Place of Residence: A Cross-Sectional Study among the French National Alzheimer Database

    PubMed Central

    Pradier, Christian; Sakarovitch, Charlotte; Le Duff, Franck; Layese, Richard; Metelkina, Asya; Anthony, Sabine; Tifratene, Karim; Robert, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was firstly to describe the MMSE (Mini-Mental State Examination) score upon initial diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders among the French population, according to age. Secondly, education, gender and place of residence were studied as factors potentially associated with delayed Alzheimer's disease diagnosis. Design we conducted a cross sectional analysis of the French National Alzheimer database (BNA). Data from 2008 to 2012 were extracted. Patients were selected at the moment of their first diagnosis of AD (n = 39,451). Results The MMSE score at initial diagnosis dropped significantly with increasing age. The test score increased with the degree of educational background regardless of age. Gender and place of residence were significantly related to the MMSE score, women and persons living in medical institutions having lower MMSE scores under the age of 90 years and at all educational levels. Conclusions Health care professionals should be aware of these risk factors in order to maximize chances of earliest possible diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. PMID:25093735

  17. Francais langue seconde: trousse d'evaluation--tests modeles pour les cours: French 31a (Avance 7); French 31b (Avance 8); French 31c (Avance 9) (French as a Second Language: Evaluation Resource Package--Model Tests for the Courses: French 31a (Advanced 7); French 31b (Advanced 8); French 31c (Advanced 9)).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Language Services Branch.

    The French as a Second Language model tests for advanced levels 7, 8, and 9 were designed to evaluate students' language performance, as outlined in the program of studies for Alberta, Canada, in listening and reading comprehension and oral and written production, communication skills, culture, language and general language knowledge. The tests…

  18. Comparison of the performance and reliability of 18 lumped hydrological models driven by ECMWF rainfall ensemble forecasts: a case study on 29 French catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velázquez, Juan Alberto; Anctil, François; Ramos, Maria-Helena; Perrin, Charles

    2010-05-01

    provide reliable probabilistic forecasts of streamflow, based on ensemble weather predictions. The models were therefore adapted to run in a forecasting mode, i.e., to update initial conditions according to the last observed discharge at the time of the forecast, and to cope with ensemble weather scenarios. All models are lumped, i.e., the hydrological behavior is integrated over the spatial scale of the catchment, and run at daily time steps. The complexity of tested models varies between 3 and 13 parameters. The models are tested on 29 French catchments. Daily streamflow time series extend over 17 months, from March 2005 to July 2006. Catchment areas range between 1470 km2 and 9390 km2, and represent a variety of hydrological and meteorological conditions. The 12 UTC 10-day ECMWF rainfall ensemble (51 members) was used, which led to daily streamflow forecasts for a 9-day lead time. In order to assess the performance and reliability of the hydrological ensemble predictions, we computed the Continuous Ranked probability Score (CRPS) (Matheson and Winkler, 1976), as well as the reliability diagram (e.g. Wilks, 1995) and the rank histogram (Talagrand et al., 1999). Since the ECMWF deterministic forecasts are also available, the performance of the hydrological forecasting systems was also evaluated by comparing the deterministic score (MAE) with the probabilistic score (CRPS). The results obtained for the 18 hydrological models and the 29 studied catchments are discussed in the perspective of improving the operational use of ensemble forecasting in hydrology. References Bartholmes, J. and Todini, E.: Coupling meteorological and hydrological models for flood forecasting, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 9, 333-346, 2005. Cloke, H. and Pappenberger, F.: Ensemble Flood Forecasting: A Review. Journal of Hydrology 375 (3-4): 613-626, 2009. Jaun, S., Ahrens, B., Walser, A., Ewen, T., and Schär, C.: A probabilistic view on the August 2005 floods in the upper Rhine catchment, Nat. Hazards

  19. On-Line Grammaticality Judgments in French Children and Adults: A Crosslinguistic Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kail, Michele

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the on-line processing of French sentences in a grammaticality judgment experiment. Three age groups of French children (mean age: 6;8, 8;6 and 10;10 years) and a group of adults were asked to detect grammatical violations as quickly as possible. Three factors were studied: the violation type: agreement violations (number and…

  20. Utilizing Journal Dissertation Listings for Bibliometric Analysis: French History Dissertations 1976-1990

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herubel, Jean-Pierre V. M.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the use and importance of examining dissertations listed in scholarly journals, while focusing on a critical period of French doctoral education in historical studies. French dissertations in history were bibliometrically examined from "Revue historique," a mainstream history journal published in France.…

  1. Corporate Image and the Establishment of Euro Disney: Mickey Mouse and the French Press.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Janis

    1998-01-01

    Considers interweaving themes that characterized the construction of Euro Disney, drawing upon articles in the French press. Offers analysis of the historical context for and the implications of the park's construction, using the literature of French cultural studies and cross-cultural studies for support. Discusses possible consequences to the…

  2. French Canadian Children's Production of Certain Structures and the Bilingual Syntax Measure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beer-Toker, Mia; Hamayan, Else

    1981-01-01

    Presents study designed to investigate production of certain structures in French by native-speaking French Canadian children using the Bilingual Syntax Measure. Data show no difference in production for structures studied across ages; however, significant difference was found in extent to which structures were produced correctly. (Author/BK)

  3. Does language matter? A case study of epidemiological and public health journals, databases and professional education in French, German and Italian

    PubMed Central

    Baussano, Iacopo; Brzoska, Patrick; Fedeli, Ugo; Larouche, Claudia; Razum, Oliver; Fung, Isaac C-H

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiology and public health are usually context-specific. Journals published in different languages and countries play a role both as sources of data and as channels through which evidence is incorporated into local public health practice. Databases in these languages facilitate access to relevant journals, and professional education in these languages facilitates the growth of native expertise in epidemiology and public health. However, as English has become the lingua franca of scientific communication in the era of globalisation, many journals published in non-English languages face the difficult dilemma of either switching to English and competing internationally, or sticking to the native tongue and having a restricted circulation among a local readership. This paper discusses the historical development of epidemiology and the current scene of epidemiological and public health journals, databases and professional education in three Western European languages: French, German and Italian, and examines the dynamics and struggles they have today. PMID:18826570

  4. Prevalence of p16 and CDK4 germline mutations in 48 melanoma-prone families in France. The French Familial Melanoma Study Group.

    PubMed

    Soufir, N; Avril, M F; Chompret, A; Demenais, F; Bombled, J; Spatz, A; Stoppa-Lyonnet, D; Bénard, J; Bressac-de Paillerets, B

    1998-02-01

    Germline mutations in the p16 and CDK4 genes have been reported in a subset of melanoma pedigrees, but their prevalence is not well known. We searched for such germline mutations in 48 French melanoma-prone families selected according to two major criteria: families with at least three affected members (n = 20) or families with two affected members, one of them affected before the age of 50 (n = 28), and one additional minor criterion. Sixteen different p16 germline mutations were found in 21 families, while one germline mutation, Arg24His, was detected in the CDK4 gene. The frequency of p16 gene mutation in our sample (44%) is among the highest rates yet reported and the CDK4 mutation is the second mutation detected in this gene worldwide. In summary, our results show frequent involvement of the p16 gene in familial melanoma and confirm the role of the CDK4 gene as a melanoma-predisposing gene.

  5. Does language matter? A case study of epidemiological and public health journals, databases and professional education in French, German and Italian.

    PubMed

    Baussano, Iacopo; Brzoska, Patrick; Fedeli, Ugo; Larouche, Claudia; Razum, Oliver; Fung, Isaac C-H

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiology and public health are usually context-specific. Journals published in different languages and countries play a role both as sources of data and as channels through which evidence is incorporated into local public health practice. Databases in these languages facilitate access to relevant journals, and professional education in these languages facilitates the growth of native expertise in epidemiology and public health. However, as English has become the lingua franca of scientific communication in the era of globalisation, many journals published in non-English languages face the difficult dilemma of either switching to English and competing internationally, or sticking to the native tongue and having a restricted circulation among a local readership. This paper discusses the historical development of epidemiology and the current scene of epidemiological and public health journals, databases and professional education in three Western European languages: French, German and Italian, and examines the dynamics and struggles they have today. PMID:18826570

  6. Does use of tropical beaches by tourists and island residents result in damage to fringing coral reefs? A case study in Moorea French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Juhasz, Allison; Ho, Ellen; Bender, Erika; Fong, Peggy

    2010-12-01

    Although coral reefs worldwide are subject to increasing global threats, humans also impact coral reefs directly through localized activities such as snorkeling, kayaking and fishing. We investigated five sites on the northern shore of Moorea, French Polynesia, and quantified the number of visitors on the beach and in shallow water. In field surveys, we measured total coral cover and colony sizes of two common genera, Porites and Acropora, a massive and branching morphology, respectively. One site, which hosted over an order of magnitude more people than the other four, had significantly less total coral cover and supported very little branching Acropora. In addition, size frequency distributions of both the branching and massive genera were skewed toward smaller colony sizes at the high use site. Our results demonstrated that the use of tropical beaches may result in less coral cover, with branching colonies rare and small.

  7. Does language matter? A case study of epidemiological and public health journals, databases and professional education in French, German and Italian.

    PubMed

    Baussano, Iacopo; Brzoska, Patrick; Fedeli, Ugo; Larouche, Claudia; Razum, Oliver; Fung, Isaac C-H

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiology and public health are usually context-specific. Journals published in different languages and countries play a role both as sources of data and as channels through which evidence is incorporated into local public health practice. Databases in these languages facilitate access to relevant journals, and professional education in these languages facilitates the growth of native expertise in epidemiology and public health. However, as English has become the lingua franca of scientific communication in the era of globalisation, many journals published in non-English languages face the difficult dilemma of either switching to English and competing internationally, or sticking to the native tongue and having a restricted circulation among a local readership. This paper discusses the historical development of epidemiology and the current scene of epidemiological and public health journals, databases and professional education in three Western European languages: French, German and Italian, and examines the dynamics and struggles they have today.

  8. [SURPS French version validation in a Quebec adolescent population].

    PubMed

    Castonguay-Jolin, Laura; Perrier-Ménard, Eveline; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Garel, Patricia; Séguin, Jean R; Conrod, Patricia J

    2013-09-01

    Objective: The Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) has been developed to screen personality risk factors for substance misuse. This scale assesses 4 high-risk personality traits using a 23-item, self-report questionnaire. SURPS helps guiding targeted approaches to prevention of substance abuse and misuse. It has been validated in the United Kingdom, English Canada, Sri Lanka, and China. This study aims to validate this scale in a sample of French-speaking adolescents from Quebec as well as its sensitivity in a clinical sample of adolescents. Method: Two hundred two 15-year-old youths from a community sample completed a French version of SURPS as well as other measures of personality and substance use. This study reports the internal consistency and concurrent validity of the scale, as well as a factor analysis of items. Further, 40 youths (mean age 15.7 years) from a clinical population completed SURPS and their scores were compared with those of the community sample. Results: SURPS French translation has good internal consistency and demonstrated a 4-factor structure very similar to the original scale. The 4 subscales show good concurrent validity, and 3 of the subscales were found to correlate with measures of substance use. Finally, 95% of the clinical sample was identified at high risk for substance misuse according to SURPS cut-off scores. Conclusion: SURPS French translation seems to be a valid and sensitive scale that can be used in a French-speaking adolescent population from Quebec.

  9. Are different facets of plant diversity well protected against climate and land cover changes? A test study in the French Alps

    PubMed Central

    Thuiller, Wilfried; Guéguen, Maya; Georges, Damien; Bonet, Richard; Chalmandrier, Loïc; Garraud, Luc; Renaud, Julien; Roquet, Cristina; Van Es, Jérémie; Zimmermann, Niklaus E.; Lavergne, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    Climate and land cover changes are important drivers of the plant species distributions and diversity patterns in mountainous regions. Although the need for a multifaceted view of diversity based on taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic dimensions is now commonly recognized, there are no complete risk assessments concerning their expected changes. In this paper, we used a range of species distribution models in an ensemble-forecasting framework together with regional climate and land cover projections by 2080 to analyze the potential threat for more than 2,500 plant species at high resolution (2.5 km × 2.5 km) in the French Alps. We also decomposed taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic diversity facets into α and β components and analyzed their expected changes by 2080. Overall, plant species threats from climate and land cover changes in the French Alps were expected to vary depending on the species’ preferred altitudinal vegetation zone, rarity, and conservation status. Indeed, rare species and species of conservation concern were the ones projected to experience less severe change, and also the ones being the most efficiently preserved by the current network of protected areas. Conversely, the three facets of plant diversity were also projected to experience drastic spatial re-shuffling by 2080. In general, the mean α-diversity of the three facets was projected to increase to the detriment of regional β-diversity, although the latter was projected to remain high at the montane-alpine transition zones. Our results show that, due to a high-altitude distribution, the current protection network is efficient for rare species, and species predicted to migrate upward. Although our modeling framework may not capture all possible mechanisms of species range shifts, our work illustrates that a comprehensive risk assessment on an entire floristic region combined with functional and phylogenetic information can help delimitate future scenarios of biodiversity and

  10. Cigeo, the French Geological Repository Project - 13022

    SciTech Connect

    Labalette, Thibaud; Harman, Alain; Dupuis, Marie-Claude; Ouzounian, Gerald

    2013-07-01

    The Cigeo industrial-scale geological disposal centre is designed for the disposal of the most highly-radioactive French waste. It will be built in an argillite formation of the Callovo-Oxfordian dating back 160 million years. The Cigeo project is located near the Bure village in the Paris Basin. The argillite formation was studied since 1974, and from the Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory since end of 1999. Most of the waste to be disposed of in the Cigeo repository comes from nuclear power plants and from reprocessing of their spent fuel. (authors)

  11. Norovirus contamination on French marketed oysters

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Julien; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Lora, Monica; Atmar, Robert L.; Le Guyader, Françoise S.

    2014-01-01

    Contaminated shellfish have been implicated in gastroenteritis outbreaks in different countries. As no regulation has been set up yet regarding viral contamination of food, very few data are available on the prevalence of contaminated products on the market. This study presents data obtained from oysters collected on the French market in one producing area over a 16 month period of time. Noroviruses were detected in 9% of samples with a seasonal impact and influence of climatic events. Contamination levels were low and, surprisingly, oysters sampled directly from the producer were found to have less contamination than oysters from supermarkets. PMID:23973835

  12. French roots of French neo-lamarckisms, 1879-1985.

    PubMed

    Loison, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    This essay attempts to describe the neo-Lamarckian atmosphere that was dominant in French biology for more than a century. Firstly, we demonstrate that there were not one but at least two French neo-Lamarckian traditions. This implies, therefore, that it is possible to propose a clear definition of a (neo)Lamarckian conception, and by using it, to distinguish these two traditions. We will see that these two conceptions were not dominant at the same time. The first French neo-Lamarckism (1879-1931) was structured by a very mechanic view of natural processes. The main representatives of this first period were scientists such as Alfred Giard (1846-1908), Gaston Bonnier (1853-1922) and Félix Le Dantec (1869-1917). The second Lamarckism - much more vitalist in its inspiration - started to develop under the supervision of people such as Albert Vandel (1894-1980) and Pierre-Paul Grassé (1895-1985). Secondly, this essay suggests that the philosophical inclinations of these neo-Lamarckisms reactivated a very ancient and strong dichotomy of French thought. One part of this dichotomy is a material, physicalist tradition, which started with René Descartes but developed extensively during the 18th and 19th centuries. The other is a spiritual and vitalist reaction to the first one, which also had a very long history, though it is most closely associated with the work of Henri Bergson. Through Claude Bernard, the first neo-Lamarckians tried to construct a mechanical and determinist form of evolutionary theory which was, in effect, a Cartesian theory. The second wave of neo-Lamarckians wanted to reconsider the autonomy and reactivity of life forms, in contrast to purely physical systems.

  13. The French Space Operations Act: Technical Regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazare, B.

    2013-12-01

    The French Space Operations Act (FSOA) [1] stipulates that one of the National Technical Regulations' prime objectives is to protect people, property, public health and the environment. Compliance with these Technical Regulations has been mandatory since 10 December, 2010 for space operations by French space operators and for space operations conducted on French territory. The space safety requirements and regulations governing procedures are based on national and international best practices and experience. A critical design review of the space system and procedures shall be carried out by applicant space operators, in order to verify compliance with the Technical Regulations. An independent technical assessment of the operation is delegated to CNES. The principles applied when drafting the Technical Regulations are as follows: requirements must, as far as possible, establish the rules according to the objective to be obtained, rather than how it is to be achieved; requirements must give preference to international standards recognised as being state of the art; requirements must take previous experience into account. The Technical Regulations are divided into three sections covering requirements common to the launch, control and return of a space object. A special section will cover specific rules to be applied at the Guiana Space Centre. The main topics addressed by the Technical Regulations are: operator safety management system; study of risks to people, property, public health and the Earth's environment; impact study on the outer space environment: space debris generated by the operation; planetary protection. The first version of the Technical Regulations [2], issued in March 2011, is dedicated to unmanned space systems.

  14. French Sizing of Medical Devices is not Fit for Purpose

    SciTech Connect

    Kibriya, Nabil Hall, Rebecca; Powell, Steven; How, Thien; McWilliams, Richard G.

    2013-08-01

    PurposeThe purpose of the study is to quantify the variation in the metric equivalent of French size in a range of medical devices, from various manufacturers, used in interventional radiology.MethodsThe labelling of a range of catheters, introducers, drains, balloons, stents, and endografts was examined. Products were chosen to achieve a broad range of French sizes from several manufacturers. To assess manufacturing accuracy, eight devices were selected for measurement using a laser micrometer. The external diameters of three specimens of each device were measured at centimeter intervals along the length of the device to ensure uniformity.ResultsA total of 200 labels of interventional radiology equipment were scrutinized. The results demonstrate a wide variation in the metric equivalent of French sizing. Labelled products can vary in diameter across the product range by up to 0.79 mm.The devices selected for measurement with the non-contact laser micrometer demonstrate acceptable manufacturing consistency. The external diameter differed by 0.05 mm on average.ConclusionsOur results demonstrate wide variation in the interpretation of the French scale by different manufacturers of medical devices. This has the potential to lead to problems using coaxial systems especially when the products are from different manufacturers. It is recommended that standard labelling should be employed by all manufacturers conveying specific details of the equipment. Given the wide variation in the interpretation of the French scale, our opinion is that this scale either needs to be abandoned or be strictly defined and followed.

  15. Updated Checklist of the Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) of French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Talaga, Stanislas; Dejean, Alain; Carinci, Romuald; Gaborit, Pascal; Dusfour, Isabelle; Girod, Romain

    2015-09-01

    The incredible mosquito species diversity in the Neotropics can provoke major confusion during vector control programs when precise identification is needed. This is especially true in French Guiana where studies on mosquito diversity practically ceased 35 yr ago. In order to fill this gap, we propose here an updated and comprehensive checklist of the mosquitoes of French Guiana, reflecting the latest changes in classification and geographical distribution and the recognition of current or erroneous synonymies. This work was undertaken in order to help ongoing and future research on mosquitoes in a broad range of disciplines such as ecology, biogeography, and medical entomology. Thirty-two valid species cited in older lists have been removed, and 24 species have been added including 12 species (comprising two new genera and three new subgenera) reported from French Guiana for the first time. New records are from collections conducted on various phytotelmata in French Guiana and include the following species: Onirion sp. cf Harbach and Peyton (2000), Sabethes (Peytonulus) hadrognathus Harbach, Sabethes (Peytonulus) paradoxus Harbach, Sabethes (Peytonulus) soperi Lane and Cerqueira, Sabethes (Sabethinus) idiogenes Harbach, Sabethes (Sabethes) quasicyaneus Peryassú, Runchomyia (Ctenogoeldia) magna (Theobald), Wyeomyia (Caenomyiella) sp. cf Harbach and Peyton (1990), Wyeomyia (Dendromyia) ypsipola Dyar, Wyeomyia (Hystatomyia) lamellata (Bonne-Wepster and Bonne), Wyeomyia (Miamyia) oblita (Lutz), and Toxorhynchites (Lynchiella) guadeloupensis (Dyar and Knab). At this time, the mosquitoes of French Guiana are represented by 235 species distributed across 22 genera, nine tribes, and two subfamilies.

  16. The French National Mesothelioma Surveillance Program

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, M; Imbernon, E; Rolland, P; Ilg, A Gilg Soit; Savès, M; de Quillacq, A; Frenay, C; Chamming's, S; Arveux, P; Boutin, C; Launoy, G; Pairon, J C; Astoul, P; Galateau‐Sallé, F; Brochard, P

    2006-01-01

    Objectives The French National Mesothelioma Surveillance Program (NMSP) was established in 1998 by the National Institute for Health Surveillance (InVS). Its objectives are to estimate the trends in mesothelioma incidence and the proportion attributable to occupational asbestos exposure, to help improve its pathology diagnosis, to assess its compensation as an occupational disease, and to contribute to research. Methods The NMSP records incident pleural tumours in 21 French districts that cover a population of approximately 16 million people (a quarter of the French population). A standardised procedure of pathological and clinical diagnosis ascertainment is used. Lifetime exposure to asbestos and to other factors (man made mineral fibres, ionising radiation, SV40 virus) is reconstructed, and a case‐control study was also conducted. The proportion of mesothelioma compensated as an occupational disease was assessed. Results Depending on the hypothesis, the estimated number of incident cases in 1998 ranged from 660 to 761 (women: 127 to 146; men: 533 to 615). Among men, the industries with the highest risks of mesothelioma are construction and ship repair, asbestos industry, and manufacture of metal construction materials; the occupations at highest risk are plumbers, pipe‐fitters, and sheet‐metal workers. The attributable risk fraction for occupational asbestos exposure in men was 83.2% (95% CI 76.8 to 89.6). The initial pathologist's diagnosis was confirmed in 67% of cases, ruled out in 13%, and left uncertain in the others; for half of the latter, the clinical findings supported a mesothelioma diagnosis. In all, 62% applied for designation of an occupational disease, and 91% of these were receiving workers' compensation. Conclusions The NMSP is a large scale epidemiological surveillance system with several original aspects, providing important information to improve the knowledge of malignant pleural mesothelioma, such as monitoring the evolution of its

  17. Snow management practices in French ski resorts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spandre, Pierre; Francois, Hugues; George-Marcelpoil, Emmanuelle; Morin, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    Winter tourism plays a fundamental role in the economy of French mountain regions but also in other countries such as Austria, USA or Canada. Ski operators originally developed grooming methods to provide comfortable and safe skiing conditions. The interannual variability of snow conditions and the competition with international destinations and alternative tourism activities encouraged ski resorts to mitigate their dependency to weather conditions through snowmaking facilities. However some regions may not be able to produce machine made snow due to inadequate conditions and low altitude resorts are still negatively impacted by low snow seasons. In the meantime, even though the operations of high altitude resorts do not show any dependency to the snow conditions they invest in snowmaking facilities. Such developments of snowmaking facilities may be related to a confused and contradictory perception of climate change resulting in individualistic evolutions of snowmaking facilities, also depending on ski resorts main features such as their altitude and size. Concurrently with the expansion of snowmaking facilities, a large range of indicators have been used to discuss the vulnerability of ski resorts such as the so-called "100 days rule" which was widely used with specific thresholds (i.e. minimum snow depth, dates) and constraints (i.e. snowmaking capacity). The present study aims to provide a detailed description of snow management practices and major priorities in French ski resorts with respect to their characteristics. We set up a survey in autumn 2014, collecting data from 56 French ski operators. We identify the priorities of ski operators and describe their snowmaking and grooming practices and facilities. The operators also provided their perception of the ski resort vulnerability to snow and economic challenges which we could compare with the actual snow conditions and ski lift tickets sales during the period from 2001 to 2012.

  18. French Nursery Schools and German Kindergartens: Effects of Individual and Contextual Variables on Early Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tazouti, Youssef; Viriot-Goeldel, Caroline; Matter, Cornelie; Geiger-Jaillet, Anemone; Carol, Rita; Deviterne, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    The present article investigates the effects of individual and contextual variables on children's early learning in French nursery schools and German kindergartens. Our study of 552 children at preschools in France (299 children from French nursery schools) and Germany (253 children from German kindergartens) measured skills that facilitate the…

  19. Differential Effects of French and Spanish Immersion Education on English Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reading, Suzanne

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the English literacy skills of children in an immersion school, some of whom were enrolled in a French program and some in a Spanish program. The English literacy skills of the children enrolled in the Spanish program were consistently better than the English literacy skills of the children enrolled in the French program. In…

  20. The Status of the "Weaker" Language in Unbalanced French/German Bilingual Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonnesen, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, I investigate the status of the so-called "weaker" language, French, in French/German bilingual first language acquisition, using data from two children from the DuFDE-corpus (see Schlyter, 1990a), Christophe and Francois. Schlyter (1993, 1994) proposes that the "weaker" language in the unbalanced children she studied has the status…

  1. Natural Gender, Phonological Cues and the Default Grammatical Gender in French Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boloh, Yves; Ibernon, Laure

    2013-01-01

    According to a dominant thesis, nominal endings are the privileged cues French children use to determine new nouns' gender subclass. Children will rely on phonology even in cases of discordance with natural gender. Two elicited production studies involving more than 250 4- to 17-year-olds showed that while French children did not base their gender…

  2. Learners' Selective Perceptions of Information during Instructed Learning in French: Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drewelow, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined how American learners of French perceived the influence of instruction on their existing stereotypes about the French people to determine the effects of these stereotypes on their language learning and cultural openness. During a semester, 22 undergraduate students, all native English speakers enrolled in 4 sections of…

  3. Cross-Cultural Comparison of a French Canadian and U.S. Developmental Screening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dionne, Carmen; Squires, Jane; Leclerc, Danielle; Peloquin, Josianne; McKinnon, Suzie

    2006-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Ages & Stages Questionnaires (ASQ) (Bricker & Squires, 1999) used in a French-Canadian preschool population were compared with psychometric data derived from U.S. normative studies. The ASQ was translated into French (Bonin, Robaey, Vandaele, Bastin, & Lacroix, 2000) and used in four early childhood day care…

  4. Cognate Awareness in French Immersion Students: Contributions to Grade 2 Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipfner-Boucher, Kathleen; Pasquarella, Adrian; Chen, Xi; Deacon, S. Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Cognate awareness is the ability to recognize the cognate relationship between words in two etymologically related languages. The current study examined the development of cognate awareness and its contribution to French (second language) reading comprehension among Canadian French immersion children. Eighty-one students were tested at the end of…

  5. French Interrogative Structures: A New Pedagogical Norm for the 21st-Century Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antes, Theresa A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated interrogative structures most frequently used by native speakers of French, in an attempt to reconcile differences between language forms taught in the French as a foreign language classroom and those that are encountered in authentic input. Radio, television, and magazine interviews provided multiple examples of…

  6. Matching Intended and Actual French Curriculum Objectives in Secondary Schools in Western Province, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omusonga, T. O.; Kazadi, I. M.; Indoshi, F. C.

    2009-01-01

    Intended French curriculum objectives refer to four official objectives of teaching and learning French in secondary schools in Kenya as laid down in syllabuses; namely, to equip learners with basic communicative skills, give learners access to oral and written materials, facilitate further studies, and promote global peace (Republic of Kenya,…

  7. Pitch Cues for the Recognition of Yes-No Questions in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vion, Monique; Colas, Annie

    2006-01-01

    Linguistic studies of the intonation of Yes-No questions in French show that, in questions containing more than two stress groups, interrogative intonation is characterized by a sequence of lowered pitches or downstepped tones which precede the final rise. The gating paradigm was used here to determine whether subjects listening to French NP…

  8. French Secondary School Students' Perceptions of the Education-Labor Market Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanquirgo, Nathalie; Turton, Richard; Killeen, John; Diamond, Wayne; Wach, Monique

    2004-01-01

    A survey was conducted to examine the strength of beliefs among French school pupils in three perceptions of the education-labor market link traditionally studied in the economy of human capital: "productivity", "screening" and "credentialism." Male and female French students aged between 14 and 24 years responded to a paper-and-pencil…

  9. Student and Teacher Perceptions of First Language Use in Secondary French Immersion Mathematics Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culligan, Karla

    2015-01-01

    This phenomenological study (Creswell, 2003, 2007; van Manen, 1997) explores student and teacher perceptions of first language use in French immersion mathematics classrooms at a large, urban high school in Canada. During individual interviews, participants discussed their perceptions and experiences of French immersion mathematics, language use,…

  10. The Career Transition Inventory: A Psychometric Evaluation of a French Version (CTI-F)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Anne; Fouquereau, Evelyne; Heppner, Mary J.

    2008-01-01

    The Career Transition Inventory (CTI) is a well-known measure for assessing perceptions of psychological resources when adults undergo a career change. The purpose of this study was to conduct a psychometric evaluation of a French version of the CTI (CTI-F). A total of 1,042 French volunteer participants completed the CTI-F. The procedure used…

  11. Year-One Evaluation of French in the Elementary Schools. Research Report 75-17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleadow, N. E.

    During the 1974-1975 school year eight itinerant French teachers travelled among 20 elementary schools teaching oral French to Grade 6 and Grade 7 students. Each teacher was responsible for two or three schools, The course was based on the book Le Francais Partout-Cours Preliminaire (1967) ed.). The study described in this report was initiated to…

  12. French space activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanc, R.

    1982-01-01

    The four main points of research and development of space programs by France are explained. The National Center of Space Studies is discussed, listing the missions of the Center and describing the activities of the staff.

  13. Difficultes phonetiques de l'acquisition du francais langue seconde (Phonetic Difficulties in the Learning of French as a Second Language).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huot, France

    The goal of this study is to discover the phonetic difficulties encountered in the acquisition of French as a second language by English-speaking children. The children are studying French in a total immersion situation without benefit of structural exercises or special French language laboratory classes. Of particular interest here is the extent…

  14. Outbreak of malaria among policemen in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Michel, Rémy; Ollivier, Lénaïck; Meynard, Jean-Baptiste; Guette, Christian; Migliani, René; Boutin, Jean-Paul

    2007-09-01

    An outbreak of malaria occurred among 62 policemen following an operation against illegal gold panning in French Guiana. A retrospective cohort study was conducted. The objectives were to describe the outbreak and to identify factors related to the cases. The total number of initial cases was 37. Both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax were detected. Twenty-seven policemen presented with one to four recurrences. In bivariate analysis, factors related to malaria were a "medium to high" level of mosquito bites pollution at night, late washing in the evening and wearing a nonimpregnated Battle Dress Uniform (BDU). This investigation confirmed the low level of compliance with chemoprophylaxis among individuals on long-term assignment in French Guiana. Compliance with mosquito protection measures was satisfactory except for the use of impregnated BDU. Several recommendations were provided. Therefore, this outbreak reminds us that malaria remains a public health problem in French Guiana.

  15. The Teaching of Medieval French at the Undergraduate Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Anne-Lise

    Criticism of the apparent academic disregard of Old French at the undergraduate level includes suggestions on ways to expand the curriculum. Discussion of philology, historical grammar, student preparation, course requirements, and the history of language is developed. Benefits of medieval study relate to: (1) preparation for graduate study, (2)…

  16. Mismatch of Vocational Graduates: What Penalty on French Labour Market?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beduwe, Catherine; Giret, Jean-Francois

    2011-01-01

    This study explores individual effects of educational mismatch on wages, job satisfaction and on-the-job-search on French labour market. We distinguish between horizontal matches (job matches with field of studies) and vertical matches (job matches the level of qualification) on the one hand and skills matches (worker's assessment) on the other…

  17. PRELIMINARY DISCRIMINATION TRAINING IN THE TEACHING OF FRENCH PRONUNCIATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    PIMSLEUR, PAUL; AND OTHERS

    A NEED TO DETERMINE THE VALUE OF PRELIMINARY DISCRIMINATION TRAINING IN INCREASING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF LANGUAGE LABORATORY PRACTICE ON THE PRONUNCIATION OF FRENCH SOUNDS HAS RESULTED IN THIS STUDY. DESCRIBED IN CHAPTER 2 ARE ELEVEN PILOT STUDIES, INVOLVING MORE THAN 1,000 STUDENTS, THAT PERMITTED THE DEVELOPMENT OF MATERIALS, TRAINING PROCEDURES,…

  18. Multimodal Indices to Japanese and French Prosodically Expressed Social Affects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rilliard, Albert; Shochi, Takaaki; Martin, Jean-Claude; Erickson, Donna; Auberge, Veronique

    2009-01-01

    Whereas several studies have explored the expression of emotions, little is known on how the visual and audio channels are combined during production of what we call the more controlled social affects, for example, "attitudinal" expressions. This article presents a perception study of the audovisual expression of 12 Japanese and 6 French attitudes…

  19. A peek at the French missile complex

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.A.; Marshall, M.G.

    1989-09-01

    Using a spot satellite image, Grayscale, an image analysis firm, analyzed the features of a complex on the Plateau d'Albion, where French intermediate-range ballistic missiles are thought to be deployed. The project was undertaken at the request of the Carnegie Endowment, as part of the Endowment's study of the security implications of commercial remote-sensing satellites. The area studied is in southern France, near the intersection of the Vaucluse, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, and Drome provinces. Features seen in relief on an image shown here are the foot-hills just west of the Alpes Maritimes. The French acknowledge publicly that they have deployed 18 IRBMs - all S-3s. Recognizing the military habits of regimentation and organization, we believed that these weapons might be organized into two groups of nine, which could be further divided into subgroups of three. Such subgroups could be firing battalions of a brigade, or two brigades with a division-level headquarters controlling both. On this basis, the authors selected candidate sites throughout the image for closer examination, and results are discussed.

  20. Testing Brief Intervention and Phone Contact among Subjects with Suicidal Behavior: A Randomized Controlled Trial in French Polynesia in the Frames of the World Health Organization/Suicide Trends in At-Risk Territories Study.

    PubMed

    Amadéo, Stéphane; Rereao, Moerani; Malogne, Aurelia; Favro, Patrick; Nguyen, Ngoc Lam; Jehel, Louis; Milner, Allison; Kolves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2015-09-30

    The World Health Organization Suicide trends in at-risk territories study is a multi-site regional research program operating first in French Polynesia and countries of the Western Pacific, then extended to the world. The aims of the study were to establish a monitoring system for suicidal behaviors and to conduct a randomised control trial intervention for non-fatal suicidal behaviors. The latter part is the purpose of the present article. Over the period 2008-2010, 515 patients were admitted at the Emergency Department of the Centre Hospitalier de Polynésie Française for suicidal behavior. Those then hospitalized in the Psychiatry Emergency Unit were asked to be involved in the study and randomly allocated to either Treatment As Usual (TAU) or TAU plus Brief Intervention and Contact (BIC), which provides a psycho-education session and a follow-up of 9 phone contacts over an 18-months period. One hundred persons were assigned to TAU, while 100 participants were allocated to the BIC group. At the end of the follow-up there were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of number of presentations to the hospital for repeated suicidal behaviors. Although the study could not demonstrate the superiority of a treatment over the other, nevertheless - given its importance - the investigation captured public attention and was able to contribute to the awareness of the need of suicide prevention in French Polynesia. The BIC model of intervention seemed to particularly suit the geographical and health care context of the country. PMID:26605034

  1. Testing Brief Intervention and Phone Contact among Subjects with Suicidal Behavior: A Randomized Controlled Trial in French Polynesia in the Frames of the World Health Organization/Suicide Trends in At-Risk Territories Study

    PubMed Central

    Amadéo, Stéphane; Rereao, Moerani; Malogne, Aurelia; Favro, Patrick; Nguyen, Ngoc Lam; Jehel, Louis; Milner, Allison; Kolves, Kairi; De Leo, Diego

    2015-01-01

    The World Health Organization Suicide trends in at-risk territories study is a multi-site regional research program operating first in French Polynesia and countries of the Western Pacific, then extended to the world. The aims of the study were to establish a monitoring system for suicidal behaviors and to conduct a randomised control trial intervention for non-fatal suicidal behaviors. The latter part is the purpose of the present article. Over the period 2008-2010, 515 patients were admitted at the Emergency Department of the Centre Hospitalier de Polynésie Française for suicidal behavior. Those then hospitalized in the Psychiatry Emergency Unit were asked to be involved in the study and randomly allocated to either Treatment As Usual (TAU) or TAU plus Brief Intervention and Contact (BIC), which provides a psycho-education session and a follow-up of 9 phone contacts over an 18-months period. One hundred persons were assigned to TAU, while 100 participants were allocated to the BIC group. At the end of the follow-up there were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of number of presentations to the hospital for repeated suicidal behaviors. Although the study could not demonstrate the superiority of a treatment over the other, nevertheless – given its importance – the investigation captured public attention and was able to contribute to the awareness of the need of suicide prevention in French Polynesia. The BIC model of intervention seemed to particularly suit the geographical and health care context of the country. PMID:26605034

  2. The French proposal for a health identification number.

    PubMed

    Quantin, Catherine; Cohen, Olivier; Riandey, Benoît; Allaert, François-André

    2006-01-01

    The French ministry of Health is setting up the personal medical record (PMR or DMP for Dossier Medical Personnel in French). This innovating tool is highly expected and will be extremely useful for the therapeutic follow-up as well as for epidemiological studies on which public health policies are based. Therefore the currently planned identifying process should prevent any epidemiological use of these data. Numerous scientific organisations have alerted government powers about the threat that this impairment represents, and they wish to promote some secure procedures that exist, which have already proved their efficiency at the national and international level.

  3. Mercury in canopy leaves of French Guiana in remote areas.

    PubMed

    Mélières, Marie-Antoinette; Pourchet, M; Charles-Dominique, P; Gaucher, P

    2003-07-20

    A study of total Hg concentration in the foliage of the canopy was carried out in two remote areas in French Guiana. The sampled canopy is representative of the French Guiana canopy. The concentration in the foliage, 64+/-14 ngg(-1) (dry wt.), is used to estimate the annual input of total Hg to the soil through the litterfall, found to be 45+/-10 microgm(-2)y(-1). As translocation is negligible, mercury in the canopy originates mainly from atmospheric uptake by the leaves and this litterfall deposit represents a direct atmospheric input from the background atmospheric load into the soil. PMID:12826397

  4. Anthropogenic extinction of Pacific land snails: a case study of Rurutu, French Polynesia, with description of eight new species of endodontids (Pulmonata).

    PubMed

    Sartori, André F; Gargominy, Olivier; Fontaine, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    Faunistic surveys are fundamental in the conservation of land mollusks, particularly as a means of achieving accurate estimates of species richness and levels of extinction of endangered taxa. The family Endodontidae comprises one of the most diverse groups of indigenous land snails of Pacific Islands. Due to anthropogenic degradation of their habitats, most members of the family are now extinct or severely endangered. In Rurutu, French Polynesia, 11 species of Endodontidae were previously described (10 endemics), but only 1 is known to have been extant during the first half of the 20th Century. Extensive collections made in Rurutu in 2003 recovered only empty shells of these 11 species, as well as of an additional 8 endemic species of endodontids not known to previous investigators: Australdonta oheatora sp. nov., A. anneae sp. nov., A. sibleti sp. nov., A. florencei sp. nov., A. pakalolo sp. nov., A. teaae sp. nov., Minidonta boucheti sp. nov. and M. bieleri sp. nov. The radiation of endodontids in Rurutu was thus much larger than previously envisaged. However, we hypothesize that all species of the family are now extinct in the island. PMID:26000422

  5. Anthropogenic extinction of Pacific land snails: a case study of Rurutu, French Polynesia, with description of eight new species of endodontids (Pulmonata).

    PubMed

    Sartori, André F; Gargominy, Olivier; Fontaine, Benoît

    2013-01-01

    Faunistic surveys are fundamental in the conservation of land mollusks, particularly as a means of achieving accurate estimates of species richness and levels of extinction of endangered taxa. The family Endodontidae comprises one of the most diverse groups of indigenous land snails of Pacific Islands. Due to anthropogenic degradation of their habitats, most members of the family are now extinct or severely endangered. In Rurutu, French Polynesia, 11 species of Endodontidae were previously described (10 endemics), but only 1 is known to have been extant during the first half of the 20th Century. Extensive collections made in Rurutu in 2003 recovered only empty shells of these 11 species, as well as of an additional 8 endemic species of endodontids not known to previous investigators: Australdonta oheatora sp. nov., A. anneae sp. nov., A. sibleti sp. nov., A. florencei sp. nov., A. pakalolo sp. nov., A. teaae sp. nov., Minidonta boucheti sp. nov. and M. bieleri sp. nov. The radiation of endodontids in Rurutu was thus much larger than previously envisaged. However, we hypothesize that all species of the family are now extinct in the island.

  6. Being a trainer in the French vocational training system: a case study of job status and working conditions in relation to perceived health.

    PubMed

    Delgoulet, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    This communication presents part of an international project focused on the work of trainers from an ergonomics perspective. The objective is to identify in the French vocational training system the various types of job status of trainers and their impact on working conditions and health. In order to explore this issue, we met with 11 trainers, all volunteers, working in the music or human resources sectors. Semi-structured interviews and transcriptions of two weeks of the trainers' professional schedules form the data collected. The analyses show that trainers have various job statuses as trainers and sometimes hold down several jobs at the same time. These working situations create freedom but lack security. With very long daily or weekly working hours, the relationships with trainees and clients are qualified as both very interesting, but also one of the most difficult aspects of the work. The 11 trainers, who considered themselves to be in good health, do however declare infra-pathological disorders, which they often relate to their working conditions. These findings are discussed with regard to the literature and raise issues relating to ergonomic methods in activity analysis and situated action.

  7. A Glossary of Agricultural Terms. English-French, French-English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Univ., Washington, DC. American Language Center.

    This volume consists of two glossaries of agricultural terms, one English-French, the other French-English. The terms provided deal with animals, plants, crop cultivation, animal husbandry and agricultural technology. (CLK)

  8. [Geographic aspects of mortality in French Polynesia].

    PubMed

    Vigneron, E

    1993-05-01

    The fast pace of social and economic changes which have occurred in French Polynesia over the last 30 years, have made this territory a choice ground for studying trends in mortality by revealing a fast and outstanding epidemiological transition. However, the breakdown of the population in small scattered human groups raises the statistical problem of measuring mortality. The crude mortality rate has decreased steadily from 17.5/1000 in 1945-1949 to 5.3/1000 over the last five years. However, the various infant mortality rate, in spite of their decline, is still exceeding those of Metropolitan France. The contrasted trends in the causes of mortality provides a means to classify French Polynesia in the group of small fast developing countries but still ranks it far behind its 'reference models' such as Metropolitan France or the developed countries in the South Pacific, Australia and New Zealand. Moreover, there are significant regional disparities which still exist between Tahiti and the outlying archipelagoes, mainly among causes of death. As a whole, distant islands remain significantly more affected by deaths resulting from infectious and parasitic diseases, in line with the model of epidemiological transition, where as the islands of Tahiti with 70% of the total population appears as a place of cumulation of infectious and degenerative diseases, in particular of overloading and cultural problems. The centre/periphery opposition between a metropolitan country and an overseas territory repeats itself at the local level between urban and rural environments. PMID:8511621

  9. [Geographic aspects of mortality in French Polynesia].

    PubMed

    Vigneron, E

    1993-05-01

    The fast pace of social and economic changes which have occurred in French Polynesia over the last 30 years, have made this territory a choice ground for studying trends in mortality by revealing a fast and outstanding epidemiological transition. However, the breakdown of the population in small scattered human groups raises the statistical problem of measuring mortality. The crude mortality rate has decreased steadily from 17.5/1000 in 1945-1949 to 5.3/1000 over the last five years. However, the various infant mortality rate, in spite of their decline, is still exceeding those of Metropolitan France. The contrasted trends in the causes of mortality provides a means to classify French Polynesia in the group of small fast developing countries but still ranks it far behind its 'reference models' such as Metropolitan France or the developed countries in the South Pacific, Australia and New Zealand. Moreover, there are significant regional disparities which still exist between Tahiti and the outlying archipelagoes, mainly among causes of death. As a whole, distant islands remain significantly more affected by deaths resulting from infectious and parasitic diseases, in line with the model of epidemiological transition, where as the islands of Tahiti with 70% of the total population appears as a place of cumulation of infectious and degenerative diseases, in particular of overloading and cultural problems. The centre/periphery opposition between a metropolitan country and an overseas territory repeats itself at the local level between urban and rural environments.

  10. Relative clauses in French children's narrative texts.

    PubMed

    Jisa, H; Kern, S

    1998-10-01

    This study investigates the use of relative clauses in French children's narrative monologues. Narrative texts were collected from French-speaking monolinguals in four age groups (five, seven, ten years and adults). Twenty subjects from each group were asked to tell a story based on a picture book consisting of twenty-four images without text (Frog, Where are you?). Relative constructions were coded following the categories defined by Dasinger & Toupin (1994) into two main functional classes: general discourse and narrative functions. The results show that the use of relative clauses in general discourse functions precedes their use in more specific narrative functions. An analysis of textual connectivity (Berman & Slobin, 1994) in one episode reveals that children and adults differ in their choice of preferred structures. The results also show that children use fewer transitive predicates in relative clauses than do adults. Transitive verbs are essential for advancing the narrative plot (Hopper & Thompson, 1980). While subject relative clauses are acquired early and used frequently, the development of their multifunctional use in diverse narrative functions extends well beyond childhood.

  11. How deaf are French speakers to stress?

    PubMed

    Michelas, Amandine; Frauenfelder, Ulrich Hans; Schön, Daniele; Dufour, Sophie

    2016-03-01

    This event-related potential study examined whether French listeners use stress at a phonological level when discriminating between stressed and unstressed words in their language. Participants heard five words and made same/different decisions about the final word (male voice) with respect to the four preceding words (different female voices). Compared to the first four context words, the target word was (i) phonemically and prosodically identical (/ʃu/-/ʃu/; control condition), (ii) phonemically identical but differing in the presence of a primary stress (/ʃu'/-/ʃu/), (iii) prosodically identical but phonemically different (/ʃo/-/ʃu/), or (iv) both phonemically and prosodically different (/ʃo'/-/ʃu/). Crucially, differences on the P200 and the following N200 components were observed for the /ʃu'/-/ʃu/ and the /ʃo/-/ʃu/ conditions compared to the /ʃu/-/ʃu/ control condition. Moreover, on the N200 component more negativity was observed for the /ʃo/-/ʃu/ condition compared to the /ʃu'/-/ʃu/ conditions, while no difference emerged between these two conditions on the earlier P200 component. Crucially, the results suggest that French listeners are capable of creating an abstract representation of stress. However, as they receive more input, participants react more strongly to phonemic than to stress information. PMID:27036270

  12. Histoplasma capsulatum in Cayenne, French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Moquet, Olivier; Blanchet, Denis; Simon, Stéphane; Veron, Vincent; Michel, Myriam; Aznar, Christine

    2012-10-01

    We carried out a soil sampling survey in September 2008 in central Cayenne, French Guiana, using molecular methods to assess the presence of the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. Four of the 31 samples collected (12.9 %) tested positive by PCR, with confirmation of the result by DNA sequencing. H. capsulatum is therefore present in urban environments in French Guiana. These results provide additional support for the primary prophylaxis of AIDS-related histoplasmosis in French Guiana.

  13. Appropriating Written French: Literacy Practices in a Parisian Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Elsie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I examine French language instruction in an elementary classroom serving primarily children of Afro-French immigrants in Paris. I show that a prevalent French language ideology privileges written over oral expression and associates full mastery of written French with rational thought and full inclusion in the French polity. This…

  14. Performance Testing of PCR Assay in Blood Samples for the Diagnosis of Toxoplasmic Encephalitis in AIDS Patients from the French Departments of America and Genetic Diversity of Toxoplasma gondii: A Prospective and Multicentric Study

    PubMed Central

    Ajzenberg, Daniel; Lamaury, Isabelle; Demar, Magalie; Vautrin, Cyrille; Cabié, André; Simon, Stéphane; Nicolas, Muriel; Desbois-Nogard, Nicole; Boukhari, Rachida; Riahi, Homayoun; Dardé, Marie-Laure; Massip, Patrice; Dupon, Michel; Preux, Pierre-Marie; Labrunie, Anaïs; Boncoeur, Marie-Paule

    2016-01-01

    Background Toxoplasmic encephalitis in patients with AIDS is a life-threatening disease mostly due to reactivation of Toxoplasma gondii cysts in the brain. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of real-time PCR assay in peripheral blood samples for the diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis in AIDS patients in the French West Indies and Guiana. Methodology/Principal Findings Adult patients with HIV and suspicion of toxoplasmic encephalitis with start of specific antitoxoplasmic therapy were included in this study during 40 months. The real-time PCR assay targeting the 529 bp repeat region of T. gondii was performed in two different centers for all blood samples. A Neighbor-Joining tree was reconstructed from microsatellite data to examine the relationships between strains from human cases of toxoplasmosis in South America and the Caribbean. A total of 44 cases were validated by a committee of experts, including 36 cases with toxoplasmic encephalitis. The specificity of the PCR assay in blood samples was 100% but the sensitivity was only 25% with moderate agreement between the two centers. Altered level of consciousness and being born in the French West Indies and Guiana were the only two variables that were associated with significantly decreased risk of false negative results with the PCR assay. Conclusion/Significance Our results showed that PCR sensitivity in blood samples increased with severity of toxoplasmic encephalitis in AIDS patients. Geographic origin of patients was likely to influence PCR sensitivity but there was little evidence that it was caused by differences in T. gondii strains. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00803621 PMID:27355620

  15. Direct Mapping of Acoustics to Phonology: On the Lexical Encoding of Front Rounded Vowels in L1 English-L2 French Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darcy, Isabelle; Dekydtspotter, Laurent; Sprouse, Rex A.; Glover, Justin; Kaden, Christiane; McGuire, Michael; Scott, John H. G.

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that adult US-English-speaking learners of French experience difficulties acquiring high /y/-/u/ and mid /oe/-/[openo]/ front vs. back rounded vowel contrasts in French. This study examines the acquisition of these French vowel contrasts at two levels: phonetic categorization and lexical representations. An ABX categorization task…

  16. Methods of Costing in Universities. Brief Comparison Between the NCHEMS Approach and the Approach Used by the French-Speaking Research Group Associated with the IMHE Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cossu, Claude

    1975-01-01

    A group of French universities modified the NCHEMS accounting method for use in a study of its budget control procedures and cost-evaluation methods. The conceptual differences in French university education (as compared to American higher education) are keyed to the adjustments in the accounting method. French universities, rather than being…

  17. Assessing organizational citizenship behavior in the French context: evidence for the four-dimensional model.

    PubMed

    Paillé, Pascal

    2009-03-01

    Although researchers have extensively studied organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) in the U.S. context, OCB measurement has received relatively limited attention in other contexts, specifically in the French-language context. Using 2 samples (for Study 1, N=292; for Study 2, N=355), the author investigated OCB in a French-language context. Using an exploratory factorial analysis in Study 1, the author found a 4-factor model (altruism, civic virtue, sportsmanship, helping others). Using a confirmatory factor analysis in Study 2, the author confirmed a 4-factor model. Data provided results that show some differences and similarities between U.S. and French contexts.

  18. Why Are Your Students Sleeping through the French Revolution?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Brad

    2008-01-01

    The French Revolution can be a difficult subject to teach. Students often struggle to relate to events that happened more than two hundred years ago in France. In this article, the author suggests three key causes for the failure of the revolution that social studies teachers can focus on when teaching this topic. He also provides several stories…

  19. Reading in French-Speaking Adults with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Jennifer; Cole, Pascale; Leuwers, Christel; Casalis, Severine; Zorman, Michel; Sprenger-Charolles, Liliane

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the reading and reading-related skills of 15 French-speaking adults with dyslexia, whose performance was compared with that of chronological-age controls (CA) and reading-level controls (RL). Experiment 1 assessed the efficiency of their phonological reading-related skills (phonemic awareness, phonological short-term…

  20. Voice Source Characteristics of Male and Female Speakers of French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Rosalind A. M.

    1996-01-01

    A study investigated the realization of voicing contrasts ("breathiness") in plosive consonants produced by young French adults, particularly as they differ in males and females. Data came from acoustic analysis of recordings of nine informants reading lists of monosyllabic words with initial plosive consonants in isolation and in the content,…

  1. Perceptual Processing of Partially and Fully Assimilated Words in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snoeren, Natalie D.; Segui, Juan; Halle, Pierre A.

    2008-01-01

    Models of speech perception attribute a different role to contextual information in the processing of assimilated speech. This study concerned perceptual processing of regressive voice assimilation in French. This phonological variation is asymmetric in that assimilation is partial for voiced stops and nearly complete for voiceless stops. Two…

  2. Voicing and Devoicing Assimilation of French /s/ and /z/

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdelli-Beruh, Nassima B.

    2012-01-01

    The present acoustic-phonetic study explores whether voicing and devoicing assimilations of French fricatives are equivalent in magnitude and whether they operate similarly (i.e., complete vs. gradient, obligatory vs. optional, regressive vs. progressive). It concurrently assesses the contribution of speakers' articulation rate to the proportion…

  3. English in the French Workplace: Realism and Anxieties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deneire, Marc

    2008-01-01

    The adoption of English as a corporate language in an increasingly large number of French companies has provoked various reactions ranging from enthusiastic embrace to strong rejection based on anxiety and cultural protectionism. This paper is an attempt to understand these reactions based on a stratified study of the extent to which English has…

  4. Lexical Aspects of Very Advanced L2 French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundell, Fanny Forsberg; Lindqvist, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the possibilities for adult learners to attain nativelikeness in the domain of lexis. Aspects investigated are general lexical knowledge (C-test), receptive deep knowledge, productive collocation knowledge, and productive lexico-pragmatic knowledge in a group of long-residency Swedish French second language (L2)…

  5. "What Are We Black Men Who Are Called French?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeSeur, Geta J.

    This teachers guide for an eight-week unit on 20th century French African literature, is intended for use with heterogeneously grouped juniors and seniors. The unit is one in a series by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. The guide represents a thematic approach to literature well suited to team teaching with…

  6. The Formation of Professional Identity in French "Apprenti" Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angot, Jacques; Malloch, Hedley; Kleymann, Birgit

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The paper aims to show how professional identity is constructed at a very early stage of initial management education. In so doing, it questions the notion of "le metier" in management. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on a study of the experiences of six French management apprentices (or apprentis) who participated in a…

  7. Gender Attribution and Gender Agreement in French Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boloh, Yves; Ibernon, Laure; Royer, Stephanie; Escudier, Frederique; Danillon, Aurelia

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies on grammatical gender in French individuals with Williams syndrome (WS) have led to conflicting findings and interpretations regarding keys abilities--gender attribution and gender agreement. New production data from a larger SW sample (N = 24) showed that gender attribution scores in SW participants exactly mirrored those of…

  8. The Language Learning Motivation of Early Adolescent French Immersion Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesely, Pamela M.

    2009-01-01

    This interpretive multiple case study examines the motivation to learn a second language among sixth grade students who attended a French immersion school for grades K-5. Parent surveys, student surveys based on Gardner's Attitude/Motivation Test Battery, and individual and group interviews with students were the data sources used to identify…

  9. Persistent Stress "Deafness": The Case of French Learners of Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupoux, Emmanuel; Sebastian-Galles, Nuria; Navarrete, Eduardo; Peperkamp, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    Previous research by Dupoux et al. [Dupoux, E., Pallier, C., Sebastian, N., & Mehler, J. (1997). A destressing "deafness" in French? "Journal of Memory Language" 36, 406-421; Dupoux, E., Peperkamp, S., & Sebastian-Galles (2001). A robust method to study stress' deafness. "Journal of the Acoustical Society of America" 110, 1608-1618.] found that…

  10. Implicit and Explicit Recasts in L2 Oral French Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erlam, Rosemary; Loewen, Shawn

    2010-01-01

    This laboratory-based study of second- and third-year American university students learning French examines the effectiveness of implicit and explicit corrective feedback on noun-adjective agreement errors. The treatment consisted of one hour of interactive tasks. Implicit feedback was operationalized as a single recast with interrogative…

  11. Cajun French, Sociolinguistic Knowledge, and Language Loss in Louisiana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryon, Dominique

    2002-01-01

    Uses Foucault's work on knowledge and power to show that the politics of language and of researching it are closely related. A study of Cajun French argues that language loss is a social as well as a discursive process and that academic knowledge and discourse both play a significant role in language politics. Advocates the use of local knowledge…

  12. Some Recent French Courses: Kindergarten to Grade 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinrib, Alice

    1976-01-01

    The following courses of study in French at the primary level are described and evaluated: (1) "En Avant" (E. J. Arnold, 1966), (2) "Repondez s'il vous plait" (Copp Clark, 1975), (3) "Pour les Tous Petits" (Carleton Board of Education, 1974), (4) "Dansons la Capucine (Clarke Irwin, 1973), and (5) "Le Francais Partout: Aux Yeux des Petits" (Holt,…

  13. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the CHAMPS Questionnaire in French Canadians with COPD

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Susanne; Soicher, Judith E.; Mayo, Nancy E.; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Bourbeau, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is difficult to measure in individuals with COPD. The Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire demonstrated strong clinometric properties when used with the elderly and with those affected by chronic disease. Study objectives were to translate, culturally adapt the CHAMPS into French, and reexamine its test-retest reliability and construct validity in French and English Canadians with COPD. This paper presents the cross-cultural adaptation of the CHAMPS; results of its clinometric testing will be described in another article. The CHAMPS examines the degree of physical activity performed in a typical week through two summary scales, caloric expenditure and activity frequency. The CHAMPS was only in English; thus, a cross-cultural adaptation was needed to translate the CHAMPS into French for use in French Canadians with COPD. Cross-cultural adaptation consisted of forward and back translation, with expert review at each stage of translation: minor inconsistencies were uncovered and rectified. Five French participants with COPD completed the finalized Canadian French CHAMPS and participated in cognitive debriefing; no problematic items were identified. A structured and stepwise, cross-cultural adaptation process produced the Canadian French CHAMPS, with items of equivalent meaning to the English version, for use in French Canadians with COPD. PMID:27445570

  14. Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the CHAMPS Questionnaire in French Canadians with COPD.

    PubMed

    Mak, Susanne; Soicher, Judith E; Mayo, Nancy E; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Bourbeau, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is difficult to measure in individuals with COPD. The Community Healthy Activities Model Program for Seniors (CHAMPS) questionnaire demonstrated strong clinometric properties when used with the elderly and with those affected by chronic disease. Study objectives were to translate, culturally adapt the CHAMPS into French, and reexamine its test-retest reliability and construct validity in French and English Canadians with COPD. This paper presents the cross-cultural adaptation of the CHAMPS; results of its clinometric testing will be described in another article. The CHAMPS examines the degree of physical activity performed in a typical week through two summary scales, caloric expenditure and activity frequency. The CHAMPS was only in English; thus, a cross-cultural adaptation was needed to translate the CHAMPS into French for use in French Canadians with COPD. Cross-cultural adaptation consisted of forward and back translation, with expert review at each stage of translation: minor inconsistencies were uncovered and rectified. Five French participants with COPD completed the finalized Canadian French CHAMPS and participated in cognitive debriefing; no problematic items were identified. A structured and stepwise, cross-cultural adaptation process produced the Canadian French CHAMPS, with items of equivalent meaning to the English version, for use in French Canadians with COPD.

  15. Panton-Valentine Leukocidin-Positive and Toxic Shock Syndrome Toxin 1-Positive Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a French Multicenter Prospective Study in 2008▿

    PubMed Central

    Robert, Jérôme; Tristan, Anne; Cavalié, Laurent; Decousser, Jean-Winoc; Bes, Michèle; Etienne, Jerome; Laurent, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    The epidemiology of community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) differs from country to country. We assess the features of the ST80 European clone, which is the most prevalent PVL-positive CA-MRSA clone in Europe, and the TSST-1 ST5 clone that was recently described in France. In 2008, all MRSA strains susceptible to fluoroquinolones and gentamicin and resistant to fusidic acid that were isolated in 104 French laboratories were characterized using agr alleles, spa typing, and the staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec element and PCR profiling of 21 toxin genes. Three phenotypes were defined: (i) kanamycin resistant, associated with the ST80 clone; (ii) kanamycin and tobramycin resistant, associated with the ST5 clone; and (iii) aminoglycoside susceptible, which was less frequently associated with the ST5 clone. Among the 7,253 MRSA strains isolated, 91 (1.3%) were ST80 CA-MRSA (89 phenotype 1) and 190 (2.6%) were ST5 CA-MRSA (146 phenotype 2, 42 phenotype 3). Compared to the latter, ST80 CA-MRSAs were more likely to be community acquired (80% versus 46%) and found in young patients (median age, 26.0 years versus 49.5 years) with deep cutaneous infections (48% versus 6%). They were less likely to be tetracycline susceptible (22% versus 85%) and to be isolated from respiratory infections (6% versus 27%). The TSST-1 ST5 clone has rapidly emerged in France and has become even more prevalent than the ST80 European clone, whose prevalence has remained stable. The epidemiological and clinical patterns of the two clones differ drastically. Given the low prevalence of both among all staphylococcal infections, no modification of antibiotic recommendations is required yet. PMID:21220529

  16. Reproductive health and pregnancy outcomes among French gulf war veterans

    PubMed Central

    Verret, Catherine; Jutand, Mathe-Aline; De Vigan, Catherine; Bégassat, Marion; Bensefa-Colas, Lynda; Brochard, Patrick; Salamon, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Background Since 1993, many studies on the health of Persian Gulf War veterans (PGWVs) have been undertaken. Some authors have concluded that an association exists between Gulf War service and reported infertility or miscarriage, but that effects on PGWV's children were limited. The present study's objective was to describe the reproductive outcome and health of offspring of French Gulf War veterans. Methods The French Study on the Persian Gulf War (PGW) and its Health Consequences is an exhaustive cross-sectional study on all French PGWVs conducted from 2002 to 2004. Data were collected by postal self-administered questionnaire. A case-control study nested in this cohort was conducted to evaluate the link between PGW-related exposures and fathering a child with a birth defect. Results In the present study, 9% of the 5,666 Gulf veterans who participated reported fertility disorders, and 12% of male veterans reported at least one miscarriage among their partners after the PGW. Overall, 4.2% of fathers reported at least one child with a birth defect conceived after the mission. No PGW-related exposure was associated with any birth defect in children fathered after the PGW mission. Concerning the reported health of children born after the PGW, 1.0% of children presented a pre-term delivery and 2.7% a birth defect. The main birth defects reported were musculoskeletal malformations (0.5%) and urinary system malformations (0.3%). Birth defect incidence in PGWV children conceived after the mission was similar to birth defect incidence described by the Paris Registry of Congenital Malformations, except for Down syndrome (PGWV children incidence was lower than Registry incidence). Conclusion This study did not highlight a high frequency of fertility disorders or miscarriage among French PGW veterans. We found no evidence for a link between paternal exposure during the Gulf War and increased risk of birth defects among French PGWV children. PMID:18442369

  17. Cross-border reproductive care for law evasion: a qualitative study into the experiences and moral perspectives of French women who go to Belgium for treatment with donor sperm.

    PubMed

    Van Hoof, Wannes; Pennings, Guido; De Sutter, Petra

    2015-01-01

    One consequence of the legal diversity in Europe is that legal restrictions on treatments can be evaded by going abroad. Many French lesbian couples and single women are crossing the border to Belgium because they are denied access to treatments with donor sperm at home. This is the first qualitative research study into the experiences and moral perspectives of these women. Between June 2012 and May 2013, 11 lesbian couples and 2 single women were recruited at the department of reproductive medicine at Ghent University Hospital. The data from the semi-structured interviews was analysed using inductive thematic analysis. The results show that these women face several additional challenges to the already difficult process of cross-border treatment. Before they can start the treatment, they can only obtain information from the internet or from stories of friends who also went abroad for treatment with donor sperm. During the treatment, they need to find local clinics or physicians to monitor their cycle. Several women managed to game the French system to ensure partial reimbursement for their treatment when they were successful in finding a physician who was willing to prescribe drugs and perform tests. Most women had difficulties justifying their absence from work. In general these women felt that they were discriminated against and that their rights were not protected because of who they are. In that regard, the lack of legal recognition of the genetically unrelated partner in their country was particularly hard to cope with for the lesbian couples. These women have to develop many different strategies to deal with the difficulties they face during cross-border reproductive care. It is concluded that it is very important that they find a physician who is willing to support them in their 'baby project'. PMID:25239009

  18. Cross-border reproductive care for law evasion: a qualitative study into the experiences and moral perspectives of French women who go to Belgium for treatment with donor sperm.

    PubMed

    Van Hoof, Wannes; Pennings, Guido; De Sutter, Petra

    2015-01-01

    One consequence of the legal diversity in Europe is that legal restrictions on treatments can be evaded by going abroad. Many French lesbian couples and single women are crossing the border to Belgium because they are denied access to treatments with donor sperm at home. This is the first qualitative research study into the experiences and moral perspectives of these women. Between June 2012 and May 2013, 11 lesbian couples and 2 single women were recruited at the department of reproductive medicine at Ghent University Hospital. The data from the semi-structured interviews was analysed using inductive thematic analysis. The results show that these women face several additional challenges to the already difficult process of cross-border treatment. Before they can start the treatment, they can only obtain information from the internet or from stories of friends who also went abroad for treatment with donor sperm. During the treatment, they need to find local clinics or physicians to monitor their cycle. Several women managed to game the French system to ensure partial reimbursement for their treatment when they were successful in finding a physician who was willing to prescribe drugs and perform tests. Most women had difficulties justifying their absence from work. In general these women felt that they were discriminated against and that their rights were not protected because of who they are. In that regard, the lack of legal recognition of the genetically unrelated partner in their country was particularly hard to cope with for the lesbian couples. These women have to develop many different strategies to deal with the difficulties they face during cross-border reproductive care. It is concluded that it is very important that they find a physician who is willing to support them in their 'baby project'.

  19. Development of English and French Language and Literacy Skills in EL1 and EL French Immersion Students in the Early Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Au-Yeung, Karen; Hipfner-Boucher, Kathleen; Chen, Xi; Pasquarella, Adrian; D'Angelo, Nadia; Deacon, S. Hélène

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we report two studies that compared the development of English and French language and literacy skills in French immersion students identified as native English speakers (EL1s) and English learners (ELs). In study 1, 81 EL1s and 147 ELs were tested in the fall and spring terms of grade 1. The EL1s and ELs had similar outcomes and…

  20. Translating the foundational model of anatomy into french using knowledge-based and lexical methods

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA) is the reference ontology regarding human anatomy. FMA vocabulary was integrated into the Health Multi Terminological Portal (HMTP) developed by CISMeF based on the CISMeF Information System which also includes 26 other terminologies and controlled vocabularies, mainly in French. However, FMA is primarily in English. In this context, the translation of FMA English terms into French could also be useful for searching and indexing French anatomy resources. Various studies have investigated automatic methods to assist the translation of medical terminologies or create multilingual medical vocabularies. The goal of this study was to facilitate the translation of FMA vocabulary into French. Methods We compare two types of approaches to translate the FMA terms into French. The first one is UMLS-based on the conceptual information of the UMLS metathesaurus. The second method is lexically-based on several Natural Language Processing (NLP) tools. Results The UMLS-based approach produced a translation of 3,661 FMA terms into French whereas the lexical approach produced a translation of 3,129 FMA terms into French. A qualitative evaluation was made on 100 FMA terms translated by each method. For the UMLS-based approach, among the 100 translations, 52% were manually rated as "very good" and only 7% translations as "bad". For the lexical approach, among the 100 translations, 47% were rated as "very good" and 20% translations as "bad". Conclusions Overall, a low rate of translations were demonstrated by the two methods. The two approaches permitted us to semi-automatically translate 3,776 FMA terms from English into French, this was to added to the existing 10,844 French FMA terms in the HMTP (4,436 FMA French terms and 6,408 FMA terms manually translated). PMID:22029629

  1. Photocopy of photograph (from Mrs. Martin, grandniece of John French, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (from Mrs. Martin, grandniece of John French, Clinton, Missouri) Circa 1900, photographer unknown JOHN AND ALMIRA FRENCH IN FRONT OF WEST AND SOUTH FACADES - John French Farm, South Grand River, Deepwater, Henry County, MO

  2. Boring Forminifera in French Polynesian coral reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vénec-Peyré, M. T.

    1987-04-01

    The discovery of epipsammitic Foraminifera in sediments of Moorea and Scilly (French Polynesia) and the study of close relationships between embedded specimens and host-grains indicate that some species participate in the weakening and subsequent breakdown of skeletal grains and consequently contribute to the production of silt-sized particles. The study of 36 stations around the islands shows the factors that control the distribution and abundance of this incrusted microfauna. Specimens are more abundant on sand particles larger than 1,000 microns and in the high energy areas; this abundance decreases with depth. The physiological mechanism of penetrations is presumably chemical, but each species apparently has its own process: complete dissolution with removal of ions for the cytoplasm of calcareous species; partial dissolution with transport of silt-size aggregates on the test of agglutinated species. The purpose of such penetration may be to protect themselves against water turbulence and to provide material for test construction.

  3. French Basic Course: Supplementary Material. Song Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This song book is presented as supplementary material for the French Basic Course. It provides the words to 36 French songs. The songs are divided into five categories: (1) military songs, (2) sea songs, (3) drinking songs, (4) folklore songs, and (5) Christmas carols. (AMH)

  4. A Mini-Film on French Kinesics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Joel

    This paper describes a silent film made by the author which illustrates various French gestures. The format is Super 8, and the film lasts five minutes. The script is given, along with an English translation. The story concerns several French students at an outdoor cafe wondering about one of their friends. The conversation includes 10 typical…

  5. French-African Cultures: A Resource Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Barbara

    This resource unit concerns French-African cultures and their influence on other cultures. The materials may be incorporated into Levels 3, 4, and 5 French classes. Topics in the outline include environmental aspects; historical background; and cultural differences expressed in Senegal, Guinee, Mali, Cote d'Ivoire, Haute Volta, Togo, Dahomey,…

  6. Metropolitan French: Familiarization & Short-Term Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iszkowski, Marie-Charlotte

    The U.S. Department of State's Foreign Service Institute French Familiarization and Short-Term (FAST) course for personnel working and living in France consists of 10 weeks of French language instruction combined with practical and cultural information. An introductory section outlines FAST course objectives and sample teaching techniques in…

  7. A University Course in French for Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaughton, F.; Todd, A.

    1993-01-01

    Examines language research conducted at Napier. The objective of this research program was to improve the teaching of scientific and technical French that had been identified as a requirement for the specialist groups of scientists, doctors, and engineers interested in the use of French language in their work. (CK)

  8. French for Health and Social Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crochet, Monique Y.

    In response to a need for a college textbook that would be appropriate for a course in French for health and social services professionals, an anthology was developed for second semester intermediate or third year students of French. The book and course are intended to meet the linguistic needs of current and future health care professionals and…

  9. French Phonology for Teachers: A Programmed Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jerald R.; Poulin, Norman A.

    This programed, self-instructional course has the following terminal objectives: (1) to present some notions of the science of linguistics and the major branches of linguistics, (2) to teach the segmental and suprasegmental phonemes of French, (3) to identify the major articulatory problems of French for the native speaker of English, (4) to…

  10. The French Regions and Their Social Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jany-Catrice, Florence

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a new indicator designed to capture the multidimensionality of the social health of the French regions is put to the test. Drawing on regional data for 2004, this indicator of social health (ISH) sheds new light on the social performance of the French regions. The worst performers are the highly urbanised regions, whereas others,…

  11. Act Up-Paris: French Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    The francophone world has always been at the center of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. From the mythical (French Canadian) "patient zero," Gaetan Dugas, to Rock Hudson's flight to Paris for medical treatment and the blaming of Haiti for AIDS, as well as the close relationships between Belgian and French and their former African colonies, underscores the…

  12. Le Francais Courant (Contemporary French), Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course has been developed basically within the limits of Units 4-6 of "A-LM French: Level 1", second edition. The primary objectives are to develop French vocabulary relative to the family, home, transportation, and foods by continuing to work with short dialogues based on everyday, teenage experiences. While reviewing previously studied…

  13. French Higher Education: A Cartoon Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Matthew Henry

    2012-01-01

    In this cartoon essay, the author shares his experience from a travel to Paris to see the French higher education system. From his travel, he learned that in France, "degree" inflation may be an issue, but not grade inflation. On the flight home, the author reflects how French and American academics answer one question about the state of higher…

  14. French Romanticism and Napoleon's "Geometric Men."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Robert A.

    1982-01-01

    French intellectual thought changed during the Napoleonic Era. The effects of the Enlightenment philosophers, the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution, and Romanticism on the development of Napoleon's philosophical outlook are used to illustrate the changes occurring in France as a whole in the early nineteenth century. (AM)

  15. Les affaires "en francais" (Business "In French").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanko, Helene N.

    1993-01-01

    A French brochure entitled "700 Current Words for Business" was developed to familiarize the business community with modern French business vocabulary and avoid intrusion of terminology from other languages. Some terms are neologisms. Translations from Latin, Japanese, and English illustrate the etymology and morphological patterns of some idioms…

  16. Exploring the molecular basis of insecticide resistance in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti: a case study in Martinique Island (French West Indies)

    PubMed Central

    Marcombe, Sébastien; Poupardin, Rodolphe; Darriet, Frederic; Reynaud, Stéphane; Bonnet, Julien; Strode, Clare; Brengues, Cecile; Yébakima, André; Ranson, Hilary; Corbel, Vincent; David, Jean-Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Background The yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti is a major vector of dengue and hemorrhagic fevers, causing up to 100 million dengue infections every year. As there is still no medicine and efficient vaccine available, vector control largely based on insecticide treatments remains the only method to reduce dengue virus transmission. Unfortunately, vector control programs are facing operational challenges with mosquitoes becoming resistant to commonly used insecticides. Resistance of Ae. aegypti to chemical insecticides has been reported worldwide and the underlying molecular mechanisms, including the identification of enzymes involved in insecticide detoxification are not completely understood. Results The present paper investigates the molecular basis of insecticide resistance in a population of Ae. aegypti collected in Martinique (French West Indies). Bioassays with insecticides on adults and larvae revealed high levels of resistance to organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides. Molecular screening for common insecticide target-site mutations showed a high frequency (71%) of the sodium channel 'knock down resistance' (kdr) mutation. Exposing mosquitoes to detoxification enzymes inhibitors prior to bioassays induced a significant increased susceptibility of mosquitoes to insecticides, revealing the presence of metabolic-based resistance mechanisms. This trend was biochemically confirmed by significant elevated activities of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, glutathione S-transferases and carboxylesterases at both larval and adult stages. Utilization of the microarray Aedes Detox Chip containing probes for all members of detoxification and other insecticide resistance-related enzymes revealed the significant constitutive over-transcription of multiple detoxification genes at both larval and adult stages. The over-transcription of detoxification genes in the resistant strain was confirmed by using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Conclusion These results suggest

  17. French Frigate Shoals reef health survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Coles, Steve L.; Rameyer, Robert

    2002-01-01

    French Frigate Shoals consists of a large (31 nm) fringing reef partially enclosing a lagoon. A basalt pinnacle (La Perouse Pinnacle) arises approximately halfway between the two ends of the arcs of the fringing reefs. Tern Island is situated at the northern end of the lagoon and is surrounded by a dredged ship channel. The lagoon becomes progressively shallower from west to east and harbors a variety of marine life including corals, fish, marine mammals, and sea turtles (Amerson 1971). In 2000, an interagency survey of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands was done to document the fauna and flora in FFS (Maragos and Gulko, 2002). During that survey, 38 stations were examined, and 41 species of stony corals were documented, the most of any of the NW Hawaiian islands (Maragos and Gulko 2002). In some of these stations, corals with abnormalities were observed. The present study aimed to expand on the 2000 survey to evaluate the lesions in areas where they were documented.

  18. When pitch Accents Encode Speaker Commitment: Evidence from French Intonation.

    PubMed

    Michelas, Amandine; Portes, Cristel; Champagne-Lavau, Maud

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies on a variety of languages have shown that a speaker's commitment to the propositional content of his or her utterance can be encoded, among other strategies, by pitch accent types. Since prior research mainly relied on lexical-stress languages, our understanding of how speakers of a non-lexical-stress language encode speaker commitment is limited. This paper explores the contribution of the last pitch accent of an intonation phrase to convey speaker commitment in French, a language that has stress at the phrasal level as well as a restricted set of pitch accents. In a production experiment, participants had to produce sentences in two pragmatic contexts: unbiased questions (the speaker had no particular belief with respect to the expected answer) and negatively biased questions (the speaker believed the proposition to be false). Results revealed that negatively biased questions consistently exhibited an additional unaccented F0 peak in the preaccentual syllable (an H+!H* pitch accent) while unbiased questions were often realized with a rising pattern across the accented syllable (an H* pitch accent). These results provide evidence that pitch accent types in French can signal the speaker's belief about the certainty of the proposition expressed in French. It also has implications for the phonological model of French intonation. PMID:27363256

  19. [Update on the epidemiology of malaria in French Guiana].

    PubMed

    Carme, B; Ardillon, V; Girod, R; Grenier, C; Joubert, M; Djossou, F; Ravachol, F

    2009-02-01

    The last study describing the epidemiology of malaria in French Guiana was published 20 years ago. Yet French Guiana in the Americas along with Mayotte in the Indian Ocean is the only French territory with persisting endemic malaria. The purpose of this study is to provide an update based on official malaria surveillance data as well as on information from hospital records and various field surveys that have been carried out in recent years. Due to recurrent problems in collecting thorough, continuous, and consistent data, exact determination of incidence by plasmodium species has always been difficult in French Guiana. These problems include not only the remote location of endemic areas and intense unpredictable migration patterns but also poor data collection methods that do not always ensure consistency and homogeneity. Another factor hindering thorough collection of conventional epidemiological data is the requirement for rapid effective treatment in remote regions. The overall incidence of malaria in French Guiana appears to have remained stable since the beginning of the decade with an average of 3,920 case reports per year for an incidence rate of 20 per thousand, noting that three fourths of the 206,000 inhabitants of French Guiana live outside of endemic areas. Overall involvement of P. falciparum and P. vivax appears to be equal with P. malariae accounting for only 2.6% of cases. Trends in recent years indicate an increase in the number of cases involving P. vivax especially in the eastern zones, i.e. in the Oyapock focus where annual incidences in children have reached up to 500 per thousand and in the whole region located between Saint Georges and Cayenne. Conversely a decrease in endemic levels has been observed in western areas, especially for P. falciparum in the upper and middle focuses of the Maroni. Most zones now causing problems are located near migration points, particularly in relation with clandestine gold panning activities. In the coastal

  20. Production of low fat french-fries with single and multi-layer hydrocolloid coatings.

    PubMed

    Daraei Garmakhany, A; Mirzaei, H O; Maghsudlo, Y; Kashaninejad, M; Jafari, S M

    2014-07-01

    In this study the influence of coating with different hydrocolloids on the oil absorption and quality attributes of French fries was investigated. Our results revealed that hydrocolloid coatings reduced the moisture loss during frying, and hence, reduced the oil uptake of French fries. Among the studied gums as a single layer coating, combination of carboxy methyl cellulose and pectin (0.5 and 1% w/w) lead to the lowest oil uptake of French fries. In samples coated with two and three-layer hydrocolloids, the oil absorption reduced further and the moisture content of final products was higher than the blank samples.