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Sample records for french irsn psa-2

  1. Progress of IRSN R&D on ITER Safety Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dorsselaere, J. P.; Perrault, D.; Barrachin, M.; Bentaib, A.; Gensdarmes, F.; Haeck, W.; Pouvreau, S.; Salat, E.; Seropian, C.; Vendel, J.

    2012-08-01

    The French "Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire" (IRSN), in support to the French "Autorité de Sûreté Nucléaire", is analysing the safety of ITER fusion installation on the basis of the ITER operator's safety file. IRSN set up a multi-year R&D program in 2007 to support this safety assessment process. Priority has been given to four technical issues and the main outcomes of the work done in 2010 and 2011 are summarized in this paper: for simulation of accident scenarios in the vacuum vessel, adaptation of the ASTEC system code; for risk of explosion of gas-dust mixtures in the vacuum vessel, adaptation of the TONUS-CFD code for gas distribution, development of DUST code for dust transport, and preparation of IRSN experiments on gas inerting, dust mobilization, and hydrogen-dust mixtures explosion; for evaluation of the efficiency of the detritiation systems, thermo-chemical calculations of tritium speciation during transport in the gas phase and preparation of future experiments to evaluate the most influent factors on detritiation; for material neutron activation, adaptation of the VESTA Monte Carlo depletion code. The first results of these tasks have been used in 2011 for the analysis of the ITER safety file. In the near future, this R&D global programme may be reoriented to account for the feedback of the latter analysis or for new knowledge.

  2. Characterization of a measurement reference standard and neutron fluence determination method in IRSN monoenergetic neutron fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gressier, V.; Lacoste, V.; Martin, A.; Pepino, M.

    2014-10-01

    The variation in the response of instruments with neutron energy has to be determined in well-characterized monoenergetic neutron fields. The quantities associated with these fields are the neutron fluence and the mean energy of the monoenergetic neutron peak needed to determine the related dosimetric quantities. At the IRSN AMANDE facility, the reference measurement standard for neutron fluence is based on a long counter calibrated in the IRSN reference 252Cf neutron field. In this paper, the final characterization of this device is presented as well as the method used to determine the reference fluence at the calibration point in monoenergetic neutron fields.

  3. French diagnostic reference levels in diagnostic radiology, computed tomography and nuclear medicine: 2004-2008 review.

    PubMed

    Roch, P; Aubert, B

    2013-04-01

    After 5 y of collecting data on diagnostic reference levels (DRLs), the Nuclear Safety and Radiation Protection French Institute (IRSN) presents the analyses of this data. The analyses of the collected data for radiology, computed tomography (CT) and nuclear medicine allow IRSN to estimate the level of regulatory application by health professionals and the representativeness of current DRL in terms of relevant examinations, dosimetric quantities, numerical values and patient morphologies. Since 2004, the involvement of professionals has highly increased, especially in nuclear medicine, followed by CT and then by radiology. Analyses show some discordance between regulatory examinations and clinical practice. Some of the dosimetric quantities used for the DRL setting are insufficient or not relevant enough, and some numerical values should also be reviewed. On the basis of these findings, IRSN formulates recommendations to update regulatory DRL with current and relevant examination lists, dosimetric quantities and numerical values.

  4. Triblock polymer mediated synthesis of Ir-Sn oxide electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guangfu; Yu, Hongmei; Wang, Xunying; Yang, Donglei; Li, Yongkun; Shao, Zhigang; Yi, Baolian

    2014-03-01

    Over the past several decades, tremendous effort has been put into developing cost-effective, highly active and durable electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in the proton exchange membrane water electrolyzer. This report explores an advanced and effective "soft" material-assistant method to fabricate Ir0.6Sn0.4O2 electrocatalysts with a 0.6/0.4 ratio of Ir/Sn in precursors. Adopting a series of characterization methods, the collective results suggest that the surfactant-material F127 content, as an important factor, can efficiently control the formation of Ir-Sn oxides with varying surface properties and morphologies, such as the grainy and rod-shaped structures. Associating with the half-cell and single electrolyzer, it is affirmed that the optimal ratio of (Ir + Sn)/F127 is 100 for the preparation of S100-Ir0.6Sn0.4O2 with obviously enhanced activity and sufficient durability under the electrolysis circumstances. The lowest cell voltages obtained at 80 °C are 1.631 V at 1000 mA cm-2, and 1.820 V at 2000 mA cm-2, when applying S100-Ir0.6Sn0.4O2 OER catalyst and Ti-material diffusion layer on the anode side and Nafion® 115 membrane. Furthermore, the noble-metal Ir loading in the same cell decreases to 0.77 mg cm-2. These results highlight that Ir-Sn oxide synthesized by the soft-material method is a promising OER electrocatalyst.

  5. Use of integral experiments for the assessment of a new 235U IRSN-CEA evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichou, Raphaëlle; Leclaire, Nicolas; Leal, Luiz; Haeck, Wim; Morillon, Benjamin; Romain, Pascal; Duarte, Helder

    2017-09-01

    The Working Party on International Nuclear Data Evaluation Co-operation (WPEC) subgroup 29 (SG 29) was established to investigate an issue with the 235U capture cross-section in the energy range from 0.1 to 2.25 keV, due to a possible overestimation of 10% or more. To improve the 235U capture crosssection, a new 235U evaluation has been proposed by the Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN) and the CEA, mainly based on new time-of-flight 235U capture cross-section measurements and recent fission cross-section measurements performed at the n_TOF facility from CERN. IRSN and CEA Cadarache were in charge of the thermal to 2.25 keV energy range, whereas the CEA DIF was responsible of the high energy region. Integral experiments showing a strong 235U sensitivity are used to assess the new evaluation, using Monte-Carlo methods. The keff calculations were performed with the 5.D.1 beta version of the MORET 5 code, using the JEFF-3.2 library and the new 235U evaluation, as well as the JEFF-3.3T1 library in which the new 235U has been included. The benchmark selection allowed highlighting a significant improvement on keff due to the new 235U evaluation. The results of this data testing are presented here.

  6. Characterisation of the IRSN graphite moderated Americium-Beryllium neutron field.

    PubMed

    Lacoste, V; Gressier, V; Muller, H; Lebreton, L

    2004-01-01

    The SIGMA facility was set up at IRSN to provide thermal neutrons for metrology and dosimetry purposes. SIGMA consists of six Am-Be radioactive sources located in a 1.5 x 1.5 x 1.5 m3 graphite moderator block. The neutron field at the calibration position, situated at 50 cm from the west surface of the assembly was characterised experimentally and by Monte Carlo calculations. The thermal neutron fluence was determined by the activation of gold foils; the neutron fluence energy distribution above 240 keV was measured with proton recoil spectrometers and the neutron fluence energy distribution from thermal energies to 20 MeV was measured with a Bonner spheres spectrometer. A Monte Carlo simulation of the SIGMA assembly was undertaken using the MCNP4C code, and the calculated neutron fluence energy distribution was compared with the measurements. As a whole, the experimental data and the MCNP calculation are in a good agreement.

  7. Design of a new IRSN thermal neutron field facility using Monte-Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Lacoste, V

    2007-01-01

    The Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety owns a graphite-moderated AmBe neutron field facility, SIGMA, that has to be reconstructed. Monte-Carlo simulations were performed to study the design of a new thermal facility based on IRSN existing facilities. Studies related to an update version of SIGMA concerned the enhancement of the thermal neutrons contribution to the dose equivalent. Calculations were mainly performed for a (252)Cf neutron source distribution located at the centre of a graphite moderator block. A quasi-pure thermal neutron field was obtained with a 2.4 x 2.4 x 2.4-m(3) block of graphite. A second acceptable neutron field was obtained with 3.3-MeV mono-energetic neutrons created by a 400-kV accelerator coupled to a graphite assembly of 1.5 x 1.5 x 1.5 m(3). The characteristics of the studied thermal fields with the requirement for a reference calibration field are compared, and the advantages and drawbacks of the different producing methods are discussed.

  8. Neutron Fluence and Energy Reconstruction with the LNE-IRSN/MIMAC Recoil Detector MicroTPC at 27 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Maire, D.; Lebreton, L.; Querre, Ph.; Bosson, G.; Guillaudin, O.; Muraz, J.F.; Riffard, Q.; Santos, D.

    2015-07-01

    The French Institute for Radiation protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), designated by the French Metrology Institute (LNE) for neutron metrology, is developing a time projection chamber using a Micromegas anode: microTPC. This work is carried out in collaboration with the Laboratory of Subatomic Physics and Cosmology (LPSC). The aim is to characterize the energy distribution of neutron fluence in the energy range 8 keV - 5 MeV with a primary procedure. The time projection chambers are gaseous detectors able to measure charged particles energy and to reconstruct their track if a pixelated anode is used. In our case, the gas is used as a (n, p) converter in order to detect neutrons down to few keV. Coming from elastic collisions with neutrons, recoil protons lose a part of their kinetic energy by ionizing the gas. The ionization electrons are drifted toward a pixelated anode (2D projection), read at 50 MHz by a self-triggered electronic system to obtain the third track dimension. The neutron energy is reconstructed event by event thanks to proton scattering angle and proton energy measurements. The scattering angle is deduced from the 3D track. The proton energy is obtained by charge collection measurements, knowing the ionization quenching factor (i.e. the part of proton kinetic energy lost by ionizing the gas). The fluence is calculated thanks to the detected events number and the simulation of the detector response. The μTPC is a new reliable detector able to measure energy distribution of the neutron fluence without unfolding procedure or prior neutron calibration contrary to usual gaseous counters. The microTPC is still being developed and measurements have been carried out at the AMANDE facility, with neutrons energies going from 8 keV to 565 keV. After the context and the μ-TPC working principle presentation, measurements of the neutron energy and fluence at 27 keV and 144 keV are shown and compared to the complete detector response simulation. This work

  9. Neutron fluence and energy reconstruction with the IRSN recoil detector μ-TPC at 27 keV, 144 keV and 565 keV

    SciTech Connect

    Maire, D.; Lebreton, L.; Richer, J.P.; Bosson, G.; Bourrion, O.; Guillaudin, O.; Riffard, Q.; Santos, D.

    2015-07-01

    The French Institute for Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), associated to the French Metrology Institute (LNE), is developing a time projection chamber using a Micromegas anode: μ-TPC. This work is carried out in collaboration with the Laboratory of Subatomic Physics and Cosmology (LPSC). The aim is to characterize with a primary procedure the energy distribution of neutron fluence in the energy range 8 keV - 1 MeV. The time projection chambers are gaseous detectors, which are able to measure charged particles energy and to reconstruct their track if a pixelated anode is used. In our case, the gas is used as a (n, p) converter in order to detect neutrons down to few keV. Coming from elastic collisions with neutrons, recoil protons lose a part of their kinetic energy by ionizing the gas. The ionization electrons are drifted toward a pixelated anode (2D projection), read at 50 MHz by a self-triggered electronic system to obtain the third track dimension. The neutron energy is reconstructed event by event thanks to proton scattering angle and proton energy measurements. The scattering angle is deduced from the 3D track. The proton energy is obtained by charge collection measurements, knowing the ionization quenching factor (i.e. the part of proton kinetic energy lost by ionizing the gas). The fluence is calculated thanks to the detected events number and the simulated detector response. The μ-TPC is a new reliable detector which enables to measure energy distribution of the neutron fluence without deconvolution or neutron calibration contrary to usual gaseous counters. The μ-TPC is still being developed and measurements have been carried out at the AMANDE facility, with neutrons energies going from 8 keV to 565 keV. After the context and the μ-TPC working principle presentation, measurements of the neutron energy and fluence at 27.2 keV, 144 keV and 565 keV are shown and compared to the complete detector simulation. This work shows the first direct

  10. Achievements in testing of the MGA and FRAM isotopic software codes under the DOE/NNSA-IRSN cooperation of gamma-ray isotopic measurement systems

    SciTech Connect

    Vo, Duc; Wang, Tzu - Fang; Funk, Pierre; Weber, Anne - Laure; Pepin, Nicolas; Karcher, Anna

    2009-01-01

    DOE/NNSA and IRSN collaborated on a study of gamma-ray instruments and analysis methods used to perform isotopic measurements of special nuclear materials. The two agencies agreed to collaborate on the project in response to inconsistencies that were found in the various versions of software and hardware used to determine the isotopic abundances of uranium and plutonium. IRSN used software developed internally to test the MGA and FRAM isotopic analysis codes for criteria used to stop data acquisition. The stop-criterion test revealed several unusual behaviors in both the MGA and FRAM software codes.

  11. Teaching French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marty, Fernand

    This comprehensive analysis of French teaching methodology reveals basic problems underlying the current philosophy of language learning, while presenting new ideas based on extensive research. Two books, "Active French; Dialogues" and "Active French: Foundations Course" (Books 1 and 2), which stress well specified learning objectives, were…

  12. Flood hazard assessment for french NPPs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebour, Vincent; Duluc, Claire-Marie; Guimier, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the approach for flood hazard assessment for NPP which is on-going in France in the framework of post-Fukushima activities. These activities were initially defined considering both European "stress tests" of NPPs pursuant to the request of the European Council, and the French safety audit of civilian nuclear facilities in the light of the Fukushima Daiichi accident. The main actors in that process are the utility (EDF is, up to date, the unique NPP's operator in France), the regulatory authority (ASN) and its technical support organization (IRSN). This paper was prepared by IRSN, considering official positions of the other main actors in the current review process, it was not officially endorsed by them. In France, flood hazard to be considered for design basis definition (for new NPPs and for existing NPPs in periodic safety reviews conducted every 10 years) was revised before Fukushima-Daichi accident, due to le Blayais NPP December 1999 experience (partial site flooding and loss of some safety classified systems). The paper presents in the first part an overview of the revised guidance for design basis flood. In order to address design extension conditions (conditions that could result from natural events exceeding the design basis events), a set of flooding scenarios have been defined by adding margins on the scenarios that are considered for the design. Due to the diversity of phenomena to be considered for flooding hazard, the margin assessment is specific to each flooding scenario in terms of parameter to be penalized and of degree of variation of this parameter. The general approach to address design extension conditions is presented in the second part of the paper. The next parts present the approach for five flooding scenarios including design basis scenario and additional margin to define design extension scenarios.

  13. FastPixN, a new integrated pixel chip for a future fast version of the IRSN - recoil proton telescope.

    PubMed

    Kachel, M; Husson, D; Higueret, S; Taforeau, J; Lebreton, L

    2014-10-01

    A first prototype of recoil proton telescope (RPT) is currently working at the AMANDE facility, being developed as a collaboration between IPHC Strasbourg and the LNE-IRSN. The device, able to measure both energy and fluence of neutron fields in the range of 5-20 MeV, has to be improved further, in order to reduce the considerable inelastic background generated by the neutrons inside the RPT itself. To achieve faster running cycles, the present complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor pixels used for proton tracking are to be replaced by a new integrated chip, specially developed for this application. The authors present a first version of this new element, with individual pixels readout at a 200-MHz frequency, with a fast 4-bit ADC for each column of 64 pixels. The measured performances point to a complete frame treatment in only 12.6 µs. With a readout speed multiplied by a factor 400 over the existing device, the authors expect a considerable improvement of the telescope at AMANDE, with the potential to reach neutron fluence rates up to 10(7) n cm(-2) s(-1) or more. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. French Teaching Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, J. Dale

    Supplementary teaching materials for French language programs are presented in this text. Primarily intended for secondary school students, the study contains seven units of material. They include: (1) French gestures, (2) teaching the interrogative pronouns, (3) French cuisine, (4) recreational learning games, (5) French-English cognates, (6)…

  15. Energy and fluence calibration of the neutron spectrometer ROSPEC at the IRSN AMANDE facility between 70 keV and 4.5 MeV.

    PubMed

    Benmosbah, M; Asselineau, B

    2009-07-01

    The ROSPEC device is a multi-detector system, which has been designed by Bubble Technologies Industries (BTI at Chalk River, ON, Canada) to assess neutron spectra, and hence neutron dose quantities, at workplace fields. It is made up of six gaseous proportional counters that detect neutrons via the elastic (n,p) scattering (four hydrogenous counters) and with the (3)He(n,p)T reaction (two (3)He-filled counters). Results of the calibration of a similar rotating spectrometer (ROSPEC) have been described by Rosenstock et al.((1)). For energy and fluence calibration purposes, measurements were performed with the accelerator for metrology and neutron applications in external dosimetry (AMANDE) facility at the Laboratory of Neutron Metrology and Dosimetry (Institute of Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety, IRSN, France). This facility provides monoenergetic neutron radiation fields from 2 keV to 20 MeV. Two kinds of experiments were carried out. First, the ROSPEC was used in its rotational mode for the ISO energies. Then, each detector was irradiated with all the available neutron energies, in a well defined position with the rotation of the device stopped. The energy values of the neutron beam were calculated using the TARGET code. A BC501-A liquid scintillation spectrometer provided the fluence values for energies beyond 1.2 MeV, a methane-filled SP2 counter from 800 keV to 1.4 MeV and an H(2)-filled SP2 counter from 144 to 800 keV. Reference data for 70 keV monoenergetic neutrons were obtained using the IRSN Long Counter. Results showed that the ROSPEC device was in agreement with the absolute neutron fluences within 10%. Moreover, the new energy calibration factors are in good agreement with those derived by BTI.

  16. Why Study French?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Gerard

    This brochure for parents and prospective students of French points out career opportunities available to qualified speakers of French. Suggestions concerning student eligibility and the time requirements of language programs are also offered. (RL)

  17. Towards a French Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breach, H. T.

    1972-01-01

    Contends that secondary school students lose their appeal for French as they advance in school. Suggests that French teachers endeavor to motivate students by focusing more attention on their students and less on their own credentials. (DS)

  18. Towards a French Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breach, H. T.

    1972-01-01

    Contends that secondary school students lose their appeal for French as they advance in school. Suggests that French teachers endeavor to motivate students by focusing more attention on their students and less on their own credentials. (DS)

  19. French Computer Terminology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Eugene F.

    1985-01-01

    Characteristics, idiosyncrasies, borrowings, and other aspects of the French terminology for computers and computer-related matters are discussed and placed in the context of French computer use. A glossary provides French equivalent terms or translations of English computer terminology. (MSE)

  20. French Studies: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markey, William L., Comp.

    A bibliography of materials relating to French language and area studies includes citations of bibliographies, books, articles, and general and specialized reference materials in French and English in these categories: general reference guides; guides to French studies; style manuals; research methodology and handbooks; library resources;…

  1. Spoken French: Book One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denoeu, Francois; Hall, R. A., Jr.

    This textbook offers a course in French designed for those who need to make themselves understood on ordinary topics in French and cannot devote years of study to the language. It is a self-instructional course, but it is designed to be used with a native French speaker as a guide or, if no native speaker is available, with recordings that are…

  2. Reevaluating the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromberg, Roland N.

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes previous interpretations concerning the French Revolution. Discusses several weaknesses of the Marxist views in light of recent philosophical and sociological thinking about social change. (RKM)

  3. Reevaluating the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromberg, Roland N.

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes previous interpretations concerning the French Revolution. Discusses several weaknesses of the Marxist views in light of recent philosophical and sociological thinking about social change. (RKM)

  4. The French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltimore City Public Schools, MD.

    This outline on the French Revolution is designed to illustrate how this period of French history influenced various aspects of contemporary culture. Four main sections are treated: (1) ideas that led to the Revolution, (2) the reigns of the Bourbon kings, (3) the Revolution, and (4) the rise of Napoleon as a reaction to chaos. A list of 16mm…

  5. Skiing in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Paulette

    1984-01-01

    A high school French program conducted entirely in French on local ski slopes is based on the philosophy that language is a social tool for communicative purposes and can best be learned in social interaction. The successful program uses teamwork, an open attitude toward language learning, non-stressful evaluation, and innovative techniques. (MSE)

  6. French in Quebec.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Anglejan, Alison

    1979-01-01

    Discusses language legislation in Canada where French and English are both official languages, and in Quebec province where French has been declared the sole official language. Outlines the conflicts and the impact of these differing laws on Quebec, its population, and its relations with the rest of Canada. (JMF)

  7. Demythifying French Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, William H.

    1984-01-01

    Focuses on several myths and fallacies prevalent in the field of French grammar. The importance of keeping up-to-date with language and grammatical usage is stressed, since the rules of language do change. Thus, the validity of the linguistic content of French grammar books must be questioned, so that any outmoded or invalid concepts can be…

  8. French Phonology. Programmed Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Robert

    This self-instructional course is designed to help students in attaining a high degree of competence in French pronunciation and a basic knowledge of how French sounds correspond to the writing system. The material is divided into ten chapters. Each chapter has three parts. Part One is the presentation of a short dialogue for memorization. It…

  9. Illustrated French Idioms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsa, Serge M.

    Designed to promote an awareness of the everyday French language, this supplementary textbook was developed to enable students of French to use idiomatic expressions from the early learning stages to the more advanced levels. The units are arranged as follows according to the verb component of the expression: "avoir,""etre,""faire," the three…

  10. French Antilles and Guiana.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    Attention in this discussion of French Antilles and Guiana is directed to the following: geography; the people; history; government; political conditions; the economy; and relations with the US. In 1988, the population of Martinique, the official name, numbered 351,105 with an annual growth rate in 1988 of 1.71%. The population of Guadeloupe, the official name, numbered 337,524 in January 1988 with an annual growth rate in 1987 of 1.2%. French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique, as overseas departments of France since 1946, are integral parts of the French Republic. In 1972, the metropolitan departments of France were combined into 22 regions, with an elected regional council for each region. As integral parts of the French Republic, the political systems of the 3 French Caribbean departments are essentially extensions of those of metropolitan France. Guadeloupe and Martinique owed their colonial prosperity to agriculture, primarily sugar. Martinique no longer exports sugar, but sugar still accounts for 20% of Guadeloupe's export earnings. In Martinique, sugar has been replaced as an export crop by bananas and pineapples. Bananas now account for almost 50% of Guadeloupe's total export earnings. In French Guiana, the impact of the French National Space Agency's Guiana Space Center has been great. US policy toward these overseas departments is inseparable from its overall policy of friendly relations with France.

  11. French for Business and Journalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacombe, Anne

    1977-01-01

    A description of a university course in French whose object is to give students some facility in current French as found in newspapers, magazines, radio and films; and to introduce them to contemporary French civilization. Methods used are reading, translation, synopsis writing, correspondence and interviews. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  12. Teaching Middle School French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Marilyn L.

    1975-01-01

    Author described some of the techniques she used for teaching French at Roosevelt Junior High School, West Palm Beach. She also explained how these techniques helped students to maintain an early desire to learn a foreign language. (Author/RK)

  13. The French Strategic Dilemma.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    crisis . The language of French strategic doctrine is that of dissuasion (deterrence). The French talk publicly much less about warfighting (and employment...threaten vital lines of supply in a crisis situation. Nuclear forces would not *-"e necessarily be useful In deterring Soviet actions in this regard. Rather...34 in Pierre Lellouche, ed., Pacifisme et Dissuasion (Paris: Economica , 1983), pp. 253-266. C. % 6. See Pierre Lacoste, Strategie Navale (Paris: Fernand

  14. Translating Word-Play: French-English, English-French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, W. Terrence

    1986-01-01

    The linguistic complexity of humor is illustrated with examples of word play translated from French to English and English to French. Examples from the writings of James Joyce and Marcel Proust are highlighted. (CB)

  15. Translating Word-Play: French-English, English-French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, W. Terrence

    1986-01-01

    The linguistic complexity of humor is illustrated with examples of word play translated from French to English and English to French. Examples from the writings of James Joyce and Marcel Proust are highlighted. (CB)

  16. French Antilles and Guiana.

    PubMed

    1983-11-01

    This discussion of French Antilles and Guiana cover the following: the people, geography, history, government, political conditions, economy, and relations with the US. In 1983 the population totaled 303,000 with an annual growth rate of 0.09%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 12.6/1000 and life expectancy 68 years. About 98% of the people of Martinique are of Afro European or Afro European Indian descent. The remainder are the old planter families and a sizable number of metropolitan French. Most of the work force are employed in agriculture or food processing and associated industries. Most permanent residents of Guadeloupe are of mixed Afro European descent. A few thousand Metropolitan French reside there. Most French Guianese live along the coast, about 1/2 of them in the capital. Martinique is the northernmost of the Windward Islands, which are part of the Lesser Antilles chain in the Caribbean Sea southeast of Puerto Rico. Guadeloupe comprises 2 of the Leeward Islands, which are also part of the Lesser Antilles chain. French Guiana is located on the northern coast of South America, a few degrees north of the Equator. Indians were the 1st known indigenous inhabitants of French Guiana and the French Antilles. Columbus sighted Guadeloupe in 1493, Martinique in 1493 or 1502, and the Guiana coast probably during his 3rd voyage in 1498. French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique, as overseas departments of France since 1946, are integral parts of the French Republic. Their relationship to Metropolitan France is somewhat similar to that of Alaska and Hawaii to the counterminous US. Each department has a general council composed of 1 representative elected by each canton. Guadeloupe and Martinique each elect 2 senators to the French Senate and 3 deputies to the National Assembly. French Guiana elects 1 senator and 1 deputy. In each of the 3 departments exist individuals and small political parties that advocate immediate independence, but their adherents form only

  17. Comparing Written Competency in Core French and French Immersion Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappin-Fortin, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have compared the written competency of French immersion students and their core French peers, and research on these learners at a postsecondary level is even scarcer. My corpus consists of writing samples from 255 students from both backgrounds beginning a university course in French language. The writing proficiency of core French…

  18. French for Marketing. Using French in Media and Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, R. E.; Chebli-Saadi, M.

    The textbook, entirely in French, is designed to help prepare anglophone students for French language usage in the media and telecommunications. It is organized according to two major themes. The first part addresses the French of advertising; chapter topics include the actors in advertising (agencies, announcers, supports), forms of advertising,…

  19. French for Marketing. Using French in Media and Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, R. E.; Chebli-Saadi, M.

    The textbook, entirely in French, is designed to help prepare anglophone students for French language usage in the media and telecommunications. It is organized according to two major themes. The first part addresses the French of advertising; chapter topics include the actors in advertising (agencies, announcers, supports), forms of advertising,…

  20. The French Revolution and the French Language: A Paradox?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djite, Paulin

    1992-01-01

    Explores the relationship between revolutionary ideals and the subsequent expansion and promotion of the French language. It is shown, through a linguistic and sociopolitical history of the French Revolution and the French language, that there is no incompatibility between the two and that the movement of Francophonie is a continuation of France's…

  1. The French Revolution and the French Language: A Paradox?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djite, Paulin

    1992-01-01

    Explores the relationship between revolutionary ideals and the subsequent expansion and promotion of the French language. It is shown, through a linguistic and sociopolitical history of the French Revolution and the French language, that there is no incompatibility between the two and that the movement of Francophonie is a continuation of France's…

  2. French nuclear physics accelerator opens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumé, Belle

    2016-12-01

    A new €140m particle accelerator for nuclear physics located at the French Large Heavy Ion National Accelerator (GANIL) in Caen was inaugurated last month in a ceremony attended by French president François Hollande.

  3. America's Tolerance for French Radicalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolin, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The publication of Francois Cusset's "French Theory" raises a series of fascinating questions concerning the trans-Atlantic transmission and circulation of ideas. Most important, it impels everyone to inquire why for a time French thought managed to flourish in American universities while French intellectuals rapidly abandoned the entire…

  4. French Polynesia. Asian Studies Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Outs, JoAnn

    This curriculum outline presents the components of an introductory course to French culture which focuses on the colonization of French Polynesia. First, the general goals and student objectives for the course, which focuses on different historical periods of French Polynesia, are discussed. Next, the pre-test to determine students knowledge of…

  5. Aspects of Bordeaux French Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochet, Bernard

    Among the characteristics which set Bordeaux French apart from Standard French are the rules governing the behavior of its mid-vowels. These rules are much simpler and more extensive (in that they also apply to unstressed vowels) than in Standard French. Their application is, however, systematically conditioned by the presence or absence of word…

  6. Syllabification and French Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, D. C.

    1973-01-01

    Much research has focused on the question of whether phonological rules can and should be stated more appropriately in terms of the syllable than other units, notable segments and various boundaries. Formulation of rules without reference to the syllable obscures the motivation and unity of alternations. French has rules for consonant deletion…

  7. Technoscientific French for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Brigitte D.

    A two-semester sequence of courses in French and Spanish for science and technology at Eastern Michigan University responds to alumni demands for better linguistic and cultural preparation for increasingly global business and industry. In addition, high schools teacher enrolled in the courses find they answer a need for professional upgrading of…

  8. Know Your Laws. French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.; Ledun, Andree

    This French language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three…

  9. French 3200, Course Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newfoundland and Labrador Dept. of Education, St. John's. Div. of Instruction.

    The objectives and course content for French 3200, a secondary level course intended for the second or third year of four- and six-credit language course sequences in Newfoundland high schools, are outlined. Its primary objectives relate to the skill development in the four language skill areas (listening, speaking, reading, and writing),…

  10. Old French for Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Barbara Nelson

    A list of six main benefits of the study of Old French at the undergraduate level follows a discussion of the value, function, and goals of such a program. The advantages discussed result in: (1) a first-hand acquaintance with medieval masterpieces, (2) a sense of continuity in the history of literature, (3) improved techniques in critical…

  11. French Theory's American Adventures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusset, Francois

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how it is simply too late to be still speaking about French theory and its role in the intellectual life of the United States today. It seems to many observers that the gap between real-life politics and theory's guerrillas is much too wide already, after 30 years of academic fever, for the two worlds to even…

  12. Know Your Laws. French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.; Ledun, Andree

    This French language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three…

  13. Teaching the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Thomas M.

    1989-01-01

    Reports on presentations made at a symposium sponsored by the Connecticut Humanities Council. Papers dealt with teaching the French Revolution by presenting European history in new relationships with the rest of the world and by examining the Declaration of the Rights of Man as it related to the role of women. (KO)

  14. The French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrofani, E. Robert; Johnston, Anne

    This 10-day unit on the French Revolution is designed to help high school students understand the interplay of economic, social, and political forces in the process of revolutionary change, and the development of modern democratic forms of government. Critical thinking and geographic skill activities are employed throughout the unit and include…

  15. Teaching the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Thomas M.

    1989-01-01

    Reports on presentations made at a symposium sponsored by the Connecticut Humanities Council. Papers dealt with teaching the French Revolution by presenting European history in new relationships with the rest of the world and by examining the Declaration of the Rights of Man as it related to the role of women. (KO)

  16. The French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrofani, E. Robert; Johnston, Anne

    This 10-day unit on the French Revolution is designed to help high school students understand the interplay of economic, social, and political forces in the process of revolutionary change, and the development of modern democratic forms of government. Critical thinking and geographic skill activities are employed throughout the unit and include…

  17. Living in Ontario French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadasdi, Terry

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a variationist analysis of verbs meaning "reside" in Ontario French. Four lexical variants are examined: "demeurer," "habiter," "rester" and "vivre." Results reveal that "rester" is used most often by unrestricted speakers and least often by those whose use of French…

  18. I Can Speak French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The guide presents content and techniques for teaching conversational French in the elementary grades. It contains an introductory section and 20 units for classroom instruction. The introduction includes notes on the overall objectives of the course, general guidelines on classroom procedure, and specific techniques for use of the materials…

  19. I Can Speak French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The guide presents content and techniques for teaching conversational French in the elementary grades. It contains an introductory section and 20 units for classroom instruction. The introduction includes notes on the overall objectives of the course, general guidelines on classroom procedure, and specific techniques for use of the materials…

  20. Resveratrol: French Paradox Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Catalgol, Betul; Batirel, Saime; Taga, Yavuz; Ozer, Nesrin Kartal

    2012-01-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenol that plays a potentially important role in many disorders and has been studied in different diseases. The research on this chemical started through the “French paradox,” which describes improved cardiovascular outcomes despite a high-fat diet in French people. Since then, resveratrol has been broadly studied and shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and anti-angiogenic effects, with those on oxidative stress possibly being most important and underlying some of the others, but many signaling pathways are among the molecular targets of resveratrol. In concert they may be beneficial in many disorders, particularly in diseases where oxidative stress plays an important role. The main focus of this review will be the pathways affected by resveratrol. Based on these mechanistic considerations, the involvement of resveratrol especially in cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and possibly in longevity will be is addressed. PMID:22822401

  1. French perspectives on psychiatric classification.

    PubMed

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the role of the French schools in the development of psychiatric nosology. Boissier de Sauvages published the first French treatise on medical nosology in 1763. Until the 1880s, French schools held a pre-eminent position in the development of psychiatric concepts. From the 1880s until World War I, German-speaking schools exerted the most influence, featuring the work of major figures such as Emil Kraepelin and Eugen Bleuler. French schools were probably hampered by excessive administrative and cultural centralization. Between the 1880s and the 1930s, French schools developed diagnostic categories that set them apart from international classifications. The main examples are Bouffée Délirante, and the complex set of chronic delusional psychoses (CDPs), including chronic hallucinatory psychosis. CDPs were distinguished from schizophrenia by the lack of cognitive deterioration during evolution. Modern French psychiatry is now coming into line with international classification, such as DSM-5 and the upcoming ICD-11.

  2. [French immigration policy].

    PubMed

    Weil, P

    1994-01-01

    From the late nineteenth century through 1974, France permitted immigration to furnish workers and to compensate for the low level of fertility. Intense immigration from North Africa, the economic crisis of the 1970s, and other factors led to policy changes in 1974. French immigration policy since 1974 has fluctuated between guaranteeing foreigners equal rights regardless of their religion, race, culture, or national origin, and attempting to differentiate among immigrants depending on their degree of assimilability to French culture. From 1974 to 1988, France had five different policies regarding whether to permit new immigration and what to do about illegal immigrants. In July 1984, the four major political parties unanimously supported a measure in Parliament that definitively guaranteed the stay in France of legal immigrants, whose assimilation thus assumed priority. Aid for return to the homeland was no longer to be widely offered, and immigration of unskilled workers was to be terminated except for those originating in European Community countries. Major changes of government in 1988 and 1993 affected only the modalities of applying these principles. The number of immigrants has fluctuated since 1974. Unskilled workers, the only category whose entrance was specifically controlled by the 1984 measures, have declined from 174,000 in 1970 to 25,000 in the early 1990s. The number of requests for political asylum declined from 60,000 in 1989 to 27,000 in 1993, and in 1991, 15,467 persons were granted refugee status. The number of immigrants of all types permitted to remain in France declined from 250,000 or 3000 per year in the early 1970s to around 110,000 at present. Although the decline is significant, it appears insufficient to the government in power since 1993. Although migratory flows are often explained as the product of imbalance in the labor market or in demographic growth, the French experience suggests that government policies, both in the sending and

  3. Invitation Refusals in Cameroon French and Hexagonal French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenkia, Bernard Mulo

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of regional pragmatic variation in French are lacking to date the focus has been on a limited range of speech acts, including apologies, requests, compliments and responses to compliments. The present paper, a systematic analysis of invitation refusals across regional varieties of French, is designed to add to the research on…

  4. Invitation Refusals in Cameroon French and Hexagonal French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenkia, Bernard Mulo

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of regional pragmatic variation in French are lacking to date the focus has been on a limited range of speech acts, including apologies, requests, compliments and responses to compliments. The present paper, a systematic analysis of invitation refusals across regional varieties of French, is designed to add to the research on…

  5. The French Revolution on Film: American and French Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harison, Casey

    2005-01-01

    It is not hard to locate negative or condescending images of the French Revolution in aspects of popular American culture, including film. Despite a handful of instances where nuanced or ambiguous "messages" may be identified, the number of American film interpretations of the French Revolution that might be judged historically…

  6. The French Revolution on Film: American and French Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harison, Casey

    2005-01-01

    It is not hard to locate negative or condescending images of the French Revolution in aspects of popular American culture, including film. Despite a handful of instances where nuanced or ambiguous "messages" may be identified, the number of American film interpretations of the French Revolution that might be judged historically…

  7. Spotlight: French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    May, J F

    1988-01-01

    French Polynesia is a group of 4 archipelagos in the South Pacific with an estimated 1987 population of 176,600. Its people are mainly Tahitians, Polynesians, Chinese, Europeans, and persons of mixed heritage. More than half of the population live in the Society Islands. About half of the population is less than 20 years old and slightly more than 5% is older than 60. Due to a recent decline in fertility, the rate of natural increase is moderate--about 2.5% annually. In the early 1980s, about two thirds of women in Tahiti aged 15-49 used a modern method of contraception. It remains to be seen whether this pattern will spread to the entire area. Projections by the World Bank, assuming little decline in mortality, yield a total population of 400,000 by the year 2030. The major challenge for French Polynesia is to develop the many small islands spread across an ocean territory half the size of the contiguous 48 states of the U.S. Tourist-related activities have replaced traditional income-generating such as production of coconuts, mother-of-pearl, and vanilla. The value of exports from the area make up only 5% of the value of imports. To extract the potentially huge food and mineral resources from the ocean, enormous infusions of capital will be necessary.

  8. French intensive truck garden

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T D

    1983-01-01

    The French Intensive approach to truck gardening has the potential to provide substantially higher yields and lower per acre costs than do conventional farming techniques. It was the intent of this grant to show that there is the potential to accomplish the gains that the French Intensive method has to offer. It is obvious that locally grown food can greatly reduce transportation energy costs but when there is the consideration of higher efficiencies there will also be energy cost reductions due to lower fertilizer and pesticide useage. As with any farming technique, there is a substantial time interval for complete soil recovery after there have been made substantial soil modifications. There were major crop improvements even though there was such a short time since the soil had been greatly disturbed. It was also the intent of this grant to accomplish two other major objectives: first, the garden was managed under organic techniques which meant that there were no chemical fertilizers or synthetic pesticides to be used. Second, the garden was constructed so that a handicapped person in a wheelchair could manage and have a higher degree of self sufficiency with the garden. As an overall result, I would say that the garden has taken the first step of success and each year should become better.

  9. The French Revolution and "Revisionism."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Claude

    1990-01-01

    Outlines revisionist interpretations of the French Revolution that challenged the dominant historiographical tradition during the 1950s and 1960s. Distinguishes four central characteristics of revisionist works. Identifies a key split in current French Revolution historiography between reflection on nineteenth-century…

  10. The French Revolution and "Revisionism."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Claude

    1990-01-01

    Outlines revisionist interpretations of the French Revolution that challenged the dominant historiographical tradition during the 1950s and 1960s. Distinguishes four central characteristics of revisionist works. Identifies a key split in current French Revolution historiography between reflection on nineteenth-century…

  11. French in the Ivory Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djite, Paulin G.

    1989-01-01

    Overviews the Ivory Coast's sociolinguistic situation. Standard French, restricted to the elite, is threatened by the local lingua franca. The spread and functional allocations of Dyula and Popular French support the point that the pervasive use of a language does not always lead to its adoption as a national language. (CB)

  12. French Basic Course. Area Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This volume provides the prescribed cultural background that is part of the final phase of the Basic Course in French. The texts provide the basis for discussions and personal research through which students become acquainted with various aspects of the French-speaking world and learn the referential meaning of words and expressions as they are…

  13. French for Journalists: Classroom Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodina, Herta

    The use of authentic materials for an advanced French course for students of journalism and communication has the drawback that authentic French sources assume a regular, informed readership sharing the same culture and history. A solution found at Ohio University is to use a publication that bridges the two cultures, such as the "Journal…

  14. Negative Association in Quebec French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrivee, Pierre

    In Quebec French, unlike standard French, sentence negation "pas" ("not") can occur in the same clause as a negative quantifier like "personne" ("nobody"), for instance. This paper proposes that "pas" in these contexts marks negative association in the same way that "ne" does in standard…

  15. Exploring French, German, and Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steigerwald, Jacob

    This text- and workbook serves as an introduction to French, German, and Spanish as second languages. An introductory chapter discusses the relatedness of languages and the interrelationships of the Indo-European language families. The relationships of French, German, and Spanish to English are demonstrated in cognate exercises. In the second…

  16. Status of French reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ballagny, A.

    1997-08-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm{sup 3}. The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} as soon as its present stock of UO{sub 2} fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU.

  17. 7 CFR 993.7 - French prunes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false French prunes. 993.7 Section 993.7 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.7 French prunes. French prunes means: (a) Prunes produced from plums of the following varieties of plums: French (Prune d'Agen, Petite Prune d'Agen), Coates (Cox...

  18. Teaching for Content: Greek Mythology in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giauque, Gerald S.

    An intermediate-level university French course in Greek mythology was developed to (1) improve student skills in reading, writing, speaking, and comprehending French, (2) familiarize students with Greek mythology, and (3) prepare students to deal better with allusions to Greek mythology in French literature. The texts used are a French translation…

  19. Dialect Effects in Speech Perception: The Role of Vowel Duration in Parisian French and Swiss French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joanne L.; Mondini, Michele; Grosjean, Francois; Dommergues, Jean-Yves

    2011-01-01

    The current experiments examined how native Parisian French and native Swiss French listeners use vowel duration in perceiving the /[openo]/-/o/ contrast. In both Parisian and Swiss French /o/ is longer than /[openo]/, but the difference is relatively large in Swiss French and quite small in Parisian French. In Experiment 1 we found a parallel…

  20. Feudalism and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Thomas E.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews and questions the traditional established interpretation that the French Revolution was about feudalism. Concludes that revisionist historians have cast doubt upon the orthodox theory but that they have not supplied an alternative explanation. (Author/DB)

  1. Feudalism and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Thomas E.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews and questions the traditional established interpretation that the French Revolution was about feudalism. Concludes that revisionist historians have cast doubt upon the orthodox theory but that they have not supplied an alternative explanation. (Author/DB)

  2. French perspectives on psychiatric classification

    PubMed Central

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the role of the French schools in the development of psychiatric nosology. Boissier de Sauvages published the first French treatise on medical nosology in 1763. Until the 1880s, French schools held a pre-eminent position in the development of psychiatric concepts. From the 1880s until World War I, German-speaking schools exerted the most influence, featuring the work of major figures such as Emil Kraepelin and Eugen Bleuler. French schools were probably hampered by excessive administrative and cultural centralization. Between the 1880s and the 1930s, French schools developed diagnostic categories that set them apart from international classifications. The main examples are Bouffée Délirante, and the complex set of chronic delusional psychoses (CDPs), including chronic hallucinatory psychosis. CDPs were distinguished from schizophrenia by the lack of cognitive deterioration during evolution. Modern French psychiatry is now coming into line with international classification, such as DSM-5 and the upcoming ICD-11. PMID:25987863

  3. French fireball network FRIPON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colas, F.; Zanda, B.; Vaubaillon, J.; Bouley, S.; Marmo, C.; Audureau, Y.; Kwon, M. K.; Rault, J.-L.; Caminade, S.; Vernazza, P.; Gattacceca, J.; Birlan, M.; Maquet, L.; Egal, A.; Rotaru, M.; Birnbaum, C.; Cochard, F.; Thizy, O.

    2015-01-01

    FRIPON (Fireball Recovery and Interplanetary Observation Network) was recently founded by ANR (Agence Nationale de la Recherche), its aim being to connect meteoritical science with asteroidal and cometary sciences, in order to better understand our solar system formation and evolution. The main idea is to cover all the French territory to collect a large number of meteorites (one or two per year) with an accurate orbit determination, allowing to pinpoint possible parent bodies. 100 all-sky cameras will be installed at the end of 2015, creating a dense network with an average distance of 100 km between the stations. To maximize the accuracy of the orbit determination, we will mix our optical data with radar data from the GRAVES transmitter received by 25 stations (Rault et al., 2015). As the network installation and the creation of research teams for meteorites involves many persons, at least many more than our small team of professionals, we will develop a participative science network for amateurs called Vigie-Ciel (Zanda et al., 2015). It will be possible to simply use our data, participate in research campaigns or even add cameras to the FRIPON network.

  4. Paradoxes of French accreditation.

    PubMed

    Pomey, M-P; François, P; Contandriopoulos, A-P; Tosh, A; Bertrand, D

    2005-02-01

    The accreditation system introduced into the French healthcare system in 1996 has five particular characteristics: (1) it is mandatory for all healthcare establishments; (2) it is performed by an independent government agency; (3) surveyors have to report all instances of non-compliance with safety regulations; (4) the accreditation report is delivered to regional administrative authorities and a summary is made available to the public; and (5) regional administrative authorities can use the information contained in the accreditation report to revise hospital budgets. These give rise to a number of paradoxes: (1) the fact that accreditation is mandatory lends itself to ambiguity and likens the process to an inspection; (2) the fact that decision makers can use the information contained in the accreditation report for resource allocation can incite establishments to adopt strategic behaviours aimed merely at complying with the accreditation manual; and (3) there is a tendency for establishments to reduce quality processes to nothing more than the completion of accreditation and to focus efforts on standardizing practices and resolving safety issues to the detriment of organizational development. All accreditation systems must be aware of these paradoxes and decide on the level of government involvement and the relationship between accreditation and resource allocation. With time, accreditation in France could benefit from both a professionally driven system and from the increased amount of freedom to focus on quality improvement which is necessary for organizational development.

  5. Paradoxes of French accreditation

    PubMed Central

    Pomey, M; Francois, P; Contandriopoulos, A; Tosh, A; Bertrand, D

    2005-01-01

    

 The accreditation system introduced into the French healthcare system in 1996 has five particular characteristics: (1) it is mandatory for all healthcare establishments; (2) it is performed by an independent government agency; (3) surveyors have to report all instances of non-compliance with safety regulations; (4) the accreditation report is delivered to regional administrative authorities and a summary is made available to the public; and (5) regional administrative authorities can use the information contained in the accreditation report to revise hospital budgets. These give rise to a number of paradoxes: (1) the fact that accreditation is mandatory lends itself to ambiguity and likens the process to an inspection; (2) the fact that decision makers can use the information contained in the accreditation report for resource allocation can incite establishments to adopt strategic behaviours aimed merely at complying with the accreditation manual; and (3) there is a tendency for establishments to reduce quality processes to nothing more than the completion of accreditation and to focus efforts on standardizing practices and resolving safety issues to the detriment of organizational development. All accreditation systems must be aware of these paradoxes and decide on the level of government involvement and the relationship between accreditation and resource allocation. With time, accreditation in France could benefit from both a professionally driven system and from the increased amount of freedom to focus on quality improvement which is necessary for organizational development. PMID:15692004

  6. Perspective view of span over French Creek and east abutment, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of span over French Creek and east abutment, looking NW. - Pennsylvania Railroad, French Creek Trestle, Spanning French Creek, north of Paradise Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  7. Voluntary Health Registry of French Nationals after the Great East Japan Earthquake, Tsunami, and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident: Methods, Results, Implications, and Feedback.

    PubMed

    Motreff, Yvon; Pirard, Philippe; Lagrée, Céline; Roudier, Candice; Empereur-Bissonnet, Pascal

    2016-06-01

    Introduction The 11th of March 2011, a magnitude 9.0 earthquake struck alongside the north-east coast of Honshu Island, Japan, causing a tsunami and a major nuclear accident. The French Institute for Public Health Surveillance (InVS) set up, within one week after the triple catastrophe, an Internet-based registry for French nationals who were in Japan at the time of the disasters. In this string of disasters, in this context of uncertainties about the nuclear risks, the aim of this registry was to facilitate the: (1) realization of further epidemiologic studies, if needed; and (2) contact of people if a medical follow-up was needed. The purpose of this report was to describe how the health registry was set up, what it was used for, and to discuss further utilization and improvements to health registries after disasters. The conception of the questionnaire to register French nationals was based on a form developed as part of the Steering Committee for the management of the post-accident phase in the event of nuclear accident or a radiological emergency situation (CODIRPA) work. The questionnaire was available online. The main objective was achieved since it was theoretically possible to contact again the 1,089 persons who completed the form. According to the data collected on their space-time budget, to the result of internal contamination measured by the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN) and dosimetric expertise published by the World Health Organization (WHO), it was not suitable to conduct an epidemiologic follow-up of adverse effects of exposure to ionizing radiations among them. However, this registry was used to launch a qualitative study on exposure to stress and psychosocial impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake on French nationals who were in Japan in March 2011. Setting a registry after a disaster is a very important step in managing the various consequences of a disaster. This experience showed that it is quickly

  8. A Film Study Option for HSC French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connole, Pat

    1974-01-01

    In 1974, after a trial period of two years, the study of two selected French feature films will be offered as an option to the study of prescribed texts in Higher School Certificate French in Victoria. (Author)

  9. Retraining French Language Educators in the Teaching of Commercial French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marfurt, Rose Marie A.

    A retraining program for language teachers wishing to teach college-level business French is described. The course may be taught in five 5-hour weekend seminars or in a 2-week summer seminar of 12 hours per week. Since the teachers already have language skills, the course focuses on building confidence and interest in the subject matter by showing…

  10. French pharmacovigilance: Missions, organization and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Vial, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    Pharmacovigilance aims to identify unknown adverse drug reactions once clinical development is complete, in order to promote improved use of drugs, and thus a reduction in risk for every exposed patient. We describe in this article the missions of French pharmacovigilance system, including French drug agency, Regional Centers of Pharmacovigilance, health professionals, pharmaceutical companies, patients and their associations. We also develop the French pharmacovigilance organization, its perspectives and challenges, both in French and European levels.

  11. English versus French: Language Rivalry in Tunisia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battenburg, John

    1997-01-01

    Examines the competition between English and French in Tunisian educational institutions and programs. Scrutinizes two periods in postprotectorate Tunisia: the introduction of English and the spread of English. Findings indicate that the decline in French linguistic influence may be accompanied by a future decrease in French political and economic…

  12. The French Revolution: A Simulation Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, James Patrick

    1978-01-01

    Describes a college-level simulation game about the French Revolution. Based on George Lefebvre's "The Coming of the French Revolution," the role-play focuses on social and economic causes of the revolution and allows students to understand citizens' grievances against the French government. (AV)

  13. The French Revolution: A Simulation Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, James Patrick

    1978-01-01

    Describes a college-level simulation game about the French Revolution. Based on George Lefebvre's "The Coming of the French Revolution," the role-play focuses on social and economic causes of the revolution and allows students to understand citizens' grievances against the French government. (AV)

  14. France: Africans and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatunde, Tunde

    1989-01-01

    The French Revolution had profound and long-term effects for Africans, both in Africa and throughout the Western hemisphere. Revolutionary leaders not only opposed the emancipation of slaves in French territories but supported an intensified slave trade, sparking numerous rebellions. French exploitation of Africans extended well into the twentieth…

  15. A Comparative Evaluation of French Grammar Checkers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burston, Jack

    1996-01-01

    Four grammar checkers, all of French Canadian origin, were evaluated: "Le Correcteur 101,""GramR,""Hugo Plus," and "French Proofing Tools." Results indicate that "Le Correcteur 101" is the best French grammar checker on the market and worth its premium cost. (two references) (CK)

  16. France: Africans and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatunde, Tunde

    1989-01-01

    The French Revolution had profound and long-term effects for Africans, both in Africa and throughout the Western hemisphere. Revolutionary leaders not only opposed the emancipation of slaves in French territories but supported an intensified slave trade, sparking numerous rebellions. French exploitation of Africans extended well into the twentieth…

  17. French Spelling Rectifications: A Failed Coup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, Ron

    1992-01-01

    The proposed 1991 reforms to French spelling discussed in a previous issue of "Babel" have been abandoned. This article notes the history of other efforts to rectify French spelling and reviews the French Academy's decision-making process in the current effort. (LB)

  18. Cinque's Functional Verbs in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowlett, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the syntax of a number of subcategories of verb in French which are compatible with a following bare infinitive and which express various kinds of grammatical tense, mood, modality, aspect and voice, as well as such (more lexical?) notions as perception, causation and locomotion. The article starts by cataloguing a number…

  19. Verlan: Talking Backwards in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefkowitz, Natalie J.

    1989-01-01

    The history of "Verlan," a form of French word play involving inversion of syllables with varying degrees of complexity, is described and its phonological and morphological patterns are outlined. Appropriate and inappropriate contexts for use of Verlan, extralinguistic functions, and the results of lexicalization of verlanized words are…

  20. Belgium--The French Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sägesser, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Since 1993, Belgium has been a federal state where education is entrusted to the Communities. There are three Communities in Belgium: Flemish, French and German-speaking. They are responsible for personal matters (mainly education, culture and social affairs). There are also three Regions in Belgium: Flanders, Wallonia and Brussels. Regions are…

  1. Some "English" Words in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thogmartin, Clyde

    1984-01-01

    Examines "pseudoborrowing" of some English words into the French vocabulary. Considered the prestige language of Western Europe, English is viewed as a social hallmark of higher education; thus, even a modest knowledge and use of English reinforces this attitude. However, also suggests a modification of this concept, noting a reciprocal prestige…

  2. An Interview with Fiona French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, David

    2005-01-01

    In this interview Fiona French discusses her work and career with David Lewis. She describes early influences and stresses her lifelong love of colour and pattern. Amongst other themes she considers the factual basis of most of her books and her lack of interest in fantasy; her preference for clear, simple prose; her constant shifts in style and…

  3. French String Grammar. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Univ., NY. Linguistic String Project.

    This work reports on an initial study of the possibility of providing a suitable framework for the teaching of a foreign language grammar through string analysis, using French as the target language. Analysis of a string word list (word-class sequences) yields an overall view of the grammar. Details are furnished in a set of restrictions which…

  4. An Interview with Fiona French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, David

    2005-01-01

    In this interview Fiona French discusses her work and career with David Lewis. She describes early influences and stresses her lifelong love of colour and pattern. Amongst other themes she considers the factual basis of most of her books and her lack of interest in fantasy; her preference for clear, simple prose; her constant shifts in style and…

  5. Normenbuch Franzoesisch (Norm Book French)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pamp, Friedhelm

    1976-01-01

    Critizes the Norm Book for French Final (Abitur) Examination 1975 for German Schools, as to its arrangement and some resulting difficulties; also for its over-emphasis on written work over speaking. Additional publications are needed to make the existing requirements more specific. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  6. Exploiting French Songs as Genre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamblin, Vicki L.

    1993-01-01

    Describes strategy for teaching culture and conversation at the third- and fourth-year undergraduate level using authentic documents as the primary materials. The medium chosen for this course was the French chanson, but similar strategies may be applicable to any modern language using the culturally appropriate materials. (eight references) (LET)

  7. [Herman Lundborg and French eugenicists].

    PubMed

    Drouard, A

    1999-01-01

    Herman Lundborg, the director of the Institute of Racial Biology in Uppsala, corresponded with some prominent French eugenicists in the 1920s and 1930s. The historical context of this correspondence is analyzed, and the importance of the national differences as well as of the international eugenic organization's efforts are emphasized.

  8. Guide to French Noun Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Perkins

    This guide presents a system for determining the qender of French nouns that has been tested against 12,000 pages of general reading: novels, history, social science, law, finance, and the Bible. The guide discusses the rules for determining gender and also presents various lists of the non-routine or exceptions to the rules. It is asserted that…

  9. French on the Advanced Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlik, Teresa Wilkinson

    1969-01-01

    Presented in this article is an outline of some of the special interest course work included in the curriculum guidelines being developed in the Atlanta Public Schools System for advanced secondary school French classes. Titles of the audiolingually-oriented courses described are--(1) "Teenagers and Teenage Life in France Today," (2)…

  10. French roots of French neo-lamarckisms, 1879-1985.

    PubMed

    Loison, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    This essay attempts to describe the neo-Lamarckian atmosphere that was dominant in French biology for more than a century. Firstly, we demonstrate that there were not one but at least two French neo-Lamarckian traditions. This implies, therefore, that it is possible to propose a clear definition of a (neo)Lamarckian conception, and by using it, to distinguish these two traditions. We will see that these two conceptions were not dominant at the same time. The first French neo-Lamarckism (1879-1931) was structured by a very mechanic view of natural processes. The main representatives of this first period were scientists such as Alfred Giard (1846-1908), Gaston Bonnier (1853-1922) and Félix Le Dantec (1869-1917). The second Lamarckism - much more vitalist in its inspiration - started to develop under the supervision of people such as Albert Vandel (1894-1980) and Pierre-Paul Grassé (1895-1985). Secondly, this essay suggests that the philosophical inclinations of these neo-Lamarckisms reactivated a very ancient and strong dichotomy of French thought. One part of this dichotomy is a material, physicalist tradition, which started with René Descartes but developed extensively during the 18th and 19th centuries. The other is a spiritual and vitalist reaction to the first one, which also had a very long history, though it is most closely associated with the work of Henri Bergson. Through Claude Bernard, the first neo-Lamarckians tried to construct a mechanical and determinist form of evolutionary theory which was, in effect, a Cartesian theory. The second wave of neo-Lamarckians wanted to reconsider the autonomy and reactivity of life forms, in contrast to purely physical systems.

  11. French Alps, Mont Blanc, French/Italian Border

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-04-02

    In this southeast looking view, Mont Blanc, on the French/Italian border, (48.0N, 4.5E) the highest mountain peak in all of Europe, is just below and right of center (below the end of the prominent valley of the Aosta River, in the center of the photo. The rivers flow out of the Alps into Italy toward Turin. Chamonix, the famous resort town and center of Alpine mountain climbing, lies in the valley just below Mont Blanc.

  12. Venus transits - A French view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Débarbat, Suzanne

    2005-04-01

    After a careful study of Mars observations obtained by Tycho Brahé (1546-1601), Kepler (1571-1630) discovered the now-called Kepler's third law. In 1627 he published his famous Tabulae Rudolphinae, a homage to his protector Rudolph II (1552-1612), tables (Kepler 1609, 1627) from which he predicted Mercury and Venus transits over the Sun. In 1629 Kepler published his Admonitio ad Astronomos Advertisement to Astronomers (Kepler 1630), Avertissement aux Astronomes in French Au sujet de phénomènes rares et étonnants de l'an 1631: l'incursion de Vénus et de Mercure sur le Soleil. This was the beginning of the interest of French astronomers, among many others, in such transits, mostly for Venus, the subject of this paper in which dates are given in the Gregorian calendar.

  13. [The French lessons of anatomy].

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Alain

    2003-01-01

    The "Lessons of Anatomy" can be considered as a step of Medicine to Art. For several centuries the exhibition of a corpse's dissection was printed on the title-page of published works. Since the seventeenth century, the "Lessons of Anatomy" became a picture on the title-page in order to highlight the well-known names of the european anatomists. The study is limited to the French Lessons of Anatomy found in books or pictures after the invention of printing.

  14. French field experience with buprenorphine.

    PubMed

    Auriacombe, Marc; Fatséas, Mélina; Dubernet, Jacques; Daulouède, Jean-Pierre; Tignol, Jean

    2004-01-01

    In most European countries, methadone treatment is provided to only 20-30% of opiate abusers who need treatment due to regulations and concerns about safety. To address this need in France, all registered medical doctors since 1995 have been allowed to prescribe buprenorphine (BUP) without any special education or licensing. This led to treating approximately 65,000 patients per year with BUP, about ten times more than with more restrictive methadone policies. French physician compensation mechanisms, pharmacy services, and medical insurance funding all minimized barriers to BUP treatment. About 20% of all physicians in France are using BUP to treat about half of the estimated 150,000 problem heroin users. Daily supervised dosing by a pharmacist for the first six months resulted in significantly better treatment retention (80% vs 46%) and lower heroin use. Intravenous diversion of BUP may occur in up to 20% of BUP patients and has led to various infections and relatively rare overdoses in combination with sedatives. Opiate overdose deaths have declined substantially (by 79%) since BUP was introduced in 1995. Newborn opiate withdrawal in mothers treated with buprenorphine compared to methadone was reported to be less frequent, less severe, and of shorter duration. Although some of the public health benefits seen during the time of buprenorphine expansion in France might be contingent upon characteristics of the French health and social services system, the French model raises questions about the value of tight regulations on prescribing BUP imposed by many countries throughout the world.

  15. French security policy: From independence to interdependence

    SciTech Connect

    Laird, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    The book features the first-time translation of some of the most significant recent papers by leading French analysts of security affairs. Beginning with a look at continuity and change in French policy since de Gaulle, this books presents the evolution of French security policy in the 1970s and 1980s. Dr. Laird pays special attention to the French nuclear modernization process and to the trend in the last two decades toward greater emphasis on security interdependence within the Western Alliance at the expense of the classic Gaullist stance of independence. He examines the major dimensions of French security policy, particularly French nuclear employment policy and doctrine, the Franco-German relationship, and France's role in Europe and in East-West relations.

  16. Overweight and obesity in French Hajj pilgrims.

    PubMed

    Gautret, Philippe; Bauge, Marie; Simon, Fabrice; Benkouiten, Samir; Valéro, René; Parola, Philippe; Brouqui, Philippe

    2013-02-01

    High prevalence of overweight (45%) and obesity (30%) were recorded in French Hajj pilgrims originating from North Africa. Females were significantly more likely to suffer from obesity compared to males. The overall prevalence of obesity among French pilgrims born in North-Africa was twice that of the overall French population. The prevalence of obesity in pilgrims aged 55-64 years and 65 years and over were respectively 38 and 25% compared to 20 and 18% in the corresponding overall French population age classes. The prevalence of diabetes in French pilgrims was five times higher compared to that of the overall French population. This situation prompts us to organize in the next future, pre-Hajj education seminars for diabetics.

  17. Appropriating Written French: Literacy Practices in a Parisian Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Elsie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I examine French language instruction in an elementary classroom serving primarily children of Afro-French immigrants in Paris. I show that a prevalent French language ideology privileges written over oral expression and associates full mastery of written French with rational thought and full inclusion in the French polity. This…

  18. Appropriating Written French: Literacy Practices in a Parisian Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Elsie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I examine French language instruction in an elementary classroom serving primarily children of Afro-French immigrants in Paris. I show that a prevalent French language ideology privileges written over oral expression and associates full mastery of written French with rational thought and full inclusion in the French polity. This…

  19. [On the history of French eugenics].

    PubMed

    Drouard, A

    1998-01-01

    The French Eugenical Society was founded in 1913, but eugenics had been actively discussed already much earlier, although under varing names. The main protagonists of early French eugenics were Georges Vacher de Lapouge, who was inspired by Galton and socialism, Adolphe Pinard, who propagated the "puericulture", and Paul Robin, who represented neo-malthusianism in his country. Alexis Carrel's ideas on improving the human race became widespread especially through his book "Man, the Unknown", published simultaneously in French and English in 1935. In general, the French eugenicists were more in favour of positive eugenics than negative selection, including sterilization, but their general influence was weaker than in several other countries.

  20. Learning to Read in English and French: Emergent Readers in French Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Sheila Cira; Koh, Poh Wee; Deacon, S. Hélène; Chen, Xi

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the predictors of word reading in English and French for 69 children in early total French immersion from first through third grade. The influence of phonological awareness, orthographic processing, and vocabulary in English and French on the achievement and growth of word reading in the 2 languages were…

  1. Cultural Understanding: French, Level One. Selected Cultural Concepts Which May Be Developed in French Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walpole, Earl L.

    This manual was prepared to instruct the language teacher on concepts of French culture to be taught in a beginning French class to students of any age. The cultural concepts are cross-referenced and intended to be used with five of the most widely used French texts. Certain deeper cultural concepts are meant to be used for longer unit…

  2. Evaluation of the French Immersion Weekends, French Centre, University of Calgary, 1979-80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinck, Patricia

    Four French immersion weekends for continuing education students at the University of Calgary were evaluated. Each weekend involved recreational activities for twenty students and four French-speaking monitors at one of two recreational retreats near Calgary. The purpose of the program was to promote fluency in French by encouraging its use in a…

  3. Current developments in French ethnopsychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Gesine; Nadig, Maya; Moro, Marie Rose

    2011-07-01

    French ethnopsychoanalytic approaches to therapy with immigrants combine the psychoanalytical interest in subjectivity with a specific concern for cultural factors and with the role migration plays as a crucial life event. Recent approaches consider culture as profoundly hybrid and use the notions of ''métissage'' and ''décentrage'' as central concepts. This article presents extracts from a qualitative study of ethnopsychoanalytic therapies with immigrant families. The authors argue that the ethnopsychoanalytic approach helps to open new ways of considering cultural hybridity and create a third space where experiences ''from the margins'' may be verbalized.

  4. Photocopy of photograph (from Mrs. Martin, grandniece of John French, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (from Mrs. Martin, grandniece of John French, Clinton, Missouri) Circa 1900, photographer unknown JOHN AND ALMIRA FRENCH IN FRONT OF WEST AND SOUTH FACADES - John French Farm, South Grand River, Deepwater, Henry County, MO

  5. Aerodynamic characteristics of French consonants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demolin, Didier; Hassid, Sergio; Soquet, Alain

    2004-05-01

    This paper reports some aerodynamic measurements made on French consonants with a group of ten speakers. Speakers were recorded while saying nonsense words in phrases such as papa, dis papa encore. The nonsense words in the study combined each of the French consonants with three vowels /i, a, u/ to from two syllables words with the first syllable being the same as the second. In addition to the audio signal, recordings were made of the oral airflow, the pressure of the air in the pharynx above the vocal folds and the pressure of the air in the trachea just below the vocal folds. The pharyngeal pressure was recorded via a catheter (i.d. 5 mm) passed through the nose so that its open end could be seen in the pharynx below the uvula. The subglottal pressure was recorded via a tracheal puncture between the first and the second rings of the trachea or between the cricoid cartilage and the first tracheal ring. Results compare subglottal presssure, pharyngeal pressure, and airflow values. Comparisons are made between values obtained with male and female subjects and various types of consonants (voiced versus voiceless at the same place of articulation, stops, fricatives, and nasals).

  6. More French, s'il vous plait!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillivray, W. Russ, Ed.

    The collection of essays on French second language instruction in Canada, directed to parents, includes: "Our Brave New World" (Andrew Kniewasser); "French in Your School: Identifying and Achieving the Right Program" (Carolyn Hodych, Jos Scott); "So, You're Worried About Becoming an Immersion Parent" (Judy Gibson);…

  7. Reading Speed of Contracted French Braille

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laroche, Louise; Boule, Jacinthe; Wittich, Walter

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to address three hypotheses: (1) The reading speed of both readers of French braille and readers of French print will be faster in the silent condition; however, this gain in speed will be larger for print readers; (2) Individuals who acquired braille before age 10 will display faster reading speeds at lower error rates…

  8. Reading Speed of Contracted French Braille

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laroche, Louise; Boule, Jacinthe; Wittich, Walter

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to address three hypotheses: (1) The reading speed of both readers of French braille and readers of French print will be faster in the silent condition; however, this gain in speed will be larger for print readers; (2) Individuals who acquired braille before age 10 will display faster reading speeds at lower error rates…

  9. Le Francais Courant (Contemporary French), Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course has been developed basically within the limits of Units 4-6 of "A-LM French: Level 1", second edition. The primary objectives are to develop French vocabulary relative to the family, home, transportation, and foods by continuing to work with short dialogues based on everyday, teenage experiences. While reviewing previously studied…

  10. Why Learn French for Business in 2001?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maratier-Declety, Guilhene

    This essay makes the case for why it is worth learning French for business purposes, even though it is acknowledged that English is increasingly the lingua franca of international business, science, technology, and the Internet. It is asserted that French is still the dominant language in some important markets, and being able to conduct business…

  11. French Higher Education: A Cartoon Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Matthew Henry

    2012-01-01

    In this cartoon essay, the author shares his experience from a travel to Paris to see the French higher education system. From his travel, he learned that in France, "degree" inflation may be an issue, but not grade inflation. On the flight home, the author reflects how French and American academics answer one question about the state of…

  12. Act Up-Paris: French Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    The francophone world has always been at the center of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. From the mythical (French Canadian) "patient zero," Gaetan Dugas, to Rock Hudson's flight to Paris for medical treatment and the blaming of Haiti for AIDS, as well as the close relationships between Belgian and French and their former African colonies,…

  13. Metropolitan French: Familiarization & Short-Term Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iszkowski, Marie-Charlotte

    The U.S. Department of State's Foreign Service Institute French Familiarization and Short-Term (FAST) course for personnel working and living in France consists of 10 weeks of French language instruction combined with practical and cultural information. An introductory section outlines FAST course objectives and sample teaching techniques in…

  14. The French Regions and Their Social Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jany-Catrice, Florence

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a new indicator designed to capture the multidimensionality of the social health of the French regions is put to the test. Drawing on regional data for 2004, this indicator of social health (ISH) sheds new light on the social performance of the French regions. The worst performers are the highly urbanised regions, whereas others,…

  15. Left Dislocation in Near-Native French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the upper limits of SLA--specifically, mastery of the syntax-discourse interface in successful endstate learners of second-language (L2) French (near-native speakers). Left dislocation (LD) is a syntactic means of structuring spoken French discourse by marking topic. Its use requires speakers to coordinate…

  16. French Higher Education: A Cartoon Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Matthew Henry

    2012-01-01

    In this cartoon essay, the author shares his experience from a travel to Paris to see the French higher education system. From his travel, he learned that in France, "degree" inflation may be an issue, but not grade inflation. On the flight home, the author reflects how French and American academics answer one question about the state of…

  17. Les affaires "en francais" (Business "In French").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanko, Helene N.

    1993-01-01

    A French brochure entitled "700 Current Words for Business" was developed to familiarize the business community with modern French business vocabulary and avoid intrusion of terminology from other languages. Some terms are neologisms. Translations from Latin, Japanese, and English illustrate the etymology and morphological patterns of…

  18. Lafayette School District: French Immersion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreaux, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    From 1969 to the late 1980's, most French programs in schools were based on a traditional foreign language instructional model, usually offering 30 minutes a day of French language instruction in elementary grades, increasing to 50 minutes a day in middle school. Contingent on funding and political swings over time, programs expanded from…

  19. Learning French Pronunciation: Audiocassettes or Multimedia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Alysse; Knoerr, Helene

    2003-01-01

    Describes a two phase experiment that was conducted at the university of Ottawa using audiocassettes and multimedia while teaching French, specifically French phonetics, intonation, and pronunciation, to a group of low-intermediate level language students. Looks at whether receptive and productive skills are influenced by the explicit teaching of…

  20. The French Regions and Their Social Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jany-Catrice, Florence

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a new indicator designed to capture the multidimensionality of the social health of the French regions is put to the test. Drawing on regional data for 2004, this indicator of social health (ISH) sheds new light on the social performance of the French regions. The worst performers are the highly urbanised regions, whereas others,…

  1. Vowel Aperture and Syllable Segmentation in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goslin, Jeremy; Frauenfelder, Ulrich H.

    2008-01-01

    The theories of Pulgram (1970) suggest that if the vowel of a French syllable is open then it will induce syllable segmentation responses that result in the syllable being closed, and vice versa. After the empirical verification that our target French-speaking population was capable of distinguishing between mid-vowel aperture, we examined the…

  2. French Romanticism and Napoleon's "Geometric Men."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Robert A.

    1982-01-01

    French intellectual thought changed during the Napoleonic Era. The effects of the Enlightenment philosophers, the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution, and Romanticism on the development of Napoleon's philosophical outlook are used to illustrate the changes occurring in France as a whole in the early nineteenth century. (AM)

  3. Act Up-Paris: French Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    The francophone world has always been at the center of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. From the mythical (French Canadian) "patient zero," Gaetan Dugas, to Rock Hudson's flight to Paris for medical treatment and the blaming of Haiti for AIDS, as well as the close relationships between Belgian and French and their former African colonies,…

  4. French-African Cultures: A Resource Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Barbara

    This resource unit concerns French-African cultures and their influence on other cultures. The materials may be incorporated into Levels 3, 4, and 5 French classes. Topics in the outline include environmental aspects; historical background; and cultural differences expressed in Senegal, Guinee, Mali, Cote d'Ivoire, Haute Volta, Togo, Dahomey,…

  5. Business French: Cultural Content and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Brigitte D.

    The goals and cultural content of two advanced business French courses, developed at Eastern Michigan University (EMU) in conjunction with the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Paris (CCIP), are examined and the wider cultural implications of the courses are discussed. As background information, the role of the CCIP in French education and the…

  6. Commercial French Radio in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melpignano, Richard J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes several techniques for implementing commercial radio to improve listening comprehension skills in the foreign language student. Canadian radio, accessible to much of the northern United States, brings news, weather, and sports, in French, to the student of French and provides major components for sharpening comprehension skills. (PJM)

  7. Lafayette School District: French Immersion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreaux, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    From 1969 to the late 1980's, most French programs in schools were based on a traditional foreign language instructional model, usually offering 30 minutes a day of French language instruction in elementary grades, increasing to 50 minutes a day in middle school. Contingent on funding and political swings over time, programs expanded from…

  8. Syntactic Devices of Emphasis in Contemporary French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollerbach, Wolf

    A device of emphasis in French syntax is defined as a construction of syntactic paraphrase whose function is to make certain parts of a sentence stand out for purposes of contrast, clarification, differentiation, or because a given element is considered important. These devices exist in French because of the lack of a phonemic stress system, and…

  9. Radical Reform of the French University System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bereziat, Gilbert

    2008-01-01

    The French university system is in crisis. After its dismantlement during the French revolution, its rebirth was progressive under the third republic (1871-1945). But it was only after 1968 that the current universities developed, with an autonomy that is strictly supervised by the state. Since 1986 all experiments at modernizing the management of…

  10. Le Francais Courant (Contemporary French), Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course has been developed basically within the limits of Units 4-6 of "A-LM French: Level 1", second edition. The primary objectives are to develop French vocabulary relative to the family, home, transportation, and foods by continuing to work with short dialogues based on everyday, teenage experiences. While reviewing previously studied…

  11. French for Business: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Brenda

    The paper discusses the development and evolution of the French for Business undergraduate language course at Oregon State University, focusing on: (1) instructor preparation; (2) course structure; (3) course content; (4) the business student as teacher and mentor; (5) cultural exchanges with French-speaking business students; (6) oral and written…

  12. Left Dislocation in Near-Native French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the upper limits of SLA--specifically, mastery of the syntax-discourse interface in successful endstate learners of second-language (L2) French (near-native speakers). Left dislocation (LD) is a syntactic means of structuring spoken French discourse by marking topic. Its use requires speakers to coordinate…

  13. Metropolitan French: Familiarization & Short-Term Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iszkowski, Marie-Charlotte

    The U.S. Department of State's Foreign Service Institute French Familiarization and Short-Term (FAST) course for personnel working and living in France consists of 10 weeks of French language instruction combined with practical and cultural information. An introductory section outlines FAST course objectives and sample teaching techniques in…

  14. French Romanticism and Napoleon's "Geometric Men."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Robert A.

    1982-01-01

    French intellectual thought changed during the Napoleonic Era. The effects of the Enlightenment philosophers, the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution, and Romanticism on the development of Napoleon's philosophical outlook are used to illustrate the changes occurring in France as a whole in the early nineteenth century. (AM)

  15. A Modern Curriculum in French Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Robert J.

    The French department, commonly viewed by chairmen and faculty as the conveyor of culture, is admonished to revamp its curriculum and attempt to embrace a broader, more humane understanding of the nature of culture. With the traditional, belletristic, college French curriculum having been rejected in favor of programs based on "cogency, cohesion,…

  16. Business Letter Writing: English, French, and Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Susan; Hinds, John

    1987-01-01

    Examination of business letters in English, French, and Japanese, focusing on prescriptive accounts in the respective languages, found that, despite amazingly similar surface characteristics, American business letters were reader-oriented, French business letters were writer-oriented, and Japanese business letters were oriented to the space…

  17. Radical Reform of the French University System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bereziat, Gilbert

    2008-01-01

    The French university system is in crisis. After its dismantlement during the French revolution, its rebirth was progressive under the third republic (1871-1945). But it was only after 1968 that the current universities developed, with an autonomy that is strictly supervised by the state. Since 1986 all experiments at modernizing the management of…

  18. The French Language in the Americas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdman, Albert, Ed.

    The annual bulletin of the French 8 section of the Annual Meeting of the Modern Language Association of America is presented with the texts of papers read at both the 1969 and 1970 sessions. The 1970 papers, in French, include Jean Louis Darbelnet's "Etude Sociolinguistique des contacts entre 1'Anglais et le Francais au Canada et en…

  19. A Mini-Film on French Kinesics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Joel

    This paper describes a silent film made by the author which illustrates various French gestures. The format is Super 8, and the film lasts five minutes. The script is given, along with an English translation. The story concerns several French students at an outdoor cafe wondering about one of their friends. The conversation includes 10 typical…

  20. [Human parasitoses in French Guiana].

    PubMed

    Carme, B

    2001-11-03

    MALARIA: This review summarises current knowledge of the epidemiological situation regarding parasitoses in French Guiana. Malaria is the most prevalent infection. The most common species is Plasmodium falciparum which is responsible for three quarters of all bouts of malaria. Plasmodium vivax is mostly present in endemic areas inhabited by Amerindian communities. Plasmodium malariae is rarer. CHAGAS' DISEASE, LEISHMAMIASIS AND TOXOPLASMOSIS: Four acute cases of cardiac Chagas' disease were observed between 1994 and 1996. These cases serve as a warning concerning the possible emergence of this type of parasitosis among the poor in Latin America. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is still highly endemic, with an incidence of about 2 cases per 1,000 inhabitants, which has remained essentially unchanged for 15 years. The identification of severe primary toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent individuals in recent years seems to be associated with an as yet poorly known, natural, Amazonian cycle. INTESTINAL PARASITOSES: Improvements in living conditions, hygiene and treatments are such that intestinal parasitoses, other than anguilluliasis, are no longer a major problem in the urban or coastal areas. The situation is very different in the central areas of the country and in the Amerindian and black half-cast communities, with high prevalences of ankylostomiasis (hookworm disease), anguilluliasis and amoebal disease (Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar). OTHERS: Lymphatic filariasis is no longer endemic; tropical schistosomiasis and distomiasis have never been endemic. Parasitic pests (cutaneous larva migrans and insect or dust-mite ectoparasites) are more spectacular than severe, and constitute a classic "exotic" component of the spectrum of diseases in French Guiana.

  1. Research Perspectives on Core French: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapkin, Sharon; Mady, Callie; Arnott, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the research literature on core French in three main areas: student diversity, delivery models for the core French program, and instructional approaches. These topics are put into context through a discussion of studies on community attitudes to French as a second language (FSL), dissatisfaction with core French outcomes and…

  2. Research Perspectives on Core French: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapkin, Sharon; Mady, Callie; Arnott, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the research literature on core French in three main areas: student diversity, delivery models for the core French program, and instructional approaches. These topics are put into context through a discussion of studies on community attitudes to French as a second language (FSL), dissatisfaction with core French outcomes and…

  3. Evolution of the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the French armed forces in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Christen, Jacques-Robert; Mura, Marie; Roudaut, Gwenaëlle; Drogoul, Anne-Sophie; Demar, Magalie; Briolant, Sébastien; Garnotel, Eric; Simon, Fabrice; Pommier De Santi, Vincent

    2016-07-01

    Two cross-sectional studies were performed 2 years apart in French military personnel deployed from France to French Guiana. In 2011, military medical centres in French Guiana reported 40 cases of intestinal parasitism in service members returning from illegal gold mining sites in the rainforest. In 2013, 48 out of 132 service members returning from French Guiana after a 4-month mission had eosinophilia and seven were infected with hookworm. A presumptive first-line treatment with albendazole could be the most pragmatic strategy.

  4. Le Francais quand meme (French Nonetheless).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delautier, Jean-Marie

    1983-01-01

    Political, attitudinal, and administrative problems of teaching compulsory foreign languages in Colombia are described and discussed from the point of view of a French teacher in a system characterized by confusion and lack of student interest. (MSE)

  5. Affective norms for French words (FAN).

    PubMed

    Monnier, Catherine; Syssau, Arielle

    2014-12-01

    The present study provides affective norms for a large corpus of French words (N = 1,031) that were rated on emotional valence and emotional arousal by 469 French young adults. Ratings were made using the Self-Assessment Manikin (Lang, 1980). By combining evaluations of valence and arousal, and including ratings provided by male and female young adults, this database complements and extends existing French-language databases. The response reliability for the two affective dimensions was good, and the consistency between the present and previous ratings was high. We found a strong quadratic relationship between the valence and arousal ratings. Perceptions of the affective content of a word were partly linked to sex. This new affective database (FAN) will enable French-speaking researchers to select suitable materials for studies of how the character of affective words influences their cognitive processing. FAN is available as an online supplement downloadable with this article.

  6. Planthopper pests of grapevine (in French)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the French vineyards occur two main insect pests belonging to Fulgoromorpha, Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Cixiidae) and Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Flatidae). Hyalesthes obsoletus is inducing economic losses by transmitting a phytoplasma, called Stolbur, from wild plants (bindweed, nettle, etc.) t...

  7. A Local Evaluation of Primary School French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, J. D.; Welsh, Jennifer

    1972-01-01

    A local study concludes that primary school French does not confer a lasting advantage but its contribution lies in the enlargement of interest rather that as a preparation for secondary school work. (JB)

  8. A Local Evaluation of Primary School French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, J. D.; Welsh, Jennifer

    1972-01-01

    A local study concludes that primary school French does not confer a lasting advantage but its contribution lies in the enlargement of interest rather that as a preparation for secondary school work. (JB)

  9. Le Francais quand meme (French Nonetheless).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delautier, Jean-Marie

    1983-01-01

    Political, attitudinal, and administrative problems of teaching compulsory foreign languages in Colombia are described and discussed from the point of view of a French teacher in a system characterized by confusion and lack of student interest. (MSE)

  10. The longitudinal development of clusters in French.

    PubMed

    Demuth, Katherine; McCullough, Elizabeth

    2009-03-01

    Studies of English and German find that children tend to acquire word-final consonant clusters before word-initial consonant clusters. This order of acquisition is generally attributed to articulatory, frequency and/or morphological factors. This contrasts with recent experimental findings from French, where two-year-olds were better at producing word-initial than word-final clusters (Demuth & Kehoe, 2006). The purpose of the present study was to examine French-speaking children's longitudinal acquisition of clusters to determine if these results replicate developmentally. Analysis of spontaneous speech productions from two French-speaking children between one and three years confirmed the earlier acquisition of initial clusters, even when sonority factors were controlled. The findings suggest that French-speaking children acquire complexity at the beginnings of words before complexity appears word-finally. The role of frequency, morphological, structural and input factors is discussed.

  11. [The French general inspectorate of prisons].

    PubMed

    Dupont, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    The French general inspectorate of prisons is an independent watchdog responsible for ensuring that inmates' fundamental rights are respected. An interview with Xavier Dupont, the secretary general, who assesses the objectives and methods of this institution.

  12. Translation and the Teacher of French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, H. S. Frank

    1977-01-01

    This article is a brief discussion of some exercises in guided translation and comparative analysis designed not only to increase students' competence in translation and knowledge of French but also to make them more attentive to their English. (CFM)

  13. French NATO Policy: The Next Five Years

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    individual allies. 2See Bresson and Rosenzweig, 1988. -24- NUCLEAR FORCES The French are basing their defense planning on the assumption that a basic...Pillar in NATO?" Armed Forces Journal International, August 1988b. Bresson , Henri de, and Luc Rosenzweig, "La France et la RFA souhaitent une...Tribune, September 30, 1988c. Grant, Robert , "French Defense Policy and European Security," Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 100, No. 3, Fall 1985. Grosser

  14. Management control literature and French public hospitals.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, Irène

    2013-08-01

    The introduction of activity based pricing in combination with hospitals' reorganizations has created a new financial logic in French public hospitals. The organization has an obligation to produce certain levels of activity, since hospitals' resources are directly dependent on the activity level. These changes also imply the implementation of financial results controls in these organizations. The purpose of this answer is to demonstrate how the literature on management control can help to understand what has been happening within the French public hospitals.

  15. The French Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children.

    PubMed

    Putois, Benjamin; Leslie, Wendy; Gustin, Marie Paule; Challamel, Marie-Josèphe; Raoux, Aude; Guignard-Perret, Anne; Weick, Diane; Sauzeau, Jean-Baptiste; Herbillon, Vania; Zourou, Filio; Spruyt, Karen; Franco, Patricia

    2017-04-01

    The psychometric properties of the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC) have been shown to be accurate, even when translated into several languages. The aim of the present study was to translate, adapt, and validate the SDSC for a French-speaking population. After forward- and back-translation, the tool was further translated and adapted into the French language. It was then pretested in terms of clarity on 33 French-speaking parents. Pretesting demonstrated that the questionnaire was well understood, indicating good clarity. During the validation phase, a total of 447 French-speaking parents of children aged between 4 and 16  years completed the SDSC. Among these, 66 children were diagnosed with sleep disorders by a pediatric specialist after a sleep consultation and polysomnographic recordings. The factor analysis revealed five factors: difficulty in initiating and maintaining sleep (DIMS), sleep breathing disorders (SBD), disorders of excessive somnolence (DOES), parasomnias (PARA) and non-restorative sleep (NRS). This psychometric structure is reliable and logical in comparison with the experts' diagnoses. Convergent validity, divergent and internal reliability are very good. Inter-parental concordance in scoring the child's sleep problem does show differences in the ways in which parents report their children's sleep patterns. Cut-off was calculated for the total score (45). This study validated a 25-item French version of the questionnaire. The French SDSC could therefore be used to aid screening of sleep disorders in the general population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The French in American Television Commercials, Part One: Plus ca change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinet, Christopher

    1979-01-01

    Discusses French stereotypes in television commercials to supply data with which to confront prejudices that American students bring to French class. Three kinds of commercials are examined: (1) French people promoting French products, (2) non-French people promoting French products, and (3) French people promoting American products. (AMH)

  17. FRIPON, the French fireball network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colas, F.; Zanda, B.; Bouley, S.; Vaubaillon, J.; Marmo, C.; Audureau, Y.; Kwon, M. K.; Rault, J. L.; Caminade, S.; Vernazza, P.; Gattacceca, J.; Birlan, M.; Maquet, L.; Egal, A.; Rotaru, M.; Gruson-Daniel, Y.; Birnbaum, C.; Cochard, F.; Thizy, O.

    2015-10-01

    FRIPON (Fireball Recovery and InterPlanetary Observation Network) [4](Colas et al, 2014) was recently founded by ANR (Agence Nationale de la Recherche). Its aim is to connect meteoritical science with asteroidal and cometary science in order to better understand solar system formation and evolution. The main idea is to set up an observation network covering all the French territory to collect a large number of meteorites (one or two per year) with accurate orbits, allowing us to pinpoint possible parent bodies. 100 all-sky cameras will be installed at the end of 2015 forming a dense network with an average distance of 100km between stations. To maximize the accuracy of orbit determination, we will mix our optical data with radar data from the GRAVES beacon received by 25 stations [5](Rault et al, 2015). As both the setting up of the network and the creation of search teams for meteorites will need manpower beyond our small team of professionals, we are developing a citizen science network called Vigie-Ciel [6](Zanda et al, 2015). The public at large will thus be able to simply use our data, participate in search campaigns or even setup their own cameras.

  18. French from Four to Seven. A Handbook for Teaching French to the Very Young.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodjak, Barbara Hippel

    The handbook is a compilation of ideas, strategies, resources, and suggestions for teaching French to children aged 4-7. It presupposes a school program in which French is taught as a foreign language for a brief period each day, although the ideas are adaptable to immersion instruction. Introductory sections describe the book's format and…

  19. Hierarchies of Authenticity in Study Abroad: French from Canada versus French from France?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wernicke, Meike

    2016-01-01

    For many decades, Francophone regions in Canada have provided language study exchanges for French as a second language (FSL) learners within their own country. At the same time, FSL students and teachers in Canada continue to orient to a native speaker standard associated with European French. This Eurocentric orientation manifested itself in a…

  20. Reformulation and the Learning of French Pronominal Verbs in a Canadian French Immersion Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapkin, Sharon; Swain, Merrill; Smith, Monika

    2002-01-01

    Examines a subset of collaborative dialogues that occurred in a a multistage task where Canadian Grade 7 French immersion students worked together in pairs. Each pair wrote a story, noticed differences between their text and a reformulator's revision, and reflected on their noticing. Traces development of the target language (French), with…

  1. Third Semester College French, A Different Approach: Practical French for Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickert, Blandine

    An alternative approach used in a third semester French course at the University of Colorado at Denver is described. The approach was adopted to improve student motivation. The course focuses on the learning of practical French for everyday situations, while traveling abroad for business or pleasure. Emphasis is on conversational, communicative…

  2. French from Four to Seven. A Handbook for Teaching French to the Very Young.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodjak, Barbara Hippel

    The handbook is a compilation of ideas, strategies, resources, and suggestions for teaching French to children aged 4-7. It presupposes a school program in which French is taught as a foreign language for a brief period each day, although the ideas are adaptable to immersion instruction. Introductory sections describe the book's format and…

  3. French Gender "Rules" in the Speech of English-Dominant, French-Dominant and Monolingual French-Speaking Children. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Birgit

    The French gender usage of grade two and grade five Franco-Ontarian children was compared with that of English-speaking children enrolled in French immersion programs, and monolingual French-speaking children in Quebec. While some of the Franco-Ontarian children are similar to the Quebec children with respect to the gender "rules" they…

  4. [Acute schistosomiasis in French travellers].

    PubMed

    Agbessi, C-A; Bourvis, N; Fromentin, M; Jaspard, M; Teboul, F; Bougnoux, M-E; Hanslik, T

    2006-08-01

    The clinical presentation of acute schistosomiasis in travellers differs from those observed with chronic schistosomiasis in people from endemic areas. The objective of this study is to describe the main clinical and biological characteristics of the acute schistosomiasis in French travellers. Retrospective study conducted in 42 hospital laboratories of parasitology in France, based on a questionnaire filled out for each case of schistosomiasis diagnosed in subjects non-originating from an endemic country and returning from of a stay in Africa, between 2000 and 2004. Seventy-seven cases of acute schistosomiasis diagnosed between 2000 and 2004 were reported by 15 of the 33 laboratories having taken part in the study. The patients were 26 years old on average and 60% were contaminated in West Africa. Seventy patients (91%) presented at least one symptom at the moment of the diagnosis, but only 44 (57%) presented sufficiently intense symptoms to justify a medical consultation spontaneously. The most frequently reported clinical signs were fever (44%), diarrhoea (40%), pruritus (25%), cough (21%) and hematuria (20%). Hypereosinophilia (82%), elevated liver enzymes and positive serology were respectively reported in 82, 23 and 90% of the cases. Ova were found in the urines or the stool in 60% of the cases. Eleven patients were hospitalized. Acute schistosomiasis must be evoked in patients returning from endemic country and presenting with non-specific symptoms; including patients whose bathes in contaminated water was limited to a short contact of the feet in a river. The high frequency of the asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic forms exposes the infected people to a delayed diagnosis and therefore to an evolution towards the chronic form of schistosomiasis. The increase in tourism towards the endemic areas could be accompanied by an increase in the frequency of the schistosomiasis, and encourages setting-up an active monitoring of acute schistosomiasis.

  5. Evolvement of French advanced practice nurses.

    PubMed

    Bonnel, Galadriel

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to chronicle the development of the advanced practice nurse (APN) in France and compare international APN indictors of quality care with French studies. A review of the literature was performed by accessing the MEDLINE, Science Direct, and Cochrane Databases for studies of quality of care by APNs during 1965-2012. The author's participation on a national task force in collaboration with the French Ministry of Health provided additional information. After applying limits of this search, 36 studies fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria. In both the French and international APN nursing literature, the most frequently described quality of care measures were level of patient satisfaction and other patient outcomes (clinical and laboratory measures) according to evidence-based guidelines. In three French studies (nephrology, neuro-oncology, and urology settings), nurses performed direct patient care and were legally permitted to take on some limited responsibilities usually held by French physicians, including clinical examinations, diagnosing, and prescribing. Creation of the APN role in France can respond to public health challenges including the rising incidence of chronic diseases and an impending physician shortage. Future APN research should focus on rigorous, innovative design development including collaborative care models. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  6. French immersion in Canada: Theory and practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safty, Adel

    1991-12-01

    French immersion programs are rapidly becoming an integral part of the Canadian education system. Its educational and linguistic achievements have been the subject of an abundant literature that continues to grow. The popularity of the program has helped it expand at a phenomenal rate. From one school and a handful of students in the experimental classes 25 years ago, there are now more than 17,000 schools offering French immersion instruction to close to 250,000 students in all major Canadian cities. The major theoretical foundations on which French immersion was explicitly and sometimes implicitly based may be summarized as follows: Early exposure to a second language is better than late exposure.

  7. [French immigration policy at a turning point?].

    PubMed

    Wihtol De Wenden, C

    1995-01-01

    The author examines the changes to French immigration law adopted in 1993 in the light of current trends and pressures affecting migration to France. The focus is on the changes in the rules concerning the acquisition of French nationality, and the assimilation of existing immigrants from developing countries. The difficulties of resolving such problems at the national level while migration regulations are being developed at the European Community level are noted. Problems involving the control of the nation's borders, illegal immigration, and the growing demand for political asylum are also discussed. The author raises the possibility that immigration could be better managed in light of current labor market conditions in France.

  8. Vers un nouveau phonetisme francais (Toward a New French Phonetics)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monnot, Michel; Kite, Francoise

    1976-01-01

    Evolutionary changes in French pronunciation have necessitated changes in phonetic representation. The new articulatory phenomena involve modifications in syllabic structure and in consonant/vowel relationship. (Text is in French.) (DB)

  9. Discrimination of English and French Orthographic Patterns by Biliterate Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jared, Debra; Cormier, Pierre; Levy, Betty Ann; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether young English-French biliterate children can distinguish between English and French orthographic patterns. Children in French immersion programs were asked to play a dictionary game when they were in Grade 2 and again when they were in Grade 3. They were shown pseudowords that contained either an English spelling pattern or…

  10. 7 CFR 993.6 - Non-French prunes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-French prunes. 993.6 Section 993.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.6 Non-French prunes. Non-French prunes means prunes commonly...

  11. Negation in Near-Native French: Variation and Sociolinguistic Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how adult second language (L2) speakers of French with near-native proficiency realize verbal negation, a well-known sociolinguistic variable in contemporary spoken French. Data included 10 spontaneous informal conversations between near-native speakers of French and native speakers (NSs) closely acquainted with them.…

  12. La Culture Canadienne-Francaise = French Canadian Culture. Interim Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussiere, Adrien L., Ed.

    Materials about the culture specific to French-speaking people in Canada are presented as part of the cultural component of the prescribed second language curriculum. The materials follow the suggested sequence of studying the "French Fact" in Alberta in grade 7, the study of French settlements in Canada in grade 8, and in-depth study of…

  13. Old French for Undergraduates at the University of Minnesota, Morris.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, David E.

    Old French for undergraduates, as it is offered to students at the University of Minnesota, Morris, represents a break with tradition. A rationale for the program and course descriptions accentuate benefits accrued from undergraduate medieval studies. Syllabuses for French 80, The History of the Language; French 90, Directed Medieval Studies; and…

  14. French: An Accommodating Language? = Le Francais: Langue D'Accueil?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sue, Ed.

    This bilingual book considers recent developments in French attitudes towards language purism, borrowing, and the incursion of English. The book begins with an essay by French sociolinguist Henriette Walter, and most of the following essays are direct responses to her ideas. All chapters are provided in French and English. Chapter titles include…

  15. Discrimination of English and French Orthographic Patterns by Biliterate Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jared, Debra; Cormier, Pierre; Levy, Betty Ann; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether young English-French biliterate children can distinguish between English and French orthographic patterns. Children in French immersion programs were asked to play a dictionary game when they were in Grade 2 and again when they were in Grade 3. They were shown pseudowords that contained either an English spelling pattern or…

  16. On the Status of the Word in French Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochet, Bernard

    1977-01-01

    French linguists generally agree that the word in French has no phonetic or phonological status. This article examines this position and studies several vowel-consonant sequences, mute-"e" deletion and post-consonantal deletion and suggests that the role of French word-boundaries is more important than is generally acknowledged. (CHK)

  17. Teaching French to Franco-Americans: A Controversial Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickel, Raymond A.

    1965-01-01

    A study of bilingualism among third-generation Americans of French-Canadian extraction briefly examines their linguistic superiority in French over monolingual students and appraises the appropriate psychological approaches to teaching this special group. The article suggests that an "educated standard French" be presented as an alternative to…

  18. Linguistic, Academic, and Cognitive Benefits of French Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaruk, Wally

    2007-01-01

    A survey of research on French as a second language (FSL) education in Canada suggests that French immersion (FI) students enjoy significant linguistic, academic, and cognitive benefits. We organize our summary of the advantages of FI around these three themes, comparing students' proficiency in French and English across various FI programs, and…

  19. The French Defense and Foreign Policies: Rwanda Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-25

    Turquoise , French Strategic Communication, President Mitterrand 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES...and United- Nations-mandated TURQUOISE ) varying in size, scope, and objectives. Concurrently, the French military cooperation architecture evolved...October 1990 RPF offensive, the pro-Hutu press openly cheered the French involvement in operations NOROIT, AMARYLLIS, and TURQUOISE , creating

  20. STUDIES OF THE LIFE WORK OF FOUR CONTEMPORARY FRENCH AUTHORS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NOSTRAND, HOWARD L.

    REPORTED ARE ANALYSES OF THE WORKS OF FOUR CONTEMPORARY FRENCH AUTHORS (RENE MARILL ALBERES, YVES BONNEFOY, MICHEL BUTOR, AND JEAN BRULLER UNDER THE PSEUDONYM VERCORS). THE ANALYSES WERE PREPARED IN FRENCH BY THE INDIVIDUAL AUTHORS FOR THE FRENCH CULTURE RESEARCH PROJECT, A LANGUAGE RESEARCH EFFORT. THE STUDIES ILLUSTRATE THE AUTHORS' THEMES IN…

  1. On Translating French Occurring in English into Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastian, Robert N.

    1989-01-01

    Explores problems encountered during attempts to translate French expressions occurring in English (such as concierge) into Spanish, particularly when the English interpretation of the expression is different from the standard French usage. Spanish translations are provided for about 200 French terms and expressions commonly used in English. (61…

  2. Word Parsing by Late-Learning French-English Bilinguals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golato, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Research on early learning French-English bilinguals suggests that development of segmentation is best characterized by a parameter-setting theory of language acquisition in which French segmentation is marked relative to English segmentation. Reports recent research with late-learning French-English bilinguals that finds evidence for parameter…

  3. Insights from the French Immersion Experience in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safty, Adel

    Canada's French immersion program began in 1965 in response to anglophone parent demand for bilingual French/English instruction. Instruction entirely in French begins in kindergarten, and formal English instruction begins in third grade. The program's popularity has caused rapid expansion, with success attributed to changing attitudes toward…

  4. Sources of French-Canadian Materials for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrey, Irene E.

    This bibiography of reference sources for French-Canadian children's books includes bibliographies, indexes, a publishers' trade annual, recommended lists, and features in professional journals. The citations are presented alphabetically by title--in English, in French and English, or in French, depending on their source--and an address where it…

  5. Negation in Near-Native French: Variation and Sociolinguistic Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how adult second language (L2) speakers of French with near-native proficiency realize verbal negation, a well-known sociolinguistic variable in contemporary spoken French. Data included 10 spontaneous informal conversations between near-native speakers of French and native speakers (NSs) closely acquainted with them.…

  6. View looking Eastnortheast at French Creek trestle, which appears at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking Eastnortheast at French Creek trestle, which appears at left center of frame. Bridge in foreground is west entrance to abandoned Phoenix iron works. - Pennsylvania Railroad, French Creek Trestle, Spanning French Creek, north of Paradise Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  7. French Theory vs. Australian Praxis: The Sham in Tertiary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, Philip

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the primary mode of expression of a significant proportion of contemporary literary and historical criticism (the stock in trade of Australian Arts faculties) is the French language. Emphasizes that knowledge of French prejudices and inclinations can only be gained by learning French. (two references) (Author/CK)

  8. Ten Projects to Involve Your Students Directly in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lent, Peter C.

    1981-01-01

    Proposes 10 activities to provide French classes of all levels with a broad spectrum of language projects involving direct and active use of French including students polling each other, skits based on television commercials, geographical "show and tell," cooking French dishes, writing a monthly newspaper, and field trips. (BK)

  9. French Vocabulary--Looking for "le mot juste."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parris, David L.

    1996-01-01

    The apparent difficulty of students of French as a second language to acquire French vocabulary is examined, drawing on experience with teaching Irish university students and the structures and stylistic traits peculiar to French. It is noted that while certain kinds of words (noun, verb, adjective, adverb) occupy little space in text, they take…

  10. Suggestions for the Organization of a Course in Commercial French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Jacqueline

    1978-01-01

    Comments and suggestions are offered for organizing a class in commercial French. Two subjects must be taught: basic business transactions and procedures applicable to both the U.S. and France and French commercial terminology, stressing the differences between French and American practices. (SW)

  11. A French Culture Course for Non-Language Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savoie, Norman R.

    1987-01-01

    Utah State University changed its "potentially...boring and probably...useless" French civilization course (taught in French and required of majors) to an English-taught course for French majors and majors in business, economics, political science, and prelaw. The new course focuses on stereotypes, cultural differences, and current…

  12. Un cours avance de francais: Le francais tel qu'on le parle (An Advanced Course in French: Colloquial French)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creusot, Andre

    1971-01-01

    Second of three articles on an advanced French program sponsored by the Language Department of the State University of Mons, Belgium. Emphasis is on the phonology, lexicology, and syntax of spoken French. (DS)

  13. Un cours avance de francais: Le francais tel qu'on le parle (An Advanced Course in French: Colloquial French)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creusot, Andre

    1971-01-01

    Second of three articles on an advanced French program sponsored by the Language Department of the State University of Mons, Belgium. Emphasis is on the phonology, lexicology, and syntax of spoken French. (DS)

  14. Memory and Ideals in French Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson-Levitt, Kathryn M.

    French elementary school teachers as well as the parents of their pupils remember being quiet students in teacher-dominated classrooms. Yet today both teachers and parents idealize lively classroom participation by their pupils or children. In this study, teachers and parents in an urban school district in Villefleurie, France, watched videotaped…

  15. The French health care system: liberal universalism.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Monika

    2010-06-01

    This article analyzes the reforms introduced over the last quarter century into the French health care system. A particular public-private combination, rooted in French history and institutionalized through a specific division of the policy field between private doctors and public hospitals, explains the system's core characteristics: universal access, free choice, high quality, and a weak capacity for regulation. The dual architecture of this unique system leads to different reform strategies and outcomes in its two main parts. While the state has leverage in the hospital sector, it has failed repeatedly in attempts to regulate the ambulatory care sector. The first section of this article sets out the main characteristics and historical landmarks that continue to affect policy framing and implementation. Section 2 focuses on the evolution in financing and access, section 3 on management and governance in the (private) ambulatory care sector, and section 4 on the (mainly public) hospital sector. The conclusion compares the French model with those developed in the comparative literature and sets out the terms of the dilemma: a state-run social health insurance that lacks both the legitimacy of Bismarckian systems and the leverages of state-run systems. The French system therefore pursues contradictory policy goals, simultaneously developing universalism and liberalism, which explains both the direct state intervention and its limits.

  16. French Women in Physics: Status and Actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, C.; Pépin, A.; Ducloy, M.; Giacobino, E.; Leduc, M.

    2009-04-01

    We present statistics on the underrepresentation of females entering scientific studies and on the persistence of a glass ceiling for women physicists—and female scientists in general—in France. We also examine actions taken by French research institutions, associations, companies, and professional societies since 2005 to improve these situations.

  17. 21 CFR 169.115 - French dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... emulsified viscous fluid food prepared from vegetable oil(s) and one or both of the acidifying ingredients... this section may also be used. The vegetable oil(s) used may contain an optional crystallization... vegetable oil. French dressing may be mixed and packed in an atmosphere in which air is replaced in whole...

  18. 21 CFR 169.115 - French dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... emulsified viscous fluid food prepared from vegetable oil(s) and one or both of the acidifying ingredients... this section may also be used. The vegetable oil(s) used may contain an optional crystallization... vegetable oil. French dressing may be mixed and packed in an atmosphere in which air is replaced in whole...

  19. 21 CFR 169.115 - French dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... emulsified viscous fluid food prepared from vegetable oil(s) and one or both of the acidifying ingredients... this section may also be used. The vegetable oil(s) used may contain an optional crystallization... vegetable oil. French dressing may be mixed and packed in an atmosphere in which air is replaced in whole...

  20. 21 CFR 169.115 - French dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... emulsified viscous fluid food prepared from vegetable oil(s) and one or both of the acidifying ingredients... this section may also be used. The vegetable oil(s) used may contain an optional crystallization... vegetable oil. French dressing may be mixed and packed in an atmosphere in which air is replaced in whole...

  1. Le Francais Courant: Part V, French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Instructional objectives of the Dade County Public Schools Quinmester Program in French for use with "Le Francais Courant: Part 5" focus on the development of mastery of the basic numbering system and other grammatical structures. Structures include the formation of the present tense of the irregular verbs…

  2. Le Francais Moderne, (Modern French) Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Performance objectives and broad goals for listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills in French instruction are presented in this text. Cultural awareness and student attitude are also considered. Vocabulary and structure of the course are presented through three situations: shopping, meeting a train, and making vacation plans. Short films…

  3. A Grammar for Undergraduate Old French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Douglas

    Seeking to determine the necessary elements of a grammar for undergraduate students with a strong interest in Old French, the author discusses: (1) sounds, (2) forms, (3) syntax, and (4) poetics. It is felt that the treatment accorded phonology should be different from the traditional approach used in graduate level grammars, since the course is…

  4. Films for French: A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savignon, Sandra J., Ed.

    More than 100 films, selected for use in college-level French programs, are evaluated in this teaching guide. Films are listed alphabetically under the following categories: (1) "Beaux-Arts," (2) "La France Contemporaine," (3) "La France et le Nouveau Monde," (4) "Histoire," and (5) "Langue." The index gives an alphabetical list of all the films…

  5. French Discourse Markers in Shaba Swahili Conversations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Rooij, Vincent A.

    2000-01-01

    Examines data recorded in Shaba, a province in the Congo, and documents the marked preference to employ French discourse markers in Shaba Swahili discourse. Treats discourse markers as a special kind of contextualization cue that ties parts of a discourse to each other, creating cohesion and coherence. (Author/VWL)

  6. Studies in French Grammar and Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benguerel, Andre-Pierre; Grundstrom, Allan W.

    The monograph contains two papers. The first presents a generative grammar for verbal forms in French. It consists of an ordered set of rewrite rules and a set of tables. It generates all existing verbal forms without generating any non-existing ones. The departure from an ordinary generative grammar lies in the use of a tabular form for…

  7. Vocabulary Breadth in French L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Annabelle

    2008-01-01

    Vocabulary is one of the building blocks of language and is a necessary component of learners' development. This paper aims to describe the development of the L2 lexicon from the first year of learning French as a foreign language at school to the last year of undergraduate studies at university by setting out what learners know and how this…

  8. Teaching French Culture. Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Ross; Suozzo, Andrew

    In today's global village, the choice of languages and cultures offered to the high school and college student in constantly increasing. Several reasons are offered for choosing the more traditional option of French/Francophone culture: internationalism, political contributions, intellectual achievements, France's role in Europe and in technology,…

  9. Capital Punishment for Juveniles: Albert French's "Billy."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darlington, Sonja

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes Albert French's novel "Billy" and its exploration of the United States' use of capital punishment for young criminals. Addresses the underlying causes of Billy's execution. Discusses specific themes and issues that teachers can use for classroom discussions of capital punishment. (RS)

  10. Using Conventional Sequences in L2 French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsberg, Fanny

    2010-01-01

    By means of a phraseological identification method, this study provides a general description of the use of conventional sequences (CSs) in interviews at four different levels of spoken L2 French as well as in interviews with native speakers. Use of conventional sequences is studied with regard to overall quantity, category distribution and type…

  11. Syntactic Categorization in French-Learning Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Rushen; Melancon, Andreane

    2010-01-01

    Recent work showed that infants recognize and store function words starting from the age of 6-8 months. Using a visual fixation procedure, the present study tested whether French-learning 14-month-olds have the knowledge of syntactic categories of determiners and pronouns, respectively, and whether they can use these function words for…

  12. Attainment at 16+: the French Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dundas-Grant, Valerie

    1975-01-01

    In the face of the deliberations that have been taking place in England for several years now about the merging of two '16+' examinations, the CSE and GCE Ordinary level, author investigated the French system and the examination, the BEPC, taken at 'intermediate' level by 'average' and 'above average' students. (Author/RK)

  13. A French Vocabulary Tutor for the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labrie, Gilles

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a project to design and implement a small French vocabulary tutor for the World Wide Web. Highlights salient features and design of the tutor and focuses on two variants of a module on technology-related vocabulary that were created using very straightforward html code and JavaScript. (Author/VWL)

  14. The Longitudinal Development of Clusters in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demuth, Katherine; McCullough, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Studies of English and German find that children tend to acquire word-final consonant clusters before word-initial consonant clusters. This order of acquisition is generally attributed to articulatory, frequency and/or morphological factors. This contrasts with recent experimental findings from French, where two-year-olds were better at producing…

  15. Study Guide for TCT in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, J. Carroll; Bradley, C. Lee

    This study guide is specifically designed for those individuals preparing to take the Georgia Teacher Certification Test (TCT) in French language instruction. It covers four areas: (1) grammar; (2) usage; (3) history, geography, and literature; and (4) listening and oral skills. This guide provides prospective examinees with test content…

  16. Capital Punishment for Juveniles: Albert French's "Billy."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darlington, Sonja

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes Albert French's novel "Billy" and its exploration of the United States' use of capital punishment for young criminals. Addresses the underlying causes of Billy's execution. Discusses specific themes and issues that teachers can use for classroom discussions of capital punishment. (RS)

  17. French inside and outside the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowell, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Many teachers of foreign languages struggle with finding alternative ways of exposing their students to the target language. At Kent Gardens Elementary School (KGES) in McLean, Virginia, many students participate in an immersion program from first grade to sixth grade. These students spend half of every school day immersed in French while learning…

  18. A Vous de Parler. French Trainee Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Richard

    A set of instructional materials for French is designed for Peace Corps volunteer language instruction and geared to the daily language needs of volunteers in Morocco. It consists of 38 units containing mini-dialogues, related grammatical and cultural information, vocabulary, and exercises. Unit topics include introductions, information giving and…

  19. Le Francais Courant, Part VI: Contemporary French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course, developed largely within the framework of units 13, 14, and 15 of the second edition of "A-LM French, Level 2," emphasizes development of basic audiolingual skills. Conversational topics permit the student to review his summer vacation. Principal elements of structure are expressions of quantity, pronouns--including those…

  20. Libraries of La Pocatiere: French Immersion Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia, S.

    2005-01-01

    Many times summer language immersion administrators and instructors overlook the rich collections housed in various town libraries. Students of French immersion programs have an opportunity to utilize local libraries. This essay describes the facilities and services of five libraries in La Pocatiere, Quebec. A series of interviews of librarians…

  1. Business French and the Liberal Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Michele O.

    The offering of a college course in French for industry and the professions revealed how well a business language course can serve the needs of language majors. The course served students in international marketing, management, finance, and a variety of liberal arts majors, including some language majors needing additional credits for graduation.…

  2. Foreign Language Workshop on French Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Sue, Ed.; And Others

    A compilation of French cultural units for use in secondary school language classes is presented in this text. Units include: (1) "Les mots et leur implication culturelle," (2) "Le telephone--une capsule culturelle," (3) "Le repas," (4) "La femme francaise 1972," (5) "Les Parents," (6)…

  3. Studies in French Grammar and Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benguerel, Andre-Pierre; Grundstrom, Allan W.

    The monograph contains two papers. The first presents a generative grammar for verbal forms in French. It consists of an ordered set of rewrite rules and a set of tables. It generates all existing verbal forms without generating any non-existing ones. The departure from an ordinary generative grammar lies in the use of a tabular form for…

  4. A Venture in French for Special Purposes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Rodney; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes the development of an intensive four-day course at the University of Southampton to teach French to cross-Channel ferry crews. Each day of the course was divided into the following six contact hours: reading and pronunciation practice; formal grammar revision; two hours of "hostess-passenger" dialogs; "open-ended"…

  5. Teaching Old French Literature to Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Harry E.

    As a prelude to graduate-level work for French majors, medieval studies are proposed for undergraduate students. Problems inherent in the establishment of the undergraduate program are identified with some suggested solutions. Concepts related to historical grammar, teaching materials, literature, and linguistics are developed. A logical course…

  6. French inside and outside the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowell, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Many teachers of foreign languages struggle with finding alternative ways of exposing their students to the target language. At Kent Gardens Elementary School (KGES) in McLean, Virginia, many students participate in an immersion program from first grade to sixth grade. These students spend half of every school day immersed in French while learning…

  7. How to Find Out in: French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Susan E.

    This library handbook is a guide for the student of French language and literature. It lists some of the more useful materials and reference books basic to general research and gives their locations in the Fogler Library at the University of Maine. Materials for language study include dictionaries and encyclopedias, histories of the language, and…

  8. A French Vocabulary Tutor for the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labrie, Gilles

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a project to design and implement a small French vocabulary tutor for the World Wide Web. Highlights salient features and design of the tutor and focuses on two variants of a module on technology-related vocabulary that were created using very straightforward html code and JavaScript. (Author/VWL)

  9. French Medical Education: Years of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mensh, Ivan Norman

    1978-01-01

    Reviewed is the impact on French medical education of the expansion in numbers of medical schools and students, introduction of a competitive examination to select students whose numbers are a function of the number of teaching hospital beds available, and governmental plans to effect a 20 percent reduction in the number of medical students by…

  10. Connecting Research to French Mathematics Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, A.; Hache, C.

    2000-01-01

    Presents an overview of two surveys that focused on French teachers' classroom practices, the first of which provides an overview of the difficulties experienced by beginning teachers while the second survey provides a more detailed description of the classroom practices of experienced teachers. Proposes a research project on teacher professional…

  11. How to Find Out in: French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Susan E.

    This library handbook is a guide for the student of French language and literature. It lists some of the more useful materials and reference books basic to general research and gives their locations in the Fogler Library at the University of Maine. Materials for language study include dictionaries and encyclopedias, histories of the language, and…

  12. Using Drama in the French Immersion Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shacker, Deborah L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Analyzes the nature of the oral language interactions of French immersion students involved in a group drama about the early settlers. Finds that four language functions (informative, directive, expressive, and imaginative) were characteristic of children's interactions during group drama. Finds relationships between type of session and the…

  13. Problems with French-English Business Dictionaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartman, Max D.

    An analysis of two French-English business dictionaries, a 1989 revised edition and a 1990 edition, looks at a number of weaknesses in the resources' design and content. First, problems are found in transcriptions of pronunciation that do not reflect actual usage when it differs from convention and in lack of attention to pronunciation of words…

  14. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (French Translation)

    SciTech Connect

    2016-03-01

    This is a French translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  15. The French Model of the Educator State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lelievre, Claude

    2000-01-01

    The 19th-century emergence of a centralized, state-controlled school system helped stabilize government and legitimize a state model during a revolutionary period in French history. The centralized model assisted national integration goals by fabricating a symbolic public space. This ambitious political construction may be coming apart. (Contains…

  16. Le Francais Courant, Part VI: Contemporary French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course, developed largely within the framework of units 13, 14, and 15 of the second edition of "A-LM French, Level 2," emphasizes development of basic audiolingual skills. Conversational topics permit the student to review his summer vacation. Principal elements of structure are expressions of quantity, pronouns--including those…

  17. The Autism Diagnostic Experiences of French Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamak, Brigitte; Bonniau, Beatrice; Oudaya, Lila; Ehrenberg, Alain

    2011-01-01

    This survey focused on French parents' views of the diagnostic process relating to their child with autism. Data were collected on the age at diagnosis, the time taken to obtain a diagnosis and the difficulties encountered. Questionnaires filled in by the parents (n = 248) and in-depth interviews (n = 43) were analyzed in order to obtain…

  18. The Verb-Lists of Modern French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, J.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews and compares the main published repertoires of French verbs. By combining the material from these different sources, one can construct a database of approximately 10,300 formally distinct verbs. It is suggested that analysis of such a wide corpus may reveal structures not yet acknowledged. (Author/LMO)

  19. Problems with French-English Business Dictionaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartman, Max D.

    An analysis of two French-English business dictionaries, a 1989 revised edition and a 1990 edition, looks at a number of weaknesses in the resources' design and content. First, problems are found in transcriptions of pronunciation that do not reflect actual usage when it differs from convention and in lack of attention to pronunciation of words…

  20. [French validation of the Anger Rumination Scale].

    PubMed

    Reynes, E; Berthouze-Aranda, S E; Guillet-Descas, E; Chabaud, P; Deflandre, A

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to propose a French version of the Anger Rumination Scale (ARS). The main contribution of this scale is to evaluate cognitive responses involved in rumination experience related to anger. The rumination experience is assessed through four scales: angry afterthoughts, thoughts of revenge, angry memories and understanding of causes. Because anger rumination is related to anger experience, it is usually understood to be a dysfunctional or unconstructive behavior. However, because the rumination involves cognitive activity, it can be assimilated as a cognitive strategy to cope with a negative event in a specific context. The ARS seems to be useful in understanding the rumination effects both on anger experience as well as on aggressive behaviors. The original scale was translated following scientific recommendations for cultural adaptation of questionnaires. Six hundred and seventeen voluntary undergraduate students were asked to complete the ARS-French version. Among these 617 students: 305 completed the French ARS version twice over a 1-month period to test the reliability of the French version; 361 filled out both the French ARS version and the STAXI-II; 342 filled out both the French ARS version and the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ). The Total Sample was randomly split into two groups. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted with group I's data. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted with group II's data. The EFA revealed a four factors solution close to the original version. The CFA confirmed a good model fit for the original four factors solution (χ(2)146: 302.14 CFI: 0.96 RMSEA: 0.058). A one factor model was tested, but was not retained. The ARS's internal consistency coefficients replicated those of the literature: alpha coefficients ranged from 0.60 to 0.86, and test-retest correlation coefficients ranged from 0.65 to 0.70. External validity indices conformed to previous studies, both for gender differences

  1. Effectiveness of a Heritage Educational Program for the Acquisition of Oral and Written French and Tahitian in French Polynesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nocus, Isabelle; Guimard, Philippe; Vernaudon, Jacques; Paia, Mirose; Cosnefroy, Olivier; Florin, Agnes

    2012-01-01

    The research examines the effects of a bilingual pedagogical program (French/Tahitian) on the acquisition of oral and written French as well as the Tahitian language itself in primary schools in French Polynesia. 125 children divided into an experimental group (partially schooled in Tahitian for 300 min per week) and a control group (schooled in…

  2. Effectiveness of a Heritage Educational Program for the Acquisition of Oral and Written French and Tahitian in French Polynesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nocus, Isabelle; Guimard, Philippe; Vernaudon, Jacques; Paia, Mirose; Cosnefroy, Olivier; Florin, Agnes

    2012-01-01

    The research examines the effects of a bilingual pedagogical program (French/Tahitian) on the acquisition of oral and written French as well as the Tahitian language itself in primary schools in French Polynesia. 125 children divided into an experimental group (partially schooled in Tahitian for 300 min per week) and a control group (schooled in…

  3. Switches to English during French Service Encounters: Relationships with L2 French Speakers' Willingness to Communicate and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaughton, Stephanie; McDonough, Kim

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated second language (L2) French speakers' service encounters in the multilingual setting of Montreal, specifically whether switches to English during French service encounters were related to L2 speakers' willingness to communicate or motivation. Over a two-week period, 17 French L2 speakers in Montreal submitted…

  4. The Impact of L2 Dialect on Learning French Vowels: Native English Speakers Learning Quebecois and European French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Wendy; Smith, Laura Catharine

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how a second language (L2) dialect affects how accurately the L2 is perceived and produced. Specifically, the study examined differences between the production and perception of French vowels /i/, /y/, and /u/ by learners of either Quebec French (QF) or European French (EF). These vowels differ across the two varieties, both…

  5. The French language virtual medical university.

    PubMed

    Morin, A; Benhamou, A C; Spector, M; Bonnin, A; Debry, C

    2004-01-01

    The work program of the French Language Virtual Medical University started about 2 years ago, and entered into a real active phase of development and implementation in 2002. Various national programs and organizational initiatives should accelerate and facilitate further appropriation of modem pedagogical approaches by knowledge providers and all users of the FSVMU, so as to advance on the way of virtual education. The French Language Virtual Medical University under the auspices of both the National Conference of Deans of Medical Schools and the International Conference of Deans of French-Speaking Medical Schools has been developed to create a major Internet portal for French-speaking distance medical learning and teaching. This construct should be representative of all medical schools in France and French-speaking countries. Contents will also be translated into English, Spanish and Arabic. All medical disciplines with their various levels of teaching are to be included. Cross-related fields are also going to be present in order to offer full range programs. The latter are intended to provide both initial and continuing education for medical students as well as all other categories of health professionals and medical and scientific research workers. To develop the appropriate technology and make such a portal, on one hand correspond to the specific educational requirements and proper training for health professionals, and on the other hand provide a general access to e-learning in all schools of medicine; in keeping with such goals, the following approaches should be stressed upon. To build a virtual space where individual patients, their families, patient associations as well as the general public, can obtain medical information of good quality for the purposes of both education and prevention. Providing such categories with reliable and validated sources of information, and offering an ethical basis for the increasing practice of e-medicine, represent in today

  6. [Thalassemia in French-speaking Quebec residents].

    PubMed

    Desjardins, L; Rousseau, C; Duplain, J M; Valet, J P; Auger, P

    1978-10-07

    Eighty-five cases of beta-thalassemia minor were found between January 1975 and November 1977 in 18 families of French-speaking Quebeckers without Mediterranean ancestry. Most of the families had settled in Quebec more than 200 years ago, largely in Portneuf county. This is the first report of such a number of cases of beta-thalassemia in this population. Thus, beta-thalassemia minor is a relatively common condition in Quebec and must be considered in cases of microcytic anemia without evidence of iron deficiency. The hematologic findings were similar to those reported in the past in other populations. Two cases of delta beta-thalassemia minor (in sisters) are also reported; this is the first report of such cases in French Canadians.

  7. French Pro/Am collaborations in exoplanet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santerne, A.; Moutou, C.; Vanhuysse, M.; Bouchy, F.; Buil, C.; Cochard, F.; Thizy, O.; Martinez, P.; Desnoux, V.; Pujol, M.; Colas, F.

    2011-10-01

    Amateur astronomers have access to huge telescope time and can reach photometric precision up to a few mmag as well as radial velocity precision up to ˜ 50m.s-1 on brightest stars. We will first present some results of french amateur astronomers in transit photometry and radial velocity and then, we will present an over-view of all the collaborations which can be done between professional and amateur astronomers in the competitive exoplanet domain, and especially the current collaboration between french Pro & Am astronomers which was used in publication in A&A. Finally, we will present a new internet wiki page which goal is to develop such collaboration in different countries.

  8. UMLF: a unified medical lexicon for French.

    PubMed

    Zweigenbaum, Pierre; Baud, Robert; Burgun, Anita; Namer, Fiammetta; Jarrousse, Eric; Grabar, Natalia; Ruch, Patrick; Le Duff, Franck; Forget, Jean-François; Douyère, Magaly; Darmoni, Stéfan

    2005-03-01

    Medical Informatics has a constant need for basic medical language processing tasks, e.g. for coding into controlled vocabularies, free text indexing and information retrieval. Most of these tasks involve term matching and rely on lexical resources: lists of words with attached information, including inflected forms and derived words, etc. Such resources are publicly available for the English language with the UMLS Specialist Lexicon, but not in other languages. For the French language, several teams have worked on the subject and built local lexical resources. The goal of the present work is to pool and unify these resources and to add extensively to them by exploiting medical terminologies and corpora, resulting in a unified medical lexicon for French (UMLF). This paper exposes the issues raised by such an objective, describes the methods on which the project relies and illustrates them with experimental results.

  9. French language space science educational outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, I.; Masongsong, E. V.; Connors, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    Athabasca University's AUTUMNX ground-based magnetometer array to measure and report geomagnetic conditions in eastern Canada is located in the heart of French speaking Canada. Through the course of the project, we have had the privilege to partner with schools, universities, astronomy clubs and government agencies across Quebec, all of which operate primarily in French. To acknowledge and serve the needs of our research partners, we have endeavored to produce educational and outreach (EPO) material adapted for francophone audiences with the help of UCLA's department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences (EPSS). Not only will this provide greater understanding and appreciation of the geospace environment unique to Quebec and surrounding regions, it strengthens our ties with our francophone, first nations (native Americans) and Inuit partners, trailblazing new paths of research collaboration and inspiring future generations of researchers.

  10. Pediatric bacterial meningitis in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Elenga, N; Sicard, S; Cuadro-Alvarez, E; Long, L; Njuieyon, F; Martin, E; Kom-Tchameni, R; Balcaen, J; Moreau, B; Boukhari, R

    2015-01-01

    Controlling vaccine-preventable infectious diseases is a public health priority in French Guiana but there is currently no epidemiological data on pediatric bacterial meningitis in this overseas department. Our aim was to describe data related to pediatric bacterial meningitis in French Guiana and compare it with that of metropolitan France. We conducted a multicenter retrospective study from 2000 to 2010 to describe the clinical picture, biological data, epidemiology, and outcome of pediatric bacterial meningitis case patients in French Guiana. The median age of bacterial meningitis patients was 6months [0-15] and the sex ratio 1.06. We observed a total of 60 bacterial meningitis case patients. Most presented with pneumococcal meningitis (24 patients; 40%); 11 with Haemophilus influenzae type b meningitis (23%), five with group B streptococcal meningitis (8.5%), and five others (8.5%) with staphylococcal meningitis (three patients presented with coagulase-negative staphylococci and two with Staphylococcus aureus). Only one patient presented with group B meningococcal meningitis, an 18-month-old infant. We recorded 14 deaths (overall case fatality: 23%); eight were due to Streptococcus pneumoniae (case fatality: 33%). The overall sequelae rate was 28%. It was 32% for patients presenting with pneumococcal meningitis. We observed that 38% of children who had never been vaccinated were infected by a vaccine-preventable bacterium. We observed many differences in the distribution of the bacteria and in the patients' prognosis when comparing the French Guiana data with that of metropolitan France. Improving vaccination coverage would decrease the incidence of H. influenzae meningitis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. U.S.-French Commercial Ties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-19

    France has been the sixth largest market for U.S. exports of services. Although trade in goods and services receive most of the attention in terms of the...impact on sales of products such as French wines, perfumes and toiletries, travel goods and handbags, and cheeses that are most prone to being...from the United States. Yet, prompted by mandates of the European Union’s Single Market , the need to reduce budget deficits by raising revenues

  12. The Development of French Nuclear Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    the following issues : 1) restoration of pre-war status 2) restoration of French confidence 3) past and present concerns about dependency on alliances...casual 4 observer to be a nation or fine wines, excellent cuisine , contemporary fashion, fine furniture, classic art, and a revolutionary heritage. But... issues like the development of nuclear weapons is best described by 7 Lawrence Scheinman in Atomic Energy Policy in France Under the Fourth Republic

  13. Spectators' identification with French sports teams: a French adaptation of the sport spectator identification scale.

    PubMed

    Bernache-Assollant, Iouri; Bouchet, Patrick; Lacassagne, Marie-Françoise

    2007-02-01

    Due to the works of Wann and colleagues, spectators' identification with teams has taken on a central role in the study of sports spectators' thought and behavior. However, no research in this area has measured identification with sports teams in the French context. Two studies attempted to develop a valid and reliable French version of the Sport Spectator Identification Scale (SSIS) developed by Wann and Branscombe in 1993 to measure team identification. In Study 1, 200 physical education students completed a French translation of the SSIS and several questions concerning their involvement, investment, and evaluation of the team's future performance. Results showed that the French translation of the SSIS is a reliable and one-dimensional instrument: strong relationships were found between identification with professional French teams and these variables. In Study 2, 143 physical education students completed the SSIS with a National sport team as the target team. Results confirmed the psychometric properties of the scale and indicated that persons who strongly identify with the National soccer team reported more involvement with the team and were more optimistic about future performances than persons low in identification.

  14. [Young French neurosurgeons: Working conditions and outlook].

    PubMed

    Pommier, B; Manet, R; Gay, E; Vassal, F; Nuti, C; Hladky, J-P

    2015-10-01

    Due to the increase in the number of French neurosurgeon residents the neurosurgical workforce is changing. The main objective of this survey was to assess working conditions and perspectives for young French neurosurgeons. An on-line survey was sent to young French neurosurgeons based on a mailing-list (219 mail addresses of Residents and Fellows obtained during previous meetings). The form contained questions about career, amount of work, salary, quality of life, teaching and university work. We received 78 replies from January to March 2014. A total of 56% from fellows saying they had undergone difficulties in obtaining a fellowship, although 78% were satisfied. Fellows considered a private career more often than residents. Overall, young neurosurgeons were worried about future employment. Some 33% admitted contemplating a different career from one they originally wanted. The average weekly working time of 76.8 hours was deemed to be excessive. Security rests after overnight shifts were lacking or incomplete in 91% of cases. The work atmosphere was good overall (3.7/5), and so was the quality of life (3.2/5). Theoretical teaching was unsatisfactory (2.43/5) as well as the time allowed for academic work (approximately 1.58 half-days per month). However, practical teaching was considered rewarding (3.63/5). This study provides some guidance for upcoming reforms, and should be considered again at a later date to evaluate progress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. French nuclear power charges in future

    SciTech Connect

    Catz, H.

    1996-07-01

    Electric rates in France are one of the best bargains in Europe, thanks largely to its state-run nuclear program. Since Charles DeGaulle created the French Atomic Energy Agency (CEA) in the late 1940`s, that agency and Elecricite de France (EdF) have put France well on the road to energy independence, says Henri Catz, director of Environment and Energy Policy at Confederation Francaise Democratique du Travail in France. {open_quotes}Nuclear power generates more than 75 percent of the electricity that France consumes,{close_quotes} Catz says. However, the French nuclear establishment has been slow to respond to the public`s environmental and safety concerns. In addition, Catz finds that CEA and EdF have no particular incentive to promote energy conservation. {open_quotes}French electricity is cheap and abundant. EdF has responded to this energy glut by encouraging its consumers to use more electricity, while simultaneously exporting excess power to France`s neighbors.

  16. [The origins of the French neurosurgery].

    PubMed

    Brunon, J

    2016-06-01

    Modern French neurosurgery starts at the beginning of the XXth century under the motivation of Joseph Babinski. He submitted his patients to Thierry de Martel who had learned this new specialized area of medicine with H. Cushing in the États-Unis and V. Horsey in Great Britain. His first successfully treated case of an intracranial tumor was published in 1909. But the true founding father was Clovis Vincent, initially a neurologist and collaborator of de Martel, who became the first chairman in 1933 of the neurosurgical department at the Pitié hospital of Paris and the first professor of neurosurgery in 1938. After the Second World War, many departments were created outside of Paris. Neurosurgery was definitively recognized as a specialized area in medicine in 1948. Currently, more than 400 neurosurgeons work in France. Because I had the very great privilege to be present at the birth of this society in 1970 and to still be in contact with some of the second and third generation of French neurosurgeons who led it to its high international recognition, the Chairman of the French Neurosurgical Society asked me to write this short historical vignette.

  17. [History of the French healthcare insurance system].

    PubMed

    Milhaud, Gérard; Lagrave, Michel

    2010-06-01

    At a time when the French healthcare system was going through its most serious crisis, in terms of both organisation and funding, the board of governors of the National Academy of Medicine decided, at its meeting of May 26, 2003, to set up a workgroup on the future of the health insurance system. The workgroup revisited the concept of health insurance, taking economic constraints into account. Medical care covered by the national health insurance system is considered as "'free" by both national insurance contributors (patients) and doctors, who are the primary "spenders". The Academy was the first organization to examine the reasons for the budget deficit, which is largely due to State with nothings. In 2008, the Academy created a healthcare insurance committee. Deficits piled up, amplifying the debt, which eventually may spiral out of control. The French population finally became concerned at the situation. In 2010, France's social security budget deficit will reach some 30.5 billion euros, including 14.5 billion for healthcare insurance alone, a figure which is increasing by 5 billion euros each year. The French President recently announced the creation of a workgroup to examine healthcare expenditure. The Academy's healthcare insurance committee is convinced that reform is necessary and feasible, while preserving the underlying principles of our present system, namely humanism, freedom of choice, responsibility and solidarity.

  18. Malaria control strategies in French armed forces.

    PubMed

    Migliani, R; Pradines, B; Michel, R; Aoun, O; Dia, A; Deparis, X; Rapp, C

    2014-01-01

    Each year, 40,000 French soldiers deploy or travel through malaria-endemic areas. Despite the effective control measures that were successively implemented, malaria remains a public health concern in French armed forces with several important outbreaks and one lethal case every two years. This article describes the malaria control strategy in French armed forces which is based on three combined strategies: i) Anopheles vector control to prevent infection with the implementation of personal protection against vectors (PPAV) adapted to the field living conditions of the troops. ii) Chemoprophylaxis (CP) to prevent the disease based on prescription of effective and well tolerated doxycycline. iii) Management of cases through early diagnosis and appropriate treatment to prevent death. In isolated conditions in endemic areas, rapid diagnosis tests (RDT) are used as first-line tests by military doctors. Treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum) malaria is based either on the piperaquine tetraphosphate-dihydroartemisinin association since 2013, or on the atovaquone-proguanil association. First-line treatment of severe P. falciparum malaria is based on IV artesunate. These measures are associated with constant education of the military, epidemiological surveillance of malaria cases and monitoring of parasite chemosensitivity.

  19. Societal risk as seen by the French public

    SciTech Connect

    Karpowicz-Lazreg, C.; Mullet, E. )

    1993-06-01

    Mean risk magnitude judgments expressed by French students on 90 hazardous activities are reported and compared with findings on American, Hungarian, and Norwegian samples. In many respects, rating of perceived risk in the French sample is highly comparable to rating in American subjects. American and French people tend to share the same preoccupations to the same extent. The only major differences concern hallucinatory drugs and oral contraceptives. The Norwegians and French ratings differ much more. Norwegians and French people generally have the same preoccupations (which make Norwegian ratings the best predictor of French ratings) but not to the same extent. The French are much more concerned with a whole series of activities connected to violence, the implementation of high technology or agricultural technology. However, like the Norwegians, the French are extremely concerned about the spread of hallucinogenic drugs. The Hungarian and French ratings differ on practically all instances, except on basic activities or substances in all industrialized nations (caffeine, motorcycles, ...). Differences were observed within the French sample itself. Women more than men consider that home appliances in general and large-scale public transportation are potentially dangerous. Science students more than art students tend to fear a certain number of medical techniques and a certain number of toxic substances (e.g., smoking). 7 refs., 1 tab.

  20. Decomposability and mental representation of French verbs

    PubMed Central

    Estivalet, Gustavo L.; Meunier, Fanny E.

    2015-01-01

    In French, regardless of stem regularity, inflectional verbal suffixes are extremely regular and paradigmatic. Considering the complexity of the French verbal system, we argue that all French verbs are polymorphemic forms that are decomposed during visual recognition independently of their stem regularity. We conducted a behavioral experiment in which we manipulated the surface and cumulative frequencies of verbal inflected forms and asked participants to perform a visual lexical decision task. We tested four types of verbs with respect to their stem variants: a. fully regular (parler “to speak,” [parl-]); b. phonological change e/E verbs with orthographic markers (répéter “to repeat,” [répét-] and [répèt-]); c. phonological change o/O verbs without orthographic markers (adorer “to adore,” [ador-] and [adOr-]); and d. idiosyncratic (boire “to drink,” [boi-] and [buv-]). For each type of verb, we contrasted four conditions, forms with high and low surface frequencies and forms with high and low cumulative frequencies. Our results showed a significant cumulative frequency effect for the fully regular and idiosyncratic verbs, indicating that different stems within idiosyncratic verbs (such as [boi-] and [buv-]) have distinct representations in the mental lexicon as different fully regular verbs. For the phonological change verbs, we found a significant cumulative frequency effect only when considering the two forms of the stem together ([répét-] and [répèt-]), suggesting that they share a single abstract and under specified phonological representation. Our results also revealed a significant surface frequency effect for all types of verbs, which may reflect the recombination of the stem lexical representation with the functional information of the suffixes. Overall, these results indicate that all inflected verbal forms in French are decomposed during visual recognition and that this process could be due to the regularities of the French

  1. Gastrointestinal illnesses among French forces deployed to Djibouti: French military health surveillance, 2005-2009.

    PubMed

    Ollivier, Lénaïck; Decam, Christophe; Pommier de Santi, Vincent; Darar, Houssein Y; Dia, Aïssata; Nevin, Remington L; Romand, Olivier; Bougère, Jacques; Deparis, Xavier; Boutin, Jean-Paul

    2010-10-01

    Despite an increase in foreign tourism and in the numbers of foreign military personnel deployed to Djibouti, little is known about the risk of gastrointestinal illness in this country in eastern Africa. To assess risk and to describe common features of gastrointestinal illnesses, reports of illness derived from military health surveillance data collected during 2005-2009 among French service members deployed to Djibouti were reviewed. Diarrhea was the most common problem; it had an annual incidence ranging from 260 to 349 cases per 1,000 person-years. The risk was higher among soldiers deployed short-term (four months) than among soldiers deployed long-term (two years). This five-year review of French health surveillance data documents a significant burden of diarrhea among French soldiers in Djibouti. The identification of factors associated with risk may permit efficient targeting of interventions to reduce morbidity from gastrointestinal illness.

  2. The "Bain Linguistique": A Core French Experiment at Churchill Alternative School, 1993-94. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesche, Marjorie; MacFarlane, Alina; Peters, Martine

    This report describes an experimental intensive core French program for grades 5 and 6 at Churchill Alternative School in Ottawa (Canada). The aim was to improve the oral French skills of core French students by providing a period of intensive exposure to French and by increasing the total number of hours in French during one program year from 120…

  3. The "Bain Linguistique": A Core French Experiment at Churchill Alternative School, 1993-94. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesche, Marjorie; MacFarlane, Alina; Peters, Martine

    This report describes an experimental intensive core French program for grades 5 and 6 at Churchill Alternative School in Ottawa (Canada). The aim was to improve the oral French skills of core French students by providing a period of intensive exposure to French and by increasing the total number of hours in French during one program year from 120…

  4. Sleeping porch through french doors off master bedroom (southern unit) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Sleeping porch through french doors off master bedroom (southern unit) - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Officers' Quarters, West Charlie Kelly Boulevard & South Hutton Street, Southwest Corner, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  5. DETAIL VIEW, SOUTH PORTICO, CENTER DOOR OPENING CONTAINING FRENCH WINDOWS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW, SOUTH PORTICO, CENTER DOOR OPENING CONTAINING FRENCH WINDOWS. (NOTE THE INCISED STUCCO MIMICKING ASHLAR STONE COURSING - The Woodlands, 4000 Woodlands Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. The French Space Operations Act: Technical Regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazare, B.

    2013-12-01

    The French Space Operations Act (FSOA) [1] stipulates that one of the National Technical Regulations' prime objectives is to protect people, property, public health and the environment. Compliance with these Technical Regulations has been mandatory since 10 December, 2010 for space operations by French space operators and for space operations conducted on French territory. The space safety requirements and regulations governing procedures are based on national and international best practices and experience. A critical design review of the space system and procedures shall be carried out by applicant space operators, in order to verify compliance with the Technical Regulations. An independent technical assessment of the operation is delegated to CNES. The principles applied when drafting the Technical Regulations are as follows: requirements must, as far as possible, establish the rules according to the objective to be obtained, rather than how it is to be achieved; requirements must give preference to international standards recognised as being state of the art; requirements must take previous experience into account. The Technical Regulations are divided into three sections covering requirements common to the launch, control and return of a space object. A special section will cover specific rules to be applied at the Guiana Space Centre. The main topics addressed by the Technical Regulations are: operator safety management system; study of risks to people, property, public health and the Earth's environment; impact study on the outer space environment: space debris generated by the operation; planetary protection. The first version of the Technical Regulations [2], issued in March 2011, is dedicated to unmanned space systems.

  7. Snow management practices in French ski resorts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spandre, Pierre; Francois, Hugues; George-Marcelpoil, Emmanuelle; Morin, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    Winter tourism plays a fundamental role in the economy of French mountain regions but also in other countries such as Austria, USA or Canada. Ski operators originally developed grooming methods to provide comfortable and safe skiing conditions. The interannual variability of snow conditions and the competition with international destinations and alternative tourism activities encouraged ski resorts to mitigate their dependency to weather conditions through snowmaking facilities. However some regions may not be able to produce machine made snow due to inadequate conditions and low altitude resorts are still negatively impacted by low snow seasons. In the meantime, even though the operations of high altitude resorts do not show any dependency to the snow conditions they invest in snowmaking facilities. Such developments of snowmaking facilities may be related to a confused and contradictory perception of climate change resulting in individualistic evolutions of snowmaking facilities, also depending on ski resorts main features such as their altitude and size. Concurrently with the expansion of snowmaking facilities, a large range of indicators have been used to discuss the vulnerability of ski resorts such as the so-called "100 days rule" which was widely used with specific thresholds (i.e. minimum snow depth, dates) and constraints (i.e. snowmaking capacity). The present study aims to provide a detailed description of snow management practices and major priorities in French ski resorts with respect to their characteristics. We set up a survey in autumn 2014, collecting data from 56 French ski operators. We identify the priorities of ski operators and describe their snowmaking and grooming practices and facilities. The operators also provided their perception of the ski resort vulnerability to snow and economic challenges which we could compare with the actual snow conditions and ski lift tickets sales during the period from 2001 to 2012.

  8. French sclerotherapy and compression: Practice patterns.

    PubMed

    Tripey, V; Monsallier, J-M; Morello, R; Hamel-Desnos, C

    2015-10-01

    Based on the recommendations of experts, and supported by a low level of proof, compression after sclerotherapy is applied all over the world. Investigating the practice of French vascular physicians for sclerotherapy and the use of post-sclerotherapy compression. A questionnaire concerning their practices was sent to French vascular physicians through their regional vascular medicine professional development associations. A total of 366 vascular physicians replied to the questionnaire, of whom 63% (229/366) were in private practice, 6% (21/366) in hospitals and 31% (115/366) had a mixed private-hospital practice. Sclerotherapy was practised by 88% (323/366) of them. Two-thirds of the vascular physicians used sclerosing foam and practised sclerotherapy using ultrasound guidance. Less than one-third of the vascular physicians regularly applied compression after sclerotherapy. When compression was applied, it was usually after treatment of saphenous or accessory saphenous veins and, in most cases, medical compression stockings of 15-20 mm Hg were used. With respect to the period recommended for wearing compression, this ranged from 48 h to 1 week for 65% (193/299) of the vascular physicians questioned. The great majority of vascular physicians who answered the questionnaire employ ultrasound guidance to perform sclerotherapy and use sclerosing foam. Compression after sclerotherapy is diversely applied in France and does not comply with the recommendations of the French Health Authorities who recommend wearing a stocking of 15-20 or 20-36 mm Hg for a period of 4-6 weeks. Thus, less than one-third of the vascular physicians regularly used elastic compression and when they did, it was usually a medical compression stocking of 15-20 mm Hg, for 1 week or less. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. The French connection: some contributions of French-language research in the post-Piagetian era.

    PubMed

    Larivée, S; Normandeau, S; Parent, S

    2000-01-01

    This article presents French-speaking researchers' contribution to the field of differential developmental psychology. Following a brief review of key Piagetian ideas pertaining to his conceptualization of individual differences, the core of the article traces methodological and theoretical transformations that were necessary for understanding individual differences within a general theory of cognitive development. On a methodological level, French-speaking researchers went from standardizing Piaget's clinical method to constructing developmental scales and operational tests. On a theoretical level, Reuchlin's writings guided Longeot, and several other French (Lautrey and Bideaud) and Genevan (de Ribaupierre and Rieben) researchers into a scientific quest for a genuine integration of differential and developmental psychology. We present an overview of the pluralistic and multidimensional model of cognitive functioning and development that emerged from the work of the French-Swiss team of researchers. Concluding remarks focus on the actual research agendas of researchers interested in resolving the challenging issue of understanding relationships between inter- and intraindividual differences and general tendencies in cognitive development.

  10. The perception of the French /s/-/ʃ/ contrast in early Creole-French bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, Sophie; Kriegel, Sibylle; Alleesaib, Muhsina; Nguyen, Noël

    2014-01-01

    One particularity of the Mauritian Creole language is that there is no contrastive distinction between the consonants /s/ and /ʃ/, which are both pronounced /s/ in Creole. In this study, we examined the identification performance of the /s/-/ʃ/ contrast by Mauritian Creole-French bilinguals who have been exposed to French before 7 years of age, and who have been raised in a highly Creole-French bilingual society. The results showed that most of our bilingual participants identify the /s/ and /ʃ/ consonants like native French speakers. It also appeared that the way in which the two consonants are categorized can be manipulated by introducing subtle changes in the information these participants were given about the identity of the speaker that produced the stimuli. Our results are in accordance with recent studies showing native-like performance in bilinguals on a categorization task and, importantly, extend these findings to speakers of a Creole language. In addition, these results show that speech sound categorization can be influenced by information about the speaker's social identity and thus argue for models that postulate rich speech sound representations. PMID:25374557

  11. Too Much French? Not Enough French?: The Vancouver Olympics and a Very Canadian Language Ideological Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vessey, Rachelle

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a language ideological debate that took place in Canadian national newspapers following the opening ceremonies for the 2011 Vancouver Olympics. Reports on the insufficient use of French during the opening ceremonies sparked protest from politicians, official commentators, citizens and online newsreaders alike. Previous…

  12. Too Much French? Not Enough French?: The Vancouver Olympics and a Very Canadian Language Ideological Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vessey, Rachelle

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a language ideological debate that took place in Canadian national newspapers following the opening ceremonies for the 2011 Vancouver Olympics. Reports on the insufficient use of French during the opening ceremonies sparked protest from politicians, official commentators, citizens and online newsreaders alike. Previous…

  13. Reemergence of Dengue Virus Type 4, French Antilles and French Guiana, 2004–2005

    PubMed Central

    Lavergne, Anne; Lagathu, Gisèle; Lacoste, Vincent; Martial, Jenny; Morvan, Jacques; Cesaire, Raymond

    2006-01-01

    After 10 years of absence, dengue virus type 4 (DENV-4) has recently reemerged in Martinique, Guadeloupe, and French Guiana. Phylogenetic analyses of strains isolated from 2004 to 2005 showed that they belong to DENV-4 genotype II, but to a different cluster than strains isolated from 1993 to 1995. PMID:17283628

  14. [Composite editorial contents in French chemical journals].

    PubMed

    Dalbin, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    This study of a corpus of French chemistry journals between 1800 and 2010 shows the relevance of the journal as the primary mode of communication, confirming the results of the general survey presented in this issue. However, a study of their contents is questioning the apparent unity of this phenomenon: the journal appears as a physical medium consisting in a common container including a wide range of information categories transferred over time to digital platforms in development since the end of the 20(th) century.

  15. Norovirus contamination on French marketed oysters

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Julien; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Lora, Monica; Atmar, Robert L.; Le Guyader, Françoise S.

    2014-01-01

    Contaminated shellfish have been implicated in gastroenteritis outbreaks in different countries. As no regulation has been set up yet regarding viral contamination of food, very few data are available on the prevalence of contaminated products on the market. This study presents data obtained from oysters collected on the French market in one producing area over a 16 month period of time. Noroviruses were detected in 9% of samples with a seasonal impact and influence of climatic events. Contamination levels were low and, surprisingly, oysters sampled directly from the producer were found to have less contamination than oysters from supermarkets. PMID:23973835

  16. Cigeo, the French Geological Repository Project - 13022

    SciTech Connect

    Labalette, Thibaud; Harman, Alain; Dupuis, Marie-Claude; Ouzounian, Gerald

    2013-07-01

    The Cigeo industrial-scale geological disposal centre is designed for the disposal of the most highly-radioactive French waste. It will be built in an argillite formation of the Callovo-Oxfordian dating back 160 million years. The Cigeo project is located near the Bure village in the Paris Basin. The argillite formation was studied since 1974, and from the Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory since end of 1999. Most of the waste to be disposed of in the Cigeo repository comes from nuclear power plants and from reprocessing of their spent fuel. (authors)

  17. Norovirus contamination on French marketed oysters.

    PubMed

    Schaeffer, Julien; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Lora, Monica; Atmar, Robert L; Le Guyader, Françoise S

    2013-09-02

    Contaminated shellfish have been implicated in gastroenteritis outbreaks in different countries. As no regulation has been set up yet regarding viral contamination of food, very few data are available on the prevalence of contaminated products on the market. This study presents data obtained from oysters collected on the French market in one producing area over a 16 month period of time. Noroviruses were detected in 9% of samples with a seasonal impact and influence of climatic events. Contamination levels were low and, surprisingly, oysters sampled directly from the producer were found to have less contamination than oysters from supermarkets.

  18. Darwin: German mystic or French rationalist?

    PubMed

    Ghiselin, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    The notion that Charles Darwin embraced the German Romantic tradition seems plausible, given the early influence of Alexander von Humboldt. But this view fails to do justice to other scientific traditions. Darwin was a protégé of the Englishman John Stevens Henslow and was a follower of the Scott Charles Lyell. He had important debts to French scientists, notably Henri Milne-Edwards, Etienne and Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, and Alphonse de Candolle. Many Germans were quite supportive of Darwin, but not all of these were encumbered by idealistic metaphysical baggage. Both Darwin and Anton Dohrn treated science as very much a cosmopolitan enterprise.

  19. European-French Cross-Cultural Adaptation of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire and Pretest in French-Speaking Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Ray-Kaeser, Sylvie; Satink, Ton; Andresen, Mette; Martini, Rose; Thommen, Evelyne; Bertrand, Anne Martine

    2015-05-01

    The Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ'07) is a Canadian-English instrument recommended for screening children aged 5 to 15 years who are at risk for developmental coordination disorder. While a Canadian-French version of the DCDQ'07 presently exists, a European-French version does not. To produce a cross-cultural adaptation of the DCDQ'07 for use in areas of Europe where French is spoken and to test its cultural relevance in French-speaking Switzerland. Cross-cultural adaptation was done using established guidelines. Cultural relevance was analyzed with cognitive interviews of thirteen parents of children aged 5.0 to 14.6 years (mean age: 8.5 years, SD = 3.4), using think-aloud and probing techniques. Cultural and linguistic differences were noted between the European-French, the Canadian-French, and the original versions of the DCDQ'07. Despite correct translation and expert committee review, cognitive interviews revealed that certain items of the European-French version were unclear or misinterpreted and further modifications were needed. After rewording items as a result of the outcomes of the cognitive interview, the European-French version of the DCDQ'07 is culturally appropriate for use in French-speaking Switzerland. Further studies are necessary to determine its psychometric properties.

  20. Une Planche de Salut pour le Francais: le Francais Quotidien et les Niveaux de Langue (A Last Resort for French: Everyday French and Language Levels)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonas, Maurice

    1977-01-01

    Before asking how to teach French, one should ask what French to teach. It is suggested that everyday French, "la langue usuelle," should be the norm for American teachers and textbook writers and editers. Greater utilization of film scenarios and songs of good quality are among the means suggested. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  1. French Extended Continental Shelf Mapping: example of new continental margin understanding offshore French Guiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roest, Walter; Loubrieu, Benoit; Loncke, Lies; Basile, Christophe; Graindorge, David; Shipboard Party, Guyaplac

    2017-04-01

    Under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Coastal States can extend sovereign rights over the natural resources of the Continental Shelf beyond 200 nautical miles (M) if they can demonstrate that their continental margin extends beyond this distance from the coast. Article 76 of the Convention defines the continental shelf and includes geomorphological and geological criteria to claim such a shelf beyond 200 M. Since 2006, France has filed 7 submissions for a total of 10 distinct geographic regions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf that was established by the Convention to examine those claims, and make recommendations with respect to the justification of the outer limits of the continental shelf. To support the French submissions, a significant effort was employed in acquiring new marine geophysical and geological data and compiling existing data along the deep water parts of the continental margins offshore all the French overseas territories. In this presentation, we will discuss the example of French Guiana, where the data collected for the purpose of fulfilling the obligation under the Convention to submit data and information to the Commission within a 10 year time frame have led to new understanding of the transform continental margin and the Demerara Plateau located to the north of French Guiana and Surinam. In addition, the data collected for this purpose have led to new scientific questions and have encouraged new and enhanced scientific collaboration between French government organizations and the academic community. Follow up research and scientific cruises that will be presented in separate communications have addressed sedimentary processes including contourites, giant comet tail like depressions probably associated with the strong bottom currents observed along the continental slope and potentially related to pockmarks, as well as giant submarine landslides. Most recently, multichannel reflection and wide angle

  2. Phytoalexin Induction in French Bean 1

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Richard A.; Dey, Prakash M.; Lawton, Michael A.; Lamb, Christopher J.

    1983-01-01

    Treatment of hypocotyl sections or cell suspension cultures of dwarf French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) with an abiotic elicitor (denatured ribonuclease A) resulted in increased extractable activity of the enzyme l-phenylalanine ammonia-lyase. This induction could be transmitted from treated cells through a dialysis membrane to cells which were not in direct contact with the elicitor. In hypocotyl sections, induction of isoflavonoid phytoalexin accumulation was also transmitted across a dialysis membrane, although levels of insoluble, lignin-like phenolic material remained unchanged in elicitor-treated and control sections. In bean cell suspension cultures, the induction of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in cells separated from ribonuclease-treated cells by a dialysis membrane was also accompanied by increases in the activities of chalcone synthase and chalcone isomerase, two enzymes previously implicated in the phytoalexin defense response. Such intercellular transmission of elicitation did not occur in experiments with cells treated with a biotic elicitor preparation heat-released from the cell walls of the bean pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. The results confirm and extend previous suggestions that a low molecular weight, diffusible factor of host plant origin is involved (in French bean) in the intercellular transmission of the elicitation response to abiotic elicitors. PMID:16662813

  3. How deaf are French speakers to stress?

    PubMed

    Michelas, Amandine; Frauenfelder, Ulrich Hans; Schön, Daniele; Dufour, Sophie

    2016-03-01

    This event-related potential study examined whether French listeners use stress at a phonological level when discriminating between stressed and unstressed words in their language. Participants heard five words and made same/different decisions about the final word (male voice) with respect to the four preceding words (different female voices). Compared to the first four context words, the target word was (i) phonemically and prosodically identical (/ʃu/-/ʃu/; control condition), (ii) phonemically identical but differing in the presence of a primary stress (/ʃu'/-/ʃu/), (iii) prosodically identical but phonemically different (/ʃo/-/ʃu/), or (iv) both phonemically and prosodically different (/ʃo'/-/ʃu/). Crucially, differences on the P200 and the following N200 components were observed for the /ʃu'/-/ʃu/ and the /ʃo/-/ʃu/ conditions compared to the /ʃu/-/ʃu/ control condition. Moreover, on the N200 component more negativity was observed for the /ʃo/-/ʃu/ condition compared to the /ʃu'/-/ʃu/ conditions, while no difference emerged between these two conditions on the earlier P200 component. Crucially, the results suggest that French listeners are capable of creating an abstract representation of stress. However, as they receive more input, participants react more strongly to phonemic than to stress information.

  4. French Neurologists during World War I.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier; Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2016-01-01

    The Great War accelerated the development of neurological knowledge. Many neurological signs and syndromes, as well as new nosological entities such as war psychoneuroses, were described during the conflict. The period between 1914 and 1918 was the first time in which many neurologists were concentrated in wartime neurology centres and confronted with a number of neurological patients never seen before. This concentration led to the publication of papers concerning all fields of neurological sciences, and these reports pervaded scientific journals during the conflict and the post-war years. The careers of French neurologists during the war were highly varied. Some were mobilised, whilst others enlisted voluntarily. They worked as regiment physicians at the front or in wartime neurology centres at the front or at the rear. Others were academics who were already authoritative names in the field of neurology. Whilst they were too old to be officially mobilised, they nevertheless worked in their militarised neurology departments of civil hospitals. We present here the careers of a few French neurologists during the Great War, including Charles Foix (1882-1927), René Cruchet (1875-1959), Georges Guillain (1876-1961), Jean Lhermitte (1877-1959), Clovis Vincent (1879-1947), Gustave Roussy (1874-1948), and Paul Sollier (1861-1933).

  5. French Crossings: II. Laughing Over Boundaries.

    PubMed

    Jones, Colin

    Under the generic title, 'French Crossings', this Presidential Address explores the history of laughter in French society, and humour's potential for trangressing boundaries. It focuses on the irreverent and almost entirely unknown book of comic drawings entitled Livre de caricatures tant Bonnes que mauvaises (Book of Caricatures, both Good and Bad), that was composed between the 1740s and the mid-1770s by the luxury Parisian embroiderer and designer, Charles-Germain de Saint-Aubin, and his friends and family. The bawdy laughter that the book seems intended to provoke gave it its nickname of the Livre de culs (Book of Arses). Yet despite the scatological character of many of the drawings, the humour often conjoined lower body functions with rather cerebral and erudite wit. The laughter provoked unsparingly targeted and exposed to ridicule the social elite, cultural celebrities and political leaders of Ancien Regime France. This made it a dangerous object, which was kept strictly secret. Was this humour somehow pre- or proto-Revolutionary? In fact, the work is so embedded in the culture of the Ancien Regime that 1789 was one boundary that the work signally fails to cross.

  6. [French sanitary cooperation in developing countries].

    PubMed

    Gentilini, M

    2006-08-01

    In the face of a worsening public health situation throughout the world, French know-how in the field of sanitary cooperation warrants a far more active commitment from our country. Instead there have been only a few initiatives and we are witnessing a programmed decline of our presence. The statement issued by the Economic and Social Council in 2006--the highlights of which will be presented at this meeting--strongly advocates a voluntary program to revive sanitary cooperation by encouraging civic-spirited young people to express international solidarity through public service in impoverished areas. By compensating the shortage of human resources in developing countries, this program would allow immediate implementation of measures to promote action, training and research not as a replacement operation but rather as a genuine partnership. Deployment of our public aid for development in the field of health-care must not have a detrimental effect on the bilateral dimension of the relationship that indeed requires urgent strengthening. In addition tighter coordination of all parties involved in cooperation activities is needed to ensure greater efficiency and consistency. New funding sources (starting with the airline ticket tax) and greater mobilization of the European Union is necessary to ensure that developing countries have more financial resources to wage the "health-care battle". Reducing the "health-care gap" that cripples development and destabilizes societies must be the first priority of French Cooperation.

  7. Organ procurement in forensic deaths: French developments.

    PubMed

    Delannoy, Yann; Jousset, Nathalie; Averland, Benoit; Hedouin, Valéry; Ludes, Bertrand; Gosset, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Organ procurement and transplantation have grown steadily, and the need for organs will only rise in the future. Increasing the number of potential donors is therefore paramount. However, transplant coordination teams face refusals that can be linked to the contexts of the deaths, especially when they involve legal issues. In France, deaths involving legal proceedings are not uncommon (7-10%). In these cases, the prosecutor is immediately contacted, and makes the decision of whether to remove the involved organs. Refusals of this type represent 4% (approximately 30 cases per year) of obstacles to organ removals, and are governed by specific legislation. Thus, the prosecutor must arrange contact with a forensic pathologist and with the organ transplant teams to assemble all of the necessary elements for him to take the decision. To assist prosecutors in their decision making and to ensure them scientific rigour, the French Society of Forensic Medicine sought to develop a national recommendation to harmonise practices; it emerged in early 2013. The guideline makes practical recommendations, including among others: nominating local referents; writing regional protocols between judicial authorities, forensic pathologists and transplant teams; establishing terms for the forensic pathologist's intervention on the donor's body before and after a procurement. This recommendation by the French Society of Forensic Medicine aimed to combine two interests: addressing the shortage of organs, and fulfilling the requisites of a criminal investigation by standardising practices and encouraging communication. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. [Geographic aspects of mortality in French Polynesia].

    PubMed

    Vigneron, E

    1993-05-01

    The fast pace of social and economic changes which have occurred in French Polynesia over the last 30 years, have made this territory a choice ground for studying trends in mortality by revealing a fast and outstanding epidemiological transition. However, the breakdown of the population in small scattered human groups raises the statistical problem of measuring mortality. The crude mortality rate has decreased steadily from 17.5/1000 in 1945-1949 to 5.3/1000 over the last five years. However, the various infant mortality rate, in spite of their decline, is still exceeding those of Metropolitan France. The contrasted trends in the causes of mortality provides a means to classify French Polynesia in the group of small fast developing countries but still ranks it far behind its 'reference models' such as Metropolitan France or the developed countries in the South Pacific, Australia and New Zealand. Moreover, there are significant regional disparities which still exist between Tahiti and the outlying archipelagoes, mainly among causes of death. As a whole, distant islands remain significantly more affected by deaths resulting from infectious and parasitic diseases, in line with the model of epidemiological transition, where as the islands of Tahiti with 70% of the total population appears as a place of cumulation of infectious and degenerative diseases, in particular of overloading and cultural problems. The centre/periphery opposition between a metropolitan country and an overseas territory repeats itself at the local level between urban and rural environments.

  9. Epidemiology of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in French Polynesia

    PubMed Central

    Phelippeau, Michael; Aboubaker Osman, Djaltou; Musso, Didier

    2015-01-01

    As few data are available in the Pacific countries and territories of the Oceania region regarding nontuberculous mycobacteria, we retrospectively identified 87 such isolates from French Polynesia from 2008 to 2013 by hybridization using DNA-strip, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and partial rpoB gene sequencing. Partial rpoB gene sequencing classified 42/87 (48.3%) isolates in the Mycobacterium fortuitum complex, 28 (32.2%) in the Mycobacterium abscessus complex, 8 (9.2%) in the Mycobacterium mucogenicum complex, and 5 (5.7%) in the Mycobacterium avium complex. Two isolates were identified as Mycobacterium acapulcensis and Mycobacterium cosmeticum by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. One isolate, unidentified by MALDI-TOF MS and yielding less than 92% and 96% sequence similarity with rpoB and hsp65 reference sequences, respectively, was regarded as a potentially new species. Samples from three patients exhibiting ≥2 Mycobacterium porcinum isolates and from one patient with emphysema and a lung abscess exhibiting 2 Mycobacterium senegalense isolates fulfilled the American Thoracic Society microbiological criteria for nontuberculous mycobacterial lung infection. Remote geographic areas, such as French Polynesia, are potential sources for the discovery of new mycobacterial species. PMID:26400787

  10. Cancer mortality among French nuclear contract workers.

    PubMed

    Guérin, Sylvie; Richard, Gaël; Biau, Alain; Lebre, Sophie; Crescini, Danièle; Haddy, Nadia; Guldner, Laurence; Paoletti, Catherine; Hill, Catherine; de Vathaire, Florent

    2009-12-01

    Nuclear workers from French contracting companies have received higher doses than workers from Electricité de France (EDF) or Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA). A cohort study of 9,815 workers in 11 contracting companies, monitored for exposure to ionizing radiation between 1967 and 2000 were followed up for a median duration of 12.5 years. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed. Between 1968 and 2002, 250 deaths occurred. Our study demonstrated a clear healthy worker effect (HWE) with mortality attaining half that expected from national mortality statistics (SMR = 0.54, 95% CI = [0.47-0.61]). The HWE was lower for all cancers (SMR = 0.65) than for non-cancer deaths (SMR = 0.46). The analysis by cancer site showed no excess compared with the general population. Significant trends were observed according to the level of exposure to ionizing radiation for deaths from cancer, deaths from digestive cancer and deaths from respiratory cancer. The mortality of nuclear workers from contracting companies is very low compared to French national mortality. Copyright 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. Women in interventional cardiology: The French experience.

    PubMed

    Vautrin, E; Marlière, S; Bellemain-Appaix, A; Gilard, M; Manzo-Silberman, S

    2016-12-01

    Exploring the discrepancy in sex-ratio among interventional cardiologists by analysing the population of the female interventionalist. Despite an increase number of women who graduate from medical school in France during the last generation today, women represent only 24% of all cardiologists and 3% are interventional cardiologists. To face this international gender-based issue of interventional cardiology, committees were established in US (WIN) and recently within the EAPCI: the Women EAPCI chaired by Drs Mehilli and Mauri. In France, the Intervention'Elles committee emerged in order to participate in this concern. As a first initiative, the Intervention'Elles group launched an e-survey to obtain information on the population of French female interventional cardiologists, focused on demography, work patterns, maternity and radiation exposure. Mean age is 40 years old (±7,4), 68% are working in large volume center, 28% have also structural interventional activity. Only 40% have left arm coverage. Despite 80% of French female interventional cardiologists wear personal dosimeters only 45% of them have a dosimetry feedback. Interestingly, even if 54% of women have children (mean: 1.9±1) 28% of them report that childbearing had interfered with their career plan. This questionnaire identifies for the first time the women population in interventional cardiology in France and highlights some of the issues encountered in more detail. This first descriptive step would help to develop strategies for attaining gender equality in interventional cardiology. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Perineal burn care: French working group recommendations.

    PubMed

    Bordes, Julien; Le Floch, Ronan; Bourdais, Ludovic; Gamelin, Alexandre; Lebreton, Françoise; Perro, Gérard

    2014-06-01

    Burns to the perineum are frequently exposed to faeces. Diverting colostomy is often described to prevent faecal soiling. Because this technique is invasive with frequent complications, use of non-surgical devices including specifically designed faecal management systems has been reported in perineal burns. In order to standardise the faecal management strategy in patients with perineal burns, a group of French experts was assembled. This group first evaluated the ongoing practice in France by analysing a questionnaire sent to every French burn centre. Based on the results of this study and on literature data, the experts proposed recommendations on the management of perineal burns in adults. Specifically designed faecal management systems are the first-line method to divert faeces in perineal burns. The working group proposed recommendations and an algorithm to assist in decisions in the management of perineal burns in four categories of patients, depending on total burn skin area, depth and extent of the perineal burn. In France, non-surgical devices are the leading means of faecal diversion in perineal burns. The proposed algorithm may assist in decisions in the management of perineal burns. The expert group emphasises that large clinical studies are needed to better evaluate these devices. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. French Crossings: II. Laughing Over Boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Under the generic title, ‘French Crossings’, this Presidential Address explores the history of laughter in French society, and humour’s potential for trangressing boundaries. It focuses on the irreverent and almost entirely unknown book of comic drawings entitled Livre de caricatures tant Bonnes que mauvaises (Book of Caricatures, both Good and Bad), that was composed between the 1740s and the mid-1770s by the luxury Parisian embroiderer and designer, Charles-Germain de Saint-Aubin, and his friends and family. The bawdy laughter that the book seems intended to provoke gave it its nickname of the Livre de culs (Book of Arses). Yet despite the scatological character of many of the drawings, the humour often conjoined lower body functions with rather cerebral and erudite wit. The laughter provoked unsparingly targeted and exposed to ridicule the social elite, cultural celebrities and political leaders of Ancien Regime France. This made it a dangerous object, which was kept strictly secret. Was this humour somehow pre- or proto-Revolutionary? In fact, the work is so embedded in the culture of the Ancien Regime that 1789 was one boundary that the work signally fails to cross. PMID:27630375

  14. The Rhythmic Group, Liaison, Nouns and Verbs of French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, William J.

    1975-01-01

    The "rhythmic group" in French (noun group or verb group) is described with examples. The aim is to find some relation between the morphophonological phenomena such as "liaison" occurring within such rhythmic groups and the syntactic structure of French. Available from Liber Laeromedel, Box 1205, S-22105 Lund, Sweden. (TL)

  15. Building a Writing Community through Learning of French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissoonauth-Bedford, Anu.; Stace, Ray

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a pilot study designed to develop writing proficiency in French via collaborative writing activities at intermediate level at the University of Wollongong in Australia. Twenty four students in the final year of French studies program took part in this innovative approach which integrates multimodal functionality of the…

  16. A New Receptive Vocabulary Size Test for French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batista, Roselene; Horst, Marlise

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have developed several tests of receptive vocabulary knowledge suitable for use with learners of English, but options are few for learners of French. This situation motivated the authors to create a new vocabulary size measure for French, the "Test de la taille du vocabulaire" (TTV). The measure is closely modelled on…

  17. Comprehension of Sentences with Stylistic Inversion by French Aphasic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigalleau, Francois; Baudiffier, Vanessa; Caplan, David

    2004-01-01

    Three French-speaking agrammatic aphasics and three French-speaking Conduction aphasics were tested for comprehension of Active, Passive, Cleft-Subject, Cleft-Object, and Cleft-Object sentences with Stylistic Inversion using an object manipulation test. The agrammatic patients consistently reversed thematic roles in the latter sentence type, and…

  18. The French Evolution: France and the Europeanisation of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkington, Marc

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the salient characteristics of the French higher education system are examined in the light of its recent evolution and in the context of overwhelming Europeanisation trends. In spite of major weaknesses still hindering the performance of French universities, it is argued that following the recent wave of reforms, the country is…

  19. French Basic Course. Volume 7, Lessons 66-75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    Volume 7 of the Basic Course in French contains 10 lessons, one for each day of the fourteenth and fifteenth weeks of the intermediate phase. Every fifth lesson is a review lesson. The objective of the intermediate phase is to enable the student to distinguish and use the most essential structures of French. The approach is audio-lingual and…

  20. The Great Drama: Germany and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Gerhard

    Revolution did not spread to Germany from France at the end of the 18th century, yet the German and other European states were forced to come to terms with the principles of the French Revolution such as political and legal freedoms and national unity. Germany was affected by the French Revolution particularly by the reactions of German…

  1. Talking It through: Two French Immersion Learners' Response to Reformulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swain, Merrill; Lapkin, Sharon

    2002-01-01

    This article documents the importance of collaborative dialogue as part of the process of second language learning. The stimulus for the dialogue we discuss in this article was a reformulation of a story written collaboratively in French by Nina and Dara, two adolescent French immersion students. A sociocultural theoretical perspective informs the…

  2. Roumanie: Le Francais d'abord (Romania: French First).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serren-Rosso, M. L.

    1993-01-01

    Eighty percent of the schools in Iasi, Moldova's capital city, teach French as a second language. The city's French Cultural Center is a focus for educational and cultural information and organization. The center helped upgrade the professional level of teaching following the demise of communism in Eastern Europe. (CNP)

  3. Teaching a Literature Course on the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilroy, James P.

    1993-01-01

    One professor's approach to developing a course on French writers of the revolutionary era is presented. The lecture/discussion/oral report course was taught entirely in French and included a variety of literary genres. The syllabus, weekly log of lecture/discussion topics, and a bibliography are appended. (LB)

  4. Facebook-Induced Motivation Shifts in a French Online Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubry, James

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the effects of instructor's self-disclosure using the Facebook social networking online platform on students' motivation types in an online language course. The participants were 104 beginning French students enrolled in an online French course at a major research university in the southeast U.S. The participants were divided…

  5. Visuo-Orthographic Knowledge in Deaf Readers of French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daigle, Daniel; Armand, Francoise; Demont, Elisabeth; Gombert, Jean-Emile

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated visuo-orthographic knowledge in deaf readers of French compared to age-matched hearing subjects. More specifically, we were interested in knowledge related to the legal position of double consonants and to the fact that double consonants are much more frequent than double vowels in written French. We used a word-likeness…

  6. Intensity Accents in French 2 Year Olds' Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, George D.

    The acoustic features and functions of accentuation in French are discussed, and features of accentuation in the speech of French 2-year-olds are explored. The four major acoustic features used to signal accentual distinctions are fundamental frequency of voicing, duration of segments and syllables, intensity of segments and syllables, and…

  7. Foreign Language Experience in the Elementary School: French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Annapolis, MD.

    Guidelines for teaching French in the elementary school are presented. The program is designed to develop the skills of careful listening and accurate pronunciation and to provide pleasurable learning experiences through dialogues, songs, and games. French is contrasted with English to relate the language experience to other aspects of the…

  8. The French Evolution: France and the Europeanisation of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilkington, Marc

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the salient characteristics of the French higher education system are examined in the light of its recent evolution and in the context of overwhelming Europeanisation trends. In spite of major weaknesses still hindering the performance of French universities, it is argued that following the recent wave of reforms, the country is…

  9. An Acoustic Profile of Right-Dislocations in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, William J.

    1994-01-01

    Provides an acoustic profile of the prosody of right-dislocations in French, using the CECIL computer hardware and software package to analyze 28 right-dislocations occurring in a corpus of natural French discourse. It was found that, although right-dislocations appear to fulfill various functional roles in discourse, no correlation appears…

  10. Visuo-Orthographic Knowledge in Deaf Readers of French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daigle, Daniel; Armand, Francoise; Demont, Elisabeth; Gombert, Jean-Emile

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated visuo-orthographic knowledge in deaf readers of French compared to age-matched hearing subjects. More specifically, we were interested in knowledge related to the legal position of double consonants and to the fact that double consonants are much more frequent than double vowels in written French. We used a word-likeness…

  11. Debate-Creating vs. Accounting References in French Medical Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salager-Meyer, Francoise

    2000-01-01

    Investigates the quantitative and qualitative evolution of debate-creating vs. accounting references in 90 French medical articles published between 1810 and 1995. Suggests that nineteenth-century French academic writing tends to be more polemical or oppositional than cooperative by contrast to its twentieth-century counterpart. Suggests that the…

  12. Structural Influences on Initial Accent Placement in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astesano, Corine; Bard, Ellen Gurman; Turk, Alice

    2007-01-01

    In addition to the phrase-final accent (FA), the French phonological system includes a phonetically distinct Initial Accent (IA). The present study tested two proposals: that IA marks the onset of phonological phrases, and that it has an independent rhythmic function. Eight adult native speakers of French were instructed to read syntactically…

  13. Foreign Language Experience in the Elementary School: French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Annapolis, MD.

    Guidelines for teaching French in the elementary school are presented. The program is designed to develop the skills of careful listening and accurate pronunciation and to provide pleasurable learning experiences through dialogues, songs, and games. French is contrasted with English to relate the language experience to other aspects of the…

  14. Translating French Song as a Language Learning Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Andrew B.

    1987-01-01

    Outlines an approach to using the translation of French songs in English as an effective and enjoyable learning activity for students of French. Steps include: respecting rhythms; finding and respecting meaning; respecting style; respecting sound; respecting your choice of intended listeners; and respecting the original version. (CB)

  15. Teaching French as a World Language: A Curriculum Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, John

    1976-01-01

    The National Endowment for the Humanities supports a University of Michigan-Flint effort to develop multimedia curriculum materials to teach French as an international and multicultural language. The project concentrates on non-European French-speaking areas. Filmstrips, reading materials and tapes record characteristic life, music, speech and…

  16. French Antipathy to Turkey's EU Candidacy: The Language Dimension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darby, James

    2009-01-01

    French political leaders have voiced objections to prospective Turkish membership of the European Union (EU), citing material reasons as well as cultural objections involving the uncertain role of a predominantly Islamic society within a European political and economic bloc. Given the importance of the French language as a component of France's…

  17. Assimilation and Affirmative Action in French Education Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langan, Elise S.

    2008-01-01

    The French education system was created as a means to uphold the republican principles emanating from the Revolution. The first Article of the 1958 French Constitution says the Republic assures equality before the law of all citizens without distinction of origin or race. Theoretically at least, it is not only forbidden to discriminate, but to…

  18. The French Revolution after 200 Years: Is It Finally Over?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorrock, William I.

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that the effects of the French Revolution continue today. Presents scholarly views on the significance of the revolution. Challenges the view that the French Revolution led to the violent totalitarian regimes of the twentieth century. Traces the history of the revolution and outlines its legacy. (RW)

  19. The Great Drama: Germany and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurz, Gerhard

    Revolution did not spread to Germany from France at the end of the 18th century, yet the German and other European states were forced to come to terms with the principles of the French Revolution such as political and legal freedoms and national unity. Germany was affected by the French Revolution particularly by the reactions of German…

  20. French Basic Course. Volume 6, Lessons 56-65.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    Volume 6 of the Basic Course in French contains 10 lessons, one for each day of the twelfth and thirteenth weeks of the intermediate phase. Every fifth lesson is a review lesson. The objective of the intermediate phase is to enable the student to distinguish and use the most essential structures of French. The aproach is audio-lingual and…

  1. Variable Deletion of French "Ne": A Cross-Stylistic Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Nigel

    2002-01-01

    Considers the socio-stylistic distinction of the French variable morpho-syntactic particle "ne." The interspeaker axes of variation in "ne" are summarized, and intraspeaker data deriving from a corpus of spoken French are considered. Examines intraspeaker variation in "ne" by focusing on the use of the variable by a single speaker in both speech…

  2. The French Revolution after 200 Years: Is It Finally Over?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shorrock, William I.

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that the effects of the French Revolution continue today. Presents scholarly views on the significance of the revolution. Challenges the view that the French Revolution led to the violent totalitarian regimes of the twentieth century. Traces the history of the revolution and outlines its legacy. (RW)

  3. Assimilation and Affirmative Action in French Education Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langan, Elise S.

    2008-01-01

    The French education system was created as a means to uphold the republican principles emanating from the Revolution. The first Article of the 1958 French Constitution says the Republic assures equality before the law of all citizens without distinction of origin or race. Theoretically at least, it is not only forbidden to discriminate, but to…

  4. The Role of Texture in French Spectral Music

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besharse, Kari E.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the essential role of texture in French spectral music and its contribution to musical evolution and form in specific works by Gerard Grisey, Tristan Murail, Philippe Hurel, and Kaija Saariaho. The use of texture in French spectral music is placed in a historical context by exploring the new ways that texture is employed in…

  5. Multilingualism and Web Advertising: Addressing French-Speaking Consumers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Drawing inferences from both quantitative and qualitative data, this study examines the extent to which American companies tailor their Web advertising for global audiences with a particular focus on French-speaking consumers in North America, Europe, Africa, the Caribbean and French Polynesia. Explored from a sociolinguistic and social semiotic…

  6. Developing Aural Proficiency Skills in the Business French Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Cathleen

    This paper discusses the use of the re-broadcast of French television news (Le Journal de 20 Heures) as a tool to develop aural proficiency in college students enrolled in a business French course in the United States. Before viewing each 1- to 2-minute news segment, students complete vocabulary exercises and read a relevant newspaper article.…

  7. Curriculum Problems and the Teaching of Old French to Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Raymond J.; Niedzielski, Henri

    This two-section paper treating Old French on the undergraduate level and suggesting changes in the French curriculum criticizes the traditional, chronological approach to program articulation. Cormier focuses on three ways to restructure the current program. He proposes to: (1) teach genre courses rather than chronologically oriented courses, (2)…

  8. The Rhythmic Group, Liaison, Nouns and Verbs of French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashby, William J.

    1975-01-01

    The "rhythmic group" in French (noun group or verb group) is described with examples. The aim is to find some relation between the morphophonological phenomena such as "liaison" occurring within such rhythmic groups and the syntactic structure of French. Available from Liber Laeromedel, Box 1205, S-22105 Lund, Sweden. (TL)

  9. Do 11-Month-Old French Infants Process Articles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halle, Pierre A.; Durand, Catherine; de Boysson-Bardies, Benedicte

    2008-01-01

    The first part of this study examined (Parisian) French-learning 11-month-old infants' recognition of the six definite and indefinite French articles: "le", "la", "les", "un", "une", and "des". The six articles were compared with pseudoarticles in the context of disyllabic or monosyllabic…

  10. French Liaison: Linguistic and Sociolinguistic Influences on Speech Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dautricourt, Robin Guillaume

    2010-01-01

    French liaison is a phonological process that takes place when an otherwise silent word-final consonant is pronounced before a following vowel-initial word. It is a process that has been evolving for centuries, and whose patterns of realization are influenced by a wide range of interacting linguistic and social factors. French speakers therefore…

  11. Do 11-Month-Old French Infants Process Articles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halle, Pierre A.; Durand, Catherine; de Boysson-Bardies, Benedicte

    2008-01-01

    The first part of this study examined (Parisian) French-learning 11-month-old infants' recognition of the six definite and indefinite French articles: "le", "la", "les", "un", "une", and "des". The six articles were compared with pseudoarticles in the context of disyllabic or monosyllabic…

  12. A Rationale for Broadening the Perspectives of Business French Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dugan, J. Sanford

    1984-01-01

    Links success of future international trade between U.S. and French-speaking world to a broader knowledge of economic systems and cultures of Quebec, Belgium, Switzerland, North and West Africa. More than just developing language competence, American students in business French need curriculum giving more exposure to diversity of cultures and…

  13. Teaching French as a World Language: A Curriculum Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, John

    1976-01-01

    The National Endowment for the Humanities supports a University of Michigan-Flint effort to develop multimedia curriculum materials to teach French as an international and multicultural language. The project concentrates on non-European French-speaking areas. Filmstrips, reading materials and tapes record characteristic life, music, speech and…

  14. Multilingualism and Web Advertising: Addressing French-Speaking Consumers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Drawing inferences from both quantitative and qualitative data, this study examines the extent to which American companies tailor their Web advertising for global audiences with a particular focus on French-speaking consumers in North America, Europe, Africa, the Caribbean and French Polynesia. Explored from a sociolinguistic and social semiotic…

  15. Facebook-Induced Motivation Shifts in a French Online Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubry, James

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the effects of instructor's self-disclosure using the Facebook social networking online platform on students' motivation types in an online language course. The participants were 104 beginning French students enrolled in an online French course at a major research university in the southeast U.S. The participants were divided…

  16. FILM-RECITAL OF FRENCH POEMS--CULTURAL COMMENTARY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RIECKS, DONALD F.; AND OTHERS

    THIS COMMENTARY, TOGETHER WITH AN EVALUATION (ED 003 893), DESCRIBED THE EXPERIMENTAL FILM PRODUCTION OF FRENCH POEMS. FOR THE FILM 15 POEMS, A MONOLOG, AND 1 SHORT STORY WERE RECITED IN FRENCH WITH ILLUSTRATIONS. THIS REPORT COVERED (1) SUGGESTIONS FOR TEACHING THE POEMS, (2) POSSIBLE ELEMENTS OF A PLAN FOR TEACHING A POEM, (3) ASPECTS OF THE…

  17. The Spelling Skills of French-Speaking Dyslexic Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plisson, Anne; Daigle, Daniel; Montesinos-Gelet, Isabelle

    2013-01-01

    Learning to spell is very difficult for dyslexic children, a phenomenon explained by a deficit in processing phonological information. However, to spell correctly in an alphabetic language such as French, phonological knowledge is not enough. Indeed, the French written system requires the speller to acquire visuo-orthographical and morphological…

  18. Discrimination of English and French orthographic patterns by biliterate children.

    PubMed

    Jared, Debra; Cormier, Pierre; Levy, Betty Ann; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2013-04-01

    We investigated whether young English-French biliterate children can distinguish between English and French orthographic patterns. Children in French immersion programs were asked to play a dictionary game when they were in Grade 2 and again when they were in Grade 3. They were shown pseudowords that contained either an English spelling pattern or a French spelling pattern, and they were asked to decide whether each pseudoword should go in an English dictionary or a French dictionary if it became a real word. Comparison groups of monolingual English children, monolingual French children, and English-French bilingual university students were also tested on the task. French immersion students in both grades were above chance in discriminating between the two types of pseudowords but were well below adult performance on the task. Measures obtained in kindergarten showed that early print knowledge had some ability to predict later ability to discriminate between the orthographic patterns of the two languages. Further analyses indicated that exposure to print in each language in Grades 1 to 3 was strongly related to discrimination performance. The findings are interpreted as being consistent with the statistical learning hypothesis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A New Receptive Vocabulary Size Test for French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batista, Roselene; Horst, Marlise

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have developed several tests of receptive vocabulary knowledge suitable for use with learners of English, but options are few for learners of French. This situation motivated the authors to create a new vocabulary size measure for French, the "Test de la taille du vocabulaire" (TTV). The measure is closely modelled on…

  20. Intensity Accents in French 2 Year Olds' Speech.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, George D.

    The acoustic features and functions of accentuation in French are discussed, and features of accentuation in the speech of French 2-year-olds are explored. The four major acoustic features used to signal accentual distinctions are fundamental frequency of voicing, duration of segments and syllables, intensity of segments and syllables, and…

  1. Comprehension of Sentences with Stylistic Inversion by French Aphasic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigalleau, Francois; Baudiffier, Vanessa; Caplan, David

    2004-01-01

    Three French-speaking agrammatic aphasics and three French-speaking Conduction aphasics were tested for comprehension of Active, Passive, Cleft-Subject, Cleft-Object, and Cleft-Object sentences with Stylistic Inversion using an object manipulation test. The agrammatic patients consistently reversed thematic roles in the latter sentence type, and…

  2. Teaching Conversational French to the "Non Major": Two Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Abruzzo, Joseph

    By representing a language dialogue in French with its English translation, the author demonstrates how flexibility in dialogue construction can help motivate students who do not plan to major in the foreign language. Another section demonstrates innovative methods for helping teach the non-major to overcome pronunciation difficulties in French. A…

  3. Elusive Reform: The French Universities, 1968-1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Habiba S.

    The development of the new French universities is traced from 1968 to 1978. Chapter One examines the state of French higher education prior to 1968, including such aspects as access to education and student life. Chapter Two focuses on the student revolt at the Sorbonne on May 3, 1968. In the next four chapters, the emergence of the Faure law with…

  4. Structural Influences on Initial Accent Placement in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astesano, Corine; Bard, Ellen Gurman; Turk, Alice

    2007-01-01

    In addition to the phrase-final accent (FA), the French phonological system includes a phonetically distinct Initial Accent (IA). The present study tested two proposals: that IA marks the onset of phonological phrases, and that it has an independent rhythmic function. Eight adult native speakers of French were instructed to read syntactically…

  5. Management Education in a Globalizing World: Lessons from the French Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Rajesh; Usunier, Jean-Claude

    2001-01-01

    Assesses the challenges posed by the talk of globalization for French management education. Analyzes the strategies adopted by French business schools for coping with the globalization imperative. (DDR)

  6. Biology of the Coconut Bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi, on French Beans

    PubMed Central

    Egonyu, James Peter; Ekesi, Sunday; Kabaru, Jacques; Irungu, Lucy

    2014-01-01

    The coconut bug, Pseudotheraptus wayi Brown (Heteroptera: Coreidae), is a major pest of a wide range of economically important crops in Eastern and Southern Africa. The suitability of French beans, Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabales: Fabaceae) as an alternative food for mass rearing of P. wayi was determined by elucidating its development, survival, and reproduction on French bean pods in the laboratory. Development and survival of immatures on French beans was comparable to what is reported with two hosts previously used for rearing this species, namely coconut and cashew. Adults survived thrice longer and laid almost twice more eggs on the French beans than was reported for the two hosts above. These findings suggest that French beans are more suitable for mass rearing of this species than coconut and cashew, which have been used previously but can be scarce and too costly. PMID:25373191

  7. Politics of public enterprise: oil and the French state

    SciTech Connect

    Feigenbaum, H.B.

    1985-01-01

    A study of 50 years of French petroleum policy, this book is a theoretical analysis of public enterprise and a general analysis of the relationship of state to society. The author reveals the French government's lack of actual control over French public enterprises in the oil industry. Demonstrating that French regulatory policy protects petroleum firms, he goes on to show that these firms fail to promote the state's goals and the public interest. French policy is molded by an ideological commitment to managerial autonomy and unfettered profits. The linkage of the state to society by elite recruitment, socialization, and career paths closes all but a limited number of policy options, with a resultant weakening of dedication to public goals. 83 references, 4 tables.

  8. La Diversite en Afrique Francophone (Diversity in French-Speaking Africa). For Level I-II French Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanford Univ., CA. Stanford Program on International and Cross Cultural Education.

    This curriculum unit is part of a larger project designed to introduce communication-based, culturally specific instructional materials on French-speaking African societies into foreign language curricula with the goal of increasing the appeal and relevance of French language study, especially to African-American students. The materials are…

  9. Lexique 2: a new French lexical database.

    PubMed

    New, Boris; Pallier, Christophe; Brysbaert, Marc; Ferrand, Ludovic

    2004-08-01

    In this article, we present a new lexical database for French: Lexique. In addition to classical word information such as gender, number, and grammatical category, Lexique includes a series of interesting new characteristics. First, word frequencies are based on two cues: a contemporary corpus of texts and the number of Web pages containing the word. Second, the database is split into a graphemic table with all the relevant frequencies, a table structured around lemmas (particularly interesting for the study of the inflectional family), and a table about surface frequency cues. Third, Lexique is distributed under a GNU-like license, allowing people to contribute to it. Finally, a metasearch engine, Open Lexique, has been developed so that new databases can be added very easily to the existing ones. Lexique can either be downloaded or interrogated freely from http://www.lexique.org.

  10. French Frigate Shoals reef health survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Work, Thierry M.; Coles, Steve L.; Rameyer, Robert

    2002-01-01

    French Frigate Shoals consists of a large (31 nm) fringing reef partially enclosing a lagoon. A basalt pinnacle (La Perouse Pinnacle) arises approximately halfway between the two ends of the arcs of the fringing reefs. Tern Island is situated at the northern end of the lagoon and is surrounded by a dredged ship channel. The lagoon becomes progressively shallower from west to east and harbors a variety of marine life including corals, fish, marine mammals, and sea turtles (Amerson 1971). In 2000, an interagency survey of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands was done to document the fauna and flora in FFS (Maragos and Gulko, 2002). During that survey, 38 stations were examined, and 41 species of stony corals were documented, the most of any of the NW Hawaiian islands (Maragos and Gulko 2002). In some of these stations, corals with abnormalities were observed. The present study aimed to expand on the 2000 survey to evaluate the lesions in areas where they were documented.

  11. Leukaemia mortality around French nuclear sites.

    PubMed Central

    Hattchouel, J. M.; Laplanche, A.; Hill, C.

    1995-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate leukaemia mortality in the population under the age of 25 residing around the 13 French nuclear sites operating in 1985. In four geographical zones defined according to the distance from the site, 503 exposed communes were identified and followed up between 1968 and 1989. A total of 4,132,000 person-years of observation were accumulated. The number of leukaemia deaths observed (69) did not differ from the expected number (86.15) estimated according to national mortality statistics. There was no difference in the risks of leukaemia mortality according to sex, age, type of installation and no trend with an increasing distance from installations. PMID:7880754

  12. [French validation of the Frustration Discomfort Scale].

    PubMed

    Chamayou, J-L; Tsenova, V; Gonthier, C; Blatier, C; Yahyaoui, A

    2016-08-01

    Rational emotive behavior therapy originally considered the concept of frustration intolerance in relation to different beliefs or cognitive patterns. Psychological disorders or, to some extent, certain affects such as frustration could result from irrational beliefs. Initially regarded as a unidimensional construct, recent literature considers those irrational beliefs as a multidimensional construct; such is the case for the phenomenon of frustration. In order to measure frustration intolerance, Harrington (2005) developed and validated the Frustration Discomfort Scale. The scale includes four dimensions of beliefs: emotional intolerance includes beliefs according to which emotional distress is intolerable and must be controlled or avoided as soon as possible. The intolerance of discomfort or demand for comfort is the second dimension based on beliefs that life should be peaceful and comfortable and that any inconvenience, effort or hassle should be avoided. The third dimension is entitlement, which includes beliefs about personal goals, such as merit, fairness, respect and gratification, and that others must not frustrate those non-negotiable desires. The fourth dimension is achievement, which reflects demands for high expectations or standards. The aim of this study was to translate and validate in a French population the Frustration and Discomfort Scale developed by Harrington (2005), assess its psychometric properties, highlight the four factors structure of the scale, and examine the relationships between this concept and both emotion regulation and perceived stress. We translated the Frustration Discomfort Scale from English to French and back from French to English in order to ensure good quality of translation. We then submitted the scale to 289 students (239 females and 50 males) from the University of Savoy in addition to the Cognitive Emotional Regulation Questionnaire and the Perceived Stress Scale. The results showed satisfactory psychometric

  13. French space programmes related to global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellous, J. L.; Ratier, A.

    The guidelines of the national and cooperative environmental programmes conducted by CNES are complementarity with third agencies' programmes, synergism between scientific and application projects, and promotion of innovative concepts likely to meet the requirements of the World Climate Research and International Geosphere-Biosphere Programmes. While the on-going SPOT series is to provide imagery of land surfaces until 2000, the TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetric mission is being developed by NASA and CNES for launch in mid-1992 in phase with the WOCE intensive field experiments. The design study of the AVISO ocean data system, and the development on behalf of ESA of the ERS-1-dedicated CERSAT facility are consolidating the French effort in space oceanography. Two other research space missions are studied by CNES and French laboratories. BEST, whose phase A study is nearing completion, is a low-altitude, low-inclination, GEWEX-dedicated mission for the investigation of the water and energy cycle in the tropics, with a target launch date in the late 1990's. The phase A study of GLOBSAT, a more IGBP-oriented mission concept, has just been initiated. The first objective of this mission in polar orbit considered for launch around 1997, is to collect comprehensive data sets needed to document key processes related to cloud/radiation interaction, stratospheric/tropospheric chemistry and dynamics of continental and marine ecosystems. The second objective is to start monitoring long-term trends of parameters required to close global budgets of carbon and ozone. The analysis of this space mission concept is conducted in parallel with the development of instruments of opportunity to be flown onboard foreign satellites, and of airborne sensors, either precursor to space instruments or designed for process studies and validation of space data.

  14. French military general practitioner: ultrasound practice.

    PubMed

    Maurin, Olga; De Regloix, S; Lefort, H; Delort, G; Domanski, L; Tourtier, J-P; Palmier, B

    2014-09-01

    Ultrasound has been used in the field and in emergency departments for more than two decades. In a military setting, its use has grown rapidly as it has gained widespread acceptance among emergency physicians and as the range of diagnostic and triage applications has continued to expand. Technological changes have enabled ultrasound devices to become accessible to general practitioners (GP), and it could be of particular interest for military GPs in isolated environments. We have investigated both the training of French military GPs in the area of ultrasonography and the use of ultrasound devices, in daily practice and abroad, in isolated military settings. In 2011, a questionnaire was sent to all 147 in-the-field GPs of the French southeast regional military health service. The questionnaire evaluated the training of military GPs in ultrasonography, the use of ultrasound in France in daily practice, and during military operations in isolated environments abroad during 2010. The response rate was 52%. On the one hand, half the responding GPs had been specially trained in ultrasound, mainly (97%) in military institutes. On the other hand, only a quarter of doctors used ultrasound in daily practice. Among those GPs performing ultrasound examinations in France, 75% used it in 2010 during isolated operations abroad. Ultrasound examinations performed in such an austere environment were retrospectively declared useful to guide clinical reasoning (41% of examinations carried out), diagnosis (21%) and decision making as regards evacuation (11%). The challenge for the future is to make ultrasound courses mandatory for all military GPs going on overseas operations, to develop daily practice, and to investigate effective triage systems, combining both ultrasound imagery and physical examination. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  15. The many encounters of Thomas Kuhn and French epistemology.

    PubMed

    Simons, Massimiliano

    2017-02-01

    The work of Thomas Kuhn has been very influential in Anglo-American philosophy of science and it is claimed that it has initiated the historical turn. Although this might be the case for English speaking countries, in France an historical approach has always been the rule. This article aims to investigate the similarities and differences between Kuhn and French philosophy of science or 'French epistemology'. The first part will argue that he is influenced by French epistemologists, but by lesser known authors than often thought. The second part focuses on the reactions of French epistemologists on Kuhn's work, which were often very critical. It is argued that behind some superficial similarities there are deep disagreements between Kuhn and French epistemology. This is finally shown by a brief comparison with the reaction of more recent French philosophers of science, who distance themselves from French epistemology and are more positive about Kuhn. Based on these diverse appreciations of Kuhn, a typology of the different positions within the philosophy of science is suggested. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. FOSFORE: project for distributions of French seismological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, N. M.; Pardo, C.; Péquegnat, C.; Barbier, S.; Grunberg, M.; Maron, C.; Schaming, M.; Working Group

    2007-12-01

    FOSFORE (Fédération de l'Observation Sismologique Française) is a collaborative inter-university project aimed to distribute data of French permanent and temporary seismic networks and to make them freely available for the scientific community. FOSFORE is designed as a distributed data archive and is organized around four data centers located in universities at Grenoble, Nice, Paris, and Strasbourg. Currently available data include records of the GEOSCOPE global seismic network (Paris data center), of the French broadband seismic network (Nice and Strasbourg data centers), of the French accelerometric permanent network RAP (Grenoble data center), of numerous French temporary seismic deployments from different regions in the World (Grenoble data center), of the Corinth Rift Laboratory (Grenoble data center), and of regional monitoring networks in France. Waveform data are made freely available for download via NetDC and AutoDRM data request systems and Web interfaces. In the near future, we plan to incorporate more temporary deployments as well as data from volcano-monitoring networks in La Reunion Island and French Antilles and data from the North Chile seismic experiment. In addition, we are developing a centralized Web portal to access French seismological data, by connecting data centers via standard data request protocols such as NetDC and WebDC/Arclink. This facility will allow a better integration of the French data into the international data exchange system.

  17. [The Sino-French emergency and disaster medicine training center].

    PubMed

    Pourriat, Jean-Louis; Dahan, Benjamin; Lapandry, Claude

    2012-01-01

    French (AP-HP) and Chinese (Beijing Health Office) hospitals, with support from the French company Total, collaborated in order to improve Chinese doctors' knowledge of emergency and disaster medicine prior to the Beijing Olympic Games. A Sino-French emergency and disaster medicine training center was subsequently opened in Beijing in 2008, with the aim of providing high-level continuous medical training for Chinese specialists in emergency medicine. Teaching in the management of critical situations was based on the use of a latest-generation simulator (Sim 3G; Laerdal). This collaboration has had both pedagogical and diplomatic benefits.

  18. 7 CFR 993.109 - Modified definition of non-French prunes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Modified definition of non-French prunes. 993.109... definition of non-French prunes. The definition of non-French prunes set forth in § 993.6 is modified to read as follows: Non-French Prunes means prunes commonly known as Imperial, Sugar, Robe de Sargent, Burton...

  19. The World of Business and Commerce as Seen by French Literary Authors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elton, Maurice G. A.

    It is argued that while it is important to make the French second language curriculum relevant to today's world, it is also important not to neglect the cultural and literary components of the traditional French major, including those learning French for business. In light of this, several French novels, plays, and stories in which business is a…

  20. Immigrants Outperform Canadian-Born Groups in French Immersion: Examining Factors That Influence Their Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mady, Callie

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the French achievement results of three groups of students: Canadian-born English/French bilingual, Canadian-born multilingual and immigrant multilingual Grade 6 French immersion students, by investigating how the variables of integrative and instrumental motivations, attitudes to the learning situation, French language…

  1. Japon: Le francais en sursis? (Japan: French in Stay of Execution?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecheur, Jacques

    1991-01-01

    In Japan, second-language instruction and specifically French instruction are at a crossroads. Despite appearances of normalcy, survival of university-level French instruction is threatened by greater current interest in Asian languages. In response, the French Embassy and Japanese Association of French Professors have established a policy to…

  2. Japon: Le francais en sursis? (Japan: French in Stay of Execution?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pecheur, Jacques

    1991-01-01

    In Japan, second-language instruction and specifically French instruction are at a crossroads. Despite appearances of normalcy, survival of university-level French instruction is threatened by greater current interest in Asian languages. In response, the French Embassy and Japanese Association of French Professors have established a policy to…

  3. Pour Nos Petits Manitobains (For Our Little Manitobans): Exposure Package for Grade 3. Conversational French Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saiko, Evelyne, Ed.; Sotiriadis, Caterina, Ed.

    This primary "exposure package" is intended for the use of grade 3 teachers of English-speaking children who received French-as-a-Second-Language instruction in a non-immersion context. The aims of this French program are to: (1) expose the child to the French language, (2) foster a positive attitude toward French, and (3) develop…

  4. Chine: Les Chances du Francais (The Fortunes of the French Language in China).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuning, Zhang

    1996-01-01

    Examines the current situation in China surrounding the teaching of French as a Foreign Language. After the decline of French teaching subsequent to the Cultural Revolution, the language returned to favor around 1970. Chinese students are infatuated with French; many study it as a first or second foreign language. Additionally, French literature…

  5. Call Me "Madame": Re-Presenting Culture in the French Language Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siskin, H. Jay

    2007-01-01

    This study examines autobiographies of American teachers of French in order to make explicit their beliefs regarding French language and culture. The themes of class and power are prominent in these teachers' belief systems, as is the desire for self-transformation through mastery of French and miming a subset of French behaviors. These notions…

  6. Chine: Les Chances du Francais (The Fortunes of the French Language in China).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuning, Zhang

    1996-01-01

    Examines the current situation in China surrounding the teaching of French as a Foreign Language. After the decline of French teaching subsequent to the Cultural Revolution, the language returned to favor around 1970. Chinese students are infatuated with French; many study it as a first or second foreign language. Additionally, French literature…

  7. Immigrants Outperform Canadian-Born Groups in French Immersion: Examining Factors That Influence Their Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mady, Callie

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the French achievement results of three groups of students: Canadian-born English/French bilingual, Canadian-born multilingual and immigrant multilingual Grade 6 French immersion students, by investigating how the variables of integrative and instrumental motivations, attitudes to the learning situation, French language…

  8. Voici l'Afrique Francophone (Here Is French-Speaking Africa).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Laurence; Henley, Joan

    This unit is designed to introduce intermediate French language students to an important region of the French-speaking world--Africa. The unit provides the French language teacher with lesson plans and materials that are intended to reinforce French language skills, teach about African culture, and infuse global education skills and concepts. The…

  9. Frogs in the Web: Two Internet Courses Activating French Fluency Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Katherine

    This paper describes two Internet-based French language courses that help students acquire fluency in a nontraditional format. The Annenberg/CPB Project's "French in Action Online" was originally offered as a free online adjunct to a television course. The Coastline Community College's French 186AB French Topics Online is a stand-alone…

  10. Australie: Pour quelques mots de francais (Australia: For a Little French).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monteil, Alain

    1991-01-01

    An Australian campaign to promote French second-language instruction uses the motto, "Big Bucks with a Little French." The campaign accompanies publication of the book "French in Australia: New Prospects," which seeks to reinforce and diversify the image of French and its use around the world, for business and pleasure. (MSE)

  11. Evaluation of the Grade Nine French Immersion Program in Fredericton, N.B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Vicky A.

    The academic achievement in French of two cohorts of grade 9 students of a public school early immersion program in New Brunswick, which has total French-language instruction through grade 4 and includes all students in the program except transfers was compared to that of a group of native French-speaking students at a nearby French-language…

  12. French Language Arts: Programme d'etudes par annee scolaire. Francais langue seconde--immersion. Huitieme annee (French Language Arts: Yearly Curriculum. French as a Second Language--Immersion. Eighth Year).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Language Services Branch.

    The report, entirely in French, describes Alberta's curriculum for eighth-year French immersion, as revised in 1998. An introductory section offers background information on the curriculum revision, links between the core curriculum and French immersion, underlying principles of second language instruction, the revised curriculum's objectives and…

  13. French Language Arts: Programme d'etudes par annee scolaire. Francais langue seconde--immersion. Septieme annee (French Language Arts: Yearly Curriculum. French as a Second Language--Immersion. Seventh Year).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Language Services Branch.

    The report, entirely in French, describes Alberta's curriculum for seventh-year French immersion, as revised in 1998. An introductory section offers background information on the curriculum revision, links between the core curriculum and French immersion, underlying principles of second language instruction, the revised curriculum's objectives and…

  14. French Language Arts: Programme d'etudes par annee scolaire. Francais langue seconde--immersion. Neuvieme annee (French Language Arts: Yearly Curriculum. French as a Second Language--Immersion. Ninth Year).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Language Services Branch.

    The report, entirely in French, describes Alberta's curriculum for ninth-year French immersion, as revised in 1998. An introductory section offers background information on the curriculum revision, links between the core curriculum and French immersion, underlying principles of second language instruction, the revised curriculum's objectives and…

  15. French Language Arts: Programme d'etudes du secondaire deuxieme cycle (10-12). Francais langue seconde--immersion (French Language Arts: High School Curriculum [10-12]. French as a Second Language--Immersion).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Language Services Branch.

    The report, entirely in French, describes Alberta's curriculum for high school French immersion, as revised in 1998. An introductory section offers background information on the curriculum revision, links between the core curriculum and French immersion, underlying principles of second language instruction, the revised curriculum's objectives and…

  16. Petite fabrique de conversation francaise (Little Factory of French Conversation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubroca, Danielle

    1987-01-01

    A technique using dialogues and realistic prose passages from the works of Georges Simenon and Simone de Beauvoir to teach French conversational skills at the college level is explained and illustrated. (MSE)

  17. The "ce il" Distinction in French: Some Pedagogical Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornish, Francis

    1986-01-01

    Presents rules for the correct use of the French pronouns "ce" and "il," based on the criterion of discourse coherence and an understanding of the principles underlying the use of demonstrative vs. personal pronouns. (MSE)

  18. The French Creek Mine: St. Peters, Chester County, Pennsylvania

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sloto, R.A.; Dickinson, L.L.

    1994-01-01

    The French Creek mine has been a popular and prolific mineral collecting locality for over a century. Chalcopyrite occurs at the mine in spectacular specimens. Also notable are the fine cubic and octahedral pyrite crystals and octahedral magnetite crystals. -Authors

  19. "Etre" ou ne pas "etre" in Immersion French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knaus, Valerie; Nadasdi, Terry

    2001-01-01

    Examines verbal auxiliary selection in the speech of French immersion students. Examines variation in auxiliary selection in the oral discourse to determine to what extent it resembles that of native speakers. (Author/VWL)

  20. Interior, first floor southeast side of building, showing french doors ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, first floor southeast side of building, showing french doors and interior windows - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Open Air Tuberculosis Ward, West Pennington Avenue & North Hickey Street Southwest Corner, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  1. Petite fabrique de conversation francaise (Little Factory of French Conversation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubroca, Danielle

    1987-01-01

    A technique using dialogues and realistic prose passages from the works of Georges Simenon and Simone de Beauvoir to teach French conversational skills at the college level is explained and illustrated. (MSE)

  2. 31. HALL INTERIOR SHOWING SINGLE FRENCH DOOR TO NORTH SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. HALL INTERIOR SHOWING SINGLE FRENCH DOOR TO NORTH SIDE SCREENED PORCH, AND TRAP-DOOR ACCESS TO ATTIC. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 8, Operator Cottage, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  3. 29. BEDROOM #3 INTERIOR SHOWING DOUBLE FRENCH DOORS TO SCREENED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. BEDROOM #3 INTERIOR SHOWING DOUBLE FRENCH DOORS TO SCREENED PORCH AND FIVE-PANELED DOOR TO HALL. VIEW TO WEST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 8, Operator Cottage, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  4. 27. BEDROOM #2 INTERIOR SHOWING DOUBLE FRENCH DOORS TO SCREENED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. BEDROOM #2 INTERIOR SHOWING DOUBLE FRENCH DOORS TO SCREENED PORCH AND UNUSUAL WINDOWED CLOSET THROUGH OPEN FIVE-PANELED DOOR. VIEW TO WEST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 8, Operator Cottage, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  5. 12. INTERIOR OF NORTH END ENCLOSED SCREEN PORCH. DOUBLE FRENCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR OF NORTH END ENCLOSED SCREEN PORCH. DOUBLE FRENCH DOORS LEAD TO BEDROOM #3. VIEW TO EAST. - Big Creek Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse 8, Operator Cottage, Big Creek, Big Creek, Fresno County, CA

  6. French-Language Satellite TV in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Russell G.

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the elements of satellite technology, provides information on French and other foreign-language programming, and offers suggestions for using satellite television in the classroom. (Author/JL)

  7. [Treating mentally wounded patients within the French armed forces].

    PubMed

    Raffray, Pierre; Rio, Anaïck; Lahutte, Bertrand; Boisseaux, Humbert

    2012-12-01

    The French army has put in place a doctrine aimed at treating mentally wounded soldiers. A real treatment pathway comprising different specialised medical staff, places and time frames supports the soldier from the theatre of operations to France.

  8. Le francais par le theatre. (French through Theater).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agular, Claudio; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The techniques used in a course on "French through the theater" emphasize the dramatic rather than realistic, authentic expression rather than authentic language, and the use of instruction to launch students on their own personal course of learning. (MSE)

  9. For the Good of France: The French Experience in Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    situation in Rwanda. The information relayed to Paris by France’s trusted agents living in Rwanda should have alerted Paris to what was about to...reveal that, although the French undoubtedly helped to save the lives of many Rwandans, the French government’s decision to send troops was self...motivated. As stated above, Operation Turquoise likely saved the lives of hundreds of thousands of Rwandans. This is an admirable feat that is

  10. A dictionary of Astronomy for the French Sign Language (LSF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proust, Dominique; Abbou, Daniel; Chab, Nasro

    2011-06-01

    Since a few years, the french deaf communauty have access to astronomy at Paris-Meudon observatory through a specific teaching adapted from the French Sign Language (Langue des Signes Françcaise, LSF) including direct observations with the observatory telescopes. From this experience, an encyclopedic dictionary of astronomy The Hands in the Stars is now available, containing more than 200 astronomical concepts. Many of them did not existed in Sign Language and can be now fully expressed and explained.

  11. French NATO policy: The next five years. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, G.

    1990-06-01

    France, having long proclaimed the need to change the European status quo, regards the potential for change in the structure of European relationships with more anxiety than do most of its allies. However, French security assumptions have not remained static. French policy has been adjusting for some time, but this movement is only partially related to the changes set loose by Soviet President Gorbachev, and can be understood only in the broader context of the security perspectives that have guided French thinking since the end of World War II. This study traces the roots of Charles de Gaulle's policies and describes the nearly 15-year-long transition away from purist Gaullism toward a new compromise between independence and integration. The author describes the adjustments taken in response, including several important steps to improve the interaction between the French military and NATO, and ways that French diplomacy of the early 1980s began to emphasize common NATO positions. The author then examines the emerging policy environment and its effects on the basic assumptions underpinning French policy. He concludes that in the future, France will be easier to work with as an ally, but will continue to seek autonomy in the East-West dialogue.

  12. Strategies for improved French-language health services

    PubMed Central

    Gauthier, Alain P.; Timony, Patrick E.; Serresse, Suzanne; Goodale, Natalie; Prpic, Jason

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To identify strategies to improve the quality of health services for Francophone patients. Design A series of semistructured key informant interviews. Setting Northeastern Ontario. Participants A total of 18 physicians were interviewed. Ten physicians were interviewed in French, 7 physicians were women, and 10 physicians were located in urban communities. Methods Purposive and snowball sampling strategies were used to conduct a series of semistructured key informant interviews with family physicians practising in communities with a large Francophone population. Principles of grounded theory were applied, guided by a framework for patient-professional communication. Results were inductively derived following an iterative data collection–data analysis process and were analyzed using a detailed thematic approach. Main findings Respondents identified several strategies for providing high-quality French-language health services. Some were unique to non–French-speaking physicians (eg, using appropriate interpreter services), some were unique to French-speaking physicians (eg, using a flexible dialect), and some strategies were common to all physicians serving French populations (eg, hiring bilingual staff or having pamphlets and posters in both French and English). Conclusion Physicians interviewed for this study provided high-quality health care by attributing substantial importance to effective communication. While linguistic patient-to-physician concordance is ideal, it might not always be possible. Thus, conscious efforts to attenuate communication barriers are necessary, and several effective strategies exist. PMID:26505060

  13. High Cycle Thermal Fatigue in French PWR

    SciTech Connect

    Blondet, Eric; Faidy, Claude

    2002-07-01

    Different fatigue-related incidents which occurred in the world on the auxiliary lines of the reactor coolant system (SIS, RHR, CVC) have led EDF to search solutions in order to avoid or to limit consequences of thermodynamic phenomenal (Farley-Tihange, free convection loop and stratification, independent thermal cycling). Studies are performed on mock-up and compared with instrumentation on nuclear power stations. At the present time, studies allow EDF to carry out pipe modifications and to prepare specifications and recommendations for next generation of nuclear power plants. In 1998, a new phenomenal appeared on RHR system in Civaux. A crack was discovered in an area where hot and cold fluids (temperature difference of 140 deg. C) were mixed. Metallurgic studies concluded that this crack was caused by high cycle thermal fatigue. Since 1998, EDF is making an inventory of all mixing areas in French PWR on basis of criteria. For all identified areas, a method was developed to improve the first classifying and to keep back only potential damage pipes. Presently, studies are performing on the charging line nozzle connected to the reactor pressure vessel. In order to evaluate the load history, a mock-up has been developed and mechanical calculations are realised on this nozzle. The paper will make an overview of EDF conclusions on these different points: - dead legs and vortex in a no flow connected line; - stratification; - mixing tees with high {delta}T. (authors)

  14. Late Holocene rainforest disturbance in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Ledru, M -P.

    2001-06-01

    Palm swamp forest sediments collected in French Guiana provide new data about late Holocene rainforest. Two cores were collected in 'Les Nouragues' ecological station (4 degrees 05'N, 52 degrees 40'W). The lithology shows two different types of sediment, organic peat in the upper part and oxidized clay with low organic content and lacking pollen in the lower part, both separated by a gravel horizon. Radiocarbon dates show that this gravel horizon could have been deposited between 4500 and 3000yrBP. Pollen analysis carried out on the organic sediments record rainforest disturbances between ca 1520-1380 and 1060-860cal yrBP suggested by the presence of the pioneer tree species Cecropia together with other shade intolerant genera. Cecropia is recorded for a period that lasts between 660 and 320 years. This abnormal duration for presence of a pioneer species in rainforest is explained by brief and repeated changes in the composition of the canopy asssociated to perturbations of the palm swamp.

  15. Chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil.

    PubMed

    Perriot, Rodolphe; Breme, Katharina; Meierhenrich, Uwe J; Carenini, Elise; Ferrando, Georges; Baldovini, Nicolas

    2010-02-10

    Since decades mimosa (Acacia dealbata) absolute oil has been used in the flavor and perfume industry. Today, it finds an application in over 80 perfumes, and its worldwide industrial production is estimated five tons per year. Here we report on the chemical composition of French mimosa absolute oil. Straight-chain analogues from C6 to C26 with different functional groups (hydrocarbons, esters, aldehydes, diethyl acetals, alcohols, and ketones) were identified in the volatile fraction. Most of them are long-chain molecules: (Z)-heptadec-8-ene, heptadecane, nonadecane, and palmitic acid are the most abundant, and constituents such as 2-phenethyl alcohol, methyl anisate, and ethyl palmitate are present in smaller amounts. The heavier constituents were mainly triterpenoids such as lupenone and lupeol, which were identified as two of the main components. (Z)-Heptadec-8-ene, lupenone, and lupeol were quantified by GC-MS in SIM mode using external standards and represents 6%, 20%, and 7.8% (w/w) of the absolute oil. Moreover, odorant compounds were extracted by SPME and analyzed by GC-sniffing leading to the perception of 57 odorant zones, of which 37 compounds were identified by their odorant description, mass spectrum, retention index, and injection of the reference compound.

  16. The IAU Early French Radio Astronomy Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne; Boischot, A.; Delannoy, J.; Kundu, M.; Lequeux, J.; Pick, M.; Steinberg, J.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006 an ambitious project was launched under the auspices of the IAU Working Group on Historic Radio Astronomy to document important developments in French radio astronomy from 1901 through to the 1960s, in a series of papers published, in English, in the Journal of Astronomical History and Heritage. This successful project has now come to an end with the sixth and final paper in the series about to be published (and a new WG project, on the history of early Japanese radio astronomy, has just been launched). In this paper we discuss Nordmann's abortive attempt to detect solar radio emission in 1901, and the important roles played by staff from the École Normale Supérieure and the Institut d'Astrophysique in Paris during the 1940s through 60s in developing new radio astronomy instrumentation and pursuing a range of solar and non-solar research projects in Paris itself and at field stations established at Marcoussis, Nançay and the Haute Provence Observatory.

  17. The French-Italian Concordia Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekarnia, Djamel; Frenot, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Concordia is a French-Italian permanent station located at Dome C, Antarctica. The station provides accommodation for up to 16 people over winter and more than 70 scientists and technicians during the austral summer. The scientific projects implemented at Concordia are strictly dependent on the characteristics of the site: a) the presence of a 3 300 m thick ice cap that allows access to the planet's climate archives and the reconstruction of glacial-interglacial cycles over more than 800 000 years; b) a particularly stable pure and dry atmosphere ideal for astronomy observations and for research on the chemical composition of the atmosphere; c) a distant location from coastal perturbations favourable to magnetic and seismological observatories to complement a poor world data network in the southern hemisphere; and d) a small totally isolated group of people confined to the station over a long winter, offering an opportunity for a range of medical and psychological studies useful to prepare long duration deep space missions. We will address the main characteristics of this station and its interest for science.

  18. The Global Climate Observing System. French contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juvanon-Du-Vachat, R.

    2010-09-01

    THE GLOBAL CLIMATE OBSERVING SYSTEM. FRENCH CONTRIBUTION Régis Juvanon du Vachat Société Météorologique de France, c/o D2I/MI, 1, Quai Branly 75007 Paris France is participating fully in the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). It incorporates the following four components: meteorological and atmospheric, oceanic, terrestrial, spatial, which will be briefly presented, especially in relation with the monitoring of the climate. The presentation will give an overview of the general principles governing the GCOS system and particularly the concepts used to maintain efficiently this climate observing system for a long period of time ("from research networks to operational networks"). The presentation will cover all the four components of the GCOS system. The whole report has been published in the Fifth National Communication from France to the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). The presentation will give an overview of the different networks of these four domains devoted to the monitoring of climate and maintained by France and highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of this climate observing system.

  19. Automatic conceptual indexing of French pharmaceutical theses.

    PubMed

    Mary, Vincent; Pouliquen, Bruno; Le Duff, Franck; Darmoni, Stefan J; Segui, Alain; Le Beux, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    French pharmaceutical theses are rarely quoted. If the main obstacles originate from language or access barriers, proper indexation could also be blamed. Manually extracted key-words don't necessary come from a structured thesaurus. In the following work, this manual indexing method is compared to an automated one, "Nomindex", based on UMLS. The automated method is improved by the addition of a relevance scoring system. The first indexing step consists of downloading, adapting and indexing theses in electronic format. Results will then be analyzed and sorted by relevance, through the comparison of classic statistical indices (noise, silence and relevance). It was assumed that the manually obtained key-words were always relevant. The silence of manual indexing is nevertheless high: seven new key-words are proposed by Nomindex, which results are mixed (10% of silence, but 50% of noise). These results are promising on the first experiment on pharmaceutical document without lexicon improvement. The indexing, if it is currently insufficient for a real life use, could easily be improved by specific updates of the lexicon.

  20. Segmental duration in Parkinsonian French speech.

    PubMed

    Duez, Danielle

    2009-01-01

    The present study had 2 main objectives: (1) examine the effect of Parkinson's disease (PD) on vowel and consonant duration in French read speech and (2) investigate whether the durational contrasts of consonants and vowels are maintained or compromised. The data indicated that the consonant durations were shortened in Parkinsonian speech (PS), compared to control speech (CS). However, this shortening was consonant dependent: unvoiced occlusives and fricatives were significantly shortened compared to other consonant categories. All vowels were slightly longer in PS than in CS, however, the observed differences were below the level of significance. Despite significant shortening of some consonant categories, the general pattern of intrinsic duration was maintained in PS. There was slightly less agreement for vowels with the normal contrast of intrinsic durations, possibly because vowel durational contrasts are more sensitive to PD disorders. Most PD patients tended to maintain the intrinsic duration contrasts of both vowels and consonants, suggesting that low-level articulatory constraints operate in a similar way and with the same weight in PS and CS. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. From Life in a French Town to the Artificial Heart: An Approach to the Teaching of Scientific French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Margaret E.

    1988-01-01

    Describes the experiences of one instructor in designing and implementing a short course in scientific French for upper level students majoring in applied biology at Glasgow College. Materials used and aspects of scientific language chosen are briefly discussed. (LMO)

  2. Francais langue seconde: trousse d'evaluation--tests modeles pour les cours: French 31a (Avance 7); French 31b (Avance 8); French 31c (Avance 9) (French as a Second Language: Evaluation Resource Package--Model Tests for the Courses: French 31a (Advanced 7); French 31b (Advanced 8); French 31c (Advanced 9)).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Language Services Branch.

    The French as a Second Language model tests for advanced levels 7, 8, and 9 were designed to evaluate students' language performance, as outlined in the program of studies for Alberta, Canada, in listening and reading comprehension and oral and written production, communication skills, culture, language and general language knowledge. The tests…

  3. "So She Has Been Educated by a Vulgar, Silly, Conceited French Governess!" Social Anxieties, Satirical Portraits, and the Eighteenth-Century French Instructor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegele, Arden

    2011-01-01

    Maria Edgeworth's pedagogical short stories "Mademoiselle Panache" (1800, 1801) and "The Good French Governess" (1801) portray contrasting French instructors, and illustrate a transformation in English girls' education in French at the end of the eighteenth century. While "Mademoiselle Panache" looks back to the…

  4. "So She Has Been Educated by a Vulgar, Silly, Conceited French Governess!" Social Anxieties, Satirical Portraits, and the Eighteenth-Century French Instructor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegele, Arden

    2011-01-01

    Maria Edgeworth's pedagogical short stories "Mademoiselle Panache" (1800, 1801) and "The Good French Governess" (1801) portray contrasting French instructors, and illustrate a transformation in English girls' education in French at the end of the eighteenth century. While "Mademoiselle Panache" looks back to the…

  5. Francais: Programme d'etudes par annee scolaire. Francais langue premiere: Septieme annee (French: Yearly Curriculum. French as a Native Language: Seventh Year).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Language Services Branch.

    The report, entirely in French, describes Alberta's curriculum for seventh-year French native language instruction, as revised in 1998. An introductory section offers background information on the curriculum's design, links between the core curriculum and French native language instruction, underlying principles of language instruction, the…

  6. Francais: Programme d'etudes du secondaire deuxieme cycle (10-12). Francais langue premiere (French: High School Curriculum [10-12]. French as a Native Language).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Language Services Branch.

    The report, entirely in French, describes Alberta's curriculum for high school French native language instruction, as revised in 1998. An introductory section offers background information on the curriculum's design, links between the core curriculum and French native language instruction, underlying principles of language instruction, the…

  7. Francais: Programme d'etudes par annee scolaire. Francais langue premiere: Neuvieme annee (French: Yearly curriculum. French as a Native Language: Ninth year).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Language Services Branch.

    The report, entirely in French, describes Alberta's curriculum for ninth-year French native language instruction, as revised in 1998. An introductory section offers background information on the curriculum's design, links between the core curriculum and French native language instruction, underlying principles of language instruction, the…

  8. Francais: Programme d'etudes par annee scolaire. Francais langue premiere: Huitieme annee (French: Yearly Curriculum. French as a Native Language: Eighth Year).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Language Services Branch.

    The report, entirely in French, describes Alberta's curriculum for eighth-year French native language instruction, as revised in 1998. An introductory section offers background information on the curriculum's design, links between the core curriculum and French native language instruction, underlying principles of language instruction, the…

  9. But Do They Speak French? A Comparison of French Immersion Programs in Immersion Only and English/Immersion Settings. Research Report 79-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkin, Michael

    Students' use of French in unsupervised classroom situations and outside the classroom was investigated in immersion center schools (all students are involved in French immersion programs) and dual track schools (French immersion programs co-exist with regular English language programs). A total of 414 students in grades 3 and 4 were observed…

  10. End stage renal disease in French Guiana (data from R.E.I.N registry): South American or French?

    PubMed

    Rochemont, Dévi Rita; Meddeb, Mohamed; Roura, Raoul; Couchoud, Cécile; Nacher, Mathieu; Basurko, Célia

    2017-06-30

    End-Stage renal disease (ESRD) causes considerable morbidity and mortality, and significantly alters patients' quality of life. There are very few published data on this problem in the French Overseas territories. The development of a registry on end stage renal disease in French Guiana in 2011 allowed to describe the magnitude of this problem in the region for the first time. Using data from the French Renal Epidemiology and Information Network registry (R.E.I.N). Descriptive statistics on quantitative and qualitative variables in the registry were performed on prevalent cases and incident cases in 2011, 2012 and 2013. French Guiana has one of the highest ESRD prevalence and incidence in France. The two main causes of ESRD were hypertensive and diabetic nephropathies. The French Guianese population had a different demographic profile (younger, more women, more migrants) than in mainland France. Most patients had at least one comorbidity, predominantly (95.3%) hypertension. In French Guiana dialysis was initiated in emergency for 71.3% of patients versus 33% in France (p < 0.001). These first results give important public health information: i) End stage renal disease has a very high prevalence relative to mainland France ii) Patients have a different demographic profile and enter care late in the course of their renal disease. These data are closer to what is observed in the Caribbean or in Latin America than in Mainland France.

  11. [From the French Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery to the French Society of Plastic Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgery].

    PubMed

    Glicenstein, J

    2004-04-01

    (The) 3rd December 1952, 11 surgeons and other specialists found the French Society of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (SFCPR) which was officially published on (the) 28 September 1953. The first congress was during October 1953 and the first president as Maurice Aubry. The first secretary was Daniel Morel Fatio. The symposiums were after about three of four times each year and the thematic subjects were initially according the reconstructive surgery. The review "Annales de chirurgie plastique" was free in 1956. The members of the Society were about 30 initially, but their plastic surgery in the big hospitals at Paris and other big towns in France. The "specialty" of plastic surgery was created in 1971. On "syndicate", one French board of plastic reconstructive and aesthetic surgery, the increasing of departments of plastic surgery were the front of increasing of the plastic surgery in French and of the number of the French Society of Plastic Reconstructive surgery (580 in 2003). The French Society organized the International Congress of Plastic Surgery in 1975. The society SFCPR became the French Society of plastic reconstruction and Aesthetic Surgery (SFCPRE) in 1983 and the "logo" (front view) was in the 1994 SOF.CPRE.

  12. French Adaptation of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory in a Belgian French-Speaking Sample.

    PubMed

    Braun, Stéphanie; Kempenaers, Chantal; Linkowski, Paul; Loas, Gwenolé

    2016-01-01

    The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is the most widely used self-report scale to assess the construct of narcissism, especially in its grandiosity expression. Over the years, several factor models have been proposed in order to improve the understanding of the multidimensional aspect of this construct. The available data are heterogeneous, suggesting one to at least seven factors. In this study, we propose a French adaptation of the NPI submitted to a sample of Belgian French-speaking students (n = 942). We performed a principal component analysis on a tetrachoric correlation matrix to explore its factor structure. Unlike previous studies, our study shows that a first factor explains the largest part of the variance. Internal consistency is excellent and we reproduced the sex differences reported when using the original scale. Correlations with social desirability are taken into account in the interpretation of our results. Altogether, the results of this study support a unidimensional structure for the NPI using the total score as a self-report measure of the Narcissistic Personality Disorder in its grandiose form. Future studies including confirmatory factor analysis and gender invariance measurement are also discussed.

  13. Socio-emotional support in French hospitals: Effects on French nurses' and nurse aides' affective commitment.

    PubMed

    Ruiller, Caroline; Van Der Heijden, Beatrice I J M

    2016-02-01

    In spite of the differences in human resource management (HRM) practices between the non-profit health care sector and business life, the majority of health care sector research appears to be based on the HRM (for human resources management) blueprint for business life staff policy and practice. This study is aimed to better understand the impact of workplace social support in the context of French hospitals. Concrete, the first objective of this article comprises a thorough conceptualization and operationalization of workplace social support (i.e. both professional and personal social support). Data were collected in a French hospital among a sample of 62 respondents (for the qualitative part of our study), and among a sample of 171 health care professionals (nurses and nurse aids) (for the quantitative part of our study). Our outcomes indicate that, especially, personal support given by one's supervisor is strongly and positively related to nurses' and nurse aides' affective commitment. After a discussion about the outcomes, followed by some recommendations for future research, the article concludes with some practical implications for management in hospitals.

  14. French Adaptation of the Narcissistic Personality Inventory in a Belgian French-Speaking Sample

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Stéphanie; Kempenaers, Chantal; Linkowski, Paul; Loas, Gwenolé

    2016-01-01

    The Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI) is the most widely used self-report scale to assess the construct of narcissism, especially in its grandiosity expression. Over the years, several factor models have been proposed in order to improve the understanding of the multidimensional aspect of this construct. The available data are heterogeneous, suggesting one to at least seven factors. In this study, we propose a French adaptation of the NPI submitted to a sample of Belgian French-speaking students (n = 942). We performed a principal component analysis on a tetrachoric correlation matrix to explore its factor structure. Unlike previous studies, our study shows that a first factor explains the largest part of the variance. Internal consistency is excellent and we reproduced the sex differences reported when using the original scale. Correlations with social desirability are taken into account in the interpretation of our results. Altogether, the results of this study support a unidimensional structure for the NPI using the total score as a self-report measure of the Narcissistic Personality Disorder in its grandiose form. Future studies including confirmatory factor analysis and gender invariance measurement are also discussed. PMID:28066299

  15. The French Geological Repository Project Cigeo - 12023

    SciTech Connect

    Harman, Alain; Labalette, Thibaud; Dupuis, Marie-Claude; Ouzounian, Gerald

    2012-07-01

    The French Agency for Radioactive Waste Management, ANDRA, was launched by law in 1991 to perform and develop the research programme for managing high level and intermediate level long-lived radioactive waste generated by the French nuclear fleet. After a 15-year intensive research programme, including the study of alternative solutions, an overall review and assessment of the results was organized, including a national public debate. As a result, the Parliament passed a Planning Act on radioactive waste management in 2006. Commissioning of a geological repository by 2025 was one of the most important decisions taken at that time. To reach this goal, a license application must be submitted and reviewed by the competent authorities by 2015. A detailed review and consultation process is, as well, defined in the Planning Act. Beside the legal framework the project needs to progress on two fronts. The first one is on siting. A significant milestone was reached in 2009 with the definition of a defined area to locate the underground repository facilities. This area was approved in March 2010 by the Government, after having collected the opinions and positions of all the interested parties, at both National and local levels. A new phase of dialogue with local players began to refine the implementation scenarios of surface facilities. The final site selection will be approved after a public debate planned for 2013. The second one is the industrial organization, planning and costing. The industrial project of this geological repository was called Cigeo (Centre Industriel de Stockage Geologique). Given the amount of work to be done to comply with the given time framework, a detailed organization with well-defined milestones must be set-up. Cigeo will be a specific nuclear facility, built and operated underground for over a hundred years. The consequence of this long duration is that the development of the repository facilities will take place in successive operational phases

  16. The French Balloon Program 2013 - 2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubourg, Vincent; Vargas, André; Raizonville, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    With over 50 years' experience in the field, the French Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) goes on supporting - as designer and operator - a significant scientific ballooning program. In particular so because balloons still give a unique and valuable access to near space science. From 2008 to 2013, an important renovation effort was achieved, beginning by Zero Pressure Balloons (ZPB) systems, to comply with more stringent Safety constraints and to the growing reliability and performance requirements from scientific missions. The paper will give an overview of the CNES new capabilities and services for operational balloon activities, and their availability status. The scientific launch campaigns of the past two years will be presented. A focus will be made on the results of the Stratoscience 2015 flight campaign from Timmins, Ontario, using the NOSYCA command and control system for ZPB, qualified in flight in 2013. In particular, the PILOT telescope successfully flew during the 2015 campaign, key figures about the flight and mission will be given. An outlook of the new stratospheric long duration flight systems currently in process of developement at CNES will be given, as well as the presentation of the Stratéole 2 project, dedicated to the survey of the low stratosphere and upper troposphere in equatorial regions, with a fleet of small suprer pressure balloons (SPB). As far as tropospheric balloons are concerned, the Aeroclipper initiative will be presented, aiming at qualifying a quasi-tethered balloon, pushed by the winds close to the sea surface, for the study of cyclones. The scientific launch campaigns and the main payloads in the study for the near future will also be presented.

  17. Tastier and healthier alternatives to French fries.

    PubMed

    Rommens, Caius M; Shakya, Roshani; Heap, Mark; Fessenden, Kristi

    2010-05-01

    The effect of both the origin and shape of potato cuts on fry quality was investigated in this study. Linear strips from the inner core of tubers were compared to those from outer tissues, both before and after processing, and strips from either specific tissues or whole peeled tubers were also evaluated against ring-shaped cuts. Both strips and rings had 0.7 cm sides and, in most cases, a volume of 4.9 cm(3). They were analyzed for moisture content, antioxidants, asparagine, and reducing sugars. The material was then blanched, dipped in 0.5% disodium acid pyrophosphate and 0.3% glucose, dried at 77 degrees C, par-fried in soybean oil at 191 degrees C, and finish-fried at 168 degrees C. The fried product was analyzed for sensory characteristics and oil, salt, and acrylamide content. Our results showed that strips from the inner core absorbed 28% more oil and exhibited inferior sensory characteristics compared to strips from the outer parts. The extended drying and frying times needed to match the crispness and flavor of inner strips to those of regularly fried outer strips resulted in a further increased absorption of oil and, importantly, triggered a 163% increase in levels of the toxic Maillard reaction product acrylamide. Potato rings consisted of higher dry matter material, contained more antioxidants, and had a lower surface-to-volume ratio than the conventional linear strips. Upon processing, they also absorbed 22% less oil, contained 26% less salt, and displayed superior sensory properties. Thus, ring fries may represent an attractive alternative to French fries as processed staple food.

  18. Plant biodiversity in French Mediterranean vineyards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Marianne; Bilodeau, Clelia; Alexandre, Frédéric; Godron, Michel; Gresillon, Etienne

    2017-04-01

    In a context of agricultural intensification and increasing urbanization, the biodiversity of farmed plots is a key to improve the sustainability of farmed landscapes. The medium life-duration of the vineyards as well as their location in Mediterranean region are favorable to plant biodiversity. We studied 35 vineyards and if present, their edges, located in three French Mediterranean terroirs: Bandol, Pic Saint Loup and Terrasses du Larzac. We collected botanical information (floral richness et diversity, biological traits), and analyzed their relationships with different factors: social (management, heritage or professional concern), environmental (slope, exposition, geology), spatial (edges, surrounding landscape in a 500 meters radius, distance to the nearest large city). Vineyards are generally heavily disturbed by intensive practices like tilling and application of herbicides, and for this reason their floral diversity is low. This is particularly true in Bandol terroir, in accordance with the standards of the Bandol PDO wine sector. Farmed landscapes and proximity to a large town impact on functional groups, generalist species being overrepresented. If vineyards are surrounded with natural edges, it doubles the floral richness at the plot and edges scale. Species present in vineyards edges are perennial herbaceous species with Euro- Asian and Mediterranean distribution ranges characteristic of prairie and wasteland stages, increasing the functional diversity of vineyards (generalist species). Environmental factors have a lower influence: vineyards are generally located on flat lands. These results suggest that some practices should be encouraged to avoid the biological degradation of vineyards: conservation of tree-lined edges and their extensive management, reduction of chemical weeding, grass-growing using non-cosmopolitan species. These recommendations should also contribute to soil conservation.

  19. Management of neutropenic patients in the intensive care unit (NEWBORNS EXCLUDED) recommendations from an expert panel from the French Intensive Care Society (SRLF) with the French Group for Pediatric Intensive Care Emergencies (GFRUP), the French Society of Anesthesia and Intensive Care (SFAR), the French Society of Hematology (SFH), the French Society for Hospital Hygiene (SF2H), and the French Infectious Diseases Society (SPILF).

    PubMed

    Schnell, David; Azoulay, Elie; Benoit, Dominique; Clouzeau, Benjamin; Demaret, Pierre; Ducassou, Stéphane; Frange, Pierre; Lafaurie, Matthieu; Legrand, Matthieu; Meert, Anne-Pascale; Mokart, Djamel; Naudin, Jérôme; Pene, Frédéric; Rabbat, Antoine; Raffoux, Emmanuel; Ribaud, Patricia; Richard, Jean-Christophe; Vincent, François; Zahar, Jean-Ralph; Darmon, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Neutropenia is defined by either an absolute or functional defect (acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome) of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and is associated with high risk of specific complications that may require intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Specificities in the management of critically ill neutropenic patients prompted the establishment of guidelines dedicated to intensivists. These recommendations were drawn up by a panel of experts brought together by the French Intensive Care Society in collaboration with the French Group for Pediatric Intensive Care Emergencies, the French Society of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, the French Society of Hematology, the French Society for Hospital Hygiene, and the French Infectious Diseases Society. Literature review and formulation of recommendations were performed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Each recommendation was then evaluated and rated by each expert using a methodology derived from the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method. Six fields are covered by the provided recommendations: (1) ICU admission and prognosis, (2) protective isolation and prophylaxis, (3) management of acute respiratory failure, (4) organ failure and organ support, (5) antibiotic management and source control, and (6) hematological management. Most of the provided recommendations are obtained from low levels of evidence, however, suggesting a need for additional studies. Seven recommendations were, however, associated with high level of evidences and are related to protective isolation, diagnostic workup of acute respiratory failure, medical management, and timing surgery in patients with typhlitis.

  20. French Sizing of Medical Devices is not Fit for Purpose

    SciTech Connect

    Kibriya, Nabil Hall, Rebecca; Powell, Steven; How, Thien; McWilliams, Richard G.

    2013-08-01

    PurposeThe purpose of the study is to quantify the variation in the metric equivalent of French size in a range of medical devices, from various manufacturers, used in interventional radiology.MethodsThe labelling of a range of catheters, introducers, drains, balloons, stents, and endografts was examined. Products were chosen to achieve a broad range of French sizes from several manufacturers. To assess manufacturing accuracy, eight devices were selected for measurement using a laser micrometer. The external diameters of three specimens of each device were measured at centimeter intervals along the length of the device to ensure uniformity.ResultsA total of 200 labels of interventional radiology equipment were scrutinized. The results demonstrate a wide variation in the metric equivalent of French sizing. Labelled products can vary in diameter across the product range by up to 0.79 mm.The devices selected for measurement with the non-contact laser micrometer demonstrate acceptable manufacturing consistency. The external diameter differed by 0.05 mm on average.ConclusionsOur results demonstrate wide variation in the interpretation of the French scale by different manufacturers of medical devices. This has the potential to lead to problems using coaxial systems especially when the products are from different manufacturers. It is recommended that standard labelling should be employed by all manufacturers conveying specific details of the equipment. Given the wide variation in the interpretation of the French scale, our opinion is that this scale either needs to be abandoned or be strictly defined and followed.

  1. Comparison of British and French expatriate doctors’ characteristics and motivations

    PubMed Central

    Quantin, Catherine; Abbas, Rachid; Hagi, Mathieu; Breton, Gwenaelle Le; Romestaing, M; Carnet, Dider

    2012-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to analyse the migration of doctors between the UK and France, in an attempt to identify the reasons for these migrations. Design This was a cross-sectional study conducted using a self-completed questionnaire. Setting The questionnaire was sent to all British doctors practising in France and to all French doctors practising in the UK. Participants The doctors were identified, thanks to official data of the National Medical Councils. There were 244 French doctors practising in the UK and 86 British doctors practising in France. Outcome measures A questionnaire was specifically developed for the study to determine the reasons why doctors moved to the other country and their level of satisfaction with regard to their expatriation. Results A total of 98 French doctors (of 244) and 40 British doctors (of 86) returned the questionnaire. The motivations of the two studied populations were different: French doctors were attracted by the conditions offered by the National Health Service, whereas British doctors were more interested in opportunities for career advancement, moved to join a husband or wife or to benefit from favourable environmental conditions. Overall, the doctors who responded considered the expatriation a satisfactory experience. After expatriation, 84% of French doctors were satisfied with their new professional situation compared with only 58% of British doctors. Conclusions This study, which is the first of its kind and based on representative samples, has led to a clearer understanding of the migration of doctors between France and the UK. PMID:23192244

  2. [SURPS French version validation in a Quebec adolescent population].

    PubMed

    Castonguay-Jolin, Laura; Perrier-Ménard, Eveline; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Garel, Patricia; Séguin, Jean R; Conrod, Patricia J

    2013-09-01

    Objective: The Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) has been developed to screen personality risk factors for substance misuse. This scale assesses 4 high-risk personality traits using a 23-item, self-report questionnaire. SURPS helps guiding targeted approaches to prevention of substance abuse and misuse. It has been validated in the United Kingdom, English Canada, Sri Lanka, and China. This study aims to validate this scale in a sample of French-speaking adolescents from Quebec as well as its sensitivity in a clinical sample of adolescents. Method: Two hundred two 15-year-old youths from a community sample completed a French version of SURPS as well as other measures of personality and substance use. This study reports the internal consistency and concurrent validity of the scale, as well as a factor analysis of items. Further, 40 youths (mean age 15.7 years) from a clinical population completed SURPS and their scores were compared with those of the community sample. Results: SURPS French translation has good internal consistency and demonstrated a 4-factor structure very similar to the original scale. The 4 subscales show good concurrent validity, and 3 of the subscales were found to correlate with measures of substance use. Finally, 95% of the clinical sample was identified at high risk for substance misuse according to SURPS cut-off scores. Conclusion: SURPS French translation seems to be a valid and sensitive scale that can be used in a French-speaking adolescent population from Quebec.

  3. The spelling skills of French-speaking dyslexic children.

    PubMed

    Plisson, Anne; Daigle, Daniel; Montésinos-Gelet, Isabelle

    2013-05-01

    Learning to spell is very difficult for dyslexic children, a phenomenon explained by a deficit in processing phonological information. However, to spell correctly in an alphabetic language such as French, phonological knowledge is not enough. Indeed, the French written system requires the speller to acquire visuo-orthographical and morphological knowledge as well. To date, the majority of studies aimed at describing dyslexic children's spelling abilities related to English and reading. The general goal of this study is to describe the spelling performance, from an explanatory perspective, of 26 French-Canadian dyslexic children, aged 9 to 12 years. The specific goals are to describe the spelling performances of these pupils in the context of free production and to compare them with the performances of 26 normally achieving children matched on age (CA) and with those of 29 younger normally achieving children matched on reading age (RA). To do so, errors were classified according to phonological, visuo-orthographical and morphological properties of French written words. The results indicate that the dyslexic group scored lower than the CA group but sometimes also lower than the RA group. The results are discussed according to the types of knowledge required to spell correctly in French. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. [The Golden book of the French plastic surgery].

    PubMed

    Glicenstein, J

    2010-10-01

    Susruta, Tagliacozzi and Dieffenbach are considered to be the first plastic surgeons. Many French surgeons deserve to figure in the "Golden Book" of the specialty. From Pierre Franco to Paul Tessier, many famous or sometimes unknown surgeons introduced important innovations. In the XVIth century, Pierre Franco realized the first autoplasty of the face as well as the first suture of a cleft lift. This was modified by Mirault, three centuries later. Delpech created at Montpellier a real "school" dedicated to plastic surgery where there was an attempt to oppose a French technique to the success of surgeons from Berlin. Roux was the first (or the second according to Von Graefe) to succeed a cleft palate closure. The first Z plasty was performed by Denonvilliers and Morestin devoted many works to plastic surgery insisting on scar discretion. After World War II, the main cosmetic procedures were described and performed by French surgeons: Bourguet, Passot, Dartigues… Suzanne Noel was the first female plastic surgeon and the first to perform outpatient operations. After the creation of the French Society of Plastic surgery, Paul Tessier conceived the craniofacial surgery. An important step in cosmetic surgery was liposuction described by Y.G. Illouz. More recently, French teams performed the first allotransplantation of the face and of the upper limbs.

  5. Intonational means to mark Verum focus in German and French.

    PubMed

    Turco, Giuseppina; Dimroth, Christine; Braun, Bettina

    2013-12-01

    German and French differ in a number of aspects. Regarding the prosody-pragmatics interface, German is said to have a direct focus-to-accent mapping, which is largely absent in French--owing to strong structural constraints. We used a semi-spontaneous dialogue setting to investigate the intonational marking of Verum Focus, a focus on the polarity of an utterance in the two languages (e.g. the child IS tearing the banknote as an opposite claim to the child is not tearing the banknote). When Verum Focus applies to auxiliaries, pragmatic aspects (i.e. highlighting the contrast) directly compete with structural constraints (e.g. avoiding an accent on phonologically weak elements such as monosyllabic function words). Intonational analyses showed that auxiliaries were predominantly accented in German, as expected. Interestingly, we found a high number of (as yet undocumented) focal accents on phrase-initial auxiliaries in French Verum Focus contexts. When French accent patterns were equally distributed across information structural contexts, relative prominence (in terms of peak height) between initial and final accents was shifted towards initial accents in Verum Focus compared to non-Verum Focus contexts. Our data hence suggest that French also may mark Verum Focus by focal accents but that this tendency is partly overridden by strong structural constraints.

  6. Physical fitness reference standards in French youth: The BOUGE program.

    PubMed

    Vanhelst, Jérémy; Julien, Julien Labreuche; Beghin, Laurent; Drumez, Elodie; Fardy, Paul S; Chapelot, Didier; Mikulovic, Jacques; Ulmer, Zekya

    2016-09-16

    The aim of this study was to establish gender- and age-specific physical fitness percentiles in French youth. A sample of 11 186 children and adolescents (5 546 boys, 5 640 girls), ages 10-15 years, was assessed in the French national BOUGE study. Participants were tested on cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular endurance, speed, flexibility and agility using the following tests: 20-m shuttle run tests, curl ups test, 50-m sprint test, back-saver sit and reach test and 10 x 5 m shuttle run test. Percentile values were estimated for French youth as a function of age stratified by gender using the generalized additive model for location, scale and shape (GAMLSS). In general, physical fitness was better in boys than girls, except for the back-saver sit and reach test, in which girls performed better. Except for the back-saver sit and reach test and 10 x 5 m shuttle run test, physical fitness performance was significantly associated with age. Gender and age-specific normative values for physical fitness tests in French youth expressed as percentiles from the 5th to the 95th are provided. Reference values provide normative data for French youth. The data are useful in identifying special needs for appropriate intervention programs.

  7. Are the French neurology residents satisfied with their training?

    PubMed

    Codron, P; Roux, T; Le Guennec, L; Zuber, M

    2015-11-01

    There have been dramatic changes in neurology over the past decade; these advances require a constant adaptation of residents' theoretical and practical training. The French Association of Neurology Residents and the College of Neurology Teachers conducted a national survey to assess the French neurology residents' satisfaction about their training. A 16-item questionnaire was sent via e-mail to French neurology residents completing training in 2014. Data were collected and processed anonymously. Of eligible respondents, 126 returned the survey, representing approximately 40% of all the French neurology residents. Most residents (78%) rated their clinical training favorably. Seventy-two percent reported good to excellent quality teaching of neurology courses from their faculty. However, many residents (40%) felt insufficient their doctoral thesis supervision. All residents intended to enter fellowship training after their residency, and most of them (68%) planned to practice in a medical center. French neurology residents seemed satisfied with the structure and quality of their training program. However, efforts are required to improve management of the doctoral thesis and make private practice more attractive and accessible during the residency. In the future, similar surveys should be scheduled to regularly assess neurology residents' satisfaction and the impact of the forthcoming national and European reforms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. FOSFORE: portal for distributions of French seismological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, N. M.; Douet, V.; Pardo, C.; Péquegnat, C.; Barbier, S.; Maron, C.; Grunberg, M.; Schaming, M.; Group, F W

    2008-12-01

    FOSFORE (Fédération de l'Observation Sismologique Française) is a collaborative inter-university project aimed to distribute data of French permanent and temporary seismic networks and to make them freely available for the scientific community. FOSFORE is designed as a distributed data archive and is organized around four data centers located in universities at Grenoble, Nice, Paris, and Strasbourg. Currently available data include records of the GEOSCOPE global seismic network (Paris data center), of the French broadband seismic network (Nice and Strasbourg data centers), of the French accelerometric permanent network RAP (Grenoble data center), of numerous French temporary seismic deployments from different regions in the World (Grenoble data center), and of regional monitoring networks in France. The four data centers are connected through centralized Web portal (http://www.fosfore.ipgp.fr) where waveform data are available via NetDC data request protocol. In addition, the data are available directly in the data centers via NetDC or via AutoDRM request systems or via Web interfaces. In the near future, we plan to incorporate more temporary deployments as well as data from volcano-monitoring networks in La Reunion Island and French Antilles and data from the North Chile seismic experiment.

  9. French sizing of medical devices is not fit for purpose.

    PubMed

    Kibriya, Nabil; Hall, Rebecca; Powell, Steven; How, Thien; McWilliams, Richard G

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the study is to quantify the variation in the metric equivalent of French size in a range of medical devices, from various manufacturers, used in interventional radiology. The labelling of a range of catheters, introducers, drains, balloons, stents, and endografts was examined. Products were chosen to achieve a broad range of French sizes from several manufacturers. To assess manufacturing accuracy, eight devices were selected for measurement using a laser micrometer. The external diameters of three specimens of each device were measured at centimeter intervals along the length of the device to ensure uniformity. A total of 200 labels of interventional radiology equipment were scrutinized. The results demonstrate a wide variation in the metric equivalent of French sizing. Labelled products can vary in diameter across the product range by up to 0.79 mm. The devices selected for measurement with the non-contact laser micrometer demonstrate acceptable manufacturing consistency. The external diameter differed by 0.05 mm on average. Our results demonstrate wide variation in the interpretation of the French scale by different manufacturers of medical devices. This has the potential to lead to problems using coaxial systems especially when the products are from different manufacturers. It is recommended that standard labelling should be employed by all manufacturers conveying specific details of the equipment. Given the wide variation in the interpretation of the French scale, our opinion is that this scale either needs to be abandoned or be strictly defined and followed.

  10. [Body hair and advertising in French magazines].

    PubMed

    Héas, S; Bodin, D; Robène, L; Misery, L

    2007-10-01

    Sociological analysis of advertising reveals the currently operative body codes within a society, and more fundamentally, depicts the (ideal) relationships between men and women, between generations, and so on. To demonstrate that sports advertising based largely on trichological stereotypes. The idealised portrayal of human relations in advertisements (N=700) taken from French magazines was analysed by means of systematic coding and use of analytical software. This approach allowed characterisation of each advertisement in relation to the entire sample, with identification of significant elements (dominant colour, stature of models, setting, etc.), and determination of frequency of appearance and occurrence as well as testing of dependency relations. There were significant differences in the portrayal of men and women in advertisements. In the 700 advertisements in the series we examined, male subjects very often had short hair (231 cases, 33%) or shaved heads (33 cases, 4.7%) while women were shown with long hair, either free (80 cases) or tied (73 cases). Women with short hair were rarely portrayed (4.3%), as were men with long hair (42 cases, 6%). Above all, with the exception of eyebrows and eyelashes, no other body hair was seen in male and female athletic figures in 238 advertisements, being visible in only 60 cases (8.6%). Facial stubble, and more particularly beards and moustaches, was fairly infrequent, despite the omnipresence of male models. The majority of advertising situations involving sporting figures show clear stereotyping. Body hair is a pertinent pointer to understanding of contemporary sports models. A clear overall male/female distinction was present throughout. Men were presented in these adverts as active figures, leaders, etc. while women tended to be passive, spectators, and in some cases, admiring onlookers. A degree of confusion between genders was noticeable as a result of the shaving and depilation trends currently in vogue in the

  11. Status of the French Mars Exploration Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonneville, R.; Counil, J.-L.; Rocard, F.

    2002-01-01

    The French Mars exploration initiative named PREMIER (Programme de Retour d'Echantillons Martiens et Installation d'Expériences en Réseau) is a long term, multiform co- operative program including as its two main components : - the development with a consortium of European partners (Finland, Germany, Belgium) and the deployment of a network of 4 small Mars ground stations for performing geophysical measurements (NetLander project) ; - a participation to the future Mars Sample Return mission (MSR) in cooperation with NASA including the development and the operation of the orbiter vehicle of this mission. Its additional elements are : - instrument contributions to ESA's Mars Express mission ; - payload contributions to the orbiters and landers &rovers of the future missions to Mars, and especially to NASA's "smart lander" mission dedicated to in situ investigations. This program wants to ensure the complementarity between its three poles : (i) global investigations from the orbit, (ii) landed science with both network science (NetLanders) and in situ investigations, and (iii) sample return. A major step in the PREMIER program will be the 2007 orbiter mission ; this precursor vehicle developed by CNES and launched by Ariane 5 in September 2007 will first deliver the 4 NetLanders at Mars and then will be inserted in Mars orbit. This orbiter will perform technological tests aiming at preparing the future Mars Sample Return mission, it will ensure a telecommunication relay function for the NetLanders and it will be used for an additional orbital science mission. While the NetLanders will study the internal structure of Mars and its climate, with the goal to operate a full Martian year, the primary objectives of the orbital science mission will be complementary of those of the NetLanders, with an emphasis on the study of the Martian atmosphere. In a first phase, the orbiter will be on a 500 km x 500 km circular, near polar, Sun-synchronous orbit around 12 am local time

  12. A twofold strategy for translating a medical terminology into French.

    PubMed

    Deléger, Louise; Merabti, Tayeb; Lecrocq, Thierry; Joubert, Michel; Zweigenbaum, Pierre; Darmoni, Stéfan

    2010-11-13

    The goal of this study is to assist the translation of a medical terminology (MedlinePlus) into French. We combined two types of approaches to acquire French translations of English MedlinePlus terms. The first is knowledge-based and relies on the conceptual information of the UMLS metathesaurus. The second method is a corpus-based NLP technique using a bilingual parallel corpus. The knowledge-based method brought translations for 611 terms, among which 67.6% were considered valid. The corpus-based approach provided translations for 143 terms of which 71.3% were considered valid. We thus acquired a total of 435 translated terms (51.3%). Combining two approaches allowed us to semi-automatically translate more than half of the terminology, while focusing on only one would have provided a more partial translation. From an applicative viewpoint, this French version is now integrated in the catalogue of online health resources CISMeF.

  13. Salmonella serotypes in reptiles and humans, French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Gay, Noellie; Le Hello, Simon; Weill, François-Xavier; de Thoisy, Benoit; Berger, Franck

    2014-05-14

    In French Guiana, a French overseas territory located in the South American northern coast, nearly 50% of Salmonella serotypes isolated from human infections belong to serotypes rarely encountered in metropolitan France. A reptilian source of contamination has been investigated. Between April and June 2011, in the area around Cayenne, 151 reptiles were collected: 38 lizards, 37 snakes, 32 turtles, 23 green iguanas and 21 caimans. Cloacal swab samples were collected and cultured. Isolated Salmonella strains were identified biochemically and serotyped. The overall carriage frequency of carriage was 23.2% (95% confidence interval: 16.7-30.4) with 23 serotyped strains. The frequency of Salmonella carriage was significantly higher for wild reptiles. Near two-thirds of the Salmonella serotypes isolated from reptiles were also isolated from patients in French Guiana. Our results highlight the risk associated with the handling and consumption of reptiles and their role in the spread of Salmonella in the environment.

  14. Cultural psychiatry in the French-speaking world.

    PubMed

    Westermeyer, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    For the last five centuries, France's international influence has been constant. This has been particularly evident in the areas of general culture, history and science. In psychiatry, the role of Pinel during the French Revolution, and the discovery of the first psychotropic agent, chlorpromazine, by Delay and Deniker are two outstanding historical facts. This chapter examines the contributions of French social scientists in the understanding of the sequelae of colonial exploitation, racism and political oppression. The establishment of a multi-ethnic society in France and Francophile regions of the world has led to the gradual creation of a cultural psychiatry rich in terminological influences, clinical understanding, training programs and research. Closer connections between French psychiatric thought and Anglophile psychiatry is likely to produce beneficial effects.

  15. [Comparative review of the Senegalese and French deontology codes].

    PubMed

    Soumah, M; Mbaye, I; Bah, H; Gaye Fall, M C; Sow, M L

    2005-01-01

    The medical deontology regroups duties of the physicians and regulate the exercise of medicine. The code of medical deontology of Senegal inspired of the French medical deontology code, has not been revised since its institution whereas the French deontology code knew three revisions. Comparing the two codes of deontology titles by title and article by article, this work beyond a parallel between the two codes puts in inscription the progress in bioethics that are to the basis of the revisions of the French medical deontology code. This article will permit an advocacy of the health professionals, in favor of a setting to level of the of Senegalese medical deontology code. Because legal litigation, that is important in the developed countries, intensify in our developing countries. It is inherent to the technological progress and to the awareness of the patients of their rights.

  16. Outbreak of malaria among policemen in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Michel, Rémy; Ollivier, Lénaïck; Meynard, Jean-Baptiste; Guette, Christian; Migliani, René; Boutin, Jean-Paul

    2007-09-01

    An outbreak of malaria occurred among 62 policemen following an operation against illegal gold panning in French Guiana. A retrospective cohort study was conducted. The objectives were to describe the outbreak and to identify factors related to the cases. The total number of initial cases was 37. Both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax were detected. Twenty-seven policemen presented with one to four recurrences. In bivariate analysis, factors related to malaria were a "medium to high" level of mosquito bites pollution at night, late washing in the evening and wearing a nonimpregnated Battle Dress Uniform (BDU). This investigation confirmed the low level of compliance with chemoprophylaxis among individuals on long-term assignment in French Guiana. Compliance with mosquito protection measures was satisfactory except for the use of impregnated BDU. Several recommendations were provided. Therefore, this outbreak reminds us that malaria remains a public health problem in French Guiana.

  17. [Comparison of British and French expatriate doctors' characteristics and motivations].

    PubMed

    Abbas, R; Carnet, D; D'Athis, P; Fiet, C; Le Breton, G; Romestaing, M; Quantin, C

    2015-02-01

    Migration of medical practitioners is rarely studied despite its importance in medical demography: the objective of this study was to analyze the characteristics and motivations of the French doctors settled in the United Kingdom and of the British doctors settled in France. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-completed questionnaire sent to all French doctors practicing in the United Kingdom (in 2005) and all British medicine doctors practicing in France (in 2009). The doctors were identified with official data from the National Medical Councils: 244 French doctors practicing in the United Kingdom and 86 British doctors practicing in France. The questionnaire was specifically developed to determine the reasons of moving to the other country, and the level of satisfaction after expatriation. A total of 98 French doctors (out of 244) and 40 British doctors (out of 86) returned the questionnaire. Respondents were mainly general practitioners with a professional experience of 8 to 9 years. The sex ratio was near 1 for both groups with a majority of women among physicians under 50 years. The motivations were different between groups: French doctors were attracted by the conditions offered at the National Health Service, whereas British doctors were more interested in opportunities for career advancement, joining husband or wife, or favourable environmental conditions. Overall, the respondents considered expatriation as satisfactory: 84% of French doctors, compared with only 58% of British doctors, were satisfied with their new professional situation. This study, the first in its kind, leads to a clearer understanding of the migration of doctors between France and the United Kingdom. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. [Physical fitness levels in French adolescents: The BOUGE program].

    PubMed

    Vanhelst, J; Béghin, L; Drumez, E; Baudelet, J-B; Labreuche, J; Chapelot, D; Mikulovic, J; Ulmer, Z

    2016-09-01

    A high level of physical fitness is associated with cardiovascular health in adolescents. The aims of this study were to assess the levels of physical fitness of French adolescents and to determine the prevalence of these adolescents below the minimum level of cardiorespiratory fitness needed to guarantee future favorable cardiovascular profile. Participants were 12,082 French children and adolescents (5975 boys, 6107 girls) aged to 9 from 16 years. Cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular endurance, speed, flexibility and speed agility were tested. The associations of physical fitness measures with adolescent's characteristics were analyzed using Student t test, one-way ANOVA, or Pearson correlations as appropriate. Boys were physically fitter than girls, expected for flexibility (P<0.0001). Subjects of normal weight adolescents had significantly better results than overweight or obese adolescents (P<0.05 for all comparisons), but also in comparison with underweight adolescents for muscular endurance, flexibility, cardiorespiratory fitness test (P<0.05). Our findings indicate that, on the basis of cardiorespiratory fitness, 16% of French boys and 7.7% of French girls have a risk of future cardiovascular disease (P<0.0001). This subgroup also performed poorly in all other tests of physical fitness used (P<0.0001). Aerobic fitness decreased significantly with the age (r=-0.168 for boys; r=-0.261 for girls). Our results indicate that the physical fitness of French adolescents must be improved to help protect against cardiovascular disease in adulthood, especially in boys. The study showed also a dramatically decrease of the cardiorespiratory fitness during the adolescence period. Developing and introducing a health promotion curriculum in the French schools is suggested to improve health and physical fitness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Nomina anatomica. Anatomic terminology and the old French terminology.

    PubMed

    Chiapas-Gasca, Karla; Passos, Luiz Fernando De Souza; Euzébio Ribeiro, Sandra Lúcia; Villaseñor-Ovies, Pablo

    A surprising finding in our seminars in Latin America and Spain was that approximately half of the participants continued to use the old French anatomical nomenclature. The substance of this paper is a table in which we compare the anatomical names for the items reviewed in our seminar, in a Spanish version of the old French nomenclature and in the Spanish, Portuguese, and English versions of the currently employed anatomical terms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  20. A case of Mayaro virus infection imported from French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Llagonne-Barets, Marion; Icard, Vinca; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Prat, Christine; Perpoint, Thomas; André, Patrice; Ramière, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    Emergence of arboviruses is a rising problem in several areas in the world. Here we report a case of Mayaro virus infection that was diagnosed in a French citizen presenting a dengue-like syndrome with prolonged arthralgia following a travel in French Guiana. Diagnosis was based on serological testing, a newly developed specific RT-PCR and sequencing. The real incidence of this viral infection among travelers is poorly known but this case is the first reported in a European area where Aedes albopictus mosquitoes are established, which underscores the necessity to determine the vector competence of the European strain of this mosquito species for Mayaro virus.

  1. First record of Myotis albescens (Chiroptera, Vespertilionidae) in French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    Dewynter, Maël; Delaval, Marguerite; Catzeflis, François; Ruedi, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Myotis albescens occurs from Mexico southward to Uruguay and Argentina. The species is known for all South American countries except French Guiana and Chile. New information Based on one specimen recently collected in French Guiana we fill part of the gap in the distribution of the species in South America. Myotis albescens occurs in the Guiana Shield with other four congeners, from which it can be distinguished by external and skull traits. As an aid to future identifications, we provide a key to this assemblage. PMID:26069439

  2. French Cuisine in the Classroom: Using Culture to Enhance Language Proficiency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrate, Jane E.

    1993-01-01

    French cuisine offers a valuable resource for creating culture-based contexts for language use in the classroom. Suggestions and ideas are presented for incorporating food-related activities in the French class. (VWL)

  3. Uruguay: Le francais en quete d'image (Uruguay: French in Search of an Image).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francais dans le Monde, 1993

    1993-01-01

    The role of French language instruction in Uruguay is assessed. Drawing on results of recent surveys, it is observed that French suffers from a lackluster image, and from a lack of confidence among language teachers themselves. (MSE)

  4. Looking up French Language and Culture in the Paris "Pages Jaunes."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlan, Timothy M.

    1986-01-01

    Suggestions for using the Paris counterpart of the yellow pages and telephone book front matter in French language and cultural instruction include ad illustrations and specific cultural information, general information about the French telephone system, and observational techniques. (MSE)

  5. Il francese, lingua facile per gli studenti italiani? (French, An Easy Language for Italian Students?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabasino, Francesca Villani

    1978-01-01

    Argues that the similarities between Italian and French are not as substantial as they seem and that they don't necessarily facilitate the language-learning process. The types of errors made by Italians learning French are analyzed. (CFM)

  6. The French Lexicon Project: lexical decision data for 38,840 French words and 38,840 pseudowords.

    PubMed

    Ferrand, Ludovic; New, Boris; Brysbaert, Marc; Keuleers, Emmanuel; Bonin, Patrick; Méot, Alain; Augustinova, Maria; Pallier, Christophe

    2010-05-01

    The French Lexicon Project involved the collection of lexical decision data for 38,840 French words and the same number of nonwords. It was directly inspired by the English Lexicon Project (Balota et al., 2007) and produced very comparable frequency and word length effects. The present article describes the methods used to collect the data, reports analyses on the word frequency and the word length effects, and describes the Excel files that make the data freely available for research purposes. The word and pseudoword data from this article may be downloaded from http://brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental.

  7. Validation of the French version of the BACS (the brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia) among 50 French schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Bralet, Marie-Cécile; Falissard, Bruno; Neveu, Xavier; Lucas-Ross, Margaret; Eskenazi, Anne-Marie; Keefe, Richard S E

    2007-09-01

    Schizophrenic patients demonstrate impairments in several key dimensions of cognition. These impairments are correlated with important aspects of functional outcome. While assessment of these cognition disorders is increasingly becoming a part of clinical and research practice in schizophrenia, there is no standard and easily administered test battery. The BACS (Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia) has been validated in English language [Keefe RSE, Golberg TE, Harvey PD, Gold JM, Poe MP, Coughenour L. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia: reliability, sensibility, and comparison with a standard neurocognitive battery. Schizophr. Res 2004;68:283-97], and was found to be as sensitive to cognitive dysfunction as a standard battery of tests, with the advantage of requiring less than 35 min to complete. We developed a French adaptation of the BACS and this study tested its ease of administration and concurrent validity. Correlation analyses between the BACS (version A) and a standard battery were performed. A sample of 50 stable schizophrenic patients received the French Version A of the BACS in a first session, and in a second session a standard battery. All the patients completed each of the subtests of the French BACS . The mean duration of completion for the BACS French version was 36 min (S.D.=5.56). A correlation analysis between the BACS (version A) global score and the standard battery global score showed a significant result (r=0.81, p<0.0001). The correlation analysis between the BACS (version A) sub-scores and the standard battery sub-scores showed significant results for verbal memory, working memory, verbal fluency, attention and speed of information processing and executive functions (p<0.001) and for motor speed (p<0.05). The French Version of the BACS is easier to use in French schizophrenic patients compared to a standard battery (administration shorter and completion rate better) and its good psychometric properties suggest

  8. Francophonie: The French Journal of the Association for Language Learning, 1994-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalley, Alan, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This journal focuses on the teaching and learning of French. Selected titles in this volume include the following: "Practical Ideas for Teaching Reluctant Learners in Key Stage 4"; "Learning to Count in French"; "Oh No! The Target Language . . . !""French and the English 'Invasion'"; "The Sounds of…

  9. The Effects of Collaborative Models in Second Life on French Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Indy Y. T.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Chia-Jui, Chu

    2015-01-01

    French is the ninth most widely used language globally, but French-learning environments in Taiwan have been insufficient. Language acquisition is easier in a natural setting, and so such a setting should be available to language learners wherever possible. This study aimed to (1) create an authentic environment for learning French in Second Life…

  10. Acquiring Orthographic Processing through Word Reading: Evidence from Children Learning to Read French and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasquarella, Adrian; Deacon, Helene; Chen, Becky X.; Commissaire, Eva; Au-Yeung, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the within-language and cross-language relationships between orthographic processing and word reading in French and English across Grades 1 and 2. Seventy-three children in French Immersion completed measures of orthographic processing and word reading in French and English in Grade 1 and Grade 2, as well as a series of control…

  11. Raising FLAGS: Renewing Core French at the Pre-Service Teacher Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    A new program for core French teacher candidates called FLAGS (French Language and Global Studies) was established at the University of British Columbia (UBC) in 2007. The program is intended for those who are keen to teach core French and possess rudimentary proficiency in the language but may not necessarily have the same proficiency or prior…

  12. Reading as a Skill or as a Social Practice in French Immersion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Sylvie; Schafer, Paul-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    This paper looks at reading in French immersion and how learning French is seen more as a skill rather than a social practice that could be examined through a more critical lens. Most of the teachers often teach students how to read but rarely will they discuss the role of French in Canadian society and how this is manifested in the texts they…

  13. 7 CFR 319.56-54 - French beans and runner beans from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false French beans and runner beans from Kenya. 319.56-54... § 319.56-54 French beans and runner beans from Kenya. French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) may be imported into the United States from Kenya only under the...

  14. 7 CFR 319.56-54 - French beans and runner beans from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false French beans and runner beans from Kenya. 319.56-54... § 319.56-54 French beans and runner beans from Kenya. French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) may be imported into the United States from Kenya only under the...

  15. 7 CFR 319.56-54 - French beans and runner beans from Kenya.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false French beans and runner beans from Kenya. 319.56-54... § 319.56-54 French beans and runner beans from Kenya. French beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) and runner beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) may be imported into the United States from Kenya only under the...

  16. Le Francais des Professions Scientifiques et Techniques (French for the Scientific and Technical Professions).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Brigitte

    Two sequential courses in scientific and technical French developed as a supplement to third- and fourth-year college French, in response to expressed student and industry demand, had as their objectives to develop a general familiarity with products of the large French industrial companies and their United States affiliates and to develop means…

  17. A Resource Kit of French Immersion Materials from the Milwaukee Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geier, Julie, Comp.

    Instructional materials from the Milwaukee Public School System's elementary school French immersion program are presented. The materials for the Multi-Language School-German/French, are as follows: (1) Summer Reading Booklet, First Grade French Immersion; (2) L'automne: Livret de la premiere annee; (3) L'Halloween: Livret de la premiere annee;…

  18. Acquisition of Complement Clitics and Tense Morphology in Internationally Adopted Children Acquiring French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, K.; Genesee, F.; Kasparian, K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the language development of children adopted from China to examine possible early age effects with respect to their use of complement clitics, lexical diversity and verb morphology. We focused on these aspects of French because they distinguish second language learners of French and native French-speaking children with…

  19. Native and Nonnative Interpretation of Pronominal Forms: Evidence from French and Turkish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimke, Sarah; Colonna, Saveria

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of grammatical role and discourse-level cues on the interpretation of different pronominal forms in native speakers of French, native speakers of Turkish, and Turkish learners of French. In written questionnaires, we found that native speakers of French were influenced by discourse-level cues when interpreting…

  20. Acquiring Orthographic Processing through Word Reading: Evidence from Children Learning to Read French and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasquarella, Adrian; Deacon, Helene; Chen, Becky X.; Commissaire, Eva; Au-Yeung, Karen

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the within-language and cross-language relationships between orthographic processing and word reading in French and English across Grades 1 and 2. Seventy-three children in French Immersion completed measures of orthographic processing and word reading in French and English in Grade 1 and Grade 2, as well as a series of control…

  1. The Effects of Collaborative Models in Second Life on French Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Indy Y. T.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Chia-Jui, Chu

    2015-01-01

    French is the ninth most widely used language globally, but French-learning environments in Taiwan have been insufficient. Language acquisition is easier in a natural setting, and so such a setting should be available to language learners wherever possible. This study aimed to (1) create an authentic environment for learning French in Second Life…

  2. Reading as a Skill or as a Social Practice in French Immersion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Sylvie; Schafer, Paul-Christophe

    2015-01-01

    This paper looks at reading in French immersion and how learning French is seen more as a skill rather than a social practice that could be examined through a more critical lens. Most of the teachers often teach students how to read but rarely will they discuss the role of French in Canadian society and how this is manifested in the texts they…

  3. Phonetics, the Basis for All Levels of Proficiency in French Pronunciation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiOrio, Dorothy M.

    French teachers need to realize and convince their supervisors that more time must be given to development of acceptable pronunciation and comprehension skills in the initial stages of French language study. Phonetics offers the technique and tools for perfecting pronunciation. The method for college French instruction described is adapted from…

  4. A Resource Kit of French Immersion Materials from the Milwaukee Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geier, Julie, Comp.

    Instructional materials from the Milwaukee Public School System's elementary school French immersion program are presented. The materials for the Multi-Language School-German/French, are as follows: (1) Summer Reading Booklet, First Grade French Immersion; (2) L'automne: Livret de la premiere annee; (3) L'Halloween: Livret de la premiere annee;…

  5. La langue francaise, objet de politique linguistique (The French Language, Object of Linguistic Politics).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eloy, Jean-Michel

    1994-01-01

    Discussion of politics of the French language looks at the nature of linguistic politics, offers historical perspective on French linguistic politics, and argues that, in France, language is always linked to the State. Aspects of French linguistic politics concerning the language itself and its role in everyday life are examined. (MSE)

  6. French for "Hotellies": A Recently Instituted Course at the Cornell School of Hotel Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grandjean-Levy, Andree

    The Cornell School of Hotel Administration in collaboration with the Department of Modern Languages and Linguistics offers a course in French for a small group of students who have had the equivalent of at least two semesters of college French. The course emphasizes oral/aural French with very little class time spent on grammar study. Grammar…

  7. Le "Francais Populaire" and French as a Second Language: A Comparative Study of Language Simplification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenemer, Virginia Lynn

    The French of English speaking students of French as a second language is compared with "francais populaire" (FP) in order to determine similarities in their tendency toward simplified grammar and morphology. Simplifying characteristics that are typical of FP were obtained from French working class sources, while simplification patterns…

  8. Factor Structure of the French Version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III. Validity Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregoire, Jacques

    2004-01-01

    The standardization of the French version of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III) was conducted after carefully adapting the French version from the U.S. version and extensive field testing. The standardization sample was composed of 1,104 participants from 16 to 89 years. To assess the construct validity of the French version,…

  9. Francophonie: The French Journal of the Association for Language Learning, 1994-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalley, Alan, Ed.

    1997-01-01

    This journal focuses on the teaching and learning of French. Selected titles in this volume include the following: "Practical Ideas for Teaching Reluctant Learners in Key Stage 4"; "Learning to Count in French"; "Oh No! The Target Language . . . !""French and the English 'Invasion'"; "The Sounds of…

  10. French for "Hotellies": A Recently Instituted Course at the Cornell School of Hotel Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grandjean-Levy, Andree

    The Cornell School of Hotel Administration in collaboration with the Department of Modern Languages and Linguistics offers a course in French for a small group of students who have had the equivalent of at least two semesters of college French. The course emphasizes oral/aural French with very little class time spent on grammar study. Grammar…

  11. "Une Certaine idee du francais": The Dilemma for French Language Policy in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelly, Sharon L.

    1999-01-01

    The global French-speaking community recognizes the need to better coordinate its efforts to assert the vitality of French in a world increasingly dominated by English. In pursuing this goal, the Francophone world has developed an identity crisis. Defenders of French face difficult questions about the relationship between language and culture and…

  12. The French World of Business: Culture and Commerce. The Case of the Wharton School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slowinski, Betty J.

    This paper discusses French and American cultural differences and their effect on the conduct of business in both countries, as well as the results of the Banque Indosuez survey of French and American attitudes towards each other. The French tend to be less committed to schedules, appointments, and deadlines than Americans, and are more…

  13. English-French Bilingual Education in the Early Grades: The Elgin Study through Grade Four

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barik, Henri C.; Swain, Merrill

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an evaluation of a bilingual education program for English-speaking pupils, grades 1-4, in Ontario. It is a partial French immersion program, with instruction in French or English half of each day. Evaluative tests are described, and English and French language skills examined. (CHK)

  14. Practical Second-Language Applications of the Theoretical Foundations of French Immersion in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safty, Adel

    The French immersion experience in Montreal, since its inception in 1965, is considered highly successful. Despite critics who note that its results fall short of perfect bilingualism, French immersion has achieved what it set out to accomplish: functional bilingual competencies. In doing so, French immersion has challenged many assumptions about…

  15. The Bilingual Advantage for Immigrant Students in French Immersion in Canada: Linking Advantages to Contextual Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mady, Callie

    2017-01-01

    This study compares the English and French proficiencies of three groups of early French immersion participants at the Grade 6 level: Canadian-born English-speaking, Canadian-born multilingual, and immigrant multilingual students. In addition to English and French multi-skills tests, the participants completed a questionnaire designed to gather…

  16. Acquisition of Complement Clitics and Tense Morphology in Internationally Adopted Children Acquiring French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gauthier, K.; Genesee, F.; Kasparian, K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the language development of children adopted from China to examine possible early age effects with respect to their use of complement clitics, lexical diversity and verb morphology. We focused on these aspects of French because they distinguish second language learners of French and native French-speaking children with…

  17. La Langue francaise en Afrique occidentale francophone (The French Language in West Africa).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwofie, Emmanuel N.

    This is a reflection on certain aspects of sociolinguistic and linguistic problems of French in West Africa, particularly in Senegal and the Ivory Coast. The sociolinguistic section discusses the role French has played in Africa and still plays vis-a-vis African languages and English. Conditions in which French is used and attitudes both of…

  18. Acquisition of the Internal and External Constraints of Variable Schwa Deletion by French Immersion Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uritescu, Dorin; Mougeon, Raymond; Rehner, Katherine; Nadasdi, Terry

    2004-01-01

    This article is one among a series of studies on the acquisition of patterns of linguistic variation observable in the speech of native speakers of Canadian French by French immersion (FI) students. The present study is centered on deletion of the central vowel schwa, a widespread feature of casual spoken French. In this study, FI students are…

  19. Acquisition of the Internal and External Constraints of Variable Schwa Deletion by French Immersion Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uritescu, Dorin; Mougeon, Raymond; Rehner, Katherine; Nadasdi, Terry

    2004-01-01

    This article is one among a series of studies on the acquisition of patterns of linguistic variation observable in the speech of native speakers of Canadian French by French immersion (FI) students. The present study is centered on deletion of the central vowel schwa, a widespread feature of casual spoken French. In this study, FI students are…

  20. French and Spanish-Speaking Children Use Different Visual and Motor Units during Spelling Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Sonia; Valdois, Sylviane

    2006-01-01

    This study used a copying task to examine spelling acquisition in French and Spanish from a perception and action perspective. Experiment 1 compared French and Spanish-speaking monolingual children's performance. Experiment 2 analysed the behaviour of bilingual children when copying words in French and Spanish. Gaze lift analysis showed that in…