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Sample records for french people global

  1. Linguistic Effects of Globalization: A Case Study of French for Specific Purposes (FSP) in Kenyan Vocational Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulenda, Mubalama

    2013-01-01

    The study of French for Specific Purposes (FSP) is a topical subject in this era of globalization. Kenya requires people who can communicate in French in the various specialized areas. It has become crucial in Kenya to respond to the French language needs of students learning tourism and hospitality among other domains which have already shown an…

  2. Linguistic Effects of Globalization: A Case Study of French for Specific Purposes (FSP) in Kenyan Vocational Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulenda, Mubalama

    2013-01-01

    The study of French for Specific Purposes (FSP) is a topical subject in this era of globalization. Kenya requires people who can communicate in French in the various specialized areas. It has become crucial in Kenya to respond to the French language needs of students learning tourism and hospitality among other domains which have already shown an…

  3. French space programmes related to global change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fellous, J. L.; Ratier, A.

    The guidelines of the national and cooperative environmental programmes conducted by CNES are complementarity with third agencies' programmes, synergism between scientific and application projects, and promotion of innovative concepts likely to meet the requirements of the World Climate Research and International Geosphere-Biosphere Programmes. While the on-going SPOT series is to provide imagery of land surfaces until 2000, the TOPEX/POSEIDON altimetric mission is being developed by NASA and CNES for launch in mid-1992 in phase with the WOCE intensive field experiments. The design study of the AVISO ocean data system, and the development on behalf of ESA of the ERS-1-dedicated CERSAT facility are consolidating the French effort in space oceanography. Two other research space missions are studied by CNES and French laboratories. BEST, whose phase A study is nearing completion, is a low-altitude, low-inclination, GEWEX-dedicated mission for the investigation of the water and energy cycle in the tropics, with a target launch date in the late 1990's. The phase A study of GLOBSAT, a more IGBP-oriented mission concept, has just been initiated. The first objective of this mission in polar orbit considered for launch around 1997, is to collect comprehensive data sets needed to document key processes related to cloud/radiation interaction, stratospheric/tropospheric chemistry and dynamics of continental and marine ecosystems. The second objective is to start monitoring long-term trends of parameters required to close global budgets of carbon and ozone. The analysis of this space mission concept is conducted in parallel with the development of instruments of opportunity to be flown onboard foreign satellites, and of airborne sensors, either precursor to space instruments or designed for process studies and validation of space data.

  4. The Global Climate Observing System. French contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juvanon-Du-Vachat, R.

    2010-09-01

    THE GLOBAL CLIMATE OBSERVING SYSTEM. FRENCH CONTRIBUTION Régis Juvanon du Vachat Société Météorologique de France, c/o D2I/MI, 1, Quai Branly 75007 Paris France is participating fully in the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS). It incorporates the following four components: meteorological and atmospheric, oceanic, terrestrial, spatial, which will be briefly presented, especially in relation with the monitoring of the climate. The presentation will give an overview of the general principles governing the GCOS system and particularly the concepts used to maintain efficiently this climate observing system for a long period of time ("from research networks to operational networks"). The presentation will cover all the four components of the GCOS system. The whole report has been published in the Fifth National Communication from France to the UNFCCC (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change). The presentation will give an overview of the different networks of these four domains devoted to the monitoring of climate and maintained by France and highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of this climate observing system.

  5. Management Education in a Globalizing World: Lessons from the French Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Rajesh; Usunier, Jean-Claude

    2001-01-01

    Assesses the challenges posed by the talk of globalization for French management education. Analyzes the strategies adopted by French business schools for coping with the globalization imperative. (DDR)

  6. Building Bridges of Understanding with the French-Speaking People in Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT. Language Research Center.

    This book attempts to provide cultural information that will enable an American to communicate effectively with French-speaking people of Europe. The book discusses differences between American and French culture in such areas as food, laws, customs, religion, language, dress, and basic attitudes. Background information is given on France,…

  7. Indigenous Peoples, Globalization, and Education: Making Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Denis, Verna

    2000-01-01

    Globalization pushes aside social, cultural, and ethical goals of education in favor of marketplace goals. Two stories of the indigenous Ju/'hoansi tribe in Botswana illustrate how even well-intentioned multicultural education programs can marginalize indigenous people, and how "globalization from below," fueled by communities of…

  8. Acceptability for French People of Physician-Assisted Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frileux, Stephanie; Sastre, Maria Teresa Munoz; Antonini, Sophie; Mullet, Etienne; Sorum, Paul Clay

    2004-01-01

    Our aim was to understand better how people judge the acceptability of physician-assisted suicide (PAS). We found that, for people in France of all ages and for elderly people with life-threatening illnesses, acceptability is an additive combination of the number of requests for PAS, the patient's age, the amount of physical suffering, and the…

  9. Acceptability for French People of Physician-Assisted Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frileux, Stephanie; Sastre, Maria Teresa Munoz; Antonini, Sophie; Mullet, Etienne; Sorum, Paul Clay

    2004-01-01

    Our aim was to understand better how people judge the acceptability of physician-assisted suicide (PAS). We found that, for people in France of all ages and for elderly people with life-threatening illnesses, acceptability is an additive combination of the number of requests for PAS, the patient's age, the amount of physical suffering, and the…

  10. Global Stories of People Working for Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dragman, June; Szasz, Michael

    Developed by a Canadian volunteer organization, this textbook for high school and adult English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) and literacy students explores current international events and social issues using both personal and global perspectives. It includes personal stories of people's lives, discussions of social and political issues in a wider…

  11. Torrential activity facing global change in Southern French Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lissak, Candide; Cossart, Etienne; Viel, Vincent; Fort, Monique; Arnaud-Fassetta, Gilles; Carlier, Benoit

    2016-04-01

    Geomorphic activity in a torrential catchment may be highly sporadic, erratic, especially because it depends on the sediment transfers. For a better flood risk management in large river catchments, where torrential tributaries provide significant sediment supply, it is essential to assess the amount of sediment transfers and deposition of such tributaries so that hazard assessment can be apprehended globally. This is one major issue of the SAMCO project (ANR 12 SENV-0004 SAMCO), which was designed for mountain hazard mitigation in a context of Global Change. Here, our objective is to understand how sediment cascades are coupled (or not) with climatic parameters. Here we focus on the Guil River catchment (Queyras, Southern French Alps - 317 km²). This catchment is prone to devastating summer floods (19 events since 1918: June 1957 (> R.I. 100 yr), June 2000 (R.I. 30 yr)...) characterized by considerable sediment transport from tributaries down to the Guil valley, highly facilitated by strong hillslope-channel coupling (≈ 12,000 m3 volume of sediment aggraded during the June 2000 flood event). During the last flood events several infrastructures and buildings were seriously damaged because the Guil River was carrying a large volume of sediments. For risk mitigation some protection equipments were built after the 1957 flood event, but most of them are now poorly maintained and might be not very effective in case of forthcoming flood events, especially if tributaries provide large volumes of sediment. Geomorphic data acquired through fieldwork and archives investigations were carried out to formalize the overall functioning of the sediment cascade. The initial phase of our study consists in identifying sediment sources and storage grounded on geomorphological analysis and mapping. The volumes of the sediment stores were then estimated and sedimentary transfers assessed using Terrestrial Laser Scanning survey (fine grained sediment inputs in the cascade), and the

  12. Emotions generated by food in elderly French people.

    PubMed

    Narchi, I; Walrand, S; Boirie, Y; Rousset, S

    2008-11-01

    Eating behaviour depends partly on food preference, which may be determined by different types of emotions. Among the emotions generated by food, disgust and pleasure are common and can lead to increased and reduced food consumption. We tested the hypothesis that (1) elderly men and women felt different emotions towards food, and (2) low energy intake is related to negative emotions towards food. In February 2004, a convenience sample of elderly participants was recruited locally by telephone. Food intake of 52 elderly people, aged 63-80 years, was monitored throughout each day for one week and made it possible to assign the elderly people to two groups (low and high energy intake from food consumption data). One month later, each of them assessed their likes or dislikes towards 30 food pictures (vegetables, cheeses, fruits, starchy foods, sweets, meat, fish, offal and eggs) using 19 emotional words (eight words with a positive valence: 'to like', 'thrilled', 'satisfaction', 'surprise', 'serene', 'amused', 'pride', 'interest', and 11 other words with a negative valence: 'disgust', 'indifference', 'guilt', 'uneasiness', 'nostalgia', 'impatience', 'doubt', 'frustration', 'embarrassment', 'disappointment' and 'lassitude'. The emotional intensities experienced with the different pictures were analysed by ANOVA for each group (men and women, small and big eaters). There were differences in likes and dislikes between men and women. Both guilty and liking scores towards food were generally higher in women than in men. Small eaters felt more doubt, unease, disappointment and indifference towards food than big eaters. In conclusion, the report of low food intake was related to more negative emotions towards foods that might be associated with the willingness to restrict food intake or to undernutrition.

  13. Global mental health, autonomy and medical paternalism: reconstructing the 'French ethical tradition' in psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Pires Marques, Tiago

    2017-09-01

    In the last few decades, the definition of deontological ethics, a well-identified ethical territory in psychiatry, has been the object of increasing concerns. This has been the case in France, where claims of a specific ethical tradition in psychiatry have accompanied the institutionalization of psychiatric ethics and the perceived globalization of an Anglo-American model of mental health care. This study traces the history of the 'French ethical tradition in psychiatry' and its relationship with establishing institutional spaces for ethical decision-making. The 'ethical tradition' thus conceived proves to be functional in terms of preserving the threatened identity of French psychiatry. Nevertheless, this movement also pinpoints impasses that transcend the French context and may provide valuable resources for ethical reflections on mental health on a global scale.

  14. Globalization, states, and the health of indigenous peoples.

    PubMed Central

    Kunitz, S J

    2000-01-01

    The consequences of globalization are mixed, and for the indigenous peoples of poor countries globalization has potentially important benefits. These are the result not of participation in the global economy but of participation in global networks of other indigenous peoples, environmental activists, and nongovernmental organizations. Since World War II, nonstate actors such as these have gained standing in international forums. It is indigenous peoples' growing visibility and ability to mobilize international support against the policies of their own national governments that has contributed in some important instances to their improved chances of survival. PMID:11029984

  15. Global carrying capacity: how many people?

    PubMed

    1992-07-01

    During 1980-85 energy consumption in developing countries increased by 22%, of which 50% was used to maintain current levels of use and 50% pertained to real economic growth. Commercial energy consumption during 1970-89 tripled in developing countries. Population growth alone is expected to increase world energy consumption from the current 13.5 terawatts (13.5 trillion watts) to 18 terawatts by 2025 at the same level of use. The increased level of consumption (4.5 terawatts) is the equivalent of total current commercial energy consumption. One terawatt is equal to energy use from 5 billion barrels of oil yearly, 1 billion tons of coal, or 1.6 billion tons of wood. Economic development will require even greater levels of energy use. Since the oil price increases of the 1970s, developed countries increased their energy consumption by about 33%, even while becoming more fuel efficient. During 1990-2025, if developing countries double their per capita energy use and developed countries reduce their use by 50%, world energy consumption will still be almost 21 terawatts. If consumption remains constant at current levels without any population increase, the oil supply will be exhausted in 40 years. Coal consumption will last hundreds of years but air pollution will worsen, and global warming will be accelerated. Developed countries, which are wealthier, are having difficulty switching to non-fossil fuels, and the prospects for developing countries pose even greater challenges. Slowing growth buys time for technological development. World population is expected to reach 8 billion by 2020. Stabilization of growth at 8 billion would occur only if world fertility averages 1.7 children per woman by 2025. One opinion is that the carrying capacity has been reached with the present population of 5.4 billion. Others say that with changes in consumption and technological developments the earth can sustain 8 billion people. The physical limits are 1) the finite capacity of natural

  16. Global meaning in people with stroke: Content and changes

    PubMed Central

    Littooij, Elsbeth; Dekker, Joost; Vloothuis, Judith; Leget, Carlo JW; Widdershoven, Guy AM

    2016-01-01

    After a traumatic event like a stroke, people need to find meaning and control again. This study enhances knowledge on one of the driving principles behind meaning-making processes: global meaning. Global meaning refers to individuals’ general orienting systems, comprising fundamental beliefs and life goals. Little is known about global meaning in people with stroke and whether global meaning changes after stroke. In this qualitative study, five aspects of global meaning were found: core values, relationships, worldview, identity and inner posture. Continuity in all aspects was reported, but worldview, identity and inner posture were also subjected to change. PMID:28815054

  17. Topex/Poseidon satellite - Enabling a joint U.S.-French mission for global ocean study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Ralph L.

    1990-01-01

    A joint U.S./French mission, which represents a merging of the prior NASA Topex and CNES Poseidon progams, is described. The Topex/Poseidon satellite will contribute to two of the World Climate Research Program's phases: the World Ocean Circulation Experiment and the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere experiment. The satellite's instruments will measure the ocean currents and their variability on the global basis via satellite altimetry and precision orbit determinations. The paper describes the satellite configuration and characteristics and the mission instruments and system elements. The Topex/Poseidon's design diagrams and block diagrams are included.

  18. [The Clubhouse model for people with severe mental illnesses: Literature review and French experiment].

    PubMed

    Bouvet, C; Battin, C; Le Roy-Hatala, C

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this article is 1) to present the Clubhouse (CH) Model and the first French CH, and 2) study the empirical background on the efficiency of the CH concerning employment, quality of life and hospitalization for people with mental illness. The first Clubhouse was created sixty years ago in the U.S. The Clubhouse model of psychosocial rehabilitation is a program that offers to people with mental illness support and opportunities to find a job and return to a normal social life. The Clubhouse model has been built over the years thanks to the experiences of members and staff. It is based on "36 standards" (rules which each Clubhouse follows in order to attain its goals). Supported by associations and families of people with mental illness, health professionals, and the international federation of Clubhouses (Clubhouse International), the first Clubhouse in France has opened in November 2011. This non-medicalized association and its co-management by both members and staff are innovative in France. The aims of the Clubhouse are founded on the concept of empowerment and "peer-help", and on the fight against isolation and stigmatization. Clubhouses offer day-programs which allow people with mental illness to have a sense of community and a useful purpose within the association. Indeed, the salaried management team is voluntarily understaffed so that the participation of members is necessary and so that they can benefit from the opportunities for useful activity within the Clubhouse, developing a real opportunity of empowerment. In order to study the efficiency of CH, we conducted a systematic review of publications on CH, first in the database of Club House International (500 publications) and second, in the scientific data base (Psycinfo, Psycarticles, Academic Search Premier, Medline et Science Direct) (205 publications included in the 500). We identified 64 scientific studies. We have selected 28 of them that focused on the variable: employment, quality of life

  19. A Global Estimate of Seafood Consumption by Coastal Indigenous Peoples

    PubMed Central

    Pauly, Daniel; Weatherdon, Lauren V.

    2016-01-01

    Coastal Indigenous peoples rely on ocean resources and are highly vulnerable to ecosystem and economic change. Their challenges have been observed and recognized at local and regional scales, yet there are no global-scale analyses to inform international policies. We compile available data for over 1,900 coastal Indigenous communities around the world representing 27 million people across 87 countries. Based on available data at local and regional levels, we estimate a total global yearly seafood consumption of 2.1 million (1.5 million–2.8 million) metric tonnes by coastal Indigenous peoples, equal to around 2% of global yearly commercial fisheries catch. Results reflect the crucial role of seafood for these communities; on average, consumption per capita is 15 times higher than non-Indigenous country populations. These findings contribute to an urgently needed sense of scale to coastal Indigenous issues, and will hopefully prompt increased recognition and directed research regarding the marine knowledge and resource needs of Indigenous peoples. Marine resources are crucial to the continued existence of coastal Indigenous peoples, and their needs must be explicitly incorporated into management policies. PMID:27918581

  20. A Global Estimate of Seafood Consumption by Coastal Indigenous Peoples.

    PubMed

    Cisneros-Montemayor, Andrés M; Pauly, Daniel; Weatherdon, Lauren V; Ota, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    Coastal Indigenous peoples rely on ocean resources and are highly vulnerable to ecosystem and economic change. Their challenges have been observed and recognized at local and regional scales, yet there are no global-scale analyses to inform international policies. We compile available data for over 1,900 coastal Indigenous communities around the world representing 27 million people across 87 countries. Based on available data at local and regional levels, we estimate a total global yearly seafood consumption of 2.1 million (1.5 million-2.8 million) metric tonnes by coastal Indigenous peoples, equal to around 2% of global yearly commercial fisheries catch. Results reflect the crucial role of seafood for these communities; on average, consumption per capita is 15 times higher than non-Indigenous country populations. These findings contribute to an urgently needed sense of scale to coastal Indigenous issues, and will hopefully prompt increased recognition and directed research regarding the marine knowledge and resource needs of Indigenous peoples. Marine resources are crucial to the continued existence of coastal Indigenous peoples, and their needs must be explicitly incorporated into management policies.

  1. Globally Competitive People: Final Report to the Human Resource Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Hilary; Austin, John

    A globally competitive Mississippi must be built through investment in the education, training, and skills of its people. Recommendations for improving the system involve (1) a human resource and economic development strategy built on a partnership between the state and communities and (2) a state-level human capital strategy board. Critical…

  2. Foodborne disease: the global movement of food and people.

    PubMed

    McEntire, Jennifer

    2013-09-01

    Foodborne illness afflicts people throughout the world. The food safety systems in some countries afford better consumer protection than others. This situation, combined with differing climates and ecologies, results in the association of different types of foodborne illness with different regions of the world. In a global economy, both people and food travel the world. With this travel comes the potential for patients to acquire unexpected diseases. Clinicians need to consider foreign travel as well as the consumption of food from other parts of the world when determining the cause of foodborne disease.

  3. Normative data for the Rey-Osterrieth and the Taylor complex figure tests in Quebec-French people.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Marie-Pier; Potvin, Olivier; Callahan, Brandy L; Belleville, Sylvie; Gagnon, Jean-François; Caza, Nicole; Ferland, Guylaine; Hudon, Carol; Macoir, Joël

    2015-02-01

    The Rey-Osterrieth (ROCF) and Taylor (TCF) complex figure tests are widely used to assess visuospatial and constructional abilities as well as visual/non-verbal memory. Normative data adjusted to the cultural and linguistic reality of older Quebec-French individuals is still nonexistent for these tests. In this article, we report the results of two studies that aimed to establish normative data for Quebec-French people (aged at least 50 years) for the copy, immediate recall, and delayed recall trials of the ROCF (Study 1) and the TCF (Study 2). For both studies, the impact of age, education, and sex on test performance was examined. Moreover, the impact of copy time on test performance, the impact of copy score on immediate and delayed recall score, and the impact of immediate recall score on delayed recall performance were examined. Based on regression models, equations to calculate Z scores for copy and recall scores are provided for both tests.

  4. Anger and globalization among young people in India.

    PubMed

    Suchday, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the challenges faced by youth in developing countries. Using India as an example of a fast-globalizing country, this article highlights the experience and challenges faced by adolescents and emerging adults as they search for their interpersonal and professional identities. The difficulties of defining identity in the context of rapid globalization where people are exposed to diverse cultural forces that may conflict with each other are particularly salient when dealing with anger. Anger frequently results from thwarted wants and needs. In globalizing developing economies, young people often face inequitable access and opportunities that may be cause for distress-anger and depression. However, the skills to deal with anger are frequently culturally determined and may not be effective in situations where multiple cultural rules are operational. For example, India being a collectivist culture traditionally encourages the suppression of anger. However, situations and rules of conduct in a global economic order require the assertive expression of anger and the confrontation of conflict. Research that is methodologically and culturally appropriate is needed in exploring these issues and ameliorating distress associated with inequity, conflicts, and challenges.

  5. Increase in Unemployment over the 2000’s: Comparison between People Living with HIV and the French General Population

    PubMed Central

    Annequin, Margot; Lert, France; Spire, Bruno; Dray-Spira, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite improved health, unemployment has increased among people living with HIV (PlwHIV) over the last decade. However, since the economic recession of 2008, unemployment also increased in the French general population. This paper aimed to determine if the increase in the unemployment rate in the HIV population was higher than that in the French general population. Methods We used data from the ANRS-Vespa study, a repeated cross-sectional survey among two national representative samples of PlwHIV followed at hospitals in France in 2003 and 2011. We compared employment and unemployment rates between HIV-infected people (overall and according to period of HIV diagnosis) and the French general population in 2003 and 2011, using multivariate Poisson regressions adjusted for individual sociodemographic characteristics. Results The employment rate among PlwHIV was consistently lower than that in the general population in 2003 and 2011. In contrast, there was a trend of an increasing unemployment rate difference between PlwHIV and the general population: PlwHIV’s unemployment rate was 1.48 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16–1.90) times higher than that of the general population in 2003, versus 1.62 (95% CI: 1.34–1.96) times higher in 2011. This unemployment rate difference was the highest for PlwHIV diagnosed in or after 2008 (adjusted prevalence rate ratio: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.59–2.67). Conclusions These results suggest that in time of economic recession, an increasing proportion of PlwHIV may be excluded from the labor market although they are willing to re-enter it. This constitutes a major issue relative to social consequences of chronic disease. PMID:27814374

  6. Normative Data for the Montreal Cognitive Assessment in Middle-Aged and Elderly Quebec-French People.

    PubMed

    Larouche, Eddy; Tremblay, Marie-Pier; Potvin, Olivier; Laforest, Sophie; Bergeron, David; Laforce, Robert; Monetta, Laura; Boucher, Linda; Tremblay, Pascale; Belleville, Sylvie; Lorrain, Dominique; Gagnon, Jean-François; Gosselin, Nadia; Castellano, Christian-Alexandre; Cunnane, Stephen C; Macoir, Joël; Hudon, Carol

    2016-09-13

    Given that aging is associated with higher risk of cognitive decline and dementia, improving early detection of cognitive impairment has become a research and clinical priority. The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a screening instrument used to assess different aspects of cognition. Despite its widespread use, norms adjusted to the sociodemographics of Quebec-French people are not yet available. Such norms are however important because performance on neuropsychological tests varies according to sociodemographic variables including age, sex, and education. As such, the present study aimed to establish normative data for the MoCA in middle-aged and elderly Quebec-French population. For that purpose, 1,019 community-dwelling older adults aged between 41 and 98 were recruited. Participants from 12 recruiting sites completed the MoCA. Regression-based normative data were produced and cross-validated with a validation sample (n = 200). Regression analyses indicated that older age, lower education level, and male sex were associated with poorer MoCA scores. The best predictive model included age (p < .001), education (p < .001), sex (p < .001), and a quadratic term for education (education X education; p < .001). This model explained a significant amount of variance of the MoCA score (p < .001, R(2) = 0.26). A regression equation to calculate Z scores is presented. This study provides normative data for the MoCA test in the middle-aged and elderly French-Quebec people. These data will facilitate more accurate detection and follow-up of the risk of cognitive impairment in this population, taking into account culture, age, education, and sex. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Increase in Unemployment over the 2000's: Comparison between People Living with HIV and the French General Population.

    PubMed

    Annequin, Margot; Lert, France; Spire, Bruno; Dray-Spira, Rosemary

    2016-01-01

    Despite improved health, unemployment has increased among people living with HIV (PlwHIV) over the last decade. However, since the economic recession of 2008, unemployment also increased in the French general population. This paper aimed to determine if the increase in the unemployment rate in the HIV population was higher than that in the French general population. We used data from the ANRS-Vespa study, a repeated cross-sectional survey among two national representative samples of PlwHIV followed at hospitals in France in 2003 and 2011. We compared employment and unemployment rates between HIV-infected people (overall and according to period of HIV diagnosis) and the French general population in 2003 and 2011, using multivariate Poisson regressions adjusted for individual sociodemographic characteristics. The employment rate among PlwHIV was consistently lower than that in the general population in 2003 and 2011. In contrast, there was a trend of an increasing unemployment rate difference between PlwHIV and the general population: PlwHIV's unemployment rate was 1.48 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-1.90) times higher than that of the general population in 2003, versus 1.62 (95% CI: 1.34-1.96) times higher in 2011. This unemployment rate difference was the highest for PlwHIV diagnosed in or after 2008 (adjusted prevalence rate ratio: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.59-2.67). These results suggest that in time of economic recession, an increasing proportion of PlwHIV may be excluded from the labor market although they are willing to re-enter it. This constitutes a major issue relative to social consequences of chronic disease.

  8. [Discrimination perceived by people with a diagnosis of schizophrenic disorders. INternational study of DIscrimination and stiGma Outcomes (INDIGO): French results].

    PubMed

    Daumerie, N; Vasseur Bacle, S; Giordana, J-Y; Bourdais Mannone, C; Caria, A; Roelandt, J-L

    2012-06-01

    -to-face setting was developed. Interviewers asked service users to comment on how far their mental disorder has affected key areas of their lives, including work, marriage and partnerships, housing, leisure, and religious activities. For country-level information, staff at each national site gathered the best available data on whether special legal, policy or administrative arrangements are made for people with a diagnosis of mental illness. These items included, for example, information on access to insurance, financial services, driving licenses, voting, jury service, or travel visas. The INDIGO study is conducted within the framework of the WPA global program to fight stigma and discrimination because of schizophrenia. French interviews occurred in two sites (Lille and Nice) on a sample of 25 patients. First, expressed disadvantages are high for several items (all relations, work and training, housing). In addition, we wish to highlight three specific points: almost half of the participants (46%) suffer from not being respected because of contacts with services, 88% of them felt rejected by people who know their diagnosis, and 76% hide/conceal their diagnosis. Positive experienced discrimination was rare. Two thirds of participants anticipated discrimination for job seeking and close personal relationships, sometimes with no experienced discrimination. This study, one of the rare in France adopting the point of view of a stigmatized group, revealed the numerous impacts of a diagnosis of schizophrenic disorders on everyday life. Comparisons between French and international results confirmed that the situation is not different in France, and even highlighted the extent of the stigmatization in the country. Copyright © 2011 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. [Global self-rated health and mortality in older people].

    PubMed

    Moreno, Ximena; Huerta, Martín; Albala, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    To explore the association between global self-rated health and mortality in older people. A systematic review was performed. The inclusion criteria were longitudinal studies that assessed self-rated health with a single general question and samples of community-dwelling persons aged 60 years or more. Electronic databases were searched and references were reviewed. We selected 18 studies published between 1993 and 2011. Six out of seven studies that analyzed men and women found a higher risk of dying among persons who rated their health as poor; the most frequent covariables were age, gender, chronic diseases, and functional status. Half of the studies that analyzed only men or women found a significant association. The effect of self-reported health on mortality was observed among people younger than 75 years. Results were not dependent on the length of follow-up. The results confirm previous findings suggesting that a negative self-rating of general health predicts mortality. The mechanisms through which this indicator may predict mortality among older people could differ in men and women and need to be elucidated. The role of depression should be investigated, considering that the effect of self-rated health on mortality was not present when depression was included. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. The French-German Climate Monitoring Initiative on global observations of atmospheric CH4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehret, Gerhard; Flamant, Pierre; Amediek, Axel; Ciais, Philippe; Fabien, Gibert; Fix, Andreas; Kiemle, Christoph; Quatrevalet, Mathieu; Wirth, Martin

    2010-05-01

    We report on a new French-German Climate Monitoring Initiative targeting on global measurements of atmospheric methane (CH4). Among the greenhouse gases banned by the Kyoto protocol, CH4 contributes most to global warming after CO2. Questions arise whether global warming in Arctic regions might foster the melting of permafrost soils which contain significant amounts of carbon in organic form which under anaerobic conditions might be converted to CH4 and partially released to the atmosphere. Also the development of natural wetlands which are the biggest methane source, play an important role in climate prediction. Up to now, there is very little knowledge about CH4 sources and sinks in connection with changes in the agro-industrial era of predominant human influence or the very large deposits of CH4 as gas hydrates on ocean shelves that are vulnerable to ocean warming. The objective of this initiative is to improve our knowledge on regional to synoptic scale methane sources, globally. This will be obtained by the measurement of the column-weighted dry-air mixing ratio of CH4, commonly referred to XCH4 which can be used as input for flux inversion models. As a novel feature, the observational instrument will have its own light source emitting pulsed narrow-line laser radiation, not relying on sunlight. The XCH4 values will be provided by a lidar technique with no bias due to particles scattering in the light path, which can have strong regional variability. Using a range-gated receiver for detection of the signals scattered from the Earth surface, the lidar can distinguish surface from cloud or aerosol backscatter, permitting high-precision retrievals of XCH4 in the presence of thin cirrus or aerosol layers. The proposed measurement approach is also capable of providing measurements in partially cloudy conditions. The emitted laser pulses can reach the surface when gaps between clouds occur due to the near-nadir view and the small lidar footprint. The instrument will

  11. Occupational status as a determinant of mental health inequities in French young people: is fairness needed? Results of a cross-sectional multicentre observational survey.

    PubMed

    Blanquet, Marie; Labbe-Lobertreau, Emilie; Sass, Catherine; Berger, Dominique; Gerbaud, Laurent

    2017-08-08

    Employment conditions are associated with health inequities. In 2013, French young people had the highest unemployment rate and among those who worked as salaried workers most of them had temporary job. The purpose of the study was to assess mental health state of French young people through the prism of their occupational status and to measure whether occupational status is a determinant of health inequities. A cross-sectional multicentre observational survey was performed in June and July 2010 in 115 French Local Social Centres and 74 Health Examination Centres, who were available to participate. The survey was based on an anonymous self-administrated questionnaire delivered by social workers or healthcare professionals to young people age from 16 to 25 years old. The questionnaire was composed of 54 items. Several health outcomes were measured: self-perceived health, mental health, addictions and to be victim of violence. The association of occupational status and mental health was assessed by adjusting results on age and gender and by introducing other explanatory variables such as social deprivation. A total of 4282 young people completed the questionnaire, a response rate of 83%, 1866 men and 2378 women, sex-ratio 0.79. French young people having a non-working occupational status or a non-permanent working status were more exposed to poor self-perceived health, poor mental health, addictions and violence. To be at school particularly secondary school was a protective factor for addiction. Occupational status of French young people was a determinant of mental health inequities. Young people not at work and not studying reported greater vulnerability and should be targeted therefore by appropriate and specific social and medical services.

  12. Narratives of change and reform processes: global and local transactions in French psychiatric hospital reform after the Second World War.

    PubMed

    Henckes, Nicolas

    2009-02-01

    As with the rest of biomedicine, psychiatry has, since the Second World War, developed under the strong influence of the transnational accumulation of a whole series of practices and knowledge. Anthropology has taught us to pay attention to the transactions between local-level actors and those operating at the global level in the construction of this new world of medicine. This article examines the role played by the recommendations of the WHO Expert Committee of Mental Health in the reform of the French mental health system during the 1950s. Rooted in the experience of practitioners and administrators participating in the process of reforming local psychiatric systems, the recommendations of the WHO Expert Committee developed a new vision of regulating psychiatry, based on professionalism and an idea of a normativity of the doctor-patient relation. This article shows how, by mobilizing the WHO reports' recommendations, French administrators and doctors succeeded in creating a typically French object: "the psychiatric sector", founded on elaborating a new mandate for the psychiatric profession. The article thus questions the deinstitutionalization model as an explanation of transformations of the structure of the French psychiatry system in the post-war period.

  13. Polypharmacy and frailty: prevalence, relationship, and impact on mortality in a French sample of 2350 old people.

    PubMed

    Herr, Marie; Robine, Jean-Marie; Pinot, Juliette; Arvieu, Jean-Jacques; Ankri, Joël

    2015-06-01

    To assess the prevalence of polypharmacy and frailty, to examine their association, and to establish their independent and combined effects on mortality in a sample of French old people. This is a cross-sectional population study of people aged 70 years and over. A total of 2350 respondents were interviewed at home in 2008-2010. Frailty was defined as impairment in three domains or more among nutrition, energy, physical activity, strength, and mobility, in the absence of difficulties in basic activities of daily living. Mortality data were documented after a mean follow-up period of 2.6 years. Mean age of the population was 83.3 +/- 7.5 years, with 59.4% of women. Prevalence of frailty was 17.0%. Polypharmacy (5-9 drugs) was reported in 53.6% of the population, and excessive polypharmacy (10 drugs or more) in 13.8%. After adjustment for socio-demographic and health variables, polypharmacy and excessive polypharmacy were associated with frailty with odds ratio 1.77 [1.20-2.61] and 4.47 [2.37-8.42], respectively. Frailty (hazard ratio [HR] 2.56 [1.63-4.04]) and excessive polypharmacy (HR 1.83 [1.28-2.62]) were independent predictors of mortality. Compared with non-frail people without polypharmacy, frail people with excessive polypharmacy were six times more likely to die during the follow-up period (HR 6.30 [3.09-12.84]). By showing the independent and combined effects of polypharmacy and frailty on mortality risk, this study should reinforce the awareness of clinicians with regard to these factors, rather prevalent in old people. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Validation of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-being (FACIT-Sp12) on French Old People.

    PubMed

    Agli, Océane; Bailly, Nathalie; Ferrand, Claude

    2017-04-01

    The study aimed to develop a French version of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-being short version (FACIT-Sp12), in order to provide a self-reported measure for French people in the field of gerontology. The study involving 63 nursing home residents was conducted to evaluate the construct validity, reliability, and convergence validity of the FACIT-Sp12. A confirmatory factor analysis corroborated a three-factor model (Meaning, Peace and Faith) with modifications for two items, also valid among people with cognitive impairment. Subscales showed good internal consistency and are correlated with quality of life and depression. In conclusion, the validated French version is an suitable instrument to study the maintenance and promotion of quality of life in the elderly.

  15. Les examens de francais dans les universites populaires en R.F.A. (French Examinations in People's Universities in the Federal Republic of Germany)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raasch, Albert

    1978-01-01

    The Certificate of the People's Universities is an examination organized in different European countries. The students are generally adults in evening courses. A description of the system in Germany is given; and principles of the examination, test content, and educational perspectives are discussed. References are included. (Text is in French.)…

  16. [Sociodemographic and medical features of abortion among underage people in Guadeloupe (French West Indies)].

    PubMed

    Flory, F; Manouana, M; Janky, E; Kadhel, P

    2014-04-01

    In France, contraception is available for everybody; however, the number of abortion does not decrease, especially among young people. The aim of our study is to analyze, in the Guadeloupian context, the characteristics of underage people who ask for an abortion. This retrospective study, analyses sociodemographic and medical characteristics of 129 teenagers, who had an abortion in 2010 in our abortion center. For 67 of them results of interviews with the psychologist were also reported. Preferentially from large single parent families, these underage people had a mean age of 15.9 years (± 1.12), 96.1% were born in France, 10.9% had had a previous pregnancy, 67.2% had an over 18 partner, 64.4% used contraception before the abortion. Main motivations for abortion were continuing studies and young age. Abortion occurs after 9 weeks of amenorrhea in 55.1% and 43.3% of underage people reported psychological problems linked to the abortion. From this profile, our study suggests some reflection which could help the fight against unwanted pregnancies in this particular population of underage people. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. [Construct and validation of a quality of life's scale for older French people].

    PubMed

    Petit, Sylvie; Bergua, Valérie; Peres, Karine; Bouisson, Jean; Koleck, Michèle

    2014-12-01

    Given changing and subjective aspects of quality of life, the current assessment scales are often encompassing and not very adapted for older people. Thus, the present validation study has several objectives: 1) To elaborate a specific measure of the quality of life of older people, given the characteristics and problems of this population; 2) To propose a simple scale to use for any health care professional and fast passation to encourage the inclusion of such measures in the framework of a comprehensive care of the elderly; 3) To validate this scale in a large cohort of retired older farmers. This scale resulted in 14 items illustrating the various dimensions of quality of life of older people. It was then proposed for validation in a large cohort of retired elderly farmers of 65 years and over, and living at home. After exploratory factor analysis of subjects' responses to the EQVPA, five items were extracted explaining 48.8% of the total variance. Its internal consistency was satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha=0.72). The five items permitted to assess daily and social activities in environment, social and familial relationships, physical and functional health and mental health. The results showed that quality of life is significantly correlated with greater life satisfaction, more social support and social network, higher level of subjective health, lower level of functional impairments, lower level of anxious and depressive symptoms, and lower level of routinization. Validation of the tools such as EQVPA seems important for the prevention and preservation of the quality of life of older people.

  18. [The Brumory test, an incidental long-term memory task designed for foreign, non-French-speaking people with low educational level].

    PubMed

    Vanderaspoilden, V; Nury, D; Frisque, J; Peigneux, P

    2015-12-01

    Cognitive assessment among foreign patients is a growing need for several reasons: foreign patients have a different culture, they have an insufficient command of the language of the consulting center, and the available cognitive tools are largely unsuitable. For these reasons, we developed a non-verbal test of long-term memory called the Brumory test. This test is based on incident encoding of 48 colored images followed by retrieval by recognition. We compared the performance of indigenous participants with that of immigrant participants (mainly from Morocco). Immigrant participants did not speak French properly and had a low educational level. The results indicate no significant difference in memory performance between the two groups of participants. Moreover, the instructions were easily understood by immigrant participants, despite the fact they do not master French. We conclude that the Brumory test is an appropriate test to assess memory among foreign non-French-speaking patients people with low educational level.

  19. The national vocational education plan for unqualified young people (16?18 years old): The French experience (1982?1984)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colardyn, Danielle; Malglaive, Gerard

    1986-12-01

    In 1982, the French Government instituted a new National Vocational Education Plan (NVEP) to combat the nationwide problem of students leaving the school system prior to receiving adequate vocational preparation. This plan affects 100,000 young people between the ages of 16 and 18 years. The NVEP gave to each Regional Government the opportunity to create its own programmes and curricula; it renewed counselling and individual assessment facilities; it established new tracks within the education system; it also established co-operative education (linking education to the world of work). Concurrently, an Assessment and Observation System was created. During the first assessment year (1982-1983), information was gathered about existing local educational resources, counselling facilities, characteristics of the 16 to 18 year-old population, functioning of the educational tracks and co-operative education system. During the second year (1983-1984), the assessment provided quantitative statistical results. The most striking result concerns the configurations of educational and employment experiences which seemed to determine the ability of students to find employment. Students with a background of `job intensive experiences' were more successful in finding subsequent employment than those without. Students with `education intensive experiences' entered an educational programme because they were unable to find a first job. While the benefits of the NVEP were not immediately apparent, it nevertheless became evident that at this level of training, education was not necessarily the royal road to employment. However, employment criteria cannot be the only way to assess a vocational education system.

  20. Prevalence and predictive factors of stigmatizing attitudes towards people living with HIV in the remote villages on the Maroni River in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    van Melle, Astrid; Parriault, Marie-Claire; Basurko, Célia; Jolivet, Anne; Flamand, Claude; Pigeon, Perrine; Caudal, Johanna; Lydié, Nathalie; Halfen, Sandrine; Goerger-Sow, Marie-Thérèse; Nacher, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    The Maroni basin, an isolated region which lies between Suriname and French Guiana, has been affected by the HIV epidemic 10 years after coastal French Guiana. However, the rise in HIV prevalence was sharp with a prevalence exceeding 1% within 10 years. Stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV (PLWHIV) or "suspected to have HIV" is rampant as reported by health professionals or non-governmental organisations. The objective of this article is to present the first quantitative data from the general population of this region on stigma towards people living with HIV. Data were collected in 2012 by a structured questionnaire among a random sample of 896 individuals residing in remote villages on the Maroni River. Proportion comparisons between the Maroni sample and the sample from the general population on the coastline in 2011 were conducted. Simple and multivariate logistic regression models were used to predict stigmatising attitudes. For all situations involving PLWHIV, the proportion of negative attitudes was significantly higher on the Maroni than in coastal French Guiana (p < 0.001). Findings indicate that the different levels of knowledge, erroneous beliefs and poor situation (not having electricity in one's home; not having French health insurance) were associated with stigmatising attitudes. The present data could help both sides coordinate interventions both at the individual level by improving knowledge and at the community level to change norms in order to reduce stigma and discrimination aiming for increased impact.

  1. Global Selves: Marginalised Young People and Aesthetic Reflexivity in Inhalant Drug Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, Sarah

    2007-01-01

    Sociologists have observed that young people increasingly draw on global as well as local images in their constructions of individual selfhood. This article provides a narrative analysis of stories of inhalant use-induced hallucination, drawn from interviews conducted with young people in Melbourne, Australia. Young people's stories of the…

  2. Perceived autonomy support, psychological needs satisfaction, depressive symptoms and apathy in French hospitalized older people.

    PubMed

    Souesme, Guillaume; Martinent, Guillaume; Ferrand, Claude

    2016-01-01

    Based on the self-determination theory, the aim of the present study was (1) to provide a better understanding of older people's psychological needs satisfaction in geriatric care units, then to link this information with depressive symptoms and apathy; (2) to examine whether the perceived autonomy support from health care professionals differs between needs satisfaction profiles; and (3) to investigate for all participants how each need satisfaction was related to depressive symptoms and apathy. Participants (N=100; Mage=83.33years, SD=7.78, 61% female) completed the measures of psychological needs satisfaction, perceived autonomy support, geriatric depression and apathy. Sociodemographic data were also collected. Cluster analyses showed three distinct profiles: one profile with low-moderate need satisfaction, one profile with high-moderate need satisfaction and one profile with high need satisfaction. These profiles are distinct, and did not differ in terms of participants' characteristics, except gender. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) revealed that participants with low-moderate need satisfaction profile have significantly higher level of depressive symptoms and apathy, and lower levels of perceived autonomy support than participants of the two other profiles. Moreover, for all participants, regression analyses revealed that both competence and relatedness needs satisfaction significantly and negatively explained 28% of the variance in depressive symptoms score and 44% of the variance in apathy score. Our results highlight the interest to examine more thoroughly the variables fostering autonomy-supportive environment in geriatric care units, and to deepen the relationship between competence and relatedness needs satisfaction and depressive symptoms and apathy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The French in American Television Commercials, Part One: Plus ca change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinet, Christopher

    1979-01-01

    Discusses French stereotypes in television commercials to supply data with which to confront prejudices that American students bring to French class. Three kinds of commercials are examined: (1) French people promoting French products, (2) non-French people promoting French products, and (3) French people promoting American products. (AMH)

  4. Global meaning in people with spinal cord injury: Content and changes

    PubMed Central

    Littooij, Elsbeth; Widdershoven, Guy A.M.; Stolwijk-Swüste, Janneke M.; Doodeman, Suzan; Leget, Carlo J.W.; Dekker, Joost

    2016-01-01

    Background After spinal cord injury (SCI), people are confronted with abrupt discontinuity in almost all areas of life, leading to questions on how to live a meaningful life again. Global meaning refers to basic ideas and goals that guide people in giving meaning to their lives, in specific situations. Little is known about global meaning relating to SCI and whether global meaning changes after SCI. Purpose The purpose of this study was twofold: (i) to explore the content of global meaning of people with SCI, and (ii) to explore whether or not global meaning changes after SCI. Methods In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 people with SCI. Interviews were analyzed according to the method of grounded theory. Results (i) Five aspects of global meaning were found: core values, relationships, worldview, identity and inner posture. (ii) Overall, little change in the content of global meaning was found after SCI; specific aspects of global meaning were foregrounded after SCI. Conclusion Five aspects of global meaning were found in people with SCI. Global meaning seems hardly subject to change. PMID:25615571

  5. Global Challenges in People-Centered E-Health.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Yuri; Safran, Charles

    2015-01-01

    People-centered health care seeks an active role for the patient while empowering all other members of the health care team. By promoting greater patient responsibility and optimal usage, patient-centered health care leads to improved health outcomes, quality of life and optimal value for health care investment. This paper reviews some definitions of people-centered health care and various e-health approaches around the world used to implement this vision. The barriers and enablers to implementation this type of approach are explored. This paper provides a proposed research agenda for future implementations of people-centered e-health.

  6. Disability-free life expectancy of older French people: gender and education differentials from the PAQUID cohort.

    PubMed

    Pérès, Karine; Jagger, Carol; Lièvre, Agnès; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale

    2005-09-01

    In countries with low mortality rates, the quality of the years of life is more important to consider than total life expectancy (TLE). Disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) is one of the most relevant indicators of health and the quality of life. This paper aims to estimate TLE and DFLE with four levels of severity of disability and to explore gender and educational differences in older French people. In this cohort study, four levels of disability severity were distinguished, disability being evaluated for mobility, instrumental and basic activities of daily living. For each level, TLE and DFLE were calculated using multi-state models from transition probabilities. From the population of two areas of South West France 3,777 subjects were randomly selected from the electoral rolls. At the baseline, they were aged 65 years and over, living in the community and were interviewed 6 times over the 10-year follow-up. At age 65, women lived longer than men (4.5 extra years), but shorter fully independent lives (-2.2 years). They also lived longer in each of the three degrees of disability (+4.2 years with moderate or severe disability). The higher educated lived longer (1.3 extra years at age 65), with the additional years free of disability. Regardless of age, gender and education, there appeared to be a 1-year incompressible time spent with severe disability. To conclude, these are the first health expectancies based on the longitudinal data for France. Whilst most of the studies were based on cross-sectional data, this paper gives a more realistic indicator of the health and socio-economic inequalities in France in the 1990 s.

  7. Simulating phenological shifts in French temperate forests under two climatic change scenarios and four driving global circulation models.

    PubMed

    Lebourgeois, François; Pierrat, Jean-Claude; Perez, Vincent; Piedallu, Christian; Cecchini, Sébastien; Ulrich, Erwin

    2010-09-01

    After modeling the large-scale climate response patterns of leaf unfolding, leaf coloring and growing season length of evergreen and deciduous French temperate trees, we predicted the effects of eight future climate scenarios on phenological events. We used the ground observations from 103 temperate forests (10 species and 3,708 trees) from the French Renecofor Network and for the period 1997-2006. We applied RandomForest algorithms to predict phenological events from climatic and ecological variables. With the resulting models, we drew maps of phenological events throughout France under present climate and under two climatic change scenarios (A2, B2) and four global circulation models (HadCM3, CGCM2, CSIRO2 and PCM). We compared current observations and predicted values for the periods 2041-2070 and 2071-2100. On average, spring development of oaks precedes that of beech, which precedes that of conifers. Annual cycles in budburst and leaf coloring are highly correlated with January, March-April and October-November weather conditions through temperature, global solar radiation or potential evapotranspiration depending on species. At the end of the twenty-first century, each model predicts earlier budburst (mean: 7 days) and later leaf coloring (mean: 13 days) leading to an average increase in the growing season of about 20 days (for oaks and beech stands). The A2-HadCM3 hypothesis leads to an increase of up to 30 days in many areas. As a consequence of higher predicted warming during autumn than during winter or spring, shifts in leaf coloring dates appear greater than trends in leaf unfolding. At a regional scale, highly differing climatic response patterns were observed.

  8. Impacts of global changes and extreme hydroclimatic events on macroinvertebrate community structures in the French Rhône River.

    PubMed

    Daufresne, Martin; Bady, Pierre; Fruget, Jean-François

    2007-03-01

    We assessed the temporal changes in and the relationships between the structures of the macroinvertebrate communities and the environmental conditions of the French Rhône River (the river from Lake Geneva to the Mediterranean Sea) over the last 20 years (1985-2004). Multisite environmental and biological datasets were analysed using multiple CO-inertia analysis (MCOA) and Procrustean analysis. Changes in environmental conditions were mainly marked by an improvement in water quality between 1985 and 1991 and by an increase in water temperature from 1985 onwards due to climate change. Improvement in water quality seemed to delay changes in community structures under global warming. We then observed trends in community structures coupled with high temperatures and a decrease in oxygen content. Interestingly, we observed both gradual changes and rapid switches in community states. These shifts seemed coupled to extreme hydroclimatic events (i.e. pulse disturbances). Floods and the 2003 heatwave enhanced the development of eurytolerant and invasive taxa which were probably able to take advantage of gradual warming environmental conditions. Despite various site-specific "press" constraints (e.g. hydropower schemes, nuclear power plants), similar changes in community structures were observed along the French Rhône River. Such consistency in temporal processes at large geographical scales underlined the strength of hydroclimatic constraints on community dynamics compared to specific local disturbances. Finally, community structures did not show any sign of recovery, and their relative sensitivities to extreme hydroclimatic events seemed to increase with time. Thus, our results suggest that global changes may reduce the resilience of current community states.

  9. Anger and Globalization among Young People in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suchday, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the challenges faced by youth in developing countries. Using India as an example of a fast-globalizing country, this article highlights the experience and challenges faced by adolescents and emerging adults as they search for their interpersonal and professional identities. The difficulties of defining identity in the…

  10. Anger and Globalization among Young People in India

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suchday, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the challenges faced by youth in developing countries. Using India as an example of a fast-globalizing country, this article highlights the experience and challenges faced by adolescents and emerging adults as they search for their interpersonal and professional identities. The difficulties of defining identity in the…

  11. The Global Youth Media Council: Young People Speaking and Learning about Media Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dezuanni, Michael Luigi; Miles, Prue

    2011-01-01

    The 5th World Summit on Media for Children and Youth held in Karlstad, Sweden in June 2010 provided a unique media literacy experience for approximately thirty young people from diverse backgrounds through participation in the Global Youth Media Council. This article focuses on the Summit's aim to give young people a "voice" through…

  12. The importance of 'global meaning' for people rehabilitating from spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Littooij, E; Leget, C J W; Stolwijk-Swüste, J M; Doodeman, S; Widdershoven, G A M; Dekker, J

    2016-11-01

    Qualitative study. To explore whether aspects of global meaning (that is, fundamental beliefs and life goals concerning core values, relationships, worldview, identity and inner posture) are associated with processes and outcomes in rehabilitation, as experienced by people with spinal cord injury (SCI). People living in the community receiving outpatient rehabilitation in a Dutch rehabilitation center. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 people with SCI. Interviews were analyzed using qualitative research methods: structural and provisional coding. Core values, relationships, worldview, identity and inner posture (that is, the way in which people relate to the facts of life) were associated with various processes and outcomes of rehabilitation. Elements of the rehabilitation process included motivation, regulation of emotion, making decisions and handling stress. Elements of the outcome of rehabilitation included physical functioning, emotional functioning, social functioning and subjective sense of meaning. The influence was positive, with the exception of one case in which worldview and inner posture were negatively associated with motivation. Besides that, respondents emphasized the importance of rehabilitation professionals attuning to their global meaning. All aspects of global meaning were positively associated with various processes and outcomes of rehabilitation. It is recommended that rehabilitation professionals are aware of the importance of global meaning to people with SCI and that they take people's fundamental beliefs and life goals into account.

  13. The Chronic Pain Myth Scale: Development and Validation of a French-Canadian Instrument Measuring Knowledge, Beliefs, and Attitudes of People in the Community towards Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. In order to better design awareness programs on chronic pain (CP), measurement of knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes of people in the community towards this condition is most useful. Objectives. To develop and validate a French-Canadian scale that could be used for this purpose. Methods. Items of the Chronic Pain Myth Scale (CPMS) were developed based on different information sources, reviewed by pain experts, and pretested. The CPMS was administered to 1555 participants among the general Quebec population. Results. The final CPMS contained 26 items allowing the calculation of three subscales scores (knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes towards people suffering from CP, biopsychosocial impacts of CP, and treatment of CP) which showed adequate internal consistency (α = 0.72–0.82). There were statistically significant differences in subscales scores between participants who reported suffering versus not suffering from CP, reported knowing versus not knowing someone who suffers from CP, and reported being versus not being a healthcare professional, which supports the construct validity of the scale. Conclusions. Our results provide preliminary evidence supporting the psychometric qualities of the use of the CPMS for the measurement of knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes towards CP among French-speaking individuals of the Quebec general population. PMID:27746680

  14. The Chronic Pain Myth Scale: Development and Validation of a French-Canadian Instrument Measuring Knowledge, Beliefs, and Attitudes of People in the Community towards Chronic Pain.

    PubMed

    Lacasse, Anaïs; Connelly, Judy-Ann; Choinière, Manon

    2016-01-01

    Background. In order to better design awareness programs on chronic pain (CP), measurement of knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes of people in the community towards this condition is most useful. Objectives. To develop and validate a French-Canadian scale that could be used for this purpose. Methods. Items of the Chronic Pain Myth Scale (CPMS) were developed based on different information sources, reviewed by pain experts, and pretested. The CPMS was administered to 1555 participants among the general Quebec population. Results. The final CPMS contained 26 items allowing the calculation of three subscales scores (knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes towards people suffering from CP, biopsychosocial impacts of CP, and treatment of CP) which showed adequate internal consistency (α = 0.72-0.82). There were statistically significant differences in subscales scores between participants who reported suffering versus not suffering from CP, reported knowing versus not knowing someone who suffers from CP, and reported being versus not being a healthcare professional, which supports the construct validity of the scale. Conclusions. Our results provide preliminary evidence supporting the psychometric qualities of the use of the CPMS for the measurement of knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes towards CP among French-speaking individuals of the Quebec general population.

  15. Globalization: Ecological consequences of global-scale connectivity in people, resources and information

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Globalization is a phenomenon affecting all facets of the Earth System. Within the context of ecological systems, it is becoming increasingly apparent that global connectivity among terrestrial systems, the atmosphere, and oceans is driving many ecological dynamics at finer scales and pushing thresh...

  16. Global Equity and Justice Issues for Young People During the First Three Decades of Life.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Anne; Koller, Silvia H; Motti-Stefanidi, Frosso; Verma, Suman

    This chapter takes a global perspective on equity and justice during development from childhood into adulthood. Globally, the population of young people is booming with the most rapid growth among young people in the poorest countries. While already faced with significant issues related to development and thriving, this population boom also exacerbates equity and justice for these children. Given this urgent situation, this chapter builds from the large body of minority world research, as well as the emergent majority world research, to argue that in order to turn the youth bulge into a demographic dividend, researchers must utilize a positive development framing rather than the more dominant problem-focused framing in studying these issues. The structural challenges confronting young people growing up in contexts marked by poverty; weak systems and institutions, especially those serving education, health, and justice; weak political and governance systems; and continual conflict must also be addressed by global and national governmental bodies. This chapter will emphasize the strengths and opportunities of the majority world, highlighting some of the strong, emergent examples of programs that support and develop the strengths of young people. We conclude with a discussion of appropriate support required from the minority and majority worlds that would further strengthen young people globally and enable them to become leaders of a more just, equitable world. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Global observations of atmospheric CH4 by Integrated Path Differential-Absorption Lidar: the French-German Climate Monitoring Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehret, Gerhard; Flamant, Pierre; Ciais, Philippe; Fabien, Gibert; Amediek, Axel; Kiemle, Christoph; Fix, Andreas; Quatrevalet, Mathieu; Wirth, Martin

    Atmospheric methane (CH4) is a powerful greenhouse gas, which has a Greenhouse Warming Potential (GWP) of 25 relative to CO2 on a time scale of 100 years. Despite the fact that the imbalance between the sources and sinks has decreased in the early 1990's to an insignificant value, a significant renewal of the CH4 growth is reported in recent years. Questions arise whether an increase of atmospheric CH4 might be fostered through melting of permafrost soil in the Arctic region or arise from changes of the tropical wetlands which comprise the biggest natural methane source. Another reason could be the change in the agro-industrial era of predominant human influence or the very large deposits of CH4 as gas hydrates on ocean shelves that are vulnerable to ocean warming. The French-German Climate Monitoring Initiative, which has recently been selected to undergo Phase0/A studies in a joint project by the space agencies CNES (France)and DLR (Germany), targets on satellite observations of atmospheric CH4 for the improvement of our knowledge on regional to synoptic scale CH4 sources on a global basis. As a novel feature, the observational instrument of this mission will be an Integrated Path Differential-Absorption (IPDA) Lidar system embarked on board of the French Myriade platform for the measurement of the column-weighted dry-air mixing ratio of CH4 in a nadir viewing configuration. This data will be provided by the lidar technique with no bias due to particles scattering in the light path and can directly be used as input for flux inversion models. In our presentation we will discuss the observational principle and the sampling strategy of the envisaged mission in connection to the needs for CH4 flux inversion experiments. In addition, we report on supporting campaign activities on airborne measurements of Lidar reflectivity data in the respective spectral region. The airborne data is of prime interest for the generation of pseudo CH4 data examples using the satellite

  18. [Expert consensus of the French society of geriatrics and gerontology and the French society of cardiology on the management of atrial fibrillation in elderly people].

    PubMed

    Hanon, Olivier; Assayag, Patrick; Belmin, Joel; Collet, Jean Philippe; Emeriau, Jean Paul; Fauchier, Laurent; Forette, Françoise; Friocourt, Patrick; Gentric, Armelle; Leclercq, Christophe; Komajda, Michel; Le Heuzey, Jean Yves

    2013-06-01

    The prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) increase with ageing. In France AF affects between 400,000 to 660,000 people aged 75 years or more. In the elderly, AF is a major risk factor of stroke and a predictive factor for mortality. Comorbidities are frequent and worsen the prognosis of AF. They can be the cause or the consequence of AF and their management is a major therapeutic objective. Comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA), is required to analyse both medical and psychosocial elements, and to identify co-morbidities and geriatrics syndrome as cognitive disorders, risk of falls, malnutrition, mood disorders, and lack of dependency and social isolation. The objectives of AF treatment in the elderly are to prevent AF complications, particularly stroke, and to improve quality of life. Specific precautions for treatment must be taken because of the co-morbidities and age-related changes in pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics. Preventing AF complications relies mainly on anticoagulant therapy. Anticoagulants are recommended in patients with AF aged ≥ 75 years after assessing the bleeding risk using Hemorr2hages or HAS-BLED scores. Novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are promising treatments especially due to a lower risk of intracerebral haemorrhage. However, their prescriptions should take into account renal function (creatinine clearance assessed with Cockcroft formula) and cognitive function (for adherence to treatment). Studies including very old patients with several comorbidities in 'real life' are necessary to evaluate tolerance of NOACs in this population. The management of AF also involves the treatment of underlying cardiomyopathy and heart rate control rather than rhythm control strategy as first-line therapy in the elderly.

  19. Indigenous Peoples and Indicators of Well-Being: Australian Perspectives on United Nations Global Frameworks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, John

    2008-01-01

    One of the major tasks of the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues (UNPFII) following its establishment in 2000 has been to establish statistical profiles of the world's Indigenous peoples. As part of this broad task, it has recommended that the Millennium Development Goals and other global reporting frameworks should be assessed…

  20. [Health, globalization and interculturalism: an anthropological approach to the situation of indigenous peoples in South America].

    PubMed

    Hita, Susana Ramírez

    2014-10-01

    This article reflects upon the impact of globalization and interculturalism on the living conditions of indigenous peoples in South America. Through two examples - Bolivia and Argentina - it is seen how health interculturalism has transformed into a discourse and a practice that both global organizations and most Latin American countries have used to assimilate and attract indigenous communities. Traditional medicine is respected and valued without proposing changes to improve the living conditions of these population groups. This is especially true in those areas where land is being expropriated or contaminated with the extraction of gas, oil, minerals and the construction of dams, along with indiscriminate deforestation of the rainforest. Health/illness cannot be separated from the territorial conditions of these peoples since environmental health is critical for their survival.

  1. 20th century global warming favoured enhanced intensity of extreme torrential events - a proglacial sediment record in NW French Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, B.; Arnaud, F.; Legaz, A.; Allignol, F.; Enters, D.; Revillon, S.

    2009-04-01

    During the past few yeas, considerable climate changes have been observed at high elevation areas of the European Alps. Additionally, one of the main results of high resolution climate modelling is a trend towards both dryer summer conditions and enhanced risk of extreme floods. This should have particularly dramatic consequences in alpine areas. Indeed, the development of tourism during the 20th century in the Alps and the rise of population density resulted in an increasing potential risk from natural hazards. Among them, torrential floods are some of the most common and widespread ones. They cause both loss of human life and high damage to property and infrastructure and are particularly destructive in mountain areas. For example, in August 2005, an unusual meteorological situation resulted in a series of catastrophic floods in most regions of the European Alps and particularly in the catchment of the Vorz river, downstream of proglacial Lac Blanc (2170 m a.s.l., Belledonne range, NW French Alps). We studied a series of sediment cores from Lac Blanc, spanning the last ca. 250 years. Through a coupled high resolution sedimentological and geochemical approach we documented about 100 flood deposits and measured their thickness. The age of each deposit has been assessed by radiochemical dating and the recognition of historically-known events - major earthquakes and historical atmospheric lead deposition. Furthermore, a detailed study of regional and local historical archives was conducted allowing us to relate the recognised flood deposits to the ones reported by local population. We hence obtained a flood calendar from 1740 to 2005 with the respective intensity of each event assessed by the thickness of the associated deposit. The flood frequency shows an important and punctual increase at the early end of the Little Ice Age (1830 - 1860) as a response to the beginning warming period, which was emphasized by the synchronous local glacier retreat. On the other hand

  2. Unmet health care needs of older people: prevalence and predictors in a French cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    Arvieu, Jean-Jacques; Aegerter, Philippe; Robine, Jean-Marie; Ankri, Joël

    2014-01-01

    Background: Unmet health care needs are associated with negative health outcomes, yet there is a paucity of data on this problem among older people. Objective: To identify unmet health care needs and associated factors among older people in France. Methods: This is a cross-sectional population study of people aged 70 years or older in which 2350 respondents were interviewed in 2008–10. During a standardized interview, a nurse examined health problems, functional abilities and use of health care resources. Unmet health care needs were defined as situations in which a participant needed health care and did not receive it. Results: The mean age was 83.2 ± 7.4 years. Almost all participants reporting a chronic disease (98.6%) had consulted a physician in the previous 6 months. Unmet health care needs were found in 23.0% of the sample and mainly consisted of lack of dental care (prevalence of 17.7%), followed by lack of management of visual or hearing impairments (prevalence of 4.4% and 3.1%, respectively). Age was the main factor associated with unmet health care needs [compared with people aged 70–79: odds ratio80–89 years = 2.26 (1.70–3.03), odds ratio90 years and over = 3.85 (2.71–5.45)]. Other associated factors were regular smoking, homebound status, poor socioeconomic conditions, depression, limitations in instrumental activities of daily living and low medical density. Conclusion: Unmet health care needs affect almost one-quarter of older people in France. Efforts should be made to improve oral health and develop home care, especially for the oldest-olds. PMID:24287029

  3. Empowering people to change occupational behaviours to address critical global issues.

    PubMed

    Ikiugu, Moses N; Westerfield, Madeline A; Lien, Jamie M; Theisen, Emily R; Cerny, Shana L; Nissen, Ranelle M

    2015-06-01

    The greatest threat to human well-being in this century is climate change and related global issues. We examined the effectiveness of the Modified Instrumentalism in Occupational Therapy model as a framework for facilitating occupational behaviour change to address climate change and related issues. Eleven individuals participated in this mixed-methods single-subject-design study. Data were gathered using the Modified Assessment and Intervention Instrument for Instrumentalism in Occupational Therapy and Daily Occupational Inventories. Quantitative data were analyzed using two- and three-standard deviation band methods. Qualitative data were analyzed using heuristic phenomenological procedures. Occupational performance changed for five participants. Participants' feelings shifted from frustration and helplessness to empowerment and a desire for action. They felt empowered to find occupation-based solutions to the global issues. Occupation-based interventions that increase personal awareness of the connection between occupational performance and global issues could empower people to be agents for action to ameliorate the issues.

  4. Using Drama for Learning to Foster Positive Attitudes and Increase Motivation: Global Simulation in French Second Language Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Joseph E.; Le Blanc, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    Drama has been effectively used in many learning contexts including English as a second language classes. However, it has received less attention in foreign/second contexts. This article explores how drama for learning can impact upon the relationships among attitudes, motivation and learning in French second language (FSL) classrooms. The authors…

  5. Global Knowledge-Based Policy in Fragmented Societies: The Case of Curriculum Reform in French-Speaking Belgium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangez, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between knowledge and policy in French-speaking Belgium. It starts by describing Belgium as a consociational democracy, i.e. a society that is largely organised around integrated pillars of society (Catholic, secular), each of which provides a wide range of services (educational, training, health, health…

  6. Global Knowledge-Based Policy in Fragmented Societies: The Case of Curriculum Reform in French-Speaking Belgium

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangez, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between knowledge and policy in French-speaking Belgium. It starts by describing Belgium as a consociational democracy, i.e. a society that is largely organised around integrated pillars of society (Catholic, secular), each of which provides a wide range of services (educational, training, health, health…

  7. Call to action: A new path for improving diabetes care for Indigenous peoples, a global review.

    PubMed

    Harris, Stewart B; Tompkins, Jordan W; TeHiwi, Braden

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes has reached epidemic proportions in Indigenous populations around the globe, and there is an urgent need to improve the health and health equity of Indigenous peoples with diabetes through timely and appropriate diabetes prevention and management strategies. This review describes the evolution of the diabetes epidemic in Indigenous populations and associated risk factors, highlighting gestational diabetes and intergenerational risk, lifestyle risk factors and social determinants as having particular importance and impact on Indigenous peoples. This review further describes the impact of chronic disease and diabetes on Indigenous peoples and communities, specifically diabetes-related comorbidities and complications. This review provides continued evidence that dramatic changes are necessary to reduce diabetes-related inequities in Indigenous populations, with a call to action to support programmatic primary healthcare transformation capable of empowering Indigenous peoples and communities and improving chronic disease prevention and management. Promising strategies for transforming health services and care for Indigenous peoples include quality improvement initiatives, facilitating diabetes and chronic disease registry and surveillance systems to identify care gaps, and prioritizing evaluation to build the evidence-base necessary to guide future health policy and planning locally and on a global scale. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Teaching French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marty, Fernand

    This comprehensive analysis of French teaching methodology reveals basic problems underlying the current philosophy of language learning, while presenting new ideas based on extensive research. Two books, "Active French; Dialogues" and "Active French: Foundations Course" (Books 1 and 2), which stress well specified learning objectives, were…

  9. French Antilles and Guiana.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    Attention in this discussion of French Antilles and Guiana is directed to the following: geography; the people; history; government; political conditions; the economy; and relations with the US. In 1988, the population of Martinique, the official name, numbered 351,105 with an annual growth rate in 1988 of 1.71%. The population of Guadeloupe, the official name, numbered 337,524 in January 1988 with an annual growth rate in 1987 of 1.2%. French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique, as overseas departments of France since 1946, are integral parts of the French Republic. In 1972, the metropolitan departments of France were combined into 22 regions, with an elected regional council for each region. As integral parts of the French Republic, the political systems of the 3 French Caribbean departments are essentially extensions of those of metropolitan France. Guadeloupe and Martinique owed their colonial prosperity to agriculture, primarily sugar. Martinique no longer exports sugar, but sugar still accounts for 20% of Guadeloupe's export earnings. In Martinique, sugar has been replaced as an export crop by bananas and pineapples. Bananas now account for almost 50% of Guadeloupe's total export earnings. In French Guiana, the impact of the French National Space Agency's Guiana Space Center has been great. US policy toward these overseas departments is inseparable from its overall policy of friendly relations with France.

  10. Widening the SLP lens: how can we improve the wellbeing of people with communication disabilities globally.

    PubMed

    Wickenden, Mary

    2013-02-01

    This article responds to Wylie, McAllister, Davidson, and Marshall (2013) by arguing that the wellbeing of people with communication disabilities in the global south will be improved if speech and language pathologists widen their lens considerably. The numbers of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the Majority World is and will remain infinitesimally small. Therefore, to make any meaningful impact the profession needs to engage in debates and activities outside the health and service provision arenas, getting involved cross-sectorally and at various policy levels. It is contended that, although the World Report on Disability is a useful summary of the status quo, actually SLPs need to harness two other seminal documents: The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and, more particularly, the United Nations Convention on the Rights of People with Disabilities in order to drive change. Historically the profession's focus has been on impairments, and current moves to social models are welcome. However, SLPs need to embrace human rights approaches and broader frameworks of inclusive community development, using global initiatives such as community-based rehabilitation to improve the lives of people with communication disabilities. Why SLPs should become critically engaged, particularly at the macro level, is explored.

  11. Integrated management of pearl culture in French Polynesia in the context of global change: Synopsis of existing results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gueguen, Yannick; Gaertner-Mazouni, Nabila; Lo, Cedrik; Le Moullac, Gilles

    2016-12-01

    The paper presents a state of the art on knowledge of the black pearl oyster aquaculture at the scale of French Polynesia. It also introduces the main results obtained throughout the multi-partners POLYPERL project. The goal of this project was to develop an integrated and participative action-research of the pearl oyster culture system, focusing on the environmental, technological, economical and societal dimensions impacting the industry. The research proposed ranges from the understanding of biological phenomena of the production system to socio-economic aspects and governance of the industry, taking into account the management of anthropogenic, climate and health risks. We introduce here the different papers from the POLYPERL project that are compiled in this volume of ECSS dealing with recent scientific work that can contribute to sustainability of the pearl industry in French Polynesia.

  12. Exercise stereotypes and health-related outcomes in French people living with HIV: development and validation of an HIV Exercise Stereotypes Scale (HIVESS).

    PubMed

    Gray, Laura; Falzon, Charlène; Bergamaschi, Alessandro; Schuft, Laura; Durant, Jacques; Rosenthal, Eric; Pradier, Christian; Duracinsky, Martin; Rouanet, Isabelle; Colson, Serge S; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne

    2016-11-14

    The main objective of the current study was to develop and validate a French exercise stereotype scale for people living with HIV (PLHIV) in order to gain visibility to the possible barriers and facilitators for exercise in PLHIV and thus enhance their quality of life. A series of four complementary studies was carried out with a total sample of 524 participants to: (a) develop a preliminary version of the HIV Exercise Stereotype Scale (HIVESS) (Stage 1), (b) confirm the factorial structure of the instrument (Stage 2), (c) evaluate the stability of the instrument (Stage 3), and (d) examine the construct and divergent validity of the scale (Stage 4). Results provided support for a 14-item scale with three sub-scales reporting stereotypes related to exercise benefits, exercise risks and lack of capacity for exercise with Cronbach's alphas of .77, .69 and .76 respectively. Results showed good factorial structure, strong reliability and indicators of convergent validity relating to self-efficacy, exercise and quality of life. The HIVESS presented satisfactory psychometric properties, constitutes a reliable and valid instrument to measure exercise stereotypes among PLHIV and has applications for future research and clinical practice.

  13. Transnational indigenous exchange: rethinking global interactions of indigenous peoples at the 1904 St. Louis Exposition.

    PubMed

    Medak-Saltzman, Danika

    2010-01-01

    When the St. Louis Exposition opened in 1904 it became host to the largest gathering of the world's Indigenous peoples to that date. However, questions about how Native peoples understood these transnational Indigenous interactions have remained largely out of the realm of academic inquiry-a fact often attributed to the "absence" of primary sources. This article counters such assertions by providing a rereading that interrogates colonial assumptions embedded in both archival materials and contemporary scholarly interpretations. By analyzing a candid photograph of two Native women-one Tzoneca, the other Ainu-taken at the fair by Jessie Tarbox Beals and utilizing Frederick Starr's journal, this article ultimately questions whether the Exposition's celebration of empire may have inadvertently served anti-colonial purposes. Namely, by presenting Indigenous participants with opportunities to forge relationships across the globe, a fact that may have served to inform the late 20th century emergence of a global Indigenous consciousness.

  14. Early detection of memory impairment in people over 65 years old consulting at Health Examination Centers for the French health insurance: the EVATEM protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Only half of those living with Alzheimer’s disease in France are currently diagnosed, and only one patient in three is supported during the early stages of dementia. This study aims to evaluate three cognitive tests for their predictive ability to diagnose mild cognitive impairments and Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders. For people aged 65 years or over, presenting with a memory complaint, these tests can be performed easily during a preventative consultation. Method/design The EVATEM (évaluation des troubles de l’équilibre et de la mémoire (evaluation of balance and memory problems)) cohort study was designed to prospectively assess the predictive value of tests for the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairments and Alzheimer’s disease in elderly subjects aged 65 years or over. Subjects were recruited from three health examination centers that are part of the French health insurance system. If a memory complaint was identified (using a dedicated questionnaire), the five-word test, the cognitive disorders examination test and the verbal fluency test were administered during a preventative consultation. A memory consultation was performed at a University Hospital to diagnosis any potential cognitive disorder and a one-year follow-up consultation was also scheduled. We recorded 2041 cases of memory complaint at our Health Examination Centers. Cognitive tests were refused by 33.6% of people who had a memory complaint. The number of subjects sent to a University Hospital memory consultation was 832 and 74.5% of them completed this consultation. The study population therefore includes 620 subjects. Discussion Tests for the early diagnosis of a mild cognitive impairment or Alzheimer’s disease and related disorders should be used in centers dedicated to disease prevention. These should guide subjects with memory impairment to full memory consultations at hospitals and improve the access to early medical and behavioral support. Trial

  15. How accessible are coral reefs to people? A global assessment based on travel time.

    PubMed

    Maire, Eva; Cinner, Joshua; Velez, Laure; Huchery, Cindy; Mora, Camilo; Dagata, Stephanie; Vigliola, Laurent; Wantiez, Laurent; Kulbicki, Michel; Mouillot, David

    2016-04-01

    The depletion of natural resources has become a major issue in many parts of the world, with the most accessible resources being most at risk. In the terrestrial realm, resource depletion has classically been related to accessibility through road networks. In contrast, in the marine realm, the impact on living resources is often framed into the Malthusian theory of human density around ecosystems. Here, we develop a new framework to estimate the accessibility of global coral reefs using potential travel time from the nearest human settlement or market. We show that 58% of coral reefs are located < 30 min from the nearest human settlement. We use a case study from New Caledonia to demonstrate that travel time from the market is a strong predictor of fish biomass on coral reefs. We also highlight a relative deficit of protection on coral reef areas near people, with disproportional protection on reefs far from people. This suggests that conservation efforts are targeting low-conflict reefs or places that may already be receiving de facto protection due to their isolation. Our global assessment of accessibility in the marine realm is a critical step to better understand the interplay between humans and resources.

  16. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-09-01

    teachers in Iceland and on Friday to teachers in Ireland. Fred and Frances from Southgate College showed great team spirit in the world's most chaotic quiz, then sang in harmony with Dave from Barnsley and Yoji from Japan amongst others. Kirsten from across the Atlantic shared her research on children and museums on Friday and later I discovered how much I didn't know about global warming from a chemist and a set of unreadable graphs in a computer lab. What a pleasure to see Tom and Seamus from Ireland again. The day closed with a barn dance fling where I managed to boogie on down with some teachers from Turkey. A final 'strip the willow' with Pete and Allison finished me off. Saturday started with breakfast with Ken from Greenwich offering me some part-time work. The exhibitions called and amongst others I hugged Sue from Cardiff, Barry and Leila from London, Pauline from Scotland and an unknown but very friendly lady from Holland. I met a lady from Scotland who lived in Iceland but who taught in Norway and of course Catherine was everywhere. I had tea with Jean from Edinburgh, Janet from London, Gordon from Aberdeen. I laughed with Mick from Sheffield and the same friendly lady from Holland. I ate posh food with Susie from Ayr and applauded big names from America and Australia. I shared a lump in my throat for John and for Wynne and nodded and smiled at countless people whose names I had forgotten but our paths had crossed sometime in the past. There are more than 20 000 members in the ASE and countless thousands of science teachers across the globe. The world is indeed expansive but for three days in Guildford it seemed that the very best speakers and the very cheeriest folk had magically converged on one place. If ever there were confirmation that science and science teaching were alive and well it was there and it was then. If you were there you will know exactly what I mean. If you weren't there then don't miss it next January in Liverpool.www.ase.org.uk

  17. The use of global positioning systems in promoting safer walking for people with dementia.

    PubMed

    McKinstry, Brian; Sheikh, Aziz

    2013-07-01

    There are about 5 million people in Europe who have dementia, approximately half of whom need daily care. A common reason why dementia sufferers are admitted to long-term care is because of "wandering", i.e. leaving home without informing a carer, thereby potentially putting themselves at risk. Common methods of managing wandering include locking doors or alerting carers when a door is opened. A new method of managing wandering is by using electronic location devices. These depend on the satellite-based global positioning system (GPS). People can wear a location device in the form of a watch or pendant, or carry it like a mobile phone. This offers affected individuals the possibility of safe walking, with the reassurance that they can be found quickly if lost. However, it is not known how effective this method is and its use raises questions about safety and individual civil liberties. GPS location is a potentially useful method of managing wandering in dementia and there is considerable pressure on caregivers from commercial organisations to adopt the technique. Research is therefore required to determine which people are best suited for such devices, how effective they are in practice and what effect they have on important outcomes.

  18. Impaired Global, and Compensatory Local, Biological Motion Processing in People with High Levels of Autistic Traits

    PubMed Central

    van Boxtel, Jeroen J. A.; Lu, Hongjing

    2013-01-01

    People with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are hypothesized to have poor high-level processing but superior low-level processing, causing impaired social recognition, and a focus on non-social stimulus contingencies. Biological motion perception provides an ideal domain to investigate exactly how ASD modulates the interaction between low and high-level processing, because it involves multiple processing stages, and carries many important social cues. We investigated individual differences among typically developing observers in biological motion processing, and whether such individual differences associate with the number of autistic traits. In Experiment 1, we found that individuals with fewer autistic traits were automatically and involuntarily attracted to global biological motion information, whereas individuals with more autistic traits did not show this pre-attentional distraction. We employed an action adaptation paradigm in the second study to show that individuals with more autistic traits were able to compensate for deficits in global processing with an increased involvement in local processing. Our findings can be interpreted within a predictive coding framework, which characterizes the functional relationship between local and global processing stages, and explains how these stages contribute to the perceptual difficulties associated with ASD. PMID:23630514

  19. Suicide risk in a representative sample of people receiving HIV care: Time to target most-at-risk populations (ANRS VESPA2 French national survey)

    PubMed Central

    Fressard, Lisa; Préau, Marie; Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Guagliardo, Valérie; Mora, Marion; Roux, Perrine; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Spire, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Background Suicide risk is high among people living with HIV (PLHIV). This study aimed to identify major correlates of suicide risk in a representative sample of PLHIV in France, in order to help target individuals who would benefit from suicide risk screening and psychiatric care. Methods The ANRS VESPA2 cross-sectional survey (April 2011-January 2012) collected socio-demographic, medical and behavioral data from 3,022 PLHIV recruited in 73 French HIV hospital departments. The study sample comprised the 2,973 participants with available self-reported data on suicide risk (defined as having either thought about and planned to commit suicide during the previous 12 months or attempted suicide during the same period of time) and medical data on comorbidities. Weighted Poisson models adjusted for HCV co-infection and significant clinical variables were used to estimate the relationship between suicide risk and HIV transmission groups, experience with HIV disease and other psychosocial factors. Results Suicide risk was reported by 6.3% of PLHIV in the study sample. After adjustment for HIV immunological status and HCV co-infection, women (IRR [95%CI]:1.93 [1.17; 3.19]) and men who have sex with men (MSM) (1.97 [1.22; 3.19]) had a higher suicide risk than the rest of the sample. Moreover, the number of discrimination-related social contexts reported (1.39 [1.19; 1.61]), homelessness (4.87 [1.82; 13.02]), and reporting a feeling of loneliness (4.62 [3.06; 6.97]) were major predictors of suicide risk. Conclusions Reducing the burden of precarious social conditions and discrimination is an important lever for preventing suicide risk among PLHIV in France. Comprehensive care models involving peer/community social interventions targeted at women and MSM need to be implemented to lower the risk of suicide in these specific subgroups of PLHIV. PMID:28192455

  20. Suicide risk in a representative sample of people receiving HIV care: Time to target most-at-risk populations (ANRS VESPA2 French national survey).

    PubMed

    Carrieri, Maria Patrizia; Marcellin, Fabienne; Fressard, Lisa; Préau, Marie; Sagaon-Teyssier, Luis; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Guagliardo, Valérie; Mora, Marion; Roux, Perrine; Dray-Spira, Rosemary; Spire, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    Suicide risk is high among people living with HIV (PLHIV). This study aimed to identify major correlates of suicide risk in a representative sample of PLHIV in France, in order to help target individuals who would benefit from suicide risk screening and psychiatric care. The ANRS VESPA2 cross-sectional survey (April 2011-January 2012) collected socio-demographic, medical and behavioral data from 3,022 PLHIV recruited in 73 French HIV hospital departments. The study sample comprised the 2,973 participants with available self-reported data on suicide risk (defined as having either thought about and planned to commit suicide during the previous 12 months or attempted suicide during the same period of time) and medical data on comorbidities. Weighted Poisson models adjusted for HCV co-infection and significant clinical variables were used to estimate the relationship between suicide risk and HIV transmission groups, experience with HIV disease and other psychosocial factors. Suicide risk was reported by 6.3% of PLHIV in the study sample. After adjustment for HIV immunological status and HCV co-infection, women (IRR [95%CI]:1.93 [1.17; 3.19]) and men who have sex with men (MSM) (1.97 [1.22; 3.19]) had a higher suicide risk than the rest of the sample. Moreover, the number of discrimination-related social contexts reported (1.39 [1.19; 1.61]), homelessness (4.87 [1.82; 13.02]), and reporting a feeling of loneliness (4.62 [3.06; 6.97]) were major predictors of suicide risk. Reducing the burden of precarious social conditions and discrimination is an important lever for preventing suicide risk among PLHIV in France. Comprehensive care models involving peer/community social interventions targeted at women and MSM need to be implemented to lower the risk of suicide in these specific subgroups of PLHIV.

  1. Technoscientific French for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Brigitte D.

    A two-semester sequence of courses in French and Spanish for science and technology at Eastern Michigan University responds to alumni demands for better linguistic and cultural preparation for increasingly global business and industry. In addition, high schools teacher enrolled in the courses find they answer a need for professional upgrading of…

  2. Global oral health of older people--call for public health action.

    PubMed

    Petersen, P E; Kandelman, D; Arpin, S; Ogawa, H

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this report is (1) to provide a global overview of oral health conditions in older people, use of oral health services, and self care practices; (2) to explore what types of oral health services are available to older people, and (3) to identify some major barriers to and opportunities for the establishment of oral health services and health promotion programmes. A postal questionnaire designed by the World Health Organization (WHO) was distributed worldwide to the Chief Dental Officers or country oral health focal points at ministries of health. WHO received 46 questionnaires from countries (39% response rate). In addition, systematic data were collected from the WHO Global Oral Health Data Bank and the World Health Survey in order to include oral health information on the remaining countries. In total, the data base covers 136 out 193 countries, i.e., 71% of all WHO Member States. Dental caries and periodontal disease comprise a considerable public health problem in the majority of countries. Significant disparities within and between regions are observed in epidemiologic indicators of oral disease. The prevalence rates of tooth loss and experience of oral problems vary substantially by WHO Region and national income. Experience of oral problems among older people is high in low income countries; meanwhile, access to health care is poor, in particular in rural areas. Although tooth brushing is the most popular oral hygiene practice across the world, regular tooth brushing appears less common among older people than the population at large. In particular, this practice is less frequent in low income countries; in contrast, traditional oral self-care is prevalent in several countries of Africa and Asia. While fluoridated toothpaste is widely used in developed countries, it is extremely infrequent in most developing countries. Oral health services are available in developed countries; however, the use of such services is low among the older people. Lack

  3. Global epidemiology of injecting drug use and HIV among people who inject drugs: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Mathers, Bradley M; Degenhardt, Louisa; Phillips, Benjamin; Wiessing, Lucas; Hickman, Matthew; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Wodak, Alex; Panda, Samiran; Tyndall, Mark; Toufik, Abdalla; Mattick, Richard P

    2008-11-15

    Injecting drug use is an increasingly important cause of HIV transmission in most countries worldwide. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of injecting drug use among individuals aged 15-64 years, and of HIV among people who inject drugs. We did a systematic search of peer-reviewed (Medline, EmBase, and PubMed/BioMed Central), internet, and grey literature databases; and data requests were made to UN agencies and international experts. 11 022 documents were reviewed, graded, and catalogued by the Reference Group to the UN on HIV and Injecting Drug Use. Injecting drug use was identified in 148 countries; data for the extent of injecting drug use was absent for many countries in Africa, the Middle East, and Latin America. The presence of HIV infection among injectors had been reported in 120 of these countries. Prevalence estimates of injecting drug use could be ascertained for 61 countries, containing 77% of the world's total population aged 15-64 years. Extrapolated estimates suggest that 15.9 million (range 11.0-21.2 million) people might inject drugs worldwide; the largest numbers of injectors were found in China, the USA, and Russia, where mid-estimates of HIV prevalence among injectors were 12%, 16%, and 37%, respectively. HIV prevalence among injecting drug users was 20-40% in five countries and over 40% in nine. We estimate that, worldwide, about 3.0 million (range 0.8-6.6 million) people who inject drugs might be HIV positive. The number of countries in which the injection of drugs has been reported has increased over the last decade. The high prevalence of HIV among many populations of injecting drug users represents a substantial global health challenge. However, existing data are far from adequate, in both quality and quantity, particularly in view of the increasing importance of injecting drug use as a mode of HIV transmission in many regions.

  4. Global Epidemiology of HIV Infection and Related Syndemics Affecting Transgender People

    PubMed Central

    Scheim, Ayden; Xavier, Jessica; Reisner, Sari; Baral, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Transgender populations have been underrepresented in HIV epidemiologic studies and consequently in HIV prevention, care, and treatment programs. Since 2012, there has been a dramatic increase in research focused on transgender people. Studies highlight the burden of HIV and risk determinants, including intersecting stigmas, as drivers of syndemics among transgender populations. This review synthesizes the most recent global epidemiology of HIV infection and describes current gaps in research and interventions to inform prioritization of HIV research for transgender populations. Methods: A systematic review was conducted of the medical literature published between January 1, 2012 and November 30, 2015. The data focused on HIV prevalence, determinants of risk, and syndemics among transgender populations. Results: Estimates varied dramatically by location and subpopulation. Transfeminine individuals have some of the highest concentrated HIV epidemics in the world with laboratory-confirmed prevalence up to 40%. Data were sparse among trans masculine individuals; however, they suggest potential increased risk for trans masculine men who have sex with men (MSM). No prevalence data were available for transgender people across Sub-Saharan Africa or Eastern Europe/Central Asia. Emerging data consistently support the association of syndemic conditions with HIV risk in transgender populations. Discussion: Addressing syndemic conditions and gender-specific challenges is critical to ensure engagement and retention in HIV prevention by transgender populations. Future research should prioritize: filling knowledge gaps in HIV epidemiology; elucidating how stigma shapes syndemic factors to produce HIV and other deleterious effects on transgender health; and understanding how to effectively implement HIV interventions for transgender people. PMID:27429185

  5. Where have all the people gone? Enhancing global conservation using night lights and social media.

    PubMed

    Levin, Noam; Kark, Salit; Crandall, David

    2015-12-01

    Conservation prioritization at large scales is complex, combining biological, environmental, and social factors. While conservation scientists now more often aim to incorporate human-related factors, a critical yet unquantified challenge remains: to identify which areas people use for recreation outside urban centers. To address this gap in applied ecology and conservation, we developed a novel approach for quantifying human presence beyond populated areas by combining social media "big data" and remote sensing tools. We used data from the Flickr photo-sharing website as a surrogate for identifying spatial variation in visitation globally, and complemented this estimate with spatially explicit information on stable night lights between 2004 and 2012, used as a proxy for identifying urban and industrial centers. Natural and seminatural areas attracting visitors were defined as areas both highly photographed and non-lit. The number of Flickr photographers within protected areas was found to be a reliable surrogate for estimating visitor numbers as confirmed by local authority censuses (r = 0.8). Half of all visitors' photos taken in protected areas originated from under 1% of all protected areas on Earth (250 of -27 000). The most photographed protected areas globally included Yosemite and Yellowstone National Parks (USA), and the Lake and Peak Districts (UK). Factors explaining the spatial variation in protected areas Flickr photo coverage included their type (e.g., UNESCO World Heritage sites have higher visitation) and accessibility to roads and trails. Using this approach, we identified photography hotspots, which draw many visitors and are also unlit (i.e., are located outside urban centers), but currently remain largely unprotected, such as Brazil's Pantanal and Bolivia's Salar de Uyuni. The integrated big data approach developed here demonstrates the benefits of combining remote sensing sources and novel geo-tagged and crowd-sourced information from social

  6. Can Recent Global Changes Explain the Dramatic Range Contraction of an Endangered Semi-Aquatic Mammal Species in the French Pyrenees?

    PubMed Central

    Charbonnel, Anaïs; Laffaille, Pascal; Biffi, Marjorie; Blanc, Frédéric; Maire, Anthony; Némoz, Mélanie; Sanchez-Perez, José Miguel; Sauvage, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) are the main tool to predict global change impacts on species ranges. Climate change alone is frequently considered, but in freshwater ecosystems, hydrology is a key driver of the ecology of aquatic species. At large scale, hydrology is however rarely accounted for, owing to the lack of detailed stream flow data. In this study, we developed an integrated modelling approach to simulate stream flow using the hydrological Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Simulated stream flow was subsequently included as an input variable in SDMs along with topographic, hydrographic, climatic and land-cover descriptors. SDMs were applied to two temporally-distinct surveys of the distribution of the endangered Pyrenean desman (Galemys pyrenaicus) in the French Pyrenees: a historical one conducted from 1985 to 1992 and a current one carried out between 2011 and 2013. The model calibrated on historical data was also forecasted onto the current period to assess its ability to describe the distributional change of the Pyrenean desman that has been modelled in the recent years. First, we found that hydrological and climatic variables were the ones influencing the most the distribution of this species for both periods, emphasizing the importance of taking into account hydrology when SDMs are applied to aquatic species. Secondly, our results highlighted a strong range contraction of the Pyrenean desman in the French Pyrenees over the last 25 years. Given that this range contraction was under-estimated when the historical model was forecasted onto current conditions, this finding suggests that other drivers may be interacting with climate, hydrology and land-use changes. Our results imply major concerns for the conservation of this endemic semi-aquatic mammal since changes in climate and hydrology are expected to become more intense in the future. PMID:27467269

  7. Can Recent Global Changes Explain the Dramatic Range Contraction of an Endangered Semi-Aquatic Mammal Species in the French Pyrenees?

    PubMed

    Charbonnel, Anaïs; Laffaille, Pascal; Biffi, Marjorie; Blanc, Frédéric; Maire, Anthony; Némoz, Mélanie; Sanchez-Perez, José Miguel; Sauvage, Sabine; Buisson, Laëtitia

    2016-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) are the main tool to predict global change impacts on species ranges. Climate change alone is frequently considered, but in freshwater ecosystems, hydrology is a key driver of the ecology of aquatic species. At large scale, hydrology is however rarely accounted for, owing to the lack of detailed stream flow data. In this study, we developed an integrated modelling approach to simulate stream flow using the hydrological Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Simulated stream flow was subsequently included as an input variable in SDMs along with topographic, hydrographic, climatic and land-cover descriptors. SDMs were applied to two temporally-distinct surveys of the distribution of the endangered Pyrenean desman (Galemys pyrenaicus) in the French Pyrenees: a historical one conducted from 1985 to 1992 and a current one carried out between 2011 and 2013. The model calibrated on historical data was also forecasted onto the current period to assess its ability to describe the distributional change of the Pyrenean desman that has been modelled in the recent years. First, we found that hydrological and climatic variables were the ones influencing the most the distribution of this species for both periods, emphasizing the importance of taking into account hydrology when SDMs are applied to aquatic species. Secondly, our results highlighted a strong range contraction of the Pyrenean desman in the French Pyrenees over the last 25 years. Given that this range contraction was under-estimated when the historical model was forecasted onto current conditions, this finding suggests that other drivers may be interacting with climate, hydrology and land-use changes. Our results imply major concerns for the conservation of this endemic semi-aquatic mammal since changes in climate and hydrology are expected to become more intense in the future.

  8. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-01-01

    Thrilled at @Bristol Kathy Sykes in conversation with Liz Whitelegg. Kathy Sykes is Senior Science Consultant at @Bristol - a new area on Bristol's Harbourside with a Science Centre Explore, a Wildlife Centre Wildscreen, with sculptures and fountains. Kathy was one of five people in 1999 to be awarded an IOP Public Awareness of Physics award. Dr Kathy Sykes What attracted you to Physics in the first place? It was really when I discovered that Physics was all about making models of the world, because then suddenly the ability to be creative became important. I liked the idea that you could have a picture of the world that might work quite well but you could always replace that with a better one. That was what made science come alive and make it seem like something that I'd really love to be involved in, rather than science as a stale body of facts that I needed to learn. I was much more interested in ideas than in facts. I think that finding out about 'models' happened around the time I was discovering quantum mechanics and how the act of observing something can actually affect the outcome. I found it incredibly exciting - especially how that changed the whole philosophy of science. I also had a fantastic teacher in physics and I owe an awful lot to him. He just swooped in at the last moment when I was considering giving it up so that made an enormous difference. After my degree I went to teach maths and physics A-level in Zimbabwe with the VSO, and it was partly wanting to share my excitement with other people about physics that made me want to go and teach abroad. When I came back and began my PhD in Physics at Bristol University, I missed teaching and thought it was important to get the public more involved in science and debates about science. My supervisor, Pete Barham, was doing lots of this himself, and he helped and encouraged me enormously. I can't thank him enough. Did you consider teaching as a career? Well I like having the carpet whipped away from

  9. How People Reason: A Grounded Theory Study of Scientific Reasoning about Global Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shiyu

    Scientific reasoning is crucial in both scientific inquiry and everyday life. While the majority of researchers have studied "how people reason" by focusing on their cognitive processes, factors related to the underpinnings of scientific reasoning are still under-researched. The present study aimed to develop a grounded theory that captures not only the cognitive processes during reasoning but also their underpinnings. In particular, the grounded theory and phenomenographic methodologies were integrated to explore how undergraduate students reason about competing theories and evidence on global climate change. Twenty-six undergraduate students were recruited through theoretical sampling. Constant comparative analysis of responses from interviews and written assessments revealed that participants were mostly drawn to the surface features when reasoning about evidence. While prior knowledge might not directly contribute to participants' performance on evidence evaluation, it affected their level of engagement when reading and evaluating competing arguments on climate issues. More importantly, even though all participants acknowledged the relative correctness of multiple perspectives, they predominantly favored arguments that supported their own beliefs with weak scientific reasoning about the opposing arguments. Additionally, factors such as personal interests, religious beliefs, and reading capacity were also found to have bearings on the way participants evaluated evidence and arguments. In all, this work contributes to the current endeavors in exploring the nature of scientific reasoning. Taking a holistic perspective, it provides an in-depth discussion of factors that may affect or relate to scientific reasoning processes. Furthermore, in comparison with traditional methods used in the literature, the methodological approach employed in this work brought an innovative insight into the investigation of scientific reasoning. Last but not least, this research may

  10. French Antilles and Guiana.

    PubMed

    1983-11-01

    This discussion of French Antilles and Guiana cover the following: the people, geography, history, government, political conditions, economy, and relations with the US. In 1983 the population totaled 303,000 with an annual growth rate of 0.09%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 12.6/1000 and life expectancy 68 years. About 98% of the people of Martinique are of Afro European or Afro European Indian descent. The remainder are the old planter families and a sizable number of metropolitan French. Most of the work force are employed in agriculture or food processing and associated industries. Most permanent residents of Guadeloupe are of mixed Afro European descent. A few thousand Metropolitan French reside there. Most French Guianese live along the coast, about 1/2 of them in the capital. Martinique is the northernmost of the Windward Islands, which are part of the Lesser Antilles chain in the Caribbean Sea southeast of Puerto Rico. Guadeloupe comprises 2 of the Leeward Islands, which are also part of the Lesser Antilles chain. French Guiana is located on the northern coast of South America, a few degrees north of the Equator. Indians were the 1st known indigenous inhabitants of French Guiana and the French Antilles. Columbus sighted Guadeloupe in 1493, Martinique in 1493 or 1502, and the Guiana coast probably during his 3rd voyage in 1498. French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique, as overseas departments of France since 1946, are integral parts of the French Republic. Their relationship to Metropolitan France is somewhat similar to that of Alaska and Hawaii to the counterminous US. Each department has a general council composed of 1 representative elected by each canton. Guadeloupe and Martinique each elect 2 senators to the French Senate and 3 deputies to the National Assembly. French Guiana elects 1 senator and 1 deputy. In each of the 3 departments exist individuals and small political parties that advocate immediate independence, but their adherents form only

  11. Global Initiative of the Special Olympics Movement for People with Intellectual Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Damentko, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    The mission of the Special Olympics is to provide year-round sports training and competition in a variety (33) of Olympic-type sports for children and adults with intellectual disabilities, giving them continuing opportunities to develop physical fitness, demonstrate courage, experience joy, and participate in sharing of gifts and friendship with their families, other athletes, and their communities. The Special Olympics movement often goes beyond the sports competition formula. During the last few years, the movement has developed many new global initiatives, which expand its former sports activities. They include: Coaching excellence and the coaching modelPartnerships with international (regional) sports federationsSports Resources Teams (SRT)Extended quota for high level athletesAthletes Leadership Program (ALPS)Young Athletes ProgramYouth volunteer initiativesUnified Sports ProgramMotor Activity Training ProgramHealthy Athletes Program These initiatives fulfill and expand the existing program, which was launched in 1968 and is the largest sports organization for people with disabilities worldwide, with very important new social, marketing, and developmental aspects of life, going far beyond activities met in other sports organizations. PMID:25964828

  12. Global initiative of the special olympics movement for people with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Damentko, Mariusz

    2015-03-29

    The mission of the Special Olympics is to provide year-round sports training and competition in a variety (33) of Olympic-type sports for children and adults with intellectual disabilities, giving them continuing opportunities to develop physical fitness, demonstrate courage, experience joy, and participate in sharing of gifts and friendship with their families, other athletes, and their communities. The Special Olympics movement often goes beyond the sports competition formula. During the last few years, the movement has developed many new global initiatives, which expand its former sports activities. They include: Coaching excellence and the coaching modelPartnerships with international (regional) sports federationsSports Resources Teams (SRT)Extended quota for high level athletesAthletes Leadership Program (ALPS)Young Athletes ProgramYouth volunteer initiativesUnified Sports ProgramMotor Activity Training ProgramHealthy Athletes Program These initiatives fulfill and expand the existing program, which was launched in 1968 and is the largest sports organization for people with disabilities worldwide, with very important new social, marketing, and developmental aspects of life, going far beyond activities met in other sports organizations.

  13. Connaissance et Usage d'Anglicismes par des Francais de Paris (Knowledge and Usage of Anglicisms by French People in Paris)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartier, Alice

    1977-01-01

    A synthesis of a research project treating the relationship between the comprehension of English words, the ability to use them and their actual usage by members of various social groups in Paris. Topics covered are: methodology, classification of words, reactions of informants and interpretation of data. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  14. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-05-01

    microscopes, chemical analyses etc. The NHM has big labs—like a university—in the basement. I write papers, give talks... For the public galleries of the NHM my group provides expert input to exhibitions-when the meteorite pavilion was recently refurbished we suggested a layout, wrote text and selected samples, but this was then 'edited' by the exhibition designers. I'm also working on a new website with virtual meteorite specimens. As an expert on Martian meteorites I often get interviewed by the media: for example, I am on a new Channel 4 programme called Destination Mars. I have also just finished a general interest book—it's called Search for Life; the NHM have just published it (in March). And do you get to go to exciting places? As a researcher I go to conferences I am just off to the States this week. I went to Antarctica ten years ago meteorite collecting and I am hoping to go to Australia this year. It is good fun but they really do need an expert who can recognise a meteorite. I'll be going to the Nullarbor region of Australia for 2 3 weeks depending on the weather if it's too green there is too much grass, so you can't see the meteorites. How do you find people respond to meteorites? People love touching rocks from outer space, especially primary school children. You can see how they are burnt on the outside. When you feel the weight of them it really brings it home: iron meteorites are heavy! They'll often say 'Wow, it fell from the sky' as they glance upwards, half expecting another one to come crashing through the ceiling. Everyone finds it amazing that a solid object has come as if from nowhere. And they are so old. They can't believe how old they are. We want to know where we come from. There is always lots of media coverage about what is happening in the sky (eclipses and the like). It's there and it's a bit of a mystery. If we can get to grips with how our planets and how our own Sun formed it can put us in the picture as to where we have come from and

  15. The epidemiology of viral hepatitis among people who inject drugs: Results of global systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Paul; Mathers, Bradley; Cowie, Benjamin; Hagan, Holly; Jarlais, Don Des; Horyniak, Danielle; Degenhardt, Louisa

    2011-01-01

    Background Injecting drug use (IDU) is an important risk for viral hepatitis transmission. Detailed, transparent estimates of the scale of the problem at regional and global levels have never been made. We report national, regional and global prevalence and population size estimates for hepatitis C (HCV) and hepatitis B (HBV) among people who inject drugs. Methods Systematic search of peer-reviewed (Medline/Embase/PsycINFO) and grey literature databases, conference abstracts and online resources, with a widely distributed call for additional data. From 4386 peer-reviewed and 1019 grey literature sources, 1125 were reviewed in full. Studies were extracted to a customised database and graded according their methods. Serological reports of HCV antibodies/anti-HCV, HBV antibodies/anti-HBc, and/or HBV surface antigen/HBsAg among IDUs samples with n>40 participants, <100% HIV-positive, and sampling frames that did not exclude participants on the basis of age or sex were included. Using endorsed decision rules, prevalence estimates were calculated with anti-HCV and anti-HBV as proxies for exposure and HBsAg for current infection. These were combined with IDU population sizes to estimate the number of HBV and HCV positive IDUs. Findings Eligible reports of anti-HCV among IDUs were located for 77 countries. Prevalence was 60–80% in 26 countries and >80% in 12. We estimate worldwide about 10.0 million (range 6.0–15.2M) IDUs might be anti-HCV positive. China, (1.6M), the USA (1.5M) and the Russian Federation (1.3M) had by far the largest such populations. HBsAg reports were found for 59 countries, ranging from 5–10% in 21 countries and over 10% in 10. Worldwide, 6.4 million IDU might be anti-HBc positive (2.3–9.7M), and 1.2 million (0.3–2.7M) HBsAg positive. Interpretation The prevalence of anti-HCV among IDUs is far greater than HIV. Viral hepatitis clearly poses a challenge to public health. Variation in the coverage and quality of existing research creates

  16. Global and regional trends in the nutritional status of young people: a critical and neglected age group.

    PubMed

    Akseer, Nadia; Al-Gashm, Sara; Mehta, Seema; Mokdad, Ali; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-04-01

    Adolescence and emerging adulthood form a critical time period for the achievement of optimal health and nutrition across all stages of the life course. We undertook a review of published literature and global data repositories for information on nutrition levels, trends, and patterns among young people aged 10-24 years from January 1, 2016 to September 20, 2016. We describe patterns for both males and females at the global level and for geographic regions for the period covering 1990-2015. The results of this study paint a less than ideal picture of current young people's nutrition, suggesting dual burdens of underweight and high body-mass index in many countries and variable improvements in micronutrient deficiencies across geographical regions. Poor diet diversity and lack of nutrient-dense food, high risk for metabolic syndrome, and sedentary lifestyles also characterize this population. The need for objective, comparable, and high-quality data is also recognized for further study in this area. As the global community works toward supporting and scaling up health gains in the sustainable development goal era, realizing the critical role of young people is essential. Investing in young people's nutrition is critical to making strides in improving the overall health and well-being of all populations. © 2017 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. Patients' perceptions of cosmetic surgery at a time of globalization, medical consumerism, and mass media culture: a French experience.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Câlin Constantin; Deneuve, Sophie

    2013-08-01

    The global popularity of cosmetic surgery, combined with mass media attention on medical consumerism, has resulted in misinformation that may have negatively affected the "collective image" of aesthetic practitioners. The authors assess patients' perceptions of cosmetic surgery and analyze their decision-making processes. During a 2-year period, 250 consecutive patients presenting to either of 2 public hospitals for cosmetic surgery treatment were asked to complete a 7-item questionnaire evaluating their knowledge of opinions about, and referring practices for, aesthetic procedures. Patients undergoing oncologic, postbariatric, or reconstructive procedures were not included in the study. After exclusion of 71 cases for refusal or incompletion, 179 questionnaires were retained and analyzed (from 162 women and 17 men). Overall, repair (70.4%), comfort (45.3%), and health (40.8%) were the words most frequently associated with cosmetic surgery. Quality of preoperative information (69.3%), patient-physician relationship (65.4%), and results seen in relatives/friends (46.3%) were the most important criteria for selecting a cosmetic surgeon. Moreover, 82.7% of patients knew the difference between cosmetic surgery and cosmetic medicine. Although potential patients appear to be more educated about cosmetic surgery than they were several years ago, misinformation still persists. As physicians, we must be responsible for disseminating accurate education and strengthening our collaboration with general practitioners to improve not only our results but also the accuracy of information in the mass media.

  18. People

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-11-01

    the war Hoyle returned to Cambridge, but kept in close contact with his collaborators. Fred Hoyle was a canny and media-savvy scientist, 40 years before such things were recognized. Martin Rees said after his death '[He] also had other dimensions to his career, his inventiveness and skill as a communicator'. It is hard to realize now the impact that Hoyle's broadcasts had in post-war Britain. His programmes for the BBC on The Nature of the Universe won greater audiences than such unlikely rivals as Bertrand Russell and Tommy Handley. Even today many people recall how they were affected by listening to these broadcasts. Hoyle used one of his broadcasts to ridicule the hot explosion theory. He referred to the idea of a 'big bang as fanciful'. Unfortunately the name stuck, much to Hoyle's chagrin. In the 1950s Hoyle began a fruitful collaboration with Willy Fowler of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena. Hoyle was interested in the origin of the chemical elements. Hans Bethe, Charles Critchfield and Karl-Frederich von Weizsäcker had calculated in 1939 how stars could turn protons into helium nuclei by nuclear fusion. Part of the Vela supernova remmant, the debris left after the type of massive explosion in which Hoyle predicted that heavy nuclei were formed. (© Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, Anglo-Australian Observatory.) Building on earlier collaboration with Ed Saltpeter, Hoyle used data supplied by Geoffrey and Margaret Burbidge and, working with Fowler, began to piece together how the elements were formed. By looking at very large stars near the end of their lives and examining their chemical composition, they noticed that the abundances of elements almost exactly corresponded to those with a low nuclear capture cross section. Hoyle argued that all of the elements in our bodies had been formed in stars that had been and gone before our solar system had even formed. In their classic paper the elements are produced by three basic methods. The

  19. Resveratrol: French Paradox Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Catalgol, Betul; Batirel, Saime; Taga, Yavuz; Ozer, Nesrin Kartal

    2012-01-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenol that plays a potentially important role in many disorders and has been studied in different diseases. The research on this chemical started through the “French paradox,” which describes improved cardiovascular outcomes despite a high-fat diet in French people. Since then, resveratrol has been broadly studied and shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and anti-angiogenic effects, with those on oxidative stress possibly being most important and underlying some of the others, but many signaling pathways are among the molecular targets of resveratrol. In concert they may be beneficial in many disorders, particularly in diseases where oxidative stress plays an important role. The main focus of this review will be the pathways affected by resveratrol. Based on these mechanistic considerations, the involvement of resveratrol especially in cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and possibly in longevity will be is addressed. PMID:22822401

  20. When global conservation meets local livelihoods: People and parks in Central America

    Treesearch

    John Schelhas; Max J. Pfeffer

    2010-01-01

    National park and related forest conservation efforts tend to emanate from core areas of the world and are often imposed on rural people living on forest fringes in the least developed regions of lesser developed countries. We address the social and cultural processes that ensue when center-originating conservation meets local people with their resource-dependent...

  1. La Culture Canadienne-Francaise = French Canadian Culture. Interim Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussiere, Adrien L., Ed.

    Materials about the culture specific to French-speaking people in Canada are presented as part of the cultural component of the prescribed second language curriculum. The materials follow the suggested sequence of studying the "French Fact" in Alberta in grade 7, the study of French settlements in Canada in grade 8, and in-depth study of…

  2. Education for Global Citizenship in a Divided Society? Young People's Views and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niens, Ulrike; Reilly, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Global citizenship education has been suggested as a means of overcoming the limitations of national citizenship in an increasingly globalised world. In divided societies, global citizenship education is especially relevant and problematic as it offers the opportunity to explore identities and conflict in a wider context. This paper therefore…

  3. People, Pope and Planet: A Hermeneutic and Spectacle Analysis of "Laudato Si'" for Global Citizenship Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudelli, William

    2017-01-01

    Global citizenship education presents a number of challenges for educators, including the wide variety of texts available to be studied. I explore "Laudato Si'," Pope Francis' 2015 statement on global warming and human development. "Laudato Si'" includes contents that are broad, connective, and significant/relevant, making it a…

  4. Education for Global Citizenship in a Divided Society? Young People's Views and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niens, Ulrike; Reilly, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Global citizenship education has been suggested as a means of overcoming the limitations of national citizenship in an increasingly globalised world. In divided societies, global citizenship education is especially relevant and problematic as it offers the opportunity to explore identities and conflict in a wider context. This paper therefore…

  5. Global pattern of experienced and anticipated discrimination against people with schizophrenia: a cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    Thornicroft, Graham; Brohan, Elaine; Rose, Diana; Sartorius, Norman; Leese, Morven

    2009-01-31

    Many people with schizophrenia experience stigma caused by other people's knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour; this can lead to impoverishment, social marginalisation, and low quality of life. We aimed to describe the nature, direction, and severity of anticipated and experienced discrimination reported by people with schizophrenia. We did a cross-sectional survey in 27 countries, in centres affiliated to the INDIGO Research Network, by use of face-to-face interviews with 732 participants with schizophrenia. Discrimination was measured with the newly validated discrimination and stigma scale (DISC), which produces three subscores: positive experienced discrimination; negative experienced discrimination; and anticipated discrimination. Negative discrimination was experienced by 344 (47%) of 729 participants in making or keeping friends, by 315 (43%) of 728 from family members, by 209 (29%) of 724 in finding a job, 215 (29%) of 730 in keeping a job, and by 196 (27%) of 724 in intimate or sexual relationships. Positive experienced discrimination was rare. Anticipated discrimination affected 469 (64%) in applying for work, training, or education and 402 (55%) looking for a close relationship; 526 (72%) felt the need to conceal their diagnosis. Over a third of participants anticipated discrimination for job seeking and close personal relationships when no discrimination was experienced. Rates of both anticipated and experienced discrimination are consistently high across countries among people with mental illness. Measures such as disability discrimination laws might, therefore, not be effective without interventions to improve self-esteem of people with mental illness.

  6. Human rights violations of people with mental and psychosocial disabilities: an unresolved global crisis.

    PubMed

    Drew, Natalie; Funk, Michelle; Tang, Stephen; Lamichhane, Jagannath; Chávez, Elena; Katontoka, Sylvester; Pathare, Soumitra; Lewis, Oliver; Gostin, Lawrence; Saraceno, Benedetto

    2011-11-05

    This report reviews the evidence for the types of human rights violations experienced by people with mental and psychosocial disabilities in low-income and middle-income countries as well as strategies to prevent these violations and promote human rights in line with the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD). The article draws on the views, expertise, and experience of 51 people with mental and psychosocial disabilities from 18 low-income and middle-income countries as well as a review of English language literature including from UN publications, non-governmental organisation reports, press reports, and the academic literature.

  7. State humanitarian verticalism versus universal health coverage: a century of French international health assistance revisited.

    PubMed

    Atlani-Duault, Laëtitia; Dozon, Jean-Pierre; Wilson, Andrew; Delfraissy, Jean-François; Moatti, Jean-Paul

    2016-05-28

    The French contribution to global public health over the past two centuries has been marked by a fundamental tension between two approaches: State-provided universal free health care and what we propose to call State humanitarian verticalism. Both approaches have historical roots in French colonialism and have led to successes and failures that continue until the present day. In this paper, the second in The Lancet's Series on France, we look at how this tension has evolved. During the French colonial period (1890s to 1950s), the Indigenous Medical Assistance structure was supposed to bring metropolitan France's model of universal and free public health care to the colonies, and French State imperial humanitarianism crystallised in vertical programmes inspired by Louis Pasteur, while vying with early private humanitarian activism in health represented by Albert Schweitzer. From decolonisation to the end of the Cold War (1960-99), French assistance to newly independent states was affected by sans frontièrisme, Health for All, and the AIDS pandemic. Since 2000, France has had an active role in development of global health initiatives and favoured multilateral action for health assistance. Today, with adoption of the 2030 Sustainable Development Goals and the challenges of non-communicable diseases, economic inequality, and climate change, French international health assistance needs new direction. In the context of current debate over global health as a universal goal, understanding and acknowledging France's history could help strengthen advocacy in favour of universal health coverage and contribute to advancing global equity through income redistribution, from healthy populations to people who are sick and from wealthy individuals to those who are poor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Now what do people know about global climate change? Survey studies of educated laypeople.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Travis William; Bostrom, Ann; Read, Daniel; Morgan, M Granger

    2010-10-01

    In 1992, a mental-models-based survey in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, revealed that educated laypeople often conflated global climate change and stratospheric ozone depletion, and appeared relatively unaware of the role of anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions in global warming. This study compares those survey results with 2009 data from a sample of similarly well-educated laypeople responding to the same survey instrument. Not surprisingly, following a decade of explosive attention to climate change in politics and in the mainstream media, survey respondents in 2009 showed higher awareness and comprehension of some climate change causes. Most notably, unlike those in 1992, 2009 respondents rarely mentioned ozone depletion as a cause of global warming. They were also far more likely to correctly volunteer energy use as a major cause of climate change; many in 2009 also cited natural processes and historical climatic cycles as key causes. When asked how to address the problem of climate change, while respondents in 1992 were unable to differentiate between general "good environmental practices" and actions specific to addressing climate change, respondents in 2009 have begun to appreciate the differences. Despite this, many individuals in 2009 still had incorrect beliefs about climate change, and still did not appear to fully appreciate key facts such as that global warming is primarily due to increased concentrations of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, and the single most important source of this carbon dioxide is the combustion of fossil fuels. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  9. Young People's World-Mindedness and the Global Dimension in Their Geography Education: A Comparative Study of Upper Secondary School Students' Ideas in Finland, Germany and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Béneker, Tine; Tani, Sirpa; Uphues, Rainer; van der Vaart, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Geography is one of the most important school subjects for the development of global awareness and international understanding. Curricular concepts and pedagogical strategies for developing global awareness through geography abound. What is largely unknown, however, is how young people make sense of the world in which they are growing up and if…

  10. Young People's World-Mindedness and the Global Dimension in Their Geography Education: A Comparative Study of Upper Secondary School Students' Ideas in Finland, Germany and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Béneker, Tine; Tani, Sirpa; Uphues, Rainer; van der Vaart, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Geography is one of the most important school subjects for the development of global awareness and international understanding. Curricular concepts and pedagogical strategies for developing global awareness through geography abound. What is largely unknown, however, is how young people make sense of the world in which they are growing up and if…

  11. Indigenous and tribal peoples' health (The Lancet-Lowitja Institute Global Collaboration): a population study.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Ian; Robson, Bridget; Connolly, Michele; Al-Yaman, Fadwa; Bjertness, Espen; King, Alexandra; Tynan, Michael; Madden, Richard; Bang, Abhay; Coimbra, Carlos E A; Pesantes, Maria Amalia; Amigo, Hugo; Andronov, Sergei; Armien, Blas; Obando, Daniel Ayala; Axelsson, Per; Bhatti, Zaid Shakoor; Bhutta, Zulfiqar Ahmed; Bjerregaard, Peter; Bjertness, Marius B; Briceno-Leon, Roberto; Broderstad, Ann Ragnhild; Bustos, Patricia; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Chu, Jiayou; Deji; Gouda, Jitendra; Harikumar, Rachakulla; Htay, Thein Thein; Htet, Aung Soe; Izugbara, Chimaraoke; Kamaka, Martina; King, Malcolm; Kodavanti, Mallikharjuna Rao; Lara, Macarena; Laxmaiah, Avula; Lema, Claudia; Taborda, Ana María León; Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan; Lobanov, Andrey; Melhus, Marita; Meshram, Indrapal; Miranda, J Jaime; Mu, Thet Thet; Nagalla, Balkrishna; Nimmathota, Arlappa; Popov, Andrey Ivanovich; Poveda, Ana María Peñuela; Ram, Faujdar; Reich, Hannah; Santos, Ricardo V; Sein, Aye Aye; Shekhar, Chander; Sherpa, Lhamo Y; Skold, Peter; Tano, Sofia; Tanywe, Asahngwa; Ugwu, Chidi; Ugwu, Fabian; Vapattanawong, Patama; Wan, Xia; Welch, James R; Yang, Gonghuan; Yang, Zhaoqing; Yap, Leslie

    2016-07-09

    International studies of the health of Indigenous and tribal peoples provide important public health insights. Reliable data are required for the development of policy and health services. Previous studies document poorer outcomes for Indigenous peoples compared with benchmark populations, but have been restricted in their coverage of countries or the range of health indicators. Our objective is to describe the health and social status of Indigenous and tribal peoples relative to benchmark populations from a sample of countries. Collaborators with expertise in Indigenous health data systems were identified for each country. Data were obtained for population, life expectancy at birth, infant mortality, low and high birthweight, maternal mortality, nutritional status, educational attainment, and economic status. Data sources consisted of governmental data, data from non-governmental organisations such as UNICEF, and other research. Absolute and relative differences were calculated. Our data (23 countries, 28 populations) provide evidence of poorer health and social outcomes for Indigenous peoples than for non-Indigenous populations. However, this is not uniformly the case, and the size of the rate difference varies. We document poorer outcomes for Indigenous populations for: life expectancy at birth for 16 of 18 populations with a difference greater than 1 year in 15 populations; infant mortality rate for 18 of 19 populations with a rate difference greater than one per 1000 livebirths in 16 populations; maternal mortality in ten populations; low birthweight with the rate difference greater than 2% in three populations; high birthweight with the rate difference greater than 2% in one population; child malnutrition for ten of 16 populations with a difference greater than 10% in five populations; child obesity for eight of 12 populations with a difference greater than 5% in four populations; adult obesity for seven of 13 populations with a difference greater than 10% in

  12. Use of Fibrates Monotherapy in People with Diabetes and High Cardiovascular Risk in Primary Care: A French Nationwide Cohort Study Based on National Administrative Databases

    PubMed Central

    Roussel, Ronan; Chaignot, Christophe; Weill, Alain; Travert, Florence; Hansel, Boris; Marre, Michel; Ricordeau, Philippe; Alla, François; Allemand, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim According to guidelines, diabetic patients with high cardiovascular risk should receive a statin. Despite this consensus, fibrate monotherapy is commonly used in this population. We assessed the frequency and clinical consequences of the use of fibrates for primary prevention in patients with diabetes and high cardiovascular risk. Design Retrospective cohort study based on nationwide data from the medical and administrative databases of French national health insurance systems (07/01/08-12/31/09) with a follow-up of up to 30 months. Methods Lipid-lowering drug-naive diabetic patients initiating fibrate or statin monotherapy were identified. Patients at high cardiovascular risk were then selected: patients with a diagnosis of diabetes and hypertension, and >50 (men) or 60 (women), but with no history of cardiovascular events. The composite endpoint comprised myocardial infarction, stroke, amputation, or death. Results Of the 31,652 patients enrolled, 4,058 (12.8%) received a fibrate. Age- and gender-adjusted annual event rates were 2.42% (fibrates) and 2.21% (statins). The proportionality assumption required for the Cox model was not met for the fibrate/statin variable. A multivariate model including all predictors was therefore calculated by dividing data into two time periods, allowing Hazard Ratios to be calculated before (HR<540) and after 540 days (HR>540) of follow-up. Multivariate analyses showed that fibrates were associated with an increased risk for the endpoint after 540 days: HR<540 = 0.95 (95% CI: 0.78–1.16) and HR>540 = 1.73 (1.28–2.32). Conclusion Fibrate monotherapy is commonly prescribed in diabetic patients with high cardiovascular risk and is associated with poorer outcomes compared to statin therapy. PMID:26398765

  13. Do French lay people and health professionals find it acceptable to breach confidentiality to protect a patient's wife from a sexually transmitted disease?

    PubMed

    Guedj, M; Sastre, M T Muñoz; Mullet, E; Sorum, P C

    2006-07-01

    To determine under what conditions lay people and health professionals find it acceptable for a physician to breach confidentiality to protect the wife of a patient with a sexually transmitted disease (STD). In a study in France, breaching confidentiality in 48 scenarios were accepted by 144 lay people, 10 psychologists and 7 physicians. The scenarios were all possible combinations of five factors: severity of the disease (severe, lethal); time taken to discuss this with (little time, much time); intent to inform the spouse about the disease (none, one of these days, immediately); intent to adopt protective behaviours (no intent, intent); and decision to consult an expert in STDs (yes, no), 2 x 2 x 3 x 2 x 2. The importance and interactions of each factor were determined, at the group level, by performing analyses of variance and constructing graphs. The concept of breaching confidentiality to protect a wife from her husband's STD was favoured much more by lay people and psychologists than by physicians (mean ratings 11.76, 9.28 and 2.90, respectively, on a scale of 0-22). The patient's stated intentions to protect his wife and to inform her of the disease had the greatest impact on acceptability. A cluster analysis showed groups of lay participants who found breaching confidentiality "always acceptable" (n = 14), "depending on the many circumstances" (n = 87), requiring "consultation with an expert" (n = 30) and "never acceptable (n = 13)". Most people in France are influenced by situational factors when deciding if a physician should breach confidentiality to protect the spouse of a patient infected with STD.

  14. Data for global solutions: How new technologies can help people to re-imagine the future of cities and more

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewksbury, J.; Gaffney, O.; Young, D.

    2016-12-01

    People are more willing to accept and act on the science surrounding global environmental change when they can see themselves in that change - or when they can understand how global processes like climate change impact their lives in concrete and intimate ways. The digital revolution presents unique opportunities to make those sorts of connections. We will explore how new technologies can help to immerse users in the challenges of global sustainability and deepen their sense of personal involvement. We will draw on case studies from the Future Earth Media Lab, a communications and research initiative that was formed by Future Earth, the International Council for Science (ICSU) and Globaïa in 2015. The Media Lab was set up to bring together partners from science, technology, art and design to co-create products and experiences that can change the way we communicate the challenges of the world's most intractable problems, with the potential to shift mindsets and behaviours. We are at the very beginning of this 10-year project to explore how advances in virtual reality, augmented reality, data visualization and artificial intelligence will reshape how non-scientific audiences engage with science. The session will focus on results of the most recent projects launched in 2016: a hackathon series with the Iris.AI artificial intelligence project to test the limits of AI for searches based on framed research questions; a global hackathon series around using virtual reality to communicate global change challenges and an immersive space co-created with data visualization experts at the UN's biggest conference on sustainable urbanization at Quito, Ecuador.

  15. Voici l'Afrique Francophone (Here Is French-Speaking Africa).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Laurence; Henley, Joan

    This unit is designed to introduce intermediate French language students to an important region of the French-speaking world--Africa. The unit provides the French language teacher with lesson plans and materials that are intended to reinforce French language skills, teach about African culture, and infuse global education skills and concepts. The…

  16. French Teaching Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, J. Dale

    Supplementary teaching materials for French language programs are presented in this text. Primarily intended for secondary school students, the study contains seven units of material. They include: (1) French gestures, (2) teaching the interrogative pronouns, (3) French cuisine, (4) recreational learning games, (5) French-English cognates, (6)…

  17. Global burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors for young people's health during 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.

    PubMed

    Mokdad, Ali H; Forouzanfar, Mohammad Hossein; Daoud, Farah; Mokdad, Arwa A; El Bcheraoui, Charbel; Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar; Kyu, Hmwe Hmwe; Barber, Ryan M; Wagner, Joseph; Cercy, Kelly; Kravitz, Hannah; Coggeshall, Megan; Chew, Adrienne; O'Rourke, Kevin F; Steiner, Caitlyn; Tuffaha, Marwa; Charara, Raghid; Al-Ghamdi, Essam Abdullah; Adi, Yaser; Afifi, Rima A; Alahmadi, Hanan; AlBuhairan, Fadia; Allen, Nicholas; AlMazroa, Mohammad; Al-Nehmi, Abdulwahab A; AlRayess, Zulfa; Arora, Monika; Azzopardi, Peter; Barroso, Carmen; Basulaiman, Mohammed; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Bonell, Chris; Breinbauer, Cecilia; Degenhardt, Louisa; Denno, Donna; Fang, Jing; Fatusi, Adesegun; Feigl, Andrea B; Kakuma, Ritsuko; Karam, Nadim; Kennedy, Elissa; Khoja, Tawfik A M; Maalouf, Fadi; Obermeyer, Carla Makhlouf; Mattoo, Amitabh; McGovern, Terry; Memish, Ziad A; Mensah, George A; Patel, Vikram; Petroni, Suzanne; Reavley, Nicola; Zertuche, Diego Rios; Saeedi, Mohammad; Santelli, John; Sawyer, Susan M; Ssewamala, Fred; Taiwo, Kikelomo; Tantawy, Muhammad; Viner, Russell M; Waldfogel, Jane; Zuñiga, Maria Paola; Naghavi, Mohsen; Wang, Haidong; Vos, Theo; Lopez, Alan D; Al Rabeeah, Abdullah A; Patton, George C; Murray, Christopher J L

    2016-06-11

    Young people's health has emerged as a neglected yet pressing issue in global development. Changing patterns of young people's health have the potential to undermine future population health as well as global economic development unless timely and effective strategies are put into place. We report the past, present, and anticipated burden of disease in young people aged 10-24 years from 1990 to 2013 using data on mortality, disability, injuries, and health risk factors. The Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) includes annual assessments for 188 countries from 1990 to 2013, covering 306 diseases and injuries, 1233 sequelae, and 79 risk factors. We used the comparative risk assessment approach to assess how much of the burden of disease reported in a given year can be attributed to past exposure to a risk. We estimated attributable burden by comparing observed health outcomes with those that would have been observed if an alternative or counterfactual level of exposure had occurred in the past. We applied the same method to previous years to allow comparisons from 1990 to 2013. We cross-tabulated the quantiles of disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) by quintiles of DALYs annual increase from 1990 to 2013 to show rates of DALYs increase by burden. We used the GBD 2013 hierarchy of causes that organises 306 diseases and injuries into four levels of classification. Level one distinguishes three broad categories: first, communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders; second, non-communicable diseases; and third, injuries. Level two has 21 mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive categories, level three has 163 categories, and level four has 254 categories. The leading causes of death in 2013 for young people aged 10-14 years were HIV/AIDS, road injuries, and drowning (25·2%), whereas transport injuries were the leading cause of death for ages 15-19 years (14·2%) and 20-24 years (15·6%). Maternal disorders were the highest cause of death

  18. Global early warning systems for natural hazards: systematic and people-centred.

    PubMed

    Basher, Reid

    2006-08-15

    To be effective, early warning systems for natural hazards need to have not only a sound scientific and technical basis, but also a strong focus on the people exposed to risk, and with a systems approach that incorporates all of the relevant factors in that risk, whether arising from the natural hazards or social vulnerabilities, and from short-term or long-term processes. Disasters are increasing in number and severity and international institutional frameworks to reduce disasters are being strengthened under United Nations oversight. Since the Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004, there has been a surge of interest in developing early warning systems to cater to the needs of all countries and all hazards.

  19. What do people know about global climate change 1. Mental models

    SciTech Connect

    Bostrom, A. ); Morgan, M.G.; Fischhoff, B.; Read, D. )

    1994-12-01

    A set of exploratory studies and mental model interviews was conducted in order to characterize public understanding of climate change. In general, respondents regarded global warming as both bad and highly likely. Many believed that warming has already occurred. They tended to confuse stratospheric ozone depletion with the greenhouse effect and weather with climate. Automobile use, heat and emissions from industrial processes, aerosol spray cans, and pollution in general were frequently perceived as primary causes of global warming. Additionally, the [open quotes]greenhouse effect[close quotes] was often interpreted literally as the cause of a hot and steamy climate. The effects attributed to climate change often included increased skin cancer and changed agricultural yields. The mitigation and control strategies proposed by interviewees typically focused on general pollution control, with few specific links to carbon dioxide and energy use. Respondents appeared to be relatively unfamiliar with such regulatory developments as the ban on CFCs for nonessential uses. These beliefs must be considered by those designing risk communications or presenting climate-related policies to the public. 20 refs., 4 tabs.

  20. Spotlight: French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    May, J F

    1988-01-01

    French Polynesia is a group of 4 archipelagos in the South Pacific with an estimated 1987 population of 176,600. Its people are mainly Tahitians, Polynesians, Chinese, Europeans, and persons of mixed heritage. More than half of the population live in the Society Islands. About half of the population is less than 20 years old and slightly more than 5% is older than 60. Due to a recent decline in fertility, the rate of natural increase is moderate--about 2.5% annually. In the early 1980s, about two thirds of women in Tahiti aged 15-49 used a modern method of contraception. It remains to be seen whether this pattern will spread to the entire area. Projections by the World Bank, assuming little decline in mortality, yield a total population of 400,000 by the year 2030. The major challenge for French Polynesia is to develop the many small islands spread across an ocean territory half the size of the contiguous 48 states of the U.S. Tourist-related activities have replaced traditional income-generating such as production of coconuts, mother-of-pearl, and vanilla. The value of exports from the area make up only 5% of the value of imports. To extract the potentially huge food and mineral resources from the ocean, enormous infusions of capital will be necessary.

  1. Sharks and people: insight into the global practices of tourism operators and their attitudes to shark behaviour.

    PubMed

    Richards, Kirsty; O'Leary, Bethan C; Roberts, Callum M; Ormond, Rupert; Gore, Mauvis; Hawkins, Julie P

    2015-02-15

    Shark tourism is a popular but controversial activity. We obtained insights into this industry via a global e-mailed questionnaire completed by 45 diving/snorkelling operators who advertised shark experiences (shark operators) and 49 who did not (non-shark operators). 42% of shark operators used an attractant to lure sharks and 93% stated they had a formal code of conduct which 86% enforced "very strictly". While sharks were reported to normally ignore people, 9 operators had experienced troublesome behaviour from them. Whilst our research corroborates previous studies indicating minimal risk to humans from most shark encounters, a precautionary approach to provisioning is required to avoid potential ecological and societal effects of shark tourism. Codes of conduct should always stipulate acceptable diver behaviour and appropriate diver numbers and shark operators should have a moral responsibility to educate their customers about the need for shark conservation.

  2. [Access to care and prevention for people with disabilities in France: Analysis based on data from the 2008 French health and disabilities households surveys (Handicap-Santé-Ménages)].

    PubMed

    Pichetti, S; Penneau, A; Lengagne, P; Sermet, C

    2016-04-01

    Using data from the 2008 French health and disabilities households surveys, this study examines the use of three types of routine medical care (dental, ophthalmological and gynecological care) and four preventive services (cervical cancer screening, breast cancer screening, colon cancer screening and vaccination against hepatitis B) both for people with disabilities and for those without. Two definitions of disability were retained: (1) functional limitations (motor, cognitive, visual or hearing limitations) and (2) administrative recognition of disability. For each type of care, binary logistic regression was used to test whether access to care is influenced by any of the disability indicators as well as by other explanatory variables. Two set of explanatory variables were included successively: (1) sociodemographic variables such as age, gender as well as a proxy variable representing medical needs and (2) socioeconomic variables such as level of education, household income per consumption unit, supplementary health insurance coverage, co-payment exemption and geographic variables. Persons reporting functional limitations are less likely to access to all types of care, in a proportion that varies between 5 to 27 points, compared to persons without functional limitations, except for eye care for which no gap is observed. The same results are obtained for persons reporting an administrative recognition of disability, and more precisely for those who benefit from the Disability allowance for adults (Allocation adulte handicapé [AAH]). After adding the social variables to the model, problems of access to health care decrease significantly, showing that disabled persons' social situation tends to reduce their access to care. This study reveals, for a broad range of care, a negative differential access to care for persons reporting functional limitations compared to those without limitations which is confirmed when identifying disability through administrative

  3. Environmental education as preparation people for life in conditions of global changes imbalanced Nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabrowska, A. E.

    2013-12-01

    in this enterprise. For all participating in these walks it is great opportunity to observe how the Nature is functioning without much man-kind interference, pure, untouched and imbalanced. They can observe the untouched river banks, non regulated and meandering in its own way. They can recognize new species which are appearing every year on non cultivated glades, around overgrowing mid-forest lakes or on wetlands. They can observe traces of beavers' work: dams, cut trees, beaver lodges built on small streams flowing through the forest. Also the nests of unique black storks are possible to see. They can measure and observe how the climate is changing and how it varies in different ecosystems (forest, glade, river, wetlands) untouched by humans. They can learn that Nature can exists itself without human interference and it becomes more diverse and rich. It is necessary to teach students to the correct understand the changes in Nature, explain how are changing the living and non-living nature, what is the man-made imbalances of Nature and also how to prepare people for climate change. Each year almost 700 - 1000 students and about 100 teachers participate in this ecological learning process. Outdoor education, observations and experimentations are crucial issues of national school curricula referring to all educational levels which is successfully addressed by this program.

  4. Association Between Psychotropic and Cardiovascular Iatrogenic Alerts and Risk of Hospitalizations in Elderly People Treated for Dementia: A Self-Controlled Case Series Study Based on the Matching of 2 French Health Insurance Databases.

    PubMed

    Zerah, Lorene; Boddaert, Jacques; Leperre-Desplanques, Armelle; Bonnet-Zamponi, Dominique; Verny, Marc; Deligne, Jean; Boelle, Pierre-Yves

    2017-06-01

    Elderly people are at risk of repeated hospitalizations, some of which may be drug related and preventable. In 2011, a group of French healthcare experts selected 5 iatrogenic alerts (IAs), based on criteria identified in a literature search and from their professional experience, to assess the appropriateness of medication in elderly patients. Our objective was to examine the association between hospitalizations and IAs in elderly patients treated for Alzheimer disease who are particularly sensitive to adverse drug events. A 2-year (January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2012) longitudinal national database study, with a study design similar to self-controlled case series, was performed to analyze data on drug prescriptions and hospitalization. IAs were defined as (1) long half-life benzodiazepine; (2) antipsychotic drugs in patients with Alzheimer disease; (3) co-prescription of 3 or more psychotropic drugs; (4) co-prescription of 2 or more diuretics; and (5) co-prescription of 4 or more antihypertensive drugs. Data were obtained by matching of 2 French National Health Insurance Databases. France. All affiliates, aged ≥75 years, receiving treatment for Alzheimer disease, alive on January 1, 2011 were included. We calculated the relative increase in the number of hospitalizations in patients with IAs. The analysis was performed over four 6-month periods. A total of 10,754 patients were included. During the periods with IAs, hospitalization rates increased by 0.36/year compared with 0.23/year in the periods without for the same patient, and the number of hospitalizations doubled [proportional fold change = 1.9, 95% confidence interval (1.8, 2.1)]. We estimated that 22% [95% confidence interval (20%, 23%)] of all hospitalizations were associated with IAs, 80% of which were due to psychotropic IAs. The IAs could be used as a simple and clinically relevant tool by prescribing physicians to assess the appropriateness of the prescription in elderly patients treated for

  5. Why Study French?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Gerard

    This brochure for parents and prospective students of French points out career opportunities available to qualified speakers of French. Suggestions concerning student eligibility and the time requirements of language programs are also offered. (RL)

  6. Towards a French Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breach, H. T.

    1972-01-01

    Contends that secondary school students lose their appeal for French as they advance in school. Suggests that French teachers endeavor to motivate students by focusing more attention on their students and less on their own credentials. (DS)

  7. Towards a French Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breach, H. T.

    1972-01-01

    Contends that secondary school students lose their appeal for French as they advance in school. Suggests that French teachers endeavor to motivate students by focusing more attention on their students and less on their own credentials. (DS)

  8. French Computer Terminology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Eugene F.

    1985-01-01

    Characteristics, idiosyncrasies, borrowings, and other aspects of the French terminology for computers and computer-related matters are discussed and placed in the context of French computer use. A glossary provides French equivalent terms or translations of English computer terminology. (MSE)

  9. French Studies: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markey, William L., Comp.

    A bibliography of materials relating to French language and area studies includes citations of bibliographies, books, articles, and general and specialized reference materials in French and English in these categories: general reference guides; guides to French studies; style manuals; research methodology and handbooks; library resources;…

  10. Spoken French: Book One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denoeu, Francois; Hall, R. A., Jr.

    This textbook offers a course in French designed for those who need to make themselves understood on ordinary topics in French and cannot devote years of study to the language. It is a self-instructional course, but it is designed to be used with a native French speaker as a guide or, if no native speaker is available, with recordings that are…

  11. Societal risk as seen by the French public

    SciTech Connect

    Karpowicz-Lazreg, C.; Mullet, E. )

    1993-06-01

    Mean risk magnitude judgments expressed by French students on 90 hazardous activities are reported and compared with findings on American, Hungarian, and Norwegian samples. In many respects, rating of perceived risk in the French sample is highly comparable to rating in American subjects. American and French people tend to share the same preoccupations to the same extent. The only major differences concern hallucinatory drugs and oral contraceptives. The Norwegians and French ratings differ much more. Norwegians and French people generally have the same preoccupations (which make Norwegian ratings the best predictor of French ratings) but not to the same extent. The French are much more concerned with a whole series of activities connected to violence, the implementation of high technology or agricultural technology. However, like the Norwegians, the French are extremely concerned about the spread of hallucinogenic drugs. The Hungarian and French ratings differ on practically all instances, except on basic activities or substances in all industrialized nations (caffeine, motorcycles, ...). Differences were observed within the French sample itself. Women more than men consider that home appliances in general and large-scale public transportation are potentially dangerous. Science students more than art students tend to fear a certain number of medical techniques and a certain number of toxic substances (e.g., smoking). 7 refs., 1 tab.

  12. Global and Regional Associations of Smaller Cerebral Gray and White Matter Volumes with Gait in Older People

    PubMed Central

    Phan, Thanh G.; Chen, Jian; Srikanth, Velandai K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Gait impairments increase with advancing age and can lead to falls and loss of independence. Brain atrophy also occurs in older age and may contribute to gait decline. We aimed to investigate global and regional relationships of cerebral gray and white matter volumes with gait speed, and its determinants step length and cadence, in older people. Methods In a population-based study, participants aged >60 years without Parkinson's disease or brain infarcts underwent magnetic resonance imaging and gait measurements using a computerized walkway. Linear regression was used to study associations of total gray and white matter volumes with gait, adjusting for each other, age, sex, height and white matter hyperintensity volume. Other covariates considered in analyses included weight and vascular disease history. Voxel-based morphometry was used to study regional relationships of gray and white matter with gait. Results There were 305 participants, mean age 71.4 (6.9) years, 54% male, mean gait speed 1.16 (0.22) m/s. Smaller total gray matter volume was independently associated with poorer gait speed (p = 0.001) and step length (p<0.001), but not cadence. Smaller volumes of cortical and subcortical gray matter in bilateral regions important for motor control, vision, perception and memory were independently associated with slower gait speed and shorter steps. No global or regional associations were observed between white matter volume and gait independent of gray matter volume, white matter hyperintensity volume and other covariates. Conclusion Smaller gray matter volume in bilaterally distributed brain networks serving motor control was associated with slower gait speed and step length, but not cadence. PMID:24416309

  13. Global and regional associations of smaller cerebral gray and white matter volumes with gait in older people.

    PubMed

    Callisaya, Michele L; Beare, Richard; Phan, Thanh G; Chen, Jian; Srikanth, Velandai K

    2014-01-01

    Gait impairments increase with advancing age and can lead to falls and loss of independence. Brain atrophy also occurs in older age and may contribute to gait decline. We aimed to investigate global and regional relationships of cerebral gray and white matter volumes with gait speed, and its determinants step length and cadence, in older people. In a population-based study, participants aged >60 years without Parkinson's disease or brain infarcts underwent magnetic resonance imaging and gait measurements using a computerized walkway. Linear regression was used to study associations of total gray and white matter volumes with gait, adjusting for each other, age, sex, height and white matter hyperintensity volume. Other covariates considered in analyses included weight and vascular disease history. Voxel-based morphometry was used to study regional relationships of gray and white matter with gait. There were 305 participants, mean age 71.4 (6.9) years, 54% male, mean gait speed 1.16 (0.22) m/s. Smaller total gray matter volume was independently associated with poorer gait speed (p = 0.001) and step length (p<0.001), but not cadence. Smaller volumes of cortical and subcortical gray matter in bilateral regions important for motor control, vision, perception and memory were independently associated with slower gait speed and shorter steps. No global or regional associations were observed between white matter volume and gait independent of gray matter volume, white matter hyperintensity volume and other covariates. Smaller gray matter volume in bilaterally distributed brain networks serving motor control was associated with slower gait speed and step length, but not cadence.

  14. Enabling Educators to Teach and Understand Intercultural Communication: The Example of "Young People on the Global Stage: Their Education and Influence"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhlenwinkel, Anke

    2017-01-01

    "Young people on the global stage: their education and influence" is an EU-funded project that involves teachers and students from three European countries (Britain, Germany and Spain) and teachers from several African countries with a focus on The Gambia and Kenya. The main aim of the project is to promote an understanding of some of…

  15. Enabling Educators to Teach and Understand Intercultural Communication: The Example of "Young People on the Global Stage: Their Education and Influence"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uhlenwinkel, Anke

    2017-01-01

    "Young people on the global stage: their education and influence" is an EU-funded project that involves teachers and students from three European countries (Britain, Germany and Spain) and teachers from several African countries with a focus on The Gambia and Kenya. The main aim of the project is to promote an understanding of some of…

  16. French Bilingual Classes in Vietnam: Issues and Debates about an Innovative Language Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normand-Marconnet, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Despite a long historical French presence in Vietnam, only 0.5% of Vietnamese people speak French today. As in other countries of South East Asia, language instruction in Vietnam has mainly focused on English for several decades. This paper provides an overview of a project called "French bilingual classes". The main aim of the study is…

  17. French Bilingual Classes in Vietnam: Issues and Debates about an Innovative Language Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Normand-Marconnet, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Despite a long historical French presence in Vietnam, only 0.5% of Vietnamese people speak French today. As in other countries of South East Asia, language instruction in Vietnam has mainly focused on English for several decades. This paper provides an overview of a project called "French bilingual classes". The main aim of the study is…

  18. Multilingualism and Web Advertising: Addressing French-Speaking Consumers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Drawing inferences from both quantitative and qualitative data, this study examines the extent to which American companies tailor their Web advertising for global audiences with a particular focus on French-speaking consumers in North America, Europe, Africa, the Caribbean and French Polynesia. Explored from a sociolinguistic and social semiotic…

  19. Multilingualism and Web Advertising: Addressing French-Speaking Consumers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Drawing inferences from both quantitative and qualitative data, this study examines the extent to which American companies tailor their Web advertising for global audiences with a particular focus on French-speaking consumers in North America, Europe, Africa, the Caribbean and French Polynesia. Explored from a sociolinguistic and social semiotic…

  20. French roots of French neo-lamarckisms, 1879-1985.

    PubMed

    Loison, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    This essay attempts to describe the neo-Lamarckian atmosphere that was dominant in French biology for more than a century. Firstly, we demonstrate that there were not one but at least two French neo-Lamarckian traditions. This implies, therefore, that it is possible to propose a clear definition of a (neo)Lamarckian conception, and by using it, to distinguish these two traditions. We will see that these two conceptions were not dominant at the same time. The first French neo-Lamarckism (1879-1931) was structured by a very mechanic view of natural processes. The main representatives of this first period were scientists such as Alfred Giard (1846-1908), Gaston Bonnier (1853-1922) and Félix Le Dantec (1869-1917). The second Lamarckism - much more vitalist in its inspiration - started to develop under the supervision of people such as Albert Vandel (1894-1980) and Pierre-Paul Grassé (1895-1985). Secondly, this essay suggests that the philosophical inclinations of these neo-Lamarckisms reactivated a very ancient and strong dichotomy of French thought. One part of this dichotomy is a material, physicalist tradition, which started with René Descartes but developed extensively during the 18th and 19th centuries. The other is a spiritual and vitalist reaction to the first one, which also had a very long history, though it is most closely associated with the work of Henri Bergson. Through Claude Bernard, the first neo-Lamarckians tried to construct a mechanical and determinist form of evolutionary theory which was, in effect, a Cartesian theory. The second wave of neo-Lamarckians wanted to reconsider the autonomy and reactivity of life forms, in contrast to purely physical systems.

  1. Reevaluating the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromberg, Roland N.

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes previous interpretations concerning the French Revolution. Discusses several weaknesses of the Marxist views in light of recent philosophical and sociological thinking about social change. (RKM)

  2. Reevaluating the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stromberg, Roland N.

    1986-01-01

    Analyzes previous interpretations concerning the French Revolution. Discusses several weaknesses of the Marxist views in light of recent philosophical and sociological thinking about social change. (RKM)

  3. The Effects of Collaborative Models in Second Life on French Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Indy Y. T.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Chia-Jui, Chu

    2015-01-01

    French is the ninth most widely used language globally, but French-learning environments in Taiwan have been insufficient. Language acquisition is easier in a natural setting, and so such a setting should be available to language learners wherever possible. This study aimed to (1) create an authentic environment for learning French in Second Life…

  4. Raising FLAGS: Renewing Core French at the Pre-Service Teacher Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    A new program for core French teacher candidates called FLAGS (French Language and Global Studies) was established at the University of British Columbia (UBC) in 2007. The program is intended for those who are keen to teach core French and possess rudimentary proficiency in the language but may not necessarily have the same proficiency or prior…

  5. The Effects of Collaborative Models in Second Life on French Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiao, Indy Y. T.; Yang, Stephen J. H.; Chia-Jui, Chu

    2015-01-01

    French is the ninth most widely used language globally, but French-learning environments in Taiwan have been insufficient. Language acquisition is easier in a natural setting, and so such a setting should be available to language learners wherever possible. This study aimed to (1) create an authentic environment for learning French in Second Life…

  6. "Une Certaine idee du francais": The Dilemma for French Language Policy in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelly, Sharon L.

    1999-01-01

    The global French-speaking community recognizes the need to better coordinate its efforts to assert the vitality of French in a world increasingly dominated by English. In pursuing this goal, the Francophone world has developed an identity crisis. Defenders of French face difficult questions about the relationship between language and culture and…

  7. Teaching French Culture. Theory and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Ross; Suozzo, Andrew

    In today's global village, the choice of languages and cultures offered to the high school and college student in constantly increasing. Several reasons are offered for choosing the more traditional option of French/Francophone culture: internationalism, political contributions, intellectual achievements, France's role in Europe and in technology,…

  8. How Has the Global Economic Crisis Affected People with Different Levels of Education? Education Indicators in Focus. No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports that between 2008 and 2009, unemployment rates across OECD countries increased among people at all educational levels, but rose to especially troubling heights among people without an upper secondary education. In 2009, the average employment rate across OECD countries was much higher for individuals with a tertiary (i.e.…

  9. How Has the Global Economic Crisis Affected People with Different Levels of Education? Education Indicators in Focus. No. 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports that between 2008 and 2009, unemployment rates across OECD countries increased among people at all educational levels, but rose to especially troubling heights among people without an upper secondary education. In 2009, the average employment rate across OECD countries was much higher for individuals with a tertiary (i.e.…

  10. The French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltimore City Public Schools, MD.

    This outline on the French Revolution is designed to illustrate how this period of French history influenced various aspects of contemporary culture. Four main sections are treated: (1) ideas that led to the Revolution, (2) the reigns of the Bourbon kings, (3) the Revolution, and (4) the rise of Napoleon as a reaction to chaos. A list of 16mm…

  11. Skiing in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Paulette

    1984-01-01

    A high school French program conducted entirely in French on local ski slopes is based on the philosophy that language is a social tool for communicative purposes and can best be learned in social interaction. The successful program uses teamwork, an open attitude toward language learning, non-stressful evaluation, and innovative techniques. (MSE)

  12. French in Quebec.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Anglejan, Alison

    1979-01-01

    Discusses language legislation in Canada where French and English are both official languages, and in Quebec province where French has been declared the sole official language. Outlines the conflicts and the impact of these differing laws on Quebec, its population, and its relations with the rest of Canada. (JMF)

  13. Demythifying French Grammar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, William H.

    1984-01-01

    Focuses on several myths and fallacies prevalent in the field of French grammar. The importance of keeping up-to-date with language and grammatical usage is stressed, since the rules of language do change. Thus, the validity of the linguistic content of French grammar books must be questioned, so that any outmoded or invalid concepts can be…

  14. French Phonology. Programmed Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Robert

    This self-instructional course is designed to help students in attaining a high degree of competence in French pronunciation and a basic knowledge of how French sounds correspond to the writing system. The material is divided into ten chapters. Each chapter has three parts. Part One is the presentation of a short dialogue for memorization. It…

  15. Illustrated French Idioms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsa, Serge M.

    Designed to promote an awareness of the everyday French language, this supplementary textbook was developed to enable students of French to use idiomatic expressions from the early learning stages to the more advanced levels. The units are arranged as follows according to the verb component of the expression: "avoir,""etre,""faire," the three…

  16. [The French clinician's guide to the Kidney disease: Improving global outcomes (KDIGO) for chronic kidney disease-mineral and bone disorders (CKD-MBD)].

    PubMed

    Jean, G; Chazot, C

    2010-06-01

    The new recommendations of "Kidney disease: improving global outcomes" for the definition and classification of chronic kidney disease and mineral and bone disorders were released in August 2009. We report the most important of these recommendations and a brief comment from a clinician's point of view. The main points to be noted with regard to the new recommendations are as follows: serum calcium should be in the normal range; phosphorus concentration should be lowered toward the normal range and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels should be two to nine times the upper limit of the normal range; bone remodelling can be assessed using alkaline phosphatase; the use of calcium-phosphorus (Ca x P) product as an index is not recommended anymore; at any stage of CKD, vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency must be corrected; vascular calcification should be detected in a simple way using lateral abdominal radiography and echocardiography; a bone biopsy should be performed before therapy with bisphosphonates; the prescription of dialysate calcium should be individualized within the range of 1.25-1.5 mmol/l; the phosphate binder (calcium- or non-calcium-based) and the other treatments for secondary hyperparathyroidism should be individualized based on a global strategy. A majority of these recommendations are not based on evidence and their feasibility and relevance need to be assessed.

  17. Evaluation en francais de base: La production orale et ecrite, secondaire 1 et 4, 1993. Rapport global (Basic French Assessment: Speaking and Writing Skills, Senior 1 and 4, 1993. Final Report).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manitoba Dept. of Education, Winnipeg. Bureau of French Education.

    The report, entirely in French, details an assessment of the extent to which Manitoba schools are meeting the learning objectives for speaking and writing skills specified for senior (secondary) levels 1 and 4 in the basic French curriculum for the province. For each level and skill area, a random sample of students representing urban and rural…

  18. Sex and the global fund: how sex workers, lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transgender people, and men who have sex with men are benefiting from the Global Fund, or not.

    PubMed

    Fried, Susana T; Kowalski-Morton, Shannon

    2008-01-01

    The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria has allowed countries to bring their response to HIV/AIDS to an unprecedented scale, resulting in innovative projects that reach otherwise underserved communities with HIV prevention, treatment, and care. But in regions and countries where sex workers, men who have sex with men, or lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender persons are criminalized or stigmatized, organizations that are led by or work with these groups face challenges participating in Global Fund processes and accessing funding. This article explores the potential of the Global Fund to create space for the participation of these groups in decision-making and to increase their access to resources; examines barriers that hinder their participation; and proposes measures to overcome them.

  19. Critical interactions between Global Fund-supported programmes and health systems: a case study in Lao People's Democratic Republic.

    PubMed

    Mounier-Jack, Sandra; Rudge, James W; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaxay; Chanthapadith, Chansouk; Coker, Richard

    2010-11-01

    In Lao PDR, investment by the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria has played an important role in scaling up the response to HIV and tuberculosis (TB). As part of a series of case studies on how Global Fund-supported programmes interact with national health systems, we assessed the nature and extent of integration of the Global Fund portfolios within the national HIV and TB programmes, the integration of the HIV and TB programmes within the general health system, and system-wide effects of Global Fund support in Lao PDR. The study relied on a literature review and 35 interviews with key stakeholders using the Systemic Rapid Assessment Toolkit and thematic analysis. In Lao PDR, the HIV and TB programmes remain vertical and mostly weakly integrated with the general health system. However, Global Fund investments have extended the network of facilities delivering care at local level, resulting in greater integration with primary care and improved access for patients, particularly for TB. For HIV, as the prevalence remains low, services primarily target high-risk groups in urban areas. Less integrated functions include procurement and drug supply, and monitoring and evaluation. HIV and TB programmes are only starting to coordinate with each other. Global Fund-supported activities are generally integrated within the national disease programmes, except for monitoring and evaluation. Synergies of Global Fund support with the health system include improved access to services, institutional strengthening and capacity building, improved family planning (with wider condom distribution through HIV/AIDS social marketing programmes), and the delivery of add-on interventions, such as vaccinations and health education, alongside Global Fund-supported interventions at community level. Unintended consequences concern the lack of alignment between national stated priorities (maternal and child health) and the strong focus of external partners, such as the Global Fund

  20. French for Business and Journalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacombe, Anne

    1977-01-01

    A description of a university course in French whose object is to give students some facility in current French as found in newspapers, magazines, radio and films; and to introduce them to contemporary French civilization. Methods used are reading, translation, synopsis writing, correspondence and interviews. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  1. Teaching Middle School French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Marilyn L.

    1975-01-01

    Author described some of the techniques she used for teaching French at Roosevelt Junior High School, West Palm Beach. She also explained how these techniques helped students to maintain an early desire to learn a foreign language. (Author/RK)

  2. The French Strategic Dilemma.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-03-01

    crisis . The language of French strategic doctrine is that of dissuasion (deterrence). The French talk publicly much less about warfighting (and employment...threaten vital lines of supply in a crisis situation. Nuclear forces would not *-"e necessarily be useful In deterring Soviet actions in this regard. Rather...34 in Pierre Lellouche, ed., Pacifisme et Dissuasion (Paris: Economica , 1983), pp. 253-266. C. % 6. See Pierre Lacoste, Strategie Navale (Paris: Fernand

  3. "Don't Take Our Voices Away": A Role Play on the Indigenous Peoples' Global Summit on Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Julie Treick; Swinehart, Tim

    2010-01-01

    The Indigenous Peoples' Climate Summit role play grew out of the Portland Area Rethinking Schools Earth in Crisis Curriculum Workgroup and the Oregon Writing Project. It was designed to introduce students to the broad injustice of the climate crisis and to familiarize them with some of the specific issues faced by different indigenous groups…

  4. "Don't Take Our Voices Away": A Role Play on the Indigenous Peoples' Global Summit on Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Julie Treick; Swinehart, Tim

    2010-01-01

    The Indigenous Peoples' Climate Summit role play grew out of the Portland Area Rethinking Schools Earth in Crisis Curriculum Workgroup and the Oregon Writing Project. It was designed to introduce students to the broad injustice of the climate crisis and to familiarize them with some of the specific issues faced by different indigenous groups…

  5. The Global Classroom: A Study in Appreciation, Awareness, and Acceptance of Different Cultures and People in Our Ever Changing World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demovsky, Sandra; Niemuth, Judy

    An action research project developed and implemented a program for increasing global skills and awareness of ethnic diversity in the classroom so that students could better understand others. The targeted population at two midwestern sites consisted of middle school sixth graders and high school learning disabled students in social studies…

  6. Health service use, out-of-pocket payments and catastrophic health expenditure among older people in India: the WHO Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE).

    PubMed

    Brinda, Ethel Mary; Kowal, Paul; Attermann, Jørn; Enemark, Ulrika

    2015-05-01

    Healthcare financing through out-of-pocket payments and inequities in healthcare utilisation are common in low and middle income countries (LMICs). Given the dearth of pertinent studies on these issues among older people in LMICs, we investigated the determinants of health service use, out-of-pocket and catastrophic health expenditures among older people in one LMIC, India. We accessed data from a nationally representative, multistage sample of 2414 people aged 65 years and older from the WHO's Study on global AGEing and adult health in India. Sociodemographic characteristics, health profiles, health service utilisation and out-of-pocket health expenditure were assessed using standard instruments. Multivariate zero-inflated negative binomial regression models were used to evaluate the determinants of health service visits. Multivariate Heckman sample selection regression models were used to assess the determinants of out-of-pocket and catastrophic health expenditures. Out-of-pocket health expenditures were higher among participants with disability and lower income. Diabetes, hypertension, chronic pulmonary disease, heart disease and tuberculosis increased the number of health visits and out-of-pocket health expenditures. The prevalence of catastrophic health expenditure among older people in India was 7% (95% CI 6% to 8%). Older men and individuals with chronic diseases were at higher risk of catastrophic health expenditure, while access to health insurance lowered the risk. Reducing out-of-pocket health expenditure among older people is an important public health issue, in which social as well as medical determinants should be prioritised. Enhanced public health sector performance and provision of publicly funded insurance may protect against catastrophic health expenses and healthcare inequities in India. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. Multistakeholder partnerships with the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea to improve childhood immunisation: A perspective from global health equity and political determinants of health equity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hani; Marks, Florian; Novakovic, Uros; Hotez, Peter J; Black, Robert E

    2016-08-01

    To examine the current partnerships to improve the childhood immunisation programme in the Democratic Peoples' Republic of Korea (DPRK) in the context of the political determinants of health equity. A literature search was conducted to identify public health collaborations with the DPRK government. Based on the amount of publicly accessible data and a shared approach in health system strengthening among the partners in immunisation programmes, the search focused on these partnerships. The efforts by WHO, UNICEF, GAVI and IVI with the DPRK government improved the delivery of childhood vaccines (e.g. pentavalent vaccines, inactivated polio vaccine, two-dose measles vaccine and Japanese encephalitis vaccine) and strengthened the DPRK health system by equipping health centres, and training all levels of public health personnel for VPD surveillance and immunisation service delivery. The VPD-focused programmatic activities in the DPRK have improved the delivery of childhood immunisation and have created dialogue and contact with the people of the DPRK. These efforts are likely to ameliorate the political isolation of the people of the DPRK and potentially improve global health equity. © 2016 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Translating Word-Play: French-English, English-French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, W. Terrence

    1986-01-01

    The linguistic complexity of humor is illustrated with examples of word play translated from French to English and English to French. Examples from the writings of James Joyce and Marcel Proust are highlighted. (CB)

  9. Translating Word-Play: French-English, English-French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, W. Terrence

    1986-01-01

    The linguistic complexity of humor is illustrated with examples of word play translated from French to English and English to French. Examples from the writings of James Joyce and Marcel Proust are highlighted. (CB)

  10. Comparing Written Competency in Core French and French Immersion Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappin-Fortin, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have compared the written competency of French immersion students and their core French peers, and research on these learners at a postsecondary level is even scarcer. My corpus consists of writing samples from 255 students from both backgrounds beginning a university course in French language. The writing proficiency of core French…

  11. French for Marketing. Using French in Media and Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, R. E.; Chebli-Saadi, M.

    The textbook, entirely in French, is designed to help prepare anglophone students for French language usage in the media and telecommunications. It is organized according to two major themes. The first part addresses the French of advertising; chapter topics include the actors in advertising (agencies, announcers, supports), forms of advertising,…

  12. French for Marketing. Using French in Media and Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, R. E.; Chebli-Saadi, M.

    The textbook, entirely in French, is designed to help prepare anglophone students for French language usage in the media and telecommunications. It is organized according to two major themes. The first part addresses the French of advertising; chapter topics include the actors in advertising (agencies, announcers, supports), forms of advertising,…

  13. The French Revolution and the French Language: A Paradox?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djite, Paulin

    1992-01-01

    Explores the relationship between revolutionary ideals and the subsequent expansion and promotion of the French language. It is shown, through a linguistic and sociopolitical history of the French Revolution and the French language, that there is no incompatibility between the two and that the movement of Francophonie is a continuation of France's…

  14. The French Revolution and the French Language: A Paradox?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djite, Paulin

    1992-01-01

    Explores the relationship between revolutionary ideals and the subsequent expansion and promotion of the French language. It is shown, through a linguistic and sociopolitical history of the French Revolution and the French language, that there is no incompatibility between the two and that the movement of Francophonie is a continuation of France's…

  15. French nuclear physics accelerator opens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumé, Belle

    2016-12-01

    A new €140m particle accelerator for nuclear physics located at the French Large Heavy Ion National Accelerator (GANIL) in Caen was inaugurated last month in a ceremony attended by French president François Hollande.

  16. America's Tolerance for French Radicalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolin, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The publication of Francois Cusset's "French Theory" raises a series of fascinating questions concerning the trans-Atlantic transmission and circulation of ideas. Most important, it impels everyone to inquire why for a time French thought managed to flourish in American universities while French intellectuals rapidly abandoned the entire…

  17. French Polynesia. Asian Studies Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Outs, JoAnn

    This curriculum outline presents the components of an introductory course to French culture which focuses on the colonization of French Polynesia. First, the general goals and student objectives for the course, which focuses on different historical periods of French Polynesia, are discussed. Next, the pre-test to determine students knowledge of…

  18. Aspects of Bordeaux French Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochet, Bernard

    Among the characteristics which set Bordeaux French apart from Standard French are the rules governing the behavior of its mid-vowels. These rules are much simpler and more extensive (in that they also apply to unstressed vowels) than in Standard French. Their application is, however, systematically conditioned by the presence or absence of word…

  19. Syllabification and French Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, D. C.

    1973-01-01

    Much research has focused on the question of whether phonological rules can and should be stated more appropriately in terms of the syllable than other units, notable segments and various boundaries. Formulation of rules without reference to the syllable obscures the motivation and unity of alternations. French has rules for consonant deletion…

  20. Know Your Laws. French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.; Ledun, Andree

    This French language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three…

  1. French 3200, Course Description.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newfoundland and Labrador Dept. of Education, St. John's. Div. of Instruction.

    The objectives and course content for French 3200, a secondary level course intended for the second or third year of four- and six-credit language course sequences in Newfoundland high schools, are outlined. Its primary objectives relate to the skill development in the four language skill areas (listening, speaking, reading, and writing),…

  2. Old French for Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sargent, Barbara Nelson

    A list of six main benefits of the study of Old French at the undergraduate level follows a discussion of the value, function, and goals of such a program. The advantages discussed result in: (1) a first-hand acquaintance with medieval masterpieces, (2) a sense of continuity in the history of literature, (3) improved techniques in critical…

  3. French Theory's American Adventures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cusset, Francois

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses how it is simply too late to be still speaking about French theory and its role in the intellectual life of the United States today. It seems to many observers that the gap between real-life politics and theory's guerrillas is much too wide already, after 30 years of academic fever, for the two worlds to even…

  4. Know Your Laws. French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.; Ledun, Andree

    This French language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three…

  5. Teaching the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Thomas M.

    1989-01-01

    Reports on presentations made at a symposium sponsored by the Connecticut Humanities Council. Papers dealt with teaching the French Revolution by presenting European history in new relationships with the rest of the world and by examining the Declaration of the Rights of Man as it related to the role of women. (KO)

  6. The French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrofani, E. Robert; Johnston, Anne

    This 10-day unit on the French Revolution is designed to help high school students understand the interplay of economic, social, and political forces in the process of revolutionary change, and the development of modern democratic forms of government. Critical thinking and geographic skill activities are employed throughout the unit and include…

  7. Teaching the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Thomas M.

    1989-01-01

    Reports on presentations made at a symposium sponsored by the Connecticut Humanities Council. Papers dealt with teaching the French Revolution by presenting European history in new relationships with the rest of the world and by examining the Declaration of the Rights of Man as it related to the role of women. (KO)

  8. The French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scrofani, E. Robert; Johnston, Anne

    This 10-day unit on the French Revolution is designed to help high school students understand the interplay of economic, social, and political forces in the process of revolutionary change, and the development of modern democratic forms of government. Critical thinking and geographic skill activities are employed throughout the unit and include…

  9. Living in Ontario French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadasdi, Terry

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a variationist analysis of verbs meaning "reside" in Ontario French. Four lexical variants are examined: "demeurer," "habiter," "rester" and "vivre." Results reveal that "rester" is used most often by unrestricted speakers and least often by those whose use of French…

  10. I Can Speak French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The guide presents content and techniques for teaching conversational French in the elementary grades. It contains an introductory section and 20 units for classroom instruction. The introduction includes notes on the overall objectives of the course, general guidelines on classroom procedure, and specific techniques for use of the materials…

  11. I Can Speak French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Div. of Curriculum and Instruction.

    The guide presents content and techniques for teaching conversational French in the elementary grades. It contains an introductory section and 20 units for classroom instruction. The introduction includes notes on the overall objectives of the course, general guidelines on classroom procedure, and specific techniques for use of the materials…

  12. Therapeutic Affordances of Social Media: Emergent Themes From a Global Online Survey of People With Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Kathleen; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    Background Research continues to present tenuous suggestions that social media is well suited to enhance management of chronic disease and improve health outcomes. Various studies have presented qualitative reports of health outcomes from social media use and have examined discourse and communication themes occurring through different social media. However, there is an absence of published studies examining and unpacking the underlying therapeutic mechanisms driving social media’s effects. Objective This paper presents a qualitative analysis thoroughly describing what social media therapeutically affords people living with chronic pain who are self-managing their condition. From this therapeutic affordance perspective, we aim to formulate a preliminary conceptual model aimed at better understanding "how" social media can influence patient outcomes. Methods In total, 218 people with chronic pain (PWCP) completed an online survey, investigating patient-reported outcomes (PROs) from social media use. Supplementary to quantitative data collected, participants were also given the opportunity to provide further open commentary regarding their use of social media as part of chronic pain management; 68/218 unique users (31.2%) chose to provide these free-text responses. Through thematic content analysis, 117 free-text responses regarding 10 types of social media were coded. Quotes were extracted and tabulated based on therapeutic affordances that we had previously identified. Inductive analysis was then performed to code defining language and emergent themes central to describing each affordance. Three investigators examined the responses, developed the coding scheme, and applied the coding to the data. Results We extracted 155 quotes from 117 free-text responses. The largest source of quotes came from social network site users (78/155, 50.3%). Analysis of component language used to describe the aforementioned affordances and emergent themes resulted in a final revision

  13. Therapeutic affordances of social media: emergent themes from a global online survey of people with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Merolli, Mark; Gray, Kathleen; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando

    2014-12-22

    Research continues to present tenuous suggestions that social media is well suited to enhance management of chronic disease and improve health outcomes. Various studies have presented qualitative reports of health outcomes from social media use and have examined discourse and communication themes occurring through different social media. However, there is an absence of published studies examining and unpacking the underlying therapeutic mechanisms driving social media's effects. This paper presents a qualitative analysis thoroughly describing what social media therapeutically affords people living with chronic pain who are self-managing their condition. From this therapeutic affordance perspective, we aim to formulate a preliminary conceptual model aimed at better understanding "how" social media can influence patient outcomes. In total, 218 people with chronic pain (PWCP) completed an online survey, investigating patient-reported outcomes (PROs) from social media use. Supplementary to quantitative data collected, participants were also given the opportunity to provide further open commentary regarding their use of social media as part of chronic pain management; 68/218 unique users (31.2%) chose to provide these free-text responses. Through thematic content analysis, 117 free-text responses regarding 10 types of social media were coded. Quotes were extracted and tabulated based on therapeutic affordances that we had previously identified. Inductive analysis was then performed to code defining language and emergent themes central to describing each affordance. Three investigators examined the responses, developed the coding scheme, and applied the coding to the data. We extracted 155 quotes from 117 free-text responses. The largest source of quotes came from social network site users (78/155, 50.3%). Analysis of component language used to describe the aforementioned affordances and emergent themes resulted in a final revision and renaming of therapeutic affordances

  14. HIV prevention, treatment, and care services for people who inject drugs: a systematic review of global, regional, and national coverage.

    PubMed

    Mathers, Bradley M; Degenhardt, Louisa; Ali, Hammad; Wiessing, Lucas; Hickman, Matthew; Mattick, Richard P; Myers, Bronwyn; Ambekar, Atul; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2010-03-20

    Previous reviews have examined the existence of HIV prevention, treatment, and care services for injecting drug users (IDUs) worldwide, but they did not quantify the scale of coverage. We undertook a systematic review to estimate national, regional, and global coverage of HIV services in IDUs. We did a systematic search of peer-reviewed (Medline, BioMed Central), internet, and grey-literature databases for data published in 2004 or later. A multistage process of data requests and verification was undertaken, involving UN agencies and national experts. National data were obtained for the extent of provision of the following core interventions for IDUs: needle and syringe programmes (NSPs), opioid substitution therapy (OST) and other drug treatment, HIV testing and counselling, antiretroviral therapy (ART), and condom programmes. We calculated national, regional, and global coverage of NSPs, OST, and ART on the basis of available estimates of IDU population sizes. By 2009, NSPs had been implemented in 82 countries and OST in 70 countries; both interventions were available in 66 countries. Regional and national coverage varied substantially. Australasia (202 needle-syringes per IDU per year) had by far the greatest rate of needle-syringe distribution; Latin America and the Caribbean (0.3 needle-syringes per IDU per year), Middle East and north Africa (0.5 needle-syringes per IDU per year), and sub-Saharan Africa (0.1 needle-syringes per IDU per year) had the lowest rates. OST coverage varied from less than or equal to one recipient per 100 IDUs in central Asia, Latin America, and sub-Saharan Africa, to very high levels in western Europe (61 recipients per 100 IDUs). The number of IDUs receiving ART varied from less than one per 100 HIV-positive IDUs (Chile, Kenya, Pakistan, Russia, and Uzbekistan) to more than 100 per 100 HIV-positive IDUs in six European countries. Worldwide, an estimated two needle-syringes (range 1-4) were distributed per IDU per month, there were

  15. Learners' Selective Perceptions of Information during Instructed Learning in French: Consequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drewelow, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined how American learners of French perceived the influence of instruction on their existing stereotypes about the French people to determine the effects of these stereotypes on their language learning and cultural openness. During a semester, 22 undergraduate students, all native English speakers enrolled in 4 sections of…

  16. Franco-American Ethnic Heritage Studies Program. Contributions of the French to America: Dissemination of Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chasse, Paul P.

    The document contains 12 units suitable for use in junior and senior high school social studies classes on experiences and acculturation of first and second generation French people in the Northeastern United States. Each unit is presented in both the English and French language. Units are entitled "Education,""The…

  17. Health-related quality of life in French adolescents and adults: norms for the DUKE Health Profile

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The continual monitoring of population health-related quality of life (HRQoL) with validated instruments helps public health agencies assess, protect, and promote population health. This study aimed to determine norms for the French adolescent and adult general population for the Duke Health Profile (DUKE) questionnaire in a large representative community sample. Methods We randomly selected 17,733 French people aged 12 to 75 years old in 2 steps, by households and individuals, from the National Health Barometer 2005, a periodic population study by the French National Institute for Prevention and Health Education. Quality of life and other data were collected by computer-assisted telephone interview. Results Normative data for the French population were analyzed by age, gender and self-reported chronic disease. Globally, function scores (best HRQoL=100) for physical, mental, social, and general health, as well as perceived health and self-esteem, were 72.3 (SEM 0.2), 74.6 (0.2), 66.8 (0.1), 71.3 (0.1), 71.3 (0.3), 76.5 (0.1), respectively. Dysfunction scores (worst HRQoL=100) for anxiety, depression, pain and disability domains were 30.9 (0.1), 27.6 (0.2), 34.3 (0.3), 3.1 (0.1), respectively. Conclusion The French norms for adolescents and adults for the DUKE could be used as a reference for other studies assessing HRQoL, for specific illnesses, in France and for international comparisons. PMID:21619606

  18. FOSFORE: project for distributions of French seismological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, N. M.; Pardo, C.; Péquegnat, C.; Barbier, S.; Grunberg, M.; Maron, C.; Schaming, M.; Working Group

    2007-12-01

    FOSFORE (Fédération de l'Observation Sismologique Française) is a collaborative inter-university project aimed to distribute data of French permanent and temporary seismic networks and to make them freely available for the scientific community. FOSFORE is designed as a distributed data archive and is organized around four data centers located in universities at Grenoble, Nice, Paris, and Strasbourg. Currently available data include records of the GEOSCOPE global seismic network (Paris data center), of the French broadband seismic network (Nice and Strasbourg data centers), of the French accelerometric permanent network RAP (Grenoble data center), of numerous French temporary seismic deployments from different regions in the World (Grenoble data center), of the Corinth Rift Laboratory (Grenoble data center), and of regional monitoring networks in France. Waveform data are made freely available for download via NetDC and AutoDRM data request systems and Web interfaces. In the near future, we plan to incorporate more temporary deployments as well as data from volcano-monitoring networks in La Reunion Island and French Antilles and data from the North Chile seismic experiment. In addition, we are developing a centralized Web portal to access French seismological data, by connecting data centers via standard data request protocols such as NetDC and WebDC/Arclink. This facility will allow a better integration of the French data into the international data exchange system.

  19. Partnering to change the world for people with haemophilia: 6(th) Haemophilia Global Summit, Prague, Czech Republic, 24-26(th) September 2015.

    PubMed

    Astermark, Jan; Hart, Dan; Lobet, Sébastien; Blatný, Jan; d'Oiron, Roseline; Kenet, Gili; Dolan, Gerry; Libotte, Valérie; Hermans, Cedric

    2016-07-01

    The 6(th) Haemophilia Global Summit was held in Prague, Czech Republic, in September 2015. The programme was designed by an independent Scientific Steering Committee of haemophilia experts and aimed to share optimal management strategies for haemophilia at all life stages, explore recent potential advances in the management of haemophilia A and B and discuss challenges in haemophilia care. In this supplement from the meeting, Dan Hart reviews the lessons that can be learnt from cost-constrained environments with regard to improving care for people with haemophilia globally. Sébastien Lobet discusses the importance of physical activity for optimising care and Roseline d'Oiron and Jan Blatný consider the role of real-world data in understanding the effect of treatment in a clinical setting over the long term and the true impact of treatment on the day-to-day life of the patient. Gili Kenet addresses the current challenges relating to the optimal management of prophylaxis, and Gerry Dolan and Cedric Hermans discuss the value of pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters in informing treatment decisions. Cedric Hermans and Valérie Libotte explore the importance of considering social and occupational development factors as an integral part of haemophilia care, and Jan Astermark reviews key strategies to predict and prevent inhibitor development.

  20. The Most Prevalent Causes of Deaths, DALYs, and Geriatric Syndromes in Iranian Elderly People Between 1990 and 2010: findings from the Global Burden of Disease study 2010.

    PubMed

    Namazi Shabestari, Alireza; Saeedi Moghaddam, Sahar; Sharifi, Farshad; Fadayevatan, Reza; Nabavizadeh, Fatemeh; Delavari, Alireza; Jamshidi, Hamid Reza; Naderimagham, Shohreh

    2015-08-01

    The substantial increase in life expectancy during recent decades has left all countries with a high number of elderly people that have particular health needs. Health policy-makers must be aware of the most prevalent causes of deaths and DALYs in this age group, as well as geriatric syndromes, in order to provide appropriate care and allocate resources in an equitable manner. The Global Burden of Disease study 2010 (GBD 2010), conducted by the institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation team, estimated the worldwide burden of diseases from 1990 to 2010. Its estimations were conducted on the basis of the proportion of deaths, the duration of symptoms and disability weights for sequelae, years lived with disability (YLDs), years of life lost (YLLs), and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to different diseases. In the present study, we extracted the data regarding the top five most prevalent causes of deaths, DALYs, and geriatric syndromes in the elderly based on the aforementioned GBD 2010, discussed the results using some tables and figures, reviewed the results, described the limitations of GBD 2010, and finally provided some recommendations as potential solutions. According to GBD 2010, the total number of deaths in Iran in 1990 was 321,627, of which 116,100 were in elderly people (those aged 60 years and above), meaning that 36.10% of all deaths occurred in the elderly. Among all diseases in this year, the first to third ranked causes of death were ischemic heart disease (IHD; 29.44%), neoplasms (13.52%), and stroke (7.24%). In comparison, the total number of deaths in Iran increased to 351,814 in 2010, with 213,116 of these occurring in the elderly (60.58% of deaths), but the most prevalent causes of death remained the same as in 1990. The highest 1990 DALYs rates were the result of IHD (21.56%), neoplasms (10.70%), and stroke (4.85%). IHD (22.77%), neoplasms (9.48%), and low back pain (LBP; 5.72%) were the most prevalent causes of DALYs in

  1. Forming impressions from English and French first names: is there an in-group effect in Québec?

    PubMed

    Heuvelink, Christine; McKelvie, Stuart; Drumheller, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    Using the Name Connotation Profile, English Canadian and French Canadian university students rated their impressions of people with English or French first names. Both the English and French students formed a more favorable impression of people who had names from their own linguistic group. These results are consistent with social identity theory, according to which people define themselves in part by groups to which they belong, with the contact hypothesis, according to which people feel more positively towards those with whom they have interacted more, and perhaps with the mere exposure effect, according to which liking for an object increases with the frequency with which it is presented.

  2. Alors, la chanson francaise? (And So, the French Song?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvet, Louis Jean

    1977-01-01

    The introductory article in an issue devoted to songs as a teaching device. The article deals with English and American rock, folk and pop music. It makes the point that learning a language is also learning the culture of the people who speak the language. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  3. Alors, la chanson francaise? (And So, the French Song?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvet, Louis Jean

    1977-01-01

    The introductory article in an issue devoted to songs as a teaching device. The article deals with English and American rock, folk and pop music. It makes the point that learning a language is also learning the culture of the people who speak the language. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  4. Matching Intended and Actual French Curriculum Objectives in Secondary Schools in Western Province, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omusonga, T. O.; Kazadi, I. M.; Indoshi, F. C.

    2009-01-01

    Intended French curriculum objectives refer to four official objectives of teaching and learning French in secondary schools in Kenya as laid down in syllabuses; namely, to equip learners with basic communicative skills, give learners access to oral and written materials, facilitate further studies, and promote global peace (Republic of Kenya,…

  5. French and Spanish Communication for Caribbean Professionals: Innovative Foreign Language Course Developments from UTech, Jamaica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boufoy-Bastick, Beatrice

    Economic globalization make it increasingly important for Caribbean professionals to be able to communicate effectively in English, French, and Spanish. Accordingly, the University of Technology in Jamaica is developing French and Spanish courses designed to teach culturally appropriate and successful communication for specific professions. The…

  6. French perspectives on psychiatric classification.

    PubMed

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the role of the French schools in the development of psychiatric nosology. Boissier de Sauvages published the first French treatise on medical nosology in 1763. Until the 1880s, French schools held a pre-eminent position in the development of psychiatric concepts. From the 1880s until World War I, German-speaking schools exerted the most influence, featuring the work of major figures such as Emil Kraepelin and Eugen Bleuler. French schools were probably hampered by excessive administrative and cultural centralization. Between the 1880s and the 1930s, French schools developed diagnostic categories that set them apart from international classifications. The main examples are Bouffée Délirante, and the complex set of chronic delusional psychoses (CDPs), including chronic hallucinatory psychosis. CDPs were distinguished from schizophrenia by the lack of cognitive deterioration during evolution. Modern French psychiatry is now coming into line with international classification, such as DSM-5 and the upcoming ICD-11.

  7. La Langue francaise dans les pays du Benelux: besoins et exigences (The French Language in Benelux: Needs and Requirements). Colloquium of the International Association for the Research and Diffusion of Audiovisual and Structuro-Global Methods (12th, Brussells, Belgium, February 28-29, 1980).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosseel, Eddy, Ed.

    The proceedings of a colloquium examining the status of French in Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg) begin with an overview of the issues concerning the role of French in this multilingual, regional, cooperative union and a brief look at the future of French in the contemporary world. Discussions of the status of French in the six…

  8. Patient-Reported Outcomes and Therapeutic Affordances of Social Media: Findings From a Global Online Survey of People With Chronic Pain

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Kathleen; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Lopez-Campos, Guillermo

    2015-01-01

    Background Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) from social media use in chronic disease management continue to emerge. While many published articles suggest the potential for social media is positive, there is a lack of robust examination into mediating mechanisms that might help explain social media’s therapeutic value. This study presents findings from a global online survey of people with chronic pain (PWCP) to better understand how they use social media as part of self-management. Objective Our aim is to improve understanding of the various health outcomes reported by PWCP by paying close attention to therapeutic affordances of social media. We wish to examine if demographics of participants underpin health outcomes and whether the concept of therapeutic affordances explains links between social media use and PROs. The goal is for this to help tailor future recommendations for use of social media to meet individuals’ health needs and improve clinical practice of social media use. Methods A total of 231 PWCP took part in a global online survey investigating PROs from social media use. Recruited through various chronic disease entities and social networks, participants provided information on demographics, health/pain status, social media use, therapeutic affordances, and PROs from use. Quantitative analysis was performed on the data using descriptive statistics, cross-tabulation, and cluster analysis. Results The total dataset represented 218 completed surveys. The majority of participants were university educated (67.0%, 146/218) and female (83.9%, 183/218). More than half (58.7%, 128/218) were married/partnered and not working for pay (75.9%, 88/116 of these due to ill health). Fibromyalgia (46.6%, 55/118) and arthritis (27.1%, 32/118) were the most commonly reported conditions causing pain. Participants showed a clear affinity for social network site use (90.0%, 189/210), followed by discussion forums and blogs. PROs were consistent, suggesting that social

  9. Patient-reported outcomes and therapeutic affordances of social media: findings from a global online survey of people with chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Merolli, Mark; Gray, Kathleen; Martin-Sanchez, Fernando; Lopez-Campos, Guillermo

    2015-01-22

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) from social media use in chronic disease management continue to emerge. While many published articles suggest the potential for social media is positive, there is a lack of robust examination into mediating mechanisms that might help explain social media's therapeutic value. This study presents findings from a global online survey of people with chronic pain (PWCP) to better understand how they use social media as part of self-management. Our aim is to improve understanding of the various health outcomes reported by PWCP by paying close attention to therapeutic affordances of social media. We wish to examine if demographics of participants underpin health outcomes and whether the concept of therapeutic affordances explains links between social media use and PROs. The goal is for this to help tailor future recommendations for use of social media to meet individuals' health needs and improve clinical practice of social media use. A total of 231 PWCP took part in a global online survey investigating PROs from social media use. Recruited through various chronic disease entities and social networks, participants provided information on demographics, health/pain status, social media use, therapeutic affordances, and PROs from use. Quantitative analysis was performed on the data using descriptive statistics, cross-tabulation, and cluster analysis. The total dataset represented 218 completed surveys. The majority of participants were university educated (67.0%, 146/218) and female (83.9%, 183/218). More than half (58.7%, 128/218) were married/partnered and not working for pay (75.9%, 88/116 of these due to ill health). Fibromyalgia (46.6%, 55/118) and arthritis (27.1%, 32/118) were the most commonly reported conditions causing pain. Participants showed a clear affinity for social network site use (90.0%, 189/210), followed by discussion forums and blogs. PROs were consistent, suggesting that social media positively impact psychological

  10. [Acute schistosomiasis in French travellers].

    PubMed

    Agbessi, C-A; Bourvis, N; Fromentin, M; Jaspard, M; Teboul, F; Bougnoux, M-E; Hanslik, T

    2006-08-01

    The clinical presentation of acute schistosomiasis in travellers differs from those observed with chronic schistosomiasis in people from endemic areas. The objective of this study is to describe the main clinical and biological characteristics of the acute schistosomiasis in French travellers. Retrospective study conducted in 42 hospital laboratories of parasitology in France, based on a questionnaire filled out for each case of schistosomiasis diagnosed in subjects non-originating from an endemic country and returning from of a stay in Africa, between 2000 and 2004. Seventy-seven cases of acute schistosomiasis diagnosed between 2000 and 2004 were reported by 15 of the 33 laboratories having taken part in the study. The patients were 26 years old on average and 60% were contaminated in West Africa. Seventy patients (91%) presented at least one symptom at the moment of the diagnosis, but only 44 (57%) presented sufficiently intense symptoms to justify a medical consultation spontaneously. The most frequently reported clinical signs were fever (44%), diarrhoea (40%), pruritus (25%), cough (21%) and hematuria (20%). Hypereosinophilia (82%), elevated liver enzymes and positive serology were respectively reported in 82, 23 and 90% of the cases. Ova were found in the urines or the stool in 60% of the cases. Eleven patients were hospitalized. Acute schistosomiasis must be evoked in patients returning from endemic country and presenting with non-specific symptoms; including patients whose bathes in contaminated water was limited to a short contact of the feet in a river. The high frequency of the asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic forms exposes the infected people to a delayed diagnosis and therefore to an evolution towards the chronic form of schistosomiasis. The increase in tourism towards the endemic areas could be accompanied by an increase in the frequency of the schistosomiasis, and encourages setting-up an active monitoring of acute schistosomiasis.

  11. [French immigration policy].

    PubMed

    Weil, P

    1994-01-01

    From the late nineteenth century through 1974, France permitted immigration to furnish workers and to compensate for the low level of fertility. Intense immigration from North Africa, the economic crisis of the 1970s, and other factors led to policy changes in 1974. French immigration policy since 1974 has fluctuated between guaranteeing foreigners equal rights regardless of their religion, race, culture, or national origin, and attempting to differentiate among immigrants depending on their degree of assimilability to French culture. From 1974 to 1988, France had five different policies regarding whether to permit new immigration and what to do about illegal immigrants. In July 1984, the four major political parties unanimously supported a measure in Parliament that definitively guaranteed the stay in France of legal immigrants, whose assimilation thus assumed priority. Aid for return to the homeland was no longer to be widely offered, and immigration of unskilled workers was to be terminated except for those originating in European Community countries. Major changes of government in 1988 and 1993 affected only the modalities of applying these principles. The number of immigrants has fluctuated since 1974. Unskilled workers, the only category whose entrance was specifically controlled by the 1984 measures, have declined from 174,000 in 1970 to 25,000 in the early 1990s. The number of requests for political asylum declined from 60,000 in 1989 to 27,000 in 1993, and in 1991, 15,467 persons were granted refugee status. The number of immigrants of all types permitted to remain in France declined from 250,000 or 3000 per year in the early 1970s to around 110,000 at present. Although the decline is significant, it appears insufficient to the government in power since 1993. Although migratory flows are often explained as the product of imbalance in the labor market or in demographic growth, the French experience suggests that government policies, both in the sending and

  12. Invitation Refusals in Cameroon French and Hexagonal French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenkia, Bernard Mulo

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of regional pragmatic variation in French are lacking to date the focus has been on a limited range of speech acts, including apologies, requests, compliments and responses to compliments. The present paper, a systematic analysis of invitation refusals across regional varieties of French, is designed to add to the research on…

  13. Invitation Refusals in Cameroon French and Hexagonal French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenkia, Bernard Mulo

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of regional pragmatic variation in French are lacking to date the focus has been on a limited range of speech acts, including apologies, requests, compliments and responses to compliments. The present paper, a systematic analysis of invitation refusals across regional varieties of French, is designed to add to the research on…

  14. The French Revolution on Film: American and French Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harison, Casey

    2005-01-01

    It is not hard to locate negative or condescending images of the French Revolution in aspects of popular American culture, including film. Despite a handful of instances where nuanced or ambiguous "messages" may be identified, the number of American film interpretations of the French Revolution that might be judged historically…

  15. The French Revolution on Film: American and French Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harison, Casey

    2005-01-01

    It is not hard to locate negative or condescending images of the French Revolution in aspects of popular American culture, including film. Despite a handful of instances where nuanced or ambiguous "messages" may be identified, the number of American film interpretations of the French Revolution that might be judged historically…

  16. Discourses on Bilingualism in Canadian French Immersion Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Sylvie; Galiev, Albert

    2011-01-01

    The present article examines discourses on bilingualism in French immersion schools and connects local ideologies of bilingualism to a more global view of what it means to be bilingual in Canada. Bilingualism is usually regarded as two isolated monolingualisms (or monolingual systems) in which there is no place for code-switching, uneven language…

  17. Discourses on Bilingualism in Canadian French Immersion Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Sylvie; Galiev, Albert

    2011-01-01

    The present article examines discourses on bilingualism in French immersion schools and connects local ideologies of bilingualism to a more global view of what it means to be bilingual in Canada. Bilingualism is usually regarded as two isolated monolingualisms (or monolingual systems) in which there is no place for code-switching, uneven language…

  18. Teaching about the French Revolution--A Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pezone, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Presents a play about the French Revolution, discussing how the play was used within a global history course. States that students read the play, work in groups to rewrite the play, and perform their version of the play. Includes key questions that are asked of the students. (CMK)

  19. Teaching about the French Revolution--A Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pezone, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Presents a play about the French Revolution, discussing how the play was used within a global history course. States that students read the play, work in groups to rewrite the play, and perform their version of the play. Includes key questions that are asked of the students. (CMK)

  20. French intensive truck garden

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T D

    1983-01-01

    The French Intensive approach to truck gardening has the potential to provide substantially higher yields and lower per acre costs than do conventional farming techniques. It was the intent of this grant to show that there is the potential to accomplish the gains that the French Intensive method has to offer. It is obvious that locally grown food can greatly reduce transportation energy costs but when there is the consideration of higher efficiencies there will also be energy cost reductions due to lower fertilizer and pesticide useage. As with any farming technique, there is a substantial time interval for complete soil recovery after there have been made substantial soil modifications. There were major crop improvements even though there was such a short time since the soil had been greatly disturbed. It was also the intent of this grant to accomplish two other major objectives: first, the garden was managed under organic techniques which meant that there were no chemical fertilizers or synthetic pesticides to be used. Second, the garden was constructed so that a handicapped person in a wheelchair could manage and have a higher degree of self sufficiency with the garden. As an overall result, I would say that the garden has taken the first step of success and each year should become better.

  1. The French Space Operations Act: Technical Regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazare, B.

    2013-12-01

    The French Space Operations Act (FSOA) [1] stipulates that one of the National Technical Regulations' prime objectives is to protect people, property, public health and the environment. Compliance with these Technical Regulations has been mandatory since 10 December, 2010 for space operations by French space operators and for space operations conducted on French territory. The space safety requirements and regulations governing procedures are based on national and international best practices and experience. A critical design review of the space system and procedures shall be carried out by applicant space operators, in order to verify compliance with the Technical Regulations. An independent technical assessment of the operation is delegated to CNES. The principles applied when drafting the Technical Regulations are as follows: requirements must, as far as possible, establish the rules according to the objective to be obtained, rather than how it is to be achieved; requirements must give preference to international standards recognised as being state of the art; requirements must take previous experience into account. The Technical Regulations are divided into three sections covering requirements common to the launch, control and return of a space object. A special section will cover specific rules to be applied at the Guiana Space Centre. The main topics addressed by the Technical Regulations are: operator safety management system; study of risks to people, property, public health and the Earth's environment; impact study on the outer space environment: space debris generated by the operation; planetary protection. The first version of the Technical Regulations [2], issued in March 2011, is dedicated to unmanned space systems.

  2. The French Revolution and "Revisionism."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Claude

    1990-01-01

    Outlines revisionist interpretations of the French Revolution that challenged the dominant historiographical tradition during the 1950s and 1960s. Distinguishes four central characteristics of revisionist works. Identifies a key split in current French Revolution historiography between reflection on nineteenth-century…

  3. The French Revolution and "Revisionism."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Claude

    1990-01-01

    Outlines revisionist interpretations of the French Revolution that challenged the dominant historiographical tradition during the 1950s and 1960s. Distinguishes four central characteristics of revisionist works. Identifies a key split in current French Revolution historiography between reflection on nineteenth-century…

  4. French in the Ivory Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djite, Paulin G.

    1989-01-01

    Overviews the Ivory Coast's sociolinguistic situation. Standard French, restricted to the elite, is threatened by the local lingua franca. The spread and functional allocations of Dyula and Popular French support the point that the pervasive use of a language does not always lead to its adoption as a national language. (CB)

  5. French Basic Course. Area Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This volume provides the prescribed cultural background that is part of the final phase of the Basic Course in French. The texts provide the basis for discussions and personal research through which students become acquainted with various aspects of the French-speaking world and learn the referential meaning of words and expressions as they are…

  6. French for Journalists: Classroom Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodina, Herta

    The use of authentic materials for an advanced French course for students of journalism and communication has the drawback that authentic French sources assume a regular, informed readership sharing the same culture and history. A solution found at Ohio University is to use a publication that bridges the two cultures, such as the "Journal…

  7. Negative Association in Quebec French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrivee, Pierre

    In Quebec French, unlike standard French, sentence negation "pas" ("not") can occur in the same clause as a negative quantifier like "personne" ("nobody"), for instance. This paper proposes that "pas" in these contexts marks negative association in the same way that "ne" does in standard…

  8. Exploring French, German, and Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steigerwald, Jacob

    This text- and workbook serves as an introduction to French, German, and Spanish as second languages. An introductory chapter discusses the relatedness of languages and the interrelationships of the Indo-European language families. The relationships of French, German, and Spanish to English are demonstrated in cognate exercises. In the second…

  9. Treatment performances of French constructed wetlands: results from a database collected over the last 30 years.

    PubMed

    Morvannou, A; Forquet, N; Michel, S; Troesch, S; Molle, P

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 3,500 constructed wetlands (CWs) provide raw wastewater treatment in France for small communities (<5,000 people equivalent). Built during the past 30 years, most consist of two vertical flow constructed wetlands (VFCWs) in series (stages). Many configurations exist, with systems associated with horizontal flow filters or waste stabilization ponds, vertical flow with recirculation, partially saturated systems, etc. A database analyzed 10 years earlier on the classical French system summarized the global performances data. This paper provides a similar analysis of performance data from 415 full-scale two-stage VFCWs from an improved database expanded by monitoring data available from Irstea and the French technical department. Trends presented in the first study are confirmed, exhibiting high chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) removal rates (87%, 93% and 84%, respectively). Typical concentrations at the second-stage outlet are 74 mgCOD L(-1), 17 mgTSS L(-1) and 11 mgTKN L(-1). Pollutant removal performances are summarized in relation to the loads applied at the first treatment stage. While COD and TSS removal rates remain stable over the range of applied loads, the spreading of TKN removal rates increases as applied loads increase.

  10. Status of French reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ballagny, A.

    1997-08-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm{sup 3}. The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} as soon as its present stock of UO{sub 2} fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU.

  11. 7 CFR 993.7 - French prunes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false French prunes. 993.7 Section 993.7 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.7 French prunes. French prunes means: (a) Prunes produced from plums of the following varieties of plums: French (Prune d'Agen, Petite Prune d'Agen), Coates (Cox...

  12. Teaching for Content: Greek Mythology in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giauque, Gerald S.

    An intermediate-level university French course in Greek mythology was developed to (1) improve student skills in reading, writing, speaking, and comprehending French, (2) familiarize students with Greek mythology, and (3) prepare students to deal better with allusions to Greek mythology in French literature. The texts used are a French translation…

  13. Dialect Effects in Speech Perception: The Role of Vowel Duration in Parisian French and Swiss French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joanne L.; Mondini, Michele; Grosjean, Francois; Dommergues, Jean-Yves

    2011-01-01

    The current experiments examined how native Parisian French and native Swiss French listeners use vowel duration in perceiving the /[openo]/-/o/ contrast. In both Parisian and Swiss French /o/ is longer than /[openo]/, but the difference is relatively large in Swiss French and quite small in Parisian French. In Experiment 1 we found a parallel…

  14. Feudalism and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Thomas E.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews and questions the traditional established interpretation that the French Revolution was about feudalism. Concludes that revisionist historians have cast doubt upon the orthodox theory but that they have not supplied an alternative explanation. (Author/DB)

  15. Feudalism and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaiser, Thomas E.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews and questions the traditional established interpretation that the French Revolution was about feudalism. Concludes that revisionist historians have cast doubt upon the orthodox theory but that they have not supplied an alternative explanation. (Author/DB)

  16. FOSFORE: portal for distributions of French seismological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, N. M.; Douet, V.; Pardo, C.; Péquegnat, C.; Barbier, S.; Maron, C.; Grunberg, M.; Schaming, M.; Group, F W

    2008-12-01

    FOSFORE (Fédération de l'Observation Sismologique Française) is a collaborative inter-university project aimed to distribute data of French permanent and temporary seismic networks and to make them freely available for the scientific community. FOSFORE is designed as a distributed data archive and is organized around four data centers located in universities at Grenoble, Nice, Paris, and Strasbourg. Currently available data include records of the GEOSCOPE global seismic network (Paris data center), of the French broadband seismic network (Nice and Strasbourg data centers), of the French accelerometric permanent network RAP (Grenoble data center), of numerous French temporary seismic deployments from different regions in the World (Grenoble data center), and of regional monitoring networks in France. The four data centers are connected through centralized Web portal (http://www.fosfore.ipgp.fr) where waveform data are available via NetDC data request protocol. In addition, the data are available directly in the data centers via NetDC or via AutoDRM request systems or via Web interfaces. In the near future, we plan to incorporate more temporary deployments as well as data from volcano-monitoring networks in La Reunion Island and French Antilles and data from the North Chile seismic experiment.

  17. French perspectives on psychiatric classification

    PubMed Central

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the role of the French schools in the development of psychiatric nosology. Boissier de Sauvages published the first French treatise on medical nosology in 1763. Until the 1880s, French schools held a pre-eminent position in the development of psychiatric concepts. From the 1880s until World War I, German-speaking schools exerted the most influence, featuring the work of major figures such as Emil Kraepelin and Eugen Bleuler. French schools were probably hampered by excessive administrative and cultural centralization. Between the 1880s and the 1930s, French schools developed diagnostic categories that set them apart from international classifications. The main examples are Bouffée Délirante, and the complex set of chronic delusional psychoses (CDPs), including chronic hallucinatory psychosis. CDPs were distinguished from schizophrenia by the lack of cognitive deterioration during evolution. Modern French psychiatry is now coming into line with international classification, such as DSM-5 and the upcoming ICD-11. PMID:25987863

  18. French fireball network FRIPON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colas, F.; Zanda, B.; Vaubaillon, J.; Bouley, S.; Marmo, C.; Audureau, Y.; Kwon, M. K.; Rault, J.-L.; Caminade, S.; Vernazza, P.; Gattacceca, J.; Birlan, M.; Maquet, L.; Egal, A.; Rotaru, M.; Birnbaum, C.; Cochard, F.; Thizy, O.

    2015-01-01

    FRIPON (Fireball Recovery and Interplanetary Observation Network) was recently founded by ANR (Agence Nationale de la Recherche), its aim being to connect meteoritical science with asteroidal and cometary sciences, in order to better understand our solar system formation and evolution. The main idea is to cover all the French territory to collect a large number of meteorites (one or two per year) with an accurate orbit determination, allowing to pinpoint possible parent bodies. 100 all-sky cameras will be installed at the end of 2015, creating a dense network with an average distance of 100 km between the stations. To maximize the accuracy of the orbit determination, we will mix our optical data with radar data from the GRAVES transmitter received by 25 stations (Rault et al., 2015). As the network installation and the creation of research teams for meteorites involves many persons, at least many more than our small team of professionals, we will develop a participative science network for amateurs called Vigie-Ciel (Zanda et al., 2015). It will be possible to simply use our data, participate in research campaigns or even add cameras to the FRIPON network.

  19. Paradoxes of French accreditation.

    PubMed

    Pomey, M-P; François, P; Contandriopoulos, A-P; Tosh, A; Bertrand, D

    2005-02-01

    The accreditation system introduced into the French healthcare system in 1996 has five particular characteristics: (1) it is mandatory for all healthcare establishments; (2) it is performed by an independent government agency; (3) surveyors have to report all instances of non-compliance with safety regulations; (4) the accreditation report is delivered to regional administrative authorities and a summary is made available to the public; and (5) regional administrative authorities can use the information contained in the accreditation report to revise hospital budgets. These give rise to a number of paradoxes: (1) the fact that accreditation is mandatory lends itself to ambiguity and likens the process to an inspection; (2) the fact that decision makers can use the information contained in the accreditation report for resource allocation can incite establishments to adopt strategic behaviours aimed merely at complying with the accreditation manual; and (3) there is a tendency for establishments to reduce quality processes to nothing more than the completion of accreditation and to focus efforts on standardizing practices and resolving safety issues to the detriment of organizational development. All accreditation systems must be aware of these paradoxes and decide on the level of government involvement and the relationship between accreditation and resource allocation. With time, accreditation in France could benefit from both a professionally driven system and from the increased amount of freedom to focus on quality improvement which is necessary for organizational development.

  20. Paradoxes of French accreditation

    PubMed Central

    Pomey, M; Francois, P; Contandriopoulos, A; Tosh, A; Bertrand, D

    2005-01-01

    

 The accreditation system introduced into the French healthcare system in 1996 has five particular characteristics: (1) it is mandatory for all healthcare establishments; (2) it is performed by an independent government agency; (3) surveyors have to report all instances of non-compliance with safety regulations; (4) the accreditation report is delivered to regional administrative authorities and a summary is made available to the public; and (5) regional administrative authorities can use the information contained in the accreditation report to revise hospital budgets. These give rise to a number of paradoxes: (1) the fact that accreditation is mandatory lends itself to ambiguity and likens the process to an inspection; (2) the fact that decision makers can use the information contained in the accreditation report for resource allocation can incite establishments to adopt strategic behaviours aimed merely at complying with the accreditation manual; and (3) there is a tendency for establishments to reduce quality processes to nothing more than the completion of accreditation and to focus efforts on standardizing practices and resolving safety issues to the detriment of organizational development. All accreditation systems must be aware of these paradoxes and decide on the level of government involvement and the relationship between accreditation and resource allocation. With time, accreditation in France could benefit from both a professionally driven system and from the increased amount of freedom to focus on quality improvement which is necessary for organizational development. PMID:15692004

  1. [French sanitary cooperation in developing countries].

    PubMed

    Gentilini, M

    2006-08-01

    In the face of a worsening public health situation throughout the world, French know-how in the field of sanitary cooperation warrants a far more active commitment from our country. Instead there have been only a few initiatives and we are witnessing a programmed decline of our presence. The statement issued by the Economic and Social Council in 2006--the highlights of which will be presented at this meeting--strongly advocates a voluntary program to revive sanitary cooperation by encouraging civic-spirited young people to express international solidarity through public service in impoverished areas. By compensating the shortage of human resources in developing countries, this program would allow immediate implementation of measures to promote action, training and research not as a replacement operation but rather as a genuine partnership. Deployment of our public aid for development in the field of health-care must not have a detrimental effect on the bilateral dimension of the relationship that indeed requires urgent strengthening. In addition tighter coordination of all parties involved in cooperation activities is needed to ensure greater efficiency and consistency. New funding sources (starting with the airline ticket tax) and greater mobilization of the European Union is necessary to ensure that developing countries have more financial resources to wage the "health-care battle". Reducing the "health-care gap" that cripples development and destabilizes societies must be the first priority of French Cooperation.

  2. Queer kinship practices in non-western contexts: French Polynesia's gender-variant parents and the law of La République.

    PubMed

    Zanghellini, Aleardo

    2010-01-01

    French Polynesia is an overseas collectivity of France whose kinship practices accommodate transgender parenting through the involvement of gender-variant (mahu) people in childrearing, including as adoptive parents in customary (faamu) adoption. While the existence and visibility of gender-variant people in French Polynesia is well documented, there is no literature on their involvement in parenting, reflecting a more general dearth of research on LGBT parenting in non-Western contexts. Drawing on the author's fieldwork in French Polynesia, this article fills this gap. The article also discusses the negative implications of France's ambivalence towards LGBT parenting for French Polynesian gender-variant parents and the children they raise.

  3. Perspective view of span over French Creek and east abutment, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of span over French Creek and east abutment, looking NW. - Pennsylvania Railroad, French Creek Trestle, Spanning French Creek, north of Paradise Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  4. Lexique 2: a new French lexical database.

    PubMed

    New, Boris; Pallier, Christophe; Brysbaert, Marc; Ferrand, Ludovic

    2004-08-01

    In this article, we present a new lexical database for French: Lexique. In addition to classical word information such as gender, number, and grammatical category, Lexique includes a series of interesting new characteristics. First, word frequencies are based on two cues: a contemporary corpus of texts and the number of Web pages containing the word. Second, the database is split into a graphemic table with all the relevant frequencies, a table structured around lemmas (particularly interesting for the study of the inflectional family), and a table about surface frequency cues. Third, Lexique is distributed under a GNU-like license, allowing people to contribute to it. Finally, a metasearch engine, Open Lexique, has been developed so that new databases can be added very easily to the existing ones. Lexique can either be downloaded or interrogated freely from http://www.lexique.org.

  5. [Development of prevention programmes for HIV, hepatitis and sexually transmitted infections among migrants consulting in the doctors of the World French centers].

    PubMed

    Pauti, M-D; Simonnot, N; Estecahandy, P

    2008-09-01

    The French Doctors of the World centers have as objective to facilitate access to care and to rights in the law system for vulnerable populations and to keep the global population informed. The objective of the project was to ensure daily actions of prevention: to bring people to HIV and hepatitis screening as well as to offer full access to treatment for the populations consulting in Reception centers of care and orientation (Caso). The screening is proposed systematically to all new patients (90% of them are migrants) after a medical consultation or a special prevention consultation. Among the patients screened in 2007, the prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B and C was respectively 15, 10,5 and seven times greater than the national average. The centers of Doctors of the World are privileged places to inform, prevent, offer screening and bring to healthcare these people particularly exposed to risks.

  6. Yaounde French Speech Corpus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    old . Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. 4 Table 3 Distribution of informants by gender and age Age Number of speakers Male...1. Are you living alone? 2. How many people are living with you there? 3. How old are you? 4. In what year were you born? 5. What is your date of...birth? 6. Where were you born? 7. What is your nationality? 8. What is your religion ? 9. What is your marital status? 10. What is your marital

  7. Emancipation or Neo-Colonisation? Global Gender Mainstreaming Policies, Swedish Gender Equality Politics and Local Negotiations about Putting Gender into Education Reforms in the Lao People's Democratic Republic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silfver, Ann-Louise

    2010-01-01

    This article reflects on gender mainstreaming policies post Beijing and their impact on development cooperation and relations between the Global North and Global South. The analysis is based on an examination of gender equality politics in Sweden, their connection with an interpretation of gender mainstreaming and the application of this approach…

  8. Validation of the French version of the BACS (the brief assessment of cognition in schizophrenia) among 50 French schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Bralet, Marie-Cécile; Falissard, Bruno; Neveu, Xavier; Lucas-Ross, Margaret; Eskenazi, Anne-Marie; Keefe, Richard S E

    2007-09-01

    Schizophrenic patients demonstrate impairments in several key dimensions of cognition. These impairments are correlated with important aspects of functional outcome. While assessment of these cognition disorders is increasingly becoming a part of clinical and research practice in schizophrenia, there is no standard and easily administered test battery. The BACS (Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia) has been validated in English language [Keefe RSE, Golberg TE, Harvey PD, Gold JM, Poe MP, Coughenour L. The Brief Assessment of Cognition in Schizophrenia: reliability, sensibility, and comparison with a standard neurocognitive battery. Schizophr. Res 2004;68:283-97], and was found to be as sensitive to cognitive dysfunction as a standard battery of tests, with the advantage of requiring less than 35 min to complete. We developed a French adaptation of the BACS and this study tested its ease of administration and concurrent validity. Correlation analyses between the BACS (version A) and a standard battery were performed. A sample of 50 stable schizophrenic patients received the French Version A of the BACS in a first session, and in a second session a standard battery. All the patients completed each of the subtests of the French BACS . The mean duration of completion for the BACS French version was 36 min (S.D.=5.56). A correlation analysis between the BACS (version A) global score and the standard battery global score showed a significant result (r=0.81, p<0.0001). The correlation analysis between the BACS (version A) sub-scores and the standard battery sub-scores showed significant results for verbal memory, working memory, verbal fluency, attention and speed of information processing and executive functions (p<0.001) and for motor speed (p<0.05). The French Version of the BACS is easier to use in French schizophrenic patients compared to a standard battery (administration shorter and completion rate better) and its good psychometric properties suggest

  9. Links that speak: the global language network and its association with global fame.

    PubMed

    Ronen, Shahar; Gonçalves, Bruno; Hu, Kevin Z; Vespignani, Alessandro; Pinker, Steven; Hidalgo, César A

    2014-12-30

    Languages vary enormously in global importance because of historical, demographic, political, and technological forces. However, beyond simple measures of population and economic power, there has been no rigorous quantitative way to define the global influence of languages. Here we use the structure of the networks connecting multilingual speakers and translated texts, as expressed in book translations, multiple language editions of Wikipedia, and Twitter, to provide a concept of language importance that goes beyond simple economic or demographic measures. We find that the structure of these three global language networks (GLNs) is centered on English as a global hub and around a handful of intermediate hub languages, which include Spanish, German, French, Russian, Portuguese, and Chinese. We validate the measure of a language's centrality in the three GLNs by showing that it exhibits a strong correlation with two independent measures of the number of famous people born in the countries associated with that language. These results suggest that the position of a language in the GLN contributes to the visibility of its speakers and the global popularity of the cultural content they produce.

  10. Links that speak: The global language network and its association with global fame

    PubMed Central

    Ronen, Shahar; Gonçalves, Bruno; Hu, Kevin Z.; Vespignani, Alessandro; Pinker, Steven; Hidalgo, César A.

    2014-01-01

    Languages vary enormously in global importance because of historical, demographic, political, and technological forces. However, beyond simple measures of population and economic power, there has been no rigorous quantitative way to define the global influence of languages. Here we use the structure of the networks connecting multilingual speakers and translated texts, as expressed in book translations, multiple language editions of Wikipedia, and Twitter, to provide a concept of language importance that goes beyond simple economic or demographic measures. We find that the structure of these three global language networks (GLNs) is centered on English as a global hub and around a handful of intermediate hub languages, which include Spanish, German, French, Russian, Portuguese, and Chinese. We validate the measure of a language’s centrality in the three GLNs by showing that it exhibits a strong correlation with two independent measures of the number of famous people born in the countries associated with that language. These results suggest that the position of a language in the GLN contributes to the visibility of its speakers and the global popularity of the cultural content they produce. PMID:25512502

  11. Mayaro virus fever in French Guiana: isolation, identification, and seroprevalence.

    PubMed

    Talarmin, A; Chandler, L J; Kazanji, M; de Thoisy, B; Debon, P; Lelarge, J; Labeau, B; Bourreau, E; Vié, J C; Shope, R E; Sarthou, J L

    1998-09-01

    This paper reports the first isolation of Mayaro (MAY) virus from a patient infected in French Guiana. The identification was initially performed using immunofluorescent antibody testing with specific mouse antibody, and confirmed by plaque-reduction neutralization testing and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. To determine if MAY virus infection is widespread in French Guiana, a serosurvey was performed to determine the prevalence of antibody to this virus in various ethnic groups and areas of French Guiana. Human sera (n = 1,962) were screened using the hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. To determine whether MAY virus circulates in the rain forest, a serosurvey in monkey populations was performed. Monkey sera (n = 150) were also screened for antibody to MAY virus using HI testing. Of the human sera tested, 6.3% were positive for anti-MAY virus antibodies. Significant differences in MAY virus seroprevalence between different age groups were observed. Seroprevalence rates increased with age, with a large increase in people 10-19 years of age in comparison with those less than 10 years of age. After adjustment for age, significant differences were also found between places of residence. The prevalence of anti-MAY virus antibody was higher in people living in contact with the forest, especially in the Haut Oyapock area (odds ratio [OR] = 97.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 48.2-197.9) and along the Maroni River (OR = 39.7, 95% CI = 20.6-76.6). The ethnic differences observed in this study were probably due to differences in residence. Among monkeys, higher seroprevalence rates were found in Alouatta seniculus (66.0%) than in Saguinus midas (18.2%). Among Alouatta, the seroprevalence increased significantly with weight (and therefore with age). This study indicates that MAY virus is present in French Guiana, and human infections occur in areas where people live near the tropical rain forest.

  12. A Film Study Option for HSC French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connole, Pat

    1974-01-01

    In 1974, after a trial period of two years, the study of two selected French feature films will be offered as an option to the study of prescribed texts in Higher School Certificate French in Victoria. (Author)

  13. Retraining French Language Educators in the Teaching of Commercial French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marfurt, Rose Marie A.

    A retraining program for language teachers wishing to teach college-level business French is described. The course may be taught in five 5-hour weekend seminars or in a 2-week summer seminar of 12 hours per week. Since the teachers already have language skills, the course focuses on building confidence and interest in the subject matter by showing…

  14. French pharmacovigilance: Missions, organization and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Vial, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    Pharmacovigilance aims to identify unknown adverse drug reactions once clinical development is complete, in order to promote improved use of drugs, and thus a reduction in risk for every exposed patient. We describe in this article the missions of French pharmacovigilance system, including French drug agency, Regional Centers of Pharmacovigilance, health professionals, pharmaceutical companies, patients and their associations. We also develop the French pharmacovigilance organization, its perspectives and challenges, both in French and European levels.

  15. Sedentary behavior and physical activity levels in people with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder: a global systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Vancampfort, Davy; Firth, Joseph; Schuch, Felipe B; Rosenbaum, Simon; Mugisha, James; Hallgren, Mats; Probst, Michel; Ward, Philip B; Gaughran, Fiona; De Hert, Marc; Carvalho, André F; Stubbs, Brendon

    2017-10-01

    People with severe mental illness (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder or major depressive disorder) die up to 15 years prematurely due to chronic somatic comorbidities. Sedentary behavior and low physical activity are independent yet modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease and premature mortality in these people. A comprehensive meta-analysis exploring these risk factors is lacking in this vulnerable population. We conducted a meta-analysis investigating sedentary behavior and physical activity levels and their correlates in people with severe mental illness. Major electronic databases were searched from inception up to April 2017 for articles measuring sedentary behavior and/or physical activity with a self-report questionnaire or an objective measure (e.g., accelerometer). Random effects meta-analyses and meta-regression analyses were conducted. Sixty-nine studies were included (N=35,682; 39.5% male; mean age 43.0 years). People with severe mental illness spent on average 476.0 min per day (95% CI: 407.3-545.4) being sedentary during waking hours, and were significantly more sedentary than age- and gender-matched healthy controls (p=0.003). Their mean amount of moderate or vigorous physical activity was 38.4 min per day (95% CI: 32.0-44.8), being significantly lower than that of healthy controls (p=0.002 for moderate activity, p<0.001 for vigorous activity). People with severe mental illness were significantly less likely than matched healthy controls to meet physical activity guidelines (odds ratio = 1.5; 95% CI: 1.1-2.0, p<0.001, I(2) =95.8). Lower physical activity levels and non-compliance with physical activity guidelines were associated with male gender, being single, unemployment, fewer years of education, higher body mass index, longer illness duration, antidepressant and antipsychotic medication use, lower cardiorespiratory fitness and a diagnosis of schizophrenia. People with bipolar disorder were the most physically active, yet spent most

  16. English versus French: Language Rivalry in Tunisia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battenburg, John

    1997-01-01

    Examines the competition between English and French in Tunisian educational institutions and programs. Scrutinizes two periods in postprotectorate Tunisia: the introduction of English and the spread of English. Findings indicate that the decline in French linguistic influence may be accompanied by a future decrease in French political and economic…

  17. The French Revolution: A Simulation Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, James Patrick

    1978-01-01

    Describes a college-level simulation game about the French Revolution. Based on George Lefebvre's "The Coming of the French Revolution," the role-play focuses on social and economic causes of the revolution and allows students to understand citizens' grievances against the French government. (AV)

  18. The French Revolution: A Simulation Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, James Patrick

    1978-01-01

    Describes a college-level simulation game about the French Revolution. Based on George Lefebvre's "The Coming of the French Revolution," the role-play focuses on social and economic causes of the revolution and allows students to understand citizens' grievances against the French government. (AV)

  19. France: Africans and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatunde, Tunde

    1989-01-01

    The French Revolution had profound and long-term effects for Africans, both in Africa and throughout the Western hemisphere. Revolutionary leaders not only opposed the emancipation of slaves in French territories but supported an intensified slave trade, sparking numerous rebellions. French exploitation of Africans extended well into the twentieth…

  20. A Comparative Evaluation of French Grammar Checkers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burston, Jack

    1996-01-01

    Four grammar checkers, all of French Canadian origin, were evaluated: "Le Correcteur 101,""GramR,""Hugo Plus," and "French Proofing Tools." Results indicate that "Le Correcteur 101" is the best French grammar checker on the market and worth its premium cost. (two references) (CK)

  1. France: Africans and the French Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fatunde, Tunde

    1989-01-01

    The French Revolution had profound and long-term effects for Africans, both in Africa and throughout the Western hemisphere. Revolutionary leaders not only opposed the emancipation of slaves in French territories but supported an intensified slave trade, sparking numerous rebellions. French exploitation of Africans extended well into the twentieth…

  2. French Spelling Rectifications: A Failed Coup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, Ron

    1992-01-01

    The proposed 1991 reforms to French spelling discussed in a previous issue of "Babel" have been abandoned. This article notes the history of other efforts to rectify French spelling and reviews the French Academy's decision-making process in the current effort. (LB)

  3. Cinque's Functional Verbs in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowlett, Paul

    2007-01-01

    This article focuses on the syntax of a number of subcategories of verb in French which are compatible with a following bare infinitive and which express various kinds of grammatical tense, mood, modality, aspect and voice, as well as such (more lexical?) notions as perception, causation and locomotion. The article starts by cataloguing a number…

  4. Verlan: Talking Backwards in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefkowitz, Natalie J.

    1989-01-01

    The history of "Verlan," a form of French word play involving inversion of syllables with varying degrees of complexity, is described and its phonological and morphological patterns are outlined. Appropriate and inappropriate contexts for use of Verlan, extralinguistic functions, and the results of lexicalization of verlanized words are…

  5. Belgium--The French Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sägesser, Caroline

    2017-01-01

    Since 1993, Belgium has been a federal state where education is entrusted to the Communities. There are three Communities in Belgium: Flemish, French and German-speaking. They are responsible for personal matters (mainly education, culture and social affairs). There are also three Regions in Belgium: Flanders, Wallonia and Brussels. Regions are…

  6. Some "English" Words in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thogmartin, Clyde

    1984-01-01

    Examines "pseudoborrowing" of some English words into the French vocabulary. Considered the prestige language of Western Europe, English is viewed as a social hallmark of higher education; thus, even a modest knowledge and use of English reinforces this attitude. However, also suggests a modification of this concept, noting a reciprocal prestige…

  7. An Interview with Fiona French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, David

    2005-01-01

    In this interview Fiona French discusses her work and career with David Lewis. She describes early influences and stresses her lifelong love of colour and pattern. Amongst other themes she considers the factual basis of most of her books and her lack of interest in fantasy; her preference for clear, simple prose; her constant shifts in style and…

  8. French String Grammar. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Univ., NY. Linguistic String Project.

    This work reports on an initial study of the possibility of providing a suitable framework for the teaching of a foreign language grammar through string analysis, using French as the target language. Analysis of a string word list (word-class sequences) yields an overall view of the grammar. Details are furnished in a set of restrictions which…

  9. An Interview with Fiona French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, David

    2005-01-01

    In this interview Fiona French discusses her work and career with David Lewis. She describes early influences and stresses her lifelong love of colour and pattern. Amongst other themes she considers the factual basis of most of her books and her lack of interest in fantasy; her preference for clear, simple prose; her constant shifts in style and…

  10. Normenbuch Franzoesisch (Norm Book French)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pamp, Friedhelm

    1976-01-01

    Critizes the Norm Book for French Final (Abitur) Examination 1975 for German Schools, as to its arrangement and some resulting difficulties; also for its over-emphasis on written work over speaking. Additional publications are needed to make the existing requirements more specific. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  11. Exploiting French Songs as Genre.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamblin, Vicki L.

    1993-01-01

    Describes strategy for teaching culture and conversation at the third- and fourth-year undergraduate level using authentic documents as the primary materials. The medium chosen for this course was the French chanson, but similar strategies may be applicable to any modern language using the culturally appropriate materials. (eight references) (LET)

  12. [Herman Lundborg and French eugenicists].

    PubMed

    Drouard, A

    1999-01-01

    Herman Lundborg, the director of the Institute of Racial Biology in Uppsala, corresponded with some prominent French eugenicists in the 1920s and 1930s. The historical context of this correspondence is analyzed, and the importance of the national differences as well as of the international eugenic organization's efforts are emphasized.

  13. Guide to French Noun Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Perkins

    This guide presents a system for determining the qender of French nouns that has been tested against 12,000 pages of general reading: novels, history, social science, law, finance, and the Bible. The guide discusses the rules for determining gender and also presents various lists of the non-routine or exceptions to the rules. It is asserted that…

  14. French on the Advanced Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlik, Teresa Wilkinson

    1969-01-01

    Presented in this article is an outline of some of the special interest course work included in the curriculum guidelines being developed in the Atlanta Public Schools System for advanced secondary school French classes. Titles of the audiolingually-oriented courses described are--(1) "Teenagers and Teenage Life in France Today," (2)…

  15. Understanding "people" people.

    PubMed

    Butler, Timothy; Waldroop, James

    2004-06-01

    Nearly all areas of business--not just sales and human resources--call for interpersonal savvy. Relational know-how comprises a greater variety of aptitudes than many executives think. Some people can "talk a dog off a meat truck," as the saying goes. Others are great at resolving interpersonal conflicts. Some have a knack for translating high-level concepts for the masses. And others thrive when they're managing a team. Since people do their best work when it most closely matches their interests, the authors contend, managers can increase productivity by taking into account employees' relational interests and skills when making personnel choices and project assignments. After analyzing psychological tests of more than 7,000 business professionals, the authors have identified four dimensions of relational work: influence, interpersonal facilitation, relational creativity, and team leadership. This article explains each one and offers practical advice to managers--how to build a well-balanced team, for instance, and how to gauge the relational skills of potential employees during interviews. To determine whether a job candidate excels in, say, relational creativity, ask her to describe her favorite advertising campaign, slogan, or image and tell you why she finds it to be so effective. Understanding these four dimensions will help you get optimal performance from your employees, appropriately reward their work, and assist them in setting career goals. It will also help you make better choices when it comes to your own career development. To get started, try the authors' free online assessment tool, which will measure both your orientation toward relational work in general and your interest level in each of its four dimensions.

  16. The French-Italian Concordia Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekarnia, Djamel; Frenot, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Concordia is a French-Italian permanent station located at Dome C, Antarctica. The station provides accommodation for up to 16 people over winter and more than 70 scientists and technicians during the austral summer. The scientific projects implemented at Concordia are strictly dependent on the characteristics of the site: a) the presence of a 3 300 m thick ice cap that allows access to the planet's climate archives and the reconstruction of glacial-interglacial cycles over more than 800 000 years; b) a particularly stable pure and dry atmosphere ideal for astronomy observations and for research on the chemical composition of the atmosphere; c) a distant location from coastal perturbations favourable to magnetic and seismological observatories to complement a poor world data network in the southern hemisphere; and d) a small totally isolated group of people confined to the station over a long winter, offering an opportunity for a range of medical and psychological studies useful to prepare long duration deep space missions. We will address the main characteristics of this station and its interest for science.

  17. Globalization and Peace Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basiga, Brenda

    2004-01-01

    Today, it would be difficult to find a community that has been unaffected by globalization, yet its effects are still unknown to many people. This paper is an attempt to bring the subject to the awareness of educators while particularly focusing on those in the Philippines. It is ironic that globalization on one hand has incited people all over…

  18. Orthographic transparency and grapheme-phoneme conversion: An ERP study in Arabic and French readers.

    PubMed

    Simon, Grégory; Bernard, Christian; Lalonde, Robert; Rebaï, Mohamed

    2006-08-09

    Numerous behavioral studies have suggested that orthographic transparency of a language is liable to influence the use of grapheme-phoneme conversion during reading. In order to test this hypothesis, the effect of orthographic transparency on event-related potentials was assessed by comparing French to Arab readers. Indeed, French language, contrary to Arabic one, was expected to favor the use of grapheme-phoneme rules during reading. Our results demonstrated that the N320, a component implicated in phonologic transcription, was modulated by orthographic transparency. Indeed, during reading in their mother tongue, only French subjects clearly elicited a N320. Moreover, the comparisons between activations elicited by Arabic words in Arab subjects and French monolingual people also confirm that the N170 component represents an important orthographic stage. The implications of these results on bilinguism and visual word recognition models are discussed.

  19. [JEAN EMMANUEL GILIBERT AND FRENCH SCIENTISTS IN POLAND AND LITHUANIA IN 1770-1780].

    PubMed

    Beauvois, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The author is trying to remind us of great role of French culture and French people in spreading the ideas of Enlightenment in Poland. Common use of French language in high societies in 18th century and excellent knowledge of books from Paris created favourite conditions for contacts of Poland with France. The best evidence of common culture of Enlightenment was the Commission of National Education (KEN) and the deep social changes. The direct contacts of French thinkers, writers and scientists with Poland also caused the changes of horizons of aristocracy and gentry. We will remind the main animators of this movement followed A. Jobert. J.E. Gilibert takes a very important place among the animators of Enlightenment. Author intends to present the phases of knowing him, generally mentioning the main conclusions of many research on Gilibert. At the same time author leaves to next speakers a detailed analyze of Gilbert's contribution to the development of Polish science.

  20. French validation of the Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo-Seva, Urbano; Marco-Pallares, Josep; Tillmann, Barbara; Zeitouni, Anthony; Lehmann, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Background. The Barcelona Music Reward Questionnaire (BMRQ) questionnaire investigates the main facets of music experience that could explain the variance observed in how people experience reward associated with music. Currently, only English and Spanish versions of this questionnaire are available. The objective of this study is to validate a French version of the BMRQ. Methods. The original BMRQ was translated and adapted into an international French version. The questionnaire was then administered through an online survey aimed at adults aged over 18 years who were fluent in French. Statistical analyses were performed and compared to the original English and Spanish version for validation purposes. Results. A total of 1,027 participants completed the questionnaire. Most responses were obtained from France (89.4%). Analyses revealed that congruence values between the rotated loading matrix and the ideal loading matrix ranged between 0.88 and 0.96. Factor reliabilities of subscales (i.e., Musical Seeking, Emotion Evocation, Mood Regulation, Social Reward and Sensory-Motor) also ranged between 0.88 and 0.96. In addition, reliability of the overall factor score (i.e., Music reward) was 0.91. Finally, the internal consistency of the overall scale was 0.85. The factorial structure obtained in the French translation was similar to that of the original Spanish and English samples. Conclusion. The French version of the BMRQ appears valid and reliable. Potential applications of the BMRQ include its use as a valuable tool in music reward and emotion research, whether in healthy individuals or in patients suffering from a wide variety of cognitive, neurologic and auditory disorders. PMID:27019776

  1. Globalization and Dual Modes of Higher Education Policymaking in France: Je T'aime Moi Non Plus. Research & Occasional Paper Series: CSHE.2.11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoareau, Cecile

    2011-01-01

    The French Government has had a paradoxical relationship with globalization. Globalization is perceived as both a threat to react against and a cradle for new policy ideas. French policymakers have a love-hate relationship with the European higher education reforms that started in the 1990s, a mixed sentiment that French singer Serge Gainsbourg…

  2. French Alps, Mont Blanc, French/Italian Border

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1992-04-02

    In this southeast looking view, Mont Blanc, on the French/Italian border, (48.0N, 4.5E) the highest mountain peak in all of Europe, is just below and right of center (below the end of the prominent valley of the Aosta River, in the center of the photo. The rivers flow out of the Alps into Italy toward Turin. Chamonix, the famous resort town and center of Alpine mountain climbing, lies in the valley just below Mont Blanc.

  3. Globalization and human cooperation.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Nancy R; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick; Brewer, Marilynn; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2009-03-17

    Globalization magnifies the problems that affect all people and that require large-scale human cooperation, for example, the overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced global warming. However, what does globalization imply for the cooperation needed to address such global social dilemmas? Two competing hypotheses are offered. One hypothesis is that globalization prompts reactionary movements that reinforce parochial distinctions among people. Large-scale cooperation then focuses on favoring one's own ethnic, racial, or language group. The alternative hypothesis suggests that globalization strengthens cosmopolitan attitudes by weakening the relevance of ethnicity, locality, or nationhood as sources of identification. In essence, globalization, the increasing interconnectedness of people worldwide, broadens the group boundaries within which individuals perceive they belong. We test these hypotheses by measuring globalization at both the country and individual levels and analyzing the relationship between globalization and individual cooperation with distal others in multilevel sequential cooperation experiments in which players can contribute to individual, local, and/or global accounts. Our samples were drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. We find that as country and individual levels of globalization increase, so too does individual cooperation at the global level vis-à-vis the local level. In essence, "globalized" individuals draw broader group boundaries than others, eschewing parochial motivations in favor of cosmopolitan ones. Globalization may thus be fundamental in shaping contemporary large-scale cooperation and may be a positive force toward the provision of global public goods.

  4. Venus transits - A French view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Débarbat, Suzanne

    2005-04-01

    After a careful study of Mars observations obtained by Tycho Brahé (1546-1601), Kepler (1571-1630) discovered the now-called Kepler's third law. In 1627 he published his famous Tabulae Rudolphinae, a homage to his protector Rudolph II (1552-1612), tables (Kepler 1609, 1627) from which he predicted Mercury and Venus transits over the Sun. In 1629 Kepler published his Admonitio ad Astronomos Advertisement to Astronomers (Kepler 1630), Avertissement aux Astronomes in French Au sujet de phénomènes rares et étonnants de l'an 1631: l'incursion de Vénus et de Mercure sur le Soleil. This was the beginning of the interest of French astronomers, among many others, in such transits, mostly for Venus, the subject of this paper in which dates are given in the Gregorian calendar.

  5. Working with racism: a qualitative study of the perspectives of Māori (indigenous peoples of Aotearoa New Zealand) registered nurses on a global phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Huria, Tania; Cuddy, Jessica; Lacey, Cameron; Pitama, Suzanne

    2014-10-01

    Substantial health disparities exist between Māori--the indigenous people of Aotearoa New Zealand--and non-Māori New Zealanders. This article explores the experience and impact of racism on Māori registered nurses within the New Zealand health system. The narratives of 15 Māori registered nurses were analyzed to identify the effects of racism. This Māori nursing cohort and the data on racism form a secondary analysis drawn from a larger research project investigating the experiences of indigenous health workers in New Zealand and Canada. Jones's levels of racism were utilized as a coding frame for the structural analysis of the transcribed Māori registered nurse interviews. Participants experienced racism on institutional, interpersonal, and internalized levels, leading to marginalization and being overworked yet undervalued. Māori registered nurses identified a lack of acknowledgement of dual nursing competencies: while their clinical skills were validated, their cultural skills-their skills in Hauora Māori--were often not. Experiences of racism were a commonality. Racism--at every level--can be seen as highly influential in the recruitment, training, retention, and practice of Māori registered nurses. The nursing profession in New Zealand and other countries of indigenous peoples needs to acknowledge the presence of racism within training and clinical environments as well as supporting indigenous registered nurses to develop and implement indigenous dual cultural-clinical competencies. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. [The French lessons of anatomy].

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Alain

    2003-01-01

    The "Lessons of Anatomy" can be considered as a step of Medicine to Art. For several centuries the exhibition of a corpse's dissection was printed on the title-page of published works. Since the seventeenth century, the "Lessons of Anatomy" became a picture on the title-page in order to highlight the well-known names of the european anatomists. The study is limited to the French Lessons of Anatomy found in books or pictures after the invention of printing.

  7. French field experience with buprenorphine.

    PubMed

    Auriacombe, Marc; Fatséas, Mélina; Dubernet, Jacques; Daulouède, Jean-Pierre; Tignol, Jean

    2004-01-01

    In most European countries, methadone treatment is provided to only 20-30% of opiate abusers who need treatment due to regulations and concerns about safety. To address this need in France, all registered medical doctors since 1995 have been allowed to prescribe buprenorphine (BUP) without any special education or licensing. This led to treating approximately 65,000 patients per year with BUP, about ten times more than with more restrictive methadone policies. French physician compensation mechanisms, pharmacy services, and medical insurance funding all minimized barriers to BUP treatment. About 20% of all physicians in France are using BUP to treat about half of the estimated 150,000 problem heroin users. Daily supervised dosing by a pharmacist for the first six months resulted in significantly better treatment retention (80% vs 46%) and lower heroin use. Intravenous diversion of BUP may occur in up to 20% of BUP patients and has led to various infections and relatively rare overdoses in combination with sedatives. Opiate overdose deaths have declined substantially (by 79%) since BUP was introduced in 1995. Newborn opiate withdrawal in mothers treated with buprenorphine compared to methadone was reported to be less frequent, less severe, and of shorter duration. Although some of the public health benefits seen during the time of buprenorphine expansion in France might be contingent upon characteristics of the French health and social services system, the French model raises questions about the value of tight regulations on prescribing BUP imposed by many countries throughout the world.

  8. Idiom Comprehension in French-Speaking Children and Adolescents with Williams' Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacroix, Agnes; Aguert, Marc; Dardier, Virginie; Stojanovik, Vesna; Laval, Virginie

    2010-01-01

    This study looks at idiom comprehension by French-speaking people with Williams' syndrome (WS) and metapragmatic knowledge is examined. Idiomatic expressions are a nonliteral form of language where there is a considerable difference between what is said (literal interpretation) and what is meant (idiomatic interpretation). WS is characterized by a…

  9. "Salut" als franzoesisches Lehrbuch der Realschule? ("Salut" as a textbook in French for the Realschule?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overbeck-Bollnow, Renate

    1974-01-01

    This contribution offers a critical analysis in which the French textbook "Salut" (Diesterweg, Frankfurt), which was originally designed for the 2nd or 3rd foreign language level in the Gymnasium and the People's College, is tested for its applicability to the Realschule. (text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  10. Idiom Comprehension in French-Speaking Children and Adolescents with Williams' Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacroix, Agnes; Aguert, Marc; Dardier, Virginie; Stojanovik, Vesna; Laval, Virginie

    2010-01-01

    This study looks at idiom comprehension by French-speaking people with Williams' syndrome (WS) and metapragmatic knowledge is examined. Idiomatic expressions are a nonliteral form of language where there is a considerable difference between what is said (literal interpretation) and what is meant (idiomatic interpretation). WS is characterized by a…

  11. "Salut" als franzoesisches Lehrbuch der Realschule? ("Salut" as a textbook in French for the Realschule?)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overbeck-Bollnow, Renate

    1974-01-01

    This contribution offers a critical analysis in which the French textbook "Salut" (Diesterweg, Frankfurt), which was originally designed for the 2nd or 3rd foreign language level in the Gymnasium and the People's College, is tested for its applicability to the Realschule. (text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  12. Globalization and human cooperation

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, Nancy R.; Grimalda, Gianluca; Wilson, Rick; Brewer, Marilynn; Fatas, Enrique; Foddy, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Globalization magnifies the problems that affect all people and that require large-scale human cooperation, for example, the overharvesting of natural resources and human-induced global warming. However, what does globalization imply for the cooperation needed to address such global social dilemmas? Two competing hypotheses are offered. One hypothesis is that globalization prompts reactionary movements that reinforce parochial distinctions among people. Large-scale cooperation then focuses on favoring one's own ethnic, racial, or language group. The alternative hypothesis suggests that globalization strengthens cosmopolitan attitudes by weakening the relevance of ethnicity, locality, or nationhood as sources of identification. In essence, globalization, the increasing interconnectedness of people worldwide, broadens the group boundaries within which individuals perceive they belong. We test these hypotheses by measuring globalization at both the country and individual levels and analyzing the relationship between globalization and individual cooperation with distal others in multilevel sequential cooperation experiments in which players can contribute to individual, local, and/or global accounts. Our samples were drawn from the general populations of the United States, Italy, Russia, Argentina, South Africa, and Iran. We find that as country and individual levels of globalization increase, so too does individual cooperation at the global level vis-à-vis the local level. In essence, “globalized” individuals draw broader group boundaries than others, eschewing parochial motivations in favor of cosmopolitan ones. Globalization may thus be fundamental in shaping contemporary large-scale cooperation and may be a positive force toward the provision of global public goods. PMID:19255433

  13. Sex and Age Effects on Willingness To Communicate, Anxiety, Perceived Competence, and L2 Motivation Among Junior High School French Immersion Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Baker, Susan C.; Clement, Richard; Donovan, Leslie A.

    2003-01-01

    Reports a cross-sectional study of second language communication among students in a junior high French late immersion program. Effects of language, sex, and grade on willingness to communicate (WTC), anxiety, perceived communication competence, and frequency of communication in French and on attitude/motivation variables are examined globally and…

  14. Sex and Age Effects on Willingness To Communicate, Anxiety, Perceived Competence, and L2 Motivation Among Junior High School French Immersion Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacIntyre, Peter D.; Baker, Susan C.; Clement, Richard; Donovan, Leslie A.

    2003-01-01

    Reports a cross-sectional study of second language communication among students in a junior high French late immersion program. Effects of language, sex, and grade on willingness to communicate (WTC), anxiety, perceived communication competence, and frequency of communication in French and on attitude/motivation variables are examined globally and…

  15. French security policy: From independence to interdependence

    SciTech Connect

    Laird, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    The book features the first-time translation of some of the most significant recent papers by leading French analysts of security affairs. Beginning with a look at continuity and change in French policy since de Gaulle, this books presents the evolution of French security policy in the 1970s and 1980s. Dr. Laird pays special attention to the French nuclear modernization process and to the trend in the last two decades toward greater emphasis on security interdependence within the Western Alliance at the expense of the classic Gaullist stance of independence. He examines the major dimensions of French security policy, particularly French nuclear employment policy and doctrine, the Franco-German relationship, and France's role in Europe and in East-West relations.

  16. Overweight and obesity in French Hajj pilgrims.

    PubMed

    Gautret, Philippe; Bauge, Marie; Simon, Fabrice; Benkouiten, Samir; Valéro, René; Parola, Philippe; Brouqui, Philippe

    2013-02-01

    High prevalence of overweight (45%) and obesity (30%) were recorded in French Hajj pilgrims originating from North Africa. Females were significantly more likely to suffer from obesity compared to males. The overall prevalence of obesity among French pilgrims born in North-Africa was twice that of the overall French population. The prevalence of obesity in pilgrims aged 55-64 years and 65 years and over were respectively 38 and 25% compared to 20 and 18% in the corresponding overall French population age classes. The prevalence of diabetes in French pilgrims was five times higher compared to that of the overall French population. This situation prompts us to organize in the next future, pre-Hajj education seminars for diabetics.

  17. Hieronymi Fracastorii: the Italian scientist who described the "French disease"*

    PubMed Central

    Pesapane, Filippo; Marcelli, Stefano; Nazzaro, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    Girolamo Fracastoro was a true Italian Renaissance man: he excelled in literature, poetry, music, geography, geology, philosophy, astronomy and, of course, medicine to the point that made Charles-Edward Armory Winslow define him as "a peak unequaled by anyone between Hippocrates and Pasteur". In 1521 Fracastoro wrote the poem "Syphilis Sive de Morbo Gallico" in which was established the use of the term "syphilis" for this terrible and inexplicably transmitted disease, often referred to as "French disease" by the people of the time and by Fracastoro himself. PMID:26560214

  18. Appropriating Written French: Literacy Practices in a Parisian Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Elsie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I examine French language instruction in an elementary classroom serving primarily children of Afro-French immigrants in Paris. I show that a prevalent French language ideology privileges written over oral expression and associates full mastery of written French with rational thought and full inclusion in the French polity. This…

  19. Appropriating Written French: Literacy Practices in a Parisian Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Elsie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I examine French language instruction in an elementary classroom serving primarily children of Afro-French immigrants in Paris. I show that a prevalent French language ideology privileges written over oral expression and associates full mastery of written French with rational thought and full inclusion in the French polity. This…

  20. [French innovations in aesthetic surgery of the face].

    PubMed

    Labbé, D; Kaluzinski, E

    2010-10-01

    This article on French innovations in aesthetic surgery is a report mainly centered on the cervicofacial renovation surgery, with historic review and interviews of people who played a dominating role regarding anatomical works, invention and innovation of techniques, and their development. The main theme is the facial face-lift, which genesis dates back to the First World War, and to the surgery of the « gueules cassées » with Morestin, father of the French plastic surgery. During the interwar years, plastic surgery techniques were developed by great French names such as Passot, Noël and Bourguet. The invention of the craniofacial surgery in the 1960s and historic anatomical works on the SMAS by Tessier and his team in the 1970s, allowed to clarify for everyone the various principles and indications of the face-lift, recently improved by Le Louarn and Besins. It is besides, in nasal aesthetic surgery, and still thanks to anatomical works, that Robin described in 1973 the technique of rhinoplasty by extramucous way, then developed by Jost, co-inventor with his master Redon of the aspirating drain tile. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. [On the history of French eugenics].

    PubMed

    Drouard, A

    1998-01-01

    The French Eugenical Society was founded in 1913, but eugenics had been actively discussed already much earlier, although under varing names. The main protagonists of early French eugenics were Georges Vacher de Lapouge, who was inspired by Galton and socialism, Adolphe Pinard, who propagated the "puericulture", and Paul Robin, who represented neo-malthusianism in his country. Alexis Carrel's ideas on improving the human race became widespread especially through his book "Man, the Unknown", published simultaneously in French and English in 1935. In general, the French eugenicists were more in favour of positive eugenics than negative selection, including sterilization, but their general influence was weaker than in several other countries.

  2. [Validation of a French translation of Krueger's personality inventory for DSM-5 in its brief form (PID-5 BF)].

    PubMed

    Combaluzier, S; Gouvernet, B; Menant, F; Rezrazi, A

    2016-09-27

    the expected repartitions in 5 dimensions, which are consistent enough. Although their mean scores are significantly not different from the outcomes found by Krueger with the PID-5 200 items among another non-clinical population (n=264), one cannot say that is enough to ensure the external validity of our translation, for it uses neither the same tools nor sample. A comparison with a French translation of the PID-5 would be more significant. However, the external validity of the French version seems to be significant enough. Global score on the PID-5 is correlated both to the Global Severity Index of the SCL-10, which reflects global psychological distress, and SAPAS's score, which evaluates the suspicion of personality disorder. The clinical validity of the PID-5 is confirmed by the relationships between negative affectivity and anxiety or depression or antagonism and hostility, although the clinical scale of the SCL-10, with one item by dimension, is less sensitive than the complete original version in 90 items (DeRogatis, 1974). PID-5 score and domains are also correlated with the Big Five personality dimension and global score of personality disorders which led us to think that it is coherent with the evaluation of personality suffering (r=.34) and dimensions. The links between negative affectivity and neurosism (r=.48) or between desinhibition and extraversion (r=.32) or the negative correlation between psychoticism and conscientiousness (r=-0.16) are consistent with the expectations related both to the descriptions of the domains by the DSM and outcomes on the comparisons between PID-5 200 item scales and NEO-PI or BFI 45 items. This translation offers enough consistency and validity to be used in future studies. This could lead us to either continue studying a more representative general population or testing its validity in focusing on a clinical sample where personality disorders are prevalent, such as homeless men or substance users. As soon as a French

  3. Learning to Read in English and French: Emergent Readers in French Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Sheila Cira; Koh, Poh Wee; Deacon, S. Hélène; Chen, Xi

    2017-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the predictors of word reading in English and French for 69 children in early total French immersion from first through third grade. The influence of phonological awareness, orthographic processing, and vocabulary in English and French on the achievement and growth of word reading in the 2 languages were…

  4. Cultural Understanding: French, Level One. Selected Cultural Concepts Which May Be Developed in French Level I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walpole, Earl L.

    This manual was prepared to instruct the language teacher on concepts of French culture to be taught in a beginning French class to students of any age. The cultural concepts are cross-referenced and intended to be used with five of the most widely used French texts. Certain deeper cultural concepts are meant to be used for longer unit…

  5. Evaluation of the French Immersion Weekends, French Centre, University of Calgary, 1979-80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinck, Patricia

    Four French immersion weekends for continuing education students at the University of Calgary were evaluated. Each weekend involved recreational activities for twenty students and four French-speaking monitors at one of two recreational retreats near Calgary. The purpose of the program was to promote fluency in French by encouraging its use in a…

  6. Does use of tropical beaches by tourists and island residents result in damage to fringing coral reefs? A case study in Moorea French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Juhasz, Allison; Ho, Ellen; Bender, Erika; Fong, Peggy

    2010-12-01

    Although coral reefs worldwide are subject to increasing global threats, humans also impact coral reefs directly through localized activities such as snorkeling, kayaking and fishing. We investigated five sites on the northern shore of Moorea, French Polynesia, and quantified the number of visitors on the beach and in shallow water. In field surveys, we measured total coral cover and colony sizes of two common genera, Porites and Acropora, a massive and branching morphology, respectively. One site, which hosted over an order of magnitude more people than the other four, had significantly less total coral cover and supported very little branching Acropora. In addition, size frequency distributions of both the branching and massive genera were skewed toward smaller colony sizes at the high use site. Our results demonstrated that the use of tropical beaches may result in less coral cover, with branching colonies rare and small.

  7. Validity and reliability of the French translation of the VISA-A questionnaire for Achilles tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Kaux, Jean-François; Delvaux, François; Oppong-Kyei, Julian; Dardenne, Nadia; Beaudart, Charlotte; Buckinx, Fanny; Croisier, Jean-Louis; Forthomme, Bénédicte; Crielaard, Jean-Michel; Bruyère, Oliver

    2016-12-01

    The Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment - Achilles tendinopathy questionnaire (VISA-A) evaluates the clinical severity of Achilles tendinopathy. The aim of this study was to translate the VISA-A into French and to study the reliability and validity of this French version, the VISA-AF. The VISA-A was translated into French to produce the VISA-AF using a validated methodology in six steps. Thereafter, several psychometric properties of this French version such as test-retest reliability, internal consistency, construct validity and floor and ceiling effects were evaluated. Therefore, we recruited 116 subjects, distributed into 3 groups: pathological patients (n = 31), at-risk athletes (n = 63) and healthy people (n = 22). The final version of the VISA-AF was approved by an expert committee. On a scale ranging from 0 to 100, the average scores of the VISA-AF obtained were 59 (± 18) for the pathological group, 99 (± 1) for the healthy group and 94 (± 7) for the at-risk group. The VISA-AF shows excellent reliability, low correlations with the discriminant subscales of the SF-36 and moderate correlations with the convergent subscales of the SF-36. The French version of the VISA-A is equivalent to its original version and is a reliable and valid questionnaire for French-speaking patients with Achilles tendinopathy. Implication for Rehabilitation The VISA-AF questionnaire is a reliable translation of the original VISA-A, from English into French, which is one of the most widespread languages in the world. The VISA-AF questionnaire is now a valid instrument that can be used by clinicians and researchers to assess the severity of pain and disability of French-speaking subjects with Achilles tendinopathy. The VISA-AF is a questionnaire to assess the severity of Achilles tendinopathy symptoms but is not a diagnostic tool.

  8. [The obstetrics and gynaecology departments in the French public hospitals: an updated overview].

    PubMed

    Nohuz, E; Schumacher, J-C; Alaboud, M; Dalkiliç, S; Lenglet, Y; Varga, J; Ab Der Halden, M; Chaumette, D; Desroches, A; Collet, J; Brunel, A; Dauptain, G; Dognin, C; Zerr, V

    2012-11-01

    Restructuring the surgery and gynecology-obstetrics departments taking place now raise many interrogations. It appears as a mandatory necessity to some people and as a tribute to financial strategies to others to the detriment of quality and accessibility of care. Its effect is to clarify a good amount of socioeconomical and medical indicators. The plans of perinatality for the obstetrical aspect and the thresholds of activity for the surgical aspect constitute the major lines of these restructurings. A survey soliciting all the French public hospitals was used to assess the state of obstetrics and gynecology departments in the light of these recent restructurings. Medical demography, preserving and improving the quality and continuity of care, efficiency of the technical supports are discriminating criteria of the involved challenges. Such restructurings have an impact on the doctor's lives, which looks globally positive and a good omen to complete this remodeling process. The activity was safeguarded by a redistribution and a refocusing of institutions. One should not minimize the social impact of these changes, with a potential deterioration of working conditions (internal professional reclassifications, mobility obligation towards other sites). It thus appears that the deep changes which affect the small size institutions will be able to achieve well only if they are clearly done (information) and truly integrated in their medical project.

  9. Current developments in French ethnopsychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Gesine; Nadig, Maya; Moro, Marie Rose

    2011-07-01

    French ethnopsychoanalytic approaches to therapy with immigrants combine the psychoanalytical interest in subjectivity with a specific concern for cultural factors and with the role migration plays as a crucial life event. Recent approaches consider culture as profoundly hybrid and use the notions of ''métissage'' and ''décentrage'' as central concepts. This article presents extracts from a qualitative study of ethnopsychoanalytic therapies with immigrant families. The authors argue that the ethnopsychoanalytic approach helps to open new ways of considering cultural hybridity and create a third space where experiences ''from the margins'' may be verbalized.

  10. A global perspective on complementary and alternative medicine use among people living with HIV/AIDS in the era of antiretroviral treatment.

    PubMed

    Littlewood, Rae A; Vanable, Peter A

    2011-12-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is a popular adjunct to conventional medicine across medical populations, and is particularly relevant in the global HIV epidemic. Use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) to treat HIV is ubiquitous in high-resource areas and efforts to increase coverage in low-resource areas are underway. To better understand the role of CAM in HIV treatment and the implications of CAM use for ART uptake and adherence, we review international research published between 2007 and 2011. Findings confirm that CAM is commonly used as an adjunct to ART; however, in countries where ART is less accessible, many HIV-positive individuals take a pluralistic approach to health care, incorporating both traditional and, when available, conventional medicine. The reviewed studies provide no consensus on whether the use of CAM interferes with ART uptake or adherence; instead, research suggests that illness-related behaviors are driven by multiple factors and determined, at least in part, by the availability and accessibility of ART.

  11. [Building and teaching bioethics in French-speaking countries: at the crossroads of disciplines and practices].

    PubMed

    Godard, Béatrice; Moubé, Zéphirin

    2013-01-01

    It is inmportant to emphasize three aspects concerning the construction and teaching of 'French bioethics: the maintenance and promotion ofa multidisciplinary approach; a greater autonomy in the management and development of training programs; positioning a power of attraction and development in French-speaking countries. Bioethics is defined as a field of interdisciplinary studies at the junction of the health sciences and the humanities and, more importantly, directly connected to the reality of the health community, research and public Policy. A greater autonomy in the management and development of training programs is also capital. The danger of being dominated by one discipline involved whether medicine, law, philosophy, theology is real and prevents from promoting methodological approaches that are both theoretical and empirical. Finally, compliance with local and national, but also disciplinary diversity is essential to the construction and teaching of French bioethics. As such, the University of Montreal has positioned itself as a leader in the French-speaking countries: at the junction of North America and European countries, Quebec has developed its own specificity in bioethics, which is a force of attraction for many countries of the French-speaking world. In this context, the Bioethics Programs at the University of Montreal rely heavily on knowledge transfer to other cultures. Moreover, the internationalization of training programs in French bioethics is a major issue in the current context of globalization and transmission of knowledge.

  12. Dialect effects in vowel perception: the role of temporal information in French.

    PubMed

    Miller, J L; Grosjean, F

    1997-01-01

    The importance of vowel duration for specifying vowel contrasts differs across languages. In English, for example, a number of vowel pairs are acoustically differentiated by both temporal and spectral information, whereas in standard French temporal information plays a much more minor role. Gottfried and Beddor (1988) reported that the effectiveness of vowel duration in perception varies accordingly: For native speakers of English, but not native speakers of standard French, a change in vowel duration affected the perceptual identity of a vowel contrast. We tested the hypothesis that the relative prominence of vowel duration within different dialects of a given language also has perceptual consequences. Vowel duration plays a much more important role in the phonological system of Swiss French than standard French. Given this, we predicted that native speakers of Swiss French, unlike native speakers of standard French, would use temporal information when identifying vowels. Our prediction was confirmed. These findings indicate that just as there are cross-language differences in fundamental aspects of speech perception, so too are there cross-dialect differences, and they support the view that the perceptual mapping between acoustic signal and vowel category is sensitive to global aspects of the listener's phonological system.

  13. Photocopy of photograph (from Mrs. Martin, grandniece of John French, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (from Mrs. Martin, grandniece of John French, Clinton, Missouri) Circa 1900, photographer unknown JOHN AND ALMIRA FRENCH IN FRONT OF WEST AND SOUTH FACADES - John French Farm, South Grand River, Deepwater, Henry County, MO

  14. What is French for déjà vu? Descriptions of déjà vu in native French and English speakers.

    PubMed

    Fortier, Jonathan; Moulin, Chris J A

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about how people characterise and classify the experience of déjà vu. The term déjà vu might capture a range of different phenomena and people may use it differently. We examined the description of déjà vu in two languages: French and English, hypothesising that the use of déjà vu would vary between the two languages. In French, the phrase déjà vu can be used to indicate a veridical experience of recognition - as in "I have already seen this face before". However, the same is not true in English. In an online questionnaire, we found equal rates of déjà vu amongst French and English speakers, and key differences in how the experience was described. As expected, the French group described the experience as being more frequent, but there was the unexpected finding that they found it to be more troubling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The Use of Pre-/Posttest and Self-Assessment Tools in a French Pronunciation Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappin-Fortin, Kerry; Rye, B. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between students' self-assessments and experts' assessments in a university French pronunciation course for nonnative speakers using a pre-/posttest design. Results indicated that students were relatively accurate when making a global assessment (Time 1) and when judging some specific aspects of…

  16. The Use of Pre-/Posttest and Self-Assessment Tools in a French Pronunciation Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappin-Fortin, Kerry; Rye, B. J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between students' self-assessments and experts' assessments in a university French pronunciation course for nonnative speakers using a pre-/posttest design. Results indicated that students were relatively accurate when making a global assessment (Time 1) and when judging some specific aspects of…

  17. Leak before break application in French PWR plants under operation

    SciTech Connect

    Faidy, C.

    1997-04-01

    Practical applications of the leak-before break concept are presently limited in French Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) compared to Fast Breeder Reactors. Neithertheless, different fracture mechanic demonstrations have been done on different primary, auxiliary and secondary PWR piping systems based on similar requirements that the American NUREG 1061 specifications. The consequences of the success in different demonstrations are still in discussion to be included in the global safety assessment of the plants, such as the consequences on in-service inspections, leak detection systems, support optimization,.... A large research and development program, realized in different co-operative agreements, completes the general approach.

  18. [French specificities in the history of vaccination. The end of an exception?].

    PubMed

    Moulin, A M

    2006-07-01

    Five years after the National Health minister launched the vaccination program against hepatitis B in 1994, French public health experts are not satisfied by the coverage rate among young people. Is this stagnation related to the controversial way the program was initially managed and to the debate that has raged on the link between the vaccine and multiple sclerosis? Is the popular reaction of distrust specific to the vaccine or does it reveal a growing concern towards the whole vaccinal enterprise? More generally, is it the end of the almost unconditional French acceptance of vaccines? A historical retrospective on the history of vaccination in the country of Louis Pasteur.

  19. Aerodynamic characteristics of French consonants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demolin, Didier; Hassid, Sergio; Soquet, Alain

    2004-05-01

    This paper reports some aerodynamic measurements made on French consonants with a group of ten speakers. Speakers were recorded while saying nonsense words in phrases such as papa, dis papa encore. The nonsense words in the study combined each of the French consonants with three vowels /i, a, u/ to from two syllables words with the first syllable being the same as the second. In addition to the audio signal, recordings were made of the oral airflow, the pressure of the air in the pharynx above the vocal folds and the pressure of the air in the trachea just below the vocal folds. The pharyngeal pressure was recorded via a catheter (i.d. 5 mm) passed through the nose so that its open end could be seen in the pharynx below the uvula. The subglottal pressure was recorded via a tracheal puncture between the first and the second rings of the trachea or between the cricoid cartilage and the first tracheal ring. Results compare subglottal presssure, pharyngeal pressure, and airflow values. Comparisons are made between values obtained with male and female subjects and various types of consonants (voiced versus voiceless at the same place of articulation, stops, fricatives, and nasals).

  20. More French, s'il vous plait!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillivray, W. Russ, Ed.

    The collection of essays on French second language instruction in Canada, directed to parents, includes: "Our Brave New World" (Andrew Kniewasser); "French in Your School: Identifying and Achieving the Right Program" (Carolyn Hodych, Jos Scott); "So, You're Worried About Becoming an Immersion Parent" (Judy Gibson);…

  1. Reading Speed of Contracted French Braille

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laroche, Louise; Boule, Jacinthe; Wittich, Walter

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to address three hypotheses: (1) The reading speed of both readers of French braille and readers of French print will be faster in the silent condition; however, this gain in speed will be larger for print readers; (2) Individuals who acquired braille before age 10 will display faster reading speeds at lower error rates…

  2. Reading Speed of Contracted French Braille

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laroche, Louise; Boule, Jacinthe; Wittich, Walter

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to address three hypotheses: (1) The reading speed of both readers of French braille and readers of French print will be faster in the silent condition; however, this gain in speed will be larger for print readers; (2) Individuals who acquired braille before age 10 will display faster reading speeds at lower error rates…

  3. Le Francais Courant (Contemporary French), Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course has been developed basically within the limits of Units 4-6 of "A-LM French: Level 1", second edition. The primary objectives are to develop French vocabulary relative to the family, home, transportation, and foods by continuing to work with short dialogues based on everyday, teenage experiences. While reviewing previously studied…

  4. Why Learn French for Business in 2001?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maratier-Declety, Guilhene

    This essay makes the case for why it is worth learning French for business purposes, even though it is acknowledged that English is increasingly the lingua franca of international business, science, technology, and the Internet. It is asserted that French is still the dominant language in some important markets, and being able to conduct business…

  5. French Higher Education: A Cartoon Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Matthew Henry

    2012-01-01

    In this cartoon essay, the author shares his experience from a travel to Paris to see the French higher education system. From his travel, he learned that in France, "degree" inflation may be an issue, but not grade inflation. On the flight home, the author reflects how French and American academics answer one question about the state of…

  6. Act Up-Paris: French Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    The francophone world has always been at the center of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. From the mythical (French Canadian) "patient zero," Gaetan Dugas, to Rock Hudson's flight to Paris for medical treatment and the blaming of Haiti for AIDS, as well as the close relationships between Belgian and French and their former African colonies,…

  7. Metropolitan French: Familiarization & Short-Term Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iszkowski, Marie-Charlotte

    The U.S. Department of State's Foreign Service Institute French Familiarization and Short-Term (FAST) course for personnel working and living in France consists of 10 weeks of French language instruction combined with practical and cultural information. An introductory section outlines FAST course objectives and sample teaching techniques in…

  8. The French Regions and Their Social Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jany-Catrice, Florence

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a new indicator designed to capture the multidimensionality of the social health of the French regions is put to the test. Drawing on regional data for 2004, this indicator of social health (ISH) sheds new light on the social performance of the French regions. The worst performers are the highly urbanised regions, whereas others,…

  9. Left Dislocation in Near-Native French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the upper limits of SLA--specifically, mastery of the syntax-discourse interface in successful endstate learners of second-language (L2) French (near-native speakers). Left dislocation (LD) is a syntactic means of structuring spoken French discourse by marking topic. Its use requires speakers to coordinate…

  10. French Higher Education: A Cartoon Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Matthew Henry

    2012-01-01

    In this cartoon essay, the author shares his experience from a travel to Paris to see the French higher education system. From his travel, he learned that in France, "degree" inflation may be an issue, but not grade inflation. On the flight home, the author reflects how French and American academics answer one question about the state of…

  11. Les affaires "en francais" (Business "In French").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanko, Helene N.

    1993-01-01

    A French brochure entitled "700 Current Words for Business" was developed to familiarize the business community with modern French business vocabulary and avoid intrusion of terminology from other languages. Some terms are neologisms. Translations from Latin, Japanese, and English illustrate the etymology and morphological patterns of…

  12. Lafayette School District: French Immersion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreaux, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    From 1969 to the late 1980's, most French programs in schools were based on a traditional foreign language instructional model, usually offering 30 minutes a day of French language instruction in elementary grades, increasing to 50 minutes a day in middle school. Contingent on funding and political swings over time, programs expanded from…

  13. Learning French Pronunciation: Audiocassettes or Multimedia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Alysse; Knoerr, Helene

    2003-01-01

    Describes a two phase experiment that was conducted at the university of Ottawa using audiocassettes and multimedia while teaching French, specifically French phonetics, intonation, and pronunciation, to a group of low-intermediate level language students. Looks at whether receptive and productive skills are influenced by the explicit teaching of…

  14. The French Regions and Their Social Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jany-Catrice, Florence

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a new indicator designed to capture the multidimensionality of the social health of the French regions is put to the test. Drawing on regional data for 2004, this indicator of social health (ISH) sheds new light on the social performance of the French regions. The worst performers are the highly urbanised regions, whereas others,…

  15. Vowel Aperture and Syllable Segmentation in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goslin, Jeremy; Frauenfelder, Ulrich H.

    2008-01-01

    The theories of Pulgram (1970) suggest that if the vowel of a French syllable is open then it will induce syllable segmentation responses that result in the syllable being closed, and vice versa. After the empirical verification that our target French-speaking population was capable of distinguishing between mid-vowel aperture, we examined the…

  16. French Romanticism and Napoleon's "Geometric Men."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Robert A.

    1982-01-01

    French intellectual thought changed during the Napoleonic Era. The effects of the Enlightenment philosophers, the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution, and Romanticism on the development of Napoleon's philosophical outlook are used to illustrate the changes occurring in France as a whole in the early nineteenth century. (AM)

  17. Act Up-Paris: French Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    The francophone world has always been at the center of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. From the mythical (French Canadian) "patient zero," Gaetan Dugas, to Rock Hudson's flight to Paris for medical treatment and the blaming of Haiti for AIDS, as well as the close relationships between Belgian and French and their former African colonies,…

  18. French-African Cultures: A Resource Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Barbara

    This resource unit concerns French-African cultures and their influence on other cultures. The materials may be incorporated into Levels 3, 4, and 5 French classes. Topics in the outline include environmental aspects; historical background; and cultural differences expressed in Senegal, Guinee, Mali, Cote d'Ivoire, Haute Volta, Togo, Dahomey,…

  19. Business French: Cultural Content and Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Brigitte D.

    The goals and cultural content of two advanced business French courses, developed at Eastern Michigan University (EMU) in conjunction with the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Paris (CCIP), are examined and the wider cultural implications of the courses are discussed. As background information, the role of the CCIP in French education and the…

  20. Commercial French Radio in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melpignano, Richard J.

    1980-01-01

    Describes several techniques for implementing commercial radio to improve listening comprehension skills in the foreign language student. Canadian radio, accessible to much of the northern United States, brings news, weather, and sports, in French, to the student of French and provides major components for sharpening comprehension skills. (PJM)

  1. Lafayette School District: French Immersion Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreaux, Nicole

    2007-01-01

    From 1969 to the late 1980's, most French programs in schools were based on a traditional foreign language instructional model, usually offering 30 minutes a day of French language instruction in elementary grades, increasing to 50 minutes a day in middle school. Contingent on funding and political swings over time, programs expanded from…

  2. Syntactic Devices of Emphasis in Contemporary French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollerbach, Wolf

    A device of emphasis in French syntax is defined as a construction of syntactic paraphrase whose function is to make certain parts of a sentence stand out for purposes of contrast, clarification, differentiation, or because a given element is considered important. These devices exist in French because of the lack of a phonemic stress system, and…

  3. Radical Reform of the French University System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bereziat, Gilbert

    2008-01-01

    The French university system is in crisis. After its dismantlement during the French revolution, its rebirth was progressive under the third republic (1871-1945). But it was only after 1968 that the current universities developed, with an autonomy that is strictly supervised by the state. Since 1986 all experiments at modernizing the management of…

  4. Le Francais Courant (Contemporary French), Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course has been developed basically within the limits of Units 4-6 of "A-LM French: Level 1", second edition. The primary objectives are to develop French vocabulary relative to the family, home, transportation, and foods by continuing to work with short dialogues based on everyday, teenage experiences. While reviewing previously studied…

  5. French for Business: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Brenda

    The paper discusses the development and evolution of the French for Business undergraduate language course at Oregon State University, focusing on: (1) instructor preparation; (2) course structure; (3) course content; (4) the business student as teacher and mentor; (5) cultural exchanges with French-speaking business students; (6) oral and written…

  6. Left Dislocation in Near-Native French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    The present study is concerned with the upper limits of SLA--specifically, mastery of the syntax-discourse interface in successful endstate learners of second-language (L2) French (near-native speakers). Left dislocation (LD) is a syntactic means of structuring spoken French discourse by marking topic. Its use requires speakers to coordinate…

  7. Metropolitan French: Familiarization & Short-Term Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iszkowski, Marie-Charlotte

    The U.S. Department of State's Foreign Service Institute French Familiarization and Short-Term (FAST) course for personnel working and living in France consists of 10 weeks of French language instruction combined with practical and cultural information. An introductory section outlines FAST course objectives and sample teaching techniques in…

  8. French Romanticism and Napoleon's "Geometric Men."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Robert A.

    1982-01-01

    French intellectual thought changed during the Napoleonic Era. The effects of the Enlightenment philosophers, the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution, and Romanticism on the development of Napoleon's philosophical outlook are used to illustrate the changes occurring in France as a whole in the early nineteenth century. (AM)

  9. A Modern Curriculum in French Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Robert J.

    The French department, commonly viewed by chairmen and faculty as the conveyor of culture, is admonished to revamp its curriculum and attempt to embrace a broader, more humane understanding of the nature of culture. With the traditional, belletristic, college French curriculum having been rejected in favor of programs based on "cogency, cohesion,…

  10. Business Letter Writing: English, French, and Japanese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Susan; Hinds, John

    1987-01-01

    Examination of business letters in English, French, and Japanese, focusing on prescriptive accounts in the respective languages, found that, despite amazingly similar surface characteristics, American business letters were reader-oriented, French business letters were writer-oriented, and Japanese business letters were oriented to the space…

  11. Radical Reform of the French University System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bereziat, Gilbert

    2008-01-01

    The French university system is in crisis. After its dismantlement during the French revolution, its rebirth was progressive under the third republic (1871-1945). But it was only after 1968 that the current universities developed, with an autonomy that is strictly supervised by the state. Since 1986 all experiments at modernizing the management of…

  12. The French Language in the Americas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valdman, Albert, Ed.

    The annual bulletin of the French 8 section of the Annual Meeting of the Modern Language Association of America is presented with the texts of papers read at both the 1969 and 1970 sessions. The 1970 papers, in French, include Jean Louis Darbelnet's "Etude Sociolinguistique des contacts entre 1'Anglais et le Francais au Canada et en…

  13. A Mini-Film on French Kinesics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Joel

    This paper describes a silent film made by the author which illustrates various French gestures. The format is Super 8, and the film lasts five minutes. The script is given, along with an English translation. The story concerns several French students at an outdoor cafe wondering about one of their friends. The conversation includes 10 typical…

  14. Le francais parle: analyse des attitudes des adolescents de la ville de Quebec selon les classes sociales (Spoken French: An Analysis of the Attitudes of Adolescents in Quebec City according to Social Class).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Daniele

    This is a report on a study of the attitudes of French-speaking young people, aged 10 to 17 years, toward French as it is spoken in two sectors of Quebec City. One sector, Sainte-Foy, is mainly upper middle class; the other, Saint-Sauveur, is economically and socially disadvantaged. The research was carried out on the basis of work in French and…

  15. The Reading the Mind in the Eyes test: validation of a French version and exploration of cultural variations in a multi-ethnic city.

    PubMed

    Prevost, Marie; Carrier, Marie-Eve; Chowne, Gabrielle; Zelkowitz, Phyllis; Joseph, Lawrence; Gold, Ian

    2014-01-01

    The first aim of our study was to validate the French version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test, a theory of mind test. The second aim was to test whether cultural differences modulate performance on this test. A total of 109 participants completed the original English version and 97 participants completed the French version. Another group of 30 participants completed the French version twice, one week apart. We report a similar overall distribution of scores in both versions and no differences in the mean scores between them. However, 2 items in the French version did not collect a majority of responses, which differed from the results of the English version. Test-retest showed good stability of the French version. As expected, participants who do not speak French or English at home, and those born in Asia, performed worse than North American participants, and those who speak English or French at home. We report a French version with acceptable validity and good stability. The cultural differences observed support the idea that Asian culture does not use theory of mind to explain people's behaviours as much as North American people do.

  16. Building Global Partnerships: 112 Gripes about the French Revisited

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    such weapons and that, with the dissolution of the Soviet Union, we are no longer worried about a nuclear exchange with the Russians. Nor are we...the blue (no pun intended), an impromptu joke—and, of course, it was “just a joke.” However, it wasn’t so much the joke but the resultant laughter ...of the Atlantic Ocean in North Africa. On the eve of the D-day invasion of Normandy, young GIs waited to risk their lives for their country, an act

  17. The French Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology position paper on the concept of integration

    PubMed Central

    Somme, Dominique; Trouvé, Hélène; Passadori, Yves; Corvez, Alain; Jeandel, Claude; Bloch, Marie-Aline; Ruault, Geneviève; Dupont, Olivier; de Stampa, Matthieu

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The concept of integration, although dating from the 1990s, has only recently appeared in French public health policy. It must be linked with ‘coordination’, which is the base of most French public policies applied to geriatrics since the 1960s. Herein, we report the French Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology working group's findings according to three axes: definition of integration, objectives of this organisational approach and the means needed to achieve them. Discussion Integration is a process that aims to overcome the fragmentation of services for vulnerable people. This process requires a multilevel approach, particularly concerning how to modify public policies and financing systems. Notably, all relevant levels need to develop shared processes, tools, resources, financing, interventions and action-reports on the latter. Integration must be accompanied by a local dedicated professional (the ‘pilot’). Results of recent experiments showed that it is possible to implement integrative dynamics in France. PMID:24868197

  18. The French Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology position paper on the concept of integration.

    PubMed

    Somme, Dominique; Trouvé, Hélène; Passadori, Yves; Corvez, Alain; Jeandel, Claude; Bloch, Marie-Aline; Ruault, Geneviève; Dupont, Olivier; de Stampa, Matthieu

    2014-01-01

    The concept of integration, although dating from the 1990s, has only recently appeared in French public health policy. It must be linked with 'coordination', which is the base of most French public policies applied to geriatrics since the 1960s. Herein, we report the French Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology working group's findings according to three axes: definition of integration, objectives of this organisational approach and the means needed to achieve them. Integration is a process that aims to overcome the fragmentation of services for vulnerable people. This process requires a multilevel approach, particularly concerning how to modify public policies and financing systems. Notably, all relevant levels need to develop shared processes, tools, resources, financing, interventions and action-reports on the latter. Integration must be accompanied by a local dedicated professional (the 'pilot'). Results of recent experiments showed that it is possible to implement integrative dynamics in France.

  19. [Human parasitoses in French Guiana].

    PubMed

    Carme, B

    2001-11-03

    MALARIA: This review summarises current knowledge of the epidemiological situation regarding parasitoses in French Guiana. Malaria is the most prevalent infection. The most common species is Plasmodium falciparum which is responsible for three quarters of all bouts of malaria. Plasmodium vivax is mostly present in endemic areas inhabited by Amerindian communities. Plasmodium malariae is rarer. CHAGAS' DISEASE, LEISHMAMIASIS AND TOXOPLASMOSIS: Four acute cases of cardiac Chagas' disease were observed between 1994 and 1996. These cases serve as a warning concerning the possible emergence of this type of parasitosis among the poor in Latin America. Cutaneous leishmaniasis is still highly endemic, with an incidence of about 2 cases per 1,000 inhabitants, which has remained essentially unchanged for 15 years. The identification of severe primary toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent individuals in recent years seems to be associated with an as yet poorly known, natural, Amazonian cycle. INTESTINAL PARASITOSES: Improvements in living conditions, hygiene and treatments are such that intestinal parasitoses, other than anguilluliasis, are no longer a major problem in the urban or coastal areas. The situation is very different in the central areas of the country and in the Amerindian and black half-cast communities, with high prevalences of ankylostomiasis (hookworm disease), anguilluliasis and amoebal disease (Entamoeba histolytica/E. dispar). OTHERS: Lymphatic filariasis is no longer endemic; tropical schistosomiasis and distomiasis have never been endemic. Parasitic pests (cutaneous larva migrans and insect or dust-mite ectoparasites) are more spectacular than severe, and constitute a classic "exotic" component of the spectrum of diseases in French Guiana.

  20. What are check dams made for? An historical perspective from the French experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piton, Guillaume; Carladous, Simon; Recking, Alain

    2015-04-01

    technical and sociological reasons. The Mountain lands' conservation and restoration law of 1882 aimed to better fit local issues. The idea of the presentation is thus to highlight how evolved the historical comprehension of torrential hazards and of the usefulness of check dams in mitigation plans in a changing environment on the technical as well as on the sociological and regulatory points of view. Pioneering scientific and technical works on torrential hydraulics and check dams will be presented. Describing the global context that leads to French laws of 1860,1864 and 1882 will allow us to explain the extensive development of the works in more than a thousand of torrents and a hundred of big landslides. We then will discuss the evolution of technics during the beginning of the 20th century and the changes induced after WWII by the arrival of reinforced-concrete technics. We will conclude the presentation with a synthesis table aiming to highlight the different functions of check dams based on a description of their situations in the watershed, compare to other structures' situations and on shape criteria. This historical perspective will hopefully help people to better understand for which purposes some structures have been built in the past centuries and what lessons can be learnt from this assessment.

  1. Highlights of recent studies and future plans for the French human biomonitoring (HBM) programme.

    PubMed

    Fréry, Nadine; Vandentorren, Stéphanie; Etchevers, Anne; Fillol, Clémence

    2012-02-01

    This manuscript presents highlights of recent studies and perspectives from the French human biomonitoring (HBM) programme. Until recently, HBM studies focused on specific populations or pollutants to gain a better understanding of exposure to environmental chemicals, to help regulators reduce environmental exposure and to monitor existing policies on specific concerns. Highlights of recent multicentre biomonitoring studies with specific population or pollutant focus are given. These French HBM studies have been implemented to know: (1) the influence of living near an incinerator on serum dioxin and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels, (2) the influence of consuming river fish contaminated by PCBs on serum PCBs of fishermen, and (3) the evolution of blood lead levels in children from 1 to 6 years old since 1995. Special emphasis is placed on the use of an integrated (HBM coupled with nutrition and health studies), multipollutant approach. This approach has been initiated in France with a recent national population-based biomonitoring survey, the Etude Nationale Nutrition Santé (ENNS; French Nutrition and Health Survey). This survey will provide the first reference distribution for 42 biomarkers in the French population. The current national HBM strategy will build upon the ENNS and include a national survey of people aged between 6 and 74 years complemented for the neonatal period and childhood by the Etude Longitudinale Française depuis l'Enfance (ELFE; French longitudinal study of children). France also contributes to the harmonization of HBM activities in Europe through participation in European HBM projects.

  2. Les liaisons dangereuses: resource surveillance, uranium diplomacy and secret French-American collaboration in 1950s Morocco.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    This study explores the origins and consequences of a unique, secret, French-American collaboration to prospect for uranium in 1950s Morocco. This collaboration permitted mediation between the United States and France. The appearance of France in an American-supported project for raw nuclear materials signalled American willingness to accept a new nuclear global order in which the French assumed a new, higher position as regional nuclear ally as opposed to suspicious rival. This collaboration also permitted France and the United States to agree tacitly to the same geopolitical status for the French Moroccan Protectorate, a status under dispute both in Morocco and outside it. The secret scientific effort reassured the French that, whatever the Americans might say publicly, they stood behind the maintenance of French hegemony in the centuries-old kingdom. But Moroccan independence proved impossible to deny. With its foreseeable arrival, the collaboration went from seductive to dangerous, and the priority of American and French geologists shifted from finding a major uranium lode to making sure that nothing was readily available to whatever post-independence interests might prove most powerful. Ultimately, the Kingdom of Morocco took a page out of the French book, using uranium exploration to assert sovereignty over a different disputed territory, its de facto colony of the Western Sahara.

  3. Defining Global Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Sarina; Lattimer, Heather

    2013-01-01

    As the world is becoming increasingly flat, it has become important for educators to prepare students to understand global perspectives and engage with people from countries and cultures around the world. Although there is no question as to the importance of global education to meet with the demands of a flat world, what internationalization and…

  4. Defining Global Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Sarina; Lattimer, Heather

    2013-01-01

    As the world is becoming increasingly flat, it has become important for educators to prepare students to understand global perspectives and engage with people from countries and cultures around the world. Although there is no question as to the importance of global education to meet with the demands of a flat world, what internationalization and…

  5. Globalization, Interdependence and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neubauer, Deane

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary globalization is marked by rapidly and dramatically increasing interdependence, which operates both within and among countries. Increasing global interdependence has profound influence on education at all levels, such as how to deal with a world with more permeable boundaries in which people are on the move more frequently (migration)…

  6. Multiculturalism vs. Globalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ukpokodu, Nelly

    1999-01-01

    Addresses the error of treating multiculturalism and globalism as the same concept. Considers the boundaries and shared purposes of multiculturalism and globalism. Defines the former as using multiple perspectives that reflect the diversity within a society and the latter as developing students' understanding of peoples and cultures of other…

  7. Globalism and HRD. Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2002

    This document contains three papers from a symposium on globalization and human resource development (HRD). "Challenges and Strategies of Developing Human Resources in the Surge of Globalization: A Case of the People's Republic of China" (De Zhang, Baiyin Yang, Yichi Zhang) analyzes the challenges and strategies of HRD in China and…

  8. Globalization, Interdependence and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neubauer, Deane

    2007-01-01

    Contemporary globalization is marked by rapidly and dramatically increasing interdependence, which operates both within and among countries. Increasing global interdependence has profound influence on education at all levels, such as how to deal with a world with more permeable boundaries in which people are on the move more frequently (migration)…

  9. Policy responses to viral hepatitis B and C among people who inject drugs in Member States of the WHO European region: a sub-analysis of the WHO 2013 global hepatitis policy survey

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Unsafe injections, through infectious bodily fluids, are a major route of transmission for hepatitis B and C. Viral hepatitis burden among people who inject drugs is particularly high in many Member States of central and Eastern Europe while national capacity and willingness to address it varies greatly. In 2013, the World Health Organization conducted a survey assessing national viral hepatitis efforts of 194 national governments. Here, we present a sub-analysis of this global survey focusing on questions relating to people who inject drugs in the WHO European Region. Methods The initial survey included 43 questions covering awareness, data, prevention, and screening and treatment. It was sent in five languages to identified national focal points. This sub-analysis included 11 questions and 53 Member States in the WHO European Region. Descriptive analyses of national activities are presented. As a secondary outcome bivariate analyses of differences between Member States of the European Union (EU) and European Free Trade Association (EFTA) compared to those not in said grouping are presented. Results Forty-four of the 53 Member States responded to the survey (response rate of 83%). More than three-quarters reported offering publicly-funded treatment for HBV or HCV (82% and 80%, respectively), with a significantly higher proportion of EU/EFTA Member States (P=0.004 and P=0.010, respectively). Half of Member States (53%) reported the existence of a national policy for hepatitis prevention and control; however less than one-third (27%) reported having written national strategies. Under half of the responding Member States reported holding events for World Hepatitis Day 2012. One-fifth reported offering hepatitis B and C testing free of charge, with less than one-third reportedly conducting regular serosurveys among people who inject drugs. Conclusions Findings highlight key gaps requiring attention in order to improve national policies and programmes in the

  10. Research Perspectives on Core French: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapkin, Sharon; Mady, Callie; Arnott, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the research literature on core French in three main areas: student diversity, delivery models for the core French program, and instructional approaches. These topics are put into context through a discussion of studies on community attitudes to French as a second language (FSL), dissatisfaction with core French outcomes and…

  11. Research Perspectives on Core French: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapkin, Sharon; Mady, Callie; Arnott, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the research literature on core French in three main areas: student diversity, delivery models for the core French program, and instructional approaches. These topics are put into context through a discussion of studies on community attitudes to French as a second language (FSL), dissatisfaction with core French outcomes and…

  12. Thinking Globally when Teaching Locally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Reken, Ruth E.; Rushmore, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Advances in science and technology, globalization of trade, international competition for markets, ethnic conflicts, and the limits of the planet's ecosystem have brought global issues and the people of the world to doorsteps and classrooms. With the increasing interaction among peoples of the world, skills in cross-cultural communication,…

  13. Thinking Globally when Teaching Locally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Reken, Ruth E.; Rushmore, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Advances in science and technology, globalization of trade, international competition for markets, ethnic conflicts, and the limits of the planet's ecosystem have brought global issues and the people of the world to doorsteps and classrooms. With the increasing interaction among peoples of the world, skills in cross-cultural communication,…

  14. [Gilberto Freyre: theoretician of globalization?].

    PubMed

    Gerstenberger, Debora

    2014-01-01

    Gilberto Freyre is one of Brazil's all-time finest intellectuals and social scientists. However, unlike his famous French colleague and contemporary Fernand Braudel, Freyre is not currently considered a founder of the new 'global history'. The article poses some questions: How valuable is Gilberto Freyre's work to contemporary historiography? Since most of his books address such themes as colonialism, migration, and the 'miscegenation' of different ethnicities and cultures, do they perhaps also tell us something about what we now call globalization? As historians, within the framework of the new global history, can we use his writings to (better) understand the past? And if so, how can we make use of his work?

  15. Evolution of the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among the French armed forces in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Christen, Jacques-Robert; Mura, Marie; Roudaut, Gwenaëlle; Drogoul, Anne-Sophie; Demar, Magalie; Briolant, Sébastien; Garnotel, Eric; Simon, Fabrice; Pommier De Santi, Vincent

    2016-07-01

    Two cross-sectional studies were performed 2 years apart in French military personnel deployed from France to French Guiana. In 2011, military medical centres in French Guiana reported 40 cases of intestinal parasitism in service members returning from illegal gold mining sites in the rainforest. In 2013, 48 out of 132 service members returning from French Guiana after a 4-month mission had eosinophilia and seven were infected with hookworm. A presumptive first-line treatment with albendazole could be the most pragmatic strategy.

  16. Le Francais quand meme (French Nonetheless).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delautier, Jean-Marie

    1983-01-01

    Political, attitudinal, and administrative problems of teaching compulsory foreign languages in Colombia are described and discussed from the point of view of a French teacher in a system characterized by confusion and lack of student interest. (MSE)

  17. Affective norms for French words (FAN).

    PubMed

    Monnier, Catherine; Syssau, Arielle

    2014-12-01

    The present study provides affective norms for a large corpus of French words (N = 1,031) that were rated on emotional valence and emotional arousal by 469 French young adults. Ratings were made using the Self-Assessment Manikin (Lang, 1980). By combining evaluations of valence and arousal, and including ratings provided by male and female young adults, this database complements and extends existing French-language databases. The response reliability for the two affective dimensions was good, and the consistency between the present and previous ratings was high. We found a strong quadratic relationship between the valence and arousal ratings. Perceptions of the affective content of a word were partly linked to sex. This new affective database (FAN) will enable French-speaking researchers to select suitable materials for studies of how the character of affective words influences their cognitive processing. FAN is available as an online supplement downloadable with this article.

  18. Planthopper pests of grapevine (in French)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the French vineyards occur two main insect pests belonging to Fulgoromorpha, Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Cixiidae) and Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Flatidae). Hyalesthes obsoletus is inducing economic losses by transmitting a phytoplasma, called Stolbur, from wild plants (bindweed, nettle, etc.) t...

  19. A Local Evaluation of Primary School French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, J. D.; Welsh, Jennifer

    1972-01-01

    A local study concludes that primary school French does not confer a lasting advantage but its contribution lies in the enlargement of interest rather that as a preparation for secondary school work. (JB)

  20. A Local Evaluation of Primary School French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, J. D.; Welsh, Jennifer

    1972-01-01

    A local study concludes that primary school French does not confer a lasting advantage but its contribution lies in the enlargement of interest rather that as a preparation for secondary school work. (JB)

  1. Le Francais quand meme (French Nonetheless).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delautier, Jean-Marie

    1983-01-01

    Political, attitudinal, and administrative problems of teaching compulsory foreign languages in Colombia are described and discussed from the point of view of a French teacher in a system characterized by confusion and lack of student interest. (MSE)

  2. The longitudinal development of clusters in French.

    PubMed

    Demuth, Katherine; McCullough, Elizabeth

    2009-03-01

    Studies of English and German find that children tend to acquire word-final consonant clusters before word-initial consonant clusters. This order of acquisition is generally attributed to articulatory, frequency and/or morphological factors. This contrasts with recent experimental findings from French, where two-year-olds were better at producing word-initial than word-final clusters (Demuth & Kehoe, 2006). The purpose of the present study was to examine French-speaking children's longitudinal acquisition of clusters to determine if these results replicate developmentally. Analysis of spontaneous speech productions from two French-speaking children between one and three years confirmed the earlier acquisition of initial clusters, even when sonority factors were controlled. The findings suggest that French-speaking children acquire complexity at the beginnings of words before complexity appears word-finally. The role of frequency, morphological, structural and input factors is discussed.

  3. [The French general inspectorate of prisons].

    PubMed

    Dupont, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    The French general inspectorate of prisons is an independent watchdog responsible for ensuring that inmates' fundamental rights are respected. An interview with Xavier Dupont, the secretary general, who assesses the objectives and methods of this institution.

  4. Translation and the Teacher of French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, H. S. Frank

    1977-01-01

    This article is a brief discussion of some exercises in guided translation and comparative analysis designed not only to increase students' competence in translation and knowledge of French but also to make them more attentive to their English. (CFM)

  5. French NATO Policy: The Next Five Years

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    individual allies. 2See Bresson and Rosenzweig, 1988. -24- NUCLEAR FORCES The French are basing their defense planning on the assumption that a basic...Pillar in NATO?" Armed Forces Journal International, August 1988b. Bresson , Henri de, and Luc Rosenzweig, "La France et la RFA souhaitent une...Tribune, September 30, 1988c. Grant, Robert , "French Defense Policy and European Security," Political Science Quarterly, Vol. 100, No. 3, Fall 1985. Grosser

  6. Management control literature and French public hospitals.

    PubMed

    Georgescu, Irène

    2013-08-01

    The introduction of activity based pricing in combination with hospitals' reorganizations has created a new financial logic in French public hospitals. The organization has an obligation to produce certain levels of activity, since hospitals' resources are directly dependent on the activity level. These changes also imply the implementation of financial results controls in these organizations. The purpose of this answer is to demonstrate how the literature on management control can help to understand what has been happening within the French public hospitals.

  7. People's Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohsini, S. R.

    The "Folkehojskole," or Folk High School (more accurately translated as "People's College") which is Denmark's unique contribution to adult education, offer residential adult instruction. The aims of folk education are to help adults behave as independent and mature members of the community and think and speak freely. Emphasis…

  8. People's Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohsini, S. R.

    The "Folkehojskole," or Folk High School (more accurately translated as "People's College") which is Denmark's unique contribution to adult education, offer residential adult instruction. The aims of folk education are to help adults behave as independent and mature members of the community and think and speak freely. Emphasis…

  9. Beastly People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalker, Don; Hurley, J. Casey

    1993-01-01

    Both positive and negative people can strongly influence other staff. The thinking majority can best be influenced by supplying them with positive information. Leaders can counteract negative staff by being good role models, considering verbal and nonverbal messages, identifying negative staffers and limiting their leadership opportunities, and…

  10. The French Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children.

    PubMed

    Putois, Benjamin; Leslie, Wendy; Gustin, Marie Paule; Challamel, Marie-Josèphe; Raoux, Aude; Guignard-Perret, Anne; Weick, Diane; Sauzeau, Jean-Baptiste; Herbillon, Vania; Zourou, Filio; Spruyt, Karen; Franco, Patricia

    2017-04-01

    The psychometric properties of the Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC) have been shown to be accurate, even when translated into several languages. The aim of the present study was to translate, adapt, and validate the SDSC for a French-speaking population. After forward- and back-translation, the tool was further translated and adapted into the French language. It was then pretested in terms of clarity on 33 French-speaking parents. Pretesting demonstrated that the questionnaire was well understood, indicating good clarity. During the validation phase, a total of 447 French-speaking parents of children aged between 4 and 16  years completed the SDSC. Among these, 66 children were diagnosed with sleep disorders by a pediatric specialist after a sleep consultation and polysomnographic recordings. The factor analysis revealed five factors: difficulty in initiating and maintaining sleep (DIMS), sleep breathing disorders (SBD), disorders of excessive somnolence (DOES), parasomnias (PARA) and non-restorative sleep (NRS). This psychometric structure is reliable and logical in comparison with the experts' diagnoses. Convergent validity, divergent and internal reliability are very good. Inter-parental concordance in scoring the child's sleep problem does show differences in the ways in which parents report their children's sleep patterns. Cut-off was calculated for the total score (45). This study validated a 25-item French version of the questionnaire. The French SDSC could therefore be used to aid screening of sleep disorders in the general population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ). Assessment of eating behaviour in an aging French population.

    PubMed

    Bailly, Nathalie; Maitre, Isabelle; Amanda, Marion; Hervé, Catherine; Alaphilippe, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a French version of the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ) in order to provide a self-report measure for French people in the field of gerontology. A short version of the DEBQ was administered to 262 participants aged 65years and older. Single and multigroup confirmatory analyses were carried out. The fit measures for the three-factor model and the factorial invariance models with respect to age, sex and BMI status were satisfactory. Three subscales of DEBQ had satisfactory internal consistency. Regarding age, the results showed significant differences in emotional eating and restrained eating. Concerning sex, women had higher mean scores for emotional eating and restrained eating than men. Finally, the overweight older people had higher scores for emotional eating than the normal-weight participants. The short version of DEBQ should provide a useful measure for researchers and clinicians who are interested in exploring eating behaviours among the elderly.

  12. FRIPON, the French fireball network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colas, F.; Zanda, B.; Bouley, S.; Vaubaillon, J.; Marmo, C.; Audureau, Y.; Kwon, M. K.; Rault, J. L.; Caminade, S.; Vernazza, P.; Gattacceca, J.; Birlan, M.; Maquet, L.; Egal, A.; Rotaru, M.; Gruson-Daniel, Y.; Birnbaum, C.; Cochard, F.; Thizy, O.

    2015-10-01

    FRIPON (Fireball Recovery and InterPlanetary Observation Network) [4](Colas et al, 2014) was recently founded by ANR (Agence Nationale de la Recherche). Its aim is to connect meteoritical science with asteroidal and cometary science in order to better understand solar system formation and evolution. The main idea is to set up an observation network covering all the French territory to collect a large number of meteorites (one or two per year) with accurate orbits, allowing us to pinpoint possible parent bodies. 100 all-sky cameras will be installed at the end of 2015 forming a dense network with an average distance of 100km between stations. To maximize the accuracy of orbit determination, we will mix our optical data with radar data from the GRAVES beacon received by 25 stations [5](Rault et al, 2015). As both the setting up of the network and the creation of search teams for meteorites will need manpower beyond our small team of professionals, we are developing a citizen science network called Vigie-Ciel [6](Zanda et al, 2015). The public at large will thus be able to simply use our data, participate in search campaigns or even setup their own cameras.

  13. Morals, medicine and change: morality brokers, social phobias, and French psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Lloyd, Stephanie

    2008-06-01

    This paper will examine how French neurotics are being transformed into 'social phobics' and how the appearance of this group may be tied to new personal and social ideals. There are many people and factors that contribute to this changing definition of mental illness. Amongst these, I will focus on the role of three groups who are most vocally acting as morality brokers in the creation of these new subjects: psychiatrists, patients' groups and pharmaceutical companies.

  14. Trinquier and Galula French Counterinsurgency Theories in the Algerian War and Their Application to Modern Conflicts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    heavy handedness also put pressure on the general population to support the A.L.N. and particularly not to support the French.(1 0) 9 / " 10 Legal System . The...terrorist is able not only to operate in secrecy but also to manipulate the very legal system which is charged with stopping him. Traditional...people from Soviet occupation. 4. Legal System . Trinquier observed that the legal system at work in Algeria was reactive and manipulated by the

  15. Global drivers, sustainable manufacturing and systems ergonomics.

    PubMed

    Siemieniuch, C E; Sinclair, M A; Henshaw, M J deC

    2015-11-01

    This paper briefly explores the expected impact of the 'Global Drivers' (such as population demographics, food security; energy security; community security and safety), and the role of sustainability engineering in mitigating the potential effects of these Global Drivers. The message of the paper is that sustainability requires a significant input from Ergonomics/Human Factors, but the profession needs some expansion in its thinking in order to make this contribution. Creating a future sustainable world in which people experience an acceptable way of life will not happen without a large input from manufacturing industry into all the Global Drivers, both in delivering products that meet sustainability criteria (such as durability, reliability, minimised material requirement and low energy consumption), and in developing sustainable processes to deliver products for sustainability (such as minimum waste, minimum emissions and low energy consumption). Appropriate changes are already being implemented in manufacturing industry, including new business models, new jobs and new skills. Considerable high-level planning around the world is in progress and is bringing about these changes; for example, there is the US 'Advanced Manufacturing National Program' (AMNP)', the German 'Industrie 4.0' plan, the French plan 'la nouvelle France industrielle' and the UK Foresight publications on the 'Future of Manufacturing'. All of these activities recognise the central part that humans will continue to play in the new manufacturing paradigms; however, they do not discuss many of the issues that systems ergonomics professionals acknowledge. This paper discusses a number of these issues, highlighting the need for some new thinking and knowledge capture by systems ergonomics professionals. Among these are ethical issues, job content and skills issues. Towards the end, there is a summary of knowledge extensions considered necessary in order that systems ergonomists can be fully

  16. The Challenge of Globalization: Preparing Teachers for a Global Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merryfield, Merry M.

    2008-01-01

    Globalization changes everything. When young people affect and are affected by issues, changes, and events across the world, they need to be given the tools to participate in global discourse and decision making. With their incredible consumer power, today's preK-12 students are already influencing global economic, technological, and environmental…

  17. French from Four to Seven. A Handbook for Teaching French to the Very Young.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodjak, Barbara Hippel

    The handbook is a compilation of ideas, strategies, resources, and suggestions for teaching French to children aged 4-7. It presupposes a school program in which French is taught as a foreign language for a brief period each day, although the ideas are adaptable to immersion instruction. Introductory sections describe the book's format and…

  18. Hierarchies of Authenticity in Study Abroad: French from Canada versus French from France?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wernicke, Meike

    2016-01-01

    For many decades, Francophone regions in Canada have provided language study exchanges for French as a second language (FSL) learners within their own country. At the same time, FSL students and teachers in Canada continue to orient to a native speaker standard associated with European French. This Eurocentric orientation manifested itself in a…

  19. Reformulation and the Learning of French Pronominal Verbs in a Canadian French Immersion Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapkin, Sharon; Swain, Merrill; Smith, Monika

    2002-01-01

    Examines a subset of collaborative dialogues that occurred in a a multistage task where Canadian Grade 7 French immersion students worked together in pairs. Each pair wrote a story, noticed differences between their text and a reformulator's revision, and reflected on their noticing. Traces development of the target language (French), with…

  20. Third Semester College French, A Different Approach: Practical French for Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickert, Blandine

    An alternative approach used in a third semester French course at the University of Colorado at Denver is described. The approach was adopted to improve student motivation. The course focuses on the learning of practical French for everyday situations, while traveling abroad for business or pleasure. Emphasis is on conversational, communicative…

  1. French from Four to Seven. A Handbook for Teaching French to the Very Young.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodjak, Barbara Hippel

    The handbook is a compilation of ideas, strategies, resources, and suggestions for teaching French to children aged 4-7. It presupposes a school program in which French is taught as a foreign language for a brief period each day, although the ideas are adaptable to immersion instruction. Introductory sections describe the book's format and…

  2. The Dysarthria Impact Profile: A Preliminary French Experience with Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Letanneux, Alban; Walshe, Margaret; Viallet, François

    2013-01-01

    This preliminary study aimed to adapt the Dysarthria Impact Profile (DIP) in French and to confirm its relevance for the assessment of the psychosocial impact of dysarthria in Parkinson's disease (PD). The DIP scale was administered to 10 people with PD and 10 age-matched control subjects. The DIP psychometric properties were calculated (discriminant validity, internal consistency, and concurrent validity), notably by using the Voice Handicap Index (VHI) for interscale comparisons. The French version of the DIP discriminated people with PD from control subjects (χ 2 test, P < 0.05). Good internal consistency was observed in both populations (Cronbach's α = 0.93 for PD people and α = 0.76 for control subjects). The DIP was highly correlated with the VHI (Spearman's ρ = −0.70, P < 0.01), confirming the external validity of the scale. There was no direct relationship between PD speech and quality of life as assessed by the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39 (PDQ-39). Our preliminary data suggest that the French version of the DIP has the potential to make a useful contribution for the assessment and outcome management in acquired dysarthria for both clinicians and researchers. PMID:23766926

  3. Globalization of healthcare.

    PubMed

    2012-05-01

    Globalization-the increasing transnational circulation of money, goods, people, ideas, and information worldwide-is generally recognized as one of the most powerful forces shaping our current and future history. How is it affecting healthcare, and in that context, what is the purpose and significance of Global Advances in Health and Medicine (GAHM), publisher of this journal? Our goal is not homogenization but rather to provide an opportunity for integration, convergence, and collaboration across cultures. By respecting and conserving the richness and diversity of each new medicine, we embrace globalization. Globalization is of course not new; it began in the Renaissance and particularly with the 15th- and 16th-century voyages of exploration by Columbus, Magellan, and others. Since the beginning of time, there have been interactions and exchanges among different peoples and cultures. However, the current magnitude of globalization is unprecedented and yet still expanding rapidly.

  4. EVALUATION OF CIRCUMSPOROZOITE PROTEIN OF Plasmodium vivax TO ESTIMATE ITS PREVALENCE IN OIAPOQUE , AMAPÁ STATE, BRAZIL, BORDERING FRENCH GUIANA.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Margarete do Socorro Mendonça; Vieira, José Luiz Fernandes; Cassiano, Gustavo Capatti; Musset, Lise; Legrand, Eric; Nacher, Mathieu; Couto, Vanja Suely Calvosa D'Almeida; Machado, Ricardo Luiz Dantas; Couto, Álvaro Augusto Ribeiro D'Almeida

    2016-09-22

    Malaria is a major health problem for people who live on the border between Brazil and French Guiana. Here we discuss Plasmodium vivax distribution pattern in the town of Oiapoque, Amapá State using the circumsporozoite (CS) gene as a marker. Ninety-one peripheral blood samples from P. vivax patients have been studied. Of these, 64 individuals were from the municipality of Oiapoque (Amapá State, Brazil) and 27 patients from French Guiana (August to December 2011). DNA extraction was performed, and a fragment of the P. vivax CS gene was subsequently analyzed using PCR/RFLP. The VK210 genotype was the most common in both countries (48.36% in Brazil and 14.28% in French Guiana), followed by the P. vivax-like (1.10% in both Brazil and French Guiana) and VK247 (1.10% only in Brazil) in single infections. We were able to detect all three CS genotypes simultaneously in mixed infections. There were no statistically significant differences either regarding infection site or parasitaemia among individuals with different genotypes. These results suggest that the same genotypes circulating in French Guiana are found in the municipality of Oiapoque in Brazil. These findings suggest that there may be a dispersion of parasitic populations occurring between the two countries. Most likely, this distribution is associated with prolonged and/or more complex transmission patterns of these genotypes in Brazil, bordering French Guiana.

  5. EVALUATION OF CIRCUMSPOROZOITE PROTEIN OF Plasmodium vivax TO ESTIMATE ITS PREVALENCE IN OIAPOQUE , AMAPÁ STATE, BRAZIL, BORDERING FRENCH GUIANA

    PubMed Central

    GOMES, Margarete do Socorro Mendonça; VIEIRA, José Luiz Fernandes; CASSIANO, Gustavo Capatti; MUSSET, Lise; LEGRAND, Eric; NACHER, Mathieu; COUTO, Vanja Suely Calvosa D'Almeida; MACHADO, Ricardo Luiz Dantas; COUTO, Álvaro Augusto Ribeiro D'Almeida

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Malaria is a major health problem for people who live on the border between Brazil and French Guiana. Here we discuss Plasmodium vivax distribution pattern in the town of Oiapoque, Amapá State using the circumsporozoite (CS) gene as a marker. Ninety-one peripheral blood samples from P. vivax patients have been studied. Of these, 64 individuals were from the municipality of Oiapoque (Amapá State, Brazil) and 27 patients from French Guiana (August to December 2011). DNA extraction was performed, and a fragment of the P. vivax CS gene was subsequently analyzed using PCR/RFLP. The VK210 genotype was the most common in both countries (48.36% in Brazil and 14.28% in French Guiana), followed by the P. vivax-like (1.10% in both Brazil and French Guiana) and VK247 (1.10% only in Brazil) in single infections. We were able to detect all three CS genotypes simultaneously in mixed infections. There were no statistically significant differences either regarding infection site or parasitaemia among individuals with different genotypes. These results suggest that the same genotypes circulating in French Guiana are found in the municipality of Oiapoque in Brazil. These findings suggest that there may be a dispersion of parasitic populations occurring between the two countries. Most likely, this distribution is associated with prolonged and/or more complex transmission patterns of these genotypes in Brazil, bordering French Guiana. PMID:27680177

  6. French Gender "Rules" in the Speech of English-Dominant, French-Dominant and Monolingual French-Speaking Children. Working Papers on Bilingualism, No. 19.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harley, Birgit

    The French gender usage of grade two and grade five Franco-Ontarian children was compared with that of English-speaking children enrolled in French immersion programs, and monolingual French-speaking children in Quebec. While some of the Franco-Ontarian children are similar to the Quebec children with respect to the gender "rules" they…

  7. Intellectual Property and Aboriginal People: A Working Paper = Propriete intellectuelle et Autochtones: Document de travail.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brascoupe, Simon; Endemann, Karin

    Written in English and French, this paper outlines current Canadian intellectual property legislation as it relates to Aboriginal people in Canada, and provides a general review of the implications and limitations of this legislation for protecting the traditional knowledge of Aboriginal people. An initial discussion of Aboriginal perspectives…

  8. Evolvement of French advanced practice nurses.

    PubMed

    Bonnel, Galadriel

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to chronicle the development of the advanced practice nurse (APN) in France and compare international APN indictors of quality care with French studies. A review of the literature was performed by accessing the MEDLINE, Science Direct, and Cochrane Databases for studies of quality of care by APNs during 1965-2012. The author's participation on a national task force in collaboration with the French Ministry of Health provided additional information. After applying limits of this search, 36 studies fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria. In both the French and international APN nursing literature, the most frequently described quality of care measures were level of patient satisfaction and other patient outcomes (clinical and laboratory measures) according to evidence-based guidelines. In three French studies (nephrology, neuro-oncology, and urology settings), nurses performed direct patient care and were legally permitted to take on some limited responsibilities usually held by French physicians, including clinical examinations, diagnosing, and prescribing. Creation of the APN role in France can respond to public health challenges including the rising incidence of chronic diseases and an impending physician shortage. Future APN research should focus on rigorous, innovative design development including collaborative care models. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  9. How to integrate the aging of employees into occupational health policies: the approach of a French company.

    PubMed

    Bonnet-Belfais, Monique; Cholat, Jean-François; Bouchard, Denis; Goulfier, Charles; Casselle, Adina; Schram, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Since 2010, French companies must integrate or retain seniors to avoid a fine of 1% of their payroll. This work examines how to integrate the aging of employees into occupational health policies. The literature on the complex relationships between age, work and health has been reviewed, and the feasibility of potential actions has been addressed. In the company setting, few diseases are specific to seniors. With retirement age postponing, chronic diseases may appear more frequently in people still working. Physiological aging linked to a functional decline is variable. Occupational wear and tear can result in some functional deterioration. Seniors can experience difficulties coping with heavy time demands that restrict their ability to organize the work, with physical stresses due to their diminished muscular capacity, and with unconventional schedules that have long-term deleterious effects on sleep quality and alertness. This position paper makes recommendations for adapting work organization and occupational medical care. Protective measures for seniors should be integrated in a global approach to improving work conditions for all. Aging employees need some leeway to develop experience-based strategies for bypassing new difficulties. Revising work rhythms and developing autonomy seem to be means for progress.

  10. Debris flow occurrence future changes in high populated mountains (French Alps).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlova, I.; Jomelli, V.; Brunstein, D.; Grancher, D.

    2010-03-01

    The growth of tourism in recent decades, the dense population and more than 100 large ski areas create a high potential for damage to people, settlements and associated infrastructures in the French Alps. Increasing demographic pressures in mountainous regions and recent catastrophic events have renewed interest in various gravitational hazards predetermination in European countries. Results of the models considering the A2 hypothesis (IPCC 2007) showed that the most significant climatic trends for the end of the century will be a decrease in intense rainy events and an increase in temperature. As it is known that debris flows are often triggered by intense rainy events, a change in global climate in the future could have an impact on the frequency of this process. Our approach is to link the current (1960ies-2000ies) or future climate and the occurrence of debris flows based on statistical modeling. Regional climatic scenarios were computed from the ARPEGE model developed by the Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques of Météo-France. We developed new models using the simulated current climatic data with debris flows. Then we compared the probabilities of the occurrence of debris flows in the current period and in the coming century. Probabilistic models for the end of the twenty-first century were computed by interchanging meteorological parameters used in the statistical models established for the current period by meteorological data simulated for the future period. The future changes should have impacts on the occurrence of debris flows. We expect a decrease in about 10-30% of debris flows occurrence probabilities. From a spatial point of view, the increase in temperature should result in a shift of the 0°C isotherm to a higher elevation which, in turn, should result in a 20% reduction of the number of slopes affected by the process compared to the current period.

  11. Globalization, global health, and access to healthcare.

    PubMed

    Collins, Téa

    2003-01-01

    It is now commonly realized that the globalization of the world economy is shaping the patterns of global health, and that associated morbidity and mortality is affecting countries' ability to achieve economic growth. The globalization of public health has important implications for access to essential healthcare. The rise of inequalities among and within countries negatively affects access to healthcare. Poor people use healthcare services less frequently when sick than do the rich. The negative impact of globalization on access to healthcare is particularly well demonstrated in countries of transitional economies. No longer protected by a centralized health sector that provided free universal access to services for everyone, large segments of the populations in the transition period found themselves denied even the most basic medical services. Only countries where regulatory institutions are strong, domestic markets are competitive and social safety nets are in place, have a good chance to enjoy the health benefits of globalization.

  12. North America and the Francophone: Local and Transnational Movements for the Survival of French-Speaking North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St-Hilaire, Aonghas

    1997-01-01

    Notes that North American French survives as a first language of home and community in three historic Francophone strongholds: Quebec, New Brunswick, and Louisiana. It is suggested that the dynamics of cooperation between the Quebecois, Acadians, Cajuns, and the global Francophone tell of a common cultural struggle toward a community of…

  13. Globalization and Christian love.

    PubMed

    Father Peter J Henriot

    2006-01-01

    Globalization is having a very negative impact on the world's poorest people. Decisions made in the First World-decisions often based on a profit-oriented ethic-are degrading the quality of life of people in the Third World and taking away their voice. The church is called to act in solidarity to respond to people in need worldwide. It must take a radical stance to promote love, justice, development, and peace. Acting in solidarity with others expresses a commitment to the common good and recognizes that all people are interconnected-that "our" well-being depends on the well-being of others. It acknowledges that people exist within a community. The concept of solidarity-with its emphasis on relationships among people-runs counter to many of the structures that drive globalization. People of the church must undertake a personal assessment, examining their thoughts and feelings about acting in solidarity with people in need. Through change and personal action, these individuals can promote justice around the world.

  14. French immersion in Canada: Theory and practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safty, Adel

    1991-12-01

    French immersion programs are rapidly becoming an integral part of the Canadian education system. Its educational and linguistic achievements have been the subject of an abundant literature that continues to grow. The popularity of the program has helped it expand at a phenomenal rate. From one school and a handful of students in the experimental classes 25 years ago, there are now more than 17,000 schools offering French immersion instruction to close to 250,000 students in all major Canadian cities. The major theoretical foundations on which French immersion was explicitly and sometimes implicitly based may be summarized as follows: Early exposure to a second language is better than late exposure.

  15. Status of the French Mars Exploration Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonneville, R.; Counil, J.-L.; Rocard, F.

    2002-01-01

    The French Mars exploration initiative named PREMIER (Programme de Retour d'Echantillons Martiens et Installation d'Expériences en Réseau) is a long term, multiform co- operative program including as its two main components : - the development with a consortium of European partners (Finland, Germany, Belgium) and the deployment of a network of 4 small Mars ground stations for performing geophysical measurements (NetLander project) ; - a participation to the future Mars Sample Return mission (MSR) in cooperation with NASA including the development and the operation of the orbiter vehicle of this mission. Its additional elements are : - instrument contributions to ESA's Mars Express mission ; - payload contributions to the orbiters and landers &rovers of the future missions to Mars, and especially to NASA's "smart lander" mission dedicated to in situ investigations. This program wants to ensure the complementarity between its three poles : (i) global investigations from the orbit, (ii) landed science with both network science (NetLanders) and in situ investigations, and (iii) sample return. A major step in the PREMIER program will be the 2007 orbiter mission ; this precursor vehicle developed by CNES and launched by Ariane 5 in September 2007 will first deliver the 4 NetLanders at Mars and then will be inserted in Mars orbit. This orbiter will perform technological tests aiming at preparing the future Mars Sample Return mission, it will ensure a telecommunication relay function for the NetLanders and it will be used for an additional orbital science mission. While the NetLanders will study the internal structure of Mars and its climate, with the goal to operate a full Martian year, the primary objectives of the orbital science mission will be complementary of those of the NetLanders, with an emphasis on the study of the Martian atmosphere. In a first phase, the orbiter will be on a 500 km x 500 km circular, near polar, Sun-synchronous orbit around 12 am local time

  16. Reliability and validity of the French-Canadian version of the scoliosis research society 22 questionnaire in France.

    PubMed

    Lonjon, Guillaume; Ilharreborde, Brice; Odent, Thierry; Moreau, Sébastien; Glorion, Christophe; Mazda, Keyvan

    2014-01-01

    Outcome study to determine the internal consistency, reproducibility, and concurrent validity of the French-Canadian version of the Scoliosis Research Society 22 (SRS-22 fcv) patient questionnaire in France. To determine whether the SRS-22 fcv can be used in a population from France. The SRS-22 has been translated and validated in multiple countries, notably in the French-Canadian language in Quebec, Canada. Use of SRS-22 fcv seems appropriate for evaluating adolescent idiopathic scoliosis in France. However, French-Canadian French is noticeably different from the French spoken in France, and no study has investigated the use of a French-Canadian version of a health-quality questionnaire in another French population. The methods used for validating the SRS-22 fcv in Quebec were adopted for use with a group of 200 adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis and 60 healthy adolescents in France. Reliability and reproducibility were measured by the Cronbach α and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), construct validity by factorial analysis, concurrent validity by the Short-Form of the survey, and discriminant validity by analysis of variance and multivariate linear regression. In France, the SRS-22 fcv showed good global internal consistency (Cronbach α = 0.87, intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.92), a coherent factorial structure, and high correlation coefficients between the SRS-22 fcv and Short-Form of the survey (P < 0.001). However, reliability and validity were slightly less than that for the instrument's original validation and the validation of the SRS-22 fcv in Quebec. These differences could be explained by language and cultural differences. The SRS-22 fcv is relevant for use in France, but further development and validation of a specific French questionnaire remain necessary to improve the assessment of functional outcomes of adolescents with scoliosis in France. N/A.

  17. First breath of the French seismic crisis committee with the 2009 L’Aquila earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voisin, C.; Delouis, B.; Vergnolle, M. M.; Klinger, Y.; Chiaraluce, L.; Margheriti, L.; Mariscal, A.; Péquégnat, C.; Schlagenhauf, A.; Traversa, P.

    2009-12-01

    The April 2009 L’Aquila earthquake launched the French seismic crisis committee. The mission of this committee is to gather all possible information about the earthquake and the available means for intervention (in terms of human potential and field instruments). These information are passed to the French INSU who decides of and raise fundings for a possible field experiment. The L’Aquila earthquake is the first event to be considered by the committee. French INSU was able to propose to the Italian INGV a set of 4 people and 20 seismic recorders in less than 30h. All stations were deployed over a broad area surrounding the event, in intelligence with the Italian team in 2,5 days. The seismic recorders are Taurus units associated to CMG40 sensors, belonging to SISMOB. They continuously recorded the ground movement, and more than 20,000 events. Data are freely distributed by the French national portal of seismic data Fosfore. They were mixed alltogether with the Italian data in order to perform the relocation of seismicity, and a first attempt to derive a 'noise' correlation tomography. This first attempt of an integrated post-seismic field study should provide the community with useful information in view of a future large event striking the European countries.

  18. Discourses of Linguistic dominance: A Historical Consideration of French Language Ideology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasuya, Keisuke

    2001-07-01

    The paper offers a historical perspective on the linguistic and cultural imperialism embedded in the struggle to maintain French as a leading international language. France was the nation-state where the ideology of national language was first clearly formulated and directly extended to overseas colonies. This shows the close relationship between linguistic nationalism and imperialism. It was believed that French was the language of universal human reason and had the power to civilize people who spoke it. This myth of the "clarté française" and the "mission civilisatrice" had a strong influence on various kinds of metalinguistic discourses that created the taken-for-granted representation of French as dominant language. It is the essential strategy of language dominance to establish the hierarchy of languages as if it were natural order of things. When French was obliged to yield the status of international language to English, there emerged the ideology of "Francophonie" which tried to defend its privilege against the monopoly of English, but the same ideology is also directed against minorities' claims for their own linguistic human right. It could be said that these discourses form a recursive prototype of language dominance whose variations are to be found in other shapes almost all over the world.

  19. Assessment of a French scenario with the INPRO methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Vasile, A.; Fiorini, G.L.; Cazalet, J.; Linet, F.L.; Moulin, V.; Greneche, D.

    2006-07-01

    This paper presents the French contribution to the Joint Study of the IAEA International Project on Innovative Nuclear Reactors and Fuel Cycles (INPRO). It concerns the application of the INPRO methodology to a French scenario, on the transition from present LWRs to EPRs in a first phase and to 4. generation fast reactors in a second phase during the 21. century. The scenario also considers the renewal of the present fuel cycle facilities by the third and the fourth generation ones. Present practice of plutonium recycling in PWR is replaced by the middle of the century by a global recycling of actinides, uranium, plutonium and minor actinides in fast reactors. The status and the evolution of the INPRO criteria and the corresponding indicators during the studied period are analyzed for each of the six considered areas: economics, safety, environment, waste management, proliferation resistance and infrastructure. Improvements on economic and safety are expected for both the EPR and the 4. generation systems having these improvements among their basic goals. The use of fast reactors and global recycling of actinides leads to a significant improvement on environment indicators and in particular on the natural resources utilization. The envisaged waste management policy results in significant reductions on mass, thermal loads and radiotoxicity of the final waste which only contains fission products. The use of fuels that do not relay on enriched uranium and separated plutonium increases the proliferation resistance characteristics of the future fuel cycle. The paper summarizes also some recommendations on the data, codes and methods used to support the continuous improvement of the INPRO methodology and help future assessors. (authors)

  20. [French immigration policy at a turning point?].

    PubMed

    Wihtol De Wenden, C

    1995-01-01

    The author examines the changes to French immigration law adopted in 1993 in the light of current trends and pressures affecting migration to France. The focus is on the changes in the rules concerning the acquisition of French nationality, and the assimilation of existing immigrants from developing countries. The difficulties of resolving such problems at the national level while migration regulations are being developed at the European Community level are noted. Problems involving the control of the nation's borders, illegal immigration, and the growing demand for political asylum are also discussed. The author raises the possibility that immigration could be better managed in light of current labor market conditions in France.

  1. Vers un nouveau phonetisme francais (Toward a New French Phonetics)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monnot, Michel; Kite, Francoise

    1976-01-01

    Evolutionary changes in French pronunciation have necessitated changes in phonetic representation. The new articulatory phenomena involve modifications in syllabic structure and in consonant/vowel relationship. (Text is in French.) (DB)

  2. Crisis and Change: The Making of a French FDA.

    PubMed

    Nathanson, Constance A; Bergeron, Henri

    2017-09-01

    Policy Points: Introducing a recent special issue of The Lancet on the health system in France, Horton and Ceschia observe that "the dominance of English as the language of science and, increasingly, global health too often closes the door on the history and experiences of others."(1) In that spirit, this manuscript presents a detailed case study of public health policy transformation in France in the early 1990s. It casts light on processes of policy change in a political and cultural environment very different from that of the United States, showing how the public health policy process is shaped by multiple contingencies of history, ideology, and politics. More specifically, we describe the transformation of a disease catastrophe into a political crisis and the deployment of that crisis to precipitate reform of the French public health system. Until the last decade of the 20th century, France had no equivalent to the US Food and Drug Administration. In this paper we describe and interpret the complex series of events that led to the passage by the French Parliament in December 1992 of a law incorporating such an agency, the Agence du Médicament (literally, "medicines agency"). The broad aim of this project was to learn how public health policy change comes about by detailed analysis of a specific instance. More specifically, we aimed to better understand the circumstances under which public health crisis leads to significant public health policy reform. This paper is based on detailed analysis of primary documents (eg, archived French health ministry papers, recorded parliamentary debates, government reports, newspaper articles) and oral history interviews covering a period from 1988 to 1993. Thematic analysis of these materials was initially grounded in theories of organizational change, moving to constructs that emerged from the data themselves. Policy entrepreneurs positioned to frame adverse events and seize opportunities are key to public health policy

  3. Discrimination of English and French Orthographic Patterns by Biliterate Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jared, Debra; Cormier, Pierre; Levy, Betty Ann; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether young English-French biliterate children can distinguish between English and French orthographic patterns. Children in French immersion programs were asked to play a dictionary game when they were in Grade 2 and again when they were in Grade 3. They were shown pseudowords that contained either an English spelling pattern or…

  4. 7 CFR 993.6 - Non-French prunes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-French prunes. 993.6 Section 993.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.6 Non-French prunes. Non-French prunes means prunes commonly...

  5. Negation in Near-Native French: Variation and Sociolinguistic Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how adult second language (L2) speakers of French with near-native proficiency realize verbal negation, a well-known sociolinguistic variable in contemporary spoken French. Data included 10 spontaneous informal conversations between near-native speakers of French and native speakers (NSs) closely acquainted with them.…

  6. Old French for Undergraduates at the University of Minnesota, Morris.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, David E.

    Old French for undergraduates, as it is offered to students at the University of Minnesota, Morris, represents a break with tradition. A rationale for the program and course descriptions accentuate benefits accrued from undergraduate medieval studies. Syllabuses for French 80, The History of the Language; French 90, Directed Medieval Studies; and…

  7. French: An Accommodating Language? = Le Francais: Langue D'Accueil?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sue, Ed.

    This bilingual book considers recent developments in French attitudes towards language purism, borrowing, and the incursion of English. The book begins with an essay by French sociolinguist Henriette Walter, and most of the following essays are direct responses to her ideas. All chapters are provided in French and English. Chapter titles include…

  8. Discrimination of English and French Orthographic Patterns by Biliterate Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jared, Debra; Cormier, Pierre; Levy, Betty Ann; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether young English-French biliterate children can distinguish between English and French orthographic patterns. Children in French immersion programs were asked to play a dictionary game when they were in Grade 2 and again when they were in Grade 3. They were shown pseudowords that contained either an English spelling pattern or…

  9. On the Status of the Word in French Phonology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochet, Bernard

    1977-01-01

    French linguists generally agree that the word in French has no phonetic or phonological status. This article examines this position and studies several vowel-consonant sequences, mute-"e" deletion and post-consonantal deletion and suggests that the role of French word-boundaries is more important than is generally acknowledged. (CHK)

  10. Teaching French to Franco-Americans: A Controversial Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickel, Raymond A.

    1965-01-01

    A study of bilingualism among third-generation Americans of French-Canadian extraction briefly examines their linguistic superiority in French over monolingual students and appraises the appropriate psychological approaches to teaching this special group. The article suggests that an "educated standard French" be presented as an alternative to…

  11. Linguistic, Academic, and Cognitive Benefits of French Immersion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaruk, Wally

    2007-01-01

    A survey of research on French as a second language (FSL) education in Canada suggests that French immersion (FI) students enjoy significant linguistic, academic, and cognitive benefits. We organize our summary of the advantages of FI around these three themes, comparing students' proficiency in French and English across various FI programs, and…

  12. The French Defense and Foreign Policies: Rwanda Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-25

    Turquoise , French Strategic Communication, President Mitterrand 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES...and United- Nations-mandated TURQUOISE ) varying in size, scope, and objectives. Concurrently, the French military cooperation architecture evolved...October 1990 RPF offensive, the pro-Hutu press openly cheered the French involvement in operations NOROIT, AMARYLLIS, and TURQUOISE , creating

  13. STUDIES OF THE LIFE WORK OF FOUR CONTEMPORARY FRENCH AUTHORS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NOSTRAND, HOWARD L.

    REPORTED ARE ANALYSES OF THE WORKS OF FOUR CONTEMPORARY FRENCH AUTHORS (RENE MARILL ALBERES, YVES BONNEFOY, MICHEL BUTOR, AND JEAN BRULLER UNDER THE PSEUDONYM VERCORS). THE ANALYSES WERE PREPARED IN FRENCH BY THE INDIVIDUAL AUTHORS FOR THE FRENCH CULTURE RESEARCH PROJECT, A LANGUAGE RESEARCH EFFORT. THE STUDIES ILLUSTRATE THE AUTHORS' THEMES IN…

  14. On Translating French Occurring in English into Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastian, Robert N.

    1989-01-01

    Explores problems encountered during attempts to translate French expressions occurring in English (such as concierge) into Spanish, particularly when the English interpretation of the expression is different from the standard French usage. Spanish translations are provided for about 200 French terms and expressions commonly used in English. (61…

  15. Word Parsing by Late-Learning French-English Bilinguals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golato, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Research on early learning French-English bilinguals suggests that development of segmentation is best characterized by a parameter-setting theory of language acquisition in which French segmentation is marked relative to English segmentation. Reports recent research with late-learning French-English bilinguals that finds evidence for parameter…

  16. Insights from the French Immersion Experience in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safty, Adel

    Canada's French immersion program began in 1965 in response to anglophone parent demand for bilingual French/English instruction. Instruction entirely in French begins in kindergarten, and formal English instruction begins in third grade. The program's popularity has caused rapid expansion, with success attributed to changing attitudes toward…

  17. Sources of French-Canadian Materials for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrey, Irene E.

    This bibiography of reference sources for French-Canadian children's books includes bibliographies, indexes, a publishers' trade annual, recommended lists, and features in professional journals. The citations are presented alphabetically by title--in English, in French and English, or in French, depending on their source--and an address where it…

  18. Negation in Near-Native French: Variation and Sociolinguistic Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Bryan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated how adult second language (L2) speakers of French with near-native proficiency realize verbal negation, a well-known sociolinguistic variable in contemporary spoken French. Data included 10 spontaneous informal conversations between near-native speakers of French and native speakers (NSs) closely acquainted with them.…

  19. View looking Eastnortheast at French Creek trestle, which appears at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking Eastnortheast at French Creek trestle, which appears at left center of frame. Bridge in foreground is west entrance to abandoned Phoenix iron works. - Pennsylvania Railroad, French Creek Trestle, Spanning French Creek, north of Paradise Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  20. French Theory vs. Australian Praxis: The Sham in Tertiary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, Philip

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the primary mode of expression of a significant proportion of contemporary literary and historical criticism (the stock in trade of Australian Arts faculties) is the French language. Emphasizes that knowledge of French prejudices and inclinations can only be gained by learning French. (two references) (Author/CK)

  1. Ten Projects to Involve Your Students Directly in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Lent, Peter C.

    1981-01-01

    Proposes 10 activities to provide French classes of all levels with a broad spectrum of language projects involving direct and active use of French including students polling each other, skits based on television commercials, geographical "show and tell," cooking French dishes, writing a monthly newspaper, and field trips. (BK)

  2. French Vocabulary--Looking for "le mot juste."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parris, David L.

    1996-01-01

    The apparent difficulty of students of French as a second language to acquire French vocabulary is examined, drawing on experience with teaching Irish university students and the structures and stylistic traits peculiar to French. It is noted that while certain kinds of words (noun, verb, adjective, adverb) occupy little space in text, they take…

  3. Suggestions for the Organization of a Course in Commercial French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morton, Jacqueline

    1978-01-01

    Comments and suggestions are offered for organizing a class in commercial French. Two subjects must be taught: basic business transactions and procedures applicable to both the U.S. and France and French commercial terminology, stressing the differences between French and American practices. (SW)

  4. A French Culture Course for Non-Language Majors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savoie, Norman R.

    1987-01-01

    Utah State University changed its "potentially...boring and probably...useless" French civilization course (taught in French and required of majors) to an English-taught course for French majors and majors in business, economics, political science, and prelaw. The new course focuses on stereotypes, cultural differences, and current…

  5. Un cours avance de francais: Le francais tel qu'on le parle (An Advanced Course in French: Colloquial French)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creusot, Andre

    1971-01-01

    Second of three articles on an advanced French program sponsored by the Language Department of the State University of Mons, Belgium. Emphasis is on the phonology, lexicology, and syntax of spoken French. (DS)

  6. Un cours avance de francais: Le francais tel qu'on le parle (An Advanced Course in French: Colloquial French)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creusot, Andre

    1971-01-01

    Second of three articles on an advanced French program sponsored by the Language Department of the State University of Mons, Belgium. Emphasis is on the phonology, lexicology, and syntax of spoken French. (DS)

  7. Mining local climate data to assess spatiotemporal dengue fever epidemic patterns in French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    Flamand, Claude; Fabregue, Mickael; Bringay, Sandra; Ardillon, Vanessa; Quénel, Philippe; Desenclos, Jean-Claude; Teisseire, Maguelonne

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify local meteorological drivers of dengue fever in French Guiana, we applied an original data mining method to the available epidemiological and climatic data. Through this work, we also assessed the contribution of the data mining method to the understanding of factors associated with the dissemination of infectious diseases and their spatiotemporal spread. Methods We applied contextual sequential pattern extraction techniques to epidemiological and meteorological data to identify the most significant climatic factors for dengue fever, and we investigated the relevance of the extracted patterns for the early warning of dengue outbreaks in French Guiana. Results The maximum temperature, minimum relative humidity, global brilliance, and cumulative rainfall were identified as determinants of dengue outbreaks, and the precise intervals of their values and variations were quantified according to the epidemiologic context. The strongest significant correlations were observed between dengue incidence and meteorological drivers after a 4–6-week lag. Discussion We demonstrated the use of contextual sequential patterns to better understand the determinants of the spatiotemporal spread of dengue fever in French Guiana. Future work should integrate additional variables and explore the notion of neighborhood for extracting sequential patterns. Conclusions Dengue fever remains a major public health issue in French Guiana. The development of new methods to identify such specific characteristics becomes crucial in order to better understand and control spatiotemporal transmission. PMID:24549761

  8. Mining local climate data to assess spatiotemporal dengue fever epidemic patterns in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Flamand, Claude; Fabregue, Mickael; Bringay, Sandra; Ardillon, Vanessa; Quénel, Philippe; Desenclos, Jean-Claude; Teisseire, Maguelonne

    2014-10-01

    To identify local meteorological drivers of dengue fever in French Guiana, we applied an original data mining method to the available epidemiological and climatic data. Through this work, we also assessed the contribution of the data mining method to the understanding of factors associated with the dissemination of infectious diseases and their spatiotemporal spread. We applied contextual sequential pattern extraction techniques to epidemiological and meteorological data to identify the most significant climatic factors for dengue fever, and we investigated the relevance of the extracted patterns for the early warning of dengue outbreaks in French Guiana. The maximum temperature, minimum relative humidity, global brilliance, and cumulative rainfall were identified as determinants of dengue outbreaks, and the precise intervals of their values and variations were quantified according to the epidemiologic context. The strongest significant correlations were observed between dengue incidence and meteorological drivers after a 4-6-week lag. We demonstrated the use of contextual sequential patterns to better understand the determinants of the spatiotemporal spread of dengue fever in French Guiana. Future work should integrate additional variables and explore the notion of neighborhood for extracting sequential patterns. Dengue fever remains a major public health issue in French Guiana. The development of new methods to identify such specific characteristics becomes crucial in order to better understand and control spatiotemporal transmission. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  9. Online database for mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) occurrence records in French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    Talaga, Stanislas; Murienne, Jérôme; Dejean, Alain; Leroy, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A database providing information on mosquito specimens (Arthropoda: Diptera: Culicidae) collected in French Guiana is presented. Field collections were initiated in 2013 under the auspices of the CEnter for the study of Biodiversity in Amazonia (CEBA: http://www.labexceba.fr/en/). This study is part of an ongoing process aiming to understand the distribution of mosquitoes, including vector species, across French Guiana. Occurrences are recorded after each collecting trip in a database managed by the laboratory Evolution et Diversité Biologique (EDB), Toulouse, France. The dataset is updated monthly and is available online. Voucher specimens and their associated DNA are stored at the laboratory Ecologie des Forêts de Guyane (Ecofog), Kourou, French Guiana. The latest version of the dataset is accessible through EDB’s Integrated Publication Toolkit at http://130.120.204.55:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=mosquitoes_of_french_guiana or through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility data portal at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/5a8aa2ad-261c-4f61-a98e-26dd752fe1c5 It can also be viewed through the Guyanensis platform at http://guyanensis.ups-tlse.fr PMID:26692809

  10. Online database for mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) occurrence records in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Talaga, Stanislas; Murienne, Jérôme; Dejean, Alain; Leroy, Céline

    2015-01-01

    A database providing information on mosquito specimens (Arthropoda: Diptera: Culicidae) collected in French Guiana is presented. Field collections were initiated in 2013 under the auspices of the CEnter for the study of Biodiversity in Amazonia (CEBA: http://www.labexceba.fr/en/). This study is part of an ongoing process aiming to understand the distribution of mosquitoes, including vector species, across French Guiana. Occurrences are recorded after each collecting trip in a database managed by the laboratory Evolution et Diversité Biologique (EDB), Toulouse, France. The dataset is updated monthly and is available online. Voucher specimens and their associated DNA are stored at the laboratory Ecologie des Forêts de Guyane (Ecofog), Kourou, French Guiana. The latest version of the dataset is accessible through EDB's Integrated Publication Toolkit at http://130.120.204.55:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=mosquitoes_of_french_guiana or through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility data portal at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/5a8aa2ad-261c-4f61-a98e-26dd752fe1c5 It can also be viewed through the Guyanensis platform at http://guyanensis.ups-tlse.fr.

  11. Memory and Ideals in French Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson-Levitt, Kathryn M.

    French elementary school teachers as well as the parents of their pupils remember being quiet students in teacher-dominated classrooms. Yet today both teachers and parents idealize lively classroom participation by their pupils or children. In this study, teachers and parents in an urban school district in Villefleurie, France, watched videotaped…

  12. The French health care system: liberal universalism.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Monika

    2010-06-01

    This article analyzes the reforms introduced over the last quarter century into the French health care system. A particular public-private combination, rooted in French history and institutionalized through a specific division of the policy field between private doctors and public hospitals, explains the system's core characteristics: universal access, free choice, high quality, and a weak capacity for regulation. The dual architecture of this unique system leads to different reform strategies and outcomes in its two main parts. While the state has leverage in the hospital sector, it has failed repeatedly in attempts to regulate the ambulatory care sector. The first section of this article sets out the main characteristics and historical landmarks that continue to affect policy framing and implementation. Section 2 focuses on the evolution in financing and access, section 3 on management and governance in the (private) ambulatory care sector, and section 4 on the (mainly public) hospital sector. The conclusion compares the French model with those developed in the comparative literature and sets out the terms of the dilemma: a state-run social health insurance that lacks both the legitimacy of Bismarckian systems and the leverages of state-run systems. The French system therefore pursues contradictory policy goals, simultaneously developing universalism and liberalism, which explains both the direct state intervention and its limits.

  13. French Women in Physics: Status and Actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, C.; Pépin, A.; Ducloy, M.; Giacobino, E.; Leduc, M.

    2009-04-01

    We present statistics on the underrepresentation of females entering scientific studies and on the persistence of a glass ceiling for women physicists—and female scientists in general—in France. We also examine actions taken by French research institutions, associations, companies, and professional societies since 2005 to improve these situations.

  14. 21 CFR 169.115 - French dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... emulsified viscous fluid food prepared from vegetable oil(s) and one or both of the acidifying ingredients... this section may also be used. The vegetable oil(s) used may contain an optional crystallization... vegetable oil. French dressing may be mixed and packed in an atmosphere in which air is replaced in whole...

  15. 21 CFR 169.115 - French dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... emulsified viscous fluid food prepared from vegetable oil(s) and one or both of the acidifying ingredients... this section may also be used. The vegetable oil(s) used may contain an optional crystallization... vegetable oil. French dressing may be mixed and packed in an atmosphere in which air is replaced in whole...

  16. 21 CFR 169.115 - French dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... emulsified viscous fluid food prepared from vegetable oil(s) and one or both of the acidifying ingredients... this section may also be used. The vegetable oil(s) used may contain an optional crystallization... vegetable oil. French dressing may be mixed and packed in an atmosphere in which air is replaced in whole...

  17. 21 CFR 169.115 - French dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... emulsified viscous fluid food prepared from vegetable oil(s) and one or both of the acidifying ingredients... this section may also be used. The vegetable oil(s) used may contain an optional crystallization... vegetable oil. French dressing may be mixed and packed in an atmosphere in which air is replaced in whole...

  18. Le Francais Courant: Part V, French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Instructional objectives of the Dade County Public Schools Quinmester Program in French for use with "Le Francais Courant: Part 5" focus on the development of mastery of the basic numbering system and other grammatical structures. Structures include the formation of the present tense of the irregular verbs…

  19. Le Francais Moderne, (Modern French) Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Performance objectives and broad goals for listening, speaking, reading, and writing skills in French instruction are presented in this text. Cultural awareness and student attitude are also considered. Vocabulary and structure of the course are presented through three situations: shopping, meeting a train, and making vacation plans. Short films…

  20. A Grammar for Undergraduate Old French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Douglas

    Seeking to determine the necessary elements of a grammar for undergraduate students with a strong interest in Old French, the author discusses: (1) sounds, (2) forms, (3) syntax, and (4) poetics. It is felt that the treatment accorded phonology should be different from the traditional approach used in graduate level grammars, since the course is…

  1. Films for French: A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savignon, Sandra J., Ed.

    More than 100 films, selected for use in college-level French programs, are evaluated in this teaching guide. Films are listed alphabetically under the following categories: (1) "Beaux-Arts," (2) "La France Contemporaine," (3) "La France et le Nouveau Monde," (4) "Histoire," and (5) "Langue." The index gives an alphabetical list of all the films…

  2. French Discourse Markers in Shaba Swahili Conversations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Rooij, Vincent A.

    2000-01-01

    Examines data recorded in Shaba, a province in the Congo, and documents the marked preference to employ French discourse markers in Shaba Swahili discourse. Treats discourse markers as a special kind of contextualization cue that ties parts of a discourse to each other, creating cohesion and coherence. (Author/VWL)

  3. Studies in French Grammar and Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benguerel, Andre-Pierre; Grundstrom, Allan W.

    The monograph contains two papers. The first presents a generative grammar for verbal forms in French. It consists of an ordered set of rewrite rules and a set of tables. It generates all existing verbal forms without generating any non-existing ones. The departure from an ordinary generative grammar lies in the use of a tabular form for…

  4. Vocabulary Breadth in French L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Annabelle

    2008-01-01

    Vocabulary is one of the building blocks of language and is a necessary component of learners' development. This paper aims to describe the development of the L2 lexicon from the first year of learning French as a foreign language at school to the last year of undergraduate studies at university by setting out what learners know and how this…

  5. Capital Punishment for Juveniles: Albert French's "Billy."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darlington, Sonja

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes Albert French's novel "Billy" and its exploration of the United States' use of capital punishment for young criminals. Addresses the underlying causes of Billy's execution. Discusses specific themes and issues that teachers can use for classroom discussions of capital punishment. (RS)

  6. Using Conventional Sequences in L2 French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsberg, Fanny

    2010-01-01

    By means of a phraseological identification method, this study provides a general description of the use of conventional sequences (CSs) in interviews at four different levels of spoken L2 French as well as in interviews with native speakers. Use of conventional sequences is studied with regard to overall quantity, category distribution and type…

  7. Syntactic Categorization in French-Learning Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Rushen; Melancon, Andreane

    2010-01-01

    Recent work showed that infants recognize and store function words starting from the age of 6-8 months. Using a visual fixation procedure, the present study tested whether French-learning 14-month-olds have the knowledge of syntactic categories of determiners and pronouns, respectively, and whether they can use these function words for…

  8. Attainment at 16+: the French Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dundas-Grant, Valerie

    1975-01-01

    In the face of the deliberations that have been taking place in England for several years now about the merging of two '16+' examinations, the CSE and GCE Ordinary level, author investigated the French system and the examination, the BEPC, taken at 'intermediate' level by 'average' and 'above average' students. (Author/RK)

  9. A French Vocabulary Tutor for the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labrie, Gilles

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a project to design and implement a small French vocabulary tutor for the World Wide Web. Highlights salient features and design of the tutor and focuses on two variants of a module on technology-related vocabulary that were created using very straightforward html code and JavaScript. (Author/VWL)

  10. The Longitudinal Development of Clusters in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demuth, Katherine; McCullough, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Studies of English and German find that children tend to acquire word-final consonant clusters before word-initial consonant clusters. This order of acquisition is generally attributed to articulatory, frequency and/or morphological factors. This contrasts with recent experimental findings from French, where two-year-olds were better at producing…

  11. Study Guide for TCT in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, J. Carroll; Bradley, C. Lee

    This study guide is specifically designed for those individuals preparing to take the Georgia Teacher Certification Test (TCT) in French language instruction. It covers four areas: (1) grammar; (2) usage; (3) history, geography, and literature; and (4) listening and oral skills. This guide provides prospective examinees with test content…

  12. Capital Punishment for Juveniles: Albert French's "Billy."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darlington, Sonja

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes Albert French's novel "Billy" and its exploration of the United States' use of capital punishment for young criminals. Addresses the underlying causes of Billy's execution. Discusses specific themes and issues that teachers can use for classroom discussions of capital punishment. (RS)

  13. French inside and outside the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowell, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Many teachers of foreign languages struggle with finding alternative ways of exposing their students to the target language. At Kent Gardens Elementary School (KGES) in McLean, Virginia, many students participate in an immersion program from first grade to sixth grade. These students spend half of every school day immersed in French while learning…

  14. A Vous de Parler. French Trainee Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Richard

    A set of instructional materials for French is designed for Peace Corps volunteer language instruction and geared to the daily language needs of volunteers in Morocco. It consists of 38 units containing mini-dialogues, related grammatical and cultural information, vocabulary, and exercises. Unit topics include introductions, information giving and…

  15. Le Francais Courant, Part VI: Contemporary French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course, developed largely within the framework of units 13, 14, and 15 of the second edition of "A-LM French, Level 2," emphasizes development of basic audiolingual skills. Conversational topics permit the student to review his summer vacation. Principal elements of structure are expressions of quantity, pronouns--including those…

  16. Libraries of La Pocatiere: French Immersion Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia, S.

    2005-01-01

    Many times summer language immersion administrators and instructors overlook the rich collections housed in various town libraries. Students of French immersion programs have an opportunity to utilize local libraries. This essay describes the facilities and services of five libraries in La Pocatiere, Quebec. A series of interviews of librarians…

  17. Business French and the Liberal Arts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Michele O.

    The offering of a college course in French for industry and the professions revealed how well a business language course can serve the needs of language majors. The course served students in international marketing, management, finance, and a variety of liberal arts majors, including some language majors needing additional credits for graduation.…

  18. Foreign Language Workshop on French Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Sue, Ed.; And Others

    A compilation of French cultural units for use in secondary school language classes is presented in this text. Units include: (1) "Les mots et leur implication culturelle," (2) "Le telephone--une capsule culturelle," (3) "Le repas," (4) "La femme francaise 1972," (5) "Les Parents," (6)…

  19. Studies in French Grammar and Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benguerel, Andre-Pierre; Grundstrom, Allan W.

    The monograph contains two papers. The first presents a generative grammar for verbal forms in French. It consists of an ordered set of rewrite rules and a set of tables. It generates all existing verbal forms without generating any non-existing ones. The departure from an ordinary generative grammar lies in the use of a tabular form for…

  20. A Venture in French for Special Purposes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Rodney; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes the development of an intensive four-day course at the University of Southampton to teach French to cross-Channel ferry crews. Each day of the course was divided into the following six contact hours: reading and pronunciation practice; formal grammar revision; two hours of "hostess-passenger" dialogs; "open-ended"…

  1. Teaching Old French Literature to Undergraduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Harry E.

    As a prelude to graduate-level work for French majors, medieval studies are proposed for undergraduate students. Problems inherent in the establishment of the undergraduate program are identified with some suggested solutions. Concepts related to historical grammar, teaching materials, literature, and linguistics are developed. A logical course…

  2. French inside and outside the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowell, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Many teachers of foreign languages struggle with finding alternative ways of exposing their students to the target language. At Kent Gardens Elementary School (KGES) in McLean, Virginia, many students participate in an immersion program from first grade to sixth grade. These students spend half of every school day immersed in French while learning…

  3. How to Find Out in: French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Susan E.

    This library handbook is a guide for the student of French language and literature. It lists some of the more useful materials and reference books basic to general research and gives their locations in the Fogler Library at the University of Maine. Materials for language study include dictionaries and encyclopedias, histories of the language, and…

  4. A French Vocabulary Tutor for the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labrie, Gilles

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a project to design and implement a small French vocabulary tutor for the World Wide Web. Highlights salient features and design of the tutor and focuses on two variants of a module on technology-related vocabulary that were created using very straightforward html code and JavaScript. (Author/VWL)

  5. French Medical Education: Years of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mensh, Ivan Norman

    1978-01-01

    Reviewed is the impact on French medical education of the expansion in numbers of medical schools and students, introduction of a competitive examination to select students whose numbers are a function of the number of teaching hospital beds available, and governmental plans to effect a 20 percent reduction in the number of medical students by…

  6. Connecting Research to French Mathematics Teacher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, A.; Hache, C.

    2000-01-01

    Presents an overview of two surveys that focused on French teachers' classroom practices, the first of which provides an overview of the difficulties experienced by beginning teachers while the second survey provides a more detailed description of the classroom practices of experienced teachers. Proposes a research project on teacher professional…

  7. How to Find Out in: French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robertson, Susan E.

    This library handbook is a guide for the student of French language and literature. It lists some of the more useful materials and reference books basic to general research and gives their locations in the Fogler Library at the University of Maine. Materials for language study include dictionaries and encyclopedias, histories of the language, and…

  8. Using Drama in the French Immersion Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shacker, Deborah L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Analyzes the nature of the oral language interactions of French immersion students involved in a group drama about the early settlers. Finds that four language functions (informative, directive, expressive, and imaginative) were characteristic of children's interactions during group drama. Finds relationships between type of session and the…

  9. Problems with French-English Business Dictionaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartman, Max D.

    An analysis of two French-English business dictionaries, a 1989 revised edition and a 1990 edition, looks at a number of weaknesses in the resources' design and content. First, problems are found in transcriptions of pronunciation that do not reflect actual usage when it differs from convention and in lack of attention to pronunciation of words…

  10. Clean Energy Solutions Center Services (French Translation)

    SciTech Connect

    2016-03-01

    This is a French translation of the Clean Energy Solutions Center fact sheet. The Solutions Center offers no-cost expert policy assistance, webinars and training forums, clean energy policy reports, data, and tools provided in partnership with more than 35 leading international and regional clean energy organizations.

  11. The French Model of the Educator State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lelievre, Claude

    2000-01-01

    The 19th-century emergence of a centralized, state-controlled school system helped stabilize government and legitimize a state model during a revolutionary period in French history. The centralized model assisted national integration goals by fabricating a symbolic public space. This ambitious political construction may be coming apart. (Contains…

  12. Le Francais Courant, Part VI: Contemporary French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course, developed largely within the framework of units 13, 14, and 15 of the second edition of "A-LM French, Level 2," emphasizes development of basic audiolingual skills. Conversational topics permit the student to review his summer vacation. Principal elements of structure are expressions of quantity, pronouns--including those…

  13. The Autism Diagnostic Experiences of French Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamak, Brigitte; Bonniau, Beatrice; Oudaya, Lila; Ehrenberg, Alain

    2011-01-01

    This survey focused on French parents' views of the diagnostic process relating to their child with autism. Data were collected on the age at diagnosis, the time taken to obtain a diagnosis and the difficulties encountered. Questionnaires filled in by the parents (n = 248) and in-depth interviews (n = 43) were analyzed in order to obtain…

  14. The Verb-Lists of Modern French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, J.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews and compares the main published repertoires of French verbs. By combining the material from these different sources, one can construct a database of approximately 10,300 formally distinct verbs. It is suggested that analysis of such a wide corpus may reveal structures not yet acknowledged. (Author/LMO)

  15. Problems with French-English Business Dictionaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartman, Max D.

    An analysis of two French-English business dictionaries, a 1989 revised edition and a 1990 edition, looks at a number of weaknesses in the resources' design and content. First, problems are found in transcriptions of pronunciation that do not reflect actual usage when it differs from convention and in lack of attention to pronunciation of words…

  16. [French validation of the Anger Rumination Scale].

    PubMed

    Reynes, E; Berthouze-Aranda, S E; Guillet-Descas, E; Chabaud, P; Deflandre, A

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to propose a French version of the Anger Rumination Scale (ARS). The main contribution of this scale is to evaluate cognitive responses involved in rumination experience related to anger. The rumination experience is assessed through four scales: angry afterthoughts, thoughts of revenge, angry memories and understanding of causes. Because anger rumination is related to anger experience, it is usually understood to be a dysfunctional or unconstructive behavior. However, because the rumination involves cognitive activity, it can be assimilated as a cognitive strategy to cope with a negative event in a specific context. The ARS seems to be useful in understanding the rumination effects both on anger experience as well as on aggressive behaviors. The original scale was translated following scientific recommendations for cultural adaptation of questionnaires. Six hundred and seventeen voluntary undergraduate students were asked to complete the ARS-French version. Among these 617 students: 305 completed the French ARS version twice over a 1-month period to test the reliability of the French version; 361 filled out both the French ARS version and the STAXI-II; 342 filled out both the French ARS version and the Aggression Questionnaire (AQ). The Total Sample was randomly split into two groups. An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted with group I's data. The confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was conducted with group II's data. The EFA revealed a four factors solution close to the original version. The CFA confirmed a good model fit for the original four factors solution (χ(2)146: 302.14 CFI: 0.96 RMSEA: 0.058). A one factor model was tested, but was not retained. The ARS's internal consistency coefficients replicated those of the literature: alpha coefficients ranged from 0.60 to 0.86, and test-retest correlation coefficients ranged from 0.65 to 0.70. External validity indices conformed to previous studies, both for gender differences

  17. Does communication help people coordinate?

    PubMed

    Vorobeychik, Yevgeniy; Joveski, Zlatko; Yu, Sixie

    2017-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations have consistently demonstrated that collective performance in a variety of tasks can be significantly improved by allowing communication. We present the results of the first experiment systematically investigating the value of communication in networked consensus. The goal of all tasks in our experiments is for subjects to reach global consensus, even though nodes can only observe choices of their immediate neighbors. Unlike previous networked consensus tasks, our experiments allow subjects to communicate either with their immediate neighbors (locally) or with the entire network (globally). Moreover, we consider treatments in which essentially arbitrary messages can be sent, as well as those in which only one type of message is allowed, informing others about a node's local state. We find that local communication adds minimal value: fraction of games solved is essentially identical to treatments with no communication. Ability to communicate globally, in contrast, offers a significant performance improvement. In addition, we find that constraining people to only exchange messages about local state is significantly better than unconstrained communication. We observe that individual behavior is qualitatively consistent across settings: people clearly react to messages they receive in all communication settings. However, we find that messages received in local communication treatments are relatively uninformative, whereas global communication offers substantial information advantage. Exploring mixed communication settings, in which only a subset of agents are global communicators, we find that a significant number of global communicators is needed for performance to approach success when everyone communicates globally. However, global communicators have a significant advantage: a small tightly connected minority of globally communicating nodes can successfully steer outcomes towards their preferences, although this can be

  18. Does communication help people coordinate?

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations have consistently demonstrated that collective performance in a variety of tasks can be significantly improved by allowing communication. We present the results of the first experiment systematically investigating the value of communication in networked consensus. The goal of all tasks in our experiments is for subjects to reach global consensus, even though nodes can only observe choices of their immediate neighbors. Unlike previous networked consensus tasks, our experiments allow subjects to communicate either with their immediate neighbors (locally) or with the entire network (globally). Moreover, we consider treatments in which essentially arbitrary messages can be sent, as well as those in which only one type of message is allowed, informing others about a node’s local state. We find that local communication adds minimal value: fraction of games solved is essentially identical to treatments with no communication. Ability to communicate globally, in contrast, offers a significant performance improvement. In addition, we find that constraining people to only exchange messages about local state is significantly better than unconstrained communication. We observe that individual behavior is qualitatively consistent across settings: people clearly react to messages they receive in all communication settings. However, we find that messages received in local communication treatments are relatively uninformative, whereas global communication offers substantial information advantage. Exploring mixed communication settings, in which only a subset of agents are global communicators, we find that a significant number of global communicators is needed for performance to approach success when everyone communicates globally. However, global communicators have a significant advantage: a small tightly connected minority of globally communicating nodes can successfully steer outcomes towards their preferences, although this can be

  19. [The influence of culture in the oral expression of pain: comparative study between French and Syrian cancer patients].

    PubMed

    Lebreuilly, Romain; Sakkour, Sam; Lebreuilly, Joëlle

    2013-03-01

    This study examines the role of culture in the perception and the verbal expression of pain among syrian and french blood-related cancer patients. The level of intensity (AVS scale) and the different aspects (Saint-Antoine Pain Questionnaire [SAPQ]) of their pain were studied. The sensory and emotional descriptors chosen by the Syrian possessed a stronger semantic content in comparison to those used by the French. The patient's cultural background, which affect the perception and verbal expression of pain should be a new indicator in the optimization of global medical management.

  20. Effectiveness of a Heritage Educational Program for the Acquisition of Oral and Written French and Tahitian in French Polynesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nocus, Isabelle; Guimard, Philippe; Vernaudon, Jacques; Paia, Mirose; Cosnefroy, Olivier; Florin, Agnes

    2012-01-01

    The research examines the effects of a bilingual pedagogical program (French/Tahitian) on the acquisition of oral and written French as well as the Tahitian language itself in primary schools in French Polynesia. 125 children divided into an experimental group (partially schooled in Tahitian for 300 min per week) and a control group (schooled in…