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Sample records for french pharmacovigilance database

  1. Comparison of serious adverse reactions between thalidomide and lenalidomide: analysis in the French Pharmacovigilance database.

    PubMed

    Olivier-Abbal, Pascale; Teisseyre, Anne-Charlotte; Montastruc, Jean-Louis

    2013-12-01

    Thalidomide and lenalidomide are structural analogs and immunomodulatory drugs. Lenalidomide appears to have a different safety profile than thalidomide and could be less toxic, and as far as we know, we did not found any study comparing their safety profile. The objective of our study was to review and compare serious adverse drug reactions (SADRs) of thalidomide and lenalidomide spontaneously reported to the French Pharmacovigilance database. We extracted all medically confirmed spontaneous reports of SADR for lenalidomide-based regimens and thalidomide-based regimens from the French Pharmacovigilance database. A "serious" adverse drug reaction (ADR) was defined as an ADR that is fatal or life threatening, which causes hospitalization or prolongation of hospitalization, or permanent or significant disability. The study period was between marketing of 2 drugs and January 15, 2012. A total of 392 SADRs related to thalidomide-based regimens were identified in 244 patients and 377 SADRs related to lenalidomide-based regimens in 220 patients. In spite of their structural analogy, this study highlights interesting differences between lenalidomide and thalidomide's safety profile: nervous system and vascular disorders are more frequent with thalidomide-based regimens while hematologic, skin, infectious disorders and secondary primary cancers are more frequent with lenalidomide-based regimens.

  2. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw: data from the French national pharmacovigilance database.

    PubMed

    de Boissieu, Paul; Gaboriau, Louise; Morel, Aurore; Trenque, Thierry

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) in the French national pharmacovigilance database. BRONJ was identified with the standardized MedDRA query (SMQ) 'osteonecrosis' among all data from 1985 to 31 December 2014. Because this SMQ was not specific to the jaw localization, selection of cases based on anatomy was performed after data extraction. For each case, demographic and medical information was analysed, as well as data about notification (year of notification, year of occurrence, outcome, seriousness). Known associated factors for BRONJ were also documented: dentoalveolar surgery, glucocorticoids, chemotherapy, anti-angiogenics, denosumab. Among 1404 SMQ notifications, 663 were located in the jaws and 629 were associated with bisphosphonate use. BRONJ reported in the database mainly affected women (n = 443, 71%) with an oncological indication (n = 440, 70%). BRONJ was considered as serious in 91%. Outcome was unfavourable for 92% of cases. Associated factors were identified for 70% of the patients. A peak of notification was noted in 2014 (13% of all cases), but on analysis by year of occurrence instead of by year of notification, this peak disappeared. SMQ 'osteonecrosis' appears to be an adequate tool to analyse BRONJ in a pharmacovigilance database. PMID:27315575

  3. Drug-induced Depression: a Case/Non Case Study in the French Pharmacovigilance Database.

    PubMed

    Lafay-Chebassier, Claire; Chavant, François; Favrelière, Sylvie; Pizzoglio, Véronique; Pérault-Pochat, Marie-Christine

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a complex disorder with heterogeneous clinical anomalies whose neurobiological understanding still remains unclear. Medications have been implicated as potential causes of depression but for many of them, data are controversial. The present study aims to investigate association bet ween drugs and reports of depression. We used the case/non case method in the French pharmacovigilance database (FPVD) to identify drugs associated with depression. Cases were reports of depression in the FPVD between January 2007 and December 2011. Non cases were all other reports during the same period. Data were expressed as reporting odds ratio (ROR) with their 95% confidence interval. Of the 114,692 reports recorded in the FPVD during the studied period, we identified 474 cases of depression. For the majority of the patients, they were considered as "non serious" (56%) and evolution was favorable (64%). Significant RORs were found for antiepileptics (topiramate, levetiracetam), anti-infective and especially anti-retroviral drugs (efavirenz, emtricitabine, tenofovir, etravirine, raltegravir), interferons and other agents including isotretinoin, methylphenidate, sodium oxybate, varenicline, montelukast, flunarizine, adalimumab, anastrozole. Taking into account the limits of the methodology, the present study described associations with mainly expected drugs belonging to various therapeutic classes but it also found a signal with some anti-retrovirals. On the contrary, we did not find some assumed associations like cardiovascular medications, antimalarial. For most of the drugs, one or more mechanisms were found to explain these depressogenic effects on the basis of animal and human literature. Even if such associations need to be confirmed by further prospective studies, cautions are necessary for many drugs to early detect depressive symptoms. PMID:26056040

  4. French pharmacovigilance: Missions, organization and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Vial, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    Pharmacovigilance aims to identify unknown adverse drug reactions once clinical development is complete, in order to promote improved use of drugs, and thus a reduction in risk for every exposed patient. We describe in this article the missions of French pharmacovigilance system, including French drug agency, Regional Centers of Pharmacovigilance, health professionals, pharmaceutical companies, patients and their associations. We also develop the French pharmacovigilance organization, its perspectives and challenges, both in French and European levels.

  5. Safety profile of etifoxine: A French pharmacovigilance survey.

    PubMed

    Cottin, Judith; Gouraud, Aurore; Jean-Pastor, Marie-Josèphe; Dautriche, Anne Disson-; Boulay, Charlène; Geniaux, Hélène; Auffret, Marine; Bernard, Nathalie; Descotes, Jacques; Vial, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    Etifoxine chlorhydrate is a benzoxazine derivative approved for the treatment of psychosomatic manifestations of anxiety since 1979. Previously labeled adverse drug reactions (ADRs) only include drowsiness, benign cutaneous reactions, and acute hypersensitivity reactions. The objectives were to examine recent data on etifoxine-related ADR by reviewing Individual Case Safety Reports (ICSRs) recorded in France especially unexpected ADRs. Etifoxine-related ICSRs were extracted from the French Pharmacovigilance database from 1 January 2000 to 30 April 2012 and data from the marketing authorization holder up to 31 December 2011 were also obtained. Of the 350 cases retained for analysis, 123 (35%) were considered serious. Dermatological or acute hypersensitivity reactions were the most frequent ADRs (59%) mainly isolated cutaneous eruptions. However, there were 24 cases of severe toxidermia (DRESS in 5, erythema multiforme in 10 and Stevens-Johnson syndrome in 5) with etifoxine as the most suspected drug in 11 patients, and seven cases of vasculitis or serum sickness-like reaction. Liver disorders were reported in 34 patients of whom 25 developed acute hepatitis with a cytolytic biological pattern in 16. Other unexpected ADRs included 16 reversible cases of metrorrhagia with positive rechallenge in 5, and three cases of biopsy-proven microscopic colitis of which one recurred after etifoxine re-administration. Although etifoxine has been marketed for more than 30 years, this survey identified a number of unexpected and sometimes serious ADRs, in particularly severe toxidermia and acute cytolytic hepatitis. A recent update of the French etifoxine summary of the product characteristics (SPC) was based on these findings. PMID:26588183

  6. Causality assessment in pharmacovigilance: The French method and its successive updates.

    PubMed

    Miremont-Salamé, Ghada; Théophile, Hélène; Haramburu, Françoise; Bégaud, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    The methods for causality assessment of adverse drug reactions were developed in the 1970s and 1980s, alongside the development of pharmacovigilance. The French method is one of the earlier of these, following on from the pioneering works by Irey and Karch and Lasagna. Initially published in 1978, it was updated in 1985, and again in 2011. The main alterations to the original method are presented in tables annexed to this paper. The successive versions improved the presentation, provided more formalised definitions of the criteria for assessing causality, while at the same time ensuring the method remained easy to use. Causality assessment enables the causal link between a drug and the occurrence of an adverse reaction to be formalised and explained. It contributes to diagnosis, and to determining the action to be taken in case of an adverse drug reaction. It can contribute to the quality and the relevance of the data stored in pharmacovigilance databases.

  7. [Nalmefene and Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome: Analysis of the Global Pharmacovigilance Database for Adverse Drug Reactions].

    PubMed

    Dahmke, Hendrike; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Kullak-Ublick, Gerd A; Weiler, Stefan

    2015-10-14

    Nalmefene (Selincro®) is a selective opioid receptor antagonist, licensed in April 2014 in Switzerland for the reduction of alcohol consumption in adults with a high drinking risk level. 200 reports of adverse drug reactions of nalmefene have been documented worldwide in the WHO global pharmacovigilance database between 7th March 1997 to 1st March 2015. In 21 cases (10,5%) nalmefene and an opioid were administered concomitantly, causing withdrawal symptoms. Until now, the regional pharmacovigilance center in Zurich received four cases of nalmefene combined with opioids. This combination should be avoided.

  8. [The congress of the French Society of Pharmacology and Therapeutics celebrate in Nancy, 20 April 2016, 40 years of French Regional Pharmacovigilance Centres!].

    PubMed

    Jonville-Béra, Annie-Pierre; Mallaret, Michel; Sgro, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    In 1976, the Regional Pharmacovigilance Centres were created in France to collect and analyze adverse drug reactions. Even if they have, to date, managed and transmitted more than 583,000 adverse drug reactions to the French and international health authorities, the missions of these university hospital structures supervised by clinical pharmacologists are not limited to this activity. They also provide a consulting and diagnostic aid for drug diseases. Their other main mission is information about drugs and their proper use for health professionals and patients on any matter relating to medicines. These queries are used to adjust and focus the training of health professionals in prevention of drug risks and improvement of drug use. Beside signal detection and identification of alerts, the 31 Regional Pharmacovigilance Centres collaborate with the French Drug Agency (Agence nationale de sécurité du medicament et des produits de santé [ANSM]) by achieving expertise on drugs and participation in various working groups and committees. Finally, Regional Pharmacovigilance Centres participate in scientific advancement through research and publication activities.

  9. Adverse Effects of Cholinesterase Inhibitors in Dementia, According to the Pharmacovigilance Databases of the United-States and Canada.

    PubMed

    Ali, Thibault B; Schleret, Thomas R; Reilly, Brian M; Chen, Winston Yuchen; Abagyan, Ruben

    2015-01-01

    This survey analyzes two national pharmacovigilance databases in order to determine the major adverse reactions observed with the use of cholinesterase inhibitors in dementia. We conducted a statistical analysis of the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) and the Canada Vigilance Adverse Reaction Database (CVARD) concerning the side effects of cholinesterase inhibitors. The statistics calculated for each adverse event were the frequency and the reporting odds ratios (ROR). A total of 9877 and 2247 reports were extracted from the FAERS and CVARD databases, respectively. A disproportionately higher frequency of reports of death as an adverse event for rivastigmine, compared to the other acetylcholinesterase inhibiting drugs, was observed in both the FAERS (ROR = 3.42; CI95% = 2.94-3.98; P<0.0001) and CVARD (ROR = 3.67; CI95% = 1.92-7.00; P = 0.001) databases. While cholinesterase inhibitors remain to be an important therapeutic tool against Alzheimer's disease, the disproportionate prevalence of fatal outcomes with rivastigmine compared with alternatives should be taken into consideration. PMID:26642212

  10. Adverse drug reactions to self-medication: a study in a pharmacovigilance database.

    PubMed

    Berreni, Aurélia; Montastruc, François; Bondon-Guitton, Emmanuelle; Rousseau, Vanessa; Abadie, Delphine; Durrieu, Geneviève; Chebane, Leila; Giroud, Jean-Paul; Bagheri, Haleh; Montastruc, Jean-Louis

    2015-10-01

    Although self-medication is widely developed, there are few detailed data about its adverse drug reactions (ADRs). This study investigated the main characteristics of ADRs with self-medication recorded in the Midi-Pyrénées PharmacoVigilance between 2008 and 2014. Self-medication included first OTC drugs and second formerly prescribed drugs later used without medical advice (reuse of previously prescribed drugs). Among the 12 365 notifications recorded, 160 (1.3%) were related to SM with 186 drugs. Around three-forth of the ADRs were 'serious'. Mean age was 48.8 years with 56.3% females. The most frequent ADRs were gastrointestinal and neuropsychiatric and main drug classes involved NSAIDs, analgesics, and benzodiazepines. Phytotherapy-homeopathy accounted for 9.1% of drugs.

  11. Facilitating adverse drug event detection in pharmacovigilance databases using molecular structure similarity: application to rhabdomyolysis

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, Santiago; Harpaz, Rave; Chase, Herbert S; Costanzi, Stefano; Rabadan, Raul

    2011-01-01

    Background Adverse drug events (ADE) cause considerable harm to patients, and consequently their detection is critical for patient safety. The US Food and Drug Administration maintains an adverse event reporting system (AERS) to facilitate the detection of ADE in drugs. Various data mining approaches have been developed that use AERS to detect signals identifying associations between drugs and ADE. The signals must then be monitored further by domain experts, which is a time-consuming task. Objective To develop a new methodology that combines existing data mining algorithms with chemical information by analysis of molecular fingerprints to enhance initial ADE signals generated from AERS, and to provide a decision support mechanism to facilitate the identification of novel adverse events. Results The method achieved a significant improvement in precision in identifying known ADE, and a more than twofold signal enhancement when applied to the ADE rhabdomyolysis. The simplicity of the method assists in highlighting the etiology of the ADE by identifying structurally similar drugs. A set of drugs with strong evidence from both AERS and molecular fingerprint-based modeling is constructed for further analysis. Conclusion The results demonstrate that the proposed methodology could be used as a pharmacovigilance decision support tool to facilitate ADE detection. PMID:21946238

  12. [Pharmacovigilance update].

    PubMed

    Diezi, Léonore; Renard, Delphine; Rothuizen, Laura E; Livio, Françoise

    2014-01-15

    The main pharmacovigilance updates in 2013 are reviewed. Nitrofurantoin: lower efficacy and an increased risk of adverse events when creatinine clearance is below 60 ml/min. Dabigatran: contraindicated in patients with mechanical heart valves. Azithromycin: QT prolongation and increased risk of death. Zolpidem: towards a lower dosage. Roflumilast: avoid in patients known or at risk for mood disorders. Retigabine: indication restricted to last-line use and new monitoring requirements after reports of pigment changes in retina and other tissues. Telaprevir and rituximab: severe mucocutaneous reactions. Fingolimod: rare cases of progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy. Tolvaptan: potential for hepatotoxicity. Nicotinic acid/laropiprant: suspension of marketing authorization as benefits no longer outweigh risks. PMID:24558915

  13. [Pharmacovigilance update].

    PubMed

    Livio, F; Ivanyuk, A; Biollaz, J; Rothuizen, L; Buclin, T

    2010-01-20

    Main pharmacovigilance signals and alerts issued in 2009 are reviewed. Efalizumab was withdrawn from the market due to increased risks, including progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) and questionable efficacy. New cases of PML are still being reported with rituximab and natalizumab. Rare cases of pure red cell aplasia have been observed with mycophenate. Gastrointestinal perforation, severe skin rashes and various ocular disorders have been reported during erlotinib use. Severe skin rashes have been related to etravirine. Acute renal failure and pancreatitis can occur with exenatide. A link between sitagliptin and pancreatitis is suspected. Raised concerns of causality between insuline glargine and malignant tumors are not supported by strong evidence. Proton pump inhibitors seem to blunt clopidogrel benefit. Aliskiren can cause angioedema. PMID:20170031

  14. A Review of Pharmacovigilance

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, JE; Gossell-Williams, M; Lee, MG

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pharmacovigilance supports safe and appropriate use of drugs. Spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is an essential component of pharmacovigilance. However, there is significant underreporting of ADRs. Adverse drug reactions have become a major problem in developing countries. Knowledge of pharmacovigilance could form the basis for interventions aimed at improving reporting rates and decreasing ADRs. PMID:25867582

  15. A Pharmacovigilance Approach for Post-Marketing in Japan Using the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) Database and Association Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fujiwara, Masakazu; Kawasaki, Yohei; Yamada, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background Rapid dissemination of information regarding adverse drug reactions is a key aspect for improving pharmacovigilance. There is a possibility that unknown adverse drug reactions will become apparent through post-marketing administration. Currently, although there have been studies evaluating the relationships between a drug and adverse drug reactions using the JADER database which collects reported spontaneous adverse drug reactions, an efficient approach to assess the association between adverse drug reactions of drugs with the same indications as well as the influence of demographics (e.g. gender) has not been proposed. Methods and Findings We utilized the REAC and DEMO tables from the May 2015 version of JADER for patients taking antidepressant drugs (SSRI, SNRI, and NaSSA). We evaluated the associations using association analyses with an apriori algorithm. Support, confidence, lift, and conviction were used as indicators for associations. The highest score in adverse drug reactions for SSRI was obtained for "aspartate aminotransferase increased", "alanine aminotransferase increased", with values of 0.0059, 0.93, 135.5, and 13.9 for support, confidence, lift and conviction, respectively. For SNRI, "international normalized ratio increased", "drug interaction" were observed with 0.0064, 1.00, 71.9, and NA. For NaSSA, "anxiety", "irritability" were observed with 0.0058, 0.80, 49.9, and 4.9. For female taking SSRI, the highest support scores were observed in "twenties", "suicide attempt", whereas "thirties", "neuroleptic malignant syndrome" were observed for male. Second, for SNRI, "eighties", "inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion" were observed for female, whereas "interstitial lung disease" and "hepatitis fulminant" were for male. Finally, for NaSSA, "suicidal ideation" was for female, and "rhabdomyolysis" was for male. Conclusions Different combinations of adverse drug reactions were noted between the antidepressants. In addition, the reported

  16. Forensic pharmacovigilance: Newer dimension of pharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Sewal, Rakesh K; Saini, Vikas K; Medhi, Bikash

    2015-08-01

    Drug safety for the patients is of paramount importance for a medical professional. Pharmacovigilance attempts to ensure the safety of patients by keeping a close vigil on the pattern of adverse events secondary to drug use. Number of medicolegal cases is at rise since last few years. Forensic sciences and pharmacovigilance need to work hand in hand to unlock the mystery of many criminal and civil proceedings. Pharmacovigilance offers its wide scope in forensic sciences by putting forward its expertise on adverse profile of drugs which may be instrumental in solving the cases and bringing the justice forth. It may range from as simple affairs as defining the adverse drug reaction on one hand to putting expert advice in critical criminal cases on the other one. Pharmacovigilance experts have to abide by the ethics of the practice while executing their duties as expert else it may tarnish the justice and loosen its dependability. As a budding discipline of science, it is confronted with several hurdles and challenges which include reluctance of medical professionals for being involved in court proceedings, extrapolations of facts and data and variations in law across the globe etc. These challenges and hurdles call the medical fraternity come forward to work towards the momentous application of pharmacovigilance in the forensic sciences. Evidence based practice e.g. testing the biological samples for the presence of drugs may prove to be pivotal in the success of this collaboration of sciences.

  17. [Pharmacovigilance of major parmaceutical innovation].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yongyang; Xie, Yanming; Yi, Danhui

    2011-10-01

    With the continuous improvement of international "pharmacovigilance" technology and methods,it becomes the key part of the post-marketing evaluation. This issue is based on this research background, and also means to find out the Chinese medicine safety monitor which consistents with the reality. A common problem is that those who choose a career in pharmacovigilance know how the complex data presented to us are a source of both fascination and frustration. In the 70's, for the first time data mining technology in the international pharmacovigilance turn up, we try to establish new signal detection method to make contributes to post-marketing evaluation of Chinese medicine and establishment of registration. Building the national adverse reaction reporting database is widely used in western country. Nature of the problem is that pharmacovigilance issues can come through a lot of assumptions into the statistical problems, different assumptions are for different statistical tests. Through the traditional imbalance between the proportion of fourfold table for other assumptions, few countries use in practice, this does not involve evidence, but this issue provides the introduce of the principle. Methods include the ratio of the report of the Netherlands (ROR), the proportion of reports than the UK ratio (PRR),WHO's information points (IC), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration empirical Bayes (EBS), etc. Because there is no international gold standard of the signal detection method, at first we use the simulation comparing these four methods of data mining, From the point of specificity, the sample size demand, this issue views the advantages and disadvantages of four methods and application conditions,and from a technical point of view and try to propose a new signal detection method, for example, Hierarchical Bayesian. PMID:22292378

  18. The reorganisation of European pharmacovigilance. Part 2. From spontaneous reports to agency reviews and decisions.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    Despite the fact that adverse effects are vastly under-reported, spontaneous reporting remains the foundation of pharmacovigilance. A small series of properly documented cases, when very specific, can suffice to constitute a signal. In France, reporting adverse effects to Regional Pharmacovigilance Centres (CRPVs) permits high-quality analysis of pharmacovigilance signals, so that they can be brought to the attention of the national agency responsible for making decisions about drugs, the French Health Products Agency (ANSM). The ANSM can use this information to protect patients by implementing the measures within its power or by initiating a European referral. When a decision taken at the national level concerns a drug marketed in several Member States of the European Union, a "harmonisation" procedure results in a decision taken at community level, applicable in all Member States. This means that a safety issue raised by a single Member State sometimes leads to a decision that protects the population of the entire European Union. But it also means that other European decisions can compel national agencies to allow back onto the market a drug that they sought to withdraw in order to protect their citizens. Negotiations with other Member States, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the European Commission must be supported by robust data: this is yet another reason for each country to have its own effective national pharmacovigilance database, the contents of which should be publicly accessible. This is unfortunately not yet the case in France in 2014. It also provides another good reason for healthcare professionals and patients to report adverse effects, so that the details can be recorded in national and European databases.

  19. Pharmacovigilance in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Biswas, Pipasha

    2013-01-01

    An increase in drug safety concerns in recent years with some high profile drug withdrawals have led to raising the bar by various stakeholders more importantly by the regulatory authorities. The number of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) reported have also resulted in an increase in the volume of data handled and to understand pharmacovigilance a high level of expertise is required to rapidly detect drug risks as well as to defend the product against an inappropriate removal. Proactive pharmacovigilance throughout the product life cycle is the way forward and the future direction for drug safety in Asia. It has been a constant challenge to standardize pharmacovigilance in Asia, in the context of clinical trials and post-marketing pharmacovigilance due to varied geaographical, cultural and medical practices in these regioon. While major advancements of the discipline of pharmacovigilance have taken place in the West, not much has been achieved in Asian countries, though several attempts have been taken. However, with more clinical trials and clinical research activity being conducted in the Asian continent, there is an immense need to understand and implement pharmacovigilance. For this to happen, the mind set of people working in regulatory agencies, the Pharmaceutical companies, prescribers and patients/consumers need to change. PMID:24347987

  20. Pharmacovigilance in Asia.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Pipasha

    2013-12-01

    An increase in drug safety concerns in recent years with some high profile drug withdrawals have led to raising the bar by various stakeholders more importantly by the regulatory authorities. The number of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs) reported have also resulted in an increase in the volume of data handled and to understand pharmacovigilance a high level of expertise is required to rapidly detect drug risks as well as to defend the product against an inappropriate removal. Proactive pharmacovigilance throughout the product life cycle is the way forward and the future direction for drug safety in Asia. It has been a constant challenge to standardize pharmacovigilance in Asia, in the context of clinical trials and post-marketing pharmacovigilance due to varied geaographical, cultural and medical practices in these regioon. While major advancements of the discipline of pharmacovigilance have taken place in the West, not much has been achieved in Asian countries, though several attempts have been taken. However, with more clinical trials and clinical research activity being conducted in the Asian continent, there is an immense need to understand and implement pharmacovigilance. For this to happen, the mind set of people working in regulatory agencies, the Pharmaceutical companies, prescribers and patients/consumers need to change. PMID:24347987

  1. Aseptic meningitis following mumps vaccine. A retrospective survey by the French Regional Pharmacovigilance centres and by Pasteur-Mérieux Sérums & Vaccins.

    PubMed

    Jonville-Bera, A P; Autret, E; Galy-Eyraud, C; Hessel, L

    1996-01-01

    Since 1989 many case series and observational studies of aseptic meningitis (AM) associated with the use of live attenuated mumps vaccines containing the Urabe AM9 strain have been reported worldwide. The aim of this retrospective reported AM in France following mumps vaccination with monovalent or multivalent vaccines containing the Urabe strain. Fifty-four cases of AM were reported to the Regional Pharmacovigilance centres or to the manufacturer from the time each vaccine was launched up until June 1992. Twenty cases were temporally associated with the administration of a monovalent mumps vaccine and 34 with a trivalent measles, mumps and rubella vaccine (MMR). A mumps virus was isolated in four cases in the cerebrospinal fluid and an Urabe-like strain was characterized twice by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A probable mumps origin was assumed in 17 other cases where the patients presented with other clinical or biological signs of mumps infection. The clinical outcome of AM, known in 87% of the population, was always favourable. The global incidence of mumps vaccine-associated AM was 0.82/100,000 doses, which is significantly lower than the incidence in the unvaccinated population. Even considering that the actual incidence of AM is much higher when assessed by active surveillance studies, the risk/benefit ratio of mumps vaccine remains in favour of vaccination.

  2. Patient-Reported Safety Information: A Renaissance of Pharmacovigilance?

    PubMed

    Härmark, Linda; Raine, June; Leufkens, Hubert; Edwards, I Ralph; Moretti, Ugo; Sarinic, Viola Macolic; Kant, Agnes

    2016-10-01

    The role of patients as key contributors in pharmacovigilance was acknowledged in the new EU pharmacovigilance legislation. This contains several efforts to increase the involvement of the general public, including making patient adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting systems mandatory. Three years have passed since the legislation was introduced and the key question is: does pharmacovigilance yet make optimal use of patient-reported safety information? Independent research has shown beyond doubt that patients make an important contribution to pharmacovigilance signal detection. Patient reports provide first-hand information about the suspected ADR and the circumstances under which it occurred, including medication errors, quality failures, and 'near misses'. Patient-reported safety information leads to a better understanding of the patient's experiences of the ADR. Patients are better at explaining the nature, personal significance and consequences of ADRs than healthcare professionals' reports on similar associations and they give more detailed information regarding quality of life including psychological effects and effects on everyday tasks. Current methods used in pharmacovigilance need to optimise use of the information reported from patients. To make the most of information from patients, the systems we use for collecting, coding and recording patient-reported information and the methodologies applied for signal detection and assessment need to be further developed, such as a patient-specific form, development of a severity grading and evolution of the database structure and the signal detection methods applied. It is time for a renaissance of pharmacovigilance.

  3. Patient-Reported Safety Information: A Renaissance of Pharmacovigilance?

    PubMed

    Härmark, Linda; Raine, June; Leufkens, Hubert; Edwards, I Ralph; Moretti, Ugo; Sarinic, Viola Macolic; Kant, Agnes

    2016-10-01

    The role of patients as key contributors in pharmacovigilance was acknowledged in the new EU pharmacovigilance legislation. This contains several efforts to increase the involvement of the general public, including making patient adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting systems mandatory. Three years have passed since the legislation was introduced and the key question is: does pharmacovigilance yet make optimal use of patient-reported safety information? Independent research has shown beyond doubt that patients make an important contribution to pharmacovigilance signal detection. Patient reports provide first-hand information about the suspected ADR and the circumstances under which it occurred, including medication errors, quality failures, and 'near misses'. Patient-reported safety information leads to a better understanding of the patient's experiences of the ADR. Patients are better at explaining the nature, personal significance and consequences of ADRs than healthcare professionals' reports on similar associations and they give more detailed information regarding quality of life including psychological effects and effects on everyday tasks. Current methods used in pharmacovigilance need to optimise use of the information reported from patients. To make the most of information from patients, the systems we use for collecting, coding and recording patient-reported information and the methodologies applied for signal detection and assessment need to be further developed, such as a patient-specific form, development of a severity grading and evolution of the database structure and the signal detection methods applied. It is time for a renaissance of pharmacovigilance. PMID:27379887

  4. Online database for mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) occurrence records in French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    Talaga, Stanislas; Murienne, Jérôme; Dejean, Alain; Leroy, Céline

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A database providing information on mosquito specimens (Arthropoda: Diptera: Culicidae) collected in French Guiana is presented. Field collections were initiated in 2013 under the auspices of the CEnter for the study of Biodiversity in Amazonia (CEBA: http://www.labexceba.fr/en/). This study is part of an ongoing process aiming to understand the distribution of mosquitoes, including vector species, across French Guiana. Occurrences are recorded after each collecting trip in a database managed by the laboratory Evolution et Diversité Biologique (EDB), Toulouse, France. The dataset is updated monthly and is available online. Voucher specimens and their associated DNA are stored at the laboratory Ecologie des Forêts de Guyane (Ecofog), Kourou, French Guiana. The latest version of the dataset is accessible through EDB’s Integrated Publication Toolkit at http://130.120.204.55:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=mosquitoes_of_french_guiana or through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility data portal at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/5a8aa2ad-261c-4f61-a98e-26dd752fe1c5 It can also be viewed through the Guyanensis platform at http://guyanensis.ups-tlse.fr PMID:26692809

  5. Online database for mosquito (Diptera, Culicidae) occurrence records in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Talaga, Stanislas; Murienne, Jérôme; Dejean, Alain; Leroy, Céline

    2015-01-01

    A database providing information on mosquito specimens (Arthropoda: Diptera: Culicidae) collected in French Guiana is presented. Field collections were initiated in 2013 under the auspices of the CEnter for the study of Biodiversity in Amazonia (CEBA: http://www.labexceba.fr/en/). This study is part of an ongoing process aiming to understand the distribution of mosquitoes, including vector species, across French Guiana. Occurrences are recorded after each collecting trip in a database managed by the laboratory Evolution et Diversité Biologique (EDB), Toulouse, France. The dataset is updated monthly and is available online. Voucher specimens and their associated DNA are stored at the laboratory Ecologie des Forêts de Guyane (Ecofog), Kourou, French Guiana. The latest version of the dataset is accessible through EDB's Integrated Publication Toolkit at http://130.120.204.55:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=mosquitoes_of_french_guiana or through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility data portal at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/5a8aa2ad-261c-4f61-a98e-26dd752fe1c5 It can also be viewed through the Guyanensis platform at http://guyanensis.ups-tlse.fr.

  6. Evolving paradigms in pharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Brewster, Wendy; Gibbs, Trevor; Lacroix, Karol; Murray, Alison; Tydeman, Michael; Almenoff, June

    2006-05-01

    All medicines have adverse effects as well as benefits. The aim of pharmacovigilance is to protect public health by monitoring medicines to identify and evaluate issues and ensure that the overall benefits outweigh the potential risks. The tools and processes used in pharmacovigilance are continually evolving. Increasingly sophisticated tools are being designed to evaluate safety data from clinical trials to enhance the likelihood of detecting safety signals ahead of product registration. Methods include integration of safety data throughout development, meta-analytical techniques, quantitative and qualitative methods for evaluation of adverse event data and graphical tools to explore laboratory and biometric data. Electronic data capture facilitates monitoring of ongoing studies so that it is possible to promptly identify potential issues and manage patient safety. In addition, GSK employs a number of proactive methods for post-marketing signal detection and knowledge management using state-of-the-art statistical and analytical tools. Using these tools, together with safety data collected through pharmacoepidemiologic studies, literature and spontaneous reporting, potential adverse drug reactions can be better identified in marketed products. In summary, the information outlined in this paper provides a valuable benchmark for risk management and pharmacovigilance in pharmaceutical development.

  7. Application of the British Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system in a French food composition database.

    PubMed

    Julia, Chantal; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Touvier, Mathilde; Méjean, Caroline; Fezeu, Léopold; Hercberg, Serge

    2014-11-28

    Nutrient profiling systems are powerful tools for public health initiatives, as they aim at categorising foods according to their nutritional quality. The British Food Standards Agency (FSA) nutrient profiling system (FSA score) has been validated in a British food database, but the application of the model in other contexts has not yet been evaluated. The objective of the present study was to assess the application of the British FSA score in a French food composition database. Foods from the French NutriNet-Santé study food composition table were categorised according to their FSA score using the Office of Communication (OfCom) cut-off value ('healthier' ≤ 4 for foods and ≤ 1 for beverages; 'less healthy' >4 for foods and >1 for beverages) and distribution cut-offs (quintiles for foods, quartiles for beverages). Foods were also categorised according to the food groups used for the French Programme National Nutrition Santé (PNNS) recommendations. Foods were weighted according to their relative consumption in a sample drawn from the NutriNet-Santé study (n 4225), representative of the French population. Classification of foods according to the OfCom cut-offs was consistent with food groups described in the PNNS: 97·8 % of fruit and vegetables, 90·4 % of cereals and potatoes and only 3·8 % of sugary snacks were considered as 'healthier'. Moreover, variability in the FSA score allowed for a discrimination between subcategories in the same food group, confirming the possibility of using the FSA score as a multiple category system, for example as a basis for front-of-pack nutrition labelling. Application of the FSA score in the French context would adequately complement current public health recommendations.

  8. Application of the British Food Standards Agency nutrient profiling system in a French food composition database.

    PubMed

    Julia, Chantal; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Touvier, Mathilde; Méjean, Caroline; Fezeu, Léopold; Hercberg, Serge

    2014-11-28

    Nutrient profiling systems are powerful tools for public health initiatives, as they aim at categorising foods according to their nutritional quality. The British Food Standards Agency (FSA) nutrient profiling system (FSA score) has been validated in a British food database, but the application of the model in other contexts has not yet been evaluated. The objective of the present study was to assess the application of the British FSA score in a French food composition database. Foods from the French NutriNet-Santé study food composition table were categorised according to their FSA score using the Office of Communication (OfCom) cut-off value ('healthier' ≤ 4 for foods and ≤ 1 for beverages; 'less healthy' >4 for foods and >1 for beverages) and distribution cut-offs (quintiles for foods, quartiles for beverages). Foods were also categorised according to the food groups used for the French Programme National Nutrition Santé (PNNS) recommendations. Foods were weighted according to their relative consumption in a sample drawn from the NutriNet-Santé study (n 4225), representative of the French population. Classification of foods according to the OfCom cut-offs was consistent with food groups described in the PNNS: 97·8 % of fruit and vegetables, 90·4 % of cereals and potatoes and only 3·8 % of sugary snacks were considered as 'healthier'. Moreover, variability in the FSA score allowed for a discrimination between subcategories in the same food group, confirming the possibility of using the FSA score as a multiple category system, for example as a basis for front-of-pack nutrition labelling. Application of the FSA score in the French context would adequately complement current public health recommendations. PMID:25277084

  9. Updating the French archeomagnetic directional database for the past two millennia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Goff, M.; Warmé, N.; Gallet, Y.; Genevey, A.

    2009-04-01

    Research in archeomagnetism began in France during the 1930's with the pioneering work of Emile Thellier. Combining instrumental and methodological developments, together with the patient establishment of a collaboration with archeologists, Thellier's activity led to the construction of the first directional secular variation curve in France spanning the past two millennia. After Thellier's retirement, Ileana Bucur continued this work, enriching the French archeomagnetic database up to more than 200 directional data, among which 120 dated results were used to construct in 1994 a revised version of the French directional secular variation curve, which is still considered as a reference today. Since 1994, the acquisition of archeomagnetic directional data has been continuously pursued at IPGP and the present study aims to update the French archeomagnetic dataset for the past two millennia. We have sampled about 400 burned structures from more than sixty different archeological sites mostly located near Paris, in the Ile-de-France region. Domestic kilns here represent approximately 2/3 of those structures, which were found in ancient agricultural settlements generally dated to the High Middle Ages. More than one hundred structures were dated using archeological constraints, such as the typo-morphology of ceramics, coins or archives, with enough precision and accuracy to be considered for improving the French reference directional secular variation curve over the past two millennia. We will discuss the present status of the French archeomagnetic directional database, which thus contains more than 600 data, 90% of which are defined with an a95 of less than 2°. We will also illustrate its increasingly potential as a dating tool for archeological purposes.

  10. Pharmacovigilance for children's sake.

    PubMed

    Star, Kristina; Edwards, I Ralph

    2014-02-01

    Child age-specific information on efficacy and risk of medicines can be limited for healthcare professionals and patients. It is therefore very important to make the best use of a risk planned approach to the pharmacological treatment of children. This means pharmacovigilance in the broadest sense of gaining the best data from the use of medicines in clinical practice. We consider issues that complicate safe medication use in paediatric care, as well as current progress and provide suggestions for building knowledge within paediatric pharmacovigilance to be used to minimise patient harm. The continuous development in children constitutes a challenge to prescribing and administering age-suitable doses for individual children. Children are not only different from adults but differ vastly within their own age group. Physical growth during childhood is apparent to the eye, but less obvious is the ongoing maturation of organ function important for drug disposition and action. Systematic issues such as medication errors, off-label use and the lack of age-suitable formulations are considerable obstacles for safe medication use in paediatrics. The recognition of emerging adverse drug reactions could be more challenging in developing children. Initiatives to improve the situation have been made by the WHO and regulators in the USA and EU. Age-specific changes in physiology, pharmacology and psychology, as well as systematic issues specific for children need to be considered in the work of assessing spontaneous reports in children. Pharmacovigilance needs to broaden its aims considerably beyond merely capturing new associations between drugs and events, and encompass careful collection on patient characteristics and circumstances around the reported adverse drug reaction to provide essential information that will give clues on how to prevent harm to children.

  11. Pharmacovigilance for children's sake.

    PubMed

    Star, Kristina; Edwards, I Ralph

    2014-02-01

    Child age-specific information on efficacy and risk of medicines can be limited for healthcare professionals and patients. It is therefore very important to make the best use of a risk planned approach to the pharmacological treatment of children. This means pharmacovigilance in the broadest sense of gaining the best data from the use of medicines in clinical practice. We consider issues that complicate safe medication use in paediatric care, as well as current progress and provide suggestions for building knowledge within paediatric pharmacovigilance to be used to minimise patient harm. The continuous development in children constitutes a challenge to prescribing and administering age-suitable doses for individual children. Children are not only different from adults but differ vastly within their own age group. Physical growth during childhood is apparent to the eye, but less obvious is the ongoing maturation of organ function important for drug disposition and action. Systematic issues such as medication errors, off-label use and the lack of age-suitable formulations are considerable obstacles for safe medication use in paediatrics. The recognition of emerging adverse drug reactions could be more challenging in developing children. Initiatives to improve the situation have been made by the WHO and regulators in the USA and EU. Age-specific changes in physiology, pharmacology and psychology, as well as systematic issues specific for children need to be considered in the work of assessing spontaneous reports in children. Pharmacovigilance needs to broaden its aims considerably beyond merely capturing new associations between drugs and events, and encompass careful collection on patient characteristics and circumstances around the reported adverse drug reaction to provide essential information that will give clues on how to prevent harm to children. PMID:24446277

  12. Obstacles to transparency over pharmacovigilance data within the EMA.

    PubMed

    2015-11-01

    In July and August 2014, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) organised two public consultations concerning European pharmacovigilance. These two consultations reveal a number of EMA proposals that are counterproductive to the objective of improving transparency over pharmacovigilance data. The EMA's proposals offer pharmaceutical companies an opportunity to participate in public hearings held by the European Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC), in order to defend their drug. They also provide for the possibility of holding non-public hearings to discuss public data. There is a great risk that the drug industry might use these provisions to influence the debate. The strings attached to the access that the EMA proposes to grant researchers to data contained in the centralised European pharmacovigilance database would allow the EMA to censor the publication of their findings. The EMA seems to regard pharmacovigilance data as commercially confidential information. Responding to these consultations provided an opportunity to remind the EMA that data about adverse effects are a public good, in the common interest, and that it is unacceptable to keep this information confidential. PMID:26688911

  13. From Pharmacovigilance to Clinical Care Optimization

    PubMed Central

    Moseley, Edward; Moses, Christopher; Ryan, Padhraig; Somai, Melek; Stone, David; Tang, Kai-ou

    2014-01-01

    Abstract In order to ensure the continued, safe administration of pharmaceuticals, particularly those agents that have been recently introduced into the market, there is a need for improved surveillance after product release. This is particularly so because drugs are used by a variety of patients whose particular characteristics may not have been fully captured in the original market approval studies. Even well-conducted, randomized controlled trials are likely to have excluded a large proportion of individuals because of any number of issues. The digitization of medical care, which yields rich and accessible drug data amenable to analytic techniques, provides an opportunity to capture the required information via observational studies. We propose the development of an open, accessible database containing properly de-identified data, to provide the substrate for the required improvement in pharmacovigilance. A range of stakeholders could use this to identify delayed and low-frequency adverse events. Moreover, its power as a research tool could extend to the detection of complex interactions, potential novel uses, and subtle subpopulation effects. This far-reaching potential is demonstrated by our experience with the open Multi-parameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care (MIMIC) intensive care unit database. The new database could also inform the development of objective, robust clinical practice guidelines. Careful systematization and deliberate standardization of a fully digitized pharmacovigilance process is likely to save both time and resources for healthcare in general. PMID:26576325

  14. French database of children and adolescents with Prader-Willi syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Molinas, Catherine; Cazals, Laurent; Diene, Gwenaelle; Glattard, Melanie; Arnaud, Catherine; Tauber, Maithe

    2008-01-01

    Background Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is a rare multisystem genetic disease leading to severe complications mainly related to obesity. We strongly lack information on the natural history of this complex disease and on what factors are involved in its evolution and its outcome. One of the objectives of the French reference centre for Prader-Willi syndrome set-up in 2004 was to set-up a database in order to make the inventory of Prader-Willi syndrome cases and initiate a national cohort study in the area covered by the centre. Description the database includes medical data of children and adolescents with Prader-Willi syndrome, details about their management, socio-demographic data on their families, psychological data and quality of life of the parents. The tools and organisation used to ensure data collection and data quality in respect of good clinical practice procedures are discussed, and main characteristics of our Prader-Willi population at inclusion are presented. Conclusion this database covering all the aspects of PWS clinical, psychological and social profiles, including familial psychological and quality of life will be a powerful tool for retrospective studies concerning this complex and multi factorial disease and could be a basis for the design of future prospective multicentric studies. The complete database and the Stata.do files are available to any researcher wishing to use them for non-commercial purposes and can be provided upon request to the corresponding author. PMID:18831731

  15. Specific features of medicines safety and pharmacovigilance in Africa.

    PubMed

    Isah, Ambrose O; Pal, Shanthi N; Olsson, Sten; Dodoo, Alexander; Bencheikh, Rachida Soulayami

    2012-02-01

    The thalidomide tragedy in the late 1950s and early 1960s served as a wakeup call and raised questions about the safety of medicinal products. The developed countries rose to the challenge putting in place systems to ensure the safety of medicines. However, this was not the case for low-resource settings because of prevailing factors inherent in them. This paper reviews some of these features and the current status of pharmacovigilance in Africa. The health systems in most of the 54 countries of Africa are essentially weak, lacking in basic infrastructure, personnel, equipment and facilities. The recent mass deployment of medicines to address diseases of public health significance in Africa poses additional challenges to the health system with notable safety concerns. Other safety issues of note include substandard and counterfeit medicines, medication errors and quality of medicinal products. The first national pharmacovigilance centres established in Africa with membership of the World Health Organization (WHO) international drug monitoring programme were in Morocco and South Africa in 1992. Of the 104 full member countries in the programme, there are now 24 African countries with a further nine countries as associate members. The pharmacovigilance systems operational in African countries are based essentially on spontaneous reporting facilitated by the introduction of the new tool Vigiflow. The individual case safety reports committed to the WHO global database (Vigibase) attest to the growth of pharmacovigilance in Africa with the number of reports rising from 2695 in 2000 to over 25,000 in 2010. There is need to engage the various identified challenges of the weak pharmacovigilance systems in the African setting and to focus efforts on how to provide resources, infrastructure and expertise. Raising the level of awareness among healthcare providers, developing training curricula for healthcare professionals, provisions for paediatric and geriatric

  16. An occurence records database of French Guiana harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones).

    PubMed

    Cally, Sébastien; Solbès, Pierre; Grosso, Bernadette; Murienne, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    This dataset provides information on specimens of harvestmen (Arthropoda, Arachnida, Opiliones) collected in French Guiana. Field collections have been initiated in 2012 within the framework of the CEnter for the Study of Biodiversity in Amazonia (CEBA: www.labex-ceba.fr/en/). This dataset is a work in progress.  Occurrences are recorded in an online database stored at the EDB laboratory after each collecting trip and the dataset is updated on a monthly basis. Voucher specimens and associated DNA are also stored at the EDB laboratory until deposition in natural history Museums. The latest version of the dataset is publicly and freely accessible through our Integrated Publication Toolkit at http://130.120.204.55:8080/ipt/resource.do?r=harvestmen_of_french_guiana or through the Global Biodiversity Information Facility data portal at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/3c9e2297-bf20-4827-928e-7c7eefd9432c.

  17. Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines : a UK perspective.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Joanne

    2003-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness at several levels of the need to develop pharmacovigilance practices for herbal medicines. The current model of pharmacovigilance and its associated tools have been developed in relation to synthetic drugs, and applying these methods to monitoring the safety of herbal medicines presents unique challenges in addition to those described for conventional medicines. Several problems relate to the ways in which herbal medicines are named, perceived, sourced, and utilised. Other important challenges arise from the current regulatory framework for herbal medicines in the UK. In the UK at present, the Committee on Safety of Medicines/Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency's (CSM/MHRA) 'yellow card' scheme for adverse drug reaction (ADR) reporting is the main method of monitoring the safety of herbal medicines. Despite recent initiatives to stimulate reporting of suspected ADRs associated with herbal medicines, such as extending the scheme to unlicensed herbal products, and including community pharmacists as recognised reporters, numbers of herbal ADR reports received by the CSM/MHRA remain relatively low. Under-reporting, an inevitable and important limitation of spontaneous reporting schemes, is likely to be significant for herbal medicines, since users typically do not seek professional advice about their use of such products, or report if they experience adverse effects. The herbal sector in the UK has initiated various spontaneous reporting schemes, based on the yellow card scheme, but targeted mainly at herbal-medicine practitioners. It is important that these schemes have a link with the CSM/MHRA so that potential signals are not missed. Several other tools used in pharmacovigilance of conventional medicines, such as prescription-event monitoring, and the use of computerised health-record databases, currently are of no use for evaluating the safety of herbal and other non-prescription medicines. Proposed European Union

  18. Pharmacogenovigilance: a pharmacogenomics pharmacovigilance program.

    PubMed

    Awada, Zeinab; Zgheib, Nathalie Khoueiry

    2014-04-01

    In this report, we review the importance of pharmacovigilance in detecting postmarketing adverse drug events and the potential for developing pharmacogenovigilance programs by integrating pharmacogenomics with pharmacovigilance. We propose to start developing such a program in primary healthcare systems that use basic features of electronic medical records and have access to large numbers of patients commonly prescribed drugs. Such programs, if carefully designed, may grow over time and hopefully enhance the collection and interpretation of useful data for the clinical applications of pharmacogenomics testing.

  19. The monitoring medicines project: a multinational pharmacovigilance and public health project.

    PubMed

    Pal, Shanthi N; Olsson, Sten; Brown, Elliot G

    2015-04-01

    The Monitoring Medicines project (MM), funded by the FP-7 EU framework, was carried out between 2009 and 2013 by a consortium of 11 partners. The objectives were to support and strengthen consumer reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs); expand the role and scope of national pharmacovigilance centres concerning medication errors; promote improved use of pharmacovigilance data; and develop methods to complement spontaneous reporting. The work was organised into four themes: patient reporting; medication errors; drug dependence, counterfeit and substandard medicines and clinical risk estimation; and active and targeted spontaneous pharmacovigilance. MM differed from some other major pharmacovigilance initiatives by having participants from developing countries in Asia and Africa and in leaning towards public health and communicable diseases. MM brought together stakeholders including WHO, drug regulators, pharmacovigilance centres, consumers, public health and disease specialists and patient safety networks. Resources and methodologies developed directly by, or with support from, MM include electronic systems/tools for consumer ADR reporting and cohort event monitoring; publication by WHO of handbooks on consumer reporting, medication errors and pharmacovigilance for TB medicines; methodologies for detecting drug dependence and substandard or counterfeit medicines in ADR databases; and a database on HIV treatment risks with a risk assessment tool. MM enabled stakeholders to achieve more than if they had worked alone in pursuit of patient safety. PMID:25829215

  20. Haemoptysis in adults: a 5-year study using the French nationwide hospital administrative database.

    PubMed

    Abdulmalak, Caroline; Cottenet, Jonathan; Beltramo, Guillaume; Georges, Marjolaine; Camus, Philippe; Bonniaud, Philippe; Quantin, Catherine

    2015-08-01

    Haemoptysis is a serious symptom with various aetiologies. Our aim was to define the aetiologies, outcomes and associations with lung cancer in the entire population of a high-income country.This retrospective multicentre study was based on the French nationwide hospital medical information database collected over 5 years (2008-2012). We analysed haemoptysis incidence, aetiologies, geographical and seasonal distribution and mortality. We studied recurrence, association with lung cancer and mortality in a 3-year follow-up analysis.Each year, ~15 000 adult patients (mean age 62 years, male/female ratio 2/1) were admitted for haemoptysis or had haemoptysis as a complication of their hospital stay, representing 0.2% of all hospitalised patients. Haemoptysis was cryptogenic in 50% of cases. The main aetiologies were respiratory infections (22%), lung cancer (17.4%), bronchiectasis (6.8%), pulmonary oedema (4.2%), anticoagulants (3.5%), tuberculosis (2.7%), pulmonary embolism (2.6%) and aspergillosis (1.1%). Among incident cases, the 3-year recurrence rate was 16.3%. Of the initial cryptogenic haemoptysis patients, 4% were diagnosed with lung cancer within 3 years. Mortality rates during the first stay and at 1 and 3 years were 9.2%, 21.6% and 27%, respectively.This is the first epidemiological study analysing haemoptysis and its outcomes in an entire population. Haemoptysis is a life-threatening symptom unveiling potentially life-threatening underlying conditions.

  1. Good pharmacovigilance practices: technology enabled.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Robert C; Palsulich, Bruce; Gogolak, Victor

    2002-01-01

    The assessment of spontaneous reports is most effective it is conducted within a defined and rigorous process. The framework for good pharmacovigilance process (GPVP) is proposed as a subset of good postmarketing surveillance process (GPMSP), a functional structure for both a public health and corporate risk management strategy. GPVP has good practices that implement each step within a defined process. These practices are designed to efficiently and effectively detect and alert the drug safety professional to new and potentially important information on drug-associated adverse reactions. These practices are enabled by applied technology designed specifically for the review and assessment of spontaneous reports. Specific practices include rules-based triage, active query prompts for severe organ insults, contextual single case evaluation, statistical proportionality and correlational checks, case-series analyses, and templates for signal work-up and interpretation. These practices and the overall GPVP are supported by state-of-the-art web-based systems with powerful analytical engines, workflow and audit trials to allow validated systems support for valid drug safety signalling efforts. It is also important to understand that a process has a defined set of steps and any one cannot stand independently. Specifically, advanced use of technical alerting methods in isolation can mislead and allow one to misunderstand priorities and relative value. In the end, pharmacovigilance is a clinical art and a component process to the science of pharmacoepidemiology and risk management. PMID:12071777

  2. Linking pharmacovigilance with pharmacogenetics.

    PubMed

    Clark, David W J; Donnelly, Emma; Coulter, David M; Roberts, Rebecca L; Kennedy, Martin A

    2004-01-01

    The ability to identify individuals who are susceptible to adverse drug reactions (ADRs) has the potential to reduce the personal and population costs of drug-related morbidity. Some individuals may show an increased susceptibility to certain ADRs through genetic polymorphisms that alter their responses to various drugs. We wished to establish a methodology that would be acceptable to members of the general population and that would enable estimation of the risks that specific genetic factors confer on susceptibility to specific ADRs. Buccal swabs were selected as a minimally invasive method to obtain cells for DNA extraction. We wished to determine whether DNA of sufficient quantity and quality could be obtained to enable genotyping for two different polymorphic genes that code for enzymes that are widely involved in drug disposition. This article describes a small pilot study of methodology developed in the New Zealand Intensive Medicines Monitoring Programme (IMMP) to link prescription event monitoring (PEM) studies with pharmacogenetics. The methodology involves a nested case-control study design to investigate whether patients with genetic variants in P-glycoprotein (P-gp) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C9 are more susceptible to psychiatric or visual disturbances following cyclo- oxygenase-2 inhibitor use (ADR signals identified in the IMMP database) than matched control patients taking the medication without experiencing any ADRs. It was concluded that the use of buccal swabs is acceptable to patients and provides DNA of sufficient quantity and quality for genotyping. Although no differences in the distribution of genotypes in the case and control populations were found in this small study, case-control studies investigating genetic risks for ADRs using drug cohorts from PEM studies are possible, and there are several areas where population-based studies of genetic risk factors for ADRs are needed. Examples are discussed where research in large populations is

  3. Pharmacovigilance in Space: Stability Payload Compliance Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, Vernie R.; Putcha, Lakshmi

    2007-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance is the science of, and activities relating to the detection, assessment, understanding, and prevention of drug-related problems. Over the lase decade, pharmacovigilance activities have contributed to the development of numerous technological and conventional advances focused on medication safety and regulatory intervention. The topics discussed include: 1) Proactive Pharmacovigilance; 2) A New Frontier; 3) Research Activities; 4) Project Purpose; 5) Methods; 6) Flight Stability Kit Components; 7) Experimental Conditions; 8) Research Project Logistics; 9) Research Plan; 10) Pharmaceutical Stability Research Project Pharmacovigilance Aspects; 11) Security / Control; 12) Packaging/Containment Actions; 13) Shelf-Life Assessments; 14) Stability Assessment Parameters; 15) Chemical Content Analysis; 16) Preliminary Results; 17) Temperature/Humidity; 18) Changes in PHysical and Chemical Assessment Parameters; 19) Observations; and 20) Conclusions.

  4. 3D Pharmacophoric Similarity improves Multi Adverse Drug Event Identification in Pharmacovigilance

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, Santiago; Tatonetti, Nicholas P.; Hripcsak, George

    2015-01-01

    Adverse drugs events (ADEs) detection constitutes a considerable concern in patient safety and public health care. For this reason, it is important to develop methods that improve ADE signal detection in pharmacovigilance databases. Our objective is to apply 3D pharmacophoric similarity models to enhance ADE recognition in Offsides, a pharmacovigilance resource with drug-ADE associations extracted from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). We developed a multi-ADE predictor implementing 3D drug similarity based on a pharmacophoric approach, with an ADE reference standard extracted from the SIDER database. The results showed that the application of our 3D multi-type ADE predictor to the pharmacovigilance data in Offsides improved ADE identification and generated enriched sets of drug-ADE signals. The global ROC curve for the Offsides ADE candidates ranked with the 3D similarity score showed an area of 0.7. The 3D predictor also allows the identification of the most similar drug that causes the ADE under study, which could provide hypotheses about mechanisms of action and ADE etiology. Our method is useful in drug development, screening potential adverse effects in experimental drugs, and in drug safety, applicable to the evaluation of ADE signals selected through pharmacovigilance data mining. PMID:25744369

  5. 3D Pharmacophoric Similarity improves Multi Adverse Drug Event Identification in Pharmacovigilance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilar, Santiago; Tatonetti, Nicholas P.; Hripcsak, George

    2015-03-01

    Adverse drugs events (ADEs) detection constitutes a considerable concern in patient safety and public health care. For this reason, it is important to develop methods that improve ADE signal detection in pharmacovigilance databases. Our objective is to apply 3D pharmacophoric similarity models to enhance ADE recognition in Offsides, a pharmacovigilance resource with drug-ADE associations extracted from the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). We developed a multi-ADE predictor implementing 3D drug similarity based on a pharmacophoric approach, with an ADE reference standard extracted from the SIDER database. The results showed that the application of our 3D multi-type ADE predictor to the pharmacovigilance data in Offsides improved ADE identification and generated enriched sets of drug-ADE signals. The global ROC curve for the Offsides ADE candidates ranked with the 3D similarity score showed an area of 0.7. The 3D predictor also allows the identification of the most similar drug that causes the ADE under study, which could provide hypotheses about mechanisms of action and ADE etiology. Our method is useful in drug development, screening potential adverse effects in experimental drugs, and in drug safety, applicable to the evaluation of ADE signals selected through pharmacovigilance data mining.

  6. EU's new pharmacovigilance legislation: considerations for biosimilars.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Begoña; Zuñiga, Leyre

    2014-01-01

    Biosimilars are biological medicines, the active substances of which are highly similar to those of biologics that have already been authorized. As for any other medicine, the applicant of the biosimilar marketing authorization must submit a risk-management plan (RMP)/pharmacovigilance plan. The pharmacovigilance plan should take into account risks identified during product development, the potential risks and how those risks will be addressed after authorization of the product.Recently, new European Pharmacovigilance legislation has been implemented, ensuring proper risk management through the recording of suspected adverse drug reactions and data collection from all stakeholders. The new regulation entails a reduction of the administrative burden on companies and regulatory agencies, as obligations of the responsible parties are clearly established and duplication of effort avoided.This article analyzes the new European Pharmacovigilance System requirements, with special focus on those medicines requiring additional monitoring, such as biosimilars, which are priorities for pharmacovigilance. Further, it provides the new obligations to marketing authorization holders, such as the continuous benefit-risk assessment. PMID:24190573

  7. EU's new pharmacovigilance legislation: considerations for biosimilars.

    PubMed

    Calvo, Begoña; Zuñiga, Leyre

    2014-01-01

    Biosimilars are biological medicines, the active substances of which are highly similar to those of biologics that have already been authorized. As for any other medicine, the applicant of the biosimilar marketing authorization must submit a risk-management plan (RMP)/pharmacovigilance plan. The pharmacovigilance plan should take into account risks identified during product development, the potential risks and how those risks will be addressed after authorization of the product.Recently, new European Pharmacovigilance legislation has been implemented, ensuring proper risk management through the recording of suspected adverse drug reactions and data collection from all stakeholders. The new regulation entails a reduction of the administrative burden on companies and regulatory agencies, as obligations of the responsible parties are clearly established and duplication of effort avoided.This article analyzes the new European Pharmacovigilance System requirements, with special focus on those medicines requiring additional monitoring, such as biosimilars, which are priorities for pharmacovigilance. Further, it provides the new obligations to marketing authorization holders, such as the continuous benefit-risk assessment.

  8. Similarity-Based Modeling Applied to Signal Detection in Pharmacovigilance

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, S; Ryan, P B; Madigan, D; Stang, P E; Schuemie, M J; Friedman, C; Tatonetti, N P; Hripcsak, G

    2014-01-01

    One of the main objectives in pharmacovigilance is the detection of adverse drug events (ADEs) through mining of healthcare databases, such as electronic health records or administrative claims data. Although different approaches have been shown to be of great value, research is still focusing on the enhancement of signal detection to gain efficiency in further assessment and follow-up. We applied similarity-based modeling techniques, using 2D and 3D molecular structure, ADE, target, and ATC (anatomical therapeutic chemical) similarity measures, to the candidate associations selected previously in a medication-wide association study for four ADE outcomes. Our results showed an improvement in the precision when we ranked the subset of ADE candidates using similarity scorings. This method is simple, useful to strengthen or prioritize signals generated from healthcare databases, and facilitates ADE detection through the identification of the most similar drugs for which ADE information is available. PMID:25250527

  9. Automated support for pharmacovigilance: a proposed system.

    PubMed

    Bright, Roselie A; Nelson, Robert C

    2002-03-01

    Governments, manufacturers, and other entities are interested in adverse event surveillance of marketed medical products. FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research redesigned the post-marketing adverse reaction surveillance process to use the advantages of new technology. As part of this effort, a 'Pharmacovigilance Working Group' designed a new strategy for the review and analyses of adverse event reports received by FDA. It created requirements which divided signal detection into five tiers: (1) Single 'urgent' reports would be sent to reviewers' workstations nightly for immediate attention. Reviewers would be able to customize definitions of 'urgent' (events that should not wait for aggregate review). (2) Single urgent reports would be placed in a context matrix containing historical counts of similar events to aid in initial interpretation. (3) In this first level of aggregate review, graphical displays would highlight patterns within all the reports, both urgent and non-urgent, and (4) periodic drug-specific tabled-based reports would display the newly received reports across a pre-defined variety of displays. These four tiers would produce passive and criteria-based results which would be presented to safety reviewers' electronic workstations. (5) Active query capabilities (routine, such as age, sex, and year distributions, as well as ad hoc) would be available for exploring alerted issues. The historical database would be migrated into the new format. All historical and new reaction data would be coded with the new MedDRA (Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities) scheme. The strategy was to design a full data capture system which effectively exploits current computing advances and technical performance to automate many aspects of initial adverse event review, supporting more efficient and effective clinical assessment of safety signals.

  10. Training in Post-authorization Pharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Ahuja, Vivek; Sharma, Varun

    2010-04-01

    Post-authorization pharmacovigilance refers to all the activities relating to the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects or any other drug-related problems, from the time a product gets the authorization to be marketed in a territory. The ultimate objective of pharmacovigilance is patient safety. To ensure this, any responsible pharmaceutical company will readily vouch for the importance of all these activities, each requiring specific training for efficient and effective execution. Having a well planned job specific training curriculum can help the organization realize its goals and objectives by covering the gaps between current and desired job performance levels and existing competencies of its employees. Apart from this, trainings can help in problem solving, increasing productivity and prepare for and respond to future changes in the organization or job duties. As the pharmaceutical business continues to grow, increasing numbers of skilled people are required to manage resultant increase in pharmacovigilance activities to remain compliant. Thus, the need for training qualified resources to develop into highly skilled pharmacovigilance professionals is the need of the hour. Currently, the supply-demand situation for skilled manpower is highly skewed in favor of the demand, as this field is relatively new in India and elsewhere. It is interesting to note that not many resources, be it internet, literature or books, are available specifically addressing the need of the industry to guide them on training requirements to set up and maintain a competent pharmacovigilance department. This article aims to present a comprehensive perspective on the trainings required in the post authorization scenario pertaining to pharmacovigilance activities and suggest ways to manage these in an efficient way so as to be compliant with the global norms and best practices.

  11. Considerations on causality in pharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Edwards, I Ralph

    2012-01-01

    Causality has been a topic of debate by philosophers, scientists, lawyers and for centuries. It is essential to define as precisely as possible all steps in the logical chain of events, since each may strengthen or confound an argument. Almost always there are issues of missing and conflicting data that need to be addressed specifically. In pharmacovigilance, as in many other situations, there is not just one possible causation for an effect but several. Each must be evaluated in the given context for probability. There is also likely to be a causal chain of events to the adverse effect under consideration, and each must be considered. In an individual patient diagnosis the components of patient history, clinical findings and various laboratory test findings are combined to point to the probability of the patho-physiological diagnosis, which in turn is related to possible causes with a strength determined by the constellation of findings. The established Bradford-Hill criteria are valuable in considering all the possible causal factors. Pharmacoepidemiology allows for population incidences of causes for particular effects and therefore provides an a priori probability listing for competing possible causes, or at least of one possible cause against the background of all others in a control group. Since adverse effects of medicines are generally rare, it is not possible to exclude drug causation in an individual by reliance on epidemiological evidence alone, only to argue that the incidence is below a level determined by statistical power, of the study or studies combined. Other areas of society are concerned with the process of causal inference, and this is especially true in legal cases in which judgements are made on possible personal injury by drugs.

  12. Pharmacovigilance in Europe: Place of the Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) in organisation and decisional processes.

    PubMed

    Laroche, Marie-Laure; Batz, Arnaud; Géniaux, Hélène; Féchant, Corinne; Merle, Louis; Maison, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The new European legislation that came into force in July 2012 reinforced the organisation of pharmacovigilance by setting up a committee in charge of risk assessment for medicines, the Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC). The PRAC has a remit covering the assessment of all aspects of the safety and the risk management of medicinal products for human use in the European Union. It deals with issues regarding pharmacovigilance signals, the periodic evaluation of benefit/risk reports from marketing authorization holders (MAH), risk management plans, post-marketing studies, variations or renewals of marketing authorisations, management of under surveillance drugs lists, inspections for pharmacovigilance reasons and audits of pharmacovigilance systems. The PRAC works with the pharmacovigilance systems of the European Member States, which draw up evaluation reports. These evaluations are circulated and discussed by Member States so as to issue recommendations, which serve as a basis for other European medicines committees, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) or the Coordination Group for Mutual Recognition and Decentralised Procedures-Human (CMDh) which then give their opinion. The final decision, which applies to all Member States and to the concerned MAH, lies with the European Commission (EC). This decisional procedure thus rests on coordination involving the PRAC, the CHMP, the CMDh, the EC, the Member States and the pharmaceutical companies. In the 3 years from July 2012, the PRAC has processed nearly 4500 procedures and is still facing an increasing workload.

  13. Pharmacovigilance in Europe: Place of the Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC) in organisation and decisional processes.

    PubMed

    Laroche, Marie-Laure; Batz, Arnaud; Géniaux, Hélène; Féchant, Corinne; Merle, Louis; Maison, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    The new European legislation that came into force in July 2012 reinforced the organisation of pharmacovigilance by setting up a committee in charge of risk assessment for medicines, the Pharmacovigilance Risk Assessment Committee (PRAC). The PRAC has a remit covering the assessment of all aspects of the safety and the risk management of medicinal products for human use in the European Union. It deals with issues regarding pharmacovigilance signals, the periodic evaluation of benefit/risk reports from marketing authorization holders (MAH), risk management plans, post-marketing studies, variations or renewals of marketing authorisations, management of under surveillance drugs lists, inspections for pharmacovigilance reasons and audits of pharmacovigilance systems. The PRAC works with the pharmacovigilance systems of the European Member States, which draw up evaluation reports. These evaluations are circulated and discussed by Member States so as to issue recommendations, which serve as a basis for other European medicines committees, the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use (CHMP) or the Coordination Group for Mutual Recognition and Decentralised Procedures-Human (CMDh) which then give their opinion. The final decision, which applies to all Member States and to the concerned MAH, lies with the European Commission (EC). This decisional procedure thus rests on coordination involving the PRAC, the CHMP, the CMDh, the EC, the Member States and the pharmaceutical companies. In the 3 years from July 2012, the PRAC has processed nearly 4500 procedures and is still facing an increasing workload. PMID:27080834

  14. French brain tumor database: 5-year histological results on 25 756 cases.

    PubMed

    Rigau, Valérie; Zouaoui, Sonia; Mathieu-Daudé, Hélène; Darlix, Amélie; Maran, Aurélie; Trétarre, Brigitte; Bessaoud, Faiza; Bauchet, Fabienne; Attaoua, Redha; Fabbro-Peray, Pascale; Fabbro, Michel; Kerr, Christine; Taillandier, Luc; Duffau, Hugues; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Costes, Valérie; Bauchet, Luc

    2011-11-01

    This work aimed to prospectively record all primary central nervous system tumor (PCNST) cases in France, for which histological diagnosis is available. The objectives were to (i) create a national registry and a network to perform epidemiological studies; (ii) implement clinical and basic research protocols; and (iii) harmonize the health care of patients affected by PCNST. For 5 years, 25 756 cases of newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed PCNST have been recorded. Histological diagnoses included glioma (48.9%), all other neuroepithelial tumors (5%), meningioma (28.8%), nerve sheath tumors (8.4%), lymphoma (3.2%) and others (5.7%). Cryopreservation was reported for 6018 PCNST specimens. Tumor resections (R) were performed in 78% cases, while biopsies accounted for 22%. Median age (MA), sex, percentage R and number of cryopreserved tumors were detailed for each histology; for example, out of 6053 glioblastomas (MA 63 years, male 59.4%, R 62%, 1611 were cryopreserved), and out of 37 atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (MA 2 years, male 56.8%, R 94%, 17 were cryopreserved). This database or databank dedicated to PCNST cases contains detailed data on clinical, histological and other characteristics, such as the inclusion of data on cryopreserved specimens that are not available in other European registries. Therefore, this is a valuable resource that can be used for planning future epidemiological and clinical research. PMID:21554472

  15. French brain tumor database: 5-year histological results on 25 756 cases.

    PubMed

    Rigau, Valérie; Zouaoui, Sonia; Mathieu-Daudé, Hélène; Darlix, Amélie; Maran, Aurélie; Trétarre, Brigitte; Bessaoud, Faiza; Bauchet, Fabienne; Attaoua, Redha; Fabbro-Peray, Pascale; Fabbro, Michel; Kerr, Christine; Taillandier, Luc; Duffau, Hugues; Figarella-Branger, Dominique; Costes, Valérie; Bauchet, Luc

    2011-11-01

    This work aimed to prospectively record all primary central nervous system tumor (PCNST) cases in France, for which histological diagnosis is available. The objectives were to (i) create a national registry and a network to perform epidemiological studies; (ii) implement clinical and basic research protocols; and (iii) harmonize the health care of patients affected by PCNST. For 5 years, 25 756 cases of newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed PCNST have been recorded. Histological diagnoses included glioma (48.9%), all other neuroepithelial tumors (5%), meningioma (28.8%), nerve sheath tumors (8.4%), lymphoma (3.2%) and others (5.7%). Cryopreservation was reported for 6018 PCNST specimens. Tumor resections (R) were performed in 78% cases, while biopsies accounted for 22%. Median age (MA), sex, percentage R and number of cryopreserved tumors were detailed for each histology; for example, out of 6053 glioblastomas (MA 63 years, male 59.4%, R 62%, 1611 were cryopreserved), and out of 37 atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors (MA 2 years, male 56.8%, R 94%, 17 were cryopreserved). This database or databank dedicated to PCNST cases contains detailed data on clinical, histological and other characteristics, such as the inclusion of data on cryopreserved specimens that are not available in other European registries. Therefore, this is a valuable resource that can be used for planning future epidemiological and clinical research.

  16. DNA Barcoding and Pharmacovigilance of Herbal Medicines.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Hugo J; Ichim, Mihael C; Newmaster, Steven G

    2015-07-01

    Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines relies on the product label information regarding the ingredients and the adherence to good manufacturing practices along the commercialisation chain. Several studies have shown that substitution of plant species occurs in herbal medicines, and this in turn poses a challenge to herbal pharmacovigilance as adverse reactions might be due to adulterated or added ingredients. Authentication of constituents in herbal medicines using analytical chemistry methods can help detect contaminants and toxins, but are often limited or incapable of detecting the source of the contamination. Recent developments in molecular plant identification using DNA sequence data enable accurate identification of plant species from herbal medicines using defined DNA markers. Identification of multiple constituent species from compound herbal medicines using amplicon metabarcoding enables verification of labelled ingredients and detection of substituted, adulterated and added species. DNA barcoding is proving to be a powerful method to assess species composition in herbal medicines and has the potential to be used as a standard method in herbal pharmacovigilance research of adverse reactions to specific products. PMID:26076652

  17. Pharmacovigilance on sexual enhancing herbal supplements

    PubMed Central

    Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Elnour, Asim Ahmed; Shehab, Abdulla

    2015-01-01

    The use of herbal medicines continues to expand rapidly across world and many people show positive interest to use herbal products for their health. The safety of herbal supplements has become a globally major concern in national and international health authorities due to increasing adverse events and adulterations. It is difficult to analyze herbal products that cause adverse events due to lack of sufficient information and expertise. Inadequate regulatory measures, weak quality control system and uncontrolled distribution channels are some of reasons that enhance the informal pharmaceutical market. In recent years, the unfulfilled desire for sex has been a subject that has aroused increasing public interest with respect to improve sexual functions. The use of herbal medicines substantially increased due to escalated prevalence and impact of sexual problems worldwide and estimates predicting the incidence to raise over 320 million by year 2025. The various reasons to use herbal supplements in men may be due to experiencing changes in erectile dysfunction (ED) due to certain medical conditions such as diabetes and hypertension and bodily changes as a normal part of life and aging. There is a lack of adequate evidence, no impetus to evaluate and absence of any regulatory obligations to undertake rigorous testing for safety and efficacy of herbal supplements before they sold over-the-counter (OTC). Pharmacovigilance on herbal supplements is still not well established. Sexual enhancing herbals are on demand in men health but informal adulteration is growing issue of concern. Recently, increase in use of herbal supplements for erectile dysfunction has laid a path for many illegal compositions. This paper explores facts and evidences that were observed in different countries attempting to demonstrate the importance of strengthening regulatory system to strengthen the application of pharmacovigilance principles on sexual enhancing supplements. We hereby explore the

  18. [Interpretation of Guidelines on Good Pharmacovigilance Practices for European Union].

    PubMed

    Xie, Yan-Ming; Tian, Feng

    2013-09-01

    Due to the limitations of pre-authorization clinical trials, the safety information obtained from them is relatively limited. Therefore, it is very necessary to carry out pharmacovigilance activities on drugs post-marketing. In order to promote the specific implementation of the new pharmacovigilance regulations, the European medicines agency (EMA) developed the Guideline on Good Pharmacovigilance Practices (GVP), as the new criteria for pharmacovigilance in the European Union (EU). Compared with the previously published, Guidelines on Pharmacovigilance for Medicinal Products for Human Use (2007), the GVP proposed more comprehensive and systematic provisions of pharmacovigilance systems, quality control systems, judgements, pharmacovigilance inspections and audits. In addition, it set more specific and comprehensive requirements on risk management systems, the management and reporting of adverse reactions to medicinal products, periodic safety update reports, post-authorization safety studies, signal management, and so on. Interpreting the basic principles, working mechanisms, key technologies and methods of the GVP provides a useful reference for us to carry out pharmacovigilance (especially regarding safety monitoring of parenterally administered Chinese medicine). PMID:24471312

  19. Does language matter? A case study of epidemiological and public health journals, databases and professional education in French, German and Italian

    PubMed Central

    Baussano, Iacopo; Brzoska, Patrick; Fedeli, Ugo; Larouche, Claudia; Razum, Oliver; Fung, Isaac C-H

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiology and public health are usually context-specific. Journals published in different languages and countries play a role both as sources of data and as channels through which evidence is incorporated into local public health practice. Databases in these languages facilitate access to relevant journals, and professional education in these languages facilitates the growth of native expertise in epidemiology and public health. However, as English has become the lingua franca of scientific communication in the era of globalisation, many journals published in non-English languages face the difficult dilemma of either switching to English and competing internationally, or sticking to the native tongue and having a restricted circulation among a local readership. This paper discusses the historical development of epidemiology and the current scene of epidemiological and public health journals, databases and professional education in three Western European languages: French, German and Italian, and examines the dynamics and struggles they have today. PMID:18826570

  20. Does language matter? A case study of epidemiological and public health journals, databases and professional education in French, German and Italian.

    PubMed

    Baussano, Iacopo; Brzoska, Patrick; Fedeli, Ugo; Larouche, Claudia; Razum, Oliver; Fung, Isaac C-H

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiology and public health are usually context-specific. Journals published in different languages and countries play a role both as sources of data and as channels through which evidence is incorporated into local public health practice. Databases in these languages facilitate access to relevant journals, and professional education in these languages facilitates the growth of native expertise in epidemiology and public health. However, as English has become the lingua franca of scientific communication in the era of globalisation, many journals published in non-English languages face the difficult dilemma of either switching to English and competing internationally, or sticking to the native tongue and having a restricted circulation among a local readership. This paper discusses the historical development of epidemiology and the current scene of epidemiological and public health journals, databases and professional education in three Western European languages: French, German and Italian, and examines the dynamics and struggles they have today. PMID:18826570

  1. Does language matter? A case study of epidemiological and public health journals, databases and professional education in French, German and Italian.

    PubMed

    Baussano, Iacopo; Brzoska, Patrick; Fedeli, Ugo; Larouche, Claudia; Razum, Oliver; Fung, Isaac C-H

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiology and public health are usually context-specific. Journals published in different languages and countries play a role both as sources of data and as channels through which evidence is incorporated into local public health practice. Databases in these languages facilitate access to relevant journals, and professional education in these languages facilitates the growth of native expertise in epidemiology and public health. However, as English has become the lingua franca of scientific communication in the era of globalisation, many journals published in non-English languages face the difficult dilemma of either switching to English and competing internationally, or sticking to the native tongue and having a restricted circulation among a local readership. This paper discusses the historical development of epidemiology and the current scene of epidemiological and public health journals, databases and professional education in three Western European languages: French, German and Italian, and examines the dynamics and struggles they have today.

  2. Using real-world healthcare data for pharmacovigilance signal detection - the experience of the EU-ADR project.

    PubMed

    Patadia, Vaishali K; Coloma, Preciosa; Schuemie, Martijn J; Herings, Ron; Gini, Rosa; Mazzaglia, Giampiero; Picelli, Gino; Fornari, Carla; Pedersen, Lars; van der Lei, Johan; Sturkenboom, Miriam; Trifirò, Gianluca

    2015-01-01

    A prospective pharmacovigilance signal detection study, comparing the real-world healthcare data (EU-ADR) and two spontaneous reporting system (SRS) databases, US FDA's Adverse Event Reporting System and WHO's Vigibase is reported. The study compared drug safety signals found in the EU-ADR and SRS databases. The potential for signal detection in the EU-ADR system was found to be dependent on frequency of the event and utilization of drugs in the general population. The EU-ADR system may have a greater potential for detecting signals for events occurring at higher frequency in general population and those that are commonly not considered as potentially a drug-induced event. Factors influencing various differences between the datasets are discussed along with potential limitations and applications to pharmacovigilance practice.

  3. Biosimilar medical products - licensing, pharmacovigilance and interchangeability.

    PubMed

    Grozdanova, Aleksandra; Netkovska, Katerina Ancevska; Sterjev, Zoran; Naumovska, Zorica; Zarevski, Rubin; Dimovski, Aleksandar; Suturkova, Ljubica

    2016-01-01

    The use of biological medicine has significantly increased in recent decades and has made substantial contributions to improving the effectiveness of therapies in many diseases. The expiration of patents of biological innovative medicines enables copies of those drugs called similar biological products (biosimilars) to be approved by regulatory authorities and to enter in clinical use. Biosimilars are comparable but not identical and are not a generic version of the innovator biological product. Although biosimilars undergo rigorous characterization as well as clinical studies to prove their safety and effectiveness, specific regulatory requirements for registration apply in the case of biosimilars. They are highly complex molecules and small changes in the production process can have major implications in its safety and effectiveness profile. The availability of biosimilars enhances competition, with the potential to improve patient access to biological medicines and to contribute to the financial sustainability of healthcare systems. In order to be certain that a biosimilar reaches its potential in clinical use, an intensive pharmacovigilance monitoring system must be established in order to prove the true similarity between the original biologic and its biosimilar. There is a need for further guidance and resolution of the ongoing discussions on biosimilar labelling, naming, pharmacovigilance and substitution in order to ensure effective and appropriate use of biosimilars in clinical practice. PMID:27442414

  4. [Pharmacovigilance in child and adolescent psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Egberts, Karin; Karwautz, Andreas; Plener, Paul L; Mehler-Wex, Claudia; Kölch, Michael; Dang, Su-Yin; Taurines, Regina; Romanos, Marcel; Gerlach, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Rational pharmacotherapy is a challenging task in child and adolescent psychiatry. Increasing prescription numbers contrast with the uncertainties of safety and efficacy issues. The lack of clinical (authorization) trials often implies a non- age-specific use of drugs. However, young patients show particular metabolic conditions and a higher vulnerability for adverse drug reactions. Thus it seems mandatory to create age-specific pharmacological data about efficacy and safety of psychotropic drug use in minors. Legislation authorities became aware of this situation and introduced European and national scientific pharmacovigilance regulations and programmes accordingly in order to continuously evaluate the benefit-risk-ratio, detect, collect, minimize, and prevent adverse effects of drugs by appropriate measures, e.g., therapeutic drug monitoring. In this paper the principles and needs of pharmacovigilance in child and adolescent psychiatry are discussed. Furthermore a large multicenter clinical trial («TDM-VIGIL»), funded by the German Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices, is presented, which appeals to collect epidemiological prescription and safety data of psychotropic drugs in children and adolescents using an internet-based data infrastructure (patient registry).

  5. European Union pharmacovigilance capabilities: potential for the new legislation

    PubMed Central

    Tanti, Amy; Kouvelas, Dimitrios; Lungu, Calin; Pirozynski, Michal; Serracino-Inglott, Anthony; Aislaitner, George

    2015-01-01

    European Directives and Regulations introduced between late 2010 and 2012 have substantially overhauled pharmacovigilance processes across the European Union (EU). In this review, the implementation of the pharmacovigilance legislative framework by EU regulators is examined with the aim of mapping Directive 2010/84/EU and Regulation EC No. 1235/2010 against their aspired objectives of strengthening and rationalizing pharmacovigilance in the EU. A comprehensive review of the current state of affairs of the progress made by EU regulators is presented in this paper. Our review shows that intense efforts by regulators and industry to fulfil legislative obligations have resulted in major positive shifts in pharmacovigilance. Harmonized decision making, transparency in decision processes with patient involvement, information accessibility to the public, patient adverse drug reaction reporting, efforts in communication and enhanced cooperation between member states to maximize resource utilization and minimize duplication of efforts are observed. PMID:26301067

  6. Pharmacovigilance in China: current situation, successes and challenges.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Wong, Lisa Y L; He, Ying; Wong, Ian C K

    2014-10-01

    With the integration of the global pharmaceutical economy and the gradual transformation of the healthcare insurance system in China, the legislative framework for a comprehensive regulatory system monitoring the whole process including drug development, manufacture, distribution and use has been established by the China Food and Drug Administration (CFDA) to ensure the safety and effectiveness of medication use. China has established a relatively comprehensive pharmacovigilance system covering regulation, organisation and technology from 1989 to 2014. As of 2013, one national centre, 34 provincial centres and more than 400 municipal centres for adverse drug reaction (ADR) monitoring were included in the four-level pharmacovigilance network (national, provincial, municipal and county) with more than 200,000 grassroot organisation users. The China Adverse Drug Reaction Monitoring System (CADRMS) is an online spontaneous reporting system which connects the four-level pharmacovigilance network. By 2013, CADRMS had received over 6.6 million ADR case reports. After integrating and analysing pharmacovigilance data, the National Centre for ADR Monitoring (NCADRM) publishes medication safety information by releasing ADR bulletins, National ADR Annual Reports and International Pharmacovigilance Newsletters. The NCADRM also routinely provides CADRMS data feedback to manufacturers. The CFDA implemented risk management through several approaches, including arranging 'manufacturer communication meetings', modification of medication package inserts, and restriction, suspension or withdrawal of marketing authorisations. Seamless information exchange with overseas regulatory authorities and organisations remains an area for improvement. Further development of the China pharmacovigilance system in terms of signal generation, post-marketing pharmacoepidemiology research and education is also needed.

  7. Botanical nomenclature in pharmacovigilance and a recommendation for standardisation.

    PubMed

    Farah, Mohamed H; Olsson, Sten; Bate, Jenny; Lindquist, Marie; Edwards, Ralph; Simmonds, Monique S J; Leon, Christine; de Boer, Hugo J; Thulin, Mats

    2006-01-01

    Nomenclature of plants in pharmacology can be presented by pharmaceutical names or scientific names in the form of Linnaean binomials. In this paper, positive and negative aspects of both systems are discussed in the context of the scientific nomenclatural framework and the systems' practical applicability. The Uppsala Monitoring Centre (UMC) runs the WHO Programme for International Drug Monitoring and is responsible for the WHO Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) database that currently contains 3.6 million records. In order for the UMC to monitor pharmacovigilance through ADRs to herbal medicine products the following nomenclatural criteria are important: (i) the name should indicate only one species of plant; (ii) the source for this name must be authoritative; (iii) the name should indicate which part of the plant is used. Based on these criteria, the UMC investigated four options: (i) adopt main names used in recognised (inter-) national pharmacopoeias or authoritative publications; (ii) adopt option 1, but cite the publication for all names in abbreviated form; (iii) three-part pharmaceutical names consisting of Latinised part name plus Latinised genus name, plus Latinised specific epithet; (iv) scientific binomial names, optionally with author and plant part used. The UMC has chosen the latter option and will at its adoption utilise the scientific botanical nomenclature as defined by the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. This decision satisfies all criteria set by the UMC and renders the necessity of creating a new system or upgrading an old inconsistent system obsolete. The UMC has also issued an extensive synonymy checklist of vernacular, pharmaceutical and scientific names for the herbals in the WHO ADR database. We strongly recommend the adoption of scientific names to denote plant ingredients in medicine. PMID:17061908

  8. Botanical nomenclature in pharmacovigilance and a recommendation for standardisation.

    PubMed

    Farah, Mohamed H; Olsson, Sten; Bate, Jenny; Lindquist, Marie; Edwards, Ralph; Simmonds, Monique S J; Leon, Christine; de Boer, Hugo J; Thulin, Mats

    2006-01-01

    Nomenclature of plants in pharmacology can be presented by pharmaceutical names or scientific names in the form of Linnaean binomials. In this paper, positive and negative aspects of both systems are discussed in the context of the scientific nomenclatural framework and the systems' practical applicability. The Uppsala Monitoring Centre (UMC) runs the WHO Programme for International Drug Monitoring and is responsible for the WHO Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) database that currently contains 3.6 million records. In order for the UMC to monitor pharmacovigilance through ADRs to herbal medicine products the following nomenclatural criteria are important: (i) the name should indicate only one species of plant; (ii) the source for this name must be authoritative; (iii) the name should indicate which part of the plant is used. Based on these criteria, the UMC investigated four options: (i) adopt main names used in recognised (inter-) national pharmacopoeias or authoritative publications; (ii) adopt option 1, but cite the publication for all names in abbreviated form; (iii) three-part pharmaceutical names consisting of Latinised part name plus Latinised genus name, plus Latinised specific epithet; (iv) scientific binomial names, optionally with author and plant part used. The UMC has chosen the latter option and will at its adoption utilise the scientific botanical nomenclature as defined by the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. This decision satisfies all criteria set by the UMC and renders the necessity of creating a new system or upgrading an old inconsistent system obsolete. The UMC has also issued an extensive synonymy checklist of vernacular, pharmaceutical and scientific names for the herbals in the WHO ADR database. We strongly recommend the adoption of scientific names to denote plant ingredients in medicine.

  9. Pharmacovigilance in practice: erythropoiesis-stimulating agents.

    PubMed

    Hedenus, Michael; Ludwig, Heinz; Henry, David H; Gasal, Eduard

    2014-10-01

    Pharmacovigilance (PV) is the science and activities relating to the detection, assessment, understanding, and prevention of adverse effects or other problems related to medical products after they have been licensed for marketing. The purpose of PV is to advance the safe use of marketed medical products. Regulatory agencies and license holders collaborate to collect data reported by health care providers, patients, and the public as well as data from systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and individual clinical and nonclinical studies. They validate and analyze the data to determine whether safety signals exist, and if warranted, develop an action plan to mitigate the identified risk. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) provide an example of how PV is applied in reality. Among other approved indications, ESAs may be used to treat anemia in patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia. ESAs increase hemoglobin levels and reduce the need for transfusions; they are also associated with a known increased risk of thromboembolic events. Starting in 2003, emerging data suggested that ESAs might reduce survival. As a result of PV activities by regulatory agencies and license holders, labeling for ESAs addresses these risks. Meta-analyses and individual clinical studies have confirmed that ESAs increase the risk of thromboembolic events, but when used as indicated, ESAs have not been shown to have a significant effect on survival or disease progression. Ongoing safety studies will provide additional data in the coming years to further clarify the risks and benefits of ESAs.

  10. Pharmacovigilance in practice: erythropoiesis-stimulating agents.

    PubMed

    Hedenus, Michael; Ludwig, Heinz; Henry, David H; Gasal, Eduard

    2014-10-01

    Pharmacovigilance (PV) is the science and activities relating to the detection, assessment, understanding, and prevention of adverse effects or other problems related to medical products after they have been licensed for marketing. The purpose of PV is to advance the safe use of marketed medical products. Regulatory agencies and license holders collaborate to collect data reported by health care providers, patients, and the public as well as data from systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and individual clinical and nonclinical studies. They validate and analyze the data to determine whether safety signals exist, and if warranted, develop an action plan to mitigate the identified risk. Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) provide an example of how PV is applied in reality. Among other approved indications, ESAs may be used to treat anemia in patients with chemotherapy-induced anemia. ESAs increase hemoglobin levels and reduce the need for transfusions; they are also associated with a known increased risk of thromboembolic events. Starting in 2003, emerging data suggested that ESAs might reduce survival. As a result of PV activities by regulatory agencies and license holders, labeling for ESAs addresses these risks. Meta-analyses and individual clinical studies have confirmed that ESAs increase the risk of thromboembolic events, but when used as indicated, ESAs have not been shown to have a significant effect on survival or disease progression. Ongoing safety studies will provide additional data in the coming years to further clarify the risks and benefits of ESAs. PMID:24890561

  11. The Internet and drug safety: what are the implications for pharmacovigilance?

    PubMed

    Cobert, B; Silvey, J

    1999-02-01

    Use of the Internet is becoming widespread throughout the world. Its use in the domain of drug safety and pharmacovigilance is spreading rapidly. Governments and industry have taken the lead in developing extensive web sites. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products (EMEA) and other agencies have developed sites containing enormous amounts of information both on pharmacovigilance in general and on specific drugs in particular. Under the US 'Freedom of Information Act' the FDA has put major parts of its adverse event database on line. Regulatory documents are also available from the FDA site or from hyperlinks described in the site. The US Center for Drug Evaluation and Research updates its site most days and maintains a free automated e-mail announcement service of these updates. Similarly, the EMEA updates its site frequently and publishes extensive material including regulatory documents, guidelines, European Public Assessment Reports on newly approved medications and other useful information. A free update service by e-mail is also available. Although English is the primary language used on the EMEA site, some of the information is available in other languages. Pharmaceutical companies are not using the Internet for pharmacovigilance yet. Rather, the Internet is being used for promotion of their products and for informing consumers on general information on diseases, for financial and investor data and for employment opportunities, etc. Other organisations such as lobbies, consumer groups and medical journals are also beginning to use the Internet. The electronic transmission of safety information, using the standards developed by the International Conference on Harmonization, is currently being tested for the transmission of individual patient adverse event information between companies and governments. In addition, the FDA has begun to accept adverse events from healthcare providers and consumers

  12. Why do we need pharmacists in pharmacovigilance systems?

    PubMed Central

    Toklu, Hale Z.; Mensah, Edward

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance is the science and activity relating to the collection, detection, assessment, monitoring, and prevention of adverse effects with pharmaceutical products. Pharmacovigilance basically targets safety of medicine. Pharmacists have crucial role in health systems to maintain the rational and safe use of medicine for they are drug experts who are specifically trained in this field. Effective use of pharmacists’ workforce will improve the outcome of the pharmacotherapy as well as decrease global health costs. Given their advanced training, pharmacists can utilize pharmacovigilance systems interfaced with electronic health records to monitor the performance of the drugs they fill and also identify adverse drug reactions earlier than non-pharmacists, thereby reducing high healthcare costs. PMID:27752299

  13. Role of Pharmacovigilance in India: An overview.

    PubMed

    Suke, Sanvidhan G; Kosta, Prabhat; Negi, Harsh

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance (PV) plays a key role in the healthcare system through assessment, monitoring and discovery of interactions amongst drugs and their effects in human. Pharmaceutical and biotechnological medicines are designed to cure, prevent or treat diseases; however, there are also risks particularly adverse drug reactions (ADRs) can cause serious harm to patients. Thus, for safety medication ADRs monitoring required for each medicine throughout its life cycle, during development of drug such as pre-marketing including early stages of drug design, clinical trials, and post-marketing surveillance. PV is concerns with the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of ADRs. Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics are an indispensable part of the clinical research. Variation in the human genome is a cause of variable response to drugs and susceptibility to diseases are determined, which is important for early drug discovery to PV. Moreover, PV has traditionally involved in mining spontaneous reports submitted to national surveillance systems. The research focus is shifting toward the use of data generated from platforms outside the conventional framework such as electronic medical records, biomedical literature, and patient-reported data in health forums. The emerging trend in PV is to link premarketing data with human safety information observed in the post-marketing phase. The PV system team obtains valuable additional information, building up the scientific data contained in the original report and making it more informative. This necessitates an utmost requirement for effective regulations of the drug approval process and conscious pre and post approval vigilance of the undesired effects, especially in India. Adverse events reported by PV system potentially benefit to the community due to their proximity to both population and public health practitioners, in terms of language and knowledge, enables easy contact with reporters by electronically. Hence, PV

  14. Role of Pharmacovigilance in India: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Suke, Sanvidhan G; Kosta, Prabhat; Negi, Harsh

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance (PV) plays a key role in the healthcare system through assessment, monitoring and discovery of interactions amongst drugs and their effects in human. Pharmaceutical and biotechnological medicines are designed to cure, prevent or treat diseases; however, there are also risks particularly adverse drug reactions (ADRs) can cause serious harm to patients. Thus, for safety medication ADRs monitoring required for each medicine throughout its life cycle, during development of drug such as pre-marketing including early stages of drug design, clinical trials, and post-marketing surveillance. PV is concerns with the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of ADRs. Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics are an indispensable part of the clinical research. Variation in the human genome is a cause of variable response to drugs and susceptibility to diseases are determined, which is important for early drug discovery to PV. Moreover, PV has traditionally involved in mining spontaneous reports submitted to national surveillance systems. The research focus is shifting toward the use of data generated from platforms outside the conventional framework such as electronic medical records, biomedical literature, and patient-reported data in health forums. The emerging trend in PV is to link premarketing data with human safety information observed in the post-marketing phase. The PV system team obtains valuable additional information, building up the scientific data contained in the original report and making it more informative. This necessitates an utmost requirement for effective regulations of the drug approval process and conscious pre and post approval vigilance of the undesired effects, especially in India. Adverse events reported by PV system potentially benefit to the community due to their proximity to both population and public health practitioners, in terms of language and knowledge, enables easy contact with reporters by electronically. Hence, PV

  15. Role of Pharmacovigilance in India: An overview.

    PubMed

    Suke, Sanvidhan G; Kosta, Prabhat; Negi, Harsh

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance (PV) plays a key role in the healthcare system through assessment, monitoring and discovery of interactions amongst drugs and their effects in human. Pharmaceutical and biotechnological medicines are designed to cure, prevent or treat diseases; however, there are also risks particularly adverse drug reactions (ADRs) can cause serious harm to patients. Thus, for safety medication ADRs monitoring required for each medicine throughout its life cycle, during development of drug such as pre-marketing including early stages of drug design, clinical trials, and post-marketing surveillance. PV is concerns with the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of ADRs. Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics are an indispensable part of the clinical research. Variation in the human genome is a cause of variable response to drugs and susceptibility to diseases are determined, which is important for early drug discovery to PV. Moreover, PV has traditionally involved in mining spontaneous reports submitted to national surveillance systems. The research focus is shifting toward the use of data generated from platforms outside the conventional framework such as electronic medical records, biomedical literature, and patient-reported data in health forums. The emerging trend in PV is to link premarketing data with human safety information observed in the post-marketing phase. The PV system team obtains valuable additional information, building up the scientific data contained in the original report and making it more informative. This necessitates an utmost requirement for effective regulations of the drug approval process and conscious pre and post approval vigilance of the undesired effects, especially in India. Adverse events reported by PV system potentially benefit to the community due to their proximity to both population and public health practitioners, in terms of language and knowledge, enables easy contact with reporters by electronically. Hence, PV

  16. Revisiting the reported signal of acute pancreatitis with rasburicase: an object lesson in pharmacovigilance

    PubMed Central

    Hauben, Manfred; Hung, Eric Y.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: There is an interest in methodologies to expeditiously detect credible signals of drug-induced pancreatitis. An example is the reported signal of pancreatitis with rasburicase emerging from a study [the ‘index publication’ (IP)] combining quantitative signal detection findings from a spontaneous reporting system (SRS) and electronic health records (EHRs). The signal was reportedly supported by a clinical review with a case series manuscript in progress. The reported signal is noteworthy, being initially classified as a false-positive finding for the chosen reference standard, but reclassified as a ‘clinically supported’ signal. Objective: This paper has dual objectives: to revisit the signal of rasburicase and acute pancreatitis and extend the original analysis via reexamination of its findings, in light of more contemporary data; and to motivate discussions on key issues in signal detection and evaluation, including recent findings from a major international pharmacovigilance research initiative. Methodology: We used the same methodology as the IP, including the same disproportionality analysis software/dataset for calculating observed to expected reporting frequencies (O/Es), Medical Dictionary for Regulatory Activities Preferred Term, and O/E metric/threshold combination defining a signal of disproportionate reporting. Baseline analysis results prompted supplementary analyses using alternative analytical choices. We performed a comprehensive literature search to identify additional published case reports of rasburicase and pancreatitis. Results: We could not replicate positive findings (e.g. a signal or statistic of disproportionate reporting) from the SRS data using the same algorithm, software, dataset and vendor specified in the IP. The reporting association was statistically highlighted in default and supplemental analysis when more sensitive forms of disproportionality analysis were used. Two of three reports in the FAERS database were

  17. Utilizing Social Media Data for Pharmacovigilance: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Abeed; Ginn, Rachel; Nikfarjam, Azadeh; O’Connor, Karen; Smith, Karen; Jayaraman, Swetha; Upadhaya, Tejaswi; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2015-01-01

    Objective Automatic monitoring of Adverse Drug Reactions (ADRs), defined as adverse patient outcomes caused by medications, is a challenging research problem that is currently receiving significant attention from the medical informatics community. In recent years, user-posted data on social media, primarily due to its sheer volume, has become a useful resource for ADR monitoring. Research using social media data has progressed using various data sources and techniques, making it difficult to compare distinct systems and their performances. In this paper, we perform a methodical review to characterize the different approaches to ADR detection/extraction from social media, and their applicability to pharmacovigilance. In addition, we present a potential systematic pathway to ADR monitoring from social media. Methods We identified studies, describing approaches for ADR detection from social media from the Medline, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science databases, and the Google Scholar search engine. Studies that met our inclusion criteria were those that attempted to utilize ADR information posted by users on any publicly available social media platform. We categorized the studies into various dimensions such as primary ADR detection approach, size of data, source(s), availability, evaluation criteria, and so on. Results Twenty-two studies met our inclusion criteria, with fifteen (68.2%) published within the last two years. The survey revealed a clear trend towards the usage of annotated data with eleven of the fifteen (73.3%) studies published in the last two years relying on expert annotations. However, publicly available annotated data is still scarce, and we found only six (27.3%) studies that made the annotations used publicly available, making system performance comparisons difficult. In terms of algorithms, supervised classification techniques to detect posts containing ADR mentions, and lexicon-based approaches for extraction of ADR mentions from texts have been

  18. Use of Fibrates Monotherapy in People with Diabetes and High Cardiovascular Risk in Primary Care: A French Nationwide Cohort Study Based on National Administrative Databases

    PubMed Central

    Roussel, Ronan; Chaignot, Christophe; Weill, Alain; Travert, Florence; Hansel, Boris; Marre, Michel; Ricordeau, Philippe; Alla, François; Allemand, Hubert

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim According to guidelines, diabetic patients with high cardiovascular risk should receive a statin. Despite this consensus, fibrate monotherapy is commonly used in this population. We assessed the frequency and clinical consequences of the use of fibrates for primary prevention in patients with diabetes and high cardiovascular risk. Design Retrospective cohort study based on nationwide data from the medical and administrative databases of French national health insurance systems (07/01/08-12/31/09) with a follow-up of up to 30 months. Methods Lipid-lowering drug-naive diabetic patients initiating fibrate or statin monotherapy were identified. Patients at high cardiovascular risk were then selected: patients with a diagnosis of diabetes and hypertension, and >50 (men) or 60 (women), but with no history of cardiovascular events. The composite endpoint comprised myocardial infarction, stroke, amputation, or death. Results Of the 31,652 patients enrolled, 4,058 (12.8%) received a fibrate. Age- and gender-adjusted annual event rates were 2.42% (fibrates) and 2.21% (statins). The proportionality assumption required for the Cox model was not met for the fibrate/statin variable. A multivariate model including all predictors was therefore calculated by dividing data into two time periods, allowing Hazard Ratios to be calculated before (HR<540) and after 540 days (HR>540) of follow-up. Multivariate analyses showed that fibrates were associated with an increased risk for the endpoint after 540 days: HR<540 = 0.95 (95% CI: 0.78–1.16) and HR>540 = 1.73 (1.28–2.32). Conclusion Fibrate monotherapy is commonly prescribed in diabetic patients with high cardiovascular risk and is associated with poorer outcomes compared to statin therapy. PMID:26398765

  19. [Pharmacovigilance: a case of phantom ships and Russian roulette].

    PubMed

    Stricker, B H Ch

    2002-07-01

    The medical literature is full of associations between drugs and adverse events which have not been proven by epidemiological studies, such as the 30-year-old discussion on levodopa use and the development of melanoma. The organisation of drug safety (pharmacovigilance) by marketing authorisation holders and regulatory authorities relies heavily on voluntary reporting schemes, despite the fact that such schemes suffer from substantial underreporting. Nevertheless, even though marketing authorisation holders are legally responsible for the product, regulatory authorities scarcely oblige them to perform hypothesis-testing epidemiological studies. In view of the importance of drug safety for healthcare and the need for checks and balances, pharmacovigilance should be coordinated by an organisation which is independent from the pharmaceutical industry and regulatory authorities, such as the Dutch Healthcare Inspectorate.

  20. Pharmacovigilance and principle of nonmaleficence in sex reassignment.

    PubMed

    Zamarytė, Kristina; Stakišaitis, Donatas; Širinskienė, Agnė; Narbekovas, Andrius; Juškevičius, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Physicians are obliged to provide treatment that is consistent with their commitment to avoid or minimize harm (nonmaleficence) and their commitment to do good (beneficence). Therefore, if patient's desires were contradictory to the primary aim of medicine, the doctor's calling would require him/her to thoroughly analyze the cause of the disease and provide an adequate as well as ethical treatment rather than obediently follow patient's requests. Yet, chemical and surgical sex reassignment is one of the areas where some physicians surrender to the desire of their patients instead of finding out what their real condition is and trying to manage it in a way the essence of medicine would require. The objective of this article was to provide specific pharmacovigilance search details for the evaluation of the current situation and the scientific background of the treatment of gender dysphoria and to analyze its conformity with one of the two main ethical principles of medicine - nonmaleficence. Literature retrieval was accessed through Medline (1979-2011) using the terms "gender dysphoria," "replacement hormonal therapy," and "pharmacovigilance." The article concludes that hormonal and surgical interventions have not proven to be medically justified and could be harmful, not treating the cause, but resulting in irreversible disability. Thus, these interventions contradict the principle of nonmaleficence and goals of basic therapeutics and pharmacovigilance. They are not based on clinical trials and are lacking a thorough follow-up assessment.

  1. Hypoglycemia hospitalization frequency in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a comparison of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors and insulin secretagogues using the French health insurance database

    PubMed Central

    Detournay, Bruno; Halimi, Serge; Robert, Julien; Deschaseaux, Céline; Dejager, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Aim We aimed to compare the frequency of severe hypoglycemia leading to hospitalization (HH) and emergency visits (EV) for any cause in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus exposed to dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors (DPP4-i) versus those exposed to insulin secretagogues (IS; sulfonylureas or glinides). Methods Data were extracted from the EGB (Echantillon Généraliste des Bénéficiaires) database, comprising a representative sample of ~1% of patients registered in the French National Health Insurance System (~600,000 patients). Type 2 diabetes mellitus patients exposed to regimens containing either a DPP4-i (excluding treatment with IS, insulin, or glucagon-like peptide 1 analog) or IS (excluding treatment with insulin and any incretin therapy) between 2009 and 2012 were selected. HH and EV during the exposure periods were identified in both cohorts. A similar analysis was conducted considering vildagliptin alone versus IS. Comparative analyses adjusting for covariates within the model (subjects matched for key characteristics) and using multinomial regression models were performed. Results Overall, 7,152 patients exposed to any DPP4-i and 1,440 patients exposed to vildagliptin were compared to 10,019 patients exposed to IS. Eight patients (0.11%) from the DPP4-i cohort and none from the vildagliptin cohort (0.0%) were hospitalized for hypoglycemia versus 130 patients (1.30%) from the IS cohort (138 hospitalizations) (P=0.02 and P<0.0001, respectively). Crude rates of HH/1,000 patient-years were 1.4 (95% CI: 0.7; 2.4) in the DPP4-i cohort, 0.0 in the vildagliptin cohort (95% CI: 0.0; 4.0), versus 5.6 (95% CI, 4.7; 6.6) in the IS cohort (P<0.0001). After adjustments, rates per 1,000 patient-years of HH were 1.4 (95% CI: 0.7; 2.4) with DPP4-i versus 7.5 (95% CI: 6.0; 9.2) with IS (P<0.0001), and 0.0 (95% CI: 0.0; 4.0) with vildagliptin versus 13.6 (95% CI: 10.4; 17.5) with IS (P<0.0001). Adjusted EV rates were also significantly lower with all DPP4-i or

  2. The Mini Mental State Examination at the Time of Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Diagnosis, According to Age, Education, Gender and Place of Residence: A Cross-Sectional Study among the French National Alzheimer Database

    PubMed Central

    Pradier, Christian; Sakarovitch, Charlotte; Le Duff, Franck; Layese, Richard; Metelkina, Asya; Anthony, Sabine; Tifratene, Karim; Robert, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was firstly to describe the MMSE (Mini-Mental State Examination) score upon initial diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders among the French population, according to age. Secondly, education, gender and place of residence were studied as factors potentially associated with delayed Alzheimer's disease diagnosis. Design we conducted a cross sectional analysis of the French National Alzheimer database (BNA). Data from 2008 to 2012 were extracted. Patients were selected at the moment of their first diagnosis of AD (n = 39,451). Results The MMSE score at initial diagnosis dropped significantly with increasing age. The test score increased with the degree of educational background regardless of age. Gender and place of residence were significantly related to the MMSE score, women and persons living in medical institutions having lower MMSE scores under the age of 90 years and at all educational levels. Conclusions Health care professionals should be aware of these risk factors in order to maximize chances of earliest possible diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease and related disorders. PMID:25093735

  3. Pacific Island Pharmacovigilance: The Need for a Different Approach.

    PubMed

    McEwen, John; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Sanburg, Amanda L C

    2016-10-01

    Many Pacific Island countries (PICs) are recipients of funding support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (Global Fund). However, most of these countries cannot be expected to meet Global Fund and World Health Organization (WHO) minimum requirements for a functioning pharmacovigilance (PV) system. We argue that a different approach is required to move PV forward in such countries. Although the long-term aim is to build adequate national PV capacity, we propose an approach in which resources are focused initially towards ensuring a proper system for the reporting of "problems with medicines" such as substandard and counterfeit products. The limited health system resources in these countries require that PV will be supported by some of the organizations also giving funding aid for the supply of medicines. PMID:27364632

  4. Pharmacovigilance and new essential drugs in Africa: Zambia draws lessons from its own experiences and beyond.

    PubMed

    Huff-Rousselle, M; Simooya, O; Kabwe, V; Hollander, I; Handema, R; Mwango, A; Mwape, E

    2007-01-01

    Jolted into action by the thalidomide tragedy, developed Western countries began to establish national systems for identifying and responding to adverse drug reactions and events (or pharmacovigilance systems) about 40 years ago. These systems focus on side effects, adverse reactions, and drug interactions. In developing countries, especially in Africa, the scope for pharmacovigilance needs to be broader (despite the additional challenges this brings) because of growing problems with substandard and counterfeit drugs and the need to have an early warning signal system for the development of antimicrobial resistance to the 'new essential drugs' that are barely beyond the clinical trial stage in Africa, e.g. artemisinin-combination therapy (ACT) for malaria and antiretrovirals (ARV) for HIV/AIDS. Zambia learned important lessons from its own initial experiences in attempting to use ACT as a pathfinder for pharmacovigilance, as well as its experience with other drug information systems. In preparing its own renewed plans, it also drew lessons from international experience, including the weaknesses of the Food and Drug Administration's approach to pharmacovigilance in the USA, the UK's 'yellow card scheme', Brazil's fledgling pharmacovigilance systems for AIDS treatment, and the guidance provided by the World Health Organization and the Uppsala Monitoring Centre. These lessons are relevant for other African countries and even for developed countries seeking to improve pharmacovigilance systems. PMID:19280399

  5. Health Professionals' Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices about Pharmacovigilance in India: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Elnour, Asim Ahmed; Jamshed, Shazia Qasim; Shehab, Abdulla

    2016-01-01

    Background Spontaneous or voluntary reporting of suspected adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is one of the vital roles of all health professionals. In India, under-reporting of ADRs by health professionals is recognized as one of the leading causes of poor ADR signal detection. Therefore, reviewing the literature can provide a better understanding of the status of knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of Pharmacovigilance (PV) activities by health professionals. Methods A systematic review was performed through Pubmed, Scopus, Embase and Google Scholar scientific databases. Studies pertaining to KAP of PV and ADR reporting by Indian health professionals between January 2011 and July 2015 were included in a meta-analysis. Results A total of 28 studies were included in the systematic review and 18 of them were selected for meta-analysis. Overall, 55.6% (95% CI 44.4–66.9; p<0.001) of the population studied were not aware of the existence of the Pharmacovigilance Programme in India (PvPI), and 31.9% (95% CI 16.3–47.4; p<0.001) thought that "all drugs available in the market are safe". Furthermore, 28.7% (95% CI 16.4–40.9; p<0.001) of them were not interested in reporting ADRs and 74.5%, (95% CI 67.9–81.9; p<0.001) never reported any ADR to PV centers. Conclusion There was an enormous gap of KAP towards PV and ADR reporting, particularly PV practice in India. There is therefore an urgent need for educational awareness, simplification of the ADR reporting process, and implementation of imperative measures to practice PV among healthcare professionals. In order to understand the PV status, PvPI should procedurally assess the KAP of health professionals PV activities in India. PMID:27010447

  6. Genotyping of French Bacillus anthracis Strains Based on 31-Loci Multi Locus VNTR Analysis: Epidemiology, Marker Evaluation, and Update of the Internet Genotype Database

    PubMed Central

    Thierry, Simon; Tourterel, Christophe; Le Flèche, Philippe; Derzelle, Sylviane; Dekhil, Neira; Mendy, Christiane; Colaneri, Cécile; Vergnaud, Gilles; Madani, Nora

    2014-01-01

    Background Bacillus anthracis is known to have low genetic variability. In spite of this lack of diversity, multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) including the canonical SNPs assay (canSNP) have proved to be highly effective to differentiate strains. Five different MLVA schemes based on a collection of 31 VNTR loci (MLVA8, MLVA15, MLVA20, MLVA25 and MLVA31) with increased resolving power have been described. Results MLVA31 was applied to characterize the French National Reference Laboratory collection. The total collection of 130 strains is resolved in 35 genotypes. The 119 veterinary and environmental strains collection in France were resolved into 26 genotypes belonging to three canSNP lineages and four MLVA clonal complexes (CCs) with particular geographical clustering. A subset of seven loci (MLVA7) is proposed to constitute a first line assay. The loci are compatible with moderate resolution equipment such as agarose gel electrophoresis and show a good congruence value with MLVA31. The associated MLVA and SNP data was imported together with published genotyping data by taking advantage of major enhancements to the MLVAbank software and web site. Conclusions The present report provides a wide coverage of the genetic diversity of naturally occurring B. anthracis strains in France as can be revealed by MLVA. The data obtained suggests that once such coverage is achieved, it becomes possible to devise optimized first-line MLVA assays comprising a sufficiently low number of loci to be typed either in one multiplex PCR or on agarose gels. Such a selection of seven loci is proposed here, and future similar investigations in additional countries will indicate to which extend the same selection can be used worldwide as a common minimum set. It is hoped that this approach will contribute to an efficient and low-cost routine surveillance of important pathogens for biosecurity such as B. anthracis

  7. A Multiagent System for Integrated Detection of Pharmacovigilance Signals.

    PubMed

    Koutkias, Vassilis; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2016-02-01

    Pharmacovigilance is the scientific discipline that copes with the continuous assessment of the safety profile of marketed drugs. This assessment relies on diverse data sources, which are routinely analysed to identify the so-called "signals", i.e. potential associations between drugs and adverse effects, that are unknown or incompletely documented. Various computational methods have been proposed to support domain experts in signal detection. However, recent comparative studies illustrated that current methods exhibit high false-positive rates, significantly variable performance across different datasets used for analysis and events of interest, but also complementarity in their outcomes. In this regard, in order to reinforce accurate and timely signal detection, we elaborated through an agent-based approach towards systematic, joint exploitation of multiple heterogeneous signal detection methods, data sources and other drug-related resources under a common, integrated framework. The approach relies on a multiagent system operating based on a collaborative agent interaction protocol, aiming to implement a comprehensive workflow that comprises of method selection and execution, as well as outcomes' aggregation, filtering, ranking and annotation. This paper presents the design of the proposed multiagent system, discusses implementation issues and demonstrates the applicability of the proposed solution in an example signal detection scenario. This work constitutes a step towards large-scale, integrated and knowledge-intensive computational signal detection. PMID:26590975

  8. Pharmacovigilance, risks and adverse effects of self-medication.

    PubMed

    Montastruc, Jean-Louis; Bondon-Guitton, Emmanuelle; Abadie, Delphine; Lacroix, Isabelle; Berreni, Aurélia; Pugnet, Grégory; Durrieu, Geneviève; Sailler, Laurent; Giroud, Jean-Paul; Damase-Michel, Christine; Montastruc, François

    2016-04-01

    Self-medication means resorting to one or more drugs in order to treat oneself without the help of a doctor. This phenomenon is developing fast. In this review, we will discuss the main definitions of self-medication; we will then present a few important characteristics of this therapeutic practice: prevalence, reasons, populations involved and drugs used. Whilst the theoretical risks of self-medication have been abundantly discussed in the literature (adverse effects, interactions, product, dosage or treatment duration errors, difficulty in self-diagnosis, risk of addiction or abuse…), there is in fact very little detailed pharmacovigilance data concerning the characteristics and the consequences of this usage in real life. This study therefore describes the all too rare data that is available: patients, clinical characteristics, "seriousness" and drugs involved in the adverse effects of self-medication. It also discusses leads to be followed in order to minimize medication risks, which are obviously not well known and clearly not sufficiently notified.

  9. Pharmacovigilance on twitter? Mining tweets for adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Karen; Pimpalkhute, Pranoti; Nikfarjam, Azadeh; Ginn, Rachel; Smith, Karen L; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown that Twitter data analytics can have broad implications on public health research. However, its value for pharmacovigilance has been scantly studied - with health related forums and community support groups preferred for the task. We present a systematic study of tweets collected for 74 drugs to assess their value as sources of potential signals for adverse drug reactions (ADRs). We created an annotated corpus of 10,822 tweets. Each tweet was annotated for the presence or absence of ADR mentions, with the span and Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concept ID noted for each ADR present. Using Cohen's kappa1, we calculated the inter-annotator agreement (IAA) for the binary annotations to be 0.69. To demonstrate the utility of the corpus, we attempted a lexicon-based approach for concept extraction, with promising success (54.1% precision, 62.1% recall, and 57.8% F-measure). A subset of the corpus is freely available at: http://diego.asu.edu/downloads.

  10. Pharmacovigilance in Europe and North America: divergent approaches.

    PubMed

    Wiktorowicz, Mary; Lexchin, Joel; Moscou, Kathy

    2012-07-01

    Although international medicines regulators adopt a common system to assess the safety and efficacy of new drugs, pre-market evaluation is recognized as incomplete given the much larger post-market experience to follow. Adverse drug reactions contribute to more than 100,000 deaths in the United States annually and are among the top 10 leading causes of death. Regulators are developing active surveillance approaches to assess the risks of medicines in the post-market phase to enhance passive adverse drug reaction reporting systems that capture only one to ten percent of ADRs. The objective of this study is to compare international approaches to active surveillance and the manner in which regulatory agencies access and use post-market evidence in their decisions. A conceptual framework is used to guide the comparative analysis of pharmacovigilance governance and policy in the United Kingdom, France, the European Union, the United States and Canada using data gathered from key informant interviews and document review. While research networks are emerging internationally, we found a greater reliance on industry funding and oversight of post-market research in Europe compared to an emphasis on publicly funded programs in North America.

  11. Pharmacovigilance on twitter? Mining tweets for adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Karen; Pimpalkhute, Pranoti; Nikfarjam, Azadeh; Ginn, Rachel; Smith, Karen L; Gonzalez, Graciela

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has shown that Twitter data analytics can have broad implications on public health research. However, its value for pharmacovigilance has been scantly studied - with health related forums and community support groups preferred for the task. We present a systematic study of tweets collected for 74 drugs to assess their value as sources of potential signals for adverse drug reactions (ADRs). We created an annotated corpus of 10,822 tweets. Each tweet was annotated for the presence or absence of ADR mentions, with the span and Unified Medical Language System (UMLS) concept ID noted for each ADR present. Using Cohen's kappa1, we calculated the inter-annotator agreement (IAA) for the binary annotations to be 0.69. To demonstrate the utility of the corpus, we attempted a lexicon-based approach for concept extraction, with promising success (54.1% precision, 62.1% recall, and 57.8% F-measure). A subset of the corpus is freely available at: http://diego.asu.edu/downloads. PMID:25954400

  12. Pharmacovigilance knowledge in family paediatricians. A survey study in Italy.

    PubMed

    Pellegrino, Paolo; Carnovale, Carla; Cattaneo, Dario; Perrone, Valentina; Antoniazzi, Stefania; Pozzi, Marco; Napoleone, Ettore; Filograna, Maria Rosaria; Clementi, Emilio; Radice, Sonia

    2013-11-01

    Drugs prescription in children correlates with a high risk of developing unknown or rare adverse drug reactions (ADRs). In the absence of appropriate clinical trials in the paediatric population, the spontaneous reporting of suspected ADRs is an important means to promote reasonable warning signals. In this context, family paediatricians (FPs) play a crucial role although a general poor compliance in their ability of reporting of ADR is widely described. To understand the reasons beyond this situation we performed a survey, the first of its kind in Italy, to evaluate FPs knowledge, feeling and compliance in ADR reporting. A total of 552 FPs evenly distributed throughout the Italian territory provided a feedback to the survey. Knowledge of pharmacovigilance (PV) resulted to be poor, mainly due to the absence of adequate training in academy; despite this, the majority of FPs declared to be interested to PV and aware of its positive impact on their clinical practice. Yet, FPs reported a poor compliance to the reporting of ADRs. A very high variability in ADRs reporting however, was observed among the regions, possibly because of variability of regional educational programmes dedicated to PV. PMID:24012386

  13. Developing a consumer reporting program in Malaysia: a novel initiative to improve pharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Palaian, Subish; Alshakka, Mohammed; Mohamed Izham

    2010-02-01

    The national pharmacovigilance program in Malaysia is limited to very few centers and under-reporting of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) is a major limitation. Studies from developed countries have documented the importance and usefulness of consumer reporting of ADRs. Involving consumers in ADR reporting can be very useful in improving the reporting rates in Malaysia. The present article highlights the proposed plan of initiating a consumer based pharmacovigilance program in University Wellness Center located inside the campus of the Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia.

  14. In-Hospital Economic Burden of Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma in France in the Era of Targeted Therapies: Analysis of the French National Hospital Database from 2008 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the economic burden of hospitalisations for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), to describe the patterns of prescribing expensive drugs and to explore the impact of geographic and socio-demographic factors on the use of these drugs. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis from the French national hospitals database. Hospital stays for mRCC between 2008 and 2013 were identified by combining the 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) codes for renal cell carcinoma (C64) and codes for metastases (C77 to C79). Incident cases were identified out of all hospital stays and followed till December 2013. Descriptive analyses were performed with a focus on hospital stays and patient characteristics. Costs were assessed from the perspective of the French National Health Insurance and were obtained from official diagnosis-related group tariffs for public and private hospitals. Results A total of 15,752 adult patients were hospitalised for mRCC, corresponding to 102,613 hospital stays. Of those patients, 68% were men and the median age at first hospitalisation was 69 years [Min-Max: 18–102]. Over the study period, the hospital mortality rate reached 37%. The annual cost of managing mRCC at hospital varied between 28M€ in 2008 and 42M€ in 2012 and was mainly driven by inpatient costs. The mean annual per capita cost of hospital management of mRCC varied across the study period from 8,993€ (SD: €8,906) in 2008 to 10,216€ (SD: €10,527) in 2012. Analysis of the determinants of prescribing expensive drugs at hospital did not show social or territorial differences in the use of these drugs. Conclusion This study is the first to investigate the in-hospital economic burden of mRCC in France. Results showed that in-hospital costs of managing mRCC are mainly driven by expensive drugs and inpatient costs. PMID:27649305

  15. Social media and pharmacovigilance: A review of the opportunities and challenges.

    PubMed

    Sloane, Richard; Osanlou, Orod; Lewis, David; Bollegala, Danushka; Maskell, Simon; Pirmohamed, Munir

    2015-10-01

    Adverse drug reactions come at a considerable cost on society. Social media are a potentially invaluable reservoir of information for pharmacovigilance, yet their true value remains to be fully understood. In order to realize the benefits social media holds, a number of technical, regulatory and ethical challenges remain to be addressed. We outline these key challenges identifying relevant current research and present possible solutions.

  16. Managing the interface with marketing to improve delivery of pharmacovigilance within the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Brian

    2004-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is under pressure to improve the scientific quality of its decisions concerning the benefit and risks of its products while ensuring compliance with acceptable standards of marketing. All those in a pharmaceutical company who currently work within pharmacovigilance should be encouraged to lead from the front to examine ongoing marketing activities to see how they can be adapted more towards pharmacovigilance and risk management. The current irony is that the personnel who have the greatest influence on benefit-risk decisions of a product are not necessarily those who acknowledge that they are performing pharmacovigilance. Indeed, for all concerned, whether their orientation is scientific and commercial, effective communication with prescribers and consumers usually underpins product success. Also, a substantial 'marketing' budget is culturally acceptable for the pharmaceutical industry so it is logical to assume that resource for postmarketing activity is often made available. Given these realities, I suggest we should strive for an integrated marketing and risk-management plan based on the best available evidence and that being fully aware and in control of the safety issues for your products is the best way to commercialise them successfully. This approach can still be consistent with other corporate responsibilities such as trying to reduce the financial burden of product development. If this article stimulates further debate about how the pharmaceutical industry can more effectively organise resources and operations to support pharmacovigilance, risk management, and marketing, then it will have achieved its purpose.

  17. 75 FR 65293 - Draft Guidelines on Pharmacovigilance of Veterinary Medicinal Products: Electronic Standards for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Draft Guidelines on Pharmacovigilance of Veterinary Medicinal Products: Electronic Standards for Transfer of Data AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service under the Virus-Serum-Toxin Act, we are requesting comments...

  18. Pharmacovigilance implemented by patients: A necessity in the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Lafond, Jean

    2016-04-01

    Pharmacovigilance should become a well-thought-out reflex for each of us, for any drugs taken on prescription or by self-medication. The issue of pharmacovigilance should naturally take its place in the dialogue between patients and health professionals, through advice given before medication is taken. Patients need to be told the importance of notifying any adverse drug reactions (ADRs). Pharmacovigilance would then become a post-hoc way of protecting patients. The importance of using pharmacovigilance should be promoted by emphasizing the fact that the life of a drug really starts after its marketing. This state of mind could be reinforced by a wider advertising campaign on the possibility of notifying the relevant authorities of any ADRs. Patient associations should encourage and help their members to do this. Notifying any ADRs should become a concern for all medical and paramedical staff: those who prescribe drugs, those who dispense them (pharmacists or pharmacy assistants), those who administer them (nurses), but also the consumers (patients) whose place is becoming more and more prominent. PMID:27080846

  19. Managing the interface with marketing to improve delivery of pharmacovigilance within the pharmaceutical industry.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Brian

    2004-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is under pressure to improve the scientific quality of its decisions concerning the benefit and risks of its products while ensuring compliance with acceptable standards of marketing. All those in a pharmaceutical company who currently work within pharmacovigilance should be encouraged to lead from the front to examine ongoing marketing activities to see how they can be adapted more towards pharmacovigilance and risk management. The current irony is that the personnel who have the greatest influence on benefit-risk decisions of a product are not necessarily those who acknowledge that they are performing pharmacovigilance. Indeed, for all concerned, whether their orientation is scientific and commercial, effective communication with prescribers and consumers usually underpins product success. Also, a substantial 'marketing' budget is culturally acceptable for the pharmaceutical industry so it is logical to assume that resource for postmarketing activity is often made available. Given these realities, I suggest we should strive for an integrated marketing and risk-management plan based on the best available evidence and that being fully aware and in control of the safety issues for your products is the best way to commercialise them successfully. This approach can still be consistent with other corporate responsibilities such as trying to reduce the financial burden of product development. If this article stimulates further debate about how the pharmaceutical industry can more effectively organise resources and operations to support pharmacovigilance, risk management, and marketing, then it will have achieved its purpose. PMID:15154832

  20. Pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines: the potential contributions of ethnobotanical and ethnopharmacological studies.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Eliana; Barnes, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Typically, ethnobotanical/ethnopharmacological (EB/EP) surveys are used to describe uses, doses/dosages, sources and methods of preparation of traditional herbal medicines; their application to date in examining the adverse effects, contraindications and other safety aspects of these preparations is limited. From a pharmacovigilance perspective, numerous challenges exist in applying its existing methods to studying the safety profile of herbal medicines, particularly where used by indigenous cultures. This paper aims to contribute to the methodological aspects of EB/EP field work, and to extend the reach of pharmacovigilance, by proposing a tool comprising a list of questions that could be applied during interview and observational studies. The questions focus on the collection of information on the safety profile of traditional herbal medicines as it is embedded in traditional knowledge, as well as on identifying personal experiences (spontaneous reports) of adverse or undesirable effects associated with the use of traditional herbal medicines. Questions on the precise composition of traditional prescriptions or 'recipes', their preparation, storage, administration and dosing are also included. Strengths and limitations of the tool are discussed. From this interweaving of EB/EP and pharmacovigilance arises a concept of ethnopharmacovigilance for traditional herbal medicines: the scope of EB/EP is extended to include exploration of the potential harmful effects of medicinal plants, and the incorporation of pharmacovigilance questions into EB/EP studies provides a new opportunity for collection of 'general' traditional knowledge on the safety of traditional herbal medicines and, importantly, a conduit for collection of spontaneous reports of suspected adverse effects. Whether the proposed tool can yield data sufficiently rich and of an appropriate quality for application of EB/EP (e.g. data verification and quantitative analysis tools) and pharmacovigilance

  1. Knowledge, perception and practice of pharmacovigilance among community pharmacists in South India

    PubMed Central

    Prakasam, Arul; Nidamanuri, Anitha; Kumar, Senthil

    Pharmacovigilance has not progressed well in India and the concept is still in its infancy. India rates below 1% in pharmacovigilance as against the world rate of 5%. Objective The aim of our study was to evaluate the knowledge, perception and practice of pharmacovigilance among registered community pharmacists in Hyderabad, India. Methods This was a prospective study to find out the knowledge, perception and practice of adverse drug reaction reporting among community pharmacists. It was conducted by a face to face questionnaire and the convenience factor of the pharmacist was taken into consideration. Results From the 650 questionnaire administered to community pharmacists, 347 (53.3%) were returned completely filled questionnaires. A number of 120 (34.6%) pharmacists could define the term ‘pharmacovigilance’ to an acceptable extent and 119 (34.3%) knew about the National Pharmacovigilance Programme in India. 96 (27.7%) had good knowledge, 36(10.4%) had fair knowledge and 215(61.9%) had poor knowledge about pharmacovigilance. We have found that 196 (56.5%) had good perception, 94(27.1%) had fair perception and 57(16.4%) had poor perception. Only 41(11.8%) pharmacists ever reported an ADR and the other never reported ADR. The majority of pharmacists 223(64.3%) felt that the AE is very simple and non-serious and hence did not report. Pharmacists have poor knowledge, good perception and negligibly low reporting rates. Conclusions Incorporation of ADR reporting concepts in education curriculum, training of pharmacists and voluntary participation of pharmacists in ADR reporting is very crucial in achieving the safety goals and safeguarding public health. PMID:24155840

  2. OpenVigil FDA – Inspection of U.S. American Adverse Drug Events Pharmacovigilance Data and Novel Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Ruwen; von Hehn, Leocadie; Herdegen, Thomas; Klein, Hans-Joachim; Bruhn, Oliver; Petri, Holger; Höcker, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance contributes to health care. However, direct access to the underlying data for academic institutions and individual physicians or pharmacists is intricate, and easily employable analysis modes for everyday clinical situations are missing. This underlines the need for a tool to bring pharmacovigilance to the clinics. To address these issues, we have developed OpenVigil FDA, a novel web-based pharmacovigilance analysis tool which uses the openFDA online interface of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to access U.S. American and international pharmacovigilance data from the Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS). OpenVigil FDA provides disproportionality analyses to (i) identify the drug most likely evoking a new adverse event, (ii) compare two drugs concerning their safety profile, (iii) check arbitrary combinations of two drugs for unknown drug-drug interactions and (iv) enhance the relevance of results by identifying confounding factors and eliminating them using background correction. We present examples for these applications and discuss the promises and limits of pharmacovigilance, openFDA and OpenVigil FDA. OpenVigil FDA is the first public available tool to apply pharmacovigilance findings directly to real-life clinical problems. OpenVigil FDA does not require special licenses or statistical programs. PMID:27326858

  3. OpenVigil FDA - Inspection of U.S. American Adverse Drug Events Pharmacovigilance Data and Novel Clinical Applications.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Ruwen; von Hehn, Leocadie; Herdegen, Thomas; Klein, Hans-Joachim; Bruhn, Oliver; Petri, Holger; Höcker, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance contributes to health care. However, direct access to the underlying data for academic institutions and individual physicians or pharmacists is intricate, and easily employable analysis modes for everyday clinical situations are missing. This underlines the need for a tool to bring pharmacovigilance to the clinics. To address these issues, we have developed OpenVigil FDA, a novel web-based pharmacovigilance analysis tool which uses the openFDA online interface of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to access U.S. American and international pharmacovigilance data from the Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS). OpenVigil FDA provides disproportionality analyses to (i) identify the drug most likely evoking a new adverse event, (ii) compare two drugs concerning their safety profile, (iii) check arbitrary combinations of two drugs for unknown drug-drug interactions and (iv) enhance the relevance of results by identifying confounding factors and eliminating them using background correction. We present examples for these applications and discuss the promises and limits of pharmacovigilance, openFDA and OpenVigil FDA. OpenVigil FDA is the first public available tool to apply pharmacovigilance findings directly to real-life clinical problems. OpenVigil FDA does not require special licenses or statistical programs. PMID:27326858

  4. Social media and pharmacovigilance: A review of the opportunities and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Sloane, Richard; Osanlou, Orod; Lewis, David; Bollegala, Danushka; Maskell, Simon; Pirmohamed, Munir

    2015-01-01

    Adverse drug reactions come at a considerable cost on society. Social media are a potentially invaluable reservoir of information for pharmacovigilance, yet their true value remains to be fully understood. In order to realize the benefits social media holds, a number of technical, regulatory and ethical challenges remain to be addressed. We outline these key challenges identifying relevant current research and present possible solutions. PMID:26147850

  5. French Computer Terminology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Eugene F.

    1985-01-01

    Characteristics, idiosyncrasies, borrowings, and other aspects of the French terminology for computers and computer-related matters are discussed and placed in the context of French computer use. A glossary provides French equivalent terms or translations of English computer terminology. (MSE)

  6. Reporting of adverse events for marketed drugs: Need for strengthening safety database.

    PubMed

    Apte, Aditi Anand

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance is an evolving discipline in the Indian context. However, there is limited regulatory guidance for adverse event reporting outside the purview of clinical trials. There are number of deficiencies in the framework for adverse event reporting from the perspective of pharma industry, health-care professional and general public due to which adverse events for marketed drugs are highly underreported. This article discusses the need to strengthen national safety database by promoting and mandating reporting of adverse events by all the stakeholders.

  7. The Patient's Voice in Pharmacovigilance: Pragmatic Approaches to Building a Patient-Centric Drug Safety Organization.

    PubMed

    Smith, Meredith Y; Benattia, Isma

    2016-09-01

    Patient-centeredness has become an acknowledged hallmark of not only high-quality health care but also high-quality drug development. Biopharmaceutical companies are actively seeking to be more patient-centric in drug research and development by involving patients in identifying target disease conditions, participating in the design of, and recruitment for, clinical trials, and disseminating study results. Drug safety departments within the biopharmaceutical industry are at a similar inflection point. Rising rates of per capita prescription drug use underscore the importance of having robust pharmacovigilance systems in place to detect and assess adverse drug reactions (ADRs). At the same time, the practice of pharmacovigilance is being transformed by a host of recent regulatory guidances and related initiatives which emphasize the importance of the patient's perspective in drug safety. Collectively, these initiatives impact the full range of activities that fall within the remit of pharmacovigilance, including ADR reporting, signal detection and evaluation, risk management, medication error assessment, benefit-risk assessment and risk communication. Examples include the fact that manufacturing authorization holders are now expected to monitor all digital sources under their control for potential reports of ADRs, and the emergence of new methods for collecting, analysing and reporting patient-generated ADR reports for signal detection and evaluation purposes. A drug safety department's ability to transition successfully into a more patient-centric organization will depend on three defining attributes: (1) a patient-centered culture; (2) deployment of a framework to guide patient engagement activities; and (3) demonstrated proficiency in patient-centered competencies, including patient engagement, risk communication and patient preference assessment. Whether, and to what extent, drug safety departments embrace the new patient-centric imperative, and the methods and

  8. [Results of a French nationwide survey of cutaneous side effects of ketoprofen gel reported between September 1996 and August 2000].

    PubMed

    Veyrac, G; Paulin, M; Milpied, B; Bourin, M; Jolliet, P

    2002-01-01

    A French nation-wide pharmacovigilance survey of ketoprofen topic collated, from September 1996 to August 2000, 770 cutaneous side-effects. The frequency varies from 0.013@1000 to 0.028@1000 according to the commercial gel. Analysis concerns spontaneous notifications of French nation-wide pharmacovigilance. Sex ratio is well distributed, population is young. Treatment lasted about 12 days, the side-effects appearing after about 13 days, 25 per cent of cases are delayed to discontinuance of treatment, mainly after exposure to sunlight. Co-administered drugs are in most cases systemic or topical NSAIDs and/or fibrates and then increase the seriousness of the iatrogenic pathology. 75 per cent of cutaneous side-effects appear in summer, 50 per cent have been reported as "photosensitivity". Reactions are severe in 30 per cent of the cases. More than 80 per cent of cases present an extension beyond the site of application. The course is usually favourable and neither topical nor systemic corticosteroid treatment influence the duration of evolution. Photopatchtests testing in 23 per cent of cases show evidence of photoallergy to ketoprofen and crossed photoallergy with tiaprofenic acid, fenofibrate, oxybenzone and benzophenone. These results confirm that photoallergy is due to the common benzoylketone structure but not to their arylpropionic function. Some cases of persistent or recurrent photosensitivity must be more explored. The results lead to request a modification of marketing authorizations.

  9. French in Gabon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, John

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the usage of French in Gabon. As in other nations of francophone Africa, French is the language of upward social mobility in Gabon, and it offers access to the international community. However, one factor peculiar to Gabon is the virtual absence of a Gabonese national language, which promotes a greater dependency upon a mastery of the…

  10. French in Quebec.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Anglejan, Alison

    1979-01-01

    Discusses language legislation in Canada where French and English are both official languages, and in Quebec province where French has been declared the sole official language. Outlines the conflicts and the impact of these differing laws on Quebec, its population, and its relations with the rest of Canada. (JMF)

  11. Skiing in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moeller, Paulette

    1984-01-01

    A high school French program conducted entirely in French on local ski slopes is based on the philosophy that language is a social tool for communicative purposes and can best be learned in social interaction. The successful program uses teamwork, an open attitude toward language learning, non-stressful evaluation, and innovative techniques. (MSE)

  12. Pharmacovigilance for clinical trials in India: Current practice and areas for reform

    PubMed Central

    Brahmachari, Ballari; Fernandes, Melanie; Bhatt, Arun

    2011-01-01

    Keeping in mind India’s increasing participation in multinational trials, this article explores potential areas of Indian pharmacovigilance, requiring reform and provides recommendations for building a robust safety reporting system. Internal discrepancies exist between Schedule Y and Central Drugs Standard Control Organisation approval letter regarding what to report. Schedule Y’s silence on expedited reporting requirements creates confusion for Indian sites that are part of multinational trial. Not allowing waiver for serious adverse events that are protocol specified or are study endpoints, along with lack of emphasis on causality as reporting criteria, adds substantial burden of uninformative cases for regulatory review. Despite global focus on Development Safety Update Report, Indian regulators are not yet insistent on real-time update of a drug’s cumulative safety profile. Issues like reporting requirements for generic trials, pregnancy reporting and lenient timeline for death/life-threatening events need attention. Finally, the need to formulate an all-encompassing pharmacovigilance guideline for India, in sync with global practice cannot be overemphasized. PMID:21731854

  13. Medication safety and pharmacovigilance resources for the ambulatory care setting: enhancing patient safety.

    PubMed

    Gershman, Jennifer A; Fass, Andrea D

    2014-04-01

    Reputable medication safety resources are fundamental to assist in reducing medication errors and educating consumers. The purpose of this article is to describe medication safety and pharmacovigilance electronic and mobile resources that are available to pharmacists to enhance patient safety in the ambulatory care setting at the national level through the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), American Medicine Chest Challenge, and Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP). Information concerning drug disposal methods is available through the FDA, DEA, and the American Medicine Chest Challenge Rx Drop app. The ISMP provides a variety of tools for reporting and preventing medication errors including Assess-ERR and ConsumerMedSafety.org. Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategies (REMS) were created as a requirement of the FDA Amendments Act of 2007 to ensure that the drug's benefits outweigh the risks. Health care professionals are encouraged to report adverse drug events through the FDA's MedWatch reporting system. Pharmacists have a variety of useful resources for their medication safety and pharmacovigilance toolbox. Studies should evaluate the use of these resources by pharmacists and consumers.

  14. French Antilles and Guiana.

    PubMed

    1989-01-01

    Attention in this discussion of French Antilles and Guiana is directed to the following: geography; the people; history; government; political conditions; the economy; and relations with the US. In 1988, the population of Martinique, the official name, numbered 351,105 with an annual growth rate in 1988 of 1.71%. The population of Guadeloupe, the official name, numbered 337,524 in January 1988 with an annual growth rate in 1987 of 1.2%. French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique, as overseas departments of France since 1946, are integral parts of the French Republic. In 1972, the metropolitan departments of France were combined into 22 regions, with an elected regional council for each region. As integral parts of the French Republic, the political systems of the 3 French Caribbean departments are essentially extensions of those of metropolitan France. Guadeloupe and Martinique owed their colonial prosperity to agriculture, primarily sugar. Martinique no longer exports sugar, but sugar still accounts for 20% of Guadeloupe's export earnings. In Martinique, sugar has been replaced as an export crop by bananas and pineapples. Bananas now account for almost 50% of Guadeloupe's total export earnings. In French Guiana, the impact of the French National Space Agency's Guiana Space Center has been great. US policy toward these overseas departments is inseparable from its overall policy of friendly relations with France.

  15. Advancing pharmacovigilance through academic–legal collaboration: the case of gadolinium-based contrast agents and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis—a research on adverse drug events and reports (RADAR) report

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, B J; Laumann, A E; Nardone, B; Miller, F H; Restaino, J; Raisch, D W; McKoy, J M; Hammel, J A; Bhatt, K; Bauer, K; Samaras, A T; Fisher, M J; Bull, C; Saddleton, E; Belknap, S M; Thomsen, H S; Kanal, E; Cowper, S E; Abu Alfa, A K

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To compare and contrast three databases, that is, The International Centre for Nephrogenic Systemic Fibrosis Registry (ICNSFR), the Food and Drug Administration Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) and a legal data set, through pharmacovigilance and to evaluate international nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) safety efforts. Methods: The Research on Adverse Drug events And Reports methodology was used for assessment—the FAERS (through June 2009), ICNSFR and the legal data set (January 2002 to December 2010). Safety information was obtained from the European Medicines Agency, the Danish Medicine Agency and the Food and Drug Administration. Results: The FAERS encompassed the largest number (n = 1395) of NSF reports. The ICNSFR contained the most complete (n = 335, 100%) histopathological data. A total of 382 individual biopsy-proven, product-specific NSF cases were analysed from the legal data set. 76.2% (291/382) identified exposure to gadodiamide, of which 67.7% (197/291) were unconfounded. Additionally, 40.1% (153/382) of cases involved gadopentetate dimeglumine, of which 48.4% (74/153) were unconfounded, while gadoversetamide was identified in 7.3% (28/382) of which 28.6% (8/28) were unconfounded. Some cases involved gadobenate dimeglumine or gadoteridol, 5.8% (22/382), all of which were confounded. The mean number of exposures to gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) was gadodiamide (3), gadopentetate dimeglumine (5) and gadoversetamide (2). Of the 279 unconfounded cases, all involved a linear-structured GBCA. 205 (73.5%) were a non-ionic GBCA while 74 (26.5%) were an ionic GBCA. Conclusion: Clinical and legal databases exhibit unique characteristics that prove complementary in safety evaluations. Use of the legal data set allowed the identification of the most commonly implicated GBCA. Advances in knowledge: This article is the first to demonstrate explicitly the utility of a legal data set to pharmacovigilance research. PMID:25230161

  16. Linking NHS data for pediatric pharmacovigilance: Results of a Delphi survey

    PubMed Central

    Hopf, Y.M.; Francis, J.; Helms, P.J.; Haughney, J.; Bond, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Adverse drug events are a major cause of patient safety incidents. Current systems of pharmacovigilance under-report adverse drug reactions (ADRs), especially in children, leading to delays in their identification. This is of particular concern, as children especially have an increased vulnerability to ADRs. Objectives The objective was to seek consensus among healthcare professionals (HCPs) about barriers and facilitators to the linkage of routinely collected health data for pediatric pharmacovigilance in Scotland. Methods A Delphi survey was conducted with a random sample of HCPs including nurses, pharmacists and doctors, working in primary or secondary care, in Scotland. Participants were identified from sampling frames of the target professionals such as an NHS workforce list for general practitioners and recruited by postal invitation. A total of 819 HCPs were invited to take part. Those agreeing to participate were given the option of completing the questionnaires online or as hard copy. Reminders were sent twice at a fortnightly interval. Questions content included description of professional role as well as testing for the willingness to support the proposed project and was informed by the Theoretical Domains Framework of Behavior Change (TDF) and earlier qualitative work. Three Delphi rounds were administered, including a first round for item generation. Results 121 of those invited agreed to take part (15%). The first round of the Delphi study included 21 open questions and generated over a 1000 individual statements from 61 participants that returned the questionnaires (50.4%). These were rationalized to 149 items for the second round in which participants rated their views on the importance (or not) of each item on a 9-point Likert scale (strongly disagree – strongly agree). After the third round, there was consensus on items that focused on professional standards, and practical requirements, overall there was support for data linkage and a

  17. French Expansion in North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaenen, Cornelius J.

    2001-01-01

    Explores the French colonization in North America. Presents background information on New France, focusing on the French in Canada. Covers topics, such as how the French became interested in North American expansion, the French in Louisiana, colonial economics, and the reasons for the collapse of New France. Includes a bibliography. (CMK)

  18. French Dictionaries. Series: Specialised Bibliographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klaar, R. M.

    This is a list of French monolingual, French-English and English-French dictionaries available in December 1975. Dictionaries of etymology, phonetics, place names, proper names, and slang are included, as well as dictionaries for children and dictionaries of Belgian, Canadian, and Swiss French. Most other specialized dictionaries, encyclopedias,…

  19. Fewer Mistakes in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, Ron

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the government-approved simplification of French spelling, and describes rectifications of spelling problems frequently found in forming or using accents, verbs, hyphens, noun plurals, and other anomalies. (CB)

  20. French Tape Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaney, Robert, Comp.

    This tape catalog is a complete list of all French-related titles appearing in the National Center for Audio Tapes 1974-76 catalog. Wherever possible, each tape is briefly described. Price and ordering information is included. (PMP)

  1. French Vocabulary Lists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, J.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews French vocabulary lists and bilingual dictionaries and evaluates their usefulness for the preparation of materials for the language laboratory as well as for any programed approach to vocabulary teaching. (FB)

  2. Safety monitoring of artemisinin combination therapy through a national pharmacovigilance system in an endemic malaria setting

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The National Malaria Control Programme in Senegal, introduced since 2006, artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT administration) for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria cases. In this framework, an anti-malarial pharmacovigilance plan was developed and implemented in all public health services. This study investigated the occurrence of Adverse Drug Events (ADEs) after ACT. Methods The study was conducted between January 2007 and December 2009. It was based on spontaneous reports of ADEs in public health facilities. Data on patient demographic characteristics, dispensing facility, adverse signs and symptoms and causality were collected from a total of 123 patients. Results The age range of these patients was six months to 93 years with a mean of 25.9 years. Of the reported symptoms, 46.7% were related to the abdomen and the digestive system. Symptoms related to the nervous system, skin and subcutaneous tissue, circulatory and respiratory systems and general symptoms and signs were 7%, 9.7%, 3.5% and 31.3%, respectively. Causality results linked 14.3% of symptoms to Falcimon® (Artesunate-Amodiaquine) with certainty. Effects were classified as mild and severe in 69.1% and 7.3% of cases respectively while 23.6% were serious. All patients with serious ADEs were hospitalized. One death was reported in a patient who had taken 24 pills at once. Conclusion These results confirm the need to develop and implement pharmacovigilance systems in malaria endemic countries in order to monitor the safety of anti-malarial treatments. PMID:23384036

  3. Evaluation and pharmacovigilance of projects promoting cultivation and local use of Artemisia annua for malaria

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Several non-governmental organisations (NGOs) are promoting the use of Artemisia annua teas as a home-based treatment for malaria in situations where conventional treatments are not available. There has been controversy about the effectiveness and safety of this approach, but no pharmacovigilance studies or evaluations have been published to date. Method A questionnaire about the cultivation of A. annua, treatment of patients, and side-effects observed, was sent to partners of the NGO Anamed in Kenya and Uganda. Some of the respondents were then selected purposively for more in-depth semi-structured interviews. Results Eighteen partners in Kenya and 21 in Uganda responded. 49% reported difficulties in growing the plant, mainly due to drought. Overall about 3,000 cases of presumed malaria had been treated with A. annua teas in the previous year, of which about 250 were in children and 54 were in women in the first trimester of pregnancy. The commonest problem observed in children was poor compliance due to the bitter taste, which was improved by the addition of sugar or honey. Two miscarriages were reported in pregnant patients. Only four respondents reported side-effects in other patients, the commonest of which was vomiting. 51% of respondents had started using A. annua tea to treat illnesses other than malaria. Conclusions Local cultivation and preparation of A. annua are feasible where growing conditions are appropriate. Few adverse events were reported even in children and pregnant women. Where ACT is in short supply, it would make sense to save it for young children, while using A. annua infusions to treat older patients who are at lower risk. An ongoing pharmacovigilance system is needed to facilitate reporting of any adverse events. PMID:21481234

  4. French Antilles and Guiana.

    PubMed

    1983-11-01

    This discussion of French Antilles and Guiana cover the following: the people, geography, history, government, political conditions, economy, and relations with the US. In 1983 the population totaled 303,000 with an annual growth rate of 0.09%. The infant mortality rate (1981) was 12.6/1000 and life expectancy 68 years. About 98% of the people of Martinique are of Afro European or Afro European Indian descent. The remainder are the old planter families and a sizable number of metropolitan French. Most of the work force are employed in agriculture or food processing and associated industries. Most permanent residents of Guadeloupe are of mixed Afro European descent. A few thousand Metropolitan French reside there. Most French Guianese live along the coast, about 1/2 of them in the capital. Martinique is the northernmost of the Windward Islands, which are part of the Lesser Antilles chain in the Caribbean Sea southeast of Puerto Rico. Guadeloupe comprises 2 of the Leeward Islands, which are also part of the Lesser Antilles chain. French Guiana is located on the northern coast of South America, a few degrees north of the Equator. Indians were the 1st known indigenous inhabitants of French Guiana and the French Antilles. Columbus sighted Guadeloupe in 1493, Martinique in 1493 or 1502, and the Guiana coast probably during his 3rd voyage in 1498. French Guiana, Guadeloupe, and Martinique, as overseas departments of France since 1946, are integral parts of the French Republic. Their relationship to Metropolitan France is somewhat similar to that of Alaska and Hawaii to the counterminous US. Each department has a general council composed of 1 representative elected by each canton. Guadeloupe and Martinique each elect 2 senators to the French Senate and 3 deputies to the National Assembly. French Guiana elects 1 senator and 1 deputy. In each of the 3 departments exist individuals and small political parties that advocate immediate independence, but their adherents form only

  5. French for Marketing. Using French in Media and Communications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, R. E.; Chebli-Saadi, M.

    The textbook, entirely in French, is designed to help prepare anglophone students for French language usage in the media and telecommunications. It is organized according to two major themes. The first part addresses the French of advertising; chapter topics include the actors in advertising (agencies, announcers, supports), forms of advertising,…

  6. Comparing Written Competency in Core French and French Immersion Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lappin-Fortin, Kerry

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have compared the written competency of French immersion students and their core French peers, and research on these learners at a postsecondary level is even scarcer. My corpus consists of writing samples from 255 students from both backgrounds beginning a university course in French language. The writing proficiency of core French…

  7. Teaching French via American Football

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berwald, Jean-Pierre

    1974-01-01

    Outlines the methods of using football in teaching French in the American classroom by using French Canadian newspapers and other visual media available in the United States, in addition to specific language activities. (LG)

  8. Social Studies in French Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumas, Wayne; Lee, William B.

    1978-01-01

    Examines current educational goals, curricula, and methodology of French social studies education. Investigates influences of the student riots of 1968, and considers what effect these reforms will have on the future of French education. (Author/JK)

  9. Strontium still authorised despite an unfavourable opinion of the European Pharmacovigilance committee.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    In 2014 the indications of strontium ranelate were further restricted in the European Union, and the French pharmacoeconomic committee has finally judged strontium ranelate to have "insufficient medical benefit". PMID:25729823

  10. America's Tolerance for French Radicalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolin, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The publication of Francois Cusset's "French Theory" raises a series of fascinating questions concerning the trans-Atlantic transmission and circulation of ideas. Most important, it impels everyone to inquire why for a time French thought managed to flourish in American universities while French intellectuals rapidly abandoned the entire paradigm.…

  11. Under-reporting of adverse drug reactions: A challenge for pharmacovigilance in India

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Vishal R.; Mahajan, Vivek; Khajuria, Vijay; Gillani, Zahid

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to evaluate the extent and factors responsible for underreporting (UR) of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) in India. Materials and Methods: A retrospective observational, cross-sectional prospective questionnaire-based analysis was undertaken to evaluate the extent and factors for UR of ADRs in pharmacovigilance. Results: At the time, this report was prepared, 90 ADR Monitoring Centers (AMC) were operational in India. Indian AMC functional rate was 56.45%. The average number of Individual Case Safety Reports reported by our center via VigiFlow per month was 48.038. In a period of the 3 years the total number of ADRs reported was 3024. The average number of reports per month was 80.08. Active surveillance versus spontaneous reporting contributed 66.13% versus 33.86% of the total ADRs (P < 0.0001). Outpatient Department (OPD) contribution was 76.05% and indoor contribution was 23.94% of total reports (P < 0.0001). Department of Medicine (33%), followed by oncology (19.27%) and chest disease (13.49%) contributed maximally. The contribution of Pharmacology ADR monitoring OPD was 16.20%. Eye, ear, nose and throat and surgery, private Medical Colleges, hospitals in periphery, sub-district and district contributed no ADRs. ADR detection rates by clinical presentation, biochemical investigation and diagnostic tools were 84.33%, 14.57%, and 1.09% respectively (P < 0.0001). Reporting by postgraduate, registrars, consultants and nurses were 72.65%, 6.58%, 16.56% and 4.19% respectively (P < 0.0001). PG students in Pharmacology contributed an average number of 5.61 ADR reports/month. The lack of knowledge and awareness about Pharmacovigilance Programme of India (PvPI), lethargy, indifference, insecurity, complacency, workload, lack of training were the common factors responsible for UR. Major academic activity, exams, thesis and synopsis submission time influenced reporting of ADRs by postgraduate students. Conclusion: UR is a matter of concern PvPI. Multiple

  12. Know Your Laws. French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Joan Q.; Ledun, Andree

    This French language version of "Know Your Laws" consists of 24 self-contained modules designed to acquaint the Florida adult student with laws she/he will meet in everyday life; fundamentals of local, state, and federal governments; and the criminal and juvenile justice systems. (The 130 objectives are categorized in the first three levels of the…

  13. Teaching Materials for French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, E. W., Comp.

    The materials described are designed for use in all areas of French language teaching and are obtainable in the United Kingdom. Sources may be located in the book through a subject-area index and through an alphabetically arranged title index. Included in each of the 687 entries are the entry's number, author's name, title of the publication,…

  14. A plea for a more epidemiological and patient-oriented pharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Scurti, Veronica; Romero, Marilena; Tognoni, Gianni

    2012-01-01

    The present work has the main objective of summarizing the history of pharmacovigilance and the associated methods and legislation and of showing how it could/should be reformulated in terms of a transition from a drug-centered to a patient/population-centered approach. The recurrent emergencies associated with new drug molecules raise many questions about the efficacy and efficiency of methodological tools as well as the role of regulatory systems. Drugs cannot be considered as an independent variable: the evaluation of all their effects must take into account the real contexts in which they are used and which affect not only their efficacy but also their tolerability and safety. Specific emphasis is given to recent and promising developments focused on the participation of patients and populations as key actors in producing knowledge that could technically integrate what has been produced so far and allow the evolution of surveillance from a role of controlling severe adverse reactions attributable to individual molecules to one of promoting a comprehensive assessment of the benefit/risk profile of drugs as they are utilized in society. PMID:21773732

  15. Pharmacovigilance Knowledge among Patients at a Teaching Hospital in Lalitpur District, Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Nisha; Rathore, Devendra S; Shankar, P Ravi; Gyawali, Sudesh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Consumer’s knowledge and perception towards adverse drug reactions (ADR) can play an important role in ensuring a healthy lifestyle and proper use of medicines. Aims: This study aimed to assess the knowledge and perception towards pharma covigilance in general and consumer pharmacovigilance in particular among out patients in a teaching hospital of Nepal. Settings and Design: A descriptive cross-sectional study using qualitative and quantitative methods was carried out from 1st May to 3 June 2013. Methods: Every fifth patient visiting the outpatient pharmacy was interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Gender, age, educational qualification, profession and ethnicity were noted. Twenty-three patients were interviewed. Results: There were 10 males and 13 females. The age of the respondents ranged from 11 to 50 years with a mean age of 27.8 (SD = 5.61) years. Seven (30.43%) respondents were students studying in different levels. Thirteen (56.52%) participants were from the Newar community. Majority of the patients (86.95%) knew ADRs may be caused by the medicines they consume and 18 (78.26%) were of the opinion that ADRs should be reported to doctors and other health care professionals including pharmacists. Conclusion: Knowledge and perception were low in certain areas. There is a need for educational interventions for improving the awareness of patients and general public for ensuring medicine safety and promoting rational use of medicines. PMID:24783073

  16. Building pharmacogenetics into a pharmacovigilance program in Singapore: using serious skin rash as a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Toh, D S L; Tan, L L; Aw, D C W; Pang, S M; Lim, S H; Thirumoorthy, T; Lee, H Y; Tay, Y K; Tan, S K; Vasudevan, A; Lateef, A; Chong, Y Y; Chan, Y C; Loke, C; Chan, C L; Koay, E S C; Ren, E C; Lee, E J D; Sung, C

    2014-08-01

    To study the possible genetic associations with adverse drug reactions (ADR), the Singapore Health Sciences Authority (HSA) has piloted a program to collect DNA and phenotype data of ADR cases as part of its pharmacovigilance program. Between 2009 and 2012, HSA screened 158 cases of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). To assess the association between HLA-B*1502 and carbamazepine (CBZ)-induced SJS/TEN, 13 cases and 26 drug-tolerant controls were analyzed. All 13 CBZ-SJS/TEN cases and 3/26 controls were HLA-B*1502 positive (odds ratio 181, 95% confidence interval: 8.7-3785, P=6.9 × 10(-8)). Discussions of the finding with the Ministry of Health and an expert panel led to the decision to make HLA-B*1502 testing the standard of care prior to first use of CBZ in Asians and to subsidize the genotyping test at public hospitals. This program illustrates the role of a regulatory authority in advancing the use of pharmacogenetics for drug safety.

  17. Safety of Factor XIII Concentrate: Analysis of More than 20 Years of Pharmacovigilance Data

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Cristina; Korte, Wolfgang; Fries, Dietmar; Pendrak, Inna; Joch, Christine; Gröner, Albrecht; Birschmann, Ingvild

    2016-01-01

    Background Plasma-derived factor XIII (FXIII) concentrate is an effective treatment for FXIII deficiency. We describe adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reported during pharmacovigilance monitoring of Fibrogammin®/Corifact® and review published safety data. Methods Postmarketing safety reports recorded by CSL Behring from June 1993 to September 2013 were analyzed. Clinical studies published during the same period were also reviewed. Results Commercial data indicated that 1,653,450,333 IU FXIII concentrate were distributed over the review period, equivalent to 1,181,036 doses for a 70 kg patient. 75 cases were reported (one/15,700 standard doses or 22,046,000 IU). Reports of special interest included 12 cases of possible hypersensitivity reactions (one/98,400 doses or 137,787,500 IU), 7 with possible thromboembolic events (one/168,700 doses or 236,207,200 IU), 5 of possible inhibitor development (one/236,200 doses or 330,690,100 IU), and 20 of possible pathogen transmission (one/59,100 doses or 82,672,500 IU). 19 pathogen transmission cases involved viral infection; 4 could not be analyzed due to insufficient data, but for all others a causal relationship to the product was assessed as unlikely. A review of published literature revealed a similar safety profile. Conclusion Assessment of ADRs demonstrated that FXIII concentrate carries a low risk of ADRs across various clinical situations, suggesting a favorable safety profile. PMID:27781024

  18. Biofuel Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    Biofuel Database (Web, free access)   This database brings together structural, biological, and thermodynamic data for enzymes that are either in current use or are being considered for use in the production of biofuels.

  19. Resveratrol: French Paradox Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Catalgol, Betul; Batirel, Saime; Taga, Yavuz; Ozer, Nesrin Kartal

    2012-01-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenol that plays a potentially important role in many disorders and has been studied in different diseases. The research on this chemical started through the “French paradox,” which describes improved cardiovascular outcomes despite a high-fat diet in French people. Since then, resveratrol has been broadly studied and shown to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and anti-angiogenic effects, with those on oxidative stress possibly being most important and underlying some of the others, but many signaling pathways are among the molecular targets of resveratrol. In concert they may be beneficial in many disorders, particularly in diseases where oxidative stress plays an important role. The main focus of this review will be the pathways affected by resveratrol. Based on these mechanistic considerations, the involvement of resveratrol especially in cardiovascular diseases, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and possibly in longevity will be is addressed. PMID:22822401

  20. Database Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Pam

    2010-01-01

    The Internet and electronic commerce (e-commerce) generate lots of data. Data must be stored, organized, and managed. Database administrators, or DBAs, work with database software to find ways to do this. They identify user needs, set up computer databases, and test systems. They ensure that systems perform as they should and add people to the…

  1. Improving Detection of Arrhythmia Drug-Drug Interactions in Pharmacovigilance Data through the Implementation of Similarity-Based Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Vilar, Santiago; Lorberbaum, Tal; Hripcsak, George; Tatonetti, Nicholas P.

    2015-01-01

    Identification of Drug-Drug Interactions (DDIs) is a significant challenge during drug development and clinical practice. DDIs are responsible for many adverse drug effects (ADEs), decreasing patient quality of life and causing higher care expenses. DDIs are not systematically evaluated in pre-clinical or clinical trials and so the FDA U. S. Food and Drug Administration relies on post-marketing surveillance to monitor patient safety. However, existing pharmacovigilance algorithms show poor performance for detecting DDIs exhibiting prohibitively high false positive rates. Alternatively, methods based on chemical structure and pharmacological similarity have shown promise in adverse drug event detection. We hypothesize that the use of chemical biology data in a post hoc analysis of pharmacovigilance results will significantly improve the detection of dangerous interactions. Our model integrates a reference standard of DDIs known to cause arrhythmias with drug similarity data. To compare similarity between drugs we used chemical structure (both 2D and 3D molecular structure), adverse drug side effects, chemogenomic targets, drug indication classes, and known drug-drug interactions. We evaluated the method on external reference standards. Our results showed an enhancement of sensitivity, specificity and precision in different top positions with the use of similarity measures to rank the candidates extracted from pharmacovigilance data. For the top 100 DDI candidates, similarity-based modeling yielded close to twofold precision enhancement compared to the proportional reporting ratio (PRR). Moreover, the method helps in the DDI decision making through the identification of the DDI in the reference standard that generated the candidate. PMID:26068584

  2. Improving Detection of Arrhythmia Drug-Drug Interactions in Pharmacovigilance Data through the Implementation of Similarity-Based Modeling.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Santiago; Lorberbaum, Tal; Hripcsak, George; Tatonetti, Nicholas P

    2015-01-01

    Identification of Drug-Drug Interactions (DDIs) is a significant challenge during drug development and clinical practice. DDIs are responsible for many adverse drug effects (ADEs), decreasing patient quality of life and causing higher care expenses. DDIs are not systematically evaluated in pre-clinical or clinical trials and so the FDA U. S. Food and Drug Administration relies on post-marketing surveillance to monitor patient safety. However, existing pharmacovigilance algorithms show poor performance for detecting DDIs exhibiting prohibitively high false positive rates. Alternatively, methods based on chemical structure and pharmacological similarity have shown promise in adverse drug event detection. We hypothesize that the use of chemical biology data in a post hoc analysis of pharmacovigilance results will significantly improve the detection of dangerous interactions. Our model integrates a reference standard of DDIs known to cause arrhythmias with drug similarity data. To compare similarity between drugs we used chemical structure (both 2D and 3D molecular structure), adverse drug side effects, chemogenomic targets, drug indication classes, and known drug-drug interactions. We evaluated the method on external reference standards. Our results showed an enhancement of sensitivity, specificity and precision in different top positions with the use of similarity measures to rank the candidates extracted from pharmacovigilance data. For the top 100 DDI candidates, similarity-based modeling yielded close to twofold precision enhancement compared to the proportional reporting ratio (PRR). Moreover, the method helps in the DDI decision making through the identification of the DDI in the reference standard that generated the candidate. PMID:26068584

  3. The Role of Systematic Reviews in Pharmacovigilance Planning and Clinical Trials Authorisation Application: Example from the SLEEPS Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gamble, Carrol; Wolf, Andrew; Sinha, Ian; Spowart, Catherine; Williamson, Paula

    2013-01-01

    Background Adequate sedation is crucial to the management of children requiring assisted ventilation on Paediatric Intensive Care Units (PICU). The evidence-base of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in this area is small and a trial was planned to compare midazolam and clonidine, two sedatives widely used within PICUs neither of which being licensed for that use. The application to obtain a Clinical Trials Authorisation from the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) required a dossier summarising the safety profiles of each drug and the pharmacovigilance plan for the trial needed to be determined by this information. A systematic review was undertaken to identify reports relating to the safety of each drug. Methodology/Principal Findings The Summary of Product Characteristics (SmPC) were obtained for each sedative. The MHRA were requested to provide reports relating to the use of each drug as a sedative in children under the age of 16. Medline was searched to identify RCTs, controlled clinical trials, observational studies, case reports and series. 288 abstracts were identified for midazolam and 16 for clonidine with full texts obtained for 80 and 6 articles respectively. Thirty-three studies provided data for midazolam and two for clonidine. The majority of data has come from observational studies and case reports. The MHRA provided details of 10 and 3 reports of suspected adverse drug reactions. Conclusions/Significance No adverse reactions were identified in addition to those specified within the SmPC for the licensed use of the drugs. Based on this information and the wide spread use of both sedatives in routine practice the pharmacovigilance plan was restricted to adverse reactions. The Clinical Trials Authorisation was granted based on the data presented in the SmPC and the pharmacovigilance plan within the clinical trial protocol restricting collection and reporting to adverse reactions. PMID:23554852

  4. Reporting of adverse events for marketed drugs: Need for strengthening safety database

    PubMed Central

    Apte, Aditi Anand

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance is an evolving discipline in the Indian context. However, there is limited regulatory guidance for adverse event reporting outside the purview of clinical trials. There are number of deficiencies in the framework for adverse event reporting from the perspective of pharma industry, health-care professional and general public due to which adverse events for marketed drugs are highly underreported. This article discusses the need to strengthen national safety database by promoting and mandating reporting of adverse events by all the stakeholders. PMID:27453826

  5. Reversible Amisulpride-induced Elevation of Creatine Kinase (CK): A Case Series from the German AMSP Pharmacovigilance Project.

    PubMed

    Laoutidis, Z G; Konstantinidis, A; Grohmann, R; Luckhaus, C; Mobascher, J; Cordes, J

    2015-07-01

    The elevation of creatine kinase (CK) levels without neuroleptic malignant syndrome has been reported for several antipsychotics. We present here 4 cases with CK elevation induced by amisulpride, which have been registered for the German pharmacovigilance project, Arzneimittelsicherheit in der Psychiatrie (AMSP). The magnitude of the CK elevation ranged between 1, 498 IU/L and 21,018 IU/L. All 4 patients reported myalgia. In each case CK returned to normal after amisulpride discontinuation. In the fourth case, fluids were administered intravenously in order to prevent acute renal failure. None of the cases showed deterioration of renal function. Finally, we present recommendations for clinical practice.

  6. French perspectives on psychiatric classification.

    PubMed

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the role of the French schools in the development of psychiatric nosology. Boissier de Sauvages published the first French treatise on medical nosology in 1763. Until the 1880s, French schools held a pre-eminent position in the development of psychiatric concepts. From the 1880s until World War I, German-speaking schools exerted the most influence, featuring the work of major figures such as Emil Kraepelin and Eugen Bleuler. French schools were probably hampered by excessive administrative and cultural centralization. Between the 1880s and the 1930s, French schools developed diagnostic categories that set them apart from international classifications. The main examples are Bouffée Délirante, and the complex set of chronic delusional psychoses (CDPs), including chronic hallucinatory psychosis. CDPs were distinguished from schizophrenia by the lack of cognitive deterioration during evolution. Modern French psychiatry is now coming into line with international classification, such as DSM-5 and the upcoming ICD-11.

  7. Computational approaches for pharmacovigilance signal detection: toward integrated and semantically-enriched frameworks.

    PubMed

    Koutkias, Vassilis G; Jaulent, Marie-Christine

    2015-03-01

    Computational signal detection constitutes a key element of postmarketing drug monitoring and surveillance. Diverse data sources are considered within the 'search space' of pharmacovigilance scientists, and respective data analysis methods are employed, all with their qualities and shortcomings, towards more timely and accurate signal detection. Recent systematic comparative studies highlighted not only event-based and data-source-based differential performance across methods but also their complementarity. These findings reinforce the arguments for exploiting all possible information sources for drug safety and the parallel use of multiple signal detection methods. Combinatorial signal detection has been pursued in few studies up to now, employing a rather limited number of methods and data sources but illustrating well-promising outcomes. However, the large-scale realization of this approach requires systematic frameworks to address the challenges of the concurrent analysis setting. In this paper, we argue that semantic technologies provide the means to address some of these challenges, and we particularly highlight their contribution in (a) annotating data sources and analysis methods with quality attributes to facilitate their selection given the analysis scope; (b) consistently defining study parameters such as health outcomes and drugs of interest, and providing guidance for study setup; (c) expressing analysis outcomes in a common format enabling data sharing and systematic comparisons; and (d) assessing/supporting the novelty of the aggregated outcomes through access to reference knowledge sources related to drug safety. A semantically-enriched framework can facilitate seamless access and use of different data sources and computational methods in an integrated fashion, bringing a new perspective for large-scale, knowledge-intensive signal detection.

  8. Pharmacovigilance program to monitor adverse reactions of recombinant streptokinase in acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Blas Y; Marrero-Miragaya, María A; Jiménez-López, Giset; Valenzuela-Silva, Carmen; García-Iglesias, Elizeth; Hernández-Bernal, Francisco; Debesa-García, Francisco; González-López, Tania; Alvarez-Falcón, Leovaldo; López-Saura, Pedro A

    2005-01-01

    Background Streptokinase (SK) is an effective fibrinolytic agent for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). The objective of the present study was to assess the adverse drug reactions (ADRs) associated with intravenous recombinant SK in patients with AMI in routine clinical practice. Methods A national, prospective and spontaneous reporting-based pharmacovigilance program was conducted in Cuba. Patient demographics, suspected ADR description, elements to define causality, and outcomes were documented and analyzed. Results A total of 1496 suspected ADRs identified in 792 patients out of the 1660 (47.7 %) prescriptions reported in the program, were received from July 1995 to July 2002. Most of the patients (71.3%) were male, 67.2% were white and mean age was 61.6 ± 13.0 years. The mean time interval between the onset of symptoms and the start of the SK infusion was 4.9 ± 3.7 h. The most frequently reported ADRs were hypotension, arrhythmias, chills, tremors, vomiting, nauseas, allergy, bleeding and fever. ADR severity was 38% mild, 38% moderate, 10% severe, and 4% very severe. Only 3 patients with hemorrhagic stroke were reported. Seventy-two patients died in-hospital mainly because of cardiac causes associated with the patient's underlying clinical condition. Mortality was 3 times more likely in patients suffering arrhythmias than in those without this event (odds ratio 3.1, 95% CI: 1.8 to 5.1). Most of the reported ADRs were classified as possibly or probably associated with the study medication. Conclusion Recombinant SK was associated with a similar post-marketing safety profile to those suggested in previous clinical trials. PMID:16262910

  9. Adverse drug reaction profile of microtubule-damaging antineoplastic drugs: A focused pharmacovigilance study in India

    PubMed Central

    Manohar, Hasitha Diana; Adiga, Shalini; Thomas, Joseph; Sharma, Ajitha

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the study was to analyze the adverse drug reaction (ADR) profile of microtubule-damaging antineoplastic drugs (taxanes and vinca alkaloids) and to look for unexpected ADRs among the local population. Focused study on these drugs, rampantly used in oncology department for a wide variety of tumors including early and advanced malignancies, would enable better treatment care by physicians. Materials and Methods: Data on ADRs were collected from the cancer patients belonging to both gender and of all ages, on taxanes- or vinca-based cancer chemotherapy and reported in the Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission form. Causality was assessed using the WHO criteria and Naranjo's Algorithm. Preventability and severity of ADRs were also assessed. Results: A total of 97 ADRs were reported among 488 patients on microtubule-damaging anticancer drugs admitted over a period of 1 year. The incidence rate was 19.87%. Gastrointestinal system (40.2%) was the most affected followed by bone marrow (33%) and skin (8.2%). The highest incidence of ADRs was reported among paclitaxel (54.6%), and vincristine (39.2%). Most of the reported ADRs were of milder nature and preventable. The WHO causality assessment scale indicated 71.1% possible reactions. Conclusions: This study showed that most ADRs are preventable with effective ADR monitoring. There is a great need to create awareness among healthcare professionals regarding the importance of the pharmacovigilance system. Judicious use of the preventive measures will lead to a reduction in the incidence of ADRs due to the drug armamentarium, thereby enabling additional economic benefit to the patient and society. PMID:27721535

  10. Pharmacovigilance study of Ayurvedic medicine in Ayurvedic Teaching Hospital: A prospective survey study

    PubMed Central

    Ajanal, Manjunath N.; Nayak, Shradda U.; Kadam, Avinash P.; Prasad, B. S.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Though Ayurveda is practiced in the Indian subcontinent since centuries, there is a paucity of systematic documentation related to the occurrence of adverse drug reactions (ADR) and other issues regarding the safety of Ayurveda medicines. Aim: To monitor and analyze the pattern and frequency of ADR to Ayurvedic medicines in an Ayurvedic hospital setup. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, ADR monitoring was done in KLE Ayurveda Secondary Care Hospital, Belgaum, Karnataka, India by spontaneous and intensive monitoring technique for a span of 1-year (June 2010 to May 2011). Data pertaining to patient demography, drug and reaction characteristics, organ system involved and reaction outcomes were collected and evaluated. The reaction severity and predisposing factors were also assessed. Results: In a span of one year, 84 adverse drug events were reported out of which 52 confirmed as ADR. The overall incidence of ADR in the patient population was 1.14%, out of which 23 (44.23%) were related to Panchakarma (detoxification process), 13 (25.00%) related to the herbal formulations and 06 (11.53%) were of Rasa Aushadhi (mineral or herbo-mineral formulations). The commonly affected organ systems were gastrointestinal system 24 (46.15%) and skin 15 (28.84%). The majority of the reactions were moderate 30 (57.69%) to mild 20 (38.46%) in severity. Most patients recovered from the incidence. Conclusion: The present work has documented the incidence and characteristic of ADR to Ayurvedic medicine in a typical Ayurveda hospital setup. This will help in developing various strategies for boosting pharmacovigilance in Ayurveda, thereby ensuring safer use of Ayurveda medicines. PMID:27011712

  11. Correlation versus causation? Pharmacovigilance of the analgesic flupirtine exemplifies the need for refined spontaneous ADR reporting.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Nora; Borlak, Juergen

    2011-01-01

    Annually, adverse drug reactions result in more than 2,000,000 hospitalizations and rank among the top 10 causes of death in the United States. Consequently, there is a need to continuously monitor and to improve the safety assessment of marketed drugs. Nonetheless, pharmacovigilance practice frequently lacks causality assessment. Here, we report the case of flupirtine, a centrally acting non-opioid analgesic. We re-evaluated the plausibility and causality of 226 unselected, spontaneously reported hepatobiliary adverse drug reactions according to the adapted Bradford-Hill criteria, CIOMS score and WHO-UMC scales. Thorough re-evaluation showed that only about 20% of the reported cases were probable or likely for flupirtine treatment, suggesting an incidence of flupirtine-related liver injury of 1∶100,000 when estimated prescription data are considered, or 0.8 in 10,000 on the basis of all 226 reported adverse drug reactions. Neither daily or cumulative dose nor duration of treatment correlated with markers of liver injury. In the majority of cases (151/226), an average of 3 co-medications with drugs known for their liver liability was observed that may well be causative for adverse drug reactions, but were reported under a suspected flupirtine ADR. Our study highlights the need to improve the quality and standards of ADR reporting. This should be done with utmost care taking into account contributing factors such as concomitant medications including over-the-counter drugs, the medical history and current health conditions, in order to avoid unjustified flagging and drug warnings that may erroneously cause uncertainty among healthcare professionals and patients, and may eventually lead to unjustified safety signals of useful drugs with a reasonable risk to benefit ratio. PMID:22022383

  12. A framework for assessing the economic value of pharmacovigilance in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Babigumira, Joseph B; Stergachis, Andy; Choi, Hye Lyn; Dodoo, Alexander; Nwokike, Jude; Garrison, Louis P

    2014-03-01

    Pharmacovigilance (PV) programs are an essential component of national healthcare systems. Well-functioning PV programs can improve population health by identifying and reducing medicines-related problems (MRPs). Many low- and middle-income countries lack functional PV systems, but this deficiency has not been described in terms of the potential economic value of strengthening PV systems. The assessment of economic value for PV can support rational decision making at the country level. We propose a framework for assessing the economic value of PV. We divide national PV systems into four levels: (1) no PV, (2) basic PV, (3) semi-functional PV, and (4) functional PV. These categories represent increasing levels of investment in PV capacity at the national or health facility level for all available medicines, including vaccines. The proposed framework can be used to estimate the costs of PV (including the value of investments to increase PV capacity and the costs of managing MRPs) and outcomes associated with PV (including improvements in morbidity, mortality, and quality of life as a result of the reduction in MRPs). The quantitative approach proposed for assessing costs and benefits uses a decision-analytic modeling framework that would estimate the value of the consequences of MRPs adjusted for their probability of occurrence. This allows the quantification of value using monetary outcomes (cost-benefit analysis), natural units (cost-effectiveness analysis), or mortality adjusted for quality of life or disability (cost-utility analysis). Evidence generated using this framework could assist policy makers, program managers, and donors in evaluating investments that aim to increase the capacity and efficiency of national and facility-level PV programs in low- and middle-income countries.

  13. A framework for assessing the economic value of pharmacovigilance in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Babigumira, Joseph B; Stergachis, Andy; Choi, Hye Lyn; Dodoo, Alexander; Nwokike, Jude; Garrison, Louis P

    2014-03-01

    Pharmacovigilance (PV) programs are an essential component of national healthcare systems. Well-functioning PV programs can improve population health by identifying and reducing medicines-related problems (MRPs). Many low- and middle-income countries lack functional PV systems, but this deficiency has not been described in terms of the potential economic value of strengthening PV systems. The assessment of economic value for PV can support rational decision making at the country level. We propose a framework for assessing the economic value of PV. We divide national PV systems into four levels: (1) no PV, (2) basic PV, (3) semi-functional PV, and (4) functional PV. These categories represent increasing levels of investment in PV capacity at the national or health facility level for all available medicines, including vaccines. The proposed framework can be used to estimate the costs of PV (including the value of investments to increase PV capacity and the costs of managing MRPs) and outcomes associated with PV (including improvements in morbidity, mortality, and quality of life as a result of the reduction in MRPs). The quantitative approach proposed for assessing costs and benefits uses a decision-analytic modeling framework that would estimate the value of the consequences of MRPs adjusted for their probability of occurrence. This allows the quantification of value using monetary outcomes (cost-benefit analysis), natural units (cost-effectiveness analysis), or mortality adjusted for quality of life or disability (cost-utility analysis). Evidence generated using this framework could assist policy makers, program managers, and donors in evaluating investments that aim to increase the capacity and efficiency of national and facility-level PV programs in low- and middle-income countries. PMID:24550105

  14. General database for ground water site information.

    PubMed

    de Dreuzy, Jean-Raynald; Bodin, Jacques; Le Grand, Hervé; Davy, Philippe; Boulanger, Damien; Battais, Annick; Bour, Olivier; Gouze, Philippe; Porel, Gilles

    2006-01-01

    In most cases, analysis and modeling of flow and transport dynamics in ground water systems require long-term, high-quality, and multisource data sets. This paper discusses the structure of a multisite database (the H+ database) developed within the scope of the ERO program (French Environmental Research Observatory, http://www.ore.fr). The database provides an interface between field experimentalists and modelers, which can be used on a daily basis. The database structure enables the storage of a large number of data and data types collected from a given site or multiple-site network. The database is well suited to the integration, backup, and retrieval of data for flow and transport modeling in heterogeneous aquifers. It relies on the definition of standards and uses a templated structure, such that any type of geolocalized data obtained from wells, hydrological stations, and meteorological stations can be handled. New types of platforms other than wells, hydrological stations, and meteorological stations, and new types of experiments and/or parameters could easily be added without modifying the database structure. Thus, we propose that the database structure could be used as a template for designing databases for complex sites. An example application is the H+ database, which gathers data collected from a network of hydrogeological sites associated with the French Environmental Research Observatory.

  15. [French immigration policy].

    PubMed

    Weil, P

    1994-01-01

    From the late nineteenth century through 1974, France permitted immigration to furnish workers and to compensate for the low level of fertility. Intense immigration from North Africa, the economic crisis of the 1970s, and other factors led to policy changes in 1974. French immigration policy since 1974 has fluctuated between guaranteeing foreigners equal rights regardless of their religion, race, culture, or national origin, and attempting to differentiate among immigrants depending on their degree of assimilability to French culture. From 1974 to 1988, France had five different policies regarding whether to permit new immigration and what to do about illegal immigrants. In July 1984, the four major political parties unanimously supported a measure in Parliament that definitively guaranteed the stay in France of legal immigrants, whose assimilation thus assumed priority. Aid for return to the homeland was no longer to be widely offered, and immigration of unskilled workers was to be terminated except for those originating in European Community countries. Major changes of government in 1988 and 1993 affected only the modalities of applying these principles. The number of immigrants has fluctuated since 1974. Unskilled workers, the only category whose entrance was specifically controlled by the 1984 measures, have declined from 174,000 in 1970 to 25,000 in the early 1990s. The number of requests for political asylum declined from 60,000 in 1989 to 27,000 in 1993, and in 1991, 15,467 persons were granted refugee status. The number of immigrants of all types permitted to remain in France declined from 250,000 or 3000 per year in the early 1970s to around 110,000 at present. Although the decline is significant, it appears insufficient to the government in power since 1993. Although migratory flows are often explained as the product of imbalance in the labor market or in demographic growth, the French experience suggests that government policies, both in the sending and

  16. The French Revolution on Film: American and French Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harison, Casey

    2005-01-01

    It is not hard to locate negative or condescending images of the French Revolution in aspects of popular American culture, including film. Despite a handful of instances where nuanced or ambiguous "messages" may be identified, the number of American film interpretations of the French Revolution that might be judged historically "valid" is…

  17. Invitation Refusals in Cameroon French and Hexagonal French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farenkia, Bernard Mulo

    2015-01-01

    Descriptions of regional pragmatic variation in French are lacking to date the focus has been on a limited range of speech acts, including apologies, requests, compliments and responses to compliments. The present paper, a systematic analysis of invitation refusals across regional varieties of French, is designed to add to the research on…

  18. French intensive truck garden

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, T D

    1983-01-01

    The French Intensive approach to truck gardening has the potential to provide substantially higher yields and lower per acre costs than do conventional farming techniques. It was the intent of this grant to show that there is the potential to accomplish the gains that the French Intensive method has to offer. It is obvious that locally grown food can greatly reduce transportation energy costs but when there is the consideration of higher efficiencies there will also be energy cost reductions due to lower fertilizer and pesticide useage. As with any farming technique, there is a substantial time interval for complete soil recovery after there have been made substantial soil modifications. There were major crop improvements even though there was such a short time since the soil had been greatly disturbed. It was also the intent of this grant to accomplish two other major objectives: first, the garden was managed under organic techniques which meant that there were no chemical fertilizers or synthetic pesticides to be used. Second, the garden was constructed so that a handicapped person in a wheelchair could manage and have a higher degree of self sufficiency with the garden. As an overall result, I would say that the garden has taken the first step of success and each year should become better.

  19. Spotlight: French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    May, J F

    1988-01-01

    French Polynesia is a group of 4 archipelagos in the South Pacific with an estimated 1987 population of 176,600. Its people are mainly Tahitians, Polynesians, Chinese, Europeans, and persons of mixed heritage. More than half of the population live in the Society Islands. About half of the population is less than 20 years old and slightly more than 5% is older than 60. Due to a recent decline in fertility, the rate of natural increase is moderate--about 2.5% annually. In the early 1980s, about two thirds of women in Tahiti aged 15-49 used a modern method of contraception. It remains to be seen whether this pattern will spread to the entire area. Projections by the World Bank, assuming little decline in mortality, yield a total population of 400,000 by the year 2030. The major challenge for French Polynesia is to develop the many small islands spread across an ocean territory half the size of the contiguous 48 states of the U.S. Tourist-related activities have replaced traditional income-generating such as production of coconuts, mother-of-pearl, and vanilla. The value of exports from the area make up only 5% of the value of imports. To extract the potentially huge food and mineral resources from the ocean, enormous infusions of capital will be necessary.

  20. French in the Ivory Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djite, Paulin G.

    1989-01-01

    Overviews the Ivory Coast's sociolinguistic situation. Standard French, restricted to the elite, is threatened by the local lingua franca. The spread and functional allocations of Dyula and Popular French support the point that the pervasive use of a language does not always lead to its adoption as a national language. (CB)

  1. French Basic Course. Area Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This volume provides the prescribed cultural background that is part of the final phase of the Basic Course in French. The texts provide the basis for discussions and personal research through which students become acquainted with various aspects of the French-speaking world and learn the referential meaning of words and expressions as they are…

  2. French for Journalists: Classroom Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodina, Herta

    The use of authentic materials for an advanced French course for students of journalism and communication has the drawback that authentic French sources assume a regular, informed readership sharing the same culture and history. A solution found at Ohio University is to use a publication that bridges the two cultures, such as the "Journal francais…

  3. Database Manager

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    It is normal practice today for organizations to store large quantities of records of related information as computer-based files or databases. Purposeful information is retrieved by performing queries on the data sets. The purpose of DATABASE MANAGER is to communicate to students the method by which the computer performs these queries. This…

  4. Maize databases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter is a succinct overview of maize data held in the species-specific database MaizeGDB (the Maize Genomics and Genetics Database), and selected multi-species data repositories, such as Gramene/Ensembl Plants, Phytozome, UniProt and the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), ...

  5. Pharmacovigilance as a tool for safety and monitoring: a review of general issues and the specific challenges with end-stage renal failure patients.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Dalia; Marrón, Belén; Ehrlich, Jay; Rutherford, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance is instrumental in helping to ensure patient safety for both newly released drugs and those that are well established in the market. However, while pharmacovigilance procedures are strictly regulated in the clinical trial setting, post-marketing adverse event reporting is not well implemented or enforced. As such, the underreporting of adverse events, in relation to drugs that are on the market, is estimated to be in the region of 90%. The identification of drug safety issues in patients with complex diseases and extensive comorbidities is therefore particularly challenging. Dialysis patients - those with end-stage renal disease and often other comorbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease - are a population with significant treatment challenges. Patients receive dialysis using complex medical devices (eg, a peritoneal dialysis home cycler) and also receive a range of pharmaceutical agents as part of dialysis itself (eg, peritoneal dialysis solutions). Many of the pharmaceutical agents used to treat these patients have been developed in populations without these complications and, therefore, an extensive knowledge of potential problems and contraindications in the dialysis population is lacking. It is important that the nephrology community understands the concept of pharmacovigilance - the pharmacologic science relating to the detection, assessment, understanding, and prevention of adverse effects, particularly long-term and short-term side effects, of medicines. Health care professionals (HCPs) and providers, pharmaceutical companies, global regulatory agencies, and the patients themselves all play unique and critical roles in this process. This review defines the science of pharmacovigilance and the process of adverse event reporting, highlights the new directions that pharmacovigilance has taken, and provides insight for HCPs managing dialysis patients into the important role that they play in helping to shape the

  6. Use of a Text Message-Based Pharmacovigilance Tool in Cambodia: Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Sophie; Goutard, Flavie; Nguon, Kunthy

    2013-01-01

    Background There is no functional pharmacovigilance system in Cambodia to our knowledge. Mobile phone–based tools, such as short message service (SMS) text messages, are increasingly used for surveillance purposes. Objective To pilot-test the FrontlineSMS mobile phone–based tool for notification of adverse events, using Cambodia’s only International Vaccination Center at the Institut Pasteur du Cambodge as a field site. Methods People receiving vaccinations, aged over 18 years, and who owned a cell phone were recruited in the study following informed consent. The names and mobile phone numbers of the participants interviewed were entered each day into the FrontlineSMS software. Two days after being vaccinated, participants received an automatically generated SMS text message asking whether any adverse events had occurred. Their SMS reply was number-coded and exported from the software daily to an Excel spreadsheet and examined before being saved. If the participant replied with a code for a severe adverse event (8 or 9), they were automatically advised to consult the nearest doctor. Results The active surveillance study was conducted over 72 days in the spring of 2012. Patients agreed to be asked by SMS text message whether unwanted events had occurred after vaccination. Of 1331 persons aged over 18 years referred to the vaccination unit, 184 (13.8%) were asked and agreed to participate. When texted for clinical status 48 hours after vaccination, 52 (28.3%) participants did not reply, 101 (54.9%) sent an immediate SMS reply, and 31 (16.8%) sent an SMS reply after additional prompting. Of the initial 184 participants, 132 (71.7%) replied. These 132 participants received 135 vaccine doses and 109 (82.6%) reported no adverse events, whereas 23 (17.4%) reported adverse events, all benign. Conclusions Notification using an SMS-based text message system is already used in Cambodia for syndromic surveillance in health centers and reporting by health care workers

  7. Pharmacovigilance in India, Uganda and South Africa with reference to WHO’s minimum requirements

    PubMed Central

    Maigetter, Karen; Pollock, Allyson M.; Kadam, Abhay; Ward, Kim; Weiss, Mitchell G.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Pharmacovigilance (PV) data are crucial for ensuring safety and effectiveness of medicines after drugs have been granted marketing approval. This paper describes the PV systems of India, Uganda and South Africa based on literature and Key Informant (KI) interviews and compares them with the World Health Organization’s (WHO’s) minimum PV requirements for a Functional National PV System. Methods: A documentary analysis of academic literature and policy reports was undertaken to assess the medicines regulatory systems and policies in the three countries. A gap analysis from the document review indicated a need for further research in PV. KI interviews covered topics on PV: structure and practices of the system; current regulatory policy; capacity limitations, staffing, funding and training; availability and reporting of data; and awareness and usage of the systems. Twenty interviews were conducted in India, 8 in Uganda and 11 in South Africa with government officials from the ministries of health, national regulatory authorities, pharmaceutical producers, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), members of professional associations and academia. The findings from the literature and KI interviews were compared with WHO’s minimum requirements. Results: All three countries were confronted with similar barriers: lack of sufficient funding, limited number of trained staff, inadequate training programs, unclear roles and poor coordination of activities. Although KI interviews represented viewpoints of the respondents, the findings confirmed the documentary analysis of the literature. Although South Africa has a legal requirement for PV, we found that the three countries uniformly lacked adequate capacity to monitor medicines and evaluate risks according to the minimum standards of the WHO. Conclusion: A strong PV system is an important part of the overall medicine regulatory system and reflects on the stringency and competence of the regulatory bodies in

  8. Genome databases

    SciTech Connect

    Courteau, J.

    1991-10-11

    Since the Genome Project began several years ago, a plethora of databases have been developed or are in the works. They range from the massive Genome Data Base at Johns Hopkins University, the central repository of all gene mapping information, to small databases focusing on single chromosomes or organisms. Some are publicly available, others are essentially private electronic lab notebooks. Still others limit access to a consortium of researchers working on, say, a single human chromosome. An increasing number incorporate sophisticated search and analytical software, while others operate as little more than data lists. In consultation with numerous experts in the field, a list has been compiled of some key genome-related databases. The list was not limited to map and sequence databases but also included the tools investigators use to interpret and elucidate genetic data, such as protein sequence and protein structure databases. Because a major goal of the Genome Project is to map and sequence the genomes of several experimental animals, including E. coli, yeast, fruit fly, nematode, and mouse, the available databases for those organisms are listed as well. The author also includes several databases that are still under development - including some ambitious efforts that go beyond data compilation to create what are being called electronic research communities, enabling many users, rather than just one or a few curators, to add or edit the data and tag it as raw or confirmed.

  9. Status of French reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Ballagny, A.

    1997-08-01

    The status of French reactors is reviewed. The ORPHEE and RHF reactors can not be operated with a LEU fuel which would be limited to 4.8 g U/cm{sup 3}. The OSIRIS reactor has already been converted to LEU. It will use U{sub 3}Si{sub 2} as soon as its present stock of UO{sub 2} fuel is used up, at the end of 1994. The decision to close down the SILOE reactor in the near future is not propitious for the start of a conversion process. The REX 2000 reactor, which is expected to be commissioned in 2005, will use LEU (except if the fast neutrons core option is selected). Concerning the end of the HEU fuel cycle, the best option is reprocessing followed by conversion of the reprocessed uranium to LEU.

  10. The french educational satellite arsene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danvel, M.; Escudier, B.

    ARSENE (Ariane, Radio-amateur, Satellite pour l'ENseignement de l'Espace) is a telecommunications satellite for Amateur Space Service. Its main feature is that more than 100 students from French engineering schools and universities have been working since 1979 for definition phase and satellite development. The highest IAF awards has been obtained by "ARSENE students" in Tokyo (1980) and Rome (1981). The French space agency, CNES and French aerospace industries are supporting the program. The European Space Agency offered to place ARSENE in orbit on the first Ariane mark IV launch late 1985.

  11. Teaching for Content: Greek Mythology in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giauque, Gerald S.

    An intermediate-level university French course in Greek mythology was developed to (1) improve student skills in reading, writing, speaking, and comprehending French, (2) familiarize students with Greek mythology, and (3) prepare students to deal better with allusions to Greek mythology in French literature. The texts used are a French translation…

  12. 7 CFR 993.7 - French prunes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false French prunes. 993.7 Section 993.7 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.7 French prunes. French prunes means: (a) Prunes produced from plums of the following varieties of plums: French (Prune d'Agen, Petite Prune d'Agen), Coates...

  13. 7 CFR 993.7 - French prunes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.7 French prunes. French prunes means: (a) Prunes produced from plums of the following varieties of plums: French (Prune d'Agen, Petite Prune d'Agen), Coates (Cox... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false French prunes. 993.7 Section 993.7...

  14. Dialect Effects in Speech Perception: The Role of Vowel Duration in Parisian French and Swiss French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joanne L.; Mondini, Michele; Grosjean, Francois; Dommergues, Jean-Yves

    2011-01-01

    The current experiments examined how native Parisian French and native Swiss French listeners use vowel duration in perceiving the /[openo]/-/o/ contrast. In both Parisian and Swiss French /o/ is longer than /[openo]/, but the difference is relatively large in Swiss French and quite small in Parisian French. In Experiment 1 we found a parallel…

  15. French Basic Course. Grammatical Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This index is intended for use with Volumes 1 through 8 of the French Basic Course. It facilitates the finding of grammatical references in those volumes. The items are cross-referenced and arranged in alphabetical order. (Author/AMH)

  16. Q fever in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Eldin, Carole; Mahamat, Aba; Demar, Magalie; Abboud, Philippe; Djossou, Félix; Raoult, Didier

    2014-10-01

    Coxiella burnetii, the causative agent of Q fever, is present worldwide. Recent studies have shown that this bacterium is an emerging pathogen in French Guiana and has a high prevalence (24% of community-acquired pneumonia). In this review, we focus on the peculiar epidemiology of Q fever in French Guiana. We place it in the context of the epidemiology of the disease in the surrounding countries of South America. We also review the clinical features of Q fever in this region, which has severe initial presentation but low mortality rates. These characteristics seem to be linked to a unique genotype (genotype 17). Finally, we discuss the issue of the animal reservoir of C. burnetii in French Guiana, which is still unknown. Further studies are necessary to identify this reservoir. Identification of this reservoir will improve the understanding of the Q fever epidemic in French Guiana and will provide new tools to control this public health problem.

  17. A Pharmacovigilance Study in First Episode of Psychosis: Psychopharmacological Interventions and Safety Profiles in the PEPs Project

    PubMed Central

    Bioque, Miquel; Llerena, Adrián; Cabrera, Bibiana; Mezquida, Gisela; Lobo, Antonio; González-Pinto, Ana; Díaz-Caneja, Covadonga M.; Corripio, Iluminada; Aguilar, Eduardo J.; Bulbena, Antoni; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina; Vieta, Eduard; Lafuente, Amàlia; Mas, Sergi; Parellada, Mara; Saiz-Ruiz, Jerónimo; Cuesta, Manuel J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The characterization of the first episode of psychosis and how it should be treated are principal issues in actual research. Realistic, naturalistic studies are necessary to represent the entire population of first episode of psychosis attended in daily practice. Methods: Sixteen participating centers from the PEPs project recruited 335 first episode of psychosis patients, aged 7 to 35 years. This article describes and discusses the psychopharmacological interventions and safety profiles at baseline and during a 60-day pharmacovigilance period. Results: The majority of first episode of psychosis patients received a second-generation antipsychotic (96.3%), orally (95%), and in adjusted doses according to the product specifications (87.2%). A total of 24% were receiving an antipsychotic polytherapy pattern at baseline, frequently associated with lower or higher doses of antipsychotics than the recommended ones. Eight patients were taking clozapine, all in monotherapy. Males received higher doses of antipsychotic (P=.043). A total of 5.2% of the patients were being treated with long-acting injectable antipsychotics; 12.2% of the patients received anticholinergic drugs, 12.2% antidepressants, and 13.7% mood stabilizers, while almost 40% received benzodiazepines; and 35.52% reported at least one adverse drug reaction during the pharmacovigilance period, more frequently associated with higher antipsychotic doses and antipsychotic polytherapy (85.2% vs 45.5%, P<.001). Conclusions: These data indicate that the overall pharmacologic prescription for treating a first episode of psychosis in Spain follows the clinical practice guideline recommendations, and, together with security issues, support future research of determinate pharmacological strategies for the treatment of early phases of psychosis, such as the role of clozapine, long-acting injectable antipsychotics, antipsychotic combination, and the use of benzodiazepines. PMID:26506856

  18. The importance of Pharmacovigilance for the drug safety: Focus on cardiovascular profile of incretin-based therapy.

    PubMed

    Sportiello, Liberata; Rafaniello, Concetta; Scavone, Cristina; Vitale, Cristiana; Rossi, Francesco; Capuano, Annalisa

    2016-01-01

    With the recent introduction of the new European Pharmacovigilance legislation, all new drugs must be carefully monitored after admission on the European market, in order to assess the long safety profile. Currently, special attention is given to several hypoglycemic agents with recent market approval (agonists of glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1] receptor and dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors [DPP-4i]), which act through the potentiation of incretin hormone signaling. Their inclusion in European additional monitoring is also due to safety problems, which seem to characterize their pharmacological class. In fact, these drugs initially showed a good tolerability profile with mainly gastrointestinal adverse events, low risk of hypoglycemia and minor effects on body weight. But, new concerns such as infections, pancreatitis, pancreatic cancer and above all cardiovascular events (especially risk of heart failure requiring hospitalization) are now arising. In this review, we highlighted aspects of the new Pharmacovigilance European dispositions, and then we investigated the tolerability profile of incretin-based therapies, in particular DPP-4 inhibitors. Notably, we focused our attention on new safety concerns, which are emerging mostly in the post-marketing period, as the cardiovascular risk profile. Evidence in literature and opinions of regulatory agencies (e.g., European Medicines Agency and Food and Drug Administration) about risks of incretin-based therapies are yet controversial, and there are many open questions in particular on cancer and cardiovascular effects. Thus, it is important to continue to monitor closely the use of these drugs in clinical practice to improve the knowledge on their long-term safety and their place in diabetes therapy.

  19. French fireball network FRIPON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colas, F.; Zanda, B.; Vaubaillon, J.; Bouley, S.; Marmo, C.; Audureau, Y.; Kwon, M. K.; Rault, J.-L.; Caminade, S.; Vernazza, P.; Gattacceca, J.; Birlan, M.; Maquet, L.; Egal, A.; Rotaru, M.; Birnbaum, C.; Cochard, F.; Thizy, O.

    2015-01-01

    FRIPON (Fireball Recovery and Interplanetary Observation Network) was recently founded by ANR (Agence Nationale de la Recherche), its aim being to connect meteoritical science with asteroidal and cometary sciences, in order to better understand our solar system formation and evolution. The main idea is to cover all the French territory to collect a large number of meteorites (one or two per year) with an accurate orbit determination, allowing to pinpoint possible parent bodies. 100 all-sky cameras will be installed at the end of 2015, creating a dense network with an average distance of 100 km between the stations. To maximize the accuracy of the orbit determination, we will mix our optical data with radar data from the GRAVES transmitter received by 25 stations (Rault et al., 2015). As the network installation and the creation of research teams for meteorites involves many persons, at least many more than our small team of professionals, we will develop a participative science network for amateurs called Vigie-Ciel (Zanda et al., 2015). It will be possible to simply use our data, participate in research campaigns or even add cameras to the FRIPON network.

  20. French perspectives on psychiatric classification

    PubMed Central

    Crocq, Marc-Antoine

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the role of the French schools in the development of psychiatric nosology. Boissier de Sauvages published the first French treatise on medical nosology in 1763. Until the 1880s, French schools held a pre-eminent position in the development of psychiatric concepts. From the 1880s until World War I, German-speaking schools exerted the most influence, featuring the work of major figures such as Emil Kraepelin and Eugen Bleuler. French schools were probably hampered by excessive administrative and cultural centralization. Between the 1880s and the 1930s, French schools developed diagnostic categories that set them apart from international classifications. The main examples are Bouffée Délirante, and the complex set of chronic delusional psychoses (CDPs), including chronic hallucinatory psychosis. CDPs were distinguished from schizophrenia by the lack of cognitive deterioration during evolution. Modern French psychiatry is now coming into line with international classification, such as DSM-5 and the upcoming ICD-11. PMID:25987863

  1. Solubility Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 106 IUPAC-NIST Solubility Database (Web, free access)   These solubilities are compiled from 18 volumes (Click here for List) of the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry(IUPAC)-NIST Solubility Data Series. The database includes liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, and gas-liquid systems. Typical solvents and solutes include water, seawater, heavy water, inorganic compounds, and a variety of organic compounds such as hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons, alcohols, acids, esters and nitrogen compounds. There are over 67,500 solubility measurements and over 1800 references.

  2. Design and methods for a Scandinavian pharmacovigilance study of osteonecrosis of the jaw and serious infections among cancer patients treated with antiresorptive agents for the prevention of skeletal-related events

    PubMed Central

    Acquavella, John; Ehrenstein, Vera; Schiødt, Morten; Heide-Jørgensen, Uffe; Kjellman, Anders; Hansen, Svein; Larsson Wexell, Cecilia; Herlofson, Bente Brokstad; Noerholt, Sven Erik; Ma, Haijun; Öhrling, Katarina; Hernandez, Rohini K; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2016-01-01

    Objective Osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) is a recognized complication of potent antiresorptive therapies, especially at the doses indicated to prevent skeletal complications for cancer patients with bone metastases. This paper describes the rationale and methods for a prospective, post-authorization safety study of cancer patients treated with antiresorptive therapies. Methods As part of a comprehensive pharmacovigilance plan, developed with regulators’ input, the study will estimate incidence of ONJ and of serious infections among adult cancer patients with bone metastases treated with denosumab (120 mg subcutaneously) or zoledronic acid (4 mg intravenously, adjusted for renal function). Patients will be identified using routinely collected data combined with medical chart review in Denmark, Sweden, and Norway. Followup will extend from the first administration of antiresorptive treatment to the earliest of death, loss-to-follow-up, or 5 years after therapy initiation. Results will be reported for three treatment cohorts: denosumab-naïve patients, zoledronic acid-naïve patients, and patients who switch from bisphosphonate treatment to denosumab. ONJ cases will be identified in three newly established national ONJ databases and adjudicated by the committee that functioned during the XGEVA® clinical trials program. Conclusion This study will provide a real world counterpart to the clinical trial-estimated risks for ONJ and serious infections for cancer patients initiating denosumab or zoledronic acid. The establishment of ONJ databases in the three Scandinavian countries will have potential benefits outside this study for the elucidation of ONJ risk factors and the evaluation of ONJ treatment strategies. PMID:27499646

  3. Perspective view of span over French Creek and east abutment, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of span over French Creek and east abutment, looking NW. - Pennsylvania Railroad, French Creek Trestle, Spanning French Creek, north of Paradise Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  4. Drinking Water Treatability Database (Database)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) will provide data taken from the literature on the control of contaminants in drinking water, and will be housed on an interactive, publicly-available USEPA web site. It can be used for identifying effective treatment processes, rec...

  5. Dengue encephalitis in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Hommel, D; Talarmin, A; Deubel, V; Reynes, J M; Drouet, M T; Sarthou, J L; Hulin, A

    1998-01-01

    Thousands of cases of dengue fever (DF) and several cases of dengue haemorrhagic fever were recorded in French Guiana during the recent outbreak of dengue-2 virus (1991-1992) and in subsequent years. One case with clinical signs typical of classical DF with neurological complications is reported in this study. The neurological features (encephalitis) appeared during the acute phase, 2 days after the onset of fever. Dengue-2 virus was detected in both the cerebrospinal fluid and blood sample. This case was fatal. This first reported case of classical DF with encephalitis in French Guiana is a new demonstration of the potential neurovirulence of dengue viruses.

  6. Retraining French Language Educators in the Teaching of Commercial French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marfurt, Rose Marie A.

    A retraining program for language teachers wishing to teach college-level business French is described. The course may be taught in five 5-hour weekend seminars or in a 2-week summer seminar of 12 hours per week. Since the teachers already have language skills, the course focuses on building confidence and interest in the subject matter by showing…

  7. [Benefits of large healthcare databases for drug risk research].

    PubMed

    Garbe, Edeltraut; Pigeot, Iris

    2015-08-01

    Large electronic healthcare databases have become an important worldwide data resource for drug safety research after approval. Signal generation methods and drug safety studies based on these data facilitate the prospective monitoring of drug safety after approval, as has been recently required by EU law and the German Medicines Act. Despite its large size, a single healthcare database may include insufficient patients for the study of a very small number of drug-exposed patients or the investigation of very rare drug risks. For that reason, in the United States, efforts have been made to work on models that provide the linkage of data from different electronic healthcare databases for monitoring the safety of medicines after authorization in (i) the Sentinel Initiative and (ii) the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership (OMOP). In July 2014, the pilot project Mini-Sentinel included a total of 178 million people from 18 different US databases. The merging of the data is based on a distributed data network with a common data model. In the European Network of Centres for Pharmacoepidemiology and Pharmacovigilance (ENCEPP) there has been no comparable merging of data from different databases; however, first experiences have been gained in various EU drug safety projects. In Germany, the data of the statutory health insurance providers constitute the most important resource for establishing a large healthcare database. Their use for this purpose has so far been severely restricted by the Code of Social Law (Section 75, Book 10). Therefore, a reform of this section is absolutely necessary. PMID:26092163

  8. A Film Study Option for HSC French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connole, Pat

    1974-01-01

    In 1974, after a trial period of two years, the study of two selected French feature films will be offered as an option to the study of prescribed texts in Higher School Certificate French in Victoria. (Author)

  9. How To Cope with the French: Keys to Understanding French Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarro, Brian J.

    To deal successfully with the French people in business, the American must first be conversant with his own culture. The French have a tradition of firm opinions and take an intellectual view of the world. Thinking is hierarchical, as is the French society. Education emphasizes strong command of the French language and all formal aspects of French…

  10. The new IAGOS Database Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulanger, Damien; Gautron, Benoit; Thouret, Valérie; Fontaine, Alain

    2016-04-01

    IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System) is a European Research Infrastructure which aims at the provision of long-term, regular and spatially resolved in situ observations of the atmospheric composition. IAGOS observation systems are deployed on a fleet of commercial aircraft. The IAGOS database is an essential part of the global atmospheric monitoring network. It contains IAGOS-core data and IAGOS-CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the Atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) data. The IAGOS Database Portal (http://www.iagos.fr, damien.boulanger@obs-mip.fr) is part of the French atmospheric chemistry data center AERIS (http://www.aeris-data.fr). The new IAGOS Database Portal has been released in December 2015. The main improvement is the interoperability implementation with international portals or other databases in order to improve IAGOS data discovery. In the frame of the IGAS project (IAGOS for the Copernicus Atmospheric Service), a data network has been setup. It is composed of three data centers: the IAGOS database in Toulouse; the HALO research aircraft database at DLR (https://halo-db.pa.op.dlr.de); and the CAMS data center in Jülich (http://join.iek.fz-juelich.de). The CAMS (Copernicus Atmospheric Monitoring Service) project is a prominent user of the IGAS data network. The new portal provides improved and new services such as the download in NetCDF or NASA Ames formats, plotting tools (maps, time series, vertical profiles, etc.) and user management. Added value products are available on the portal: back trajectories, origin of air masses, co-location with satellite data, etc. The link with the CAMS data center, through JOIN (Jülich OWS Interface), allows to combine model outputs with IAGOS data for inter-comparison. Finally IAGOS metadata has been standardized (ISO 19115) and now provides complete information about data traceability and quality.

  11. Using electronic health information for pharmacovigilance: the promise and the pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Rosati, Kristen

    2009-07-01

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is embarking on the "Sentinel Initiative" to create an electronic network operating across provider electronic health records, health plan claims databases, Medicare databases, and other data sources to monitor FDA-approved medical products. Many private research collaborations also are working to improve our "early warning" system for drugs, such as the eHealth Initiative Foundation (eHI) Connecting Communities for Drug Safety Collaboration, a public-private sector effort. In this article, the author examines a variety of legal issues from the compliance perspective of the private data sources participating in these drug safety programs. These legal issues include: the Food and Drug Act Administration Amendments Act of 2007; privacy laws, including the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, federal alcohol and drug abuse treatment regulations, and state health information confidentiality laws; human subject research compliance; and tort liability.

  12. French Spelling Rectifications: A Failed Coup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, Ron

    1992-01-01

    The proposed 1991 reforms to French spelling discussed in a previous issue of "Babel" have been abandoned. This article notes the history of other efforts to rectify French spelling and reviews the French Academy's decision-making process in the current effort. (LB)

  13. Driving in French for American Tourists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Philip

    This booklet is intended to assist the English-speaking tourist driving in a French-speaking country to communicate with service station attendants and to read road signs. The booklet is divided into three sections: (1) an English-French listing of parts of the car and useful expressions; (2) common European road signs; and (3) a French-English…

  14. A Comparative Evaluation of French Grammar Checkers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burston, Jack

    1996-01-01

    Four grammar checkers, all of French Canadian origin, were evaluated: "Le Correcteur 101,""GramR,""Hugo Plus," and "French Proofing Tools." Results indicate that "Le Correcteur 101" is the best French grammar checker on the market and worth its premium cost. (two references) (CK)

  15. La Langue Francaise (The French Language)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quemada, Bernard

    1975-01-01

    This annotated bibliography cites works concerning the French language, including works by foreign authors in translation, with nine major topics: bibliographies; introductory linguistics, the formation and evolution of French; phonetics and phonology, lexicography, grammar, language variation, stylistics, and translation. (Text is in French.)…

  16. Commercial French in a Liberal Arts Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrate, Jayne

    Drury College (Missouri) has developed a commercial French course that is practical, situation-oriented, and provides instruction in correspondence and translation. The course is considered part of the cultural segment of the French program. It enrolls majors in business, French, and a variety of other disciplines, and emphasizes contextual…

  17. More French, s'il vous plait!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGillivray, W. Russ, Ed.

    The collection of essays on French second language instruction in Canada, directed to parents, includes: "Our Brave New World" (Andrew Kniewasser); "French in Your School: Identifying and Achieving the Right Program" (Carolyn Hodych, Jos Scott); "So, You're Worried About Becoming an Immersion Parent" (Judy Gibson); "Is Core French a Valid Option?"…

  18. English versus French: Language Rivalry in Tunisia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battenburg, John

    1997-01-01

    Examines the competition between English and French in Tunisian educational institutions and programs. Scrutinizes two periods in postprotectorate Tunisia: the introduction of English and the spread of English. Findings indicate that the decline in French linguistic influence may be accompanied by a future decrease in French political and economic…

  19. Getting It Done in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iodice, Don R.; And Others

    A first semester course in French, originally developed for executives of a major international company, is presented here. As its objective is to provide the "survival skills" useful in everyday situations in France, primary attention is given to the intelligibility and comprehensibility of communication. The context of the dialogues, vocabulary,…

  20. An Interview with Fiona French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, David

    2005-01-01

    In this interview Fiona French discusses her work and career with David Lewis. She describes early influences and stresses her lifelong love of colour and pattern. Amongst other themes she considers the factual basis of most of her books and her lack of interest in fantasy; her preference for clear, simple prose; her constant shifts in style and…

  1. A French Speaking Proficiency Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimsleur, Paul

    An attempt to test students objectively in a five-part, French, speaking proficiency test is described and discussed. Concrete nouns, abstract words, pronunciation, syntax, and fluency are tested with a combination of tape and picture stimuli. Reliability, validity, and practical questions are raised; and previous aural-oral testing procedures are…

  2. Acculturators for French, Vol. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Tullio, Thomas, Ed.

    This set of teaching units, called acculturators, is designed to introduce French language students to that culture. The acculturators deal with gestures, customs, family life, daily habits, and other aspects of culture. The intent is to aid the student in becoming as much a part of the target culture as his psychological and intellectual…

  3. French String Grammar. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Univ., NY. Linguistic String Project.

    This work reports on an initial study of the possibility of providing a suitable framework for the teaching of a foreign language grammar through string analysis, using French as the target language. Analysis of a string word list (word-class sequences) yields an overall view of the grammar. Details are furnished in a set of restrictions which…

  4. 1975 Textbooks for French Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jack Davis

    Four 1975 textbooks for French civilization courses are cited including price, suggested level, format and a listing of contents. A review of one text follows: Rey and Santoni, "Quand les Francais parlent: Langue en contexte, culture en contraste," Newbury House Publishers. The reviewer states that this book is basically a sociological study of…

  5. French on the Advanced Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pawlik, Teresa Wilkinson

    1969-01-01

    Presented in this article is an outline of some of the special interest course work included in the curriculum guidelines being developed in the Atlanta Public Schools System for advanced secondary school French classes. Titles of the audiolingually-oriented courses described are--(1) "Teenagers and Teenage Life in France Today," (2) "The Arts in…

  6. Relationships Between Pharmacovigilance, Molecular, Structural, and Pathway Data: Revealing Mechanisms for Immune-Mediated Drug-Induced Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ho, SS; McLachlan, AJ; Chen, TF; Hibbs, DE; Fois, RA

    2015-01-01

    Immune-mediated drug-induced liver injury (IMDILI) can be devastating, irreversible, and fatal in the absence of successful transplantation surgery. We present a novel approach that combines the methods of pharmacoepidemiology with in silico molecular modeling to identify specific features in toxic ligands that are associated with clinical features of IMDILI. Specifically, from pharmacovigilance data multivariate logistic regression identified 18 drugs associated with IMDILI (P < 0.00015). Eleven of these drugs, along with their known and proposed metabolites, constituted a training set used to develop a four-point pharmacophore model (sensitivity 75%; specificity 85%). Subsequently, this information was combined with information from immune-pathway reviews and genetic-association studies and complemented with ligand-protein docking simulations to support a hypothesis implicating two putative targets within separate, possibly interacting, immune-system pathways: the major histocompatibility complex within the adaptive immune system and Toll-like receptors (TLRs), in particular TLR-7, which represent pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. PMID:26312166

  7. A research framework for pharmacovigilance in health social media: Identification and evaluation of patient adverse drug event reports.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Chen, Hsinchun

    2015-12-01

    Social media offer insights of patients' medical problems such as drug side effects and treatment failures. Patient reports of adverse drug events from social media have great potential to improve current practice of pharmacovigilance. However, extracting patient adverse drug event reports from social media continues to be an important challenge for health informatics research. In this study, we develop a research framework with advanced natural language processing techniques for integrated and high-performance patient reported adverse drug event extraction. The framework consists of medical entity extraction for recognizing patient discussions of drug and events, adverse drug event extraction with shortest dependency path kernel based statistical learning method and semantic filtering with information from medical knowledge bases, and report source classification to tease out noise. To evaluate the proposed framework, a series of experiments were conducted on a test bed encompassing about postings from major diabetes and heart disease forums in the United States. The results reveal that each component of the framework significantly contributes to its overall effectiveness. Our framework significantly outperforms prior work.

  8. Lessons Learned From Enhancing Vaccine Pharmacovigilance Activities During PsA-TT Introduction in African Countries, 2010–2013

    PubMed Central

    Diomandé, Fabien V. K.; Yaméogo, Téné M.; Vannice, Kirsten S.; Preziosi, Marie-Pierre; Viviani, Simonetta; Ouandaogo, Claude-Roger; Keita, Modibo; Djingarey, Mamoudou H.; Mbakuliyemo, Nehemie; Akanmori, Bartholomew Dicky; Sow, Samba O.; Zuber, Patrick L. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background. The rollout of the group A meningococcal vaccine, PsA-TT, in Africa's meningitis belt countries represented the first introduction of a vaccine specifically designed for this part of the world. During the first year alone, the number of people who received the vaccine through mass vaccination campaigns was several hundredfold higher than that of subjects who participated in the closely monitored clinical trials. Implementation of a system to identify rare but potentially serious vaccine reactions was therefore a high priority in the design and implementation of those campaigns. Methods. National authorities and their technical partners set up effective vaccine pharmacovigilance systems, including conducting active surveillance projects. Results. Implementation of national expert advisory groups to review serious adverse events following immunization in all countries and active monitoring of conditions of interest in 3 early-adopter countries did not identify particular concerns with the safety profile of PsA-TT, which had already provided tremendous public health benefits. Conclusions. Lessons learned from this experience will help to improve preparations for future vaccine introductions in resource-poor settings and capitalize on such efforts to advance vaccine safety systems in the future. PMID:26553675

  9. Text mining for pharmacovigilance: Using machine learning for drug name recognition and drug-drug interaction extraction and classification.

    PubMed

    Ben Abacha, Asma; Chowdhury, Md Faisal Mahbub; Karanasiou, Aikaterini; Mrabet, Yassine; Lavelli, Alberto; Zweigenbaum, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    Pharmacovigilance (PV) is defined by the World Health Organization as the science and activities related to the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects or any other drug-related problem. An essential aspect in PV is to acquire knowledge about Drug-Drug Interactions (DDIs). The shared tasks on DDI-Extraction organized in 2011 and 2013 have pointed out the importance of this issue and provided benchmarks for: Drug Name Recognition, DDI extraction and DDI classification. In this paper, we present our text mining systems for these tasks and evaluate their results on the DDI-Extraction benchmarks. Our systems rely on machine learning techniques using both feature-based and kernel-based methods. The obtained results for drug name recognition are encouraging. For DDI-Extraction, our hybrid system combining a feature-based method and a kernel-based method was ranked second in the DDI-Extraction-2011 challenge, and our two-step system for DDI detection and classification was ranked first in the DDI-Extraction-2013 task at SemEval. We discuss our methods and results and give pointers to future work. PMID:26432353

  10. Hepatotoxicity associated with agomelatine and other antidepressants: Disproportionality analysis using pooled pharmacovigilance data from the Uppsala Monitoring Centre.

    PubMed

    Gahr, Maximilian; Zeiss, René; Lang, Dirk; Connemann, Bernhard J; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos

    2015-07-01

    Since its marketing approval, the attention to the hepatic side-effect profile of the antidepressant agomelatine (AGM) has gradually increased. Several cases of severe hepatotoxic adverse drug reactions (ADR) have been reported and the European Medicines Agency has released a safety warning regarding AGM-associated hepatotoxicity. However, there are insufficient data for an adequate safety assessment of AGM-related hepatotoxicity. Therefore, we performed a quantitative signal detection analysis using pharmacovigilance data from the Uppsala Monitoring Centre from the WHO that records ADR data from worldwide sources; we calculated reporting odds ratios (ROR) as measures for disproportionality within a case/non-case approach for AGM and several other antidepressants. AGM was statistically associated with an increased risk of hepatotoxicity (ROR 6.4 [95%CI 5.7-7.2]) as well as both positive controls: amineptine (ROR 38.4 [95%CI 33.8-43.6]) and nefazodone (ROR 3.2 [95%CI 3.0-3.5]). Following amineptine, AGM was associated with the second highest ROR, followed by tianeptine (ROR 4.4 [95%CI 3.6-5.3]), mianserin (ROR 3.6 [95%CI 3.3-3.9]), and nefazodone. These results support the hypothesis that AGM is associated with relevant hepatotoxicity. However, the used data and applied method do not allow a quantitative evaluation of hepatotoxicity or assessment of substance-specific differences regarding the extent of hepatotoxicity. PMID:25650773

  11. Safety of disease-modifying drugs for multiple sclerosis in pregnancy: current challenges and future considerations for effective pharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ellen; Wang, Bing Wei; Guimond, Colleen; Synnes, Anne; Sadovnick, A Dessa; Dahlgren, Leanne; Traboulsee, Anthony; Tremlett, Helen

    2013-03-01

    When contemplating a pregnancy, women treated for multiple sclerosis (MS) with a disease-modifying drug must decide to discontinue their medication before conception or risk exposing their unborn child to potential drug toxicity. Few studies exist as reference for patients and physicians, and of those available, the majority are less than ideal due to real-world constraints, ethical issues and methodological shortcomings. The authors provide a brief summary of existing animal and human data with current recommendations regarding the safety of IFN-β, glatiramer acetate, natalizumab, mitoxantrone, fingolimod and teriflunomide during pregnancy and lactation in women with MS. We also assess the quality, strengths and limitations of the existing studies including challenges with study design. The investigation of outcomes such as spontaneous abortion and congenital anomalies are highlighted with potential methodological improvements for future studies on drug safety in pregnancy suggested. The authors explore the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the MS disease-modifying drugs for their possible mechanistic role in fetal harm and discuss the potential role of clinical trials. Future pharmacovigilance studies should continue to pursue multicenter collaboration with an emphasis on appropriate study design. PMID:23448215

  12. A research framework for pharmacovigilance in health social media: Identification and evaluation of patient adverse drug event reports.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiao; Chen, Hsinchun

    2015-12-01

    Social media offer insights of patients' medical problems such as drug side effects and treatment failures. Patient reports of adverse drug events from social media have great potential to improve current practice of pharmacovigilance. However, extracting patient adverse drug event reports from social media continues to be an important challenge for health informatics research. In this study, we develop a research framework with advanced natural language processing techniques for integrated and high-performance patient reported adverse drug event extraction. The framework consists of medical entity extraction for recognizing patient discussions of drug and events, adverse drug event extraction with shortest dependency path kernel based statistical learning method and semantic filtering with information from medical knowledge bases, and report source classification to tease out noise. To evaluate the proposed framework, a series of experiments were conducted on a test bed encompassing about postings from major diabetes and heart disease forums in the United States. The results reveal that each component of the framework significantly contributes to its overall effectiveness. Our framework significantly outperforms prior work. PMID:26518315

  13. Pharmacovigilance from social media: mining adverse drug reaction mentions using sequence labeling with word embedding cluster features

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Abeed; O’Connor, Karen; Ginn, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Objective Social media is becoming increasingly popular as a platform for sharing personal health-related information. This information can be utilized for public health monitoring tasks, particularly for pharmacovigilance, via the use of natural language processing (NLP) techniques. However, the language in social media is highly informal, and user-expressed medical concepts are often nontechnical, descriptive, and challenging to extract. There has been limited progress in addressing these challenges, and thus far, advanced machine learning-based NLP techniques have been underutilized. Our objective is to design a machine learning-based approach to extract mentions of adverse drug reactions (ADRs) from highly informal text in social media. Methods We introduce ADRMine, a machine learning-based concept extraction system that uses conditional random fields (CRFs). ADRMine utilizes a variety of features, including a novel feature for modeling words’ semantic similarities. The similarities are modeled by clustering words based on unsupervised, pretrained word representation vectors (embeddings) generated from unlabeled user posts in social media using a deep learning technique. Results ADRMine outperforms several strong baseline systems in the ADR extraction task by achieving an F-measure of 0.82. Feature analysis demonstrates that the proposed word cluster features significantly improve extraction performance. Conclusion It is possible to extract complex medical concepts, with relatively high performance, from informal, user-generated content. Our approach is particularly scalable, suitable for social media mining, as it relies on large volumes of unlabeled data, thus diminishing the need for large, annotated training data sets. PMID:25755127

  14. Stackfile Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    deVarvalho, Robert; Desai, Shailen D.; Haines, Bruce J.; Kruizinga, Gerhard L.; Gilmer, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This software provides storage retrieval and analysis functionality for managing satellite altimetry data. It improves the efficiency and analysis capabilities of existing database software with improved flexibility and documentation. It offers flexibility in the type of data that can be stored. There is efficient retrieval either across the spatial domain or the time domain. Built-in analysis tools are provided for frequently performed altimetry tasks. This software package is used for storing and manipulating satellite measurement data. It was developed with a focus on handling the requirements of repeat-track altimetry missions such as Topex and Jason. It was, however, designed to work with a wide variety of satellite measurement data [e.g., Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment -- GRACE). The software consists of several command-line tools for importing, retrieving, and analyzing satellite measurement data.

  15. French roots of French neo-lamarckisms, 1879-1985.

    PubMed

    Loison, Laurent

    2011-01-01

    This essay attempts to describe the neo-Lamarckian atmosphere that was dominant in French biology for more than a century. Firstly, we demonstrate that there were not one but at least two French neo-Lamarckian traditions. This implies, therefore, that it is possible to propose a clear definition of a (neo)Lamarckian conception, and by using it, to distinguish these two traditions. We will see that these two conceptions were not dominant at the same time. The first French neo-Lamarckism (1879-1931) was structured by a very mechanic view of natural processes. The main representatives of this first period were scientists such as Alfred Giard (1846-1908), Gaston Bonnier (1853-1922) and Félix Le Dantec (1869-1917). The second Lamarckism - much more vitalist in its inspiration - started to develop under the supervision of people such as Albert Vandel (1894-1980) and Pierre-Paul Grassé (1895-1985). Secondly, this essay suggests that the philosophical inclinations of these neo-Lamarckisms reactivated a very ancient and strong dichotomy of French thought. One part of this dichotomy is a material, physicalist tradition, which started with René Descartes but developed extensively during the 18th and 19th centuries. The other is a spiritual and vitalist reaction to the first one, which also had a very long history, though it is most closely associated with the work of Henri Bergson. Through Claude Bernard, the first neo-Lamarckians tried to construct a mechanical and determinist form of evolutionary theory which was, in effect, a Cartesian theory. The second wave of neo-Lamarckians wanted to reconsider the autonomy and reactivity of life forms, in contrast to purely physical systems.

  16. Database Marketplace 2002: The Database Universe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tenopir, Carol; Baker, Gayle; Robinson, William

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the database industry over the past year, including new companies and services, company closures, popular database formats, popular access methods, and changes in existing products and services. Lists 33 firms and their database services; 33 firms and their database products; and 61 company profiles. (LRW)

  17. Venus transits - A French view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Débarbat, Suzanne

    2005-04-01

    After a careful study of Mars observations obtained by Tycho Brahé (1546-1601), Kepler (1571-1630) discovered the now-called Kepler's third law. In 1627 he published his famous Tabulae Rudolphinae, a homage to his protector Rudolph II (1552-1612), tables (Kepler 1609, 1627) from which he predicted Mercury and Venus transits over the Sun. In 1629 Kepler published his Admonitio ad Astronomos Advertisement to Astronomers (Kepler 1630), Avertissement aux Astronomes in French Au sujet de phénomènes rares et étonnants de l'an 1631: l'incursion de Vénus et de Mercure sur le Soleil. This was the beginning of the interest of French astronomers, among many others, in such transits, mostly for Venus, the subject of this paper in which dates are given in the Gregorian calendar.

  18. [Underreporting adverse drug reactions--limitations of the Dutch Hospital Data database].

    PubMed

    Dijkers, Fred W

    2013-01-01

    Data of adverse drug reaction (ADR)-related hospitalizations derived from the Dutch Hospital Data database with reasons for hospitalization have a limited value since they are incomplete. This is attributed to underreporting and misclassification. It seems that caregivers are not careful in registering ADRs. Since 2005, many instruments (rules and agreements) have been devised to promote the safety of medical therapy. It is uncertain whether these instruments will diminish the number of ADR-related hospitalizations. Having a lot of rules is no guarantee that the process will improve. In the vast majority of the rules and agreements, patients have only a modest position. Yet they can play an important role in pharmacovigilance as is shown in a study of web-based intensive monitoring of adverse drug reactions.

  19. Evaluation of gemtuzumab ozogamycin associated sinusoidal obstructive syndrome: Findings from an academic pharmacovigilance program review and a pharmaceutical sponsored registry

    PubMed Central

    Magwood-Golston, Jametta S.; Kessler, Samuel; Bennett, Charles L.

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2000, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved gemtuzumab ozogamycin for monotherapy for older patients with relapsed AML. A 0.9% rate of hepatic sinusoidal obstructive syndrome (SOS) was noted in licensing trials. In 2001, FDA received reports of 14 GO-associated SOS cases from MD Anderson Cancer Center. A State of South Carolina/National Cancer Institute funded pharmacovigilance program and a manufacturer sponsored registry independently evaluated this concern. Methods The manufacturer’s registry and the academic program focused on risk factors and incidence of GO-associated SOS in routine clinical practice and clinical trial settings, respectively. Comparisons were made of findings and dissemination efforts from the two studies. Results Retrospective analysis of clinical trials by the academic initiative identified 99 cases of SOS among 221 GO-treated stem cell patients and 649 patients who did not undergo HSCTs. SOS rates were 3% when GO was administered at doses ≤6 mg/m2 as monotherapy or with non-hepatotoxic agents; 28% when administered with 6-thioguanine, a hepatotoxic agent; 15% when administered as monotherapy at doses at a dose of 9 mg/m2, and between 15% and 40% if a stem cell transplant (SCT) was performed within 3 months of GO administration. Death from SOS occurred in 33% of the cases. The manufacturer’s registry prospectively evaluated 482 GO-treated patients who received a mean dose of 7.8 mg/m2. Overall, 41% received concomitant chemotherapy, 18% had undergone prior SCT, 9.1% developed SOS, and death from SOS occurred in 60% of the SOS cases. Findings from each initiative were disseminated at national conferences and in peer-reviewed manuscripts beginning in 2003. Conclusion Retrospective review of clinical trials, case series, and FDA reports and prospective registries can provide important information on safety signals initially identified in licensing trials. PMID:27030962

  20. A Glossary of Agricultural Terms. English-French, French-English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Univ., Washington, DC. American Language Center.

    This volume consists of two glossaries of agricultural terms, one English-French, the other French-English. The terms provided deal with animals, plants, crop cultivation, animal husbandry and agricultural technology. (CLK)

  1. Histoplasma capsulatum in Cayenne, French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Moquet, Olivier; Blanchet, Denis; Simon, Stéphane; Veron, Vincent; Michel, Myriam; Aznar, Christine

    2012-10-01

    We carried out a soil sampling survey in September 2008 in central Cayenne, French Guiana, using molecular methods to assess the presence of the dimorphic fungus Histoplasma capsulatum. Four of the 31 samples collected (12.9 %) tested positive by PCR, with confirmation of the result by DNA sequencing. H. capsulatum is therefore present in urban environments in French Guiana. These results provide additional support for the primary prophylaxis of AIDS-related histoplasmosis in French Guiana.

  2. Appropriating Written French: Literacy Practices in a Parisian Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Elsie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I examine French language instruction in an elementary classroom serving primarily children of Afro-French immigrants in Paris. I show that a prevalent French language ideology privileges written over oral expression and associates full mastery of written French with rational thought and full inclusion in the French polity. This…

  3. Overlap in Bibliographic Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hood, William W.; Wilson, Concepcion S.

    2003-01-01

    Examines the topic of Fuzzy Set Theory to determine the overlap of coverage in bibliographic databases. Highlights include examples of comparisons of database coverage; frequency distribution of the degree of overlap; records with maximum overlap; records unique to one database; intra-database duplicates; and overlap in the top ten databases.…

  4. Retention of New Teachers in Minority French and French Immersion Programs in Manitoba

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewart, Gestny

    2009-01-01

    There is a shortage of teachers in Canada qualified to teach in French; some researchers have suggested that this shortage is due to attrition. This study examined the retention in Manitoba of new teachers qualified to teach in French. Participants were 130 graduates from the only French teacher education program in the province. Attrition was…

  5. Current developments in French ethnopsychoanalysis.

    PubMed

    Sturm, Gesine; Nadig, Maya; Moro, Marie Rose

    2011-07-01

    French ethnopsychoanalytic approaches to therapy with immigrants combine the psychoanalytical interest in subjectivity with a specific concern for cultural factors and with the role migration plays as a crucial life event. Recent approaches consider culture as profoundly hybrid and use the notions of ''métissage'' and ''décentrage'' as central concepts. This article presents extracts from a qualitative study of ethnopsychoanalytic therapies with immigrant families. The authors argue that the ethnopsychoanalytic approach helps to open new ways of considering cultural hybridity and create a third space where experiences ''from the margins'' may be verbalized.

  6. [The French lessons of anatomy].

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Alain

    2003-01-01

    The "Lessons of Anatomy" can be considered as a step of Medicine to Art. For several centuries the exhibition of a corpse's dissection was printed on the title-page of published works. Since the seventeenth century, the "Lessons of Anatomy" became a picture on the title-page in order to highlight the well-known names of the european anatomists. The study is limited to the French Lessons of Anatomy found in books or pictures after the invention of printing. PMID:14626253

  7. A Search Engine to Access PubMed Monolingual Subsets: Proof of Concept and Evaluation in French

    PubMed Central

    Schuers, Matthieu; Soualmia, Lina Fatima; Grosjean, Julien; Kerdelhué, Gaétan; Kergourlay, Ivan; Dahamna, Badisse; Darmoni, Stéfan Jacques

    2014-01-01

    Background PubMed contains numerous articles in languages other than English. However, existing solutions to access these articles in the language in which they were written remain unconvincing. Objective The aim of this study was to propose a practical search engine, called Multilingual PubMed, which will permit access to a PubMed subset in 1 language and to evaluate the precision and coverage for the French version (Multilingual PubMed-French). Methods To create this tool, translations of MeSH were enriched (eg, adding synonyms and translations in French) and integrated into a terminology portal. PubMed subsets in several European languages were also added to our database using a dedicated parser. The response time for the generic semantic search engine was evaluated for simple queries. BabelMeSH, Multilingual PubMed-French, and 3 different PubMed strategies were compared by searching for literature in French. Precision and coverage were measured for 20 randomly selected queries. The results were evaluated as relevant to title and abstract, the evaluator being blind to search strategy. Results More than 650,000 PubMed citations in French were integrated into the Multilingual PubMed-French information system. The response times were all below the threshold defined for usability (2 seconds). Two search strategies (Multilingual PubMed-French and 1 PubMed strategy) showed high precision (0.93 and 0.97, respectively), but coverage was 4 times higher for Multilingual PubMed-French. Conclusions It is now possible to freely access biomedical literature using a practical search tool in French. This tool will be of particular interest for health professionals and other end users who do not read or query sufficiently in English. The information system is theoretically well suited to expand the approach to other European languages, such as German, Spanish, Norwegian, and Portuguese. PMID:25448528

  8. Essentials for starting a pediatric clinical study (4): Clinical pediatric safety planning based on preclinical toxicity studies and pediatric pharmacovigilance guidance.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Neha

    2009-01-01

    Juvenile toxicology studies in animals provide useful information to guide monitoring of potential adverse effects in children especially on growth and development. In order to continue to gain knowledge and build upon these preclinical studies, recent experience has suggested that additional approaches for monitoring of safety concerns in the pediatric population may be required. Recently, pediatric guidance has become available from the health authorities which provide pharmacovigilance concepts as they specifically relate to drugs being developed for pediatric indications. Clinical trials are typically not robust enough to detect rare or delayed safety effects as the pediatric trials are relatively short-term. Furthermore, such long term or rare effects may not be detected via standard voluntary postmarketing surveillance. Safety monitoring of children with Juvenile Inflammatory Arthritis (JIA) taking nonsteroid anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)s will be used as an example to describe a post-marketing risk management and pharmacovigilance program that serves to better evaluate safety data from various sources. The intent of this program is to identify adverse events (AE), including events with longer latency, which may be associated with NSAID use in a pediatric population. In this presentation, the 4 major components of the program are to be addressed. Such a program may serve as a model to proactively generate and monitor safety data in order to identify AEs that may be associated with new therapeutics for a pediatric population. PMID:19571487

  9. Photocopy of photograph (from Mrs. Martin, grandniece of John French, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (from Mrs. Martin, grandniece of John French, Clinton, Missouri) Circa 1900, photographer unknown JOHN AND ALMIRA FRENCH IN FRONT OF WEST AND SOUTH FACADES - John French Farm, South Grand River, Deepwater, Henry County, MO

  10. Aerodynamic characteristics of French consonants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demolin, Didier; Hassid, Sergio; Soquet, Alain

    2001-05-01

    This paper reports some aerodynamic measurements made on French consonants with a group of ten speakers. Speakers were recorded while saying nonsense words in phrases such as papa, dis papa encore. The nonsense words in the study combined each of the French consonants with three vowels /i, a, u/ to from two syllables words with the first syllable being the same as the second. In addition to the audio signal, recordings were made of the oral airflow, the pressure of the air in the pharynx above the vocal folds and the pressure of the air in the trachea just below the vocal folds. The pharyngeal pressure was recorded via a catheter (i.d. 5 mm) passed through the nose so that its open end could be seen in the pharynx below the uvula. The subglottal pressure was recorded via a tracheal puncture between the first and the second rings of the trachea or between the cricoid cartilage and the first tracheal ring. Results compare subglottal presssure, pharyngeal pressure, and airflow values. Comparisons are made between values obtained with male and female subjects and various types of consonants (voiced versus voiceless at the same place of articulation, stops, fricatives, and nasals).

  11. French Basic Course: Supplementary Material. Song Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This song book is presented as supplementary material for the French Basic Course. It provides the words to 36 French songs. The songs are divided into five categories: (1) military songs, (2) sea songs, (3) drinking songs, (4) folklore songs, and (5) Christmas carols. (AMH)

  12. A Mini-Film on French Kinesics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Joel

    This paper describes a silent film made by the author which illustrates various French gestures. The format is Super 8, and the film lasts five minutes. The script is given, along with an English translation. The story concerns several French students at an outdoor cafe wondering about one of their friends. The conversation includes 10 typical…

  13. French-African Cultures: A Resource Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Barbara

    This resource unit concerns French-African cultures and their influence on other cultures. The materials may be incorporated into Levels 3, 4, and 5 French classes. Topics in the outline include environmental aspects; historical background; and cultural differences expressed in Senegal, Guinee, Mali, Cote d'Ivoire, Haute Volta, Togo, Dahomey,…

  14. Gender Differences in Motivation to Learn French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kissau, Scott

    2006-01-01

    There is concern among second language educators in Canada that male students are losing interest in studying French as a second language (FSL). In response, in the fall of 2003, a study was conducted to investigate gender differences in second language (L2) motivation among Grade 9 core French students. Building upon the traditional model of L2…

  15. Metropolitan French: Familiarization & Short-Term Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iszkowski, Marie-Charlotte

    The U.S. Department of State's Foreign Service Institute French Familiarization and Short-Term (FAST) course for personnel working and living in France consists of 10 weeks of French language instruction combined with practical and cultural information. An introductory section outlines FAST course objectives and sample teaching techniques in…

  16. A University Course in French for Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaughton, F.; Todd, A.

    1993-01-01

    Examines language research conducted at Napier. The objective of this research program was to improve the teaching of scientific and technical French that had been identified as a requirement for the specialist groups of scientists, doctors, and engineers interested in the use of French language in their work. (CK)

  17. Reading Speed of Contracted French Braille

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laroche, Louise; Boule, Jacinthe; Wittich, Walter

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to address three hypotheses: (1) The reading speed of both readers of French braille and readers of French print will be faster in the silent condition; however, this gain in speed will be larger for print readers; (2) Individuals who acquired braille before age 10 will display faster reading speeds at lower error rates…

  18. French for Health and Social Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crochet, Monique Y.

    In response to a need for a college textbook that would be appropriate for a course in French for health and social services professionals, an anthology was developed for second semester intermediate or third year students of French. The book and course are intended to meet the linguistic needs of current and future health care professionals and…

  19. A Modern Curriculum in French Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Robert J.

    The French department, commonly viewed by chairmen and faculty as the conveyor of culture, is admonished to revamp its curriculum and attempt to embrace a broader, more humane understanding of the nature of culture. With the traditional, belletristic, college French curriculum having been rejected in favor of programs based on "cogency, cohesion,…

  20. Reading Interests in French of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Ann C.

    This paper describes an investigation conducted to determine student preferences for types of reading content in the study of French. The subjects were 438 students enrolled in elementary French courses in five universities. Reading interests were determined with a questionnaire consisting of brief descriptions of thirty items representing five…

  1. French Phonology for Teachers: A Programmed Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Jerald R.; Poulin, Norman A.

    This programed, self-instructional course has the following terminal objectives: (1) to present some notions of the science of linguistics and the major branches of linguistics, (2) to teach the segmental and suprasegmental phonemes of French, (3) to identify the major articulatory problems of French for the native speaker of English, (4) to…

  2. The French Regions and Their Social Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jany-Catrice, Florence

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a new indicator designed to capture the multidimensionality of the social health of the French regions is put to the test. Drawing on regional data for 2004, this indicator of social health (ISH) sheds new light on the social performance of the French regions. The worst performers are the highly urbanised regions, whereas others,…

  3. Act Up-Paris: French Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    The francophone world has always been at the center of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. From the mythical (French Canadian) "patient zero," Gaetan Dugas, to Rock Hudson's flight to Paris for medical treatment and the blaming of Haiti for AIDS, as well as the close relationships between Belgian and French and their former African colonies, underscores the…

  4. Le Francais Courant (Contemporary French), Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This course has been developed basically within the limits of Units 4-6 of "A-LM French: Level 1", second edition. The primary objectives are to develop French vocabulary relative to the family, home, transportation, and foods by continuing to work with short dialogues based on everyday, teenage experiences. While reviewing previously studied…

  5. French Higher Education: A Cartoon Essay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Matthew Henry

    2012-01-01

    In this cartoon essay, the author shares his experience from a travel to Paris to see the French higher education system. From his travel, he learned that in France, "degree" inflation may be an issue, but not grade inflation. On the flight home, the author reflects how French and American academics answer one question about the state of higher…

  6. Developing the Curriculum for Intensive French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Netten, Joan; Germain, Claude

    2004-01-01

    This article describes the way in which the curriculum for intensive French was developed. Reference is made to its similarities to and differences from both the multidimensional curriculum proposed by the National Core French Study and the communicative approach. The importance of learning outcomes stated in terms of communicative outcomes…

  7. French Romanticism and Napoleon's "Geometric Men."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Robert A.

    1982-01-01

    French intellectual thought changed during the Napoleonic Era. The effects of the Enlightenment philosophers, the French Revolution, the Industrial Revolution, and Romanticism on the development of Napoleon's philosophical outlook are used to illustrate the changes occurring in France as a whole in the early nineteenth century. (AM)

  8. Les affaires "en francais" (Business "In French").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanko, Helene N.

    1993-01-01

    A French brochure entitled "700 Current Words for Business" was developed to familiarize the business community with modern French business vocabulary and avoid intrusion of terminology from other languages. Some terms are neologisms. Translations from Latin, Japanese, and English illustrate the etymology and morphological patterns of some idioms…

  9. Risk of gastrointestinal complications associated to NSAIDs, low-dose aspirin and their combinations: Results of a pharmacovigilance reporting system.

    PubMed

    Rafaniello, Concetta; Ferrajolo, Carmen; Sullo, Maria Giuseppa; Sessa, Maurizio; Sportiello, Liberata; Balzano, Antonio; Manguso, Francesco; Aiezza, Maria Luisa; Rossi, Francesco; Scarpignato, Carmelo; Capuano, Annalisa

    2016-02-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) complications are one of the most limiting cause of use of NSAIDs. Beyond others well defined factors, history of peptic ulcer, older age, Helicobacter pylori infection and use of gastrotoxic drugs may affect their GI safety profile. In particular, the risk of GI complications associated to the use of antiplatelet drugs, especially low-dose acetylsalicylic acid (LDA) should deserve much attention. However, only few studies have focused on the effect of combination LDA/NSAIDs on the GI tract compared with the monotherapy and much less studies assessed this effect with multiple NSAIDs use. We aimed to characterize the GI safety profile of NSAIDs and LDA as monotherapy or their combinations in real-life conditions by analysing spontaneous adverse drug reactions (ADRs) reporting system in a Southern Italy. We used the case/non-case method in the Italian Pharmacovigilance Network (RNF). Cases were reports of GI events in the RNF between January 2007 and December 2011. Non-cases were all other reports during the same period. The association between NSAID and suspected GI ADRs was calculated using the reporting odds ratio (ROR) with 95% confidence intervals as a measure of disproportionality while adjusting for age, and concomitant use of antineoplastic agents or drugs for cardiovascular diseases. Sub-analysis were performed within the NSAID class. Among the 2816 adverse drug reactions recorded, we identified 374 (13.3%) cases of GI complications. Upper GI complications were the most frequently reported type of events. The highest associations were found for the combined use of NSAIDs and/or LDA, whilst the lowest associations were for their respective monotherapy. Looking at individual NSAIDs the highest association with GI events was observed for ketorolac exposure followed by nimesulide, diclofenac, aspirin, ketoprofen, and ibuprofen. This study highlights the primary role of the national spontaneous reporting system to bring out potential signals

  10. Public perceptions of the pharmaceutical industry and drug safety: implications for the pharmacovigilance professional and the culture of safety.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Axel K; Whalen, Matthew D

    2009-01-01

    individuals and healthcare providers to track and report safety-related events involving approved and unapproved indications and medication errors. Pharmacovigilance professionals provide the foundation upon which the principles of the culture of safety can be built.

  11. The French network of hydrogeological sites H+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davy, P.; Le Borgne, T.; Bour, O.; Gautier, S.; Porel, G.; Bodin, J.; de Dreuzy, J.; Pezard, P.

    2008-12-01

    For groundwater issues (potential leakages in waste repository, aquifer management "), the development of modeling techniques is far ahead of the actual knowledge of aquifers. This raises two fundamental issues: 1) which and how much data are necessary to make predictions accurate enough for aquifer management issues; 2) which models remain relevant to describe the heterogeneity and complexity of geological systems. The French observatory H+ was created in 2002 with the twofold motivation of acquiring a large database for validating models of heterogeneous aquifers, and of surveying groundwater quality evolution in the context of environmental changes. H+ is a network of 4 sites (Ploemeur, Brittany, France; HES Poitiers, France; Cadarache, France; Campos, Mallorca, Spain) with different geological, climatic, and economic contexts. All of them are characterized by a highly heterogeneous structure (fractured crystalline basement for Ploemeur, karstified and fractured limestone for Poitiers, Cadarache and Mallorca), which is far to be taken into account by basic models. Ploemeur is exploited as a tap-water plant for a medium-size coastal city (15,000 inhabitants) for 20 years. Each site is developed for long term investigation and monitoring. They involves a dense network of boreholes, detailed geological and geophysical surveys, periodic campaigns and/or permanent measurements of groundwater flow, water chemistry, geophysical signals (including ground motions), climatic parameter, etc. Several large-scale flow experiments are scheduled per year to investigate the aquifer structure with combined geophysical, hydrogeological, and geochemical instruments. All this information is recorded in a database that has been developed to improve the sustainability and quality of data, and to be used as a collaborative tool for both site researchers and modelers. This project lasts now for 5 years. It is a short time to collect the amount of information necessary to apprehend the

  12. Complete Nucleotide Sequence of a French Isolate of Maize rough dwarf virus, a Fijivirus Member in the Family Reoviridae

    PubMed Central

    Svanella-Dumas, L.; Marais, A.; Faure, C.; Theil, S.; Thibord, J. B.

    2016-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a French isolate of Maize rough dwarf virus (MRDV) was determined by next-generation sequencing and compared with the single available complete sequence and with the partial sequences of two additional isolates available in online databases. PMID:27445367

  13. Possible Pedagogical Applications of a Talking Computer Terminal for the French-Speaking Blind to Foreign Language Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trescases, Pierre

    A computer system developed as a database access facilitator for the blind is found to have application to foreign language instruction, specifically in teaching French to speakers of English. The computer is programmed to translate symbols from the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) into appropriate phonemes for whatever language is being…

  14. A new data management system for the French National Registry of human alveolar echinococcosis cases

    PubMed Central

    Charbonnier, Amandine; Knapp, Jenny; Demonmerot, Florent; Bresson-Hadni, Solange; Raoul, Francis; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Millon, Laurence; Vuitton, Dominique Angèle; Damy, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is an endemic zoonosis in France due to the cestode Echinococcus multilocularis. The French National Reference Centre for Alveolar Echinococcosis (CNR-EA), connected to the FrancEchino network, is responsible for recording all AE cases diagnosed in France. Administrative, epidemiological and medical information on the French AE cases may currently be considered exhaustive only on the diagnosis time. To constitute a reference data set, an information system (IS) was developed thanks to a relational database management system (MySQL language). The current data set will evolve towards a dynamic surveillance system, including follow-up data (e.g. imaging, serology) and will be connected to environmental and parasitological data relative to E. multilocularis to better understand the pathogen transmission pathway. A particularly important goal is the possible interoperability of the IS with similar European and other databases abroad; this new IS could play a supporting role in the creation of new AE registries. PMID:25526544

  15. Databases: Beyond the Basics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittaker, Robert

    This presented paper offers an elementary description of database characteristics and then provides a survey of databases that may be useful to the teacher and researcher in Slavic and East European languages and literatures. The survey focuses on commercial databases that are available, usable, and needed. Individual databases discussed include:…

  16. Reflective Database Access Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lars E.

    2009-01-01

    "Reflective Database Access Control" (RDBAC) is a model in which a database privilege is expressed as a database query itself, rather than as a static privilege contained in an access control list. RDBAC aids the management of database access controls by improving the expressiveness of policies. However, such policies introduce new interactions…

  17. The Amma-Sat Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramage, K.; Desbois, M.; Eymard, L.

    2004-12-01

    The African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis project is a French initiative, which aims at identifying and analysing in details the multidisciplinary and multi-scales processes that lead to a better understanding of the physical mechanisms linked to the African Monsoon. The main components of the African Monsoon are: Atmospheric Dynamics, the Continental Water Cycle, Atmospheric Chemistry, Oceanic and Continental Surface Conditions. Satellites contribute to various objectives of the project both for process analysis and for large scale-long term studies: some series of satellites (METEOSAT, NOAA,.) have been flown for more than 20 years, ensuring a good quality monitoring of some of the West African atmosphere and surface characteristics. Moreover, several recent missions, and several projects will strongly improve and complement this survey. The AMMA project offers an opportunity to develop the exploitation of satellite data and to make collaboration between specialist and non-specialist users. In this purpose databases are being developed to collect all past and future satellite data related to the African Monsoon. It will then be possible to compare different types of data from different resolution, to validate satellite data with in situ measurements or numerical simulations. AMMA-SAT database main goal is to offer an easy access to satellite data to the AMMA scientific community. The database contains geophysical products estimated from operational or research algorithms and covering the different components of the AMMA project. Nevertheless, the choice has been made to group data within pertinent scales rather than within their thematic. In this purpose, five regions of interest where defined to extract the data: An area covering Tropical Atlantic and Africa for large scale studies, an area covering West Africa for mesoscale studies and three local areas surrounding sites of in situ observations. Within each of these regions satellite data are projected on

  18. Human Mitochondrial Protein Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 131 Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (Web, free access)   The Human Mitochondrial Protein Database (HMPDb) provides comprehensive data on mitochondrial and human nuclear encoded proteins involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and function. This database consolidates information from SwissProt, LocusLink, Protein Data Bank (PDB), GenBank, Genome Database (GDB), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM), Human Mitochondrial Genome Database (mtDB), MITOMAP, Neuromuscular Disease Center and Human 2-D PAGE Databases. This database is intended as a tool not only to aid in studying the mitochondrion but in studying the associated diseases.

  19. French Project For Operational Oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pouliquen, S.; Petit de La Villéon, L.; Carval, T.; Loaec, G.; Gourmelen, L.; Desaubies, Y.; Coriolis, A.

    2003-04-01

    The seven French agencies concerned by ocean research are developing together a strong capability in operational oceanography based on a triad including satellite altimetry (JASON), numerical modelling with assimilation (MERCATOR), and in situ data (CORIOLIS). The CORIOLIS project aims to build a pre-operational structure to collect, valid and distribute ocean data (temperature/salinity profiles and current speeds) to the scientific community and modellers. CORIOLIS aims at four goals : (1) To build up a data management centre, part of the ARGO network for the GODAE experiment, able to provide quality-controlled data in real time and delay modes. (2) To contribute to ARGO floats deployment mainly in the Atlantic with about 250 floats during the 2001-2004 period. (3) To develop and improve profiling ARGO floats. PROVOR is a self-ballasted float, able to drift at a user-defined parking depth and then to dive to 2000m before profiling up to the surface where data are transmitted using the Argos system. More than 100 cycles can be performed during its 3-year lifetime. (4) To integrate into CORIOLIS all other data presently collected at sea by French agencies from surface drifting buoys, PIRATA anchored buoys, oceanographic research vessels (XBT, thermosalinograph and ADCP transmitted on a daily basis). CORIOLIS data centre, already one of the two global data centres for ARGO, and aims to be an important partner in projects within GMES et 6th PRCD calls. In 2004, recommendations will be done to transform the CORIOLIS activity into a permanent, routinely contribution to ocean measurement, in accordance with international plans which will follow the ARGO/GODAE experiment.

  20. Preparation for International Business: A Cultural Immersion Model in French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Martin, Gerry

    A Salisbury State University (Maryland) program integrating intensive French language and business administration instruction is described. In its pilot, the program had 11 students, all but 1 drawn from French language classes; one was a native speaker. The French portion was taught in the morning by two French professors, and the business…

  1. Research Perspectives on Core French: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapkin, Sharon; Mady, Callie; Arnott, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the research literature on core French in three main areas: student diversity, delivery models for the core French program, and instructional approaches. These topics are put into context through a discussion of studies on community attitudes to French as a second language (FSL), dissatisfaction with core French outcomes and…

  2. Signal Detection of Adverse Drug Reaction of Amoxicillin Using the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System Database

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We conducted pharmacovigilance data mining for a β-lactam antibiotics, amoxicillin, and compare the adverse events (AEs) with the drug labels of 9 countries including Korea, USA, UK, Japan, Germany, Swiss, Italy, France, and Laos. We used the Korea Adverse Event Reporting System (KAERS) database, a nationwide database of AE reports, between December 1988 and June 2014. Frequentist and Bayesian methods were used to calculate disproportionality distribution of drug-AE pairs. The AE which was detected by all the three indices of proportional reporting ratio (PRR), reporting odds ratio (ROR), and information component (IC) was defined as a signal. The KAERS database contained a total of 807,582 AE reports, among which 1,722 reports were attributed to amoxicillin. Among the 192,510 antibiotics-AE pairs, the number of amoxicillin-AE pairs was 2,913. Among 241 AEs, 52 adverse events were detected as amoxicillin signals. Comparing the drug labels of 9 countries, 12 adverse events including ineffective medicine, bronchitis, rhinitis, sinusitis, dry mouth, gastroesophageal reflux, hypercholesterolemia, gastric carcinoma, abnormal crying, induration, pulmonary carcinoma, and influenza-like symptoms were not listed on any of the labels of nine countries. In conclusion, we detected 12 new signals of amoxicillin which were not listed on the labels of 9 countries. Therefore, it should be followed by signal evaluation including causal association, clinical significance, and preventability. PMID:27510377

  3. Le Francais quand meme (French Nonetheless).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delautier, Jean-Marie

    1983-01-01

    Political, attitudinal, and administrative problems of teaching compulsory foreign languages in Colombia are described and discussed from the point of view of a French teacher in a system characterized by confusion and lack of student interest. (MSE)

  4. Planthopper pests of grapevine (in French)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the French vineyards occur two main insect pests belonging to Fulgoromorpha, Hyalesthes obsoletus Signoret (Cixiidae) and Metcalfa pruinosa (Say) (Flatidae). Hyalesthes obsoletus is inducing economic losses by transmitting a phytoplasma, called Stolbur, from wild plants (bindweed, nettle, etc.) t...

  5. Daniel Chester French: The Artist as Historian.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Willadene

    1982-01-01

    Describes the life and extensive work of the American sculptor, Daniel Chester French, whose statues have come to symbolize the spirit of America. His works include the Lincoln Memorial and the Minute Man. (AM)

  6. A Local Evaluation of Primary School French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, J. D.; Welsh, Jennifer

    1972-01-01

    A local study concludes that primary school French does not confer a lasting advantage but its contribution lies in the enlargement of interest rather that as a preparation for secondary school work. (JB)

  7. FRIPON, the French fireball network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colas, F.; Zanda, B.; Bouley, S.; Vaubaillon, J.; Marmo, C.; Audureau, Y.; Kwon, M. K.; Rault, J. L.; Caminade, S.; Vernazza, P.; Gattacceca, J.; Birlan, M.; Maquet, L.; Egal, A.; Rotaru, M.; Gruson-Daniel, Y.; Birnbaum, C.; Cochard, F.; Thizy, O.

    2015-10-01

    FRIPON (Fireball Recovery and InterPlanetary Observation Network) [4](Colas et al, 2014) was recently founded by ANR (Agence Nationale de la Recherche). Its aim is to connect meteoritical science with asteroidal and cometary science in order to better understand solar system formation and evolution. The main idea is to set up an observation network covering all the French territory to collect a large number of meteorites (one or two per year) with accurate orbits, allowing us to pinpoint possible parent bodies. 100 all-sky cameras will be installed at the end of 2015 forming a dense network with an average distance of 100km between stations. To maximize the accuracy of orbit determination, we will mix our optical data with radar data from the GRAVES beacon received by 25 stations [5](Rault et al, 2015). As both the setting up of the network and the creation of search teams for meteorites will need manpower beyond our small team of professionals, we are developing a citizen science network called Vigie-Ciel [6](Zanda et al, 2015). The public at large will thus be able to simply use our data, participate in search campaigns or even setup their own cameras.

  8. Pharmacovigilance using Clinical Text

    PubMed Central

    LePendu, Paea; Iyer, Srinivasan V; Bauer-Mehren, Anna; Harpaz, Rave; Ghebremariam, Yohannes T; Cooke, John P; Shah, Nigam H

    2013-01-01

    The current state of the art in post-marketing drug surveillance utilizes voluntarily submitted reports of suspected adverse drug reactions. We present data mining methods that transform unstructured patient notes taken by doctors, nurses and other clinicians into a de-identified, temporally ordered, patient-feature matrix using standardized medical terminologies. We demonstrate how to use the resulting high-throughput data to monitor for adverse drug events based on the clinical notes in the EHR. PMID:24303315

  9. Pharmacovigilance in radiopharmaceuticals

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rishi; Kalaiselvan, Vivekanandan; Kumar, Rakesh; Verma, Ravendra; Singh, Gyanendra Nath

    2016-01-01

    Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission is Committed for maintaining the standards of drugs including Radiopharmaceuticals (RPs) by publishing Indian Pharmacopoeia. These RPs are being used in India for diagnostic or therapeutic purpose. RPs though contain relatively small quantities of active ingredient and administered in small volumes could cause some adverse reactions to the patients. The objective of presenting this article is to introduce the system of adverse drug reaction reporting to the nuclear medicine fraternity who are dealing with RPs. PMID:27095855

  10. Physiological Information Database (PID)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a physiological information database (created using Microsoft ACCESS) intended to be used in PBPK modeling. The database contains physiological parameter values for humans from early childhood through senescence as well as similar data for laboratory animal spec...

  11. Network II Database

    1994-11-07

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Rail and Barge Network II Database is a representation of the rail and barge system of the United States. The network is derived from the Federal Rail Administration (FRA) rail database.

  12. THE ECOTOX DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The database provides chemical-specific toxicity information for aquatic life, terrestrial plants, and terrestrial wildlife. ECOTOX is a comprehensive ecotoxicology database and is therefore essential for providing and suppoirting high quality models needed to estimate population...

  13. Household Products Database: Pesticides

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Types of Products Manufacturers Ingredients About the Database FAQ Product Recalls Help Glossary Contact Us More ... holders. Information is extracted from Consumer Product Information Database ©2001-2015 by DeLima Associates. All rights reserved. ...

  14. French vertical-flow constructed wetland design: adaptations for tropical climates.

    PubMed

    Molle, P; Latune, R Lombard; Riegel, C; Lacombe, G; Esser, D; Mangeot, L

    2015-01-01

    The French Outermost Regions are under tropical climate yet still have to comply with both French and EU regulations. French vertical-flow constructed wetland systems appear well adapted to the technical specifics of these regions but their adaptation to tropical climate requires new design guidelines to be defined (area needed, number of filters, type of plants, material to be used, etc.). A study was started in 2008, with backing from the national water authorities, to implement full-scale experimental sites and assess the impacts of local context on design and performances. This paper reports the monitoring results on three vertical-flow constructed wetlands fed directly with raw wastewater (known as the 'French system') in Mayotte and French Guiana. The plants, now in operation for between 1 and 6 years, range from 160 to 480 population equivalent (p.e.). Monitoring consisted of 28 daily composite flow samples in different seasons (dry season, rainy season) at the inlet and outlet of each filter. Performances are benchmarked against French mainland area standards from Irstea's database. Results show that performances are improved by warmer temperature for chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and satisfy national quality objectives with a single stage of filters. Treatment plant footprint can thus be reduced as only two parallel filters are needed. Indeed, warm temperatures allow faster mineralization of the sludge deposit, making it possible to operate at similar rest and feeding period durations. Systems operated using one twin-filter stage can achieve over 90% COD, SS and TKN removal for a total surface of 0.8 m²/p.e.

  15. French vertical-flow constructed wetland design: adaptations for tropical climates.

    PubMed

    Molle, P; Latune, R Lombard; Riegel, C; Lacombe, G; Esser, D; Mangeot, L

    2015-01-01

    The French Outermost Regions are under tropical climate yet still have to comply with both French and EU regulations. French vertical-flow constructed wetland systems appear well adapted to the technical specifics of these regions but their adaptation to tropical climate requires new design guidelines to be defined (area needed, number of filters, type of plants, material to be used, etc.). A study was started in 2008, with backing from the national water authorities, to implement full-scale experimental sites and assess the impacts of local context on design and performances. This paper reports the monitoring results on three vertical-flow constructed wetlands fed directly with raw wastewater (known as the 'French system') in Mayotte and French Guiana. The plants, now in operation for between 1 and 6 years, range from 160 to 480 population equivalent (p.e.). Monitoring consisted of 28 daily composite flow samples in different seasons (dry season, rainy season) at the inlet and outlet of each filter. Performances are benchmarked against French mainland area standards from Irstea's database. Results show that performances are improved by warmer temperature for chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS) and total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) and satisfy national quality objectives with a single stage of filters. Treatment plant footprint can thus be reduced as only two parallel filters are needed. Indeed, warm temperatures allow faster mineralization of the sludge deposit, making it possible to operate at similar rest and feeding period durations. Systems operated using one twin-filter stage can achieve over 90% COD, SS and TKN removal for a total surface of 0.8 m²/p.e. PMID:26442494

  16. Aviation Safety Issues Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, Samuel A.; Ricks, Wendell R.

    2009-01-01

    The aviation safety issues database was instrumental in the refinement and substantiation of the National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP). The issues database is a comprehensive set of issues from an extremely broad base of aviation functions, personnel, and vehicle categories, both nationally and internationally. Several aviation safety stakeholders such as the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) have already used the database. This broader interest was the genesis to making the database publically accessible and writing this report.

  17. Scopus database: a review

    PubMed Central

    Burnham, Judy F

    2006-01-01

    The Scopus database provides access to STM journal articles and the references included in those articles, allowing the searcher to search both forward and backward in time. The database can be used for collection development as well as for research. This review provides information on the key points of the database and compares it to Web of Science. Neither database is inclusive, but complements each other. If a library can only afford one, choice must be based in institutional needs. PMID:16522216

  18. Scopus database: a review.

    PubMed

    Burnham, Judy F

    2006-03-08

    The Scopus database provides access to STM journal articles and the references included in those articles, allowing the searcher to search both forward and backward in time. The database can be used for collection development as well as for research. This review provides information on the key points of the database and compares it to Web of Science. Neither database is inclusive, but complements each other. If a library can only afford one, choice must be based in institutional needs.

  19. Mission and Assets Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baldwin, John; Zendejas, Silvino; Gutheinz, Sandy; Borden, Chester; Wang, Yeou-Fang

    2009-01-01

    Mission and Assets Database (MADB) Version 1.0 is an SQL database system with a Web user interface to centralize information. The database stores flight project support resource requirements, view periods, antenna information, schedule, and forecast results for use in mid-range and long-term planning of Deep Space Network (DSN) assets.

  20. Third Semester College French, A Different Approach: Practical French for Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rickert, Blandine

    An alternative approach used in a third semester French course at the University of Colorado at Denver is described. The approach was adopted to improve student motivation. The course focuses on the learning of practical French for everyday situations, while traveling abroad for business or pleasure. Emphasis is on conversational, communicative…

  1. French-Canadians, Acadians and the French in New England. A Learning Activity Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Univ., Orono. New England - Atlantic Provinces - Quebec Center.

    The history of the French-Canadians from their beginnings to the present time is the topic of this Learning Activity Packet (LAP). Designed to acquaint students with the French, Canada's earliest permanent settlers following the Indians, the unit is divided into six objectives which include learning activities for each. Students are expected to…

  2. French from Four to Seven. A Handbook for Teaching French to the Very Young.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kodjak, Barbara Hippel

    The handbook is a compilation of ideas, strategies, resources, and suggestions for teaching French to children aged 4-7. It presupposes a school program in which French is taught as a foreign language for a brief period each day, although the ideas are adaptable to immersion instruction. Introductory sections describe the book's format and…

  3. The NCBI Taxonomy database.

    PubMed

    Federhen, Scott

    2012-01-01

    The NCBI Taxonomy database (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/taxonomy) is the standard nomenclature and classification repository for the International Nucleotide Sequence Database Collaboration (INSDC), comprising the GenBank, ENA (EMBL) and DDBJ databases. It includes organism names and taxonomic lineages for each of the sequences represented in the INSDC's nucleotide and protein sequence databases. The taxonomy database is manually curated by a small group of scientists at the NCBI who use the current taxonomic literature to maintain a phylogenetic taxonomy for the source organisms represented in the sequence databases. The taxonomy database is a central organizing hub for many of the resources at the NCBI, and provides a means for clustering elements within other domains of NCBI web site, for internal linking between domains of the Entrez system and for linking out to taxon-specific external resources on the web. Our primary purpose is to index the domain of sequences as conveniently as possible for our user community.

  4. Agomelatine: a review of adverse effects.

    PubMed

    2013-03-01

    More pharmacovigilance data on agomelatine became available in 2012. The main sources of information were surveillance data from the French national monitoring system, EU periodic safety update reports (PSURs), and the European pharmacovigilance database. The principal adverse effects of agomelatine consist of hepatic, pancreatic, neuropsychiatric, muscular and cutaneous disorders. The harms associated with agomelatine, which has no proven efficacy in depression, clearly outweigh the benefits. Until regulatory agencies decide to withdraw agomelatine from the market, it is up to healthcare professionals to protect patients from this unnecessarily dangerous drug.

  5. An Introduction to Database Structure and Database Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Detweiler, Karen

    1984-01-01

    Enumerates principal management objectives of database management systems (data independence, quality, security, multiuser access, central control) and criteria for comparison (response time, size, flexibility, other features). Conventional database management systems, relational databases, and database machines used for backend processing are…

  6. The making of a French manager.

    PubMed

    Barsoux, J L; Lawrence, P

    1991-01-01

    France's recent successes make it more important than ever to understand what makes its managers tick. This year, France surpassed Japan and the U.K. in acquisitions of U.S. companies. And many French companies are world leaders, including Michelin and L'Oreal. According to the authors, who have studied the French model of management development, the system stands as a coherent whole. Its clear logic and rules provide unambiguous signals that shape managerial action. Thus French industry has a focus and sense of purpose that the rest of the world should not underestimate as a key to strong economic performance. In France, management is a "state of mind" rather than an interpersonally demanding exercise. It is managers' cleverness, not skills, that distinguishes them. And these managers are not simply born. They are molded through an elaborate education and induction into the managerial elite. Alumni of the grandes écoles dominate the upper echelons. These elite colleges have grueling entrance exams resembling Japan's "examination hell." Graduates automatically enter the tight-knit cadre circle--the managerial elite who enjoy the same social prestige as doctors or lawyers. French managers prefer to put things in writing, even informal interactions. They excel in quantitative expression, at ease with putting figures to proposals. Hierarchy in French companies is often literal--the head of L'Air Liquide works on the top floor, while the typing pool is in the basement.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Vowel aperture and syllable segmentation in French.

    PubMed

    Goslin, Jeremy; Frauenfelder, Ulrich H

    2008-01-01

    The theories of Pulgram (1970) suggest that if the vowel of a French syllable is open then it will induce syllable segmentation responses that result in the syllable being closed, and vice versa. After the empirical verification that our target French-speaking population was capable of distinguishing between mid-vowel aperture, we examined the relationship between vowel and syllable aperture in two segmentation experiments. Initial findings from a metalinguistic repetition task supported the hypothesis, revealing significant segmentation differences due to vowel aperture across a range of bi-syllabic stimuli. These findings were also supported in an additional online experiment, in which a fragment detection task revealed a syllabic cross-over interaction due to vowel aperture. Evidence from these experiments suggest that multiple, independent cues are used in French syllable segmentation, including vowel aperture.

  8. Dialect effects in speech perception: the role of vowel duration in Parisian French and Swiss French.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joanne L; Mondini, Michèle; Grosjean, François; Dommergues, Jean-Yves

    2011-12-01

    The current experiments examined how native Parisian French and native Swiss French listeners use vowel duration in perceiving the /[character: see text]/-/o/ contrast. In both Parisian and Swiss French /ol is longer than /[character: see text]/, but the difference is relatively large in Swiss French and quite small in Parisian French. In Experiment I we found a parallel effect in perception. For native listeners of both dialects, the perceived best exemplars of /o/ were longer than those of /[character: see text]/. However, there was a substantial difference in best-exemplar duration for /[character: see text]/ and /o/ for Swiss French listeners, but only a small difference in best-exemplar duration for Parisian French listeners. In Experiment 2 we found that this precise pattern depended not only on the native dialect of the listeners, but also on whether the stimuli being judged had the detailed acoustic characteristics of the native dialect. These findings indicate that listeners use fine-grained information in the speech signal in a dialect-specific manner when mapping the acoustic signal onto vowel categories of their language.

  9. ITS-90 Thermocouple Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 60 NIST ITS-90 Thermocouple Database (Web, free access)   Web version of Standard Reference Database 60 and NIST Monograph 175. The database gives temperature -- electromotive force (emf) reference functions and tables for the letter-designated thermocouple types B, E, J, K, N, R, S and T. These reference functions have been adopted as standards by the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC).

  10. 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The 2010 Worldwide Gasification Database describes the current world gasification industry and identifies near-term planned capacity additions. The database lists gasification projects and includes information (e.g., plant location, number and type of gasifiers, syngas capacity, feedstock, and products). The database reveals that the worldwide gasification capacity has continued to grow for the past several decades and is now at 70,817 megawatts thermal (MWth) of syngas output at 144 operating plants with a total of 412 gasifiers.

  11. Databases for Microbiologists

    DOE PAGES

    Zhulin, Igor B.

    2015-05-26

    Databases play an increasingly important role in biology. They archive, store, maintain, and share information on genes, genomes, expression data, protein sequences and structures, metabolites and reactions, interactions, and pathways. All these data are critically important to microbiologists. Furthermore, microbiology has its own databases that deal with model microorganisms, microbial diversity, physiology, and pathogenesis. Thousands of biological databases are currently available, and it becomes increasingly difficult to keep up with their development. Finally, the purpose of this minireview is to provide a brief survey of current databases that are of interest to microbiologists.

  12. Veterans Administration Databases

    Cancer.gov

    The Veterans Administration Information Resource Center provides database and informatics experts, customer service, expert advice, information products, and web technology to VA researchers and others.

  13. Databases for Microbiologists

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Databases play an increasingly important role in biology. They archive, store, maintain, and share information on genes, genomes, expression data, protein sequences and structures, metabolites and reactions, interactions, and pathways. All these data are critically important to microbiologists. Furthermore, microbiology has its own databases that deal with model microorganisms, microbial diversity, physiology, and pathogenesis. Thousands of biological databases are currently available, and it becomes increasingly difficult to keep up with their development. The purpose of this minireview is to provide a brief survey of current databases that are of interest to microbiologists. PMID:26013493

  14. Databases for LDEF results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohnhoff-Hlavacek, Gail

    1992-01-01

    One of the objectives of the team supporting the LDEF Systems and Materials Special Investigative Groups is to develop databases of experimental findings. These databases identify the hardware flown, summarize results and conclusions, and provide a system for acknowledging investigators, tracing sources of data, and future design suggestions. To date, databases covering the optical experiments, and thermal control materials (chromic acid anodized aluminum, silverized Teflon blankets, and paints) have been developed at Boeing. We used the Filemaker Pro software, the database manager for the Macintosh computer produced by the Claris Corporation. It is a flat, text-retrievable database that provides access to the data via an intuitive user interface, without tedious programming. Though this software is available only for the Macintosh computer at this time, copies of the databases can be saved to a format that is readable on a personal computer as well. Further, the data can be exported to more powerful relational databases, capabilities, and use of the LDEF databases and describe how to get copies of the database for your own research.

  15. Database in Artificial Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Julia

    1986-01-01

    Describes a specialist bibliographic database of literature in the field of artificial intelligence created by the Turing Institute (Glasgow, Scotland) using the BRS/Search information retrieval software. The subscription method for end-users--i.e., annual fee entitles user to unlimited access to database, document provision, and printed awareness…

  16. BioImaging Database

    SciTech Connect

    David Nix, Lisa Simirenko

    2006-10-25

    The Biolmaging Database (BID) is a relational database developed to store the data and meta-data for the 3D gene expression in early Drosophila embryo development on a cellular level. The schema was written to be used with the MySQL DBMS but with minor modifications can be used on any SQL compliant relational DBMS.

  17. Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 21 Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database (Web, free access)   The Biological Macromolecule Crystallization Database and NASA Archive for Protein Crystal Growth Data (BMCD) contains the conditions reported for the crystallization of proteins and nucleic acids used in X-ray structure determinations and archives the results of microgravity macromolecule crystallization studies.

  18. Online Database Searching Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littlejohn, Alice C.; Parker, Joan M.

    Designed primarily for use by first-time searchers, this workbook provides an overview of online searching. Following a brief introduction which defines online searching, databases, and database producers, five steps in carrying out a successful search are described: (1) identifying the main concepts of the search statement; (2) selecting a…

  19. Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 147 Ionic Liquids Database- (ILThermo) (Web, free access)   IUPAC Ionic Liquids Database, ILThermo, is a free web research tool that allows users worldwide to access an up-to-date data collection from the publications on experimental investigations of thermodynamic, and transport properties of ionic liquids as well as binary and ternary mixtures containing ionic liquids.

  20. HIV Structural Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 102 HIV Structural Database (Web, free access)   The HIV Protease Structural Database is an archive of experimentally determined 3-D structures of Human Immunodeficiency Virus 1 (HIV-1), Human Immunodeficiency Virus 2 (HIV-2) and Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) Proteases and their complexes with inhibitors or products of substrate cleavage.

  1. Morchella MLST database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Welcome to the Morchella MLST database. This dedicated database was set up at the CBS-KNAW Biodiversity Center by Vincent Robert in February 2012, using BioloMICS software (Robert et al., 2011), to facilitate DNA sequence-based identifications of Morchella species via the Internet. The current datab...

  2. Atomic Spectra Database (ASD)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 78 NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (Web, free access)   This database provides access and search capability for NIST critically evaluated data on atomic energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities that are reasonably up-to-date. The NIST Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center has carried out these critical compilations.

  3. First Look: TRADEMARKSCAN Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernald, Anne Conway; Davidson, Alan B.

    1984-01-01

    Describes database produced by Thomson and Thomson and available on Dialog which contains over 700,000 records representing all active federal trademark registrations and applications for registrations filed in United States Patent and Trademark Office. A typical record, special features, database applications, learning to use TRADEMARKSCAN, and…

  4. Dictionary as Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painter, Derrick

    1996-01-01

    Discussion of dictionaries as databases focuses on the digitizing of The Oxford English dictionary (OED) and the use of Standard Generalized Mark-Up Language (SGML). Topics include the creation of a consortium to digitize the OED, document structure, relational databases, text forms, sequence, and discourse. (LRW)

  5. Structural Ceramics Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 30 NIST Structural Ceramics Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Structural Ceramics Database (WebSCD) provides evaluated materials property data for a wide range of advanced ceramics known variously as structural ceramics, engineering ceramics, and fine ceramics.

  6. Build Your Own Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacso, Peter; Lancaster, F. W.

    This book is intended to help librarians and others to produce databases of better value and quality, especially if they have had little previous experience in database construction. Drawing upon almost 40 years of experience in the field of information retrieval, this book emphasizes basic principles and approaches rather than in-depth and…

  7. Knowledge Discovery in Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norton, M. Jay

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) revolves around the investigation and creation of knowledge, processes, algorithms, and mechanisms for retrieving knowledge from data collections. The article is an introductory overview of KDD. The rationale and environment of its development and applications are discussed. Issues related to database design…

  8. Database Searching by Managers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Stephen E.

    Managers and executives need the easy and quick access to business and management information that online databases can provide, but many have difficulty articulating their search needs to an intermediary. One possible solution would be to encourage managers and their immediate support staff members to search textual databases directly as they now…

  9. A Quality System Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snell, William H.; Turner, Anne M.; Gifford, Luther; Stites, William

    2010-01-01

    A quality system database (QSD), and software to administer the database, were developed to support recording of administrative nonconformance activities that involve requirements for documentation of corrective and/or preventive actions, which can include ISO 9000 internal quality audits and customer complaints.

  10. Assignment to database industy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, Kohichiroh

    Various kinds of databases are considered to be essential part in future large sized systems. Information provision only by databases is also considered to be growing as the market becomes mature. This paper discusses how such circumstances have been built and will be developed from now on.

  11. Listening to French and the Serial Position Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrott, Carl L.

    This study sought to determine the extent of the serial position effect in listening to French and to specify the relationship between problem areas in listening to French and the position effect. The study addressed three hypotheses relative to the serial position effect and listening to French: (1) Was there a significant difference between the…

  12. French-Algonquian Interaction in Canada: A Michif Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    This paper discusses the language contact situation between Algonquian languages and French in Canada. Michif, a French-Plains Cree mixed language, is used as a case study for linguistic results of language contact. The paper describes the phonological, morphological, and syntactic conflict sites between the grammars of Plains Cree and French, as…

  13. French: An Accommodating Language? = Le Francais: Langue D'Accueil?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sue, Ed.

    This bilingual book considers recent developments in French attitudes towards language purism, borrowing, and the incursion of English. The book begins with an essay by French sociolinguist Henriette Walter, and most of the following essays are direct responses to her ideas. All chapters are provided in French and English. Chapter titles include…

  14. Teaching French to Franco-Americans: A Controversial Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickel, Raymond A.

    1965-01-01

    A study of bilingualism among third-generation Americans of French-Canadian extraction briefly examines their linguistic superiority in French over monolingual students and appraises the appropriate psychological approaches to teaching this special group. The article suggests that an "educated standard French" be presented as an alternative to…

  15. View looking Eastnortheast at French Creek trestle, which appears at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View looking Eastnortheast at French Creek trestle, which appears at left center of frame. Bridge in foreground is west entrance to abandoned Phoenix iron works. - Pennsylvania Railroad, French Creek Trestle, Spanning French Creek, north of Paradise Street, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  16. La Culture Canadienne-Francaise = French Canadian Culture. Interim Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bussiere, Adrien L., Ed.

    Materials about the culture specific to French-speaking people in Canada are presented as part of the cultural component of the prescribed second language curriculum. The materials follow the suggested sequence of studying the "French Fact" in Alberta in grade 7, the study of French settlements in Canada in grade 8, and in-depth study of Quebec…

  17. STUDIES OF THE LIFE WORK OF FOUR CONTEMPORARY FRENCH AUTHORS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NOSTRAND, HOWARD L.

    REPORTED ARE ANALYSES OF THE WORKS OF FOUR CONTEMPORARY FRENCH AUTHORS (RENE MARILL ALBERES, YVES BONNEFOY, MICHEL BUTOR, AND JEAN BRULLER UNDER THE PSEUDONYM VERCORS). THE ANALYSES WERE PREPARED IN FRENCH BY THE INDIVIDUAL AUTHORS FOR THE FRENCH CULTURE RESEARCH PROJECT, A LANGUAGE RESEARCH EFFORT. THE STUDIES ILLUSTRATE THE AUTHORS' THEMES IN…

  18. Guided Learners of French and the Acquisition of Emphatic Constructions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sleeman, Petra

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the acquisition and use of emphatic constructions by advanced guided learners of French, in particular (Dutch) first grade university students of French are studied and compared to the acquisition and use of emphatic constructions by (Dutch) secondary school pupils learning French in a purely institutional situation. It is shown that…

  19. Discrimination of English and French Orthographic Patterns by Biliterate Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jared, Debra; Cormier, Pierre; Levy, Betty Ann; Wade-Woolley, Lesly

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether young English-French biliterate children can distinguish between English and French orthographic patterns. Children in French immersion programs were asked to play a dictionary game when they were in Grade 2 and again when they were in Grade 3. They were shown pseudowords that contained either an English spelling pattern or…

  20. 7 CFR 993.6 - Non-French prunes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Non-French prunes. 993.6 Section 993.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.6 Non-French prunes. Non-French prunes means prunes...

  1. 7 CFR 993.6 - Non-French prunes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Non-French prunes. 993.6 Section 993.6 Agriculture... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 993.6 Non-French prunes. Non-French prunes means prunes commonly..., Giant, and Hungarian (Gross), produced from such varieties of plums. This definition may be modified...

  2. Student Engagement in an Ottawa French Immersion High School Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makropoulos, Josee

    2010-01-01

    This article makes a contribution to the field of French immersion studies by examining the engagement realities of two groups of students in an Ottawa French immersion high school program: those with and without a parent who makes them eligible for minority French language instruction as outlined by Section 23 of the "Canadian Charter of Rights…

  3. French Theory vs. Australian Praxis: The Sham in Tertiary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, Philip

    1996-01-01

    Argues that the primary mode of expression of a significant proportion of contemporary literary and historical criticism (the stock in trade of Australian Arts faculties) is the French language. Emphasizes that knowledge of French prejudices and inclinations can only be gained by learning French. (two references) (Author/CK)

  4. Management of Equipment Databases at CERN for the Atlas Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvão, Kaio Karam; Pommès, Kathy; Molina-Pérez, Jorge; Maidantchik, Carmen; Grael, Felipe Fink

    2008-06-01

    The ATLAS experiment is about to finish its installation phase, entering into operation on the summer of 2008. This installation has represented an enormous challenge in terms of developing, setting up, and administrating the Equipment Databases, due to the large complexity of the detector, its associated services, and the necessary infrastructure. All major equipment is registered prior to installation including its electronic description and interconnectivity. This information is stored in Oracle databases. 3D visualization tools, user interfaces for portable devices, and generic retrieval/updating mechanisms have been developed in order to carry out the management of the sub-detectors databases. The full traceability of all installed equipment is crucial from ATLAS organizational point of view, and it is also a requirement by the French authorities to fulfill the INB (Installation Nucléaire de Base) protocol.

  5. Un cours avance de francais: Le francais tel qu'on le parle (An Advanced Course in French: Colloquial French)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creusot, Andre

    1971-01-01

    Second of three articles on an advanced French program sponsored by the Language Department of the State University of Mons, Belgium. Emphasis is on the phonology, lexicology, and syntax of spoken French. (DS)

  6. Core French: A Selected Annotated Resource List.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, J. A.; Mollica, Anthony

    1985-01-01

    This is an annotated bibliography of: readers, workbooks, conversation books, cultural sources and readings, flash cards, duplicating or line masters, and media kits submitted by publishers as applicable to French second language instruction from kindergarten through senior high school levels. (MSE)

  7. Experiment in French Language Instruction. Second Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antioch Coll., Yellow Springs, OH.

    This report evaluates the second year of Antioch College's experimental French I course, which features the use of student assistants and acetate audiovisual aids for laboratory work. The bulk of the report consists of appendixes that contain most of the data on both experimental and control groups. Tables include information on group…

  8. Vocabulary Breadth in French L2 Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David, Annabelle

    2008-01-01

    Vocabulary is one of the building blocks of language and is a necessary component of learners' development. This paper aims to describe the development of the L2 lexicon from the first year of learning French as a foreign language at school to the last year of undergraduate studies at university by setting out what learners know and how this…

  9. The French Lesson: The Right to Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagnon, Paul

    1975-01-01

    Noting that "career education is only the latest in the grand parade of American learning fads," the author points out that despite the proliferation of technology in France and the habit of accepting American fads, the French still consider education to have three aims--for work, for public life, for private life. (JT)

  10. Studies in French Grammar and Phonology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benguerel, Andre-Pierre; Grundstrom, Allan W.

    The monograph contains two papers. The first presents a generative grammar for verbal forms in French. It consists of an ordered set of rewrite rules and a set of tables. It generates all existing verbal forms without generating any non-existing ones. The departure from an ordinary generative grammar lies in the use of a tabular form for…

  11. [Construction of the French concept of spirituality].

    PubMed

    Tardan-Masquelier, Ysé

    2015-10-01

    "Laïcité"--the French concept of secularity--holds a central position in contemporary debates. The subject here is a reminder of how this concept was introduced in France, how it has guided the secularization process in institutions and on what levels it is now called into question. PMID:26461212

  12. French as a Second Language Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazaruk, Walter A.; And Others

    The handbook is a service publication for teachers of French as a second language. Each of five articles addresses a specific issue. "Teaching and Learning Strategies" (Walter A. Lazaruk) reviews the four skills approach used in second language learning. A communication model of teaching, used alongside study of the language itself, is…

  13. Capital Punishment for Juveniles: Albert French's "Billy."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darlington, Sonja

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes Albert French's novel "Billy" and its exploration of the United States' use of capital punishment for young criminals. Addresses the underlying causes of Billy's execution. Discusses specific themes and issues that teachers can use for classroom discussions of capital punishment. (RS)

  14. Commonalities of French and Mandarin Inalienable Possession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliffer, Michael D.

    1996-01-01

    Examines inalienable possession in French and Mandarin with the aim of bringing out typological affinities. In particular, two unresolved issues are re-examined: Haiman's Iconicity Hypothesis and the question of the protypical semantic categories of iposs. (32 references) (Author/CK)

  15. 21 CFR 169.115 - French dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... emulsified viscous fluid food prepared from vegetable oil(s) and one or both of the acidifying ingredients... this section may also be used. The vegetable oil(s) used may contain an optional crystallization... vegetable oil. French dressing may be mixed and packed in an atmosphere in which air is replaced in whole...

  16. 21 CFR 169.115 - French dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... emulsified viscous fluid food prepared from vegetable oil(s) and one or both of the acidifying ingredients... this section may also be used. The vegetable oil(s) used may contain an optional crystallization... vegetable oil. French dressing may be mixed and packed in an atmosphere in which air is replaced in whole...

  17. 21 CFR 169.115 - French dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... emulsified viscous fluid food prepared from vegetable oil(s) and one or both of the acidifying ingredients... this section may also be used. The vegetable oil(s) used may contain an optional crystallization... vegetable oil. French dressing may be mixed and packed in an atmosphere in which air is replaced in whole...

  18. 21 CFR 169.115 - French dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... emulsified viscous fluid food prepared from vegetable oil(s) and one or both of the acidifying ingredients... this section may also be used. The vegetable oil(s) used may contain an optional crystallization... vegetable oil. French dressing may be mixed and packed in an atmosphere in which air is replaced in whole...

  19. 21 CFR 169.115 - French dressing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... emulsified viscous fluid food prepared from vegetable oil(s) and one or both of the acidifying ingredients... this section may also be used. The vegetable oil(s) used may contain an optional crystallization... vegetable oil. French dressing may be mixed and packed in an atmosphere in which air is replaced in whole...

  20. Libraries of La Pocatiere: French Immersion Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia, S.

    2005-01-01

    Many times summer language immersion administrators and instructors overlook the rich collections housed in various town libraries. Students of French immersion programs have an opportunity to utilize local libraries. This essay describes the facilities and services of five libraries in La Pocatiere, Quebec. A series of interviews of librarians…

  1. French Women in Physics: Status and Actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thibault, C.; Pépin, A.; Ducloy, M.; Giacobino, E.; Leduc, M.

    2009-04-01

    We present statistics on the underrepresentation of females entering scientific studies and on the persistence of a glass ceiling for women physicists—and female scientists in general—in France. We also examine actions taken by French research institutions, associations, companies, and professional societies since 2005 to improve these situations.

  2. [French by naturalization: a documentary file].

    PubMed

    Guillon, M

    1988-01-01

    A demographic analysis of the population acquiring nationality in France by naturalization or other means is presented. Data are from French censuses, including the 1982 census. Factors considered include trends since 1928 in the size of this population and its characteristics, including nationality of origin, age and sex distribution, residence, and socio-professional status.

  3. Code-Convergent Borrowing in Louisiana French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Becky

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes bilingual lexemes and morphemes of English-origin loanwords from a Louisiana corpus of 22 French/English speakers. Data suggest that examining borrowing beyond the word level reveals a highly complex interplay of often competing and overlapping grammars. (Author/VWL)

  4. French and English Together: An "Additive" Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltshire, Jessica; Harbon, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of the "additive" experience of a bilingual French-English curriculum at Killarney Heights Public School in New South Wales. Predictably, the well-supported "additive" nature of the languages program model elicited positive reactions regarding educational success. The paper also explores issues for administration,…

  5. Syntactic Categorization in French-Learning Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shi, Rushen; Melancon, Andreane

    2010-01-01

    Recent work showed that infants recognize and store function words starting from the age of 6-8 months. Using a visual fixation procedure, the present study tested whether French-learning 14-month-olds have the knowledge of syntactic categories of determiners and pronouns, respectively, and whether they can use these function words for…

  6. Problems with French-English Business Dictionaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartman, Max D.

    An analysis of two French-English business dictionaries, a 1989 revised edition and a 1990 edition, looks at a number of weaknesses in the resources' design and content. First, problems are found in transcriptions of pronunciation that do not reflect actual usage when it differs from convention and in lack of attention to pronunciation of words…

  7. Using Conventional Sequences in L2 French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsberg, Fanny

    2010-01-01

    By means of a phraseological identification method, this study provides a general description of the use of conventional sequences (CSs) in interviews at four different levels of spoken L2 French as well as in interviews with native speakers. Use of conventional sequences is studied with regard to overall quantity, category distribution and type…

  8. [Leishmania braziliensis Vianna, 1911 in French Guiana].

    PubMed

    Garin, J P; Piens, M A; Pratlong, F; Rioux, J A

    1989-01-01

    A new case of cutaneous Leishmaniasis to L. braziliensis Vianna, 1911, contracted in French Guyana is reported. The parasite, isolated in culture, is identified by enzymatic typing (13 zymoden). The identified zymodem is zymodem MON-43. It is the same of the WHO reference strain L. braziliensis s. st.

  9. A French Vocabulary Tutor for the Web.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Labrie, Gilles

    2000-01-01

    Discusses a project to design and implement a small French vocabulary tutor for the World Wide Web. Highlights salient features and design of the tutor and focuses on two variants of a module on technology-related vocabulary that were created using very straightforward html code and JavaScript. (Author/VWL)

  10. Le Francais Courant: Part V, French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Instructional objectives of the Dade County Public Schools Quinmester Program in French for use with "Le Francais Courant: Part 5" focus on the development of mastery of the basic numbering system and other grammatical structures. Structures include the formation of the present tense of the irregular verbs "vouloir,""pouvoir," and "venir,"…

  11. Le Francais Moderne: Part I, French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    Instructional objectives of the Dade County Public Schools Quinmester Program in French for use with "Le Francais Moderne: Part 1" focus on the development of vocabulary and mastery of grammatical structures. The formation of the passe compose with "avoir," object pronouns, the present tense of regular "-ir" verbs, and the irregular verbs…

  12. In the French Body. FIPSE Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Univ., Boston.

    This report describes an instructional material development project designed to promote a more holistic concept of second language instruction, embracing nonverbal as well as verbal communication. Initially designed for French instruction and later produced for German, the project had as a concrete goal to produce a distributable version of a…

  13. Foreign Language Workshop on French Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Sue, Ed.; And Others

    A compilation of French cultural units for use in secondary school language classes is presented in this text. Units include: (1) "Les mots et leur implication culturelle," (2) "Le telephone--une capsule culturelle," (3) "Le repas," (4) "La femme francaise 1972," (5) "Les Parents," (6) "Religion in France," (7) "La presse francaise," (8) "Les…

  14. Cascadia Tsunami Deposit Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, Robert; Jaffe, Bruce; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Peterson, Curt

    2003-01-01

    The Cascadia Tsunami Deposit Database contains data on the location and sedimentological properties of tsunami deposits found along the Cascadia margin. Data have been compiled from 52 studies, documenting 59 sites from northern California to Vancouver Island, British Columbia that contain known or potential tsunami deposits. Bibliographical references are provided for all sites included in the database. Cascadia tsunami deposits are usually seen as anomalous sand layers in coastal marsh or lake sediments. The studies cited in the database use numerous criteria based on sedimentary characteristics to distinguish tsunami deposits from sand layers deposited by other processes, such as river flooding and storm surges. Several studies cited in the database contain evidence for more than one tsunami at a site. Data categories include age, thickness, layering, grainsize, and other sedimentological characteristics of Cascadia tsunami deposits. The database documents the variability observed in tsunami deposits found along the Cascadia margin.

  15. L'enseignement du francais au Quebec (The Teaching of French in Quebec)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mear-Crine, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    This article reviews the situation of the instruction of French in Quebec, in terms of the role of French and attitudes toward standard and non-standard varieties of French, the acquisition of French by native French speakers. Bidialectal instruction is suggested as one way of dealing with non-standard varieties. (Text is in French.) (CLK)

  16. The Impact of L2 Dialect on Learning French Vowels: Native English Speakers Learning Quebecois and European French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Wendy; Smith, Laura Catharine

    2010-01-01

    This article examines how a second language (L2) dialect affects how accurately the L2 is perceived and produced. Specifically, the study examined differences between the production and perception of French vowels /i/, /y/, and /u/ by learners of either Quebec French (QF) or European French (EF). These vowels differ across the two varieties, both…

  17. Switches to English during French Service Encounters: Relationships with L2 French Speakers' Willingness to Communicate and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaughton, Stephanie; McDonough, Kim

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated second language (L2) French speakers' service encounters in the multilingual setting of Montreal, specifically whether switches to English during French service encounters were related to L2 speakers' willingness to communicate or motivation. Over a two-week period, 17 French L2 speakers in Montreal submitted…

  18. Effectiveness of a Heritage Educational Program for the Acquisition of Oral and Written French and Tahitian in French Polynesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nocus, Isabelle; Guimard, Philippe; Vernaudon, Jacques; Paia, Mirose; Cosnefroy, Olivier; Florin, Agnes

    2012-01-01

    The research examines the effects of a bilingual pedagogical program (French/Tahitian) on the acquisition of oral and written French as well as the Tahitian language itself in primary schools in French Polynesia. 125 children divided into an experimental group (partially schooled in Tahitian for 300 min per week) and a control group (schooled in…

  19. Impact of Resident Rotations on Critically Ill Patient Outcomes: Results of a French Multicenter Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Guidet, Bertrand; Aegerter, Philippe; Mentec, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The impact of resident rotation on patient outcomes in the intensive care unit (ICU) has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to address this question using a large ICU database. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the French CUB-REA database. French residents rotate every six months. Two periods were compared: the first (POST) and fifth (PRE) months of the rotation. The primary endpoint was ICU mortality. The secondary endpoints were the length of ICU stay (LOS), the number of organ supports, and the duration of mechanical ventilation (DMV). The impact of resident rotation was explored using multivariate regression, classification tree and random forest models. Results 262,772 patients were included between 1996 and 2010 in the database. The patient characteristics were similar between the PRE (n = 44,431) and POST (n = 49,979) periods. Multivariate analysis did not reveal any impact of resident rotation on ICU mortality (OR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.94; 1.07, p = 0.91). Based on the classification trees, the SAPS II and the number of organ failures were the strongest predictors of ICU mortality. In the less severe patients (SAPS II<24), the POST period was associated with increased mortality (OR = 1.65, 95%CI = 1.17–2.33, p = 0.004). After adjustment, no significant association was observed between the rotation period and the LOS, the number of organ supports, or the DMV. Conclusion Resident rotation exerts no impact on overall ICU mortality at French teaching hospitals but might affect the prognosis of less severe ICU patients. Surveillance should be reinforced when treating those patients. PMID:27627449

  20. [Relevance of the hemovigilance regional database for the shared medical file identity server].

    PubMed

    Doly, A; Fressy, P; Garraud, O

    2008-11-01

    The French Health Products Safety Agency coordinates the national initiative of computerization of blood products traceability within regional blood banks and public and private hospitals. The Auvergne-Loire Regional French Blood Service, based in Saint-Etienne, together with a number of public hospitals set up a transfusion data network named EDITAL. After four years of progressive implementation and experimentation, a software enabling standardized data exchange has built up a regional nominative database, endorsed by the Traceability Computerization National Committee in 2004. This database now provides secured web access to a regional transfusion history enabling biologists and all hospital and family practitioners to take in charge the patient follow-up. By running independently from the softwares of its partners, EDITAL database provides reference for the regional identity server.

  1. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    SciTech Connect

    GRAMS, W.H.

    2000-12-28

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for U S . Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for HNF-SD-WM-SAR-067, Tank Farms Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved Authorization Basis (AB) for the River Protection Project (RPP). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the Tank Farms FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The Hazard Analysis Database supports the preparation of Chapters 3 ,4 , and 5 of the Tank Farms FSAR and the Unreviewed Safety Question (USQ) process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Analysis Database: Data from the results of the hazard evaluations, and (2) Hazard Topography Database: Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification.

  2. Hazard Analysis Database Report

    SciTech Connect

    GAULT, G.W.

    1999-10-13

    The Hazard Analysis Database was developed in conjunction with the hazard analysis activities conducted in accordance with DOE-STD-3009-94, Preparation Guide for US Department of Energy Nonreactor Nuclear Facility Safety Analysis Reports, for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR). The FSAR is part of the approved TWRS Authorization Basis (AB). This document describes, identifies, and defines the contents and structure of the TWRS FSAR Hazard Analysis Database and documents the configuration control changes made to the database. The TWRS Hazard Analysis Database contains the collection of information generated during the initial hazard evaluations and the subsequent hazard and accident analysis activities. The database supports the preparation of Chapters 3,4, and 5 of the TWRS FSAR and the USQ process and consists of two major, interrelated data sets: (1) Hazard Evaluation Database--Data from the results of the hazard evaluations; and (2) Hazard Topography Database--Data from the system familiarization and hazard identification.

  3. Database for propagation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kantak, Anil V.

    1991-01-01

    A propagation researcher or a systems engineer who intends to use the results of a propagation experiment is generally faced with various database tasks such as the selection of the computer software, the hardware, and the writing of the programs to pass the data through the models of interest. This task is repeated every time a new experiment is conducted or the same experiment is carried out at a different location generating different data. Thus the users of this data have to spend a considerable portion of their time learning how to implement the computer hardware and the software towards the desired end. This situation may be facilitated considerably if an easily accessible propagation database is created that has all the accepted (standardized) propagation phenomena models approved by the propagation research community. Also, the handling of data will become easier for the user. Such a database construction can only stimulate the growth of the propagation research it if is available to all the researchers, so that the results of the experiment conducted by one researcher can be examined independently by another, without different hardware and software being used. The database may be made flexible so that the researchers need not be confined only to the contents of the database. Another way in which the database may help the researchers is by the fact that they will not have to document the software and hardware tools used in their research since the propagation research community will know the database already. The following sections show a possible database construction, as well as properties of the database for the propagation research.

  4. Signal detection for Thai traditional medicine: examination of national pharmacovigilance data using reporting odds ratio and reported population attributable risk.

    PubMed

    Wechwithan, Sareeya; Suwankesawong, Wimon; Sornsrivichai, Vorasith; McNeil, Edward B; Jiraphongsa, Chuleeporn; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2014-10-01

    Herbal containing medicine consumption has increased while the awareness of adverse drug reaction (ADR) was less than conventional medicine. Early detection of unexpected numbers of ADRs from herbal medicines' reports which are abnormal from the whole database needs quantification. Disproportionality analysis has been performed for signal detection by using reporting odds ratio (ROR) as measurement. The impact of having medicine as exposures in each ADR should be measured by using reported population attributable risks (RPAR). This study aimed to quantify the contribution of Thai traditional medicine (TTM) to ADR reports and to assess the association between TTMs and serious adverse drug reactions. Data were retrieved from the adverse drug reaction surveillance database, Thai-Food and Drug Administration from 2002 to 2013. Crude and adjusted RORs for each drug-ADR pair and RPARs were computed. TTM contributed only 0.001% of all serious ADRs reported. Out of 4208 TTM-ADR pairs were examined, three had the statistically significant RORs, namely Andrographis paniculata and anaphylactic shock (ROR 2.32, 95% CI 1.03, 5.21); green traditional medicine and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (ROR 13.04, 95% CI 5.4-31.51) and Derris scandens Benth and angioedema (ROR 2.71, 95% CI 1.05-6.95). Their RPARs ranged from 0.05% to 0.16%. We conclude that TTMs need more intensive surveillance. PMID:24945744

  5. International Comparisions Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    International Comparisions Database (Web, free access)   The International Comparisons Database (ICDB) serves the U.S. and the Inter-American System of Metrology (SIM) with information based on Appendices B (International Comparisons), C (Calibration and Measurement Capabilities) and D (List of Participating Countries) of the Comit� International des Poids et Mesures (CIPM) Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA). The official source of the data is The BIPM key comparison database. The ICDB provides access to results of comparisons of measurements and standards organized by the consultative committees of the CIPM and the Regional Metrology Organizations.

  6. Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 31 NIST/ACerS Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database (PC database for purchase)   The Phase Equilibria Diagrams Database contains commentaries and more than 21,000 diagrams for non-organic systems, including those published in all 21 hard-copy volumes produced as part of the ACerS-NIST Phase Equilibria Diagrams Program (formerly titled Phase Diagrams for Ceramists): Volumes I through XIV (blue books); Annuals 91, 92, 93; High Tc Superconductors I & II; Zirconium & Zirconia Systems; and Electronic Ceramics I. Materials covered include oxides as well as non-oxide systems such as chalcogenides and pnictides, phosphates, salt systems, and mixed systems of these classes.

  7. JICST Factual Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Kazuaki; Shimura, Kazuki; Monma, Yoshio; Sakamoto, Masao; Morishita, Hiroshi; Kanazawa, Kenji

    The Japan Information Center of Science and Technology (JICST) has started the on-line service of JICST/NRIM Materials Strength Database for Engineering Steels and Alloys (JICST ME) in this March (1990). This database has been developed under the joint research between JICST and the National Research Institute for Metals (NRIM). It provides material strength data (creep, fatigue, etc.) of engineering steels and alloys. It is able to search and display on-line, and to analyze the searched data statistically and plot the result on graphic display. The database system and the data in JICST ME are described.

  8. Hybrid Terrain Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arthur, Trey

    2006-01-01

    A prototype hybrid terrain database is being developed in conjunction with other databases and with hardware and software that constitute subsystems of aerospace cockpit display systems (known in the art as synthetic vision systems) that generate images to increase pilots' situation awareness and eliminate poor visibility as a cause of aviation accidents. The basic idea is to provide a clear view of the world around an aircraft by displaying computer-generated imagery derived from an onboard database of terrain, obstacle, and airport information.

  9. The French language virtual medical university.

    PubMed

    Morin, A; Benhamou, A C; Spector, M; Bonnin, A; Debry, C

    2004-01-01

    The work program of the French Language Virtual Medical University started about 2 years ago, and entered into a real active phase of development and implementation in 2002. Various national programs and organizational initiatives should accelerate and facilitate further appropriation of modem pedagogical approaches by knowledge providers and all users of the FSVMU, so as to advance on the way of virtual education. The French Language Virtual Medical University under the auspices of both the National Conference of Deans of Medical Schools and the International Conference of Deans of French-Speaking Medical Schools has been developed to create a major Internet portal for French-speaking distance medical learning and teaching. This construct should be representative of all medical schools in France and French-speaking countries. Contents will also be translated into English, Spanish and Arabic. All medical disciplines with their various levels of teaching are to be included. Cross-related fields are also going to be present in order to offer full range programs. The latter are intended to provide both initial and continuing education for medical students as well as all other categories of health professionals and medical and scientific research workers. To develop the appropriate technology and make such a portal, on one hand correspond to the specific educational requirements and proper training for health professionals, and on the other hand provide a general access to e-learning in all schools of medicine; in keeping with such goals, the following approaches should be stressed upon. To build a virtual space where individual patients, their families, patient associations as well as the general public, can obtain medical information of good quality for the purposes of both education and prevention. Providing such categories with reliable and validated sources of information, and offering an ethical basis for the increasing practice of e-medicine, represent in today

  10. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1994-05-27

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  11. Nuclear Science References Database

    SciTech Connect

    Pritychenko, B.; Běták, E.; Singh, B.; Totans, J.

    2014-06-15

    The Nuclear Science References (NSR) database together with its associated Web interface, is the world's only comprehensive source of easily accessible low- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics bibliographic information for more than 210,000 articles since the beginning of nuclear science. The weekly-updated NSR database provides essential support for nuclear data evaluation, compilation and research activities. The principles of the database and Web application development and maintenance are described. Examples of nuclear structure, reaction and decay applications are specifically included. The complete NSR database is freely available at the websites of the National Nuclear Data Center (http://www.nndc.bnl.gov/nsr) and the International Atomic Energy Agency (http://www-nds.iaea.org/nsr)

  12. Hawaii bibliographic database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, T.L.; Takahashi, T.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Hawaii bibliographic database has been created to contain all of the literature, from 1779 to the present, pertinent to the volcanological history of the Hawaiian-Emperor volcanic chain. References are entered in a PC- and Macintosh-compatible EndNote Plus bibliographic database with keywords and abstracts or (if no abstract) with annotations as to content. Keywords emphasize location, discipline, process, identification of new chemical data or age determinations, and type of publication. The database is updated approximately three times a year and is available to upload from an ftp site. The bibliography contained 8460 references at the time this paper was submitted for publication. Use of the database greatly enhances the power and completeness of library searches for anyone interested in Hawaiian volcanism.

  13. Navigating public microarray databases.

    PubMed

    Penkett, Christopher J; Bähler, Jürg

    2004-01-01

    With the ever-escalating amount of data being produced by genome-wide microarray studies, it is of increasing importance that these data are captured in public databases so that researchers can use this information to complement and enhance their own studies. Many groups have set up databases of expression data, ranging from large repositories, which are designed to comprehensively capture all published data, through to more specialized databases. The public repositories, such as ArrayExpress at the European Bioinformatics Institute contain complete datasets in raw format in addition to processed data, whilst the specialist databases tend to provide downstream analysis of normalized data from more focused studies and data sources. Here we provide a guide to the use of these public microarray resources.

  14. Chemical Kinetics Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 17 NIST Chemical Kinetics Database (Web, free access)   The NIST Chemical Kinetics Database includes essentially all reported kinetics results for thermal gas-phase chemical reactions. The database is designed to be searched for kinetics data based on the specific reactants involved, for reactions resulting in specified products, for all the reactions of a particular species, or for various combinations of these. In addition, the bibliography can be searched by author name or combination of names. The database contains in excess of 38,000 separate reaction records for over 11,700 distinct reactant pairs. These data have been abstracted from over 12,000 papers with literature coverage through early 2000.

  15. TREATABILITY DATABASE DESCRIPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) presents referenced information on the control of contaminants in drinking water. It allows drinking water utilities, first responders to spills or emergencies, treatment process designers, research organizations, academics, regulato...

  16. THE CTEPP DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The CTEPP (Children's Total Exposure to Persistent Pesticides and Other Persistent Organic Pollutants) database contains a wealth of data on children's aggregate exposures to pollutants in their everyday surroundings. Chemical analysis data for the environmental media and ques...

  17. Requirements Management Database

    2009-08-13

    This application is a simplified and customized version of the RBA and CTS databases to capture federal, site, and facility requirements, link to actions that must be performed to maintain compliance with their contractual and other requirements.

  18. Steam Properties Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 10 NIST/ASME Steam Properties Database (PC database for purchase)   Based upon the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) 1995 formulation for the thermodynamic properties of water and the most recent IAPWS formulations for transport and other properties, this updated version provides water properties over a wide range of conditions according to the accepted international standards.

  19. Database computing in HEP

    SciTech Connect

    Day, C.T.; Loken, S.; MacFarlane, J.F. ); May, E.; Lifka, D.; Lusk, E.; Price, L.E. ); Baden, A. . Dept. of Physics); Grossman, R.; Qin, X. . Dept. of Mathematics, Statistics and Computer Science); Cormell, L.; Leibold, P.; Liu, D

    1992-01-01

    The major SSC experiments are expected to produce up to 1 Petabyte of data per year each. Once the primary reconstruction is completed by farms of inexpensive processors. I/O becomes a major factor in further analysis of the data. We believe that the application of database techniques can significantly reduce the I/O performed in these analyses. We present examples of such I/O reductions in prototype based on relational and object-oriented databases of CDF data samples.

  20. Database computing in HEP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Day, C. T.; Loken, S.; Macfarlane, J. F.; May, E.; Lifka, D.; Lusk, E.; Price, L. E.; Baden, A.; Grossman, R.; Qin, X.

    1992-01-01

    The major SSC experiments are expected to produce up to 1 Petabyte of data per year each. Once the primary reconstruction is completed by farms of inexpensive processors, I/O becomes a major factor in further analysis of the data. We believe that the application of database techniques can significantly reduce the I/O performed in these analyses. We present examples of such I/O reductions in prototypes based on relational and object-oriented databases of CDF data samples.

  1. Querying genomic databases

    SciTech Connect

    Baehr, A.; Hagstrom, R.; Joerg, D.; Overbeek, R.

    1991-09-01

    A natural-language interface has been developed that retrieves genomic information by using a simple subset of English. The interface spares the biologist from the task of learning database-specific query languages and computer programming. Currently, the interface deals with the E. coli genome. It can, however, be readily extended and shows promise as a means of easy access to other sequenced genomic databases as well.

  2. Drinking Water Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, ShaTerea R.

    2004-01-01

    This summer I had the opportunity to work in the Environmental Management Office (EMO) under the Chemical Sampling and Analysis Team or CS&AT. This team s mission is to support Glenn Research Center (GRC) and EM0 by providing chemical sampling and analysis services and expert consulting. Services include sampling and chemical analysis of water, soil, fbels, oils, paint, insulation materials, etc. One of this team s major projects is the Drinking Water Project. This is a project that is done on Glenn s water coolers and ten percent of its sink every two years. For the past two summers an intern had been putting together a database for this team to record the test they had perform. She had successfully created a database but hadn't worked out all the quirks. So this summer William Wilder (an intern from Cleveland State University) and I worked together to perfect her database. We began be finding out exactly what every member of the team thought about the database and what they would change if any. After collecting this data we both had to take some courses in Microsoft Access in order to fix the problems. Next we began looking at what exactly how the database worked from the outside inward. Then we began trying to change the database but we quickly found out that this would be virtually impossible.

  3. The Halophile protein database.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Naveen; Farooqi, Mohammad Samir; Chaturvedi, Krishna Kumar; Lal, Shashi Bhushan; Grover, Monendra; Rai, Anil; Pandey, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Halophilic archaea/bacteria adapt to different salt concentration, namely extreme, moderate and low. These type of adaptations may occur as a result of modification of protein structure and other changes in different cell organelles. Thus proteins may play an important role in the adaptation of halophilic archaea/bacteria to saline conditions. The Halophile protein database (HProtDB) is a systematic attempt to document the biochemical and biophysical properties of proteins from halophilic archaea/bacteria which may be involved in adaptation of these organisms to saline conditions. In this database, various physicochemical properties such as molecular weight, theoretical pI, amino acid composition, atomic composition, estimated half-life, instability index, aliphatic index and grand average of hydropathicity (Gravy) have been listed. These physicochemical properties play an important role in identifying the protein structure, bonding pattern and function of the specific proteins. This database is comprehensive, manually curated, non-redundant catalogue of proteins. The database currently contains 59 897 proteins properties extracted from 21 different strains of halophilic archaea/bacteria. The database can be accessed through link. Database URL: http://webapp.cabgrid.res.in/protein/

  4. Crude Oil Analysis Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    Shay, Johanna Y.

    The composition and physical properties of crude oil vary widely from one reservoir to another within an oil field, as well as from one field or region to another. Although all oils consist of hydrocarbons and their derivatives, the proportions of various types of compounds differ greatly. This makes some oils more suitable than others for specific refining processes and uses. To take advantage of this diversity, one needs access to information in a large database of crude oil analyses. The Crude Oil Analysis Database (COADB) currently satisfies this need by offering 9,056 crude oil analyses. Of these, 8,500 are United States domestic oils. The database contains results of analysis of the general properties and chemical composition, as well as the field, formation, and geographic location of the crude oil sample. [Taken from the Introduction to COAMDATA_DESC.pdf, part of the zipped software and database file at http://www.netl.doe.gov/technologies/oil-gas/Software/database.html] Save the zipped file to your PC. When opened, it will contain PDF documents and a large Excel spreadsheet. It will also contain the database in Microsoft Access 2002.

  5. Open systems and databases

    SciTech Connect

    Martire, G.S. ); Nuttall, D.J.H. )

    1993-05-01

    This paper is part of a series of papers invited by the IEEE POWER CONTROL CENTER WORKING GROUP concerning the changing designs of modern control centers. Papers invited by the Working Group discuss the following issues: Benefits of Openness, Criteria for Evaluating Open EMS Systems, Hardware Design, Configuration Management, Security, Project Management, Databases, SCADA, Inter- and Intra-System Communications and Man-Machine Interfaces,'' The goal of this paper is to provide an introduction to the issues pertaining to Open Systems and Databases.'' The intent is to assist understanding of some of the underlying factors that effect choices that must be made when selecting a database system for use in a control room environment. This paper describes and compares the major database information models which are in common use for database systems and provides an overview of SQL. A case for the control center community to follow the workings of the non-formal standards bodies is presented along with possible uses and the benefits of commercially available databases within the control center. The reasons behind the emergence of industry supported standards organizations such as the Open Software Foundation (OSF) and SQL Access are presented.

  6. The comprehensive peptaibiotics database.

    PubMed

    Stoppacher, Norbert; Neumann, Nora K N; Burgstaller, Lukas; Zeilinger, Susanne; Degenkolb, Thomas; Brückner, Hans; Schuhmacher, Rainer

    2013-05-01

    Peptaibiotics are nonribosomally biosynthesized peptides, which - according to definition - contain the marker amino acid α-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) and possess antibiotic properties. Being known since 1958, a constantly increasing number of peptaibiotics have been described and investigated with a particular emphasis on hypocrealean fungi. Starting from the existing online 'Peptaibol Database', first published in 1997, an exhaustive literature survey of all known peptaibiotics was carried out and resulted in a list of 1043 peptaibiotics. The gathered information was compiled and used to create the new 'The Comprehensive Peptaibiotics Database', which is presented here. The database was devised as a software tool based on Microsoft (MS) Access. It is freely available from the internet at http://peptaibiotics-database.boku.ac.at and can easily be installed and operated on any computer offering a Windows XP/7 environment. It provides useful information on characteristic properties of the peptaibiotics included such as peptide category, group name of the microheterogeneous mixture to which the peptide belongs, amino acid sequence, sequence length, producing fungus, peptide subfamily, molecular formula, and monoisotopic mass. All these characteristics can be used and combined for automated search within the database, which makes The Comprehensive Peptaibiotics Database a versatile tool for the retrieval of valuable information about peptaibiotics. Sequence data have been considered as to December 14, 2012. PMID:23681723

  7. Specialist Bibliographic Databases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Specialist bibliographic databases offer essential online tools for researchers and authors who work on specific subjects and perform comprehensive and systematic syntheses of evidence. This article presents examples of the established specialist databases, which may be of interest to those engaged in multidisciplinary science communication. Access to most specialist databases is through subscription schemes and membership in professional associations. Several aggregators of information and database vendors, such as EBSCOhost and ProQuest, facilitate advanced searches supported by specialist keyword thesauri. Searches of items through specialist databases are complementary to those through multidisciplinary research platforms, such as PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Familiarizing with the functional characteristics of biomedical and nonbiomedical bibliographic search tools is mandatory for researchers, authors, editors, and publishers. The database users are offered updates of the indexed journal lists, abstracts, author profiles, and links to other metadata. Editors and publishers may find particularly useful source selection criteria and apply for coverage of their peer-reviewed journals and grey literature sources. These criteria are aimed at accepting relevant sources with established editorial policies and quality controls. PMID:27134485

  8. Specialist Bibliographic Databases.

    PubMed

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Yessirkepov, Marlen; Voronov, Alexander A; Trukhachev, Vladimir I; Kostyukova, Elena I; Gerasimov, Alexey N; Kitas, George D

    2016-05-01

    Specialist bibliographic databases offer essential online tools for researchers and authors who work on specific subjects and perform comprehensive and systematic syntheses of evidence. This article presents examples of the established specialist databases, which may be of interest to those engaged in multidisciplinary science communication. Access to most specialist databases is through subscription schemes and membership in professional associations. Several aggregators of information and database vendors, such as EBSCOhost and ProQuest, facilitate advanced searches supported by specialist keyword thesauri. Searches of items through specialist databases are complementary to those through multidisciplinary research platforms, such as PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Familiarizing with the functional characteristics of biomedical and nonbiomedical bibliographic search tools is mandatory for researchers, authors, editors, and publishers. The database users are offered updates of the indexed journal lists, abstracts, author profiles, and links to other metadata. Editors and publishers may find particularly useful source selection criteria and apply for coverage of their peer-reviewed journals and grey literature sources. These criteria are aimed at accepting relevant sources with established editorial policies and quality controls. PMID:27134485

  9. Specialist Bibliographic Databases.

    PubMed

    Gasparyan, Armen Yuri; Yessirkepov, Marlen; Voronov, Alexander A; Trukhachev, Vladimir I; Kostyukova, Elena I; Gerasimov, Alexey N; Kitas, George D

    2016-05-01

    Specialist bibliographic databases offer essential online tools for researchers and authors who work on specific subjects and perform comprehensive and systematic syntheses of evidence. This article presents examples of the established specialist databases, which may be of interest to those engaged in multidisciplinary science communication. Access to most specialist databases is through subscription schemes and membership in professional associations. Several aggregators of information and database vendors, such as EBSCOhost and ProQuest, facilitate advanced searches supported by specialist keyword thesauri. Searches of items through specialist databases are complementary to those through multidisciplinary research platforms, such as PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar. Familiarizing with the functional characteristics of biomedical and nonbiomedical bibliographic search tools is mandatory for researchers, authors, editors, and publishers. The database users are offered updates of the indexed journal lists, abstracts, author profiles, and links to other metadata. Editors and publishers may find particularly useful source selection criteria and apply for coverage of their peer-reviewed journals and grey literature sources. These criteria are aimed at accepting relevant sources with established editorial policies and quality controls.

  10. French Pro/Am collaborations in exoplanet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santerne, A.; Moutou, C.; Vanhuysse, M.; Bouchy, F.; Buil, C.; Cochard, F.; Thizy, O.; Martinez, P.; Desnoux, V.; Pujol, M.; Colas, F.

    2011-10-01

    Amateur astronomers have access to huge telescope time and can reach photometric precision up to a few mmag as well as radial velocity precision up to ˜ 50m.s-1 on brightest stars. We will first present some results of french amateur astronomers in transit photometry and radial velocity and then, we will present an over-view of all the collaborations which can be done between professional and amateur astronomers in the competitive exoplanet domain, and especially the current collaboration between french Pro & Am astronomers which was used in publication in A&A. Finally, we will present a new internet wiki page which goal is to develop such collaboration in different countries.

  11. French language space science educational outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schofield, I.; Masongsong, E. V.; Connors, M. G.

    2015-12-01

    Athabasca University's AUTUMNX ground-based magnetometer array to measure and report geomagnetic conditions in eastern Canada is located in the heart of French speaking Canada. Through the course of the project, we have had the privilege to partner with schools, universities, astronomy clubs and government agencies across Quebec, all of which operate primarily in French. To acknowledge and serve the needs of our research partners, we have endeavored to produce educational and outreach (EPO) material adapted for francophone audiences with the help of UCLA's department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences (EPSS). Not only will this provide greater understanding and appreciation of the geospace environment unique to Quebec and surrounding regions, it strengthens our ties with our francophone, first nations (native Americans) and Inuit partners, trailblazing new paths of research collaboration and inspiring future generations of researchers.

  12. [The First World War and French nurses].

    PubMed

    Darrow, Margaret H

    2014-06-01

    The First World War changed the place of women in French society. The major contribution they made in numerous sectors of activity is indisputable. However, the process of professionalisation was not really undertaken and the level of training given to the nurses, most of whom were volunteers, was very sketchy. The nurses seemed to be appreciated as much for their dedication as for their skills.

  13. [Terminology used in publications of pharmacoepidemiological research in france using health insurance reimbursement databases: need for harmonisation].

    PubMed

    Martin-Latry, Karin; Cougnard, Audrey

    2010-01-01

    The reimbursement databases of the French health insurance systems are greatly used for pharmaceoepidemiological research. However, the terminology used to describe them in subsequent articles and abstracts vary greatly and thus lead to a problem of identification during bibliograhic research or during the process of indexation in medline. In this article we have fixed the terminology used and proposed both a terminology and appropriate MeSH terms for indexation for the futur. Fifty-six published studies were included. At least six different root terms were found to define the French health insurance system, 64.3% of the publications mentioned the term "database", and 30.4% mentioned the term "reimbursement". We propose that abstracts of future articles contain the three terms: database, reimbursement, and health insurance. We also propose to include in the keywords of an article the MeSH terms that are most appropriate to define these three concepts: Insurance, Health, Reimbursement and Databases, Factual.

  14. Spectators' identification with French sports teams: a French adaptation of the sport spectator identification scale.

    PubMed

    Bernache-Assollant, Iouri; Bouchet, Patrick; Lacassagne, Marie-Françoise

    2007-02-01

    Due to the works of Wann and colleagues, spectators' identification with teams has taken on a central role in the study of sports spectators' thought and behavior. However, no research in this area has measured identification with sports teams in the French context. Two studies attempted to develop a valid and reliable French version of the Sport Spectator Identification Scale (SSIS) developed by Wann and Branscombe in 1993 to measure team identification. In Study 1, 200 physical education students completed a French translation of the SSIS and several questions concerning their involvement, investment, and evaluation of the team's future performance. Results showed that the French translation of the SSIS is a reliable and one-dimensional instrument: strong relationships were found between identification with professional French teams and these variables. In Study 2, 143 physical education students completed the SSIS with a National sport team as the target team. Results confirmed the psychometric properties of the scale and indicated that persons who strongly identify with the National soccer team reported more involvement with the team and were more optimistic about future performances than persons low in identification.

  15. Forest management strategies for reducing carbon emissions, the French case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valade, Aude; Luyssaert, Sebastiaan; Bellassen, Valentin; Vallet, Patrick; Martin, Manuel

    2015-04-01

    International agreements now recognize the role of forest in the mitigation of climate change through the levers of in-situ sequestration, storage in products and energy and product substitution. These three strategies of carbon management are often antagonistic and it is still not clear which strategy would have the most significant impact on atmospheric carbon concentrations. With a focus on France, this study compares several scenarios of forest management in terms of their effect on the overall carbon budget from trees to wood-products. We elaborated four scenarios of forest management that target different wood production objectives. One scenario is 'Business as usual' and reproduces the current forest management and wood production levels. Two scenarios target an increase in bioenergy wood production, with either long-term or short-term goals. One scenario aims at increasing the production of timber for construction. For this, an empirical regression model was developed building on the rich French inventory database. The model can project the current forest resource at a time horizon of 20 years for characteristic variables diameter, standing volume, above-ground biomass, stand age. A simplified life-cycle analysis provides a full carbon budget for each scenario from forest management to wood use and allows the identification of the scenario that most reduces carbon emissions.

  16. An inventory of trace elements inputs to French agricultural soils.

    PubMed

    Belon, E; Boisson, M; Deportes, I Z; Eglin, T K; Feix, I; Bispo, A O; Galsomies, L; Leblond, S; Guellier, C R

    2012-11-15

    The inputs of ten trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn) to French agricultural soils have been assessed. The six main sources considered were: pesticides, mineral fertilizers, animal manure, liming materials, sludge and composts and atmospheric deposition. Data were collected to compute inputs at both national and regional (departmental) scales. The inventory methodology is based on two principles: data are traceable and easy to update. At a national scale, the inventory showed that trace elements inputs can be ranked: Zn≫Cu≫Cr>Pb>Ni>As=Mo>Se>Cd>Hg. Animal manure, mineral fertilizers and pesticides are the predominant sources of TEs. These results are globally in agreement with literature data though atmospheric deposition is shown to be lower than in more industrial countries such as China and United Kingdom where similar surveys were conducted. The inputs of trace elements vary strongly between regions in relation with agricultural activities. This inventory (and the related database) provides basis for developing and monitoring policies to control and reduce trace elements contamination of agricultural soils at both national and regional (departmental) scales.

  17. The French Space Operation Act: Technical Regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trinchero, J. P.; Lazare, B.

    2010-09-01

    The French Space Operation Act(FSOA) stipulates that a prime objective of the National technical regulations is to protect people, property, public health and the environment. Compliance with these technical regulations is mandatory as of 10 December 2010 for space operations by French space operators and for space operations from French territory. The space safety requirements and regulations governing procedures are based on national and international best practices and experience. A critical design review of the space system and procedures shall be carried out by the applicant, in order to verify compliance with the Technical Regulations. An independent technical assessment of the operation is delegated to CNES. The principles applied when drafting technical regulations are as follows: requirements must as far as possible establish the rules according to the objective to be obtained, rather than how it is to be achieved; requirements must give preference to international standards recognised as being the state of the art; requirements must take previous experience into account. Technical regulations are divided into three sections covering common requirements for the launch, control and return of a space object. A dedicated section will cover specific rules to be applied at the Guiana Space Centre. The main topics addressed by the technical regulations are: operator safety management system; study of risks to people, property, public health and the Earth’s environment; impact study on the outer space environment: space debris generated by the operation; planetary protection.

  18. Lexical confusability and nasal coarticulation in French

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarborough, Rebecca

    2005-09-01

    Previous research has revealed a relationship between lexical confusability and degree of coarticulation [Brown (2001); Scarborough (2004)]. In particular, English speakers produce confusable, or ``hard'' words with more nasal and vowel-to-vowel coarticulation than less confusable, ``easy'' ones. Thus, it has been suggested that speakers produce additional coarticulation in order to increase the intelligibility of ``hard'' words. Here, the relation between nasal coarticulation and lexical confusability is investigated for French, a language in which vowel nasality is phonemically contrastive (at least for a subset of vowels) and might constrain such a lexical effect. Acoustic measures of nasality show that ``hard'' words (those with low usage frequencies and many frequent, phonologically similar neighbors) exhibit more nasal coarticulation than ``easy'' ones (those with high frequencies and few, low-frequency neighbors) in French as well. Interestingly, however, the effect emerges only for words containing vowels that can exhibit phonemic oral-nasal contrasts (oral vowels with nasal counterparts). Thus, where the use of nasality in phonological contrast is constrained, coarticulatory nasality is constrained, too. But the existence of phonological contrast does not itself constrain the lexical confusability effect: increased coarticulatory nasality contributes to lexically motivated phonetic enhancement in French, while even more nasality provides the basis for phonemic contrast.

  19. [The origins of the French neurosurgery].

    PubMed

    Brunon, J

    2016-06-01

    Modern French neurosurgery starts at the beginning of the XXth century under the motivation of Joseph Babinski. He submitted his patients to Thierry de Martel who had learned this new specialized area of medicine with H. Cushing in the États-Unis and V. Horsey in Great Britain. His first successfully treated case of an intracranial tumor was published in 1909. But the true founding father was Clovis Vincent, initially a neurologist and collaborator of de Martel, who became the first chairman in 1933 of the neurosurgical department at the Pitié hospital of Paris and the first professor of neurosurgery in 1938. After the Second World War, many departments were created outside of Paris. Neurosurgery was definitively recognized as a specialized area in medicine in 1948. Currently, more than 400 neurosurgeons work in France. Because I had the very great privilege to be present at the birth of this society in 1970 and to still be in contact with some of the second and third generation of French neurosurgeons who led it to its high international recognition, the Chairman of the French Neurosurgical Society asked me to write this short historical vignette. PMID:27234912

  20. French nuclear power charges in future

    SciTech Connect

    Catz, H.

    1996-07-01

    Electric rates in France are one of the best bargains in Europe, thanks largely to its state-run nuclear program. Since Charles DeGaulle created the French Atomic Energy Agency (CEA) in the late 1940`s, that agency and Elecricite de France (EdF) have put France well on the road to energy independence, says Henri Catz, director of Environment and Energy Policy at Confederation Francaise Democratique du Travail in France. {open_quotes}Nuclear power generates more than 75 percent of the electricity that France consumes,{close_quotes} Catz says. However, the French nuclear establishment has been slow to respond to the public`s environmental and safety concerns. In addition, Catz finds that CEA and EdF have no particular incentive to promote energy conservation. {open_quotes}French electricity is cheap and abundant. EdF has responded to this energy glut by encouraging its consumers to use more electricity, while simultaneously exporting excess power to France`s neighbors.

  1. Problems persist for French refining sector

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-27

    This paper reports that France's refiners face a continuing shortfall of middle distillate capacity and a persistent surplus of heavy fuel oil. That's the main conclusion of the official Hydrocarbon Directorate's report on how France's refining sector performed in 1991. Imports up---The directorate noted that although net production of refined products in French refineries rose to 1.534 million b/d in 1991 from 1.48 million b/d in 1990, products imports jumped 9.7% to 602,000 b/d in the period. The glut of heavy fuel oil eased to some extent last year because French nuclear power capacity, heavily dependent on ample water supplies, was crimped by drought. That spawned fuel switching. The most note worthy increase in imports was for motor diesel, climbing to 176,000 b/d from 148,000 b/d in 1990. Tax credits are spurring French consumption of that fuel. For the first time, consumption of motor diesel in 1991 outstripped that of gasoline at 374,000 b/d and 356,000 b/d respectively.

  2. [The origins of the French neurosurgery].

    PubMed

    Brunon, J

    2016-06-01

    Modern French neurosurgery starts at the beginning of the XXth century under the motivation of Joseph Babinski. He submitted his patients to Thierry de Martel who had learned this new specialized area of medicine with H. Cushing in the États-Unis and V. Horsey in Great Britain. His first successfully treated case of an intracranial tumor was published in 1909. But the true founding father was Clovis Vincent, initially a neurologist and collaborator of de Martel, who became the first chairman in 1933 of the neurosurgical department at the Pitié hospital of Paris and the first professor of neurosurgery in 1938. After the Second World War, many departments were created outside of Paris. Neurosurgery was definitively recognized as a specialized area in medicine in 1948. Currently, more than 400 neurosurgeons work in France. Because I had the very great privilege to be present at the birth of this society in 1970 and to still be in contact with some of the second and third generation of French neurosurgeons who led it to its high international recognition, the Chairman of the French Neurosurgical Society asked me to write this short historical vignette.

  3. Fundamental physics in space: The French contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Léon-Hirtz, Sylvie

    2003-08-01

    This paper outlines the space Fundamental Physics projects developped under CNES responsability together with the french scientific community, either in the national french programme or in the french contribution to the ESA programme, mainly: -the MICROSCOPE project which aims at testing the Equivalence Principle between inertial mass and gravitational mass at a high level of precision, on a microsatellite of the MYRIADE series developped by CNES, -the PHARAO cold-atom clock which is part of the ACES project of ESA, located on an external pallett of the International Space Station, together with a swiss H-MASER and a micro-wave link making comparison with ground clocks, aimed at relativistic tests and measurement of universal constants, -the T2L2 optical link allowing to compare ultra-stable and ultra-precise clocks, -a contribution to the AMS spectrometer which searches for cosmic antimatter, on the external part of the International Space Station, -a contribution to the LISA mission of ESA for direct detection and measurement of gravitational waves by interferometry, -ground-based studies on cold-atom interferometers which could be part of the HYPER project submitted to ESA.

  4. Great Basin paleontological database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, N.; Blodgett, R.B.; Hofstra, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has constructed a paleontological database for the Great Basin physiographic province that can be served over the World Wide Web for data entry, queries, displays, and retrievals. It is similar to the web-database solution that we constructed for Alaskan paleontological data (www.alaskafossil.org). The first phase of this effort was to compile a paleontological bibliography for Nevada and portions of adjacent states in the Great Basin that has recently been completed. In addition, we are also compiling paleontological reports (Known as E&R reports) of the U.S. Geological Survey, which are another extensive source of l,egacy data for this region. Initial population of the database benefited from a recently published conodont data set and is otherwise focused on Devonian and Mississippian localities because strata of this age host important sedimentary exhalative (sedex) Au, Zn, and barite resources and enormons Carlin-type An deposits. In addition, these strata are the most important petroleum source rocks in the region, and record the transition from extension to contraction associated with the Antler orogeny, the Alamo meteorite impact, and biotic crises associated with global oceanic anoxic events. The finished product will provide an invaluable tool for future geologic mapping, paleontological research, and mineral resource investigations in the Great Basin, making paleontological data acquired over nearly the past 150 yr readily available over the World Wide Web. A description of the structure of the database and the web interface developed for this effort are provided herein. This database is being used ws a model for a National Paleontological Database (which we am currently developing for the U.S. Geological Survey) as well as for other paleontological databases now being developed in other parts of the globe. ?? 2008 Geological Society of America.

  5. Societal risk as seen by the French public

    SciTech Connect

    Karpowicz-Lazreg, C.; Mullet, E. )

    1993-06-01

    Mean risk magnitude judgments expressed by French students on 90 hazardous activities are reported and compared with findings on American, Hungarian, and Norwegian samples. In many respects, rating of perceived risk in the French sample is highly comparable to rating in American subjects. American and French people tend to share the same preoccupations to the same extent. The only major differences concern hallucinatory drugs and oral contraceptives. The Norwegians and French ratings differ much more. Norwegians and French people generally have the same preoccupations (which make Norwegian ratings the best predictor of French ratings) but not to the same extent. The French are much more concerned with a whole series of activities connected to violence, the implementation of high technology or agricultural technology. However, like the Norwegians, the French are extremely concerned about the spread of hallucinogenic drugs. The Hungarian and French ratings differ on practically all instances, except on basic activities or substances in all industrialized nations (caffeine, motorcycles, ...). Differences were observed within the French sample itself. Women more than men consider that home appliances in general and large-scale public transportation are potentially dangerous. Science students more than art students tend to fear a certain number of medical techniques and a certain number of toxic substances (e.g., smoking). 7 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Decomposability and mental representation of French verbs

    PubMed Central

    Estivalet, Gustavo L.; Meunier, Fanny E.

    2015-01-01

    In French, regardless of stem regularity, inflectional verbal suffixes are extremely regular and paradigmatic. Considering the complexity of the French verbal system, we argue that all French verbs are polymorphemic forms that are decomposed during visual recognition independently of their stem regularity. We conducted a behavioral experiment in which we manipulated the surface and cumulative frequencies of verbal inflected forms and asked participants to perform a visual lexical decision task. We tested four types of verbs with respect to their stem variants: a. fully regular (parler “to speak,” [parl-]); b. phonological change e/E verbs with orthographic markers (répéter “to repeat,” [répét-] and [répèt-]); c. phonological change o/O verbs without orthographic markers (adorer “to adore,” [ador-] and [adOr-]); and d. idiosyncratic (boire “to drink,” [boi-] and [buv-]). For each type of verb, we contrasted four conditions, forms with high and low surface frequencies and forms with high and low cumulative frequencies. Our results showed a significant cumulative frequency effect for the fully regular and idiosyncratic verbs, indicating that different stems within idiosyncratic verbs (such as [boi-] and [buv-]) have distinct representations in the mental lexicon as different fully regular verbs. For the phonological change verbs, we found a significant cumulative frequency effect only when considering the two forms of the stem together ([répét-] and [répèt-]), suggesting that they share a single abstract and under specified phonological representation. Our results also revealed a significant surface frequency effect for all types of verbs, which may reflect the recombination of the stem lexical representation with the functional information of the suffixes. Overall, these results indicate that all inflected verbal forms in French are decomposed during visual recognition and that this process could be due to the regularities of the French

  7. FishTraits Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Angermeier, Paul L.; Frimpong, Emmanuel A.

    2009-01-01

    The need for integrated and widely accessible sources of species traits data to facilitate studies of ecology, conservation, and management has motivated development of traits databases for various taxa. In spite of the increasing number of traits-based analyses of freshwater fishes in the United States, no consolidated database of traits of this group exists publicly, and much useful information on these species is documented only in obscure sources. The largely inaccessible and unconsolidated traits information makes large-scale analysis involving many fishes and/or traits particularly challenging. FishTraits is a database of >100 traits for 809 (731 native and 78 exotic) fish species found in freshwaters of the conterminous United States, including 37 native families and 145 native genera. The database contains information on four major categories of traits: (1) trophic ecology, (2) body size and reproductive ecology (life history), (3) habitat associations, and (4) salinity and temperature tolerances. Information on geographic distribution and conservation status is also included. Together, we refer to the traits, distribution, and conservation status information as attributes. Descriptions of attributes are available here. Many sources were consulted to compile attributes, including state and regional species accounts and other databases.

  8. ADANS database specification

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-16

    The purpose of the Air Mobility Command (AMC) Deployment Analysis System (ADANS) Database Specification (DS) is to describe the database organization and storage allocation and to provide the detailed data model of the physical design and information necessary for the construction of the parts of the database (e.g., tables, indexes, rules, defaults). The DS includes entity relationship diagrams, table and field definitions, reports on other database objects, and a description of the ADANS data dictionary. ADANS is the automated system used by Headquarters AMC and the Tanker Airlift Control Center (TACC) for airlift planning and scheduling of peacetime and contingency operations as well as for deliberate planning. ADANS also supports planning and scheduling of Air Refueling Events by the TACC and the unit-level tanker schedulers. ADANS receives input in the form of movement requirements and air refueling requests. It provides a suite of tools for planners to manipulate these requirements/requests against mobility assets and to develop, analyze, and distribute schedules. Analysis tools are provided for assessing the products of the scheduling subsystems, and editing capabilities support the refinement of schedules. A reporting capability provides formatted screen, print, and/or file outputs of various standard reports. An interface subsystem handles message traffic to and from external systems. The database is an integral part of the functionality summarized above.

  9. Using the Reactome Database

    PubMed Central

    Haw, Robin

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable interest in the bioinformatics community in creating pathway databases. The Reactome project (a collaboration between the Ontario Institute for Cancer Research, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York University Medical Center and the European Bioinformatics Institute) is one such pathway database and collects structured information on all the biological pathways and processes in the human. It is an expert-authored and peer-reviewed, curated collection of well-documented molecular reactions that span the gamut from simple intermediate metabolism to signaling pathways and complex cellular events. This information is supplemented with likely orthologous molecular reactions in mouse, rat, zebrafish, worm and other model organisms. This unit describes how to use the Reactome database to learn the steps of a biological pathway; navigate and browse through the Reactome database; identify the pathways in which a molecule of interest is involved; use the Pathway and Expression analysis tools to search the database for and visualize possible connections within user-supplied experimental data set and Reactome pathways; and the Species Comparison tool to compare human and model organism pathways. PMID:22700314

  10. NASA Records Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callac, Christopher; Lunsford, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Records Database, comprising a Web-based application program and a database, is used to administer an archive of paper records at Stennis Space Center. The system begins with an electronic form, into which a user enters information about records that the user is sending to the archive. The form is smart : it provides instructions for entering information correctly and prompts the user to enter all required information. Once complete, the form is digitally signed and submitted to the database. The system determines which storage locations are not in use, assigns the user s boxes of records to some of them, and enters these assignments in the database. Thereafter, the software tracks the boxes and can be used to locate them. By use of search capabilities of the software, specific records can be sought by box storage locations, accession numbers, record dates, submitting organizations, or details of the records themselves. Boxes can be marked with such statuses as checked out, lost, transferred, and destroyed. The system can generate reports showing boxes awaiting destruction or transfer. When boxes are transferred to the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA), the system can automatically fill out NARA records-transfer forms. Currently, several other NASA Centers are considering deploying the NASA Records Database to help automate their records archives.

  11. Shuttle Hypervelocity Impact Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, James L.; Christiansen, Eric L.; Lear, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    With three missions outstanding, the Shuttle Hypervelocity Impact Database has nearly 3000 entries. The data is divided into tables for crew module windows, payload bay door radiators and thermal protection system regions, with window impacts compromising just over half the records. In general, the database provides dimensions of hypervelocity impact damage, a component level location (i.e., window number or radiator panel number) and the orbiter mission when the impact occurred. Additional detail on the type of particle that produced the damage site is provided when sampling data and definitive analysis results are available. Details and insights on the contents of the database including examples of descriptive statistics will be provided. Post flight impact damage inspection and sampling techniques that were employed during the different observation campaigns will also be discussed. Potential enhancements to the database structure and availability of the data for other researchers will be addressed in the Future Work section. A related database of returned surfaces from the International Space Station will also be introduced.

  12. Shuttle Hypervelocity Impact Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyde, James I.; Christiansen, Eric I.; Lear, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    With three flights remaining on the manifest, the shuttle impact hypervelocity database has over 2800 entries. The data is currently divided into tables for crew module windows, payload bay door radiators and thermal protection system regions, with window impacts compromising just over half the records. In general, the database provides dimensions of hypervelocity impact damage, a component level location (i.e., window number or radiator panel number) and the orbiter mission when the impact occurred. Additional detail on the type of particle that produced the damage site is provided when sampling data and definitive analysis results are available. The paper will provide details and insights on the contents of the database including examples of descriptive statistics using the impact data. A discussion of post flight impact damage inspection and sampling techniques that were employed during the different observation campaigns will be presented. Future work to be discussed will be possible enhancements to the database structure and availability of the data for other researchers. A related database of ISS returned surfaces that are under development will also be introduced.

  13. Computer Databases: A Survey; Part 1: General and News Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Mick

    1986-01-01

    Descriptions and evaluations of 13 databases devoted to computer information are presented by type under four headings: bibliographic databases; daily news services; online computer magazines; and specialized computer industry databases. Information on database producers, starting date of file, update frequency, vendors, and prices is summarized…

  14. VIEWCACHE: An incremental database access method for autonomous interoperable databases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roussopoulos, Nick; Sellis, Timoleon

    1991-01-01

    The objective is to illustrate the concept of incremental access to distributed databases. An experimental database management system, ADMS, which has been developed at the University of Maryland, in College Park, uses VIEWCACHE, a database access method based on incremental search. VIEWCACHE is a pointer-based access method that provides a uniform interface for accessing distributed databases and catalogues. The compactness of the pointer structures formed during database browsing and the incremental access method allow the user to search and do inter-database cross-referencing with no actual data movement between database sites. Once the search is complete, the set of collected pointers pointing to the desired data are dereferenced.

  15. Ticlopidine- and clopidogrel-associated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP): review of clinical, laboratory, epidemiological, and pharmacovigilance findings (1989–2008)

    PubMed Central

    Zakarija, Anaadriana; Kwaan, Hau C.; Moake, Joel L.; Bandarenko, Nicholas; Pandey, Dilip K.; McKoy, June M.; Yarnold, Paul R.; Raisch, Dennis W.; Winters, Jeffrey L.; Raife, Thomas J.; Cursio, John F.; Luu, Thanh Ha; Richey, Elizabeth A.; Fisher, Matthew J.; Ortel, Thomas L.; Tallman, Martin S.; Zheng, X. Long; Matsumoto, Masanori; Fujimura, Yoshihiro; Bennett, Charles L.

    2012-01-01

    Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a fulminant disease characterized by platelet aggregates, thrombocytopenia, renal insufficiency, neurologic changes, and mechanical injury to erythrocytes. Most idiopathic cases of TTP are characterized by a deficiency of ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease, with thrombospondin-1-like domains) metalloprotease activity. Ironically, use of anti-platelet agents, the thienopyridine derivates clopidogrel and ticlopidine, is associated with drug induced TTP. Data were abstracted from a systematic review of English-language literature for thienopyridine-associated TTP identified in MEDLINE, EMBASE, the public website of the Food and Drug Administration, and abstracts from national scientific conferences from 1991 to April 2008. Ticlopidine and clopidogrel are the two most common drugs associated with TTP in FDA safety databases. Epidemiological studies identify recent initiation of anti-platelet agents as the most common risk factor associated with risks of developing TTP. Laboratory studies indicate that most cases of thienopyridine-associated TTP involve an antibody to ADAMTS13 metalloprotease, present with severe thrombocytopenia, and respond to therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE); a minority of thienopyridine-associated TTP presents with severe renal insufficiency, involves direct endothelial cell damage, and is less responsive to TPE. The evaluation of this potentially fatal drug toxicity can serve as a template for future efforts to comprehensively characterize other severe adverse drug reactions. PMID:19180126

  16. Open Geoscience Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bashev, A.

    2012-04-01

    Currently there is an enormous amount of various geoscience databases. Unfortunately the only users of the majority of the databases are their elaborators. There are several reasons for that: incompaitability, specificity of tasks and objects and so on. However the main obstacles for wide usage of geoscience databases are complexity for elaborators and complication for users. The complexity of architecture leads to high costs that block the public access. The complication prevents users from understanding when and how to use the database. Only databases, associated with GoogleMaps don't have these drawbacks, but they could be hardly named "geoscience" Nevertheless, open and simple geoscience database is necessary at least for educational purposes (see our abstract for ESSI20/EOS12). We developed a database and web interface to work with them and now it is accessible at maps.sch192.ru. In this database a result is a value of a parameter (no matter which) in a station with a certain position, associated with metadata: the date when the result was obtained; the type of a station (lake, soil etc); the contributor that sent the result. Each contributor has its own profile, that allows to estimate the reliability of the data. The results can be represented on GoogleMaps space image as a point in a certain position, coloured according to the value of the parameter. There are default colour scales and each registered user can create the own scale. The results can be also extracted in *.csv file. For both types of representation one could select the data by date, object type, parameter type, area and contributor. The data are uploaded in *.csv format: Name of the station; Lattitude(dd.dddddd); Longitude(ddd.dddddd); Station type; Parameter type; Parameter value; Date(yyyy-mm-dd). The contributor is recognised while entering. This is the minimal set of features that is required to connect a value of a parameter with a position and see the results. All the complicated data

  17. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1992-04-30

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R- 125, R-134a, R-141b, R142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses polyalkylene glycol (PAG), ester, and other lubricants. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits.

  18. Enhancing medical database semantics.

    PubMed Central

    Leão, B. de F.; Pavan, A.

    1995-01-01

    Medical Databases deal with dynamic, heterogeneous and fuzzy data. The modeling of such complex domain demands powerful semantic data modeling methodologies. This paper describes GSM-Explorer a Case Tool that allows for the creation of relational databases using semantic data modeling techniques. GSM Explorer fully incorporates the Generic Semantic Data Model-GSM enabling knowledge engineers to model the application domain with the abstraction mechanisms of generalization/specialization, association and aggregation. The tool generates a structure that implements persistent database-objects through the automatic generation of customized SQL ANSI scripts that sustain the semantics defined in the higher lever. This paper emphasizes the system architecture and the mapping of the semantic model into relational tables. The present status of the project and its further developments are discussed in the Conclusions. PMID:8563288

  19. Protein Structure Databases.

    PubMed

    Laskowski, Roman A

    2016-01-01

    Web-based protein structure databases come in a wide variety of types and levels of information content. Those having the most general interest are the various atlases that describe each experimentally determined protein structure and provide useful links, analyses, and schematic diagrams relating to its 3D structure and biological function. Also of great interest are the databases that classify 3D structures by their folds as these can reveal evolutionary relationships which may be hard to detect from sequence comparison alone. Related to these are the numerous servers that compare folds-particularly useful for newly solved structures, and especially those of unknown function. Beyond these are a vast number of databases for the more specialized user, dealing with specific families, diseases, structural features, and so on. PMID:27115626

  20. Mouse genome database 2016.

    PubMed

    Bult, Carol J; Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2016-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data.

  1. Mouse genome database 2016

    PubMed Central

    Bult, Carol J.; Eppig, Janan T.; Blake, Judith A.; Kadin, James A.; Richardson, Joel E.

    2016-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data. PMID:26578600

  2. Mouse genome database 2016.

    PubMed

    Bult, Carol J; Eppig, Janan T; Blake, Judith A; Kadin, James A; Richardson, Joel E

    2016-01-01

    The Mouse Genome Database (MGD; http://www.informatics.jax.org) is the primary community model organism database for the laboratory mouse and serves as the source for key biological reference data related to mouse genes, gene functions, phenotypes and disease models with a strong emphasis on the relationship of these data to human biology and disease. As the cost of genome-scale sequencing continues to decrease and new technologies for genome editing become widely adopted, the laboratory mouse is more important than ever as a model system for understanding the biological significance of human genetic variation and for advancing the basic research needed to support the emergence of genome-guided precision medicine. Recent enhancements to MGD include new graphical summaries of biological annotations for mouse genes, support for mobile access to the database, tools to support the annotation and analysis of sets of genes, and expanded support for comparative biology through the expansion of homology data. PMID:26578600

  3. National Ambient Radiation Database

    SciTech Connect

    Dziuban, J.; Sears, R.

    2003-02-25

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recently developed a searchable database and website for the Environmental Radiation Ambient Monitoring System (ERAMS) data. This site contains nationwide radiation monitoring data for air particulates, precipitation, drinking water, surface water and pasteurized milk. This site provides location-specific as well as national information on environmental radioactivity across several media. It provides high quality data for assessing public exposure and environmental impacts resulting from nuclear emergencies and provides baseline data during routine conditions. The database and website are accessible at www.epa.gov/enviro/. This site contains (1) a query for the general public which is easy to use--limits the amount of information provided, but includes the ability to graph the data with risk benchmarks and (2) a query for a more technical user which allows access to all of the data in the database, (3) background information on ER AMS.

  4. The Neotoma Paleoecology Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimm, E. C.; Ashworth, A. C.; Barnosky, A. D.; Betancourt, J. L.; Bills, B.; Booth, R.; Blois, J.; Charles, D. F.; Graham, R. W.; Goring, S. J.; Hausmann, S.; Smith, A. J.; Williams, J. W.; Buckland, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Neotoma Paleoecology Database (www.neotomadb.org) is a multiproxy, open-access, relational database that includes fossil data for the past 5 million years (the late Neogene and Quaternary Periods). Modern distributional data for various organisms are also being made available for calibration and paleoecological analyses. The project is a collaborative effort among individuals from more than 20 institutions worldwide, including domain scientists representing a spectrum of Pliocene-Quaternary fossil data types, as well as experts in information technology. Working groups are active for diatoms, insects, ostracodes, pollen and plant macroscopic remains, testate amoebae, rodent middens, vertebrates, age models, geochemistry and taphonomy. Groups are also active in developing online tools for data analyses and for developing modules for teaching at different levels. A key design concept of NeotomaDB is that stewards for various data types are able to remotely upload and manage data. Cooperatives for different kinds of paleo data, or from different regions, can appoint their own stewards. Over the past year, much progress has been made on development of the steward software-interface that will enable this capability. The steward interface uses web services that provide access to the database. More generally, these web services enable remote programmatic access to the database, which both desktop and web applications can use and which provide real-time access to the most current data. Use of these services can alleviate the need to download the entire database, which can be out-of-date as soon as new data are entered. In general, the Neotoma web services deliver data either from an entire table or from the results of a view. Upon request, new web services can be quickly generated. Future developments will likely expand the spatial and temporal dimensions of the database. NeotomaDB is open to receiving new datasets and stewards from the global Quaternary community

  5. Two centuries of French patents as documentation of musical instrument construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean, Haury

    2005-09-01

    The French Patent Office I.N.P.I. has preserved the originals of ca. 12000 French patents filed between 1791 and present days that are concerned with music-related inventions. As an I.N.P.I. pilot project, these were identified, collected, and classified by the present author, and the actual database named ``Musique & Brevets'' is going to be expanded with English, American, and German material, bringing currently a knowledge base up to 1900. It is expected to be made available on an I.N.P.I. website. This is an unequaled initiative that covers all branches of musical instrument manufacture, mechanical musical instruments, early recording and reproducing of music, but also educational material and methods for printing music. There already exists a number of websites presenting inventions on musical instruments, but these are restricted to one particular instrument and its related patents. ``Musique & Brevets'' intends to be exhaustive and make links between patents filed in different countries at the same time. The paper will present the content of the database, the access to texts and drawings of the patents via specific links, and their importance for the study of history and construction of musical instruments.

  6. The Ribosomal Database Project.

    PubMed Central

    Maidak, B L; Larsen, N; McCaughey, M J; Overbeek, R; Olsen, G J; Fogel, K; Blandy, J; Woese, C R

    1994-01-01

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) is a curated database that offers ribosome-related data, analysis services, and associated computer programs. The offerings include phylogenetically ordered alignments of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequences, derived phylogenetic trees, rRNA secondary structure diagrams, and various software for handling, analyzing and displaying alignments and trees. The data are available via anonymous ftp (rdp.life.uiuc.edu), electronic mail (server/rdp.life.uiuc.edu) and gopher (rdpgopher.life.uiuc.edu). The electronic mail server also provides ribosomal probe checking, approximate phylogenetic placement of user-submitted sequences, screening for chimeric nature of newly sequenced rRNAs, and automated alignment. PMID:7524021

  7. Database Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    In 1981 Wayne Erickson founded Microrim, Inc, a company originally focused on marketing a microcomputer version of RIM (Relational Information Manager). Dennis Comfort joined the firm and is now vice president, development. The team developed an advanced spinoff from the NASA system they had originally created, a microcomputer database management system known as R:BASE 4000. Microrim added many enhancements and developed a series of R:BASE products for various environments. R:BASE is now the second largest selling line of microcomputer database management software in the world.

  8. The Genopolis Microarray Database

    PubMed Central

    Splendiani, Andrea; Brandizi, Marco; Even, Gael; Beretta, Ottavio; Pavelka, Norman; Pelizzola, Mattia; Mayhaus, Manuel; Foti, Maria; Mauri, Giancarlo; Ricciardi-Castagnoli, Paola

    2007-01-01

    Background Gene expression databases are key resources for microarray data management and analysis and the importance of a proper annotation of their content is well understood. Public repositories as well as microarray database systems that can be implemented by single laboratories exist. However, there is not yet a tool that can easily support a collaborative environment where different users with different rights of access to data can interact to define a common highly coherent content. The scope of the Genopolis database is to provide a resource that allows different groups performing microarray experiments related to a common subject to create a common coherent knowledge base and to analyse it. The Genopolis database has been implemented as a dedicated system for the scientific community studying dendritic and macrophage cells functions and host-parasite interactions. Results The Genopolis Database system allows the community to build an object based MIAME compliant annotation of their experiments and to store images, raw and processed data from the Affymetrix GeneChip® platform. It supports dynamical definition of controlled vocabularies and provides automated and supervised steps to control the coherence of data and annotations. It allows a precise control of the visibility of the database content to different sub groups in the community and facilitates exports of its content to public repositories. It provides an interactive users interface for data analysis: this allows users to visualize data matrices based on functional lists and sample characterization, and to navigate to other data matrices defined by similarity of expression values as well as functional characterizations of genes involved. A collaborative environment is also provided for the definition and sharing of functional annotation by users. Conclusion The Genopolis Database supports a community in building a common coherent knowledge base and analyse it. This fills a gap between a local

  9. Low-Budget Graphic Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Dan

    1994-01-01

    Explains the use of a standard text-based database program (i.e., dBase III) to run external programs that display graphic files during a database session and reduces costs normally encountered when preparing a computer to run a graphical database. An example is given of a simple database with two fields. (LRW)

  10. TREC Document Database: Disk 4

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST TREC Document Database: Disk 4 (PC database for purchase)   NIST TREC Document Databases (Special Database 22) are distributed for the development and testing of information retrieval (IR) systems and related natural language processing research. The document collections consist of the full text of various newspaper and newswire articles plus government proceedings.

  11. TREC Document Database: Disk 5

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST TREC Document Database: Disk 5 (PC database for purchase)   NIST TREC Document Databases (Special Database 23) are distributed for the development and testing of information retrieval (IR) systems and related natural language processing research. The document collections consist of the full text of various newspaper and newswire articles plus government proceedings.

  12. The "Bain Linguistique": A Core French Experiment at Churchill Alternative School, 1993-94. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wesche, Marjorie; MacFarlane, Alina; Peters, Martine

    This report describes an experimental intensive core French program for grades 5 and 6 at Churchill Alternative School in Ottawa (Canada). The aim was to improve the oral French skills of core French students by providing a period of intensive exposure to French and by increasing the total number of hours in French during one program year from 120…

  13. Evidence for the Original Unity of North American French Dialects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hull, Alexander

    1974-01-01

    Examines the resemblances - morphological, syntactic, lexical and phonological - among North American French dialects today in order to determine the extent to which these represent a common source. (PMP)

  14. Sleeping porch through french doors off master bedroom (southern unit) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Sleeping porch through french doors off master bedroom (southern unit) - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Officers' Quarters, West Charlie Kelly Boulevard & South Hutton Street, Southwest Corner, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  15. Arts in space: French experiences and elements of prospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnould, Jacques

    2009-04-01

    The French space adventure started more than 40 years ago. Its rich and long scientific and technical tradition made France able to occupy the place which is hers today. But what does happen to the world of arts, to which the French culture brought so much? Beyond some French artists belonging to the community of the space artists, do arts constitute a true dimension of the French space activity? Conversely, did space influence the national artistic culture? This paper proposes to tackle these questions according to a retrospective historical glance and to offer some prospective reflexions.

  16. The CEBAF Element Database

    SciTech Connect

    Theodore Larrieu, Christopher Slominski, Michele Joyce

    2011-03-01

    With the inauguration of the CEBAF Element Database (CED) in Fall 2010, Jefferson Lab computer scientists have taken a step toward the eventual goal of a model-driven accelerator. Once fully populated, the database will be the primary repository of information used for everything from generating lattice decks to booting control computers to building controls screens. A requirement influencing the CED design is that it provide access to not only present, but also future and past configurations of the accelerator. To accomplish this, an introspective database schema was designed that allows new elements, types, and properties to be defined on-the-fly with no changes to table structure. Used in conjunction with Oracle Workspace Manager, it allows users to query data from any time in the database history with the same tools used to query the present configuration. Users can also check-out workspaces to use as staging areas for upcoming machine configurations. All Access to the CED is through a well-documented Application Programming Interface (API) that is translated automatically from original C++ source code into native libraries for scripting languages such as perl, php, and TCL making access to the CED easy and ubiquitous.

  17. Triatomic Spectral Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 117 Triatomic Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 55 triatomic molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty and reference are given for each transition reported.

  18. Hydrocarbon Spectral Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 115 Hydrocarbon Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 91 hydrocarbon molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty and reference are given for each transition reported.

  19. Diatomic Spectral Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 114 Diatomic Spectral Database (Web, free access)   All of the rotational spectral lines observed and reported in the open literature for 121 diatomic molecules have been tabulated. The isotopic molecular species, assigned quantum numbers, observed frequency, estimated measurement uncertainty, and reference are given for each transition reported.

  20. High Performance Buildings Database

    DOE Data Explorer

    The High Performance Buildings Database is a shared resource for the building industry, a unique central repository of in-depth information and data on high-performance, green building projects across the United States and abroad. The database includes information on the energy use, environmental performance, design process, finances, and other aspects of each project. Members of the design and construction teams are listed, as are sources for additional information. In total, up to twelve screens of detailed information are provided for each project profile. Projects range in size from small single-family homes or tenant fit-outs within buildings to large commercial and institutional buildings and even entire campuses. The database is a data repository as well. A series of Web-based data-entry templates allows anyone to enter information about a building project into the database. Once a project has been submitted, each of the partner organizations can review the entry and choose whether or not to publish that particular project on its own Web site.

  1. The Ribosomal Database Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, G. J.; Overbeek, R.; Larsen, N.; Marsh, T. L.; McCaughey, M. J.; Maciukenas, M. A.; Kuan, W. M.; Macke, T. J.; Xing, Y.; Woese, C. R.

    1992-01-01

    The Ribosomal Database Project (RDP) complies ribosomal sequences and related data, and redistributes them in aligned and phylogenetically ordered form to its user community. It also offers various software packages for handling, analyzing and displaying sequences. In addition, the RDP offers (or will offer) certain analytic services. At present the project is in an intermediate stage of development.

  2. Weathering Database Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Collecting weather data is a traditional part of a meteorology unit at the middle level. However, making connections between the data and weather conditions can be a challenge. One way to make these connections clearer is to enter the data into a database. This allows students to quickly compare different fields of data and recognize which…

  3. Patent Family Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Edlyn S.

    1985-01-01

    Reports on retrieval of patent information online and includes definition of patent family, basic and equivalent patents, "parents and children" applications, designated states, patent family databases--International Patent Documentation Center, World Patents Index, APIPAT (American Petroleum Institute), CLAIMS (IFI/Plenum). A table noting country…

  4. LQTS gene LOVD database.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Moss, Arthur; Cong, Peikuan; Pan, Min; Chang, Bingxi; Zheng, Liangrong; Fang, Quan; Zareba, Wojciech; Robinson, Jennifer; Lin, Changsong; Li, Zhongxiang; Wei, Junfang; Zeng, Qiang; Qi, Ming

    2010-11-01

    The Long QT Syndrome (LQTS) is a group of genetically heterogeneous disorders that predisposes young individuals to ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. LQTS is mainly caused by mutations in genes encoding subunits of cardiac ion channels (KCNQ1, KCNH2,SCN5A, KCNE1, and KCNE2). Many other genes involved in LQTS have been described recently(KCNJ2, AKAP9, ANK2, CACNA1C, SCNA4B, SNTA1, and CAV3). We created an online database(http://www.genomed.org/LOVD/introduction.html) that provides information on variants in LQTS-associated genes. As of February 2010, the database contains 1738 unique variants in 12 genes. A total of 950 variants are considered pathogenic, 265 are possible pathogenic, 131 are unknown/unclassified, and 292 have no known pathogenicity. In addition to these mutations collected from published literature, we also submitted information on gene variants, including one possible novel pathogenic mutation in the KCNH2 splice site found in ten Chinese families with documented arrhythmias. The remote user is able to search the data and is encouraged to submit new mutations into the database. The LQTS database will become a powerful tool for both researchers and clinicians. PMID:20809527

  5. LQTS gene LOVD database.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Moss, Arthur; Cong, Peikuan; Pan, Min; Chang, Bingxi; Zheng, Liangrong; Fang, Quan; Zareba, Wojciech; Robinson, Jennifer; Lin, Changsong; Li, Zhongxiang; Wei, Junfang; Zeng, Qiang; Qi, Ming

    2010-11-01

    The Long QT Syndrome (LQTS) is a group of genetically heterogeneous disorders that predisposes young individuals to ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. LQTS is mainly caused by mutations in genes encoding subunits of cardiac ion channels (KCNQ1, KCNH2,SCN5A, KCNE1, and KCNE2). Many other genes involved in LQTS have been described recently(KCNJ2, AKAP9, ANK2, CACNA1C, SCNA4B, SNTA1, and CAV3). We created an online database(http://www.genomed.org/LOVD/introduction.html) that provides information on variants in LQTS-associated genes. As of February 2010, the database contains 1738 unique variants in 12 genes. A total of 950 variants are considered pathogenic, 265 are possible pathogenic, 131 are unknown/unclassified, and 292 have no known pathogenicity. In addition to these mutations collected from published literature, we also submitted information on gene variants, including one possible novel pathogenic mutation in the KCNH2 splice site found in ten Chinese families with documented arrhythmias. The remote user is able to search the data and is encouraged to submit new mutations into the database. The LQTS database will become a powerful tool for both researchers and clinicians.

  6. Databases and data mining

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Over the course of the past decade, the breadth of information that is made available through online resources for plant biology has increased astronomically, as have the interconnectedness among databases, online tools, and methods of data acquisition and analysis. For maize researchers, the numbe...

  7. Redis database administration tool

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, J. J.

    2013-02-13

    MyRedis is a product of the Lorenz subproject under the ASC Scirntific Data Management effort. MyRedis is a web based utility designed to allow easy administration of instances of Redis databases. It can be usedd to view and manipulate data as well as run commands directly against a variety of different Redis hosts.

  8. The AMMA database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boichard, Jean-Luc; Brissebrat, Guillaume; Cloche, Sophie; Eymard, Laurence; Fleury, Laurence; Mastrorillo, Laurence; Moulaye, Oumarou; Ramage, Karim

    2010-05-01

    The AMMA project includes aircraft, ground-based and ocean measurements, an intensive use of satellite data and diverse modelling studies. Therefore, the AMMA database aims at storing a great amount and a large variety of data, and at providing the data as rapidly and safely as possible to the AMMA research community. In order to stimulate the exchange of information and collaboration between researchers from different disciplines or using different tools, the database provides a detailed description of the products and uses standardized formats. The AMMA database contains: - AMMA field campaigns datasets; - historical data in West Africa from 1850 (operational networks and previous scientific programs); - satellite products from past and future satellites, (re-)mapped on a regular latitude/longitude grid and stored in NetCDF format (CF Convention); - model outputs from atmosphere or ocean operational (re-)analysis and forecasts, and from research simulations. The outputs are processed as the satellite products are. Before accessing the data, any user has to sign the AMMA data and publication policy. This chart only covers the use of data in the framework of scientific objectives and categorically excludes the redistribution of data to third parties and the usage for commercial applications. Some collaboration between data producers and users, and the mention of the AMMA project in any publication is also required. The AMMA database and the associated on-line tools have been fully developed and are managed by two teams in France (IPSL Database Centre, Paris and OMP, Toulouse). Users can access data of both data centres using an unique web portal. This website is composed of different modules : - Registration: forms to register, read and sign the data use chart when an user visits for the first time - Data access interface: friendly tool allowing to build a data extraction request by selecting various criteria like location, time, parameters... The request can

  9. JDD, Inc. Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David A., Jr.

    2004-01-01

    JDD Inc, is a maintenance and custodial contracting company whose mission is to provide their clients in the private and government sectors "quality construction, construction management and cleaning services in the most efficient and cost effective manners, (JDD, Inc. Mission Statement)." This company provides facilities support for Fort Riley in Fo,rt Riley, Kansas and the NASA John H. Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field here in Cleveland, Ohio. JDD, Inc. is owned and operated by James Vaughn, who started as painter at NASA Glenn and has been working here for the past seventeen years. This summer I worked under Devan Anderson, who is the safety manager for JDD Inc. in the Logistics and Technical Information Division at Glenn Research Center The LTID provides all transportation, secretarial, security needs and contract management of these various services for the center. As a safety manager, my mentor provides Occupational Health and Safety Occupation (OSHA) compliance to all JDD, Inc. employees and handles all other issues (Environmental Protection Agency issues, workers compensation, safety and health training) involving to job safety. My summer assignment was not as considered "groundbreaking research" like many other summer interns have done in the past, but it is just as important and beneficial to JDD, Inc. I initially created a database using a Microsoft Excel program to classify and categorize data pertaining to numerous safety training certification courses instructed by our safety manager during the course of the fiscal year. This early portion of the database consisted of only data (training field index, employees who were present at these training courses and who was absent) from the training certification courses. Once I completed this phase of the database, I decided to expand the database and add as many dimensions to it as possible. Throughout the last seven weeks, I have been compiling more data from day to day operations and been adding the

  10. The French National Mesothelioma Surveillance Program

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, M; Imbernon, E; Rolland, P; Ilg, A Gilg Soit; Savès, M; de Quillacq, A; Frenay, C; Chamming's, S; Arveux, P; Boutin, C; Launoy, G; Pairon, J C; Astoul, P; Galateau‐Sallé, F; Brochard, P

    2006-01-01

    Objectives The French National Mesothelioma Surveillance Program (NMSP) was established in 1998 by the National Institute for Health Surveillance (InVS). Its objectives are to estimate the trends in mesothelioma incidence and the proportion attributable to occupational asbestos exposure, to help improve its pathology diagnosis, to assess its compensation as an occupational disease, and to contribute to research. Methods The NMSP records incident pleural tumours in 21 French districts that cover a population of approximately 16 million people (a quarter of the French population). A standardised procedure of pathological and clinical diagnosis ascertainment is used. Lifetime exposure to asbestos and to other factors (man made mineral fibres, ionising radiation, SV40 virus) is reconstructed, and a case‐control study was also conducted. The proportion of mesothelioma compensated as an occupational disease was assessed. Results Depending on the hypothesis, the estimated number of incident cases in 1998 ranged from 660 to 761 (women: 127 to 146; men: 533 to 615). Among men, the industries with the highest risks of mesothelioma are construction and ship repair, asbestos industry, and manufacture of metal construction materials; the occupations at highest risk are plumbers, pipe‐fitters, and sheet‐metal workers. The attributable risk fraction for occupational asbestos exposure in men was 83.2% (95% CI 76.8 to 89.6). The initial pathologist's diagnosis was confirmed in 67% of cases, ruled out in 13%, and left uncertain in the others; for half of the latter, the clinical findings supported a mesothelioma diagnosis. In all, 62% applied for designation of an occupational disease, and 91% of these were receiving workers' compensation. Conclusions The NMSP is a large scale epidemiological surveillance system with several original aspects, providing important information to improve the knowledge of malignant pleural mesothelioma, such as monitoring the evolution of its

  11. The French Space Operations Act: Technical Regulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazare, B.

    2013-12-01

    The French Space Operations Act (FSOA) [1] stipulates that one of the National Technical Regulations' prime objectives is to protect people, property, public health and the environment. Compliance with these Technical Regulations has been mandatory since 10 December, 2010 for space operations by French space operators and for space operations conducted on French territory. The space safety requirements and regulations governing procedures are based on national and international best practices and experience. A critical design review of the space system and procedures shall be carried out by applicant space operators, in order to verify compliance with the Technical Regulations. An independent technical assessment of the operation is delegated to CNES. The principles applied when drafting the Technical Regulations are as follows: requirements must, as far as possible, establish the rules according to the objective to be obtained, rather than how it is to be achieved; requirements must give preference to international standards recognised as being state of the art; requirements must take previous experience into account. The Technical Regulations are divided into three sections covering requirements common to the launch, control and return of a space object. A special section will cover specific rules to be applied at the Guiana Space Centre. The main topics addressed by the Technical Regulations are: operator safety management system; study of risks to people, property, public health and the Earth's environment; impact study on the outer space environment: space debris generated by the operation; planetary protection. The first version of the Technical Regulations [2], issued in March 2011, is dedicated to unmanned space systems.

  12. [French national health insurance. The current situation].

    PubMed

    Huguier, Michel; Lagrave, Michel; Marcelli, Aline; Rossignol, Claude; Tillement, Jean-Paul

    2010-06-01

    An audit of the French national health insurance system would be justified by economic considerations alone, but this would risk overlooking the notions of solidarity and freedom to which the French are rightly attached. European comparisons suggest, however, that our system could be made more efficient without undermining public health. The national health insurance system allows each member of the population to receive high-quality medical care. Practitioners have near-total freedom of prescription and practice. Medical care contributes to the ongoing increase in life expectancy, which is currently 73 years and second only to Japan. Healthcare is also a source of a million jobs. Macro-economic spending controls have failed, owing to medical progress and population aging, and also to medical consumerism favored by an unprecedented range of examinations and treatments, the increasing reimbursement of medical care, and the extension of direct payment by the insurer. Many ineffective measures have been implemented, such as tarification according to activity, and hospital certification. Health spending is also increased unnecessarily by bureaucratisation of healthcare spending and the transfer of professionals to posts for which they are not qualified. Some controversial medical prescriptions are not adequately controlled by the health service. Many reforms are based on over-optimistic economic predictions that fail to take related overheads into account. Lobbying by special interests groups undermines reform and the public interest. Too many independent administrative bodies have been created, and many are less efficient than the public structures they replaced. In sum, the French national health insurance system has become less and less efficient over the years. PMID:21513139

  13. Snow management practices in French ski resorts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spandre, Pierre; Francois, Hugues; George-Marcelpoil, Emmanuelle; Morin, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    Winter tourism plays a fundamental role in the economy of French mountain regions but also in other countries such as Austria, USA or Canada. Ski operators originally developed grooming methods to provide comfortable and safe skiing conditions. The interannual variability of snow conditions and the competition with international destinations and alternative tourism activities encouraged ski resorts to mitigate their dependency to weather conditions through snowmaking facilities. However some regions may not be able to produce machine made snow due to inadequate conditions and low altitude resorts are still negatively impacted by low snow seasons. In the meantime, even though the operations of high altitude resorts do not show any dependency to the snow conditions they invest in snowmaking facilities. Such developments of snowmaking facilities may be related to a confused and contradictory perception of climate change resulting in individualistic evolutions of snowmaking facilities, also depending on ski resorts main features such as their altitude and size. Concurrently with the expansion of snowmaking facilities, a large range of indicators have been used to discuss the vulnerability of ski resorts such as the so-called "100 days rule" which was widely used with specific thresholds (i.e. minimum snow depth, dates) and constraints (i.e. snowmaking capacity). The present study aims to provide a detailed description of snow management practices and major priorities in French ski resorts with respect to their characteristics. We set up a survey in autumn 2014, collecting data from 56 French ski operators. We identify the priorities of ski operators and describe their snowmaking and grooming practices and facilities. The operators also provided their perception of the ski resort vulnerability to snow and economic challenges which we could compare with the actual snow conditions and ski lift tickets sales during the period from 2001 to 2012.

  14. Too Much French? Not Enough French?: The Vancouver Olympics and a Very Canadian Language Ideological Debate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vessey, Rachelle

    2013-01-01

    This paper discusses a language ideological debate that took place in Canadian national newspapers following the opening ceremonies for the 2011 Vancouver Olympics. Reports on the insufficient use of French during the opening ceremonies sparked protest from politicians, official commentators, citizens and online newsreaders alike. Previous…

  15. Business French or French Business? What Do We Teach and What Do We Call It?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe-Dupas, Helene

    It is argued that while college courses in French business communication aim to introduce business concepts, syllabuses and textbooks for this purpose do not integrate business skill training with business language training. Texts may contain extensive business-related vocabulary, readings, correspondence exercises, and definition of new concepts,…

  16. The perception of the French /s/-/ʃ/ contrast in early Creole-French bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Dufour, Sophie; Kriegel, Sibylle; Alleesaib, Muhsina; Nguyen, Noël

    2014-01-01

    One particularity of the Mauritian Creole language is that there is no contrastive distinction between the consonants /s/ and /ʃ/, which are both pronounced /s/ in Creole. In this study, we examined the identification performance of the /s/-/ʃ/ contrast by Mauritian Creole-French bilinguals who have been exposed to French before 7 years of age, and who have been raised in a highly Creole-French bilingual society. The results showed that most of our bilingual participants identify the /s/ and /ʃ/ consonants like native French speakers. It also appeared that the way in which the two consonants are categorized can be manipulated by introducing subtle changes in the information these participants were given about the identity of the speaker that produced the stimuli. Our results are in accordance with recent studies showing native-like performance in bilinguals on a categorization task and, importantly, extend these findings to speakers of a Creole language. In addition, these results show that speech sound categorization can be influenced by information about the speaker's social identity and thus argue for models that postulate rich speech sound representations. PMID:25374557

  17. The perception of the French /s/-/ʃ/ contrast in early Creole-French bilinguals

    PubMed Central

    Dufour, Sophie; Kriegel, Sibylle; Alleesaib, Muhsina; Nguyen, Noël

    2014-01-01

    One particularity of the Mauritian Creole language is that there is no contrastive distinction between the consonants /s/ and /ʃ/, which are both pronounced /s/ in Creole. In this study, we examined the identification performance of the /s/-/ʃ/ contrast by Mauritian Creole-French bilinguals who have been exposed to French before 7 years of age, and who have been raised in a highly Creole-French bilingual society. The results showed that most of our bilingual participants identify the /s/ and /ʃ/ consonants like native French speakers. It also appeared that the way in which the two consonants are categorized can be manipulated by introducing subtle changes in the information these participants were given about the identity of the speaker that produced the stimuli. Our results are in accordance with recent studies showing native-like performance in bilinguals on a categorization task and, importantly, extend these findings to speakers of a Creole language. In addition, these results show that speech sound categorization can be influenced by information about the speaker's social identity and thus argue for models that postulate rich speech sound representations. PMID:25374557

  18. Cigeo, the French Geological Repository Project - 13022

    SciTech Connect

    Labalette, Thibaud; Harman, Alain; Dupuis, Marie-Claude; Ouzounian, Gerald

    2013-07-01

    The Cigeo industrial-scale geological disposal centre is designed for the disposal of the most highly-radioactive French waste. It will be built in an argillite formation of the Callovo-Oxfordian dating back 160 million years. The Cigeo project is located near the Bure village in the Paris Basin. The argillite formation was studied since 1974, and from the Meuse/Haute-Marne underground research laboratory since end of 1999. Most of the waste to be disposed of in the Cigeo repository comes from nuclear power plants and from reprocessing of their spent fuel. (authors)

  19. Norovirus contamination on French marketed oysters

    PubMed Central

    Schaeffer, Julien; Le Saux, Jean-Claude; Lora, Monica; Atmar, Robert L.; Le Guyader, Françoise S.

    2014-01-01

    Contaminated shellfish have been implicated in gastroenteritis outbreaks in different countries. As no regulation has been set up yet regarding viral contamination of food, very few data are available on the prevalence of contaminated products on the market. This study presents data obtained from oysters collected on the French market in one producing area over a 16 month period of time. Noroviruses were detected in 9% of samples with a seasonal impact and influence of climatic events. Contamination levels were low and, surprisingly, oysters sampled directly from the producer were found to have less contamination than oysters from supermarkets. PMID:23973835

  20. Expeditionary medicine in Africa: the French experience.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Eric; Kenane, Maj Nadia; Montcriol, Ambroise; Palmier, Bruno

    2007-07-01

    The French army is often engaged in stability and support operations in Africa, and its military health service has gained much experience. The goal of this article is to present our military medical management strategies during the two main phases of military action. These situations most often begin with an initial combat phase, with combat casualty care. This consists of first aid, i.e., treatment of bleeding points, followed by battlefield forward medical care, damage control surgery, and resuscitation in forward surgical units. The quieter second phase of peacekeeping operations is dominated by the management of tropical diseases and their prevention, essential for the preservation of the military strength. PMID:17691682

  1. Darwin: German mystic or French rationalist?

    PubMed

    Ghiselin, Michael T

    2015-01-01

    The notion that Charles Darwin embraced the German Romantic tradition seems plausible, given the early influence of Alexander von Humboldt. But this view fails to do justice to other scientific traditions. Darwin was a protégé of the Englishman John Stevens Henslow and was a follower of the Scott Charles Lyell. He had important debts to French scientists, notably Henri Milne-Edwards, Etienne and Isidore Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, and Alphonse de Candolle. Many Germans were quite supportive of Darwin, but not all of these were encumbered by idealistic metaphysical baggage. Both Darwin and Anton Dohrn treated science as very much a cosmopolitan enterprise.

  2. Tautomerism in large databases

    PubMed Central

    Sitzmann, Markus; Ihlenfeldt, Wolf-Dietrich

    2010-01-01

    We have used the Chemical Structure DataBase (CSDB) of the NCI CADD Group, an aggregated collection of over 150 small-molecule databases totaling 103.5 million structure records, to conduct tautomerism analyses on one of the largest currently existing sets of real (i.e. not computer-generated) compounds. This analysis was carried out using calculable chemical structure identifiers developed by the NCI CADD Group, based on hash codes available in the chemoinformatics toolkit CACTVS and a newly developed scoring scheme to define a canonical tautomer for any encountered structure. CACTVS’s tautomerism definition, a set of 21 transform rules expressed in SMIRKS line notation, was used, which takes a comprehensive stance as to the possible types of tautomeric interconversion included. Tautomerism was found to be possible for more than 2/3 of the unique structures in the CSDB. A total of 680 million tautomers were calculated from, and including, the original structure records. Tautomerism overlap within the same individual database (i.e. at least one other entry was present that was really only a different tautomeric representation of the same compound) was found at an average rate of 0.3% of the original structure records, with values as high as nearly 2% for some of the databases in CSDB. Projected onto the set of unique structures (by FICuS identifier), this still occurred in about 1.5% of the cases. Tautomeric overlap across all constituent databases in CSDB was found for nearly 10% of the records in the collection. PMID:20512400

  3. MEROPS: the peptidase database.

    PubMed

    Rawlings, N D; Barrett, A J

    1999-01-01

    The MEROPS database (http://www.bi.bbsrc.ac.uk/Merops/Merops.+ ++htm) provides a catalogue and structure-based classification of peptidases (i.e. all proteolytic enzymes). This is a large group of proteins (approximately 2% of all gene products) that is of particular importance in medicine and biotechnology. An index of the peptidases by name or synonym gives access to a set of files termed PepCards each of which provides information on a single peptidase. Each card file contains information on classification and nomenclature, and hypertext links to the relevant entries in online databases for human genetics, protein and nucleic acid sequence data and tertiary structure. Another index provides access to the PepCards by organism name so that the user can retrieve all known peptidases from a particular species. The peptidases are classified into families on the basis of statistically significant similarities between the protein sequences in the part termed the 'peptidase unit' that is most directly responsible for activity. Families that are thought to have common evolutionary origins and are known or expected to have similar tertiary folds are grouped into clans. The MEROPS database provides sets of files called FamCards and ClanCards describing the individual families and clans. Each FamCard document provides links to other databases for sequence motifs and secondary and tertiary structures, and shows the distribution of the family across the major kingdoms of living creatures. Release 3.03 of MEROPS contains 758 peptidases, 153 families and 22 clans. We suggest that the MEROPS database provides a model for a way in which a system of classification for a functional group of proteins can be developed and used as an organizational framework around which to assemble a variety of related information.

  4. "So She Has Been Educated by a Vulgar, Silly, Conceited French Governess!" Social Anxieties, Satirical Portraits, and the Eighteenth-Century French Instructor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegele, Arden

    2011-01-01

    Maria Edgeworth's pedagogical short stories "Mademoiselle Panache" (1800, 1801) and "The Good French Governess" (1801) portray contrasting French instructors, and illustrate a transformation in English girls' education in French at the end of the eighteenth century. While "Mademoiselle Panache" looks back to the disingenuous French instructors of…

  5. The GLIMS Glacier Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raup, B. H.; Khalsa, S. S.; Armstrong, R.

    2007-12-01

    The Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS) project has built a geospatial and temporal database of glacier data, composed of glacier outlines and various scalar attributes. These data are being derived primarily from satellite imagery, such as from ASTER and Landsat. Each "snapshot" of a glacier is from a specific time, and the database is designed to store multiple snapshots representative of different times. We have implemented two web-based interfaces to the database; one enables exploration of the data via interactive maps (web map server), while the other allows searches based on text-field constraints. The web map server is an Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) compliant Web Map Server (WMS) and Web Feature Server (WFS). This means that other web sites can display glacier layers from our site over the Internet, or retrieve glacier features in vector format. All components of the system are implemented using Open Source software: Linux, PostgreSQL, PostGIS (geospatial extensions to the database), MapServer (WMS and WFS), and several supporting components such as Proj.4 (a geographic projection library) and PHP. These tools are robust and provide a flexible and powerful framework for web mapping applications. As a service to the GLIMS community, the database contains metadata on all ASTER imagery acquired over glacierized terrain. Reduced-resolution of the images (browse imagery) can be viewed either as a layer in the MapServer application, or overlaid on the virtual globe within Google Earth. The interactive map application allows the user to constrain by time what data appear on the map. For example, ASTER or glacier outlines from 2002 only, or from Autumn in any year, can be displayed. The system allows users to download their selected glacier data in a choice of formats. The results of a query based on spatial selection (using a mouse) or text-field constraints can be downloaded in any of these formats: ESRI shapefiles, KML (Google Earth), Map

  6. Open geochemical database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhilin, Denis; Ilyin, Vladimir; Bashev, Anton

    2010-05-01

    We regard "geochemical data" as data on chemical parameters of the environment, linked with the geographical position of the corresponding point. Boosting development of global positioning system (GPS) and measuring instruments allows fast collecting of huge amounts of geochemical data. Presently they are published in scientific journals in text format, that hampers searching for information about particular places and meta-analysis of the data, collected by different researchers. Part of the information is never published. To make the data available and easy to find, it seems reasonable to elaborate an open database of geochemical information, accessible via Internet. It also seems reasonable to link the data with maps or space images, for example, from GoogleEarth service. For this purpose an open geochemical database is being elaborating (http://maps.sch192.ru). Any user after registration can upload geochemical data (position, type of parameter and value of the parameter) and edit them. Every user (including unregistered) can (a) extract the values of parameters, fulfilling desired conditions and (b) see the points, linked to GoogleEarth space image, colored according to a value of selected parameter. Then he can treat extracted values any way he likes. There are the following data types in the database: authors, points, seasons and parameters. Author is a person, who publishes the data. Every author can declare his own profile. A point is characterized by its geographical position and type of the object (i.e. river, lake etc). Value of parameters are linked to a point, an author and a season, when they were obtained. A user can choose a parameter to place on GoogleEarth space image and a scale to color the points on the image according to the value of a parameter. Currently (December, 2009) the database is under construction, but several functions (uploading data on pH and electrical conductivity and placing colored points onto GoogleEarth space image) are

  7. [Geographic aspects of mortality in French Polynesia].

    PubMed

    Vigneron, E

    1993-05-01

    The fast pace of social and economic changes which have occurred in French Polynesia over the last 30 years, have made this territory a choice ground for studying trends in mortality by revealing a fast and outstanding epidemiological transition. However, the breakdown of the population in small scattered human groups raises the statistical problem of measuring mortality. The crude mortality rate has decreased steadily from 17.5/1000 in 1945-1949 to 5.3/1000 over the last five years. However, the various infant mortality rate, in spite of their decline, is still exceeding those of Metropolitan France. The contrasted trends in the causes of mortality provides a means to classify French Polynesia in the group of small fast developing countries but still ranks it far behind its 'reference models' such as Metropolitan France or the developed countries in the South Pacific, Australia and New Zealand. Moreover, there are significant regional disparities which still exist between Tahiti and the outlying archipelagoes, mainly among causes of death. As a whole, distant islands remain significantly more affected by deaths resulting from infectious and parasitic diseases, in line with the model of epidemiological transition, where as the islands of Tahiti with 70% of the total population appears as a place of cumulation of infectious and degenerative diseases, in particular of overloading and cultural problems. The centre/periphery opposition between a metropolitan country and an overseas territory repeats itself at the local level between urban and rural environments. PMID:8511621

  8. Epidemiology of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in French Polynesia

    PubMed Central

    Phelippeau, Michael; Aboubaker Osman, Djaltou; Musso, Didier

    2015-01-01

    As few data are available in the Pacific countries and territories of the Oceania region regarding nontuberculous mycobacteria, we retrospectively identified 87 such isolates from French Polynesia from 2008 to 2013 by hybridization using DNA-strip, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and partial rpoB gene sequencing. Partial rpoB gene sequencing classified 42/87 (48.3%) isolates in the Mycobacterium fortuitum complex, 28 (32.2%) in the Mycobacterium abscessus complex, 8 (9.2%) in the Mycobacterium mucogenicum complex, and 5 (5.7%) in the Mycobacterium avium complex. Two isolates were identified as Mycobacterium acapulcensis and Mycobacterium cosmeticum by partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing. One isolate, unidentified by MALDI-TOF MS and yielding less than 92% and 96% sequence similarity with rpoB and hsp65 reference sequences, respectively, was regarded as a potentially new species. Samples from three patients exhibiting ≥2 Mycobacterium porcinum isolates and from one patient with emphysema and a lung abscess exhibiting 2 Mycobacterium senegalense isolates fulfilled the American Thoracic Society microbiological criteria for nontuberculous mycobacterial lung infection. Remote geographic areas, such as French Polynesia, are potential sources for the discovery of new mycobacterial species. PMID:26400787

  9. [Geographic aspects of mortality in French Polynesia].

    PubMed

    Vigneron, E

    1993-05-01

    The fast pace of social and economic changes which have occurred in French Polynesia over the last 30 years, have made this territory a choice ground for studying trends in mortality by revealing a fast and outstanding epidemiological transition. However, the breakdown of the population in small scattered human groups raises the statistical problem of measuring mortality. The crude mortality rate has decreased steadily from 17.5/1000 in 1945-1949 to 5.3/1000 over the last five years. However, the various infant mortality rate, in spite of their decline, is still exceeding those of Metropolitan France. The contrasted trends in the causes of mortality provides a means to classify French Polynesia in the group of small fast developing countries but still ranks it far behind its 'reference models' such as Metropolitan France or the developed countries in the South Pacific, Australia and New Zealand. Moreover, there are significant regional disparities which still exist between Tahiti and the outlying archipelagoes, mainly among causes of death. As a whole, distant islands remain significantly more affected by deaths resulting from infectious and parasitic diseases, in line with the model of epidemiological transition, where as the islands of Tahiti with 70% of the total population appears as a place of cumulation of infectious and degenerative diseases, in particular of overloading and cultural problems. The centre/periphery opposition between a metropolitan country and an overseas territory repeats itself at the local level between urban and rural environments.

  10. French Neurologists during World War I.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier; Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2016-01-01

    The Great War accelerated the development of neurological knowledge. Many neurological signs and syndromes, as well as new nosological entities such as war psychoneuroses, were described during the conflict. The period between 1914 and 1918 was the first time in which many neurologists were concentrated in wartime neurology centres and confronted with a number of neurological patients never seen before. This concentration led to the publication of papers concerning all fields of neurological sciences, and these reports pervaded scientific journals during the conflict and the post-war years. The careers of French neurologists during the war were highly varied. Some were mobilised, whilst others enlisted voluntarily. They worked as regiment physicians at the front or in wartime neurology centres at the front or at the rear. Others were academics who were already authoritative names in the field of neurology. Whilst they were too old to be officially mobilised, they nevertheless worked in their militarised neurology departments of civil hospitals. We present here the careers of a few French neurologists during the Great War, including Charles Foix (1882-1927), René Cruchet (1875-1959), Georges Guillain (1876-1961), Jean Lhermitte (1877-1959), Clovis Vincent (1879-1947), Gustave Roussy (1874-1948), and Paul Sollier (1861-1933).

  11. French Crossings: II. Laughing Over Boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Under the generic title, ‘French Crossings’, this Presidential Address explores the history of laughter in French society, and humour’s potential for trangressing boundaries. It focuses on the irreverent and almost entirely unknown book of comic drawings entitled Livre de caricatures tant Bonnes que mauvaises (Book of Caricatures, both Good and Bad), that was composed between the 1740s and the mid-1770s by the luxury Parisian embroiderer and designer, Charles-Germain de Saint-Aubin, and his friends and family. The bawdy laughter that the book seems intended to provoke gave it its nickname of the Livre de culs (Book of Arses). Yet despite the scatological character of many of the drawings, the humour often conjoined lower body functions with rather cerebral and erudite wit. The laughter provoked unsparingly targeted and exposed to ridicule the social elite, cultural celebrities and political leaders of Ancien Regime France. This made it a dangerous object, which was kept strictly secret. Was this humour somehow pre- or proto-Revolutionary? In fact, the work is so embedded in the culture of the Ancien Regime that 1789 was one boundary that the work signally fails to cross.

  12. French Neurologists during World War I.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier; Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2016-01-01

    The Great War accelerated the development of neurological knowledge. Many neurological signs and syndromes, as well as new nosological entities such as war psychoneuroses, were described during the conflict. The period between 1914 and 1918 was the first time in which many neurologists were concentrated in wartime neurology centres and confronted with a number of neurological patients never seen before. This concentration led to the publication of papers concerning all fields of neurological sciences, and these reports pervaded scientific journals during the conflict and the post-war years. The careers of French neurologists during the war were highly varied. Some were mobilised, whilst others enlisted voluntarily. They worked as regiment physicians at the front or in wartime neurology centres at the front or at the rear. Others were academics who were already authoritative names in the field of neurology. Whilst they were too old to be officially mobilised, they nevertheless worked in their militarised neurology departments of civil hospitals. We present here the careers of a few French neurologists during the Great War, including Charles Foix (1882-1927), René Cruchet (1875-1959), Georges Guillain (1876-1961), Jean Lhermitte (1877-1959), Clovis Vincent (1879-1947), Gustave Roussy (1874-1948), and Paul Sollier (1861-1933). PMID:27035726

  13. Relative clauses in French children's narrative texts.

    PubMed

    Jisa, H; Kern, S

    1998-10-01

    This study investigates the use of relative clauses in French children's narrative monologues. Narrative texts were collected from French-speaking monolinguals in four age groups (five, seven, ten years and adults). Twenty subjects from each group were asked to tell a story based on a picture book consisting of twenty-four images without text (Frog, Where are you?). Relative constructions were coded following the categories defined by Dasinger & Toupin (1994) into two main functional classes: general discourse and narrative functions. The results show that the use of relative clauses in general discourse functions precedes their use in more specific narrative functions. An analysis of textual connectivity (Berman & Slobin, 1994) in one episode reveals that children and adults differ in their choice of preferred structures. The results also show that children use fewer transitive predicates in relative clauses than do adults. Transitive verbs are essential for advancing the narrative plot (Hopper & Thompson, 1980). While subject relative clauses are acquired early and used frequently, the development of their multifunctional use in diverse narrative functions extends well beyond childhood.

  14. How deaf are French speakers to stress?

    PubMed

    Michelas, Amandine; Frauenfelder, Ulrich Hans; Schön, Daniele; Dufour, Sophie

    2016-03-01

    This event-related potential study examined whether French listeners use stress at a phonological level when discriminating between stressed and unstressed words in their language. Participants heard five words and made same/different decisions about the final word (male voice) with respect to the four preceding words (different female voices). Compared to the first four context words, the target word was (i) phonemically and prosodically identical (/ʃu/-/ʃu/; control condition), (ii) phonemically identical but differing in the presence of a primary stress (/ʃu'/-/ʃu/), (iii) prosodically identical but phonemically different (/ʃo/-/ʃu/), or (iv) both phonemically and prosodically different (/ʃo'/-/ʃu/). Crucially, differences on the P200 and the following N200 components were observed for the /ʃu'/-/ʃu/ and the /ʃo/-/ʃu/ conditions compared to the /ʃu/-/ʃu/ control condition. Moreover, on the N200 component more negativity was observed for the /ʃo/-/ʃu/ condition compared to the /ʃu'/-/ʃu/ conditions, while no difference emerged between these two conditions on the earlier P200 component. Crucially, the results suggest that French listeners are capable of creating an abstract representation of stress. However, as they receive more input, participants react more strongly to phonemic than to stress information. PMID:27036270

  15. French Crossings: II. Laughing Over Boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Under the generic title, ‘French Crossings’, this Presidential Address explores the history of laughter in French society, and humour’s potential for trangressing boundaries. It focuses on the irreverent and almost entirely unknown book of comic drawings entitled Livre de caricatures tant Bonnes que mauvaises (Book of Caricatures, both Good and Bad), that was composed between the 1740s and the mid-1770s by the luxury Parisian embroiderer and designer, Charles-Germain de Saint-Aubin, and his friends and family. The bawdy laughter that the book seems intended to provoke gave it its nickname of the Livre de culs (Book of Arses). Yet despite the scatological character of many of the drawings, the humour often conjoined lower body functions with rather cerebral and erudite wit. The laughter provoked unsparingly targeted and exposed to ridicule the social elite, cultural celebrities and political leaders of Ancien Regime France. This made it a dangerous object, which was kept strictly secret. Was this humour somehow pre- or proto-Revolutionary? In fact, the work is so embedded in the culture of the Ancien Regime that 1789 was one boundary that the work signally fails to cross. PMID:27630375

  16. A peek at the French missile complex

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, W.A.; Marshall, M.G.

    1989-09-01

    Using a spot satellite image, Grayscale, an image analysis firm, analyzed the features of a complex on the Plateau d'Albion, where French intermediate-range ballistic missiles are thought to be deployed. The project was undertaken at the request of the Carnegie Endowment, as part of the Endowment's study of the security implications of commercial remote-sensing satellites. The area studied is in southern France, near the intersection of the Vaucluse, Alpes-de-Haute-Provence, and Drome provinces. Features seen in relief on an image shown here are the foot-hills just west of the Alpes Maritimes. The French acknowledge publicly that they have deployed 18 IRBMs - all S-3s. Recognizing the military habits of regimentation and organization, we believed that these weapons might be organized into two groups of nine, which could be further divided into subgroups of three. Such subgroups could be firing battalions of a brigade, or two brigades with a division-level headquarters controlling both. On this basis, the authors selected candidate sites throughout the image for closer examination, and results are discussed.

  17. Dengue in French Guiana, 1965-1993.

    PubMed

    Fouque, F; Reynes, J M; Moreau, J P

    1995-06-01

    While it seems likely that dengue fever (DF) has existed in French Guiana for at least one century, data on outbreaks are sketchy before temporary eradication of the dengue vector mosquito Aedes aegypti and its reestablishment in the early 1960s. Dengue cases were serologically confirmed for the first time in 1965, and since then dengue epidemics have occurred at two to six year intervals, the most important occurring in 1968-1969, 1970, 1972, 1976, 1982, 1986, and 1992. Three of the four dengue virus serotypes (dengue-1, dengue-2, and dengue-4) have been implicated in these outbreaks. During the 1992 epidemic, which appears to have begun in 1991 and extended into 1993, cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) were confirmed for the first time. In all, at least 40 DHF cases and several deaths were associated with this epidemic. This development has raised considerable concern about the public health threat posed by DHF in French Guiana. Such concern is only heightened by the fact that while vector control is the sole means of preventing or combating dengue outbreaks, it has proved difficult to maintain vector populations at low levels with the control measures currently employed.

  18. Evaluation of French Guiana traditional antimalarial remedies.

    PubMed

    Bertani, S; Bourdy, G; Landau, I; Robinson, J C; Esterre, Ph; Deharo, E

    2005-04-01

    In order to evaluate the antimalarial potential of traditional remedies used in French Guiana, 35 remedies were prepared in their traditional form and screened for blood schizonticidal activity in vitro on Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine re4sistant strain (W2). Some of these extracts were screened in vivo against Plasmodium yoelii rodent malaria. Ferriprotoporphyrin inhibition test was also performed. Four remedies, widely used among the population as preventives, were able to inhibit more than 50% of the parasite growth in vivo at around 100 mg/kg: Irlbachia alata (Gentiananceae), Picrolemma pseudocoffea (Simaroubaceae), Quassia amara (Simaroubaceae), Tinospora crispa (Menispermaceae) and Zanthoxylum rhoifolium (Rutaceae). Five remedies displayed an IC50 in vitro < 10 microg/ml: Picrolemma pseudocoffea, Pseudoxandra cuspidata (Annonaceae) and Quassia amara leaves and stem, together with a multi-ingredient recipe. Two remedies were more active than a Cinchona preparation on the ferriprotoporphyrin inhibition test: Picrolemma pseudocoffea and Quassia amara. We also showed that a traditional preventive remedy, made from Geissospermum argenteum bark macerated in rum, was able to impair the intrahepatic cycle of the parasite. For the first time, traditional remedies from French Guiana have been directly tested on malarial pharmacological assays and some have been shown to be active.

  19. Lineament analysis near French Creek, northwestern Pennsylvania

    SciTech Connect

    O'Neil, C.; Anderson, T.

    1984-12-01

    The authors are attempting to characterize the nature of linear topographic features in the vicinity of French Creek, northwestern Pennsylvania. Straight valleys that trend north to northwest and that are partially filled with glaciofluvial deposits distinguish prominent lineaments in Crawford, Venango, and Mercer Counties. The traces of these linear valleys are 1-15 mi (1.6-24 km) long and 10-4000 ft (3-1220 m) wide. The vertical extents of the lineaments are assumed to be proportional to their lengths. They assume that the topographic lineaments mark easily eroded zones coincident with fractures. The French Creek lineaments have been plotted on a Landsat photo, glacial map, regional map, and topographic maps. Subsurface structural and isopach maps may show facies changes or anomalous thickness across the lineaments. Geochemical surveys determine if there is any enhanced vertical migration of hydrocarbons along a lineament, and very low-frequency magnetic surveys would indicate any increase in groundwater concentration associated with the fracture zones. Well log data on initial production and breakdown pressures have been compared to lineament positions for possible correlations.

  20. An International Study of the Ability and Cost-Effectiveness of Advertising Methods to Facilitate Study Participant Self-Enrolment Into a Pilot Pharmacovigilance Study During Early Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Knowledge of the fetal effects of maternal medication use in pregnancy is often inadequate and current pregnancy pharmacovigilance (PV) surveillance methods have important limitations. Patient self-reporting may be able to mitigate some of these limitations, providing an adequately sized study sample can be recruited. Objective To compare the ability and cost-effectiveness of several direct-to-participant advertising methods for the recruitment of pregnant participants into a study of self-reported gestational exposures and pregnancy outcomes. Methods The Pharmacoepidemiological Research on Outcomes of Therapeutics by a European Consortium (PROTECT) pregnancy study is a non-interventional, prospective pilot study of self-reported medication use and obstetric outcomes provided by a cohort of pregnant women that was conducted in Denmark, the Netherlands, Poland, and the United Kingdom. Direct-to-participant advertisements were provided via websites, emails, leaflets, television, and social media platforms. Results Over a 70-week recruitment period direct-to-participant advertisements engaged 43,234 individuals with the study website or telephone system; 4.78% (2065/43,234) of which were successfully enrolled and provided study data. Of these 90.4% (1867/2065) were recruited via paid advertising methods, 23.0% (475/2065) of whom were in the first trimester of pregnancy. The overall costs per active recruited participant were lowest for email (€23.24) and website (€24.41) advertisements and highest for leaflet (€83.14) and television (€100.89). Website adverts were substantially superior in their ability to recruit participants during their first trimester of pregnancy (317/668, 47.5%) in comparison with other advertising methods (P<.001). However, we identified international variations in both the cost-effectiveness of the various advertisement methods used and in their ability to recruit participants in early pregnancy. Conclusions Recruitment of a

  1. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1992-11-09

    The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R- 717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents on compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. A computerized version is available that includes retrieval software.

  2. The apoptosis database.

    PubMed

    Doctor, K S; Reed, J C; Godzik, A; Bourne, P E

    2003-06-01

    The apoptosis database is a public resource for researchers and students interested in the molecular biology of apoptosis. The resource provides functional annotation, literature references, diagrams/images, and alternative nomenclatures on a set of proteins having 'apoptotic domains'. These are the distinctive domains that are often, if not exclusively, found in proteins involved in apoptosis. The initial choice of proteins to be included is defined by apoptosis experts and bioinformatics tools. Users can browse through the web accessible lists of domains, proteins containing these domains and their associated homologs. The database can also be searched by sequence homology using basic local alignment search tool, text word matches of the annotation, and identifiers for specific records. The resource is available at http://www.apoptosis-db.org and is updated on a regular basis.

  3. Medical Image Databases

    PubMed Central

    Tagare, Hemant D.; Jaffe, C. Carl; Duncan, James

    1997-01-01

    Abstract Information contained in medical images differs considerably from that residing in alphanumeric format. The difference can be attributed to four characteristics: (1) the semantics of medical knowledge extractable from images is imprecise; (2) image information contains form and spatial data, which are not expressible in conventional language; (3) a large part of image information is geometric; (4) diagnostic inferences derived from images rest on an incomplete, continuously evolving model of normality. This paper explores the differentiating characteristics of text versus images and their impact on design of a medical image database intended to allow content-based indexing and retrieval. One strategy for implementing medical image databases is presented, which employs object-oriented iconic queries, semantics by association with prototypes, and a generic schema. PMID:9147338

  4. Real Time Baseball Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukue, Yasuhiro

    The author describes the system outline, features and operations of "Nikkan Sports Realtime Basaball Database" which was developed and operated by Nikkan Sports Shimbun, K. K. The system enables to input numerical data of professional baseball games as they proceed simultaneously, and execute data updating at realtime, just-in-time. Other than serving as supporting tool for prepareing newspapers it is also available for broadcasting media, general users through NTT dial Q2 and others.

  5. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1999-01-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilities access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  6. Clinical Genomic Database

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Benjamin D.; Nguyen, Anh-Dao; Bear, Kelly A.; Wolfsberg, Tyra G.

    2013-01-01

    Technological advances have greatly increased the availability of human genomic sequencing. However, the capacity to analyze genomic data in a clinically meaningful way lags behind the ability to generate such data. To help address this obstacle, we reviewed all conditions with genetic causes and constructed the Clinical Genomic Database (CGD) (http://research.nhgri.nih.gov/CGD/), a searchable, freely Web-accessible database of conditions based on the clinical utility of genetic diagnosis and the availability of specific medical interventions. The CGD currently includes a total of 2,616 genes organized clinically by affected organ systems and interventions (including preventive measures, disease surveillance, and medical or surgical interventions) that could be reasonably warranted by the identification of pathogenic mutations. To aid independent analysis and optimize new data incorporation, the CGD also includes all genetic conditions for which genetic knowledge may affect the selection of supportive care, informed medical decision-making, prognostic considerations, reproductive decisions, and allow avoidance of unnecessary testing, but for which specific interventions are not otherwise currently available. For each entry, the CGD includes the gene symbol, conditions, allelic conditions, clinical categorization (for both manifestations and interventions), mode of inheritance, affected age group, description of interventions/rationale, links to other complementary databases, including databases of variants and presumed pathogenic mutations, and links to PubMed references (>20,000). The CGD will be regularly maintained and updated to keep pace with scientific discovery. Further content-based expert opinions are actively solicited. Eventually, the CGD may assist the rapid curation of individual genomes as part of active medical care. PMID:23696674

  7. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1996-11-15

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  8. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect

    Calm, J.M.

    1996-07-01

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  9. The Ribonuclease P Database.

    PubMed

    Brown, J W

    1999-01-01

    Ribonuclease P is responsible for the 5'-maturation of tRNA precursors. Ribonuclease P is a ribonucleoprotein, and in bacteria (and some Archaea) the RNA subunit alone is catalytically active in vitro, i.e. it is a ribozyme. The Ribonuclease P Database is a compilation of ribonuclease P sequences, sequence alignments, secondary structures, three-dimensional models and accessory information, available via the World Wide Web at the following URL: http://www.mbio.ncsu.edu/RNaseP/home .html

  10. Teaching French as a World Language: A Curriculum Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogden, John

    1976-01-01

    The National Endowment for the Humanities supports a University of Michigan-Flint effort to develop multimedia curriculum materials to teach French as an international and multicultural language. The project concentrates on non-European French-speaking areas. Filmstrips, reading materials and tapes record characteristic life, music, speech and…

  11. Comprehension of Sentences with Stylistic Inversion by French Aphasic Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigalleau, Francois; Baudiffier, Vanessa; Caplan, David

    2004-01-01

    Three French-speaking agrammatic aphasics and three French-speaking Conduction aphasics were tested for comprehension of Active, Passive, Cleft-Subject, Cleft-Object, and Cleft-Object sentences with Stylistic Inversion using an object manipulation test. The agrammatic patients consistently reversed thematic roles in the latter sentence type, and…

  12. Teaching Scientific and Technical French at Napier College in Scotland.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Evelyne

    Scotland's vocationally-oriented Napier College was funded by the French Government to develop language courses for scientists and engineers. The courses developed have been intensive and extensive, based on work started by a team of French scientists focusing on the language, concepts, and ways of thinking common to the scientific community.…

  13. Roumanie: Le Francais d'abord (Romania: French First).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serren-Rosso, M. L.

    1993-01-01

    Eighty percent of the schools in Iasi, Moldova's capital city, teach French as a second language. The city's French Cultural Center is a focus for educational and cultural information and organization. The center helped upgrade the professional level of teaching following the demise of communism in Eastern Europe. (CNP)

  14. Multilingualism and Web Advertising: Addressing French-Speaking Consumers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Drawing inferences from both quantitative and qualitative data, this study examines the extent to which American companies tailor their Web advertising for global audiences with a particular focus on French-speaking consumers in North America, Europe, Africa, the Caribbean and French Polynesia. Explored from a sociolinguistic and social semiotic…

  15. Building a Writing Community through Learning of French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bissoonauth-Bedford, Anu.; Stace, Ray

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on a pilot study designed to develop writing proficiency in French via collaborative writing activities at intermediate level at the University of Wollongong in Australia. Twenty four students in the final year of French studies program took part in this innovative approach which integrates multimodal functionality of the…

  16. Early Childhood Schooling and Socialization at French Nursery School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plaisance, Eric; Rayna, Sylvie

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose to examine the question of the French early childhood schooling in terms of the socialization processes. The authors start by presenting briefly the main characteristics of the French nursery school. They then discuss socialization processes through sociological perspectives on historical and anthropological…

  17. Structural Influences on Initial Accent Placement in French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Astesano, Corine; Bard, Ellen Gurman; Turk, Alice

    2007-01-01

    In addition to the phrase-final accent (FA), the French phonological system includes a phonetically distinct Initial Accent (IA). The present study tested two proposals: that IA marks the onset of phonological phrases, and that it has an independent rhythmic function. Eight adult native speakers of French were instructed to read syntactically…

  18. Elusive Reform: The French Universities, 1968-1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Habiba S.

    The development of the new French universities is traced from 1968 to 1978. Chapter One examines the state of French higher education prior to 1968, including such aspects as access to education and student life. Chapter Two focuses on the student revolt at the Sorbonne on May 3, 1968. In the next four chapters, the emergence of the Faure law with…

  19. Rocky Mountain House French Immersion Camp: A Process Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klink, Patricia; And Others

    This report examines the implementation of a five-day French immersion program whose goal was to expose rural secondary school students to French in cultural context, in order to develop cultural understanding and effective communication. Findings of the study show: (1) 14 percent of the program time was spent on instructional activity, 20 percent…

  20. Strategies for Developing Cultural Awareness in the Business French Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Cathleen

    The technique used by one teacher to incorporate cultural sensitivity into the business French course is described. Cultural orientation begins in the first class meeting with a discussion of shapes and symbols. Discussion proceeds to the hexagon, a geographic, cultural, and linguistic symbol for France. A discussion of French geography and a…