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Sample records for french prospective cohort

  1. The epidemiology of septic shock in French intensive care units: the prospective multicenter cohort EPISS study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction To provide up-to-date information on the prognostic factors associated with 28-day mortality in a cohort of septic shock patients in intensive care units (ICUs). Methods Prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study in ICUs from 14 French general (non-academic) and university teaching hospitals. All consecutive patients with septic shock admitted between November 2009 and March 2011 were eligible for inclusion. We prospectively recorded data regarding patient characteristics, infection, severity of illness, life support therapy, and discharge. Results Among 10,941 patients admitted to participating ICUs between October 2009 and September 2011, 1,495 (13.7%) patients presented inclusion criteria for septic shock and were included. Invasive mechanical ventilation was needed in 83.9% (n = 1248), inotropes in 27.7% (n = 412), continuous renal replacement therapy in 32.5% (n = 484), and hemodialysis in 19.6% (n = 291). Mortality at 28 days was 42% (n = 625). Variables associated with time to mortality, right-censored at day 28: age (for each additional 10 years) (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-1.38), immunosuppression (HR = 1.63; 95%CI: 1.37-1.96), Knaus class C/D score versus class A/B score (HR = 1.36; 95%CI:1.14-1.62) and Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (HR = 1.24 for each additional point; 95%CI: 1.21-1.27). Patients with septic shock and renal/urinary tract infection had a significantly longer time to mortality (HR = 0.56; 95%CI: 0.42-0.75). Conclusion Our observational data of consecutive patients from real-life practice confirm that septic shock is common and carries high mortality in general ICU populations. Our results are in contrast with the clinical trial setting, and could be useful for healthcare planning and clinical study design. PMID:23561510

  2. Association between Melanocytic Nevi and Risk of Breast Diseases: The French E3N Prospective Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kvaskoff, Marina; Bijon, Anne; Mesrine, Sylvie; Vilier, Alice; Baglietto, Laura; Fournier, Agnès; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Dossus, Laure; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Background While melanocytic nevi have been associated with genetic factors and childhood sun exposure, several observations also suggest a potential hormonal influence on nevi. To test the hypothesis that nevi are associated with breast tumor risk, we explored the relationships between number of nevi and benign and malignant breast disease risk. Methods and Findings We prospectively analyzed data from E3N, a cohort of French women aged 40–65 y at inclusion in 1990. Number of nevi was collected at inclusion. Hazard ratios (HRs) for breast cancer and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Associations of number of nevi with personal history of benign breast disease (BBD) and family history of breast cancer were estimated using logistic regression. Over the period 15 June 1990–15 June 2008, 5,956 incident breast cancer cases (including 5,245 invasive tumors) were ascertained among 89,902 women. In models adjusted for age, education, and known breast cancer risk factors, women with “very many” nevi had a significantly higher breast cancer risk (HR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.01–1.27 versus “none”; ptrend = 0.04), although significance was lost after adjustment for personal history of BBD or family history of breast cancer. The 10-y absolute risk of invasive breast cancer increased from 3,749 per 100,000 women without nevi to 4,124 (95% CI = 3,674–4,649) per 100,000 women with “very many” nevi. The association was restricted to premenopausal women (HR = 1.40, ptrend = 0.01), even after full adjustment (HR = 1.34, ptrend = 0.03; phomogeneity = 0.04), but did not differ according to breast cancer type or hormone receptor status. In addition, we observed significantly positive dose–response relationships between number of nevi and history of biopsy-confirmed BBD (n = 5,169; ptrend<0.0001) and family history of breast cancer in first-degree relatives (n = 7

  3. Does personality predict mortality? Results from the GAZEL French prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Nabi, Hermann; Kivimäki, Mika; Zins, Marie; Elovainio, Marko; Consoli, Silla M.; Cordier, Sylvaine; Ducimetière, Pierre; Goldberg, Marcel; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2008-01-01

    Background Majority of studies on personality and physical health have focused on one or two isolated personality traits. We aim to test the independent association of 10 personality traits, from three major conceptual models, with all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the French GAZEL cohort. Methods A total of 14,445 participants, aged 39–54 in 1993, completed the personality questionnaires composed of the Bortner Type-A scale, the Buss-Durkee-Hostility-Inventory (for total, neurotic and reactive hostility), and the Grossarth-Maticek-Eysenck-Personality- Stress-Inventory that assesses six personality types (cancer-prone, coronary heart disease (CHD)-prone, ambivalent, healthy, rational, anti-social). The association between personality traits and mortality, during a mean follow-up of 12.7 years, was assessed using the Relative Index of Inequality (RII) in Cox regression. Results In models adjusted for age, sex, marital status and education, all-cause and causespecific mortality were predicted by “total hostility”, its “neurotic hostility” component as well as by “CHD-prone”, “ambivalent” “antisocial”, and “healthy” personality types. After mutually adjusting personality traits for each other, only high “neurotic hostility” remained a robust predictor of excess mortality from all causes (RII=2.62; 95% CI=1.68–4.09) and external causes (RII=3.24; 95% CI=1.03–10.18). “CHD-prone” (RII=2.23; 95% CI=0.72– 6.95) and “anti-social” (RII=2.13; 95% CI 0.61–6.58) personality types were associated with cardiovascular mortality and with mortality from external causes, respectively, but confidence intervals were wider. Adjustment for potential behavioural mediators had only a modest effect on these associations. Conclusions Neurotic hostility, CHD-prone personality and antisocial personality were all predictive of mortality outcomes. Further research is required to determine the precise mechanisms that contribute to these

  4. Health Behaviours, Socioeconomic Status, and Mortality: Further Analyses of the British Whitehall II and the French GAZEL Prospective Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Stringhini, Silvia; Dugravot, Aline; Shipley, Martin; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Kivimäki, Mika; Marmot, Michael; Sabia, Séverine; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2011-01-01

    Background Differences in morbidity and mortality between socioeconomic groups constitute one of the most consistent findings of epidemiologic research. However, research on social inequalities in health has yet to provide a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms underlying this association. In recent analysis, we showed health behaviours, assessed longitudinally over the follow-up, to explain a major proportion of the association of socioeconomic status (SES) with mortality in the British Whitehall II study. However, whether health behaviours are equally important mediators of the SES-mortality association in different cultural settings remains unknown. In the present paper, we examine this issue in Whitehall II and another prospective European cohort, the French GAZEL study. Methods and Findings We included 9,771 participants from the Whitehall II study and 17,760 from the GAZEL study. Over the follow-up (mean 19.5 y in Whitehall II and 16.5 y in GAZEL), health behaviours (smoking, alcohol consumption, diet, and physical activity), were assessed longitudinally. Occupation (in the main analysis), education, and income (supplementary analysis) were the markers of SES. The socioeconomic gradient in smoking was greater (p<0.001) in Whitehall II (odds ratio [OR]  = 3.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.11–4.36) than in GAZEL (OR  = 1.33, 95% CI 1.18–1.49); this was also true for unhealthy diet (OR  = 7.42, 95% CI 5.19–10.60 in Whitehall II and OR  = 1.31, 95% CI 1.15–1.49 in GAZEL, p<0.001). Socioeconomic differences in mortality were similar in the two cohorts, a hazard ratio of 1.62 (95% CI 1.28–2.05) in Whitehall II and 1.94 in GAZEL (95% CI 1.58–2.39) for lowest versus highest occupational position. Health behaviours attenuated the association of SES with mortality by 75% (95% CI 44%–149%) in Whitehall II but only by 19% (95% CI 13%–29%) in GAZEL. Analysis using education and income yielded similar results. Conclusions Health

  5. Associations between liking for fat, sweet or salt and obesity risk in French adults: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lampuré, Aurélie; Castetbon, Katia; Deglaire, Amélie; Schlich, Pascal; Péneau, Sandrine; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2016-07-04

    Individual sensory liking appears to be an important determinant of dietary intake and may consequently influence weight status. Cross-sectional studies have shown positive association between fat liking and weight status and equivocal results regarding salt and sweet liking. Moreover, the contribution of dietary intake to explain this relationship has not been studied yet. We investigated the prospective association between sensory liking for fat, sweet or salt and the onset of obesity over 5 years in adults, and the mediating effect of dietary intake. We prospectively examine the risk of obesity among 24,776 French adults participating in the NutriNet-Santé cohort study. Liking scores and dietary data were assessed at baseline using a validated web-based questionnaire and 24 h records, respectively. Self-reported anthropometric data were collected using web-based questionnaire, each year during 5 years. Associations between quartiles of liking for fat, sweet or salt and obesity risk, and the mediating effect of diet were assessed by multivariate Cox proportional hazards models stratified by gender, adjusted for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors. In both genders, sensory liking for fat was associated with an increased risk of obesity (hazard ratios for quartile 4 compared to quartile 1, men: HR(Q4vs.Q1) = 2.39 (95% CI 1.39,4.11) P-trend = 0.0005, women: HR(Q4vs.Q1) = 2.02 (1.51,2.71) P-trend = <0.0001). Dietary intake explained 32% in men and 52% in women of the overall variation of liking for fat in obesity. Sensory liking for sweet was associated with a decreased risk of obesity (men: HR(Q4vs.Q1) = 0.51 (0.31,0.83) P-trend = 0.01, women: HR(Q4vs.Q1) = 0.72 (0.54,0.96) P-trend = 0.035). No significant association between salt liking and the risk of obesity was found. Unlike sweet and salt liking, higher liking for fat appears to be a major risk factor of obesity, largely explained by dietary intake. Our findings emphasize the

  6. Estimated dietary dioxin exposure and breast cancer risk among women from the French E3N prospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Danjou, Aurélie M N; Fervers, Béatrice; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Philip, Thierry; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Dossus, Laure

    2015-03-17

    Dioxins are environmental and persistent pollutants mostly emitted from combustion facilities (e.g. waste incinerators, metal and cement industries). Known to be endocrine disrupting chemicals, dioxins are suspected to increase breast cancer (BC) risk. Although diet is considered the primary source of dioxin exposure, no previous study has been published on dietary dioxin exposure in relation to BC risk. We aimed to assess dietary dioxin exposure among women from the E3N cohort and estimate BC risk associated with this exposure. The study included 63,830 women from the E3N cohort who completed a diet history questionnaire (DHQ) in 1993 and were followed until 2008. Dietary dioxin exposure was estimated by combining consumption data from the E3N DHQ and food dioxin contamination data from a French national monitoring program. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated by Cox models adjusted for BC risk factors. Mean dietary dioxin exposure was estimated at 1.3 ± 0.4 pg/kg body weight (BW)/day. A 0.4 pg/kg BW/d increase in dioxin intake was not associated with overall BC risk (HR = 1.00; 95% CI: 0.96, 1.05). A significant decrease in risk of estrogen receptor negative (ER-)/progesterone receptor negative (PR-) tumors was observed among post-menopausal women in the upper quartile of estimated dioxin intake (HR for Q4 vs. Q1: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.45, 0.96; P for trend across quartiles = 0.0463). Overall, no association between estimated dietary dioxin exposure and BC risk was found among E3N women. Further studies should include both dietary and environmental exposures to determine whether low-dose dioxin exposure is associated with BC risk.

  7. Workplace air-conditioning and health services attendance among French middle-aged women: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Preziosi, P; Czernichow, S; Gehanno, P; Hercberg, S

    2004-10-01

    To assess the relationship between type of ventilation in the workplace, health services attendance, and sickness absence among middle-aged women. In a national sample of 920 professionally active women aged 49-65 yr from the SU.VI.MAX cohort, recruited from the general population in France, health services attendance and sickness absence were assessed prospectively during 1999. Being exposed to heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems in the workplace proved to be a risk factor for attendance at global and several specialist medical services. The adjusted odds ratio for otorhinolaryngologist attendance was 2.33 (95% CI = 1.35-4.04) in the HVAC group compared with the natural ventilation group, and 1.70 (1.13-2.58) for sickness absence. Dermatologist and global medical services attendance rates may also be higher in this group (P = 0.06 in both cases). Exposure to HVAC systems was a strong and significant risk factor for otorhinolaryngologist attendance and sickness absence. HVAC systems are prevalent in recent office buildings and have been shown to be associated with several adverse health effects in terms of morbidity and mortality. From a public-health perspective, our results outline the need for a quantitative assessment of the health impact of ventilation systems, taking into account the possible loss of production that exists in addition to the direct costs of medical services use.

  8. Association between dietary scores and 13-year weight change and obesity risk in a French prospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Lassale, C; Fezeu, L; Andreeva, V A; Hercberg, S; Kengne, A-P; Czernichow, S; Kesse-Guyot, E

    2012-11-01

    The relationship between diet quality and development of obesity is complex and unresolved. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the predictive value of six different dietary scores on both relative weight change and the risk of obesity after 13 years of follow-up in adults aged 45 years and older. Six scores reflecting adherence to different nutritional recommendations (the French Programme National Nutrition Santé-Guideline Score (PNNS-GS), the Dietary Guidelines for Americans Index (DGAI), the Diet Quality Index-International (DQI-I), the Mediterranean Diet Scale (MDS), the relative Mediterranean Diet Score (rMED) and the Mediterranean Style Dietary Pattern Score (MSDPS)) were estimated in 3151 participants in the French SU.VI.MAX (SUpplémentation en VItamines et Minéraux AntioXydants) study. Associations of dietary scores with 13-year weight change were assessed through multivariate linear regression models, and obesity risk was analyzed with logistic regression, providing odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Except for the MSDPS, higher scores, that is, better adherence to nutritional guidelines or to a Mediterranean diet, were associated with lower weight gain in men (all P-value for trend <0.05). In addition, among men, ORs for becoming obese after 13 years associated with a 1 s.d. increase in dietary scores ranged from 0.63, 95% CI: 0.51, 0.78 for DGAI to 0.72, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.88 for MDS. These associations were weaker or not statistically significant in women. Overall, the six dietary scores predicted obesity risk equally well. Among French adults, strong adherence to dietary guidelines appears to be protective with regard to weight gain and obesity, especially in men.

  9. Early tumor necrosis factor α antagonist therapy in everyday practice for inflammatory back pain suggesting axial spondyloarthritis: results from a prospective multicenter french cohort.

    PubMed

    Canouï-Poitrine, Florence; Poulain, Cécile; Molto, Anna; Le Thuaut, Aurélie; Lafon, Cécile; Farrenq, Valérie; Ferkal, Salah; Le Corvoisier, Philippe; Ghaleh, Bijan; Bastuji-Garin, Sylvie; Fautrel, B; Dougados, Maxime; Claudepierre, Pascal

    2014-09-01

    To determine the frequency of and factors associated with early tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) antagonist therapy in everyday clinical practice in patients with suspected axial spondyloarthropathy (SpA). We used data from the prospective observational study in the French Devenir des Spondylarthropathies Indifférenciées Récentes (DESIR; Outcome of Recent Undifferentiated Spondylarthropathies) cohort of 708 patients with recent-onset (<3 years) inflammatory back pain (IBP) suggesting axial SpA. TNFα antagonist use was recorded at months 6 and 12 and factors independently associated with TNFα antagonist therapy were identified by multivariate logistic regression. Among the 708 patients (mean age 33.8 years, 46.2% men), 166 (23.4%) patients received TNFα antagonist therapy by month 12, including 120 (73.6%) patients who fulfilled Assessment of SpondyloArthritis international Society (ASAS) axial criteria and 157 (94.6%) who fulfilled at least 1 SpA criteria set; 109 (65.6%) had no sacroiliitis. Factors independently associated with early TNFα antagonist therapy were high Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score using the C-reactive protein level (odds ratio [OR]1-point increase 1.60, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.25-2.03, P < 0.001), high physician's global disease activity score (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.21-1.54, P < 0.001), ASAS nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug score >50 (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.24-2.87, P = 0.003), current or past disease-modifying antirheumatic drug use (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.22-3.59, P = 0.008), systemic corticosteroid use (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.43-4.34, P = 0.002), and mild to severe radiographic hip abnormalities (OR 9.43, 95% CI 2.11-42.09, P = 0.003). After adjustment on these factors, Achilles enthesis hypervascularization by power Doppler and number of work days missed were associated with TNFα antagonist therapy. In the DESIR cohort, approximately one-fourth of patients with recent IBP suggestive of axial SpA were under anti-TNFα therapy

  10. Validity of the French version of the Core Outcome Measures Index for low back pain patients: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Genevay, Stéphane; Marty, Marc; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Foltz, Violaine; Mahieu, Geneviève; Demoulin, Christophe; Fontana, Agnieszka Gierasimowicz; Norberg, Michael; de Goumoëns, Pierre; Cedraschi, Christine; Rozenberg, Sylvie

    2014-10-01

    Among the many questionnaires available to evaluate low back pain (LBP) patients, the Core Outcome Measures Index (COMI) has the unique advantage to investigate five dimensions using seven short questions. The aim of this study was to explore additional properties of the questionnaire in a French-speaking non-surgical population. This study was conducted on 168 patients suffering from subacute or chronic LBP and followed up for 6 months in three French-speaking countries. In addition to basic psychometric properties (e.g., construct validity, floor and ceiling effect, reproducibility), internal validity was analyzed by a factor analysis using Cronbach's alpha. Responsiveness and sensitivity to change were assessed through minimal detectable change (MDC), effect size, and Minimal Clinically Important Improvement (MCII). We used an anchor-based method with receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis to assess MCII and the Patient Acceptable Symptom State. Construct validity, reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.87), reproducibility and the absence of floor and ceiling effects were confirmed. Factor analysis indicated a one-dimensional construct that validates the use of a sum score. The MDC (2.1) was inferior to the MCII (2.3). The limit below which the patient claims to be in a fair condition (Patient Acceptable Symptom State) was set at 3. The COMI is a self-report questionnaire with the capacity to easily and quickly explore several dimensions in patients with LBP that can be then summarized in a meaningful sum score. Additional knowledge provided by our study should encourage the widespread use of the COMI among the spine community.

  11. Starchy food consumption in French adults: a cross-sectional analysis of the profile of consumers and contribution to nutritional intake in a web-based prospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Szabo de Edelenyi, Fabien; Julia, Chantal; Courtois, Frédéric; Méjean, Caroline; Péneau, Sandrine; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    French Nutritional Guidelines recommend eating starchy foods at each meal, according to appetite, and advise to vary sources. However, the proportion of energy from carbohydrates is currently too low in many Western European countries. Consumption of the different types of starchy foods was assessed among 80,209 adult participants in the French NutriNet-Santé cohort (78% women, mean age 42.9 ± 14.5). Description of starchy food consumption according to sociodemographics was provided as well as the contribution of starchy food to nutritional intake. Determinants of adherence to starchy food nutritional guidelines were estimated using multivariable polytomous logistic regression. Starchy foods contributed approximately 22% of the energy intake, 75% of the complex carbohydrate intake and 36.1% of the fibre intake. About 43% of the subjects had intakes in line with the French Nutritional Guidelines concerning starchy foods. Men met the recommendation more frequently (55 vs. 33% for women), but were also more likely to exceed the recommendation (9.5 vs. 1.3%), even after adjustment for energy intake. According to our multivariable model, starchy food consumption increased also with age. A higher consumption of starchy foods should be promoted in the French population in order to increase the part of the energy intake coming from complex carbohydrates.

  12. The French national prospective cohort of patients co-infected with HIV and HCV (ANRS CO13 HEPAVIH): Early findings, 2006-2010

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    low CD4 cells count, but did not differ according to sex, age, alcohol consumption, CDC clinical stage or HCV status. Conclusion The ANRS CO 13 HEPAVIH is a nation-wide cohort using a large network of HIV treatment, infectious diseases and internal medicine clinics in France, and thus is highly representative of the French population living with these two viruses and in care. PMID:20969743

  13. Adverse effects of isolation: a prospective matched cohort study including 90 direct interviews of hospitalized patients in a French University Hospital.

    PubMed

    Guilley-Lerondeau, B; Bourigault, C; Guille des Buttes, A-C; Birgand, G; Lepelletier, D

    2017-01-01

    Isolation precautions in patients with multi-drug resistant bacteria or other communicable infectious agents can be associated with adverse effects. The aim of this study was to assess satisfaction and psychological impact of patients hospitalized with isolation precautions in comparison with controls. An observational prospective cohort study was performed in five different medical and surgical departments in a 3,000-bed university hospital in Western France between March and July 2012. Different scales were used to assess patient satisfaction (qualitative scale) and anxiety (Spielberger scale), including 30 patients with isolation precautions and 60 matched patients without isolation precautions over 45-hour interviews. Cases were significantly less satisfied than controls for healthcare workers (HCW) assistance in activities of daily life (p < 0.001), availability and relationships (17 % vs 5 %, p = 0.05 and 10 % vs 0%, p = 0.02, respectively). Sixty-seven percent of patients with isolation precautions were not satisfied about the quality of the information related to their infectious status control measures. The median score [range] of anxiety significantly was higher in patients with isolation precautions (52 [20-56] vs 31 [23-73], p <0.001). Isolation precautions may have negative psychological effects, leading to anxiety, and may compromise patient satisfaction according to the availability and relationship with HCW. Professionals should be aware of adverse effects of isolation and inform patients more actively with regard to their infectious status and precautions.

  14. Urine cytology screening of French workers exposed to occupational urinary tract carcinogens: a prospective cohort study over a 20-year period.

    PubMed

    Dutheil, Frederic; Rouanet, Lucile; Mulliez, Aurélien; Naughton, Geraldine; Fontana, Luc; Druet-Cabanac, Michel; Moustafa, Farès; Chamoux, Alain

    2017-09-21

    To demonstrate that urine cytology screening can provide relevant epidemiological data for earlier detection of urothelial cancer caused by occupational exposure. Prospective cohort study. Industries using urothelial carcinogens in France. Urine samples were collected on site, after a work week and were analysed at the University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand, France. Participants were workers exposed to urothelial carcinogens. Women and current smokers at time of study recruitment were exclusion criteria. Urine cells atypia were ranged into three classes: negative/normal, atypical/suspicious/dysplasia or positive/malignant. We included 2020 workers over a period of 20 years from 1993 to 2013: 606 worked in rubber manufacturing, 692 from metal processing, 245 in chemical industry and 477 in roadwork and building industry. Workers had a mean exposure of 15.2±10.4 years before their first urine cytology screening. There was a mean of 3.4±4.3 urine cytology screenings per worker between 1993 and 2013. 6478 cytology were normal, 462 suspicious and 13 malignant. Suspicious and malignant cytology occurred in 4.8% of workers exposed for 1-10 years, 6.2% for 11-20 years of exposure, 7.6% for 21-30 years and 8.6% for >30 years (p<0.001). Using exposure for 1-10 years as reference, the adjusted OR of receiving a suspicious or malignant diagnosis increased with duration of exposure: OR=1.50 (95% CI 1.10 to 2.05, p=0.01) for 21-30 years and OR=1.78 (95% CI 1.23 to 2.56, p=0.002) for >30 years of exposure. Using metal processing as reference, the risk of pathological urine cytology results increased for rubber manufacturing (OR=1.32, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.65, p=0.02), with a trend for roadwork and building industry (OR=1.39, 95% CI 0.98 to 1.97, p=0.07) and for chemical industry (OR=1.34, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.93, p=0.11). Urine cytology is a useful tool in occupational medicine. We promote new guidelines with an early screening of urothelial cancer by cytology, starting with

  15. [Implementation of a French cohort of children or adolescents with autism spectrum disorders: ELENA cohort].

    PubMed

    Baghdadli, A; Loubersac, J; Soussana, M; Rattaz, C; Michelon, C

    2014-10-01

    Multidisciplinary cohort studies of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) followed from childhood to adulthood exist abroad but not in France. The objective of the ELENA French cohort is to study the developmental trajectories of children and adolescents with ASD and their risk or protective associated factors. This is an open, prospective and multicenter cohort study, including children and adolescents under 16 years of age with ASD recruited from services specialized in the assessment of developmental disorders. The patients will be monitored every 18 months for at least 36 months and during a maximum of 10 years. Clinical, social, environmental, and genetic data, as well as data relating to the parental quality of life will be collected. The primary endpoint will be the adaptive level in three domains of the Vineland II (communication, socialization and daily living skills). The secondary endpoints will be parental quality of life, comorbidities, interventions and severity of ASD. The inclusion of 1600 patients over a 10-year period is expected. This cohort should contribute to a better knowledge of the child developing an ASD, taking into account the physical, social and familial environment, the type of interventions and some genetic components. It should also lay the foundations for a national network of professionals working in the field of autism research by offering them a common tool for promoting translational studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Association of Anti-Porphyromonas gingivalis Antibody Titers With Nonsmoking Status in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis: Results From the Prospective French Cohort of Patients With Early Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Seror, Raphaèle; Le Gall-David, Sandrine; Bonnaure-Mallet, Martine; Schaeverbeke, Thierry; Cantagrel, Alain; Minet, Jacques; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Chanson, Philippe; Ravaud, Philippe; Mariette, Xavier

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the possible link between Porphyromonas gingivalis infection and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), according to antibody profile, genetic and environmental factors, and RA severity. For assessing P gingivalis infection, serum levels of antibodies directed against P gingivalis lipopolysaccharide were measured in 694 patients with early RA who were not exposed to steroids or disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs. Anti-P gingivalis antibody titers were compared between patients with early RA and various control groups, and according to various patient characteristics. Anti-P gingivalis antibody titers did not significantly differ between patients with RA and controls and did not significantly differ with anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA), rheumatoid factor (RF), or HLA shared epitope status. Anti-P gingivalis antibody titers were significantly higher among patients who had never smoked compared to patients who had ever smoked (P = 0.0049). Among nonsmokers, high anti-P gingivalis antibody levels were associated with a higher prevalence of erosive change (47.5% versus 33.3% with modified Sharp/van der Heijde score erosion subscale ≥1; P = 0.0135). In this large early RA cohort, we did not detect any association of anti-P gingivalis antibodies with RA or with ACPA status. These results suggest that the association of periodontitis and RA could be linked to bacterial species other than P gingivalis or to a mechanism other than citrullination. Nevertheless, we found higher anti-P gingivalis antibody titers in nonsmokers. In addition, in this population of nonsmokers, high anti-P gingivalis antibody titers were associated with more severe disease. We hypothesize that the role of tobacco in RA pathogenesis is so high that the effect of P gingivalis could be revealed only in a population not exposed to tobacco. © 2015, American College of Rheumatology.

  17. Antifungal therapy for patients with proven or suspected Candida peritonitis: Amarcand2, a prospective cohort study in French intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Montravers, P; Perrigault, P F; Timsit, J F; Mira, J P; Lortholary, O; Leroy, O; Gangneux, J P; Guillemot, D; Bensoussan, C; Bailly, S; Azoulay, E; Constantin, J M; Dupont, H

    2017-02-01

    The clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients treated for Candida peritonitis (CP) were compared according to the type of systemic antifungal therapy (SAT), empiric (EAF) or targeted (TAF) therapies, and the final diagnosis of infection. Patients in intensive care units (ICU) treated for CP were selected among the AmarCAND2 cohort, to compare patients receiving EAF for unconfirmed suspicion of CP (EAF/nonCP), to those with suspected secondarily confirmed CP (EAF/CP), or with primarily proven CP receiving TAF. In all, 279 patients were evaluated (43.4% EAF/nonCP, 29.7% EAF/CP and 25.8% TAF patients). At SAT initiation, the severity of illness was similar among EAF/nonCP and EAF/CP patients, lower among TAF patients (median Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (SAPS II) 49 and 51 versus 35, respectively; p 0.001). Candida albicans was involved in 67%, Candida glabrata in 15.6%. All strains were susceptible to echinocandin; 84% to fluconazole. Echinocandin was administered to 51.2% EAF/nonCP, 49% EAF/CP and 40% TAF patients. At day 28, 72%, 76% and 75% of EAF/nonCP, EAF/CP and TAF patients, respectively, were alive. An increased mortality was observed in patients with a Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score <7 if SAT was delayed by ≥6 days (p 0.04). Healthcare-associated CP (OR 3.82, 95% CI 1.52-9.64, p 0.004), SOFA ≥8 at ICU admission (OR 2.61, 95% CI 1.08-6.34; p 0.03), and SAPS II ≥45 at SAT initiation (OR 5.08, 95% CI 1.04-12.67; p 0.001) impacted the 28-day mortality. In summary, only 56.6% of ICU patients receiving SAT had CP. Most strains were susceptible to SAT. A similar 28-day mortality rate was observed among groups; the late administration of SAT significantly worsened the prognosis of patients with less severe CP. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Emergency Care for Homeless Patients: A French Multicenter Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Feral-Pierssens, Anne-Laure; Aubry, Adeline; Truchot, Jennifer; Raynal, Pierre-Alexis; Boiffier, Mathieu; Hutin, Alice; Leleu, Agathe; Debruyne, Geraud; Joly, Luc-Marie; Juvin, Philippe; Riou, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To determine whether homeless patients experience suboptimal care in the emergency department (ED) by the provision of fewer health care resources. Methods. We conducted a prospective multicenter cohort study in 30 EDs in France. During 72 hours in March 2015, all homeless patients that visited the participating EDs were included in the study. The primary health care service measure was the order by the physician of a diagnostic investigation or provision of a treatment in the ED. Secondary measures of health care services included ED waiting time, number and type of investigations per patient, treatment in the ED, and discharge disposition. Results. A total of 254 homeless patients and 254 nonhomeless patients were included. After excluding homeless patients that attended the ED for the sole purpose of housing, we analyzed 214 homeless and 214 nonhomeless. We found no significant difference between the 2 groups in terms of health care resource consumption, and for our secondary endpoints. Conclusions. We did not find significant differences in the level of medical care delivered in French EDs to homeless patients compared with matched nonhomeless patients. PMID:26985613

  19. Cohort Profile: The French Childhood Cancer Survivor Study For Leukaemia (LEA Cohort)

    PubMed Central

    Berbis, Julie; Michel, Gérard; Baruchel, André; Bertrand, Yves; Chastagner, Pascal; Demeocq, François; Kanold, Justyna; Leverger, Guy; Plantaz, Dominique; Poirée, Marilyne; Stephan, Jean-Louis; Auquier, Pascal; Contet, Audrey; Dalle, Jean-Hugues; Ducassou, Stéphane; Gandemer, Virginie; Lutz, Patrick; Sirvent, Nicolas; Tabone, Marie-Dominique; Thouvenin-Doulet, Sandrine

    2015-01-01

    The main aim of the Leucémies de l’Enfant et l’Adolescent (LEA) project (Childhood and Adolescent Leukaemia) is to study the determinants (medical, socioeconomic, behavioural and environmental) of medium- and long-term outcomes of patients treated for childhood acute leukaemia (AL). The LEA study began in 2004 and is based on a French multicentric prospective cohort. Included are children treated for AL since January 1980 (incident and prevalent cases), surviving at month 24 for myeloblastic AL and lymphoblastic AL grafted in first complete remission or at month 48 for lymphoblastic AL not grafted in first complete remission. Information is collected during specific medical visits and notably includes the following data: socioeconomic data, AL history, physical late effects (such as fertility, cardiac function and metabolic syndrome) and quality of life. Data are collected every 2 years until the patient is 20 years old and has had a 10-year follow-up duration from diagnosis or last relapse. Thereafter, assessments are planned every 4 years. In active centres in 2013, eligible patients number more than 3000. The cohort has already included 2385 survivors, with rate of exhaustiveness of almost 80%. Data access can be requested from principal coordinators and must be approved by the steering committee. PMID:24639445

  20. The French Observational Cohort of Usual Smokers (FOCUS) cohort: French smokers perceptions and attitudes towards smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Aubin, Henri-Jean; Peiffer, Gérard; Stoebner-Delbarre, Anne; Vicaut, Eric; Jeanpetit, Yasmine; Solesse, Anne; Bonnelye, Geneviève; Thomas, Daniel

    2010-02-26

    Despite increasing governmental anti-smoking measures, smoking prevalence remains at a high level in France. The objectives of this panel study were (1) to estimate smoking prevalence in France, (2) to identify smokers' profiles according to their perceptions, attitudes and behaviour in relation to smoking cessation, (3) to determine predictive factors of quit attempts, and (4) to assess tobacco-related behaviours and their evolutions according to the changes in the smokers' environments. A representative sample of French population was defined using the quota method. The identified cohort of smokers was assessed, in terms of smoking behaviour, previous quit attempts, and intention to quit smoking. A response rate of 66% for the screening enabled to identify a representative sample of the French population (N = 3 889) comprising 809 current smokers (21%). A majority of current smokers (63%) had made an attempt to quit smoking. Main reasons for having made the last attempt were cost (44%), social pressure (39%), wish to improve physical fitness (36%), fear of a future smoking-related disease (24%), and weariness of smoking (21%). Few attempts (16%) were encouraged by a physician. In those who used some kind of support (38%), NRT was the mostly used. Relapse was triggered by craving (45%), anxiety/stress (34%), a significant life event (21), weight gain (18%), and irritability (16%). Depression was rarely quoted (5%). Forty percent of smokers declared they intended to quit smoking permanently. Main reasons were cost (65%), physical fitness improvement (53%), fear of a future smoking-related disease (43%), weariness of tobacco (34%), and social pressure (30%). Using a smoking cessation treatment was considered by 43% of smokers that intended to quit. Barriers to smoking cessation were mainly fear of increased stress (62%), irritability (51%), and anxiety (42%), enjoying smoking (41%), and weight concerns (33%). Smoking prevalence and smoking cessation attempts rate

  1. Investing in Prospective Cohorts for Etiologic Study of Occupational Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Blair, A.; Hines, C.J.; Thomas, K.W.; Alavanja, M.C.R.; Beane Freeman, L.E.; Hoppin, J.A.; Kamel, F.; Lynch, C.F.; Lubin, J.H.; Silverman, D.T.; Whelan, E.; Zahm, S. H.; Sandler, D. P.

    2015-01-01

    Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the contribution of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes to the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used for occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. We draw upon our experience using this design to study agricultural workers to identify conditions that might foster use of prospective cohorts to study other occupational settings. Prospective cohort studies are perceived by many as the strongest epidemiologic design. It allows updating of information on exposure and other factors, collection of biologic samples before disease diagnosis for biomarker studies, assessment of effect modification by genes, lifestyle, and other occupational exposures, and evaluation of a wide range of health outcomes. Increased use of prospective cohorts would be beneficial in identifying hazardous exposures in the workplace. Occupational epidemiologists should seek opportunities to initiate prospective cohorts to investigate high priority, occupational exposures. PMID:25603935

  2. Exposure to aripiprazole during embryogenesis: a prospective multicenter cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bellet, Florelle; Beyens, Marie-Noëlle; Bernard, Nathalie; Beghin, Delphine; Elefant, Elisabeth; Vial, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of major malformations after aripiprazole exposure during the embryonic period. The secondary purposes were to assess the risk of miscarriage, prematurity, fetal growth retardation and maternal complications and to describe possible neonatal adverse effects. We conducted a cohort study using data prospectively collected by the French Pharmacovigilance Centres participating to the Terappel program and the Centre de Référence sur les Agents Tératogènes between 2004 and 2011. The exposed group consisted of pregnant women exposed to aripiprazole during embryogenesis, and the unexposed group consisted of pregnant women without exposure or exposed to non-teratogenic agents. Two unexposed patients, matched for age and gestational age at call, were randomly selected for each exposed patient. Eighty-six patients were included in the exposed group and 172 in the unexposed group. Exposure to aripiprazole was not significantly associated with an increased rate of major malformations (OR 2.30, 95%CI 0.32-16.7) or miscarriage (1.66, 0.63-4.38) or gestational diabetes (1.15, 0.33-4.04) compared to non-exposure. The study revealed significantly increased rates of prematurity (OR 2.57, 95%CI 1.06-6.27) and fetal growth retardation (2.97, 1.23-7.16) in exposed newborns, difficult to interpret because of the short duration of maternal exposure. Two cases of neonatal complications were reported among the 19 newborns exposed to aripiprazole near delivery. This study failed to demonstrate a significant association between aripiprazole exposure during the embryonic period and major malformations. More powerful prospective studies are required to clarify the reproductive safety profile of aripiprazole. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Folate, vitamin B12 and postmenopausal breast cancer in a prospective study of French women

    PubMed Central

    Lajous, Martin; Romieu, Isabelle; Sabia, Severine; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise

    2006-01-01

    Objective Adequate folate intake may be important for breast cancer prevention. Its protective effect may be influenced by factors associated with folate metabolism. We sought to evaluate folate intake in relation to breast cancer risk and examine whether the relation is affected by alcohol and intake of vitamin B2 and B12. Methods A prospective cohort analysis of folate intake was conducted among 62,739 postmenopausal women in the French E3N cohort who had completed a validated food frequency questionnaire in 1993. During nine years’ follow-up, 1,812 cases of pathology-confirmed breast cancer were documented through follow-up questionnaires. Nutrients were categorized in quintiles and energy-adjusted using the regression-residual method. Cox model-derived relative risks (RRs) were adjusted for known breast cancer determinants. Results The multivariate RR for extreme quintiles of folate intake was was 0.78 (95% CI: 0.67–0.90; p-trend = 0.001) [Median intake for Q1 = 296 μg/day and Q5 = 522 μg/day]. There was no evidence to support effect modification by alcohol or B2 intake. The decreasing trend was most marked in women with higher folate and vitamin B12 intake. However, test for interaction was not statistically significant (p = 0.29) Conclusions High folate intake was associated with decreased breast cancer risk. Vitamin B12 intake may modify this association. PMID:17006726

  4. Mother-to-child HIV transmission despite antiretroviral therapy in the ANRS French Perinatal Cohort.

    PubMed

    Warszawski, Josiane; Tubiana, Roland; Le Chenadec, Jerome; Blanche, Stephane; Teglas, Jean-Paul; Dollfus, Catherine; Faye, Albert; Burgard, Marianne; Rouzioux, Christine; Mandelbrot, Laurent

    2008-01-11

    To identify factors associated with mother-to-child HIV-1 transmission (MTCT) from mothers receiving antenatal antiretroviral therapy. The French Perinatal Cohort (EPF), a multicenter prospective cohort of HIV-infected pregnant women and their children. Univariate analysis and logistic regression, with child HIV status as dependent variable, were conducted among 5271 mothers who received antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy, delivered between 1997 and 2004 and did not breastfeed. The MTCT rate was 1.3% [67/5271; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.0-1.6]. It was as low as 0.4% (5/1338; 95% CI, 0.1-0.9) in term births with maternal HIV-1 RNA level at delivery below 50 copies/ml. MTCT increased with viral load, short duration of antiretroviral therapy, female gender and severe premature delivery: 6.6% before 33 weeks versus 1.2% at 37 weeks or more (P < 0.001). The type of antiretroviral therapy was not associated with transmission. Intrapartum therapy was associated with four-fold lower MTCT (P = 0.04) in case of virological failure (> 10 000 copies/ml). Elective cesarean section tended to be inversely associated with MTCT in the overall population, but not in mothers who delivered at term with viral load < 400 copies/ml [odds ratio (OR), 0.83; 95% CI, 0.29-2.39; P = 0.37]. Among them, only duration of antenatal therapy was associated with transmission (OR by week, 0.94; 95% CI, 0.90-0.99; P = 0.03). Low maternal plasma viral load is the key factor for preventing MTCT. Benefits in terms of MTCT reduction may be expected from early antiretroviral prophylaxis. The potential toxicity of prolonged antiretroviral use in pregnancy should be evaluated.

  5. The French E3N Prospective Cohort Study

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-18

    Breast Cancer; Colo-rectal Cancer; Parkinson Disease; Asthma; Diabetes; Inflammatory Bowel Diseases; Melanoma; Endometriosis; Thyroid Cancer; Hypertension; Endometrial Cancer; Crohn Disease; Depression; Cardiovascular Diseases

  6. Cancer and non-cancer mortality among French uranium cycle workers: the TRACY cohort

    PubMed Central

    Samson, Eric; Piot, Irwin; Zhivin, Sergey; Richardson, David B; Laroche, Pierre; Serond, Ana-Paula; Laurier, Dominique; Laurent, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The health effects of internal contamination by radionuclides, and notably by uranium, are poorly characterised. New cohorts of uranium workers are needed to better examine these effects. This paper analyses for the first time the mortality profile of the French cohort of uranium cycle workers. It considers mortality from cancer and non-cancer causes. Methods The cohort includes workers employed at least 6 months between 1958 and 2006 in French companies involved in the production of nuclear fuel. Vital status and causes of death were collected from French national registries. Workers were followed-up from 1 January 1968 to 31 December 2008. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed based on mortality rates for the French general population. Results The cohort includes 12 649 workers (88% men). The average length of follow-up is 27 years and the mean age at the end of the study is 60 years. Large mortality deficits are observed for non-cancer causes of death such as non-cancer respiratory diseases (SMR=0.51 (0.41 to 0.63)) and circulatory diseases (SMR=0.68 (0.62 to 0.74)). A mortality deficit of lower magnitude is also observed for all cancers combined (SMR (95% CI): 0.76 (0.71 to 0.81)). Pleural mesothelioma is elevated (SMR=2.04 (1.19 to 3.27)). Conclusions A healthy worker effect is observed in this new cohort of workers involved in the uranium cycle. Collection of individual information on internal uranium exposure as well as other risk factors is underway, to allow for the investigation of uranium-related risks. PMID:27048635

  7. Associations between transition to retirement and changes in dietary intakes in French adults (NutriNet-Santé cohort study).

    PubMed

    Si Hassen, Wendy; Castetbon, Katia; Lelièvre, Eva; Lampuré, Aurélie; Hercberg, Serge; Méjean, Caroline

    2017-05-30

    Few studies have focused on the influence of retirement on dietary behaviors. Our study aimed at assessing the associations between transition to retirement and changes in dietary intake in French adults, particularly according to spousal retirement and baseline income. This prospective study included 577 French participants from the NutriNet-Santé cohort who retired over a 5-year follow-up (2009-2014 or 2010-2015). At baseline and every year, dietary intakes were assessed using 24 h records. Repeated measures of dietary intake were analysed using mixed models adjusted for energy with random effects of time and period (before and after retirement) to assess changes following retirement for each gender. After retirement, intakes of saturated fatty acids and sodium increased in both genders. Women showed specific changes after retirement: decrease in the score of adherence to recommendations and in intakes of fruits, proteins, vitamins; increase in intakes of fatty sweet products. In men with the lowest income at baseline, specific changes in intake were associated with retirement such as decrease in intake of dairy products and increase in intake of lipids. Transition to retirement was associated with unhealthier dietary intakes. These results may help defining interventions during this vulnerable life-period. This study was conducted according to guidelines laid down in the Declaration of Helsinki and all procedures were approved by the Institutional Review Board of the French Institute for Health and Medical Research (IRB Inserm No. 0000388FWA00005831) and the French Data Protection Authority (Commission Nationale Informatique et Libertés No. 908450 and No. 909216). Electronic informed consents were obtained from all participants.

  8. Effect of retirement on major chronic conditions and fatigue: French GAZEL occupational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Westerlund, Hugo; Vahtera, Jussi; Ferrie, Jane E; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Pentti, Jaana; Melchior, Maria; Leineweber, Constanze; Jokela, Markus; Siegrist, Johannes; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Kivimäki, Mika

    2010-11-23

    To determine, using longitudinal analyses, if retirement is followed by a change in the risk of incident chronic diseases, depressive symptoms, and fatigue. Design Prospective study with repeat measures from 7 years before to 7 years after retirement. Large French occupational cohort (the GAZEL study), 1989-2007. Participants 11 246 men and 2858 women. Respiratory disease, diabetes, coronary heart disease and stroke, mental fatigue, and physical fatigue, measured annually by self report over the 15 year observation period; depressive symptoms measured at four time points. The average number of repeat measurements per participant was 12.1. Repeated measures logistic regression with generalised estimating equations showed that the cumulative prevalence of self reported respiratory disease, diabetes, and coronary heart disease and stroke increased with age, with no break in the trend around retirement. In contrast, retirement was associated with a substantial decrease in the prevalence of both mental fatigue (odds ratio for fatigue one year after versus one year before retirement 0.19, 95% confidence interval 0.18 to 0.21) and physical fatigue (0.27, 0.26 to 0.30). A major decrease was also observed in depressive symptoms (0.60, 0.53 to 0.67). The decrease in fatigue around retirement was more pronounced among people with a chronic disease before retirement. Longitudinal modelling of repeat data showed that retirement did not change the risk of major chronic diseases but was associated with a substantial reduction in mental and physical fatigue and depressive symptoms, particularly among people with chronic diseases.

  9. Effect of retirement on major chronic conditions and fatigue: French GAZEL occupational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Vahtera, Jussi; Ferrie, Jane E; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Pentti, Jaana; Melchior, Maria; Leineweber, Constanze; Jokela, Markus; Siegrist, Johannes; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Kivimäki, Mika

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine, using longitudinal analyses, if retirement is followed by a change in the risk of incident chronic diseases, depressive symptoms, and fatigue. Design Prospective study with repeat measures from 7 years before to 7 years after retirement. Setting Large French occupational cohort (the GAZEL study), 1989-2007. Participants 11 246 men and 2858 women. Main outcome measures Respiratory disease, diabetes, coronary heart disease and stroke, mental fatigue, and physical fatigue, measured annually by self report over the 15 year observation period; depressive symptoms measured at four time points. Results The average number of repeat measurements per participant was 12.1. Repeated measures logistic regression with generalised estimating equations showed that the cumulative prevalence of self reported respiratory disease, diabetes, and coronary heart disease and stroke increased with age, with no break in the trend around retirement. In contrast, retirement was associated with a substantial decrease in the prevalence of both mental fatigue (odds ratio for fatigue one year after versus one year before retirement 0.19, 95% confidence interval 0.18 to 0.21) and physical fatigue (0.27, 0.26 to 0.30). A major decrease was also observed in depressive symptoms (0.60, 0.53 to 0.67). The decrease in fatigue around retirement was more pronounced among people with a chronic disease before retirement. Conclusions Longitudinal modelling of repeat data showed that retirement did not change the risk of major chronic diseases but was associated with a substantial reduction in mental and physical fatigue and depressive symptoms, particularly among people with chronic diseases. PMID:21098617

  10. Breastfeeding duration, social and occupational characteristics of mothers in the French 'EDEN mother-child' cohort.

    PubMed

    Bonet, Mercedes; Marchand, Laetitia; Kaminski, Monique; Fohran, Anne; Betoko, Aisha; Charles, Marie-Aline; Blondel, Béatrice

    2013-05-01

    Socio-demographic characteristics of mothers have been associated with exclusive breastfeeding duration, but little is known about the association with maternal full- and part-time employment and return to work in European countries. To study the associations between breastfeeding, any and almost exclusive (infants receiving breast milk as their only milk) breastfeeding, at 4 months of infant's age and the socio-demographic and occupational characteristics of mothers. We used the EDEN mother-child cohort, a prospective study of 2002 singleton pregnant women in two French university hospitals. We selected all mothers (n = 1,339) who were breastfeeding at discharge from the maternity unit. Data on feeding practices were collected at the maternity unit and by postal questionnaires at 4, 8 and 12 months after the birth. Among infants breastfed at discharge, 93% were still receiving any breastfeeding (83% almost exclusive breastfeeding) at the 3rd completed week of life, 78% (63%) at the 1st completed month, and 42% (20%) at the 4th completed month. Time of return to work was a major predictor for stopping breastfeeding: the sooner the mothers returned to work, the less they breastfed their babies at 4 months of infant's age, independently of full-time or part-time employment. The association was stronger for almost exclusive breastfeeding mothers than for any breastfeeding ones. In a society where breastfeeding is not the norm, women may have difficulties combining work and breastfeeding. Specific actions need to be developed and assessed among mothers who return to work and among employers.

  11. [Constitution of a bank of biological material in the French Gazel cohort: logistical and practical aspects].

    PubMed

    Zins, M; Ozguler, A; Bonenfant, S; Henny, J; Goldberg, M

    2003-02-01

    The Gazel cohort was launched in January 1989 among workers of the French national electricity and gas company to form an open and general purpose epidemiological laboratory. More than 20.000 workers (15.000 men, 5.000 women), aged from 35 to 50 volunteered to participate. One of the objectives of this cohort was the constitution of a bank of biological material aiming to collect and preserve various biological samples (serum, plasma, DNA, etc). This paper details the organisation of the bank and presents a feasability study concerning 2.000 volunteers.

  12. Validity of self-reported weight and height in the French GAZEL cohort.

    PubMed

    Niedhammer, I; Bugel, I; Bonenfant, S; Goldberg, M; Leclerc, A

    2000-09-01

    To examine the validity of self-reported weight and height and the resulting body mass index (BMI), and to explore the associations between demographic, socioeconomic, and health-related factors on the one hand and bias in self-reported weight and height on the other, in order to determine the groups most likely to exhibit bias. Prospective cohort study. 7350 middle-aged subjects, 5445 men and 1905 women, from the GAZEL cohort, who have been followed up since 1989 and work at the French national company Electricité De France-Gaz De France (EDF-GDF) in various occupations. Self-reported weight and height were based on information from yearly mailed questionnaires, and measured weight and height, used here as true values, were provided by occupational physicians from 1994 to 1997. Sex, age, marital status, education, occupation, history of ischemic heart disease, and treatment for cardiovascular risk factors were obtained from the mailed questionnaires or from data provided by the Company's personnel and medical departments. Strong correlations were found between measured and self-reported values, but self-reported weight and height displayed significant systematic errors. Weight was significantly underestimated for men (0.54 kg) and for women (0.85 kg), and height overestimated for men (0.38 cm) and women (0.40 cm). These biases led to significant underestimations of BMI (0.29 and 0.44 kg/m2 for men and women respectively). Consequently, the prevalence of overweight, defined as BMI > 26.9 kg/m2 for women and BMI > 27.2 kg/m2 for men, was also underestimated, by 13% for men and 17% for women. The five factors associated with bias in self-reported weight and height were: overweight status, end-digit preference, age, educational level and occupation. These findings suggest that self-reported weight and height should be treated with caution, because of biases leading to misclassification for overweight and obesity, especially in certain segments of the population.

  13. Potato intake and incidence of hypertension: results from three prospective US cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Rimm, Eric B; Willett, Walter C; Forman, John P

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine whether higher intake of baked or boiled potatoes, French fries, or potato chips is associated with incidence of hypertension. Design Prospective longitudinal cohort studies. Setting Healthcare providers in the United States. Participants 62 175 women in Nurses’ Health Study, 88 475 women in Nurses’ Health Study II, and 36 803 men in Health Professionals Follow-up Study who were non-hypertensive at baseline. Main outcome measure Incident cases of hypertension (self reported diagnosis by healthcare provider). Results Compared with consumption of less than one serving a month, the random effects pooled hazard ratios for four or more servings a week were 1.11 (95% confidence interval 0.96 to 1.28; P for trend=0.05) for baked, boiled, or mashed potatoes, 1.17 (1.07 to 1.27; P for trend=0.001) for French fries, and 0.97 (0.87 to 1.08; P for trend=0.98) for potato chips. In substitution analyses, replacing one serving a day of baked, boiled, or mashed potatoes with one serving a day of non-starchy vegetables was associated with decreased risk of hypertension (hazard ratio 0.93, 0.89 to 0.96). Conclusion Higher intake of baked, boiled, or mashed potatoes and French fries was independently and prospectively associated with an increased risk of developing hypertension in three large cohorts of adult men and women. PMID:27189229

  14. Investing in Prospective Cohorts for Etiologic Study of Occupational Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the role of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes in the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used in the study of occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. W...

  15. Investing in Prospective Cohorts for Etiologic Study of Occupational Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the role of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes in the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used in the study of occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. W...

  16. Budget impact of antiretroviral therapy in a French clinic cohort.

    PubMed

    Papot, Emmanuelle; Landman, Roland; Louni, Françoise; Charpentier, Charlotte; Peytavin, Gilles; Certain, Agnès; Fradet, Clémence; Castro, Daniela R; Preau, Marie; Goujard, Cécile; Yeni, Patrick; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan

    2017-06-01

    In this study, we first assessed costs associated with the use of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in an infectious diseases University Hospital Clinic; second, we evaluated characteristics associated with these costs and finally simulated the impact on the overall ART budget of switching first-line and second-line regimens to less-costly regimens (as effective and well tolerated). Cohort analysis including persons living with HIV (PLHIV) aged at least 18 years on ART to estimate ART costs during 2014. The current study was conducted in the Bichat-Claude Bernard University Hospital Clinic in Paris, France, where 4501 PLHIV consulted in 2014. We used the medical database Nadis to describe patients' ART, characteristics and estimated costs. When assessing the budgetary impact of potential switches, we considered patients' history of failure, CD4 cell count, plasma viral load, resistance mutations, hepatitis B surface antigen or HLAB5701 profile. A total of 4238 of 4501 patients were on ART (94%). The total annual cost of ART prescribed was estimated at &OV0556;48 280 200 in 2014; first/second (simplification)-line regimens represented 25% (1076/4238) of the treated PLHIV and 23% (&OV0556;11 209 000) of the annual cost. For these PLHIV, we considered switches from the most common ART regimens (protease inhibitor boosted by ritonavir or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor + two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors) to less-expensive regimens. We found savings ranging from &OV0556;36 100 to 1472 600/year. Savings were the highest when we considered switching to generic-based regimens or from protease inhibitor-based triple therapy to protease inhibitor monotherapy. Costs associated with ART prescriptions are very high. Switches to generic-based regimens are associated with large savings. However, those targeting protease inhibitor regimens are also associated with substantial savings and should be considered.

  17. A cohort mortality and nested case-control study of French and Austrian talc workers

    PubMed Central

    Wild, P; Leodolter, K; Refregier, M; Schmidt, H; Zidek, T; Haidinger, G

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To study whether the mortality from non-malignant and malignant respiratory diseases of workers employed in French and Austrian talc mines and mills is related to their long term occupational exposure. Methods: Two historical cohorts were set up comprising all male subjects who had been working continuously for at least 1 year in a series of talc producing companies in France and Austria. The French cohort consisted of those employed at a site in the French Pyrenees and working between 1 January 1945 and 31 December 1994. The Austrian cohort consisted of the workers employed between 1 January 1972 and 31 December 1995 in one of four industrial sites in the Austrian Alps. The mortality within the cohorts was compared with local death rates. Two nested case-control studies focusing on non-malignant and malignant respiratory diseases were set up to estimate possible dose-response relations with cumulative exposure to talc dust based on an industry specific job exposure matrix. Results: Mortality from lung cancer was in small excess in both cohorts (France, standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 1.23, 21 cases observed, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.76 to 1.89; Austria, SMR 1.06, seven observed, 95% CI 0.43 to 2.19). A non-significant excess mortality was found for all non-malignant respiratory diseases in the French cohort due to a significant excess for pneumoconiosis (SMR 5.56, three observed, 95% CI 1.12 to 16.2). The case-control study of non-malignant respiratory disease showed an increased mortality in the highest exposure groups (odds ratio (OR) 2.5 for a cumulative exposure ≥800 y.mg/m3) with a significant trend (OR/100 y.mg/m3 1.08) with cumulative exposure to talc. On the contrary, no increasing trend could be found in the case-control study of lung cancer. This result must be interpreted considering the small cohort size. Adjustment on smoking and exposure to quartz did not influence these results to any extent. Conclusions: The mortality

  18. A contemporary description of French newborns' growth using the Efemeris cohort.

    PubMed

    Beau, A-B; Tauber, M; Chollet, C; Hurault-Delarue, C; Bouilhac, C; Montastruc, J-L; Lacroix, I; Damase-Michel, C

    2017-05-01

    Overweight and obesity in childhood are a major concern in developed countries. Reference growth curves are used in current practice to identify children at risk, especially at risk of overweight or obesity. National reference growth curves were published 35 years ago from children born in the 1950s to study growth from birth to adulthood. Additionally, more recent national curves exist to study birth weight and height according to gestational age. The primary objective was to describe anthropometric measurements of French children born in the 2000s and to compare them with the French references. The secondary objective was to describe overweight indicators during infancy. A total of 77,315 singletons live-born from 1 July 2004 to 31 December 2013 recorded in the Efemeris (a French cohort of women and their children) were included. The z-score means based on the French references for weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) at birth, 9 months, and 24 months were calculated. At birth, the weight and height of the cohort did not deviate from the recent French references taking into account gestational age. At 9 and 24 months, the cohort was between 0.12 and 0.39 standard deviations (SD) heavier and between 0.70 and 0.97 SD taller than the old French reference population. Between 0 and 2 years, 28.6% of the children underwent a rapid weight gain (change in SD scores>0.67). The prevalence of overweight at 2 years was between 5 and 6% using the International obesity task force (IOTF) references. The distributions of the height, weight, and BMI during early childhood differ from those of children in the national growth references. Contemporary children at 2 years are taller and heavier than children born in the 1950s. Approximately one in 20 children is overweight at 2 years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Youth Football Injuries: A Prospective Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Andrew R.; Kruse, Adam J.; Meester, Scott M.; Olson, Tyler S.; Riedle, Benjamin N.; Slayman, Tyler G.; Domeyer, Todd J.; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Smoot, M. Kyle

    2017-01-01

    Background: There are approximately 2.8 million youth football players between the ages of 7 and 14 years in the United States. Rates of injury in this population are poorly described. Recent studies have reported injury rates between 2.3% and 30.4% per season and between 8.5 and 43 per 1000 exposures. Hypothesis: Youth flag football has a lower injury rate than youth tackle football. The concussion rates in flag football are lower than in tackle football. Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: Three large youth (grades 2-7) football leagues with a total of 3794 players were enrolled. Research personnel partnered with the leagues to provide electronic attendance and injury reporting systems. Researchers had access to deidentified player data and injury information. Injury rates for both the tackle and flag leagues were calculated and compared using Poisson regression with a log link. The probability an injury was severe and an injury resulted in a concussion were modeled using logistic regression. For these 2 responses, best subset model selection was performed, and the model with the minimum Akaike information criterion value was chosen as best. Kaplan-Meier curves were examined to compare time loss due to injury for various subgroups of the population. Finally, time loss was modeled using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Results: A total of 46,416 exposures and 128 injuries were reported. The mean age at injury was 10.64 years. The hazard ratio for tackle football (compared with flag football) was 0.45 (95% CI, 0.25-0.80; P = .0065). The rate of severe injuries per exposure for tackle football was 1.1 (95% CI, 0.33-3.4; P = .93) times that of the flag league. The rate for concussions in tackle football per exposure was 0.51 (95% CI, 0.16-1.7; P = .27) times that of the flag league. Conclusion: Injury is more likely to occur in youth flag football than in youth tackle football. Severe injuries and concussions were not significantly

  20. Mortality in female and male French Olympians: a 1948-2013 cohort study.

    PubMed

    Antero-Jacquemin, Juliana; Rey, Grégoire; Marc, Andy; Dor, Frédéric; Haïda, Amal; Marck, Adrien; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Calmat, Alain; Latouche, Aurélien; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2015-06-01

    Whereas intense physical activity has been associated with deleterious effects on elite athletes' health, in particular due to cardiovascular anomalies, long-term follow-ups have suggested lower mortality rates among elite athletes. Causes of death for French Olympic athletes and female elite athletes have not been studied. We aimed to measure overall and disease-specific mortality of French female and male Olympians compared with the French general population. We hypothesize that Olympians, both women and men, have lower mortality rates. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. French elite athletes (601 women and 1802 men) participating in summer or winter Olympic Games from 1948 to 2010 had their vital status verified by national sources and were followed until 2013. Causes of death were obtained via the National Death registry from 1968 to 2012. Overall and disease-specific mortalities of Olympians were compared with those of the French general population through standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) and 95% CIs. Olympians' observed and expected survivals were illustrated by Kaplan-Meier curves. At the endpoint of the study, 13 women and 222 men had died. Overall mortality in Olympians compared with that of their compatriots was 51% lower (SMR, 0.49; 95% CI, 0.26-0.85) among women and 49% lower (SMR, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.45-0.59) among men. Olympic athletes' survival is significantly superior to that of the French general population (women, P = .03; men, P < .001). According to the total deaths occurring from 1968 to 2012 (12 among women, 202 among men), female Olympians died from neoplasm (50.0%), external causes (33.3%), and cardiovascular diseases (16.6%). The main causes of death among men were related to neoplasms (36.1%), cardiovascular diseases (24.3%), and external causes (14.4%). Regarding the main causes of mortality among male Olympic athletes, the SMRs were as follows: 0.55 for neoplasms (95% CI, 0.43-0.69), 0.55 for cardiovascular diseases (95% CI, 0

  1. Medical treatments of elderly, French patients with type 2 diabetes: results at inclusion in the GERODIAB Cohort.

    PubMed

    Doucet, Jean A; Bauduceau, Bernard; Le Floch, Jean-Pierre; Verny, Christiane

    2016-02-01

    Prevalence of diabetes in the elderly increases, and half of the French diabetics are over the age of 75 years. The GERODIAB study is the first French multicentre, prospective, observational study designed to analyse over 5 years the influence of glycaemic control on morbidity-mortality in type 2 diabetics patients 70 years old and over. This study analysed the diabetic and geriatric factors associated with the treatment modalities, particularly insulin, at inclusion in the cohort. The cohort of 987 type 2 diabetics was divided into three groups according to the method of treatment. Slightly fewer than one-third of these patients (26.4%) were treated with insulin alone, 31% received insulin and oral antidiabetic drugs, and 42.7% oral antidiabetic drugs alone. The patients that received insulin alone were significantly older, had poorer glycaemic control (HbA1c = 7.9 ± 1.4, 7.8 ± 1.0 and 7.1 ± 1.2%, respectively; P < 0.001) and had greater alterations of glomerular filtration rate (GFR). HbA1c was below 6.5% in 15% of patients and 37.3% of patients had a GFR below 60 mL/min. The patients treated with insulin alone had significantly more hypoglycaemic episodes (respectively 53.3, 36.3 and 19.5%, P < 0.001), retinopathy, cardiovascular involvement and more specific geriatric complications, such as cognitive disorders (respectively 34.1, 31.4 and 23.6%, P = 0.006). In this specific population of elderly type 2 diabetic patients, diabetic and geriatric conditions significantly differed between the types of drug treatments. Considering low values of HbA1c and GFR, some patients seemed overtreated and other patients received inappropriate drugs.

  2. Change in physical activity and weight in relation to retirement: the French GAZEL Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kivimäki, Mika; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Ferrie, Jane E; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Pentti, Jaana; Westerlund, Hugo; Vahtera, Jussi

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine the trajectories of physical activity from preretirement to postretirement and to further clarify whether the changes in physical activity are associated with changes in body weight. Design Prospective. Setting French national gas and electricity company (GAZEL cohort). Participants From the original sample of 20 625 employees, only those retiring between 2001 and 2008 on a statutory basis were selected for the analyses (analysis 1: n=2711, 63% men; analysis 2: n=3812, 75% men). Persons with data on at least one preretirement and postretirement measurement of the outcome were selected. Primary and secondary outcome measures All outcome data were gathered by questionnaires. In analysis 1, the annual prevalence of higher physical activity (walking ≥5 km/week) 4 years before and after retirement was analysed. In analysis 2, changes in leisure-time sport activities (engagement, frequency and manner) from preretirement to postretirement were analysed with simultaneous changes in body weight (kilogram). Results In analysis 1 (n=2711), prevalence estimates for 4 years before and 4 years after retirement showed that higher leisure-time physical activity (walking at least 5 km/week) increased by 36% in men and 61% in women during the transition to retirement. This increase was also observed among people at a higher risk of physical inactivity, such as smokers and those with elevated depressive symptoms. In a separate sample (analysis 2, n=3812), change in weight as a function of preretirement and postretirement physical activity was analysed. Weight gain preretirement to postretirement was 0.85 (95% CI 0.48 to 1.21) to 1.35 (0.79 to 1.90) kg greater among physically inactive persons (decrease in activity or inactive) compared with those physically active (p<0.001). Conclusions Retirement transition may be associated with beneficial changes in lifestyle and may thus be a good starting point to preventive interventions in various groups of

  3. External radiation exposure and mortality in a cohort of French nuclear workers

    PubMed Central

    Telle‐Lamberton, M; Samson, E; Caër, S; Bergot, D; Bard, D; Bermann, F; MGélas, J; Giraud, J M; Hubert, P; Metz‐Flamant, C; Néron, M O; Quesne, B; Tirmarche, M; Hill, C

    2007-01-01

    Objective To analyse the effect of external radiation exposure on the mortality of French nuclear workers. Methods A cohort of 29 204 workers employed between 1950 and 1994 at the French Atomic Energy Commission (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA)) or at the General Company of Nuclear Fuel (COmpagnie GEnérale des MAtières nucléaires (Cogema, now Areva NC)) was followed up for an average of 17.8 years. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were computed with reference to French mortality rates. Dose‐effect relationship were analysed through trend tests and Poisson regression, with linear and log‐linear models. Results The mean exposure to X and gamma radiation was 8.3 mSv (16.9 mSv for exposed worker population). A total of 1842 deaths occurred between 1968 and 1994. A healthy worker effect was observed, the number of deaths in the cohort being 59% of the number expected from national mortality statistics. Among the 21 main cancer sites studied, a statistically significant excess was observed only for skin melanoma, and an excess of borderline statistical significance was observed for multiple myeloma. A dose‐effect relationship was observed for leukaemia after exclusion of chronic lymphoid leukaemia (CLL). The relative risk observed for non‐CLL leukaemia, n = 20, was 4.1 per 100 mSv (90% CI 1.4 to 12.2), linear model and 2.2 per 100 mSv (90% CI 1.2 to 3.3), log‐linear model. Significant dose‐effect relationship were also observed for causes of deaths associated with alcohol consumption: mouth and pharynx cancer, cirrhosis and alcoholic psychosis and external causes of death. Conclusion The risk of leukaemia increases with increasing exposure to external radiation; this is consistent with published results on other nuclear workers cohorts. PMID:17522135

  4. Atypical antipsychotic drugs and pregnancy outcome: a prospective, cohort study.

    PubMed

    Habermann, Frank; Fritzsche, Juliane; Fuhlbrück, Frederike; Wacker, Evelin; Allignol, Arthur; Weber-Schoendorfer, Corinna; Meister, Reinhard; Schaefer, Christof

    2013-08-01

    Women of childbearing age are often affected with psychotic disorders, requiring the use of antipsychotic medication during pregnancy. In the present study, we prospectively followed the pregnancies of 561 women exposed to second-generation antipsychotic agents (SGAs; study cohort) and compared these to 284 pregnant women exposed to first-generation antipsychotic agents (FGAs; comparison cohort I) and to 1122 pregnant women using drugs known as not harmful to the unborn (comparison cohort II). Subjects were enrolled through the Institute's consultation service. Major malformation rates of SGA exposed were higher compared to comparison cohort II (adjusted odds ratio, 2.17; 95% confidence interval, 1.20-3.91), possibly reflecting a detection bias concerning atrial and ventricular septal defects. Postnatal disorders occurred significantly more often in infants prenatally exposed to SGAs (15.6%) and FGAs (21.6%) compared to 4.2% of comparison cohort II. Cumulative incidences of elective terminations of pregnancy were significantly higher in both the study cohort (17%) and comparison cohort I (21%) compared to comparison cohort II (3%), whereas the rates of spontaneous abortions did not differ. The numbers of stillbirths and neonatal deaths were within the reference range. Preterm birth and low birth weight were more common in infants exposed to FGAs. To conclude, our findings did not reveal a major teratogenic risk for SGAs, making the better studied drugs of this group a treatment option during pregnancy. Because neonates exposed to SGAs or FGAs in the last gestational week are at higher risk of postnatal disorders, delivery should be planned in clinics with neonatal intensive care units.

  5. Tinned fruit consumption and mortality in three prospective cohorts.

    PubMed

    Aasheim, Erlend T; Sharp, Stephen J; Appleby, Paul N; Shipley, Martin J; Lentjes, Marleen A H; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Brunner, Eric; Key, Tim J; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2015-01-01

    Dietary recommendations to promote health include fresh, frozen and tinned fruit, but few studies have examined the health benefits of tinned fruit. We therefore studied the association between tinned fruit consumption and mortality. We followed up participants from three prospective cohorts in the United Kingdom: 22,421 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort (1993-2012), 52,625 participants from the EPIC-Oxford cohort (1993-2012), and 7440 participants from the Whitehall II cohort (1991-2012), all reporting no history of heart attack, stroke, or cancer when entering these studies. We estimated the association between frequency of tinned fruit consumption and all cause mortality (primary outcome measure) using Cox regression models within each cohort, and pooled hazard ratios across cohorts using random-effects meta-analysis. Tinned fruit consumption was assessed with validated food frequency questionnaires including specific questions about tinned fruit. During 1,305,330 person years of follow-up, 8857 deaths occurred. After adjustment for lifestyle factors and risk markers the pooled hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of all cause mortality compared with the reference group of tinned fruit consumption less often than one serving per month were: 1.05 (0.99, 1.12) for one to three servings per month, 1.10 (1.03, 1.18) for one serving per week, and 1.13 (1.04, 1.23) for two or more servings per week. Analysis of cause-specific mortality showed that tinned fruit consumption was associated with mortality from cardiovascular causes and from non-cardiovascular, non-cancer causes. In a pooled analysis of three prospective cohorts from the United Kingdom self-reported tinned fruit consumption in the 1990s was weakly but positively associated with mortality during long-term follow-up. These findings raise questions about the evidence underlying dietary recommendations to promote tinned fruit consumption

  6. Tinned Fruit Consumption and Mortality in Three Prospective Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Aasheim, Erlend T.; Sharp, Stephen J.; Appleby, Paul N.; Shipley, Martin J.; Lentjes, Marleen A. H.; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Brunner, Eric; Key, Tim J.; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary recommendations to promote health include fresh, frozen and tinned fruit, but few studies have examined the health benefits of tinned fruit. We therefore studied the association between tinned fruit consumption and mortality. We followed up participants from three prospective cohorts in the United Kingdom: 22,421 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort (1993–2012), 52,625 participants from the EPIC-Oxford cohort (1993–2012), and 7440 participants from the Whitehall II cohort (1991–2012), all reporting no history of heart attack, stroke, or cancer when entering these studies. We estimated the association between frequency of tinned fruit consumption and all cause mortality (primary outcome measure) using Cox regression models within each cohort, and pooled hazard ratios across cohorts using random-effects meta-analysis. Tinned fruit consumption was assessed with validated food frequency questionnaires including specific questions about tinned fruit. During 1,305,330 person years of follow-up, 8857 deaths occurred. After adjustment for lifestyle factors and risk markers the pooled hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of all cause mortality compared with the reference group of tinned fruit consumption less often than one serving per month were: 1.05 (0.99, 1.12) for one to three servings per month, 1.10 (1.03, 1.18) for one serving per week, and 1.13 (1.04, 1.23) for two or more servings per week. Analysis of cause-specific mortality showed that tinned fruit consumption was associated with mortality from cardiovascular causes and from non-cardiovascular, non-cancer causes. In a pooled analysis of three prospective cohorts from the United Kingdom self-reported tinned fruit consumption in the 1990s was weakly but positively associated with mortality during long-term follow-up. These findings raise questions about the evidence underlying dietary recommendations to promote tinned fruit

  7. Novel Pathogenic Variants in a French Cohort Widen the Mutational Spectrum of GNE Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Cerino, Mathieu; Gorokhova, Svetlana; Béhin, Anthony; Urtizberea, Jon Andoni; Kergourlay, Virginie; Salvo, Eric; Bernard, Rafaëlle; Lévy, Nicolas; Bartoli, Marc; Krahn, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Background: GNE myopathy is a rare autosomal recessively inherited muscle disease resulting from mutations in the gene encoding GNE (UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-2-epimerase/N-acetylmannosamine kinase), a key enzyme in sialic acid biosynthesis. 154 different pathogenic variants have been previously associated with GNE myopathy. Objective: Describe novel pathogenic variants associated with GNE myopathy in a large French cohort. Methods: We analyzed mutational data from 32 GNE myopathy index patients. Novel, as well as previously published pathogenic variants, were examined for possible deleterious effects on splicing. Results: We describe 13 novel pathogenic variants in GNE, identified in the first large French cohort reported to date. We also find that 6 published pathogenic variants might have a previously unrecognized deleterious effect on splicing. Conclusions: Novel pathogenic GNE variants described here raise the total number of different pathogenic variants reported to 167, complementing the recently published GNE mutation update. Our novel findings on possible splice-disrupting effects by several variants suggest that the pathogenicity mechanism of these variants could be reinterpreted, expanding our knowledge about the GNE mutational spectrum. PMID:27858732

  8. Characterization of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire scores of a young French cohort.

    PubMed

    Lesdéma, Aurélie; Fromentin, Gilles; Daudin, Jean-Jacques; Arlotti, Agathe; Vinoy, Sophie; Tome, Daniel; Marsset-Baglieri, Agnès

    2012-10-01

    The aims of our study were to characterize the psychological dimensions of eating behaviour of young French adults as measured by the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire (TFEQ) and to analyze the association between the 3 TFEQ mean scores (main scales and subscales) and gender, Body Mass Index (BMI) and socio-demographic data in this population. An online TFEQ questionnaire was used with a nationally representative sample of 1000 young French people (aged 20-39yrs). The average scores were 6.3±0.1 (sem) for dietary restraint, 6.0±0.1 for disinhibition and 5.0±0.1 for hunger. Compared to the limit commonly used in human food studies, young French adults were characterized by low restraint and low disinhibition levels. There was a significant gender effect on both restraint and disinhibition scores, with women showing significantly higher scores than men. Concerning the link between TFEQ scores and BMI, there was a significant effect of the BMI category on cognitive restraint, disinhibition and hunger. Disinhibition was the factor most strongly associated to BMI, independently of gender. Our results highlight both the importance of taking into account not only disinhibition but also cognitive restraint and the usefulness of subscales when studying eating behaviour and its link to body weight. We characterize the eating behaviour of a French cohort with criteria often chosen for healthy volunteers in human food studies. Consequently, we suggest new TFEQ limits (6 for cognitive restraint and disinhibition, 5 for hunger) lower than those traditionally used for this category of the population in clinical food studies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mortality associated with chronic external radiation exposure in the French combined cohort of nuclear workers.

    PubMed

    Metz-Flamant, C; Laurent, O; Samson, E; Caër-Lorho, S; Acker, A; Hubert, D; Richardson, D B; Laurier, D

    2013-09-01

    The long-term effects of protracted low level ionising radiation exposure are investigated in a combined analysis of French nuclear workers employed by the Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique (CEA), AREVA Nuclear Cycle (AREVA NC) and Electricité de France (EDF). Associations between cumulative external radiation dose and mortality due to solid cancers, leukaemia and circulatory disease were examined. All workers hired by CEA, AREVA NC and EDF between 1950 and 1994 who were employed for at least 1 year, badge-monitored for radiation exposure and alive on 1 January 1968 were included. Individual data of annual exposure to penetrating photons (X-rays and gamma rays) were reconstructed for each worker. Estimates of radiation dose-mortality associations were obtained using a linear excess relative risk (ERR) Poisson regression model. Among the 59 021 nuclear workers, 2312 died of solid cancer, 78 of leukaemia and 1468 of circulatory diseases during the 1968-2004 period. Approximately 72% of the cohort had a non-zero cumulative radiation dose estimate, with a mean cumulative dose of 22.5 mSv. Positive but non-significant ERR/Sv were observed for all solid cancers, leukaemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), ischaemic heart diseases and cerebrovascular diseases. A significant ERR/Sv was found for myeloid leukaemia. This is the first combined analysis of major French cohorts of nuclear workers. Results were consistent with risks estimated in other nuclear worker cohorts and illustrate the potential of a further joint international study to yield direct risk estimates in support to radiation protection standards.

  10. Low radon exposure and mortality among Jouac uranium miners: an update of the French cohort (1946-2007).

    PubMed

    Rage, Estelle; Caër-Lorho, Sylvaine; Laurier, Dominique

    2017-09-19

    After the extension of the French cohort of uranium miners with the inclusion of workers employed in the Jouac mines, this article seeks to describe the new Jouac cohort and to estimate mortality risks, as well as to quantify their relation to radon exposure in this extended cohort. The Jouac cohort includes 458 miners hired by the Société des Mines de Jouac between 1957 and 2001. As there is no measurement of radon exposure before 1978 were unavailable, only the post-1977 Jouac cohort (n=314) has been included in the French cohort, creating an extended cohort of 5400 French uranium miners followed up from 1946 to 2007. Mortality analyses computed the standardised mortality ratios (SMR). Excess relative risks (ERR) were assessed using Poisson regression models. No evidence of a significant excess risk of overall mortality (n=66, SMR=0.93; 95% CI = 0.72-1.19) or any specific mortality was observed in the Jouac cohort. In the extended cohort, overall mortality did not increase, but a significant excess of deaths was observed for all cancers (SMR=1.11, 95% CI = 1.03-1.19), lung cancer (SMR=1.32, 95% CI = 1.14-1.51), and kidney cancer (SMR=1.58, 95% CI = 1.01-2.35). Cumulative exposure to radon was 3.9 Working Level Month (WLM) and 35.1 WLM in the post-1977 Jouac and extended cohorts respectively. Cumulative radon exposure was significantly associated with an excess risk of death from lung cancer (ERR/100 WLM = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.32-1.33) and from cerebrovascular diseases (ERR/100 WLM = 0.42 95% CI = 0.04-1.04). In conclusion, the Jouac cohort is still a young cohort and its inclusion leads to slightly modifications compared to previous analyses of for the French cohort. The already known relation between radon exposure and lung cancer death as well as the excess risk for death for cerebrovascular diseases persisted in the extended cohort. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  11. Impact of chemical exposure on cancer mortality in a French cohort of uranium processing workers.

    PubMed

    Zhivin, Sergey; Laurier, Dominique; Caër-Lorho, Sylvaine; Acker, Alain; Guseva Canu, Irina

    2013-11-01

    Nuclear workers may be exposed to a variety of chemical hazards, in addition to radiation. We examined the effect of chemical exposures on cancer mortality among French uranium processing workers at the AREVA NC Pierrelatte facility. A cohort of 2,897 uranium processing workers employed for at least 6 months was followed from 1968 through 2006. Exposure to uranium and potentially carcinogenic chemicals was assessed with a plant-specific job-exposure matrix. Mortality hazard ratios (HRs) for cancers of the lung, lymphohematopoietic system, kidney and bladder, brain and central nervous system (BCNS), and prostate were estimated for each specific chemical exposure, with Cox regression models stratified for sex and calendar period and adjusted for socioeconomic status. Additional adjustments enabled us to examine the effect of co-exposure to uranium and other chemicals. Exposure to aromatic solvents was associated with increased risk of BCNS malignancies after adjustment for other chemicals (HR=6.53, 95% CI=1.14-37.41; n=6) and for other chemicals and uranium (HR=7.26, 95% CI=0.90-58.19) in the annual exposure status model. Selected groups of lymphohematopoietic cancers were found associated with solvent exposure. Inconclusive results were found regarding chromium (VI) exposure, since only 2 workers died from lung cancer among 109 exposed. Based on our pilot study, it seemed important to take into account chemical exposures in the analyses of cancer mortality among French uranium processing workers. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. CONSTANCES: a general prospective population-based cohort for occupational and environmental epidemiology: cohort profile

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Marcel; Carton, Matthieu; Descatha, Alexis; Leclerc, Annette; Roquelaure, Yves; Santin, Gaëlle; Zins, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Why the cohort was set up? CONSTANCES is a general-purpose cohort with a focus on occupational and environmental factors. Cohort participants CONSTANCES was designed as a randomly selected sample of French adults aged 18–69 years at inception; 200 000 participants will be included. Data collection phases At enrolment, the participants are invited to complete questionnaires and to attend a health screening centre (HSC) for a health examination. A biobank will be set up. The follow-up includes an yearly self-administered questionnaire, a periodic visit to an HSC and linkage to social and national health administrative databases. Main types of data collected Data collected for participants include social and demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, life events and behaviours. Regarding occupational and environmental factors, a wealth of data on organisational, chemical, biological, biomechanical and psychosocial lifelong exposure, as well as residential characteristics, are collected at enrolment and during follow-up. The health data cover a wide spectrum: self-reported health scales, reported prevalent and incident diseases, long-term chronic diseases and hospitalisations, sick-leaves, handicaps, limitations, disabilities and injuries, healthcare usage and services provided, and causes of death. Control of selection effects To take into account non-participation and attrition, a random cohort of non-participants was set up and will be followed through the same national databases as participants. Data access Inclusions begun at the end of 2012 and more than 110 000 participants were already included by September 2016. Several projects on occupational and environmental risks already applied to a public call for nested research projects. PMID:27884936

  13. Prognostic impact of the 2016 WHO classification of diffuse gliomas in the French POLA cohort.

    PubMed

    Tabouret, Emeline; Nguyen, Anh Tuan; Dehais, Caroline; Carpentier, Catherine; Ducray, François; Idbaih, Ahmed; Mokhtari, Karima; Jouvet, Anne; Uro-Coste, Emmanuelle; Colin, Carole; Chinot, Olivier; Loiseau, Hugues; Moyal, Elisabeth; Maurage, Claude-Alain; Polivka, Marc; Lechapt-Zalcman, Emmanuèle; Desenclos, Christine; Meyronet, David; Delattre, Jean-Yves; Figarella-Branger, Dominique

    2016-10-01

    The new WHO classification of diffuse gliomas has been refined and now includes the 1p/19q codeletion, IDH1/2 mutation, and histone H3-K27M mutation. Our objective was to assess the prognostic value of the updated 2016 WHO classification in the French POLA cohort. All cases of high-grade oligodendroglial tumors sent for central pathological review and included into the French nationwide POLA cohort were reclassified according to the updated 4th WHO classification. In total, 1041 patients were included, with a median age at diagnosis of 50.4 years (range 17.1-84.4). Based on the new histomolecular classification, diagnoses included anaplastic oligodendroglioma IDH mutant and 1p/19q-codeleted (32.5 %), anaplastic astrocytoma IDH mutant (IDH (mut)) (11.0 %), anaplastic astrocytoma IDH wild type (IDH (wt)) (5.3 %), glioblastoma IDH (mut) (17.1 %), and glioblastoma IDH (wt) (33.2 %). Ten patients presented with a diffuse midline tumor, H3 K27M mutant. The new WHO classification was prognostic for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) (p < 0.001). We did not find prognosis differences between grades III and IV for IDH (mut) 1p/19q intact and IDH (wt) gliomas in univariate and multivariate analyses. Among anaplastic astrocytoma IDH (wt), cases with chromosome arm 7p gain and 10q loss (55 %) had shorter PFS than the others (p = 0.027). In conclusion, the new WHO histomolecular classification of diffuse gliomas presented with high prognostic value. Grading was not discriminant between grade III and IV high-grade gliomas.

  14. [Lung cancer in never smokers: a French national cohort (BioCAST/IFCT-1002)].

    PubMed

    Couraud, S; Labonne, S; Missy, P; Morin, F; Tran, Q; Deroy, A; Milleron, B; Blanché, H; Zalcman, G; Souquet, P-J

    2013-09-01

    Around 5 to 25% of lung cancer worldwide occurs in lifelong non-smokers (less than 100 cigarettes in lifetime). Lung cancer in never smokers (LCINS) shows many clinical, epidemiological and molecular differences compared to those related to tobacco. It is therefore often considered as a separate entity. LCINS is also a good model for the study of lung cancer risk factors and tumoral mutation profiles (usually more common and specific). However, most data has come from retrospective studies and/or from Asian populations, although this disease shows high geographic lability. The BioCAST/IFCT-1002 is a national, multicentric, prospective study promoted by the French intergroup IFCT. The first objective is to describe the clinical and molecular epidemiology of LCINS in a French population. Detailed data (including exposure to many risk factors) are collected directly from the patient through a standardized questionnaire completed during a telephone interview. All patients also undergo blood sampling for the analysis of genomic polymorphisms and the characterization of epigenetic anomalies. BioCAST hopes to provide concrete answers for clinicians and patients about this entity.

  15. The millennium Cohort Study: a 21-year prospective cohort study of 140,000 military personnel.

    PubMed

    Gray, Gregory C; Chesbrough, Karen B; Ryan, Margaret A K; Amoroso, Paul; Boyko, Edward J; Gackstetter, Gary D; Hooper, Tomoko I; Riddle, James R

    2002-06-01

    Does military service, in particular operational deployment, result in a higher risk of chronic illness among military personnel and veterans? The Millennium Cohort Study, the largest Department of Defense prospective cohort study ever conducted, will attempt to answer this question. The probability-based sample of 140,000 military personnel will be surveyed every 3 years during a 21-year period. The first questionnaire, scheduled for release in summer 2001, will be sent to 30,000 veterans who have been deployed to southwest Asia, Bosnia, or Kosovo since August 1997 and 70,000 veterans who have not been deployed to these conflict areas. Twenty thousand new participants will be added to the group in each of the years 2004 and 2007 to complete the study population of 140,000. The participants will have the option of completing the study questionnaire either on the paper copy received in the mail or through the World Wide Web-based version, which is available at www.MillenniumCohort.org. This will be one of the first prospective studies ever to offer such an option. The initial survey instrument will collect data regarding demographic characteristics, self-reported medical conditions and symptoms, and health-related behaviors. Validated instruments will be incorporated to capture self-assessed physical and mental functional status (Short Form for Veterans), psychosocial assessment (Patient Health Questionnaire), and post-traumatic stress disorder (Patient Checklist-17). Information obtained from the survey responses will be linked with other military databases, including data on deployment, occupation, vaccinations, health care utilization, and disability. In addition to revealing changes in veterans' health status over time, the Millennium Cohort Study will serve as a data repository, providing a solid foundation upon which additional epidemiological studies may be constructed.

  16. CONSTANCES: a general prospective population-based cohort for occupational and environmental epidemiology: cohort profile.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Marcel; Carton, Matthieu; Descatha, Alexis; Leclerc, Annette; Roquelaure, Yves; Santin, Gaëlle; Zins, Marie

    2017-01-01

    WHY THE COHORT WAS SET UP?: CONSTANCES is a general-purpose cohort with a focus on occupational and environmental factors. CONSTANCES was designed as a randomly selected sample of French adults aged 18-69 years at inception; 200 000 participants will be included. At enrolment, the participants are invited to complete questionnaires and to attend a health screening centre (HSC) for a health examination. A biobank will be set up. The follow-up includes an yearly self-administered questionnaire, a periodic visit to an HSC and linkage to social and national health administrative databases. Data collected for participants include social and demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, life events and behaviours. Regarding occupational and environmental factors, a wealth of data on organisational, chemical, biological, biomechanical and psychosocial lifelong exposure, as well as residential characteristics, are collected at enrolment and during follow-up. The health data cover a wide spectrum: self-reported health scales, reported prevalent and incident diseases, long-term chronic diseases and hospitalisations, sick-leaves, handicaps, limitations, disabilities and injuries, healthcare usage and services provided, and causes of death. To take into account non-participation and attrition, a random cohort of non-participants was set up and will be followed through the same national databases as participants. Inclusions begun at the end of 2012 and more than 110 000 participants were already included by September 2016. Several projects on occupational and environmental risks already applied to a public call for nested research projects. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Lifecourse socioeconomic position and alcohol use in young adulthood: results from the French TEMPO cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Yaogo, Ahmed; Fombonne, Eric; Kouanda, Seni; Lert, France; Melchior, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Aims To examine the relationship between lifetime socioeconomic position and alcohol use in young adults. Methods Study participants (n=1,103, age 22–35 years in 2009) belong to the French TEMPO cohort study and are all offspring of participants of the GAZEL cohort study. Alcohol use was assessed by the WHO AUDIT questionnaire (none, low or intermediate alcohol use, alcohol abuse). Childhood socioeconomic position was measured using parental income through the GAZEL cohort study in 1989 (low: ≤2592€/month vs. Intermediate/high: >2592€/month). Adult socioeconomic position was measured by participants’ educational level (<=high school degree vs. > high school degree). Combining family income and educational attainment, we ascertained participants’ social trajectory (stable high, upward, downward and stable low). Data were analyzed using multinomial regression analyses controlled for demographic, social, psychological and family characteristics. Results Participants’ social trajectory was associated with alcohol abstinence: compared to participants with a stable high social trajectory, those with an upward, downward or low social trajectory were more likely to abstain from alcohol (compared to a stable high social trajectory, sex and age-adjusted ORs: OR=2.22, 95% CI 1.35–3.65 for an upward social trajectory; OR=3.20, 95% CI 1.78–5.73 for a downward social trajectory; OR= 3.27, 95% CI 1.75–6.12 for a stable low social trajectory). Additionally, participants with a downward social trajectory were disproportionately likely to abuse alcohol (sex and age-adjusted OR: 1.48, 95% CI 0.89–2.48). In multivariate analyses, social trajectory remained associated with alcohol abstinence. Conclusions Lifelong socioeconomic position may shape patterns of alcohol use early in life. PMID:23900495

  18. Epidemiology of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases in a French nationwide HIV cohort.

    PubMed

    Lebrun, Delphine; Hentzien, Maxime; Cuzin, Lise; Rey, David; Joly, Véronique; Cotte, Laurent; Allavena, Clotilde; Dellamonica, Pierre; Servettaz, Amélie; Bani-Sadr, Firouzé

    2017-09-24

    HIV infection and inflammatory and autoimmune diseases (IADs) are both related to immune dysfunction. Epidemiological data on IAD in patients living with HIV (PLHIV) are scarce. The aim of this study was thus to estimate the prevalence of 26 IAD among PLHIV followed in a large French multicenter cohort in the combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) era (from January 2000 to July 2013), and to describe their occurrence according to cART onset, the immuno-virological status of patients and hepatitis C virus (HCV) and/or hepatitis B virus coinfection. During the study period, 33 403 PLHIV were included in the Dat'AIDS cohort; 1381 patients with an IAD were identified. The most prevalent IADs were psoriasis, sarcoidosis, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondyloarthritis, Grave's disease, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia and chronic inflammatory bowel disease. In contrast, the prevalence of systemic lupus erythematosus and multiple sclerosis were low. Most patients (59%) developed IAD after HIV infection with a mean delay of 10.6 ± 6.4 years. Compared with the entire cohort, HCV coinfection was significantly more frequent in patients with psoriasis, Grave's disease and immune thrombocytopenia, and chronic hepatitis B in patients was more frequent in those with immune thrombocytopenia and autoimmune hemolytic anemia. Among patients developing IAD after the diagnosis of HIV infection, 572 (70%) were on antiretroviral therapy and 419 of them (73%) had undetectable HIV viral load. Our study showed that some IAD are not rare among PLHIV and occur mostly in patients with immuno-virological control under cART. The higher frequency of HCV or hepatitis B virus coinfection for some IAD is also confirmed.

  19. Think Tank on Metabolomics and Prospective Cohorts: How to Leverage Resources

    Cancer.gov

    This Think Tank identified resources that can be used collaboratively across prospective cohorts; developed strategies to leverage resources for advancing the use of metabolomics in prospective cohort studies; identified the best strategies for performing analyses using metabolomics data across multiple studies; and, established a collaborative group that will identify and tackle research projects that cannot be effectively investigated by one independent group.

  20. Design, methods and demographics from phase I of Alberta's Tomorrow Project cohort: a prospective cohort profile

    PubMed Central

    Robson, Paula J.; Solbak, Nathan M.; Haig, Tiffany R.; Whelan, Heather K.; Vena, Jennifer E.; Akawung, Alianu K.; Rosner, William K.; Brenner, Darren R.; Cook, Linda S.; Csizmadi, Ilona; Kopciuk, Karen A.; McGregor, S. Elizabeth; Friedenreich, Christine M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prospective cohorts have the potential to support multifactorial, health-related research, particularly if they are drawn from the general population, incorporate active and passive follow-up and permission is obtained to allow access by researchers to data repositories. This paper describes Phase I of the Alberta's Tomorrow Project cohort, a broad-based research platform designed to support investigations into factors that influence cancer and chronic disease risk. Methods: Adults aged 35-69 years living in Alberta, Canada, with no previous cancer diagnosis other than nonmelanoma skin cancer were recruited to the project by telephone-based random digit dialling. Participants were enrolled if they returned a Health and Lifestyle Questionnaire. Past year diet and physical activity questionnaires were mailed 3 months after enrolment. Consent was sought for active follow-up and linkage with administrative databases. Depending on enrolment date, participants were invited to complete up to 2 follow-up questionnaires (2004 and 2008). Results: Between 2001 and 2009, 31 072 (39% men) participants (mean age 50.2 [± 9.2] yr) were enrolled and 99% consented to linkage with administrative databases. Participants reported a wide range of educational attainment and household income. Compared with provincial surveillance data from the Canadian Community Health Survey, Alberta's Tomorrow Project participants had higher body mass index, lower prevalence of smoking and similar distribution of chronic health conditions. Follow-up questionnaires were completed by 83% and 72% of participants in 2004 and 2008, respectively. Robust quality control measures resulted in low frequencies of missing data. Interpretation: Alberta's Tomorrow Project provides a robust platform, based on a prospective cohort design, to support research into risk factors for cancer and chronic disease. PMID:27730115

  1. Cohort Profile: Sympathetic activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans (SABPA) prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Malan, Leoné; Hamer, Mark; Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Steyn, Hendrik S; Malan, Nicolaas T

    2015-01-01

    Adapting to an over-demanding stressful urban environment may exhaust the psychophysiological resources to cope with these demands, and lead to sympathetic nervous system dysfunction. The evidence that an urban-dwelling lifestyle may be detrimental to the cardiometabolic health of Africans motivated the design of the Sympathetic activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in African Prospective cohort study. We aimed to determine neural mechanistic pathways involved in emotional distress and vascular remodelling. The baseline sample included 409 teachers representing a bi-ethnic sex cohort from South Africa. The study was conducted in 2008–09 and repeated after 3-year follow-up in 2011–12, with an 87.8% successful follow-up rate. Seasonal changes were avoided and extensive clinical assessments were performed in a well-controlled setting. Data collection included sociodemographics, lifestyle habits, psychosocial battery and genetic analysis, mental stress responses mimicking daily life stress (blood pressure and haemostatic, cardiometabolic, endothelial and stress hormones). Target organ damage was assessed in the brain, heart, kidney, blood vessels and retina. A unique highly phenotyped cohort is presented that can address the role of a hyperactive sympathetic nervous system and neural response pathways contributing to the burden of cardiometabolic diseases in Africans. PMID:25344943

  2. A comparison between different prediction models for invasive breast cancer occurrence in the French E3N cohort.

    PubMed

    Dartois, Laureen; Gauthier, Émilien; Heitzmann, Julia; Baglietto, Laura; Michiels, Stefan; Mesrine, Sylvie; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Delaloge, Suzette; Ragusa, Stéphane; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy

    2015-04-01

    Breast cancer remains a global health concern with a lack of high discriminating prediction models. The k-nearest-neighbor algorithm (kNN) estimates individual risks using an intuitive tool. This study compares the performances of this approach with the Cox and the Gail models for the 5-year breast cancer risk prediction. The study included 64,995 women from the French E3N prospective cohort. The sample was divided into a learning (N = 51,821) series to learn the models using fivefold cross-validation and a validation (N = 13,174) series to evaluate them. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and the expected over observed number of cases (E/O) ratio were estimated. In the two series, 393 and 78 premenopausal and 537 and 98 postmenopausal breast cancers were diagnosed. The discrimination values of the best combinations of predictors obtained from cross-validation ranged from 0.59 to 0.60. In the validation series, the AUC values in premenopausal and postmenopausal women were 0.583 [0.520; 0.646] and 0.621 [0.563; 0.679] using the kNN and 0.565 [0.500; 0.631] and 0.617 [0.561; 0.673] using the Cox model. The E/O ratios were 1.26 and 1.28 in premenopausal women and 1.44 and 1.40 in postmenopausal women. The applied Gail model provided AUC values of 0.614 [0.554; 0.675] and 0.549 [0.495; 0.604] and E/O ratios of 0.78 and 1.12. This study shows that the prediction performances differed according to menopausal status when using parametric statistical tools. The k-nearest-neighbor approach performed well, and discrimination was improved in postmenopausal women compared with the Gail model.

  3. Effectiveness and tolerance of single tablet versus once daily multiple tablet regimens as first-line antiretroviral therapy - Results from a large french multicenter cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Cotte, Laurent; Ferry, Tristan; Pugliese, Pascal; Valantin, Marc-Antoine; Allavena, Clotilde; Cabié, André; Poizot-Martin, Isabelle; Rey, David; Duvivier, Claudine; Cheret, Antoine; Dellamonica, Pierre; Pradat, Pierre; Parienti, Jean-Jacques

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Pill burden during antiretroviral treatment (ART) is associated with worse adherence and impaired virological suppression. We compared the effectiveness, tolerance, and persistence on treatment of single tablet regimens (STRs) with non-STR once-daily regimens in patients receiving first-line ART. Methods Retrospective analysis of naïve HIV-1 infected patients prospectively enrolled in the French Dat’AIDS cohort and initiating first-line ART with STRs or once-daily non-STRs from 2004 to 2013. The primary outcome was time to treatment discontinuation defined by any change in the treatment regimen. STR and non-STR groups were compared controlling for baseline risk factors by inverse probability weighted treatment Cox analysis (IPWT) and propensity-score matching (PSM). Results Overall, 3212 patients (STR 499, non-STR 2713) were included. Median time to treatment discontinuation was shorter in non-STR patients than in STR patients, both in the IPWT (HR = 0.61, p<0.0001) and the PSM cohort (HR = 0.55, p<0.0001). This difference disappeared when censoring ART modification for simplification, both in the IPWT (HR = 0.97, p = 0.65) and the PSM cohort (HR = 0.91, p = 0.33). A lower rate of virological failure was observed with STRs than with non-STRs in both cohorts (HR = 0.23; p = 0.002 and HR = 0.22, p = 0.003, respectively). A lower rate of treatment modification for adverse event was observed with non-STRs in the IPWT cohort (HR = 1.46, p<0.0001), but not in the PSM cohort (HR = 1.22, p = 0.11). Conclusion First-line therapy with STRs was associated with a longer time to treatment discontinuation than with non-STRs. However, when ART modification for simplification was not considered as a failure, STRs and non-STRs were similar. PMID:28152047

  4. [Prevalence of celiac disease markers in a French cohort of children and adolescents with type 1 diabete mellitus].

    PubMed

    Beltran, S; Bony-Trifunovic, H; Gouilleux-Gruart, V; Djeddi, D; Dadamessi, I; Dupas, J L; Boudailliez, B

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of celiac disease (CD) markers in a French cohort of 84 children type 1 diabetics. Detection of antitransglutaminase (AtTG), antiendomysium (AEA) and antigliadin (AGA) antibodies was performed. Group 1 included 81 (96.4%) diabetic patients with negative antibodies. Group 2 included 3 patients (3.6%) with positive serological markers: 1 AGA-AEA-AtTG and 1 AEA-AtTG with proved histological diagnosis and 1 AGA positive with negative histology. No statistically significant difference was observed between the groups with regard to age, duration of diabetes, familial target stature, and ratios Height/Age and Weight/Height. Presence of CD serological markers was related to a lower level of HbA1c. Prevalence of CD serological markers is important in this French cohort but lower than other countries.

  5. Physical occupational exposures and health expectancies in a French occupational cohort

    PubMed Central

    Head, Jenny; Stenholm, Sari; Singh Chungkham, Holendro; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To examine the relationships of strenuous and hazardous working conditions and rotating shifts that involve night working with life expectancy in good perceived health and life expectancy without chronic disease. Methods The sample contained male gas and electricity workers from the French GAZEL cohort (n=13 393). Six measures of physical working conditions were examined: Self-reports from 1989 and 1990 of ergonomic strain, physical danger, rotating shifts that involve night working and perceived physical strain; company records of workplace injuries and a job-exposure matrix of chemical exposures. Partial healthy life expectancies (age 50–75) relating to (1) self-rated health and (2) chronic health conditions, obtained from annual questionnaires (1989–2014) and company records, were estimated using multistate life tables. The analyses were adjusted for social class and occupational grade. Results Participants with physically strenuous jobs and who had experienced industrial injuries had shorter partial life expectancy. More physically demanding and dangerous work was associated with fewer years of life spent in good self-rated health and without chronic conditions, with the exception of shift work including nights, where the gradient was reversed. Conclusions Strenuous and hazardous work may contribute to lost years of good health in later life, which has implications for individuals' quality of life as well as healthcare use and labour market participation. PMID:27655775

  6. Fate of protocols submitted to a French national funding scheme: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Decullier, Evelyne; Huot, Laure; Chapuis, François R

    2014-01-01

    The fate of clinical research projects funded by a grant has been investigated, but there is no information on the projects which did not receive funding. The fate of these projects is not known: do they apply for and/or receive funding from other sources or are they carried out without specific funding? The aim of the study was to describe all clinical research projects submitted to a French national funding scheme (PHRC 2000) and to assess project initiation, completion and publication status taking into account whether or not they received funding. This study is a retrospective cohort. The initial project characteristics were retrieved from the submission files and follow-up information was collected from the primary investigator. The percentages of projects started, completed and published were studied. A total of 481 projects were studied. Follow-up information was obtained for 366. Overall, 185 projects were initiated (51%); 139 of them were funded by the PHRC 2000 or other sources. The most commonly cited reason for not initiating a project was a lack of funding. Subsequently, 121 of the projects initiated were completed (65%). Accrual difficulties were the main reason cited to explain why studies were stopped prematurely or were still ongoing. Finally, 88 of the completed projects were published (73%). Amongst the completed projects, the only factor explaining publication was the statistical significance of the results. Obtainment of funding was a determining factor for project initiation. However, once initiated, the funding did not influence completion or publication.

  7. Risk Factors for Disseminated Histoplasmosis in a Cohort of HIV-Infected Patients in French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    Nacher, Mathieu; Adenis, Antoine; Blanchet, Denis; Vantilcke, Vincent; Demar, Magalie; Basurko, Célia; Gaubert-Maréchal, Emilie; Dufour, Julie; Aznar, Christine; Carme, Bernard; Couppié, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Disseminated histoplasmosis is the first AIDS-defining infection in French Guiana. A retrospective cohort study studied predictive factors of disseminated histoplasmosis in HIV-infected patients between 1996 and 2008. Cox proportional hazards models were used. The variables studied were age, sex, last CD4/CD8 count, CD4 nadir, herpes or pneumocystosis, cotrimoxazole and fluconazole use, antiretroviral treatment and the notion of recent initiation of HAART. A total of 1404 patients were followed for 6833 person-years. The variables independently associated with increased incidence of disseminated histoplasmosis were CD4 count<50 per mm3, CD4 count between 50 and 200 per mm3, a CD4 nadir <50 per mm3, CD8 count in the lowest quartile, herpes infection, and recent antiretroviral treatment initiation (less than 6 months). The variables associated with decreased incidence of histoplasmosis were antiretroviral treatment for more than 6 months, fluconazole treatment, and pneumocystosis. There were 13.5% of deaths at 1 month, 17.5% at 3 months, and 22.5% at 6 months after the date of diagnosis of histoplasmosis. The most important predictive factors for death within 6 months of diagnosis were CD4 counts and antiretroviral treatment. The present study did not study environmental/occupational factors but provides predictive factors for disseminated histoplasmosis and its outcome in HIV patients in an Amazonian environment during the HAART era. PMID:24498446

  8. Night-waking trajectories and associated factors in French preschoolers from the EDEN birth-cohort.

    PubMed

    Reynaud, Eve; Forhan, Anne; Heude, Barbara; de Lauzon-Guillain, Blandine; Charles, Marie-Aline; Plancoulaine, Sabine

    Night waking in preschoolers has been associated with adverse health outcomes in cross-sectional studies, but has rarely been analyzed in a longitudinal setting. Therefore, little is known about the evolution of night waking in early childhood. The objectives of the present study were: to identify night-waking trajectories in preschoolers, and to examine the risk factors associated with those trajectories. Analyses were based on the French birth-cohort study EDEN, which recruited 2002 pregnant women between 2003 and 2006. Data on a child's night waking at the ages of two, three, and five, six years, and potential confounders, were collected through parental self-reported questionnaires. Night-waking trajectories were computerized using group-based trajectory modeling on 1346 children. Two distinct developmental patterns were identified: the "2-5 rare night-waking" (77% of the children) and the "2-5 common night-waking" pattern. Logistic regressions were performed to identify the factors associated with the trajectories. Risk factors for belonging to the "2-5 common night-waking" trajectory were: exposure to passive smoking at home, daycare in a collective setting, watching television for extended periods, bottle feeding at night, high emotionality, and low shyness. This approach allowed identification of risk factors associated with night waking during a critical age window, and laid the groundwork for identifying children at higher risk of deleterious sleep patterns. Those risk factors were mainly living habits, which indicated that prevention and intervention programs could be highly beneficial in this population.

  9. First epidemiological study on occupational radar exposure in the French Navy: a 26-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dabouis, Vincent; Arvers, Philippe; Debouzy, Jean-Claude; Sebbah, Charles; Crouzier, David; Perrin, Anne

    2016-01-01

    This retrospective cohort study deals with the causes of death among 57,000 military personnel who served in the French Navy surface vessels and were observed over the period 1975-2000. We successively compared the mortality rate and the specific causes of death between two groups differing in their potential exposure levels to radar. Occupational exposure was defined according to the on-board workplace (radar and control groups). The age-adjusted death ratios of the navy personnel were compared. For all causes of death, the results showed that 885 deaths in the radar group and 299 in the control group occurred (RR = 1.00 (95% CI: 0.88-1.14)). RRs were 0.92 (95% CI: 0.69-1.24) for neoplasms. For the duration of follow-up, the results did not show an increased health risk for military personnel exposed to higher levels of radio frequencies in the radar group, but the number of deaths was very small for some cancer sites.

  10. Risk factors for disseminated histoplasmosis in a cohort of HIV-infected patients in French Guiana.

    PubMed

    Nacher, Mathieu; Adenis, Antoine; Blanchet, Denis; Vantilcke, Vincent; Demar, Magalie; Basurko, Célia; Gaubert-Maréchal, Emilie; Dufour, Julie; Aznar, Christine; Carme, Bernard; Couppié, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Disseminated histoplasmosis is the first AIDS-defining infection in French Guiana. A retrospective cohort study studied predictive factors of disseminated histoplasmosis in HIV-infected patients between 1996 and 2008. Cox proportional hazards models were used. The variables studied were age, sex, last CD4/CD8 count, CD4 nadir, herpes or pneumocystosis, cotrimoxazole and fluconazole use, antiretroviral treatment and the notion of recent initiation of HAART. A total of 1404 patients were followed for 6833 person-years. The variables independently associated with increased incidence of disseminated histoplasmosis were CD4 count<50 per mm3, CD4 count between 50 and 200 per mm3, a CD4 nadir <50 per mm3, CD8 count in the lowest quartile, herpes infection, and recent antiretroviral treatment initiation (less than 6 months). The variables associated with decreased incidence of histoplasmosis were antiretroviral treatment for more than 6 months, fluconazole treatment, and pneumocystosis. There were 13.5% of deaths at 1 month, 17.5% at 3 months, and 22.5% at 6 months after the date of diagnosis of histoplasmosis. The most important predictive factors for death within 6 months of diagnosis were CD4 counts and antiretroviral treatment. The present study did not study environmental/occupational factors but provides predictive factors for disseminated histoplasmosis and its outcome in HIV patients in an Amazonian environment during the HAART era.

  11. Barcelona clinic liver cancer nomogram and others staging/scoring systems in a French hepatocellular carcinoma cohort

    PubMed Central

    Adhoute, Xavier; Pénaranda, Guillaume; Raoul, Jean Luc; Edeline, Julien; Blanc, Jean-Frédéric; Pol, Bernard; Campanile, Manuela; Perrier, Hervé; Bayle, Olivier; Monnet, Olivier; Beaurain, Patrick; Muller, Cyril; Castellani, Paul; Le Treut, Yves Patrice; Bronowicki, Jean Pierre; Bourlière, Marc

    2017-01-01

    AIM To compare the performances of the Barcelona clinic liver cancer (BCLC) nomogram and others systems (BCLC, HKLC, CLIP, NIACE) for survival prediction in a large hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) French cohort. METHODS Data were collected retrospectively from 01/2007 to 12/2013 in five French centers. Newly diagnosed HCC patients were analyzed. The discriminatory ability, homogeneity ability, prognostic stratification ability Akaike information criterion (AIC) and C-index were compared among scoring systems. RESULTS The cohort included 1102 patients, mostly men, median age 68 [60-74] years with cirrhosis (81%), child-Pugh A (73%), alcohol-related (41%), HCV-related (27%). HCC were multinodular (59%) and vascular invasion was present in 41% of cases. At time of HCC diagnosis BCLC stages were A (17%), B (16%), C (60%) and D (7%). First line HCC treatment was curative in 23.5%, palliative in 59.5%, BSC in 17% of our population. Median OS was 10.8 mo [4.9-28.0]. Each system distinguished different survival prognosis groups (P < 0.0001). The nomogram had the highest discriminatory ability, the highest C-index value. NIACE score had the lowest AIC value. The nomogram distinguished sixteen different prognosis groups. By classifying unifocal large HCC into tumor burden 1, the nomogram was less powerful. CONCLUSION In this French cohort, the BCLC nomogram and the NIACE score provided the best prognostic information, but the NIACE could even help treatment strategies. PMID:28465639

  12. Mortality of a cohort of French uranium miners exposed to relatively low radon concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Tirmarche, M.; Raphalen, A.; Allin, F.; Chameaud, J.; Bredon, P.

    1993-01-01

    A cohort mortality study has been performed on French uranium miners having experienced more than 2 years of underground mining, with first radon exposure between 1946 and 1972. Vital status has been ascertained from the date of entry to the 31 December 1985 for 99% of the members of this cohort; causes of death are identified for 95.5% of the decedents. The different causes of death are compared to the age specific national death rates by indirect standardisation and expressed by standardised mortality ratios (SMR). A statistically significant excess has been observed for lung and laryngeal cancer deaths. The Poisson trend test shows a statistically significant trend for the risk of lung cancer death as a function of cumulative radon exposure, assuming a lag time of 5 years; for laryngeal cancer no significant trend has been observed. Poisson regression modelling has been applied to the following exposure groups: < 10 WLM (Working Level Month); 10-49 WLM; 50-149 WLM; 150-299 WLM; > or = 300 WLM; it indicates an increase in the SMR for lung cancer of 0.6% per WLM (standard error: 0.4%) with an estimated intercept at 0 WLM of 1.68 (standard error: 0.4). The distinction of two working periods, differing by their annual radon concentration (before/since 1956) does not modify this exposure-response relationship. This coefficient of risk per unit of exposure is lower than in most of the other uranium miners' studies but it lies in the range of the evaluation of the ICRP 50 committee and the 'BEIR IV' report of the U.S. National Academy of Science. It is observed in a cohort having experienced low cumulative exposure to radon (mean: 70 WLM) spread over a mean duration of 14.5 years. Even though occupational exposure in mines differs in several particulars from domestic exposure, this study presents characteristics of low annual exposure comparable to radon gas concentrations in houses of 500-1000 Bq.m-3, and will contribute to the evaluation of cancer risk for the public

  13. Central nervous system tumors and agricultural exposures in the prospective cohort AGRICAN.

    PubMed

    Piel, Clément; Pouchieu, Camille; Tual, Séverine; Migault, Lucile; Lemarchand, Clémentine; Carles, Camille; Boulanger, Mathilde; Gruber, Anne; Rondeau, Virginie; Marcotullio, Elisabeth; Lebailly, Pierre; Baldi, Isabelle

    2017-11-01

    Studies in farmers suggest a possible role of pesticides in the occurrence of Central Nervous System (CNS) tumors but scientific evidence is still insufficient. Using data from the French prospective agricultural cohort AGRICAN (Agriculture & Cancer), we investigated the associations between exposure of farmers and pesticide users to various kinds of crops and animal farming and the incidence of CNS tumors, overall and by subtypes. Over the 2005-2007, 181,842 participants completed the enrollment questionnaire that collected a complete job calendar with lifetime history of farming types. Associations were estimated using proportional hazards models with age as underlying timescale. During a 5.2 years average follow-up, 273 incident cases of CNS tumors occurred, including 126 gliomas and 87 meningiomas. Analyses showed several increased risks of CNS tumors in farmers, especially in pesticide users (hazard ratio = 1.96; 95% confidence interval: 1.11-3.47). Associations varied with tumor subtypes and kinds of crop and animal farming. The main increases in risk were observed for meningiomas in pig farmers and in farmers growing sunflowers, beets and potatoes and for gliomas in farmers growing grasslands. In most cases, more pronounced risk excesses were observed among pesticide applicators. Even if we cannot completely rule out the contribution of other factors, pesticide exposures could be of primary concern to explain these findings. © 2017 UICC.

  14. Type A behavior pattern, risky driving behaviors, and serious road traffic accidents: a prospective study of the GAZEL cohort.

    PubMed

    Nabi, Hermann; Consoli, Silla M; Chastang, Jean-François; Chiron, Mireille; Lafont, Sylviane; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2005-05-01

    The type A behavior pattern (TABP), characterized by impatience, time urgency, and hostility, was originally developed in relation to coronary heart disease. Since 1986, there has been a debate on whether the TABP is also associated with risky driving behaviors leading to increased risks in road traffic accidents (RTAs). The authors examined prospectively the relation among risky driving behaviors, serious RTAs, and the TABP in a cohort of 20,000 French employees of Electricité de France-Gaz de France who were aged 39-54 years in 1993. A total of 11,965 participants were included in this study. The TABP was assessed in 1993 using the French version of the Bortner Rating Scale. Driving behaviors and serious RTAs were recorded in 2001. Sociodemographic and alcohol consumption data were available from the cohort's annual follow-up. The impact of the TABP on the risk of serious RTAs was assessed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model with time-dependent covariates. After adjustment for potential confounders, the risk for serious RTAs increased proportionally with TABP scores: hazard ratios were 1.29 (95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.63) for intermediate-level scores and 1.48 (95% confidence interval: 1.16, 1.90) for high-level scores relative to low TABP scores. The authors concluded that type A drivers had an increased risk of RTAs. Implications of this finding for traffic safety are discussed.

  15. In utero exposure to zidovudine and heart anomalies in the ANRS French perinatal cohort and the nested PRIMEVA randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Sibiude, Jeanne; Le Chenadec, Jérôme; Bonnet, Damien; Tubiana, Roland; Faye, Albert; Dollfus, Catherine; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Delmas, Sandrine; Lelong, Nathalie; Khoshnood, Babak; Warszawski, Josiane; Blanche, Stéphane

    2015-07-15

    Antiretroviral (ARV) regimens during pregnancy are highly effective in preventing mother-to-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Congenital heart defects (CHDs) and anomalies in cardiac function have been reported in zidovudine (ZDV)-exposed uninfected children. We explored these associations in a large observational cohort and a randomized clinical trial. Since 1986, the French Perinatal Cohort prospectively enrolled all HIV-infected women in 90 centers and collected follow-up on their children through 2 years of age. All CHDs were reviewed by a specialist blinded to exposures. Additionally, in a randomized trial (PRIMEVA ANRS 135) of 2 ARV regimens during pregnancy, 1 of which was without nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, infants had a specific follow-up including echocardiography at 1 month and 12 months. Among 12 888 children included, ZDV exposure in the first trimester was significantly associated with CHD (1.5% vs 0.7%; adjusted odds ratio, 2.2 [95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.7]; P < .001). This association was significant for ventricular septal defects (1.1% vs 0.6%; P = .001) and other CHDs (0.31% vs 0.11%; P = .02). In the randomized trial, among 50 infants, girls (but not boys) exposed in utero to ZDV/lamivudine/ritonavir-boosted lopinavir (LPV/r) had a higher left ventricular shortening fraction at 1 month (40% vs 36%; P = .008), and an increased posterior wall thickness at 1 year (5.4 mm vs 4.4 mm; P = .01) than the LPV/r group. This study confirms a specific association between in utero exposure to ZDV and CHDs, and a long-lasting postnatal myocardial remodeling in girls. A potential common mechanism, including the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction, must be explored, and long-term consequences on cardiac function warrant specific attention. NCT00424814. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  16. Long-term persistence of knee pain and occupational exposure in two large prospective cohorts of workers.

    PubMed

    Herquelot, Eléonore; Bodin, Julie; Petit, Audrey; Ha, Catherine; Leclerc, Annette; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Roquelaure, Yves; Descatha, Alexis

    2014-12-05

    The persistence of knee pain (KP) and its relationship with occupational factors were investigated in two prospective cohorts of French workers: retirees of the Gazel cohort and workers in the Cosali cohort. KP was defined according to the Nordic questionnaire (>1 day in the last year), and the information was extracted from two questionnaires in 2006 and 2012 for the Gazel cohort, and in 2002-2005 and 2007-2010 for the Cosali cohort. The personal and occupational factors and the severity of KP were measured at baseline. Of the 4590 members of the Gazel cohort with KP at baseline, 4140(90.2%) were followed up, as were 637(63.1%) members of the Cosali cohort. Logistic models were used to evaluate associations (ORs) between occupational exposure and the persistence of KP separately by sex, adjusted on indicators of severity of KP. KP was no longer present at follow-up for 38.3% of Gazel men and 46.0% of Cosali men (33.4% of Gazel women and 50.6% of Cosali women). The persistence of KP in men was associated with carrying or handling heavy loads on univariate analyses and with kneeling on multivariate analyses, with ORs of 1.3(1.0-1.6) (Gazel) and 1.6(1.0-2.6) (Cosali). Climbing stairs was not significantly associated with the persistence of knee pain among men. The persistence of KP in women was not significantly associated with such occupational exposure. This study highlights the role of occupational factors in the persistence of KP for men, in particular kneeling and handling/carrying loads.

  17. Evaluation of physiotherapy in a prospective cohort of early axial spondyloarthritis. Data from the DESIR cohort.

    PubMed

    Escalas, Cécile; Dalichampt, Marie; Dougados, Maxime; Poiraudeau, Serge

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of physiotherapy on functional limitation in an observational cohort of early axial spondyloarthritis. prospective population-based cohort study. 708 patients with early axial spondyloarthritis between 2007 and 2010 naive of TNF blockers. early physiotherapy defined by at least eight supervised sessions of physical therapy during the first six months. the primary outcome was functional improvement defined by a relative improvement of at least 20% in BASFI at six months. Secondary outcomes were improvement in BASFI at one and two years and ASAS20 response criteria at six months. a propensity score of having physiotherapy was developed and multivariate analysis using propensity score weighting were used to assess the effect of physiotherapy on outcome. Overall, 166 (24%) patients had physiotherapy during the first six months. After using propensity score weighting, there was no functional improvement on the primary outcome in patients treated with early physical therapy (relative risk [IC95%]: 1.15 [0.91-1.45]). No differences were observed on secondary outcomes (relative risk [IC95%]: 0.94 [0.80-1.11]). It seems there is no functional benefit for patients with early spondyloarthritis to be treated early by physiotherapy in daily practice, even though the efficacy of physiotherapy has been shown in several randomized controlled studies. Copyright © 2015 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Natural history of human calicivirus infection: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rockx, Barry; De Wit, Matty; Vennema, Harry; Vinjé, Jan; De Bruin, Erwin; Van Duynhoven, Yvonne; Koopmans, Marion

    2002-08-01

    We investigated the natural history of human Calicivirus infection in the community. Clinical information was obtained from 99 subjects infected with Norwalk-like viruses (NLV) and 40 subjects infected with Sapporo-like viruses (SLV) in a prospective, community-based cohort study. NLV infection was common in all age groups, whereas SLV infection was mainly restricted to children aged <5 years. Symptoms lasted for a median of 5 and 6 days for NLV and SLV infections, respectively. Disease was characterized by diarrhea during the first 5 days (87% of patients with NLV infection and 95% of patients with SLV infection) and vomiting on the first day (74% for NLV and 60% for SLV). Vomiting was less common in children aged <1 year (59% for NLV and 44% for SLV) than it was among children aged >/=1 year (>75% for NLV and >67% for SLV). Overall, NLV was detected in 26% of patients up to 3 weeks after the onset of illness. This proportion was highest (38%) for children aged <1 year. SLV shedding subsided after 14 days. These data show that the durations of disease and viral shedding of caliciviruses are longer than has been described elsewhere. Therefore, the impact of these infections may have been underestimated.

  19. Telomere length and periodontal attachment loss: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, WM; Zeng, J; Broadbent, JM; Foster Page, LA; Shalev, I; Moffitt, TE; Caspi, A; Williams, SM; Braithwaite, AW; Robertson, SP; Poulton, R

    2016-01-01

    Aim To examine the association between telomere erosion and periodontitis in a longstanding prospective cohort study of New Zealand adults. Specific hypotheses tested were: (1) that exposure to periodontitis at ages 26 and 38 was associated with accelerated leucocyte telomere erosion; and (2) that accelerated leucocyte telomere erosion was associated with higher rates of periodontitis by ages 26 and 38. Materials and Methods Periodontal attachment loss data were collected at ages 26 and 38. Blood samples taken at the same ages were analysed to obtain estimates of leucocyte telomere length and erosion over a 12-year period. Results Overall, mean telomere length reduced by 0.15 T/S ratio (adjusted) from age 26 to 38 among the 661 participants reported on here. During the same period, the mean attachment loss increased by 10%, after adjusting for sex, socio-economic status and smoking. Regression models showed that attachment loss did not predict telomere length, and that telomere erosion did not predict attachment loss. Conclusions Although both periodontitis and telomere length are age-dependent, they do not appear to be linked, suggesting that determination of leucocyte telomere length may not be a promising clinical approach at this age for identifying people who are at risk for periodontitis. PMID:26713854

  20. Telomere length and periodontal attachment loss: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Thomson, William Murray; Zeng, Jiaxu; Broadbent, Jonathan M; Foster Page, Lyndie A; Shalev, Idan; Moffitt, Terrie E; Caspi, Avshalom; Williams, Sheila M; Braithwaite, Antony W; Robertson, Stephen P; Poulton, Richie

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the association between telomere erosion and periodontitis in a long-standing prospective cohort study of New Zealand adults. Specific hypotheses tested were as follows: (i) that exposure to periodontitis at ages 26 and 38 was associated with accelerated leucocyte telomere erosion and (ii) that accelerated leucocyte telomere erosion was associated with higher rates of periodontitis by ages 26 and 38. Periodontal attachment loss data were collected at ages 26 and 38. Blood samples taken at the same ages were analysed to obtain estimates of leucocyte telomere length and erosion over a 12-year period. Overall, the mean telomere length was reduced by 0.15 T/S ratio (adjusted) from age 26 to 38 among the 661 participants reported on here. During the same period, the mean attachment loss increased by 10%, after adjusting for sex, socio-economic status and smoking. Regression models showed that attachment loss did not predict telomere length, and that telomere erosion did not predict attachment loss. Although both periodontitis and telomere length are age-dependent, they do not appear to be linked, suggesting that determination of leucocyte telomere length may not be a promising clinical approach at this age for identifying people who are at risk for periodontitis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Migraine, Headache and the Risk of Depression: Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Rist, Pamela M.; Schürks, Markus; Buring, Julie E.; Kurth, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Background While cross-sectional studies have shown associations between migraine and depression, few studies have been able to evaluate the association between migraine and incident depression. Methods Prospective cohort study among 36,016 women without a history of depression enrolled in the Women’s Health Study who provided information about migraine and headache at baseline. Women were classified as either having non-migraine headache, migraine with aura, migraine without aura, past history of migraine or no history of headache. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association between migraine and headache status and incident depression. Results At baseline, 5115 women reported a history of non-migraine headache, 1805 reported migraine with aura, 2723 reported migraine without aura and 1896 reported a past history of migraine. During 13.8 mean years of follow-up, 3833 new cases of depression occurred. The adjusted relative risks of incident depression were 1.44 (95% CI: 1.32, 1.56) for non-migraine headache, 1.53 (95% CI: 1.35, 1.74) for migraine with aura, 1.40 (95% CI: 1.25, 1.56) for migraine without aura and 1.56 (95% CI: 1.37, 1.77) for past history of migraine compared to no history of headache. Conclusions Middle-aged women with migraine or non-migraine headache are at increased risk of incident depression. PMID:23588795

  2. Migraine, headache, and the risk of depression: Prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rist, Pamela M; Schürks, Markus; Buring, Julie E; Kurth, Tobias

    2013-09-01

    While cross-sectional studies have shown associations between migraine and depression, few studies have been able to evaluate the association between migraine and incident depression. A prospective cohort study among 36,016 women without a history of depression enrolled in the Women's Health Study who provided information about migraine and headache at baseline. Women were classified as either having nonmigraine headache, migraine with aura, migraine without aura, past history of migraine or no history of headache. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the association between migraine and headache status and incident depression. At baseline, 5115 women reported a history of nonmigraine headache, 1805 reported migraine with aura, 2723 reported migraine without aura, and 1896 reported a past history of migraine. During 13.8 mean years of follow-up, 3833 new cases of depression occurred. The adjusted relative risks of incident depression were 1.44 (95% CI: 1.32, 1.56) for nonmigraine headache, 1.53 (95% CI: 1.35, 1.74) for migraine with aura, 1.40 (95% CI: 1.25, 1.56) for migraine without aura, and 1.56 (95% CI: 1.37, 1.77) for past history of migraine compared to no history of headache. Middle-aged women with migraine or nonmigraine headache are at increased risk of incident depression. Frequent migraine attacks (weekly or daily) were associated with the highest risk for developing depression.

  3. Validity of recall of tobacco use in two prospective cohorts.

    PubMed

    Brigham, Janet; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N; Javitz, Harold S; Krasnow, Ruth E; Tildesley, Elizabeth; Andrews, Judy; Hops, Hyman; Cornelius, Marie D; Day, Nancy L; McElroy, Mary; Swan, Gary E

    2010-10-01

    This project studied the convergent validity of current recall of tobacco-related health behaviors, compared with prospective self-report collected earlier at two sites. Cohorts were from the Oregon Research Institute at Eugene (N = 346, collected 19.5 years earlier) and the University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (N = 294, collected 3.9 years earlier). Current recall was examined through computer-assisted interviews with the Lifetime Tobacco Use Questionnaire from 2005 through 2008. Convergent validity estimates demonstrated variability. Validity estimates of some tobacco use measures were significant for Oregon subjects (age at first cigarette, number of cigarettes/day, quit attempts yes/no and number of attempts, and abstinence symptoms at quitting; all P < 0.03). Validity estimates of Pittsburgh subjects' self-reports of tobacco use and abstinence symptoms were significant (P < 0.001) for all tobacco use and abstinence symptoms and for responses to initial use of tobacco. These findings support the utility of collecting recalled self-report information for reconstructing salient lifetime health behaviors and underscore the need for careful interpretation.

  4. Mastitis in Chinese breastfeeding mothers: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tang, Li; Lee, Andy H; Qiu, Liqian; Binns, Colin W

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is a common problem encountered by breastfeeding mothers. This study investigated the incidence and risk factors of lactation mastitis among Chinese women. A prospective cohort study on infant feeding practices was conducted during 2010 and 2011 in Jiangyou, Sichuan Province, China. Poisson regression analysis was performed to determine factors influencing the incidence of mastitis within 6 months postpartum. Of the 670 Chinese mothers who were breastfeeding at discharge, 42 women (6.3%) experienced at least one episode of mastitis during the first 6 months after delivery. The cumulative incidence of mastitis was 10.3%. Mothers with a cracked and sore nipple (incidence rate ratio 2.24; 95% confidence interval 1.38, 3.63) and those who felt stressed (incidence rate ratio 3.15; 95% confidence interval 1.56, 6.37) appeared to sustain more episodes of mastitis. The incidence of lactation mastitis was low among Chinese mothers. To further reduce the risk of mastitis, instructions on the correct positioning of the baby during breastfeeding should be emphasized. Providing new mothers with guidance on how to cope with stress may also prevent the recurrence of the condition.

  5. Validity of Recall of Tobacco Use in Two Prospective Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Brigham, Janet; Lessov-Schlaggar, Christina N.; Javitz, Harold S.; Krasnow, Ruth E.; Tildesley, Elizabeth; Andrews, Judy; Hops, Hyman; Cornelius, Marie D.; Day, Nancy L.; McElroy, Mary; Swan, Gary E.

    2010-01-01

    This project studied the convergent validity of current recall of tobacco-related health behaviors, compared with prospective self-report collected earlier at two sites. Cohorts were from the Oregon Research Institute at Eugene (N = 346, collected 19.5 years earlier) and the University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (N = 294, collected 3.9 years earlier). Current recall was examined through computer-assisted interviews with the Lifetime Tobacco Use Questionnaire from 2005 through 2008. Convergent validity estimates demonstrated variability. Validity estimates of some tobacco use measures were significant for Oregon subjects (age at first cigarette, number of cigarettes/day, quit attempts yes/no and number of attempts, and abstinence symptoms at quitting; all P < 0.03). Validity estimates of Pittsburgh subjects’ self-reports of tobacco use and abstinence symptoms were significant (P < 0.001) for all tobacco use and abstinence symptoms and for responses to initial use of tobacco. These findings support the utility of collecting recalled self-report information for reconstructing salient lifetime health behaviors and underscore the need for careful interpretation. PMID:20720099

  6. Adolescent risk factors for poisonings - a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kivistö, Juho E; Rimpelä, Arja; Mattila, Ville M

    2011-12-01

    This study assessed whether adolescents' socioeconomic background, health and health behaviours are associated with later risk of poisoning hospitalization. A prospective cohort of 54,169 Finns aged 14-18 years was followed for an average of 10.6 years. The end-point of the study was poisoning hospitalization, death or termination of follow-up in 2001. The relationships of socioeconomic background, health and health behaviour characteristics with poisoning hospitalization were studied with adjusted Cox's proportional hazard model. We identified 443 persons (0.8%) with a diagnosed poisoning leading to hospital admission. The mean age at the time of the poisoning hospitalization was 22.7 years. The strongest risk factors for poisoning hospitalization in males were more than three stress symptoms weekly (HR 1.9), poor school success (HR 1.9) and not living with both of the parents in adolescence (HR 1.8). In females, the strongest risk factors were more than three stress symptoms weekly (HR 2.1), poor school success (HR 2.2) and recurring drunkenness as drinking style (HR 1.7). Poor school performance, health and health-compromising behaviour adopted in adolescence are associated with a poisoning hospitalization risk in adulthood. Daily smoking and recurring drunkenness were strongly associated with a later poisoning hospitalization. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  7. Playing board games, cognitive decline and dementia: a French population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dartigues, Jean François; Foubert-Samier, Alexandra; Le Goff, Mélanie; Viltard, Mélanie; Amieva, Hélène; Orgogozo, Jean Marc; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Helmer, Catherine

    2013-08-29

    To study the relationship between board game playing and risk of subsequent dementia in the Paquid cohort. A prospective population-based study. In the Bordeaux area in South Western France. 3675 non-demented participants at baseline. The risk of dementia during the 20 years of follow-up. Among 3675 non-demented participants at baseline, 32.2% reported regular board game playing. Eight-hundred and forty participants developed dementia during the 20 years of follow-up. The risk of dementia was 15% lower in board game players than in non-players (HR=0.85, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.99; p=0.04) after adjustment on age, gender, education and other confounders. The statistical significance disappeared after supplementary adjustment on baseline mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and depression (HR=0.96, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.12; p=0.61). However, board game players had less decline in their MMSE score during the follow-up of the cohort (β=0.011, p=0.03) and less incident depression than non-players (HR=0.84; 95% CI 0.72 to 0.98; p<0.03). A possible beneficial effect of board game playing on the risk of dementia could be mediated by less cognitive decline and less depression in elderly board game players.

  8. Frequent large germline HRPT2 deletions in a French National cohort of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Bricaire, Léopoldine; Odou, Marie-Françoise; Cardot-Bauters, Catherine; Delemer, Brigitte; North, Marie-Odile; Salenave, Sylvie; Vezzosi, Delphine; Kuhn, Jean-Marc; Murat, Arnaud; Caron, Philippe; Sadoul, Jean-Louis; Silve, Caroline; Chanson, Philippe; Barlier, Anne; Clauser, Eric; Porchet, Nicole; Groussin, Lionel

    2013-02-01

    Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome (HPT-JT) is an autosomal dominant syndrome with incomplete penetrance that can associate in a single patient parathyroid adenoma or carcinoma, fibro-osseous jaw tumor, cystic kidney lesion, and uterine tumor. Germline mutations of the HRPT2 gene (CDC73) coding for parafibromin are identified in approximately 50%-75% of HPT-JT cases and in approximately 14% of familial isolated hyperparathyroidism. A whole deletion of this gene has recently been reported in 1 sporadic case and in a family presenting with HPT-JT. The objective of the study was to report molecular abnormalities of the HRPT2 gene in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism in a French National cohort from the Groupe d'Étude des Tumeurs Endocrines. Patients' genomic DNA was screened by PCR-based sequencing for point mutations affecting HRPT2 and real-time quantitative PCR analysis for gross deletions. We report 20 index patients with a germinal HRPT2 abnormality. Median age at diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism was 23 years (range 14-65 years). Median serum total calcium level at diagnosis was 3.19 mmol/L (range 2.8-4.3 mmol/L). Thirteen different mutations were identified by routine sequencing, including 7 mutations never reported. Seven patients (35%) carried a gross deletion of this gene (3 complete and 4 partial deletions). No genotype-phenotype correlation could be identified. A gross deletion of the HRPT2 gene was identified in 7% of patients for whom a routine screening by direct sequencing came up as negative. Gross deletion analysis of the HRPT2 gene is indicated for all patients negative for mutation, presenting with HPT-JT or familial isolated hyperparathyroidism, parathyroid carcinoma, or in patients with apparently sporadic parathyroid adenoma diagnosed at a young age, having a severe hypercalcemia.

  9. A Prospective Cohort Study of Mineral Metabolism After Kidney Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Myles; Weir, Matthew R; Kopyt, Nelson; Mannon, Roslyn B; Von Visger, Jon; Deng, Hongjie; Yue, Susan; Vincenti, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Kidney transplantation corrects or improves many complications of chronic kidney disease, but its impact on disordered mineral metabolism is incompletely understood. We performed a multicenter, prospective, observational cohort study of 246 kidney transplant recipients in the United States to investigate the evolution of mineral metabolism from pretransplant through the first year after transplantation. Participants were enrolled into 2 strata defined by their pretransplant levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH), low PTH (>65 to ≤300 pg/mL; n = 112), and high PTH (>300 pg/mL; n = 134) and underwent repeated, longitudinal testing for mineral metabolites. The prevalence of posttransplant, persistent hyperparathyroidism (PTH >65 pg/mL) was 89.5%, 86.8%, 83.1%, and 86.2%, at months 3, 6, 9, and 12, respectively, among participants who remained untreated with cinacalcet, vitamin D sterols, or parathyroidectomy. The results did not differ across the low and high PTH strata, and rates of persistent hyperparathyroidism remained higher than 40% when defined using a higher PTH threshold greater than 130 pg/mL. Rates of hypercalcemia peaked at 48% at week 8 in the high PTH stratum and then steadily decreased through month 12. Rates of hypophosphatemia (<2.5 mg/dL) peaked at week 2 and then progressively decreased through month 12. Levels of intact fibroblast growth factor 23 decreased rapidly during the first 3 months after transplantation in both PTH strata and remained less than 40 pg/mL thereafter. Persistent hyperparathyroidism is common after kidney transplantation. Further studies should determine if persistent hyperparathyroidism or its treatment influences long-term posttransplantation clinical outcomes.

  10. Butorphanol in labour analgesia: A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Halder, Ajay; Agarwal, Rachana

    2013-01-01

    Objective Parenteral opioids can be administered with ease at a very low cost with high efficacy as labour analgesia. However, there are insufficient data available to accept the benefits of parenteral opioids over other proven methods of labour analgesia. Butorphanol, a new synthetic opioid, has emerged as a promising agent in terms of efficacy and a better safety profile. This study investigates the effect of butorphanol as a labour analgesia to gather further evidence of its safety and efficacy to pave the way for its widespread use in low resource settings. Material and Methods One hundred low risk term consenting pregnant women were recruited to take part in a prospective cohort study. Intramuscular injections of butorphanol tartrate 1 mg (Butrum 1/2mg, Aristo, Mumbai, India) were given in the active phase of labour and repeated two hourly. Pain relief was noted on a 10-point visual pain analogue scale (VPAS). Obstetric and neonatal outcome measures were mode of delivery, duration of labour, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit admissions. Collected data were analysed for statistically significant pain relief between pre- and post-administration VPAS scores and also for the incidence of adverse outcomes. Results Pain started to decrease significantly within 15 minutes of administration and reached the nadir (3.08 SD0.51) at the end of two hours. The pain remained below four on the VPAS until the end of six hours and was still significantly low after eight hours. The incidence of adverse outcomes was low in the present study. Conclusion Butorphanol is an effective parenteral opioid analgesic which can be administered with reasonable safety for the mother and the neonate. The study has the drawback of lack of control and small sample size. PMID:24592110

  11. Prospective cohort study of bowel function after robotic sacrocolpopexy.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Christa; Salamon, Charbel; Priestley, Jennifer L; Gurshumov, Emil; Culligan, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine bowel function changes 12 months after robotic sacrocolpopexy. We performed a single-center prospective cohort study evaluating bowel function 12 months after robotic sacrocolpopexy between 2007 and 2011. Bowel function symptoms were measured by the Colorectal-Anal Distress Inventory, Short Form 8 (CRADI-8). Specific impacts on quality of life with regard to bowel function were evaluated using the Colorectal-Anal Impact Questionnaire, Short Form 7 (CRAIQ-7). "Splinting to defecate" was defined as any positive response to question 4 of the Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory-20 which reads, "do you ever have to push on the vagina or around the rectum to have or complete a bowel movement?." Lastly, patients were grouped according to perineorrhaphy versus no perineorrhaphy and bowel function scores were examined. Of 423 consecutive patients who underwent robotic sacrocolpopexy at our institution, 393 (93%) completed a 12-month follow-up. Mean CRADI-8 scores at baseline and 12 months were 21.1 (20) and 7.3 (11), respectively (P < 0.0001). Mean CRAIQ-7 scores at baseline and 12 months were 11.1 (20) and 2.4 (9), respectively (P < 0.0001). Preoperatively, 152 patients reported a need to splint the vagina or perineum to complete a bowel movement. At 12 months, 70% reported complete resolution of "splinting." Con comitant perineorrhaphy was performed on 87 patients and there were no differences in 12-month CRADI-8 or CRAIQ-7 scores between groups. Robotic sacrocolpopexy was associated with significant improvements in bowel function as measured by CRADI-8 as well as improvements in impact on quality of life as measured by CRAIQ-7.

  12. Critical Pertussis Illness in Children, A Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Berger, John T.; Carcillo, Joseph A.; Shanley, Thomas P.; Wessel, David L.; Clark, Amy; Holubkov, Richard; Meert, Kathleen L.; Newth, Christopher J.L.; Berg, Robert A.; Heidemann, Sabrina; Harrison, Rick; Pollack, Murray; Dalton, Heidi; Harvill, Eric; Karanikas, Alexia; Liu, Teresa; Burr, Jeri S.; Doctor, Allan; Dean, J. Michael; Jenkins, Tammara L.; Nicholson, Carol E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Pertussis persists in the United States despite high immunization rates. The present report characterizes the presentation and acute course of critical pertussis by quantifying demographic data, laboratory findings, clinical complications, and critical care therapies required among children requiring admission to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Eight PICUs comprising the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network and 17 additional PICUs across the United States. Patients Eligible patients had laboratory confirmation of pertussis infection, were < 18 years of age, and died in the PICU or were admitted to the PICU for at least 24 hours between June 2008 and August 2011. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results 127 patients were identified. Median age was 49 days, and 105 (83%) patients were < 3 months of age. Fifty-five (43%) required mechanical ventilation. Twelve (9.4%) died during initial hospitalization. Pulmonary hypertension was found in 16 patients (12.5%), and was present in 75% of patients who died, compared with 6% of survivors (p< 0.001). Median white blood cell count (WBC) was significantly higher in those requiring mechanical ventilation (p<0.001), those with pulmonary hypertension (p<0.001) and non-survivors (p<0.001). Age, sex and immunization status did not differ between survivors and non-survivors. Fourteen patients received leukoreduction therapy (exchange transfusion (12), leukopheresis (1) or both (1)). Survival benefit was not apparent. Conclusions Pulmonary hypertension may be associated with mortality in pertussis critical illness. Elevated WBC is associated with the need for mechanical ventilation, pulmonary hypertension, and mortality risk. Research is indicated to elucidate how pulmonary hypertension, immune responsiveness, and elevated WBC contribute to morbidity and mortality

  13. Methadone and perinatal outcomes: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Brian J; Eogan, Maeve; O'Connell, Michael P; Fahey, Tom; Gallagher, Paul J; Clarke, Tom; White, Martin J; McDermott, Christine; O'Sullivan, Anne; Carmody, Deirdre; Gleeson, Justin; Murphy, Deirdre J

    2012-08-01

      Methadone use in pregnancy has been associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). This study aimed to examine perinatal outcomes and NAS in relation to (i) concomitant drug use and (ii) methadone dose.   Prospective cohort study.   Two tertiary care maternity hospitals.   A total of 117 pregnant women on methadone maintenance treatment recruited between July 2009 and July 2010.   Information on concomitant drug use was recorded with the Addiction Severity Index. Perinatal outcomes included pre-term birth (<37 weeks' gestation), small-for-gestational-age (<10th centile) and neonatal unit admission. NAS outcomes included: incidence of medically treated NAS, peak Finnegan score, cumulative dose of NAS treatment and duration of hospitalization.   Of the 114 liveborn infants 11 (9.6%) were born pre-term, 49 (42.9%) were small-for-gestational-age, 56 (49.1%) had a neonatal unit admission and 29 (25.4%) were treated medically for NAS. Neonates exposed to methadone-only had a shorter hospitalization than those exposed to methadone and concomitant drugs (median 5.0 days versus 6.0 days, P = 0.03). Neonates exposed to methadone doses ≥80 mg required higher cumulative doses of morphine treatment for NAS (median 13.2 mg versus 19.3 mg, P = 0.03). The incidence and duration of NAS did not differ between the two dosage groups.   The incidence and duration of the neonatal abstinence syndrome is not associated with maternal methadone dose, but maternal opiate, benzodiazepine or cocaine use is associated with longer neonatal hospitalization. © 2012 The Authors, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  14. Warts transmitted in families and schools: a prospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Bruggink, Sjoerd C; Eekhof, Just A H; Egberts, Paulette F; van Blijswijk, Sophie C E; Assendelft, Willem J J; Gussekloo, Jacobijn

    2013-05-01

    Cutaneous warts are common in primary schoolchildren; however, knowledge on the routes of transmission of human papillomavirus (HPV) causing warts is scarce. This study examines the association between the degree of HPV exposure and incidence of warts in primary schoolchildren to support evidence-based recommendations on wart prevention. In this prospective cohort study, the hands and feet of all children in grades 1 to 7 (aged 4-12 years) of 3 Dutch primary schools were inspected for the presence of warts at baseline and after 11 to 18 months of follow-up. Data on the degree of HPV exposure included information obtained from parental questionnaires: preexistent warts, warts in family, prevalence of warts at baseline in the class, and use of public places (eg, swimming pools). Of the 1134 eligible children, 97% participated; the response rate from parental questionnaires was 77%, and loss to follow-up was 9%. The incidence for developing warts was 29 per 100 person-years at risk (95% confidence interval [CI] 26-32). Children with a white skin type had an increased risk of developing warts (hazard ratio [HR] 2.3, 95% CI 1.3-3.9). Having family members with warts (HR 2.08, 95% CI 1.52-2.86) and wart prevalence in the class (HR 1.20 per 10% increase, 95% CI 1.03-1.41) were independent environmental risk factors. The degree of HPV exposure in the family and school class contributes to the development of warts in schoolchildren. Preventive recommendations should focus more on limiting HPV transmission in families and school classes, rather than in public places.

  15. Effect of Retirement on Sleep Disturbances: the GAZEL Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Vahtera, Jussi; Westerlund, Hugo; Hall, Martica; Sjösten, Noora; Kivimäki, Mika; Salo, Paula; Ferrie, Jane E.; Jokela, Markus; Pentti, Jaana; Singh-Manoux, Archana; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Changes in health following retirement are poorly understood. We used serial measurements to assess the effect of retirement on sleep disturbances. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: The French national gas and electricity company. Participants: Fourteen thousand seven hundred fourteen retired employees (79% men). Measurements and Results: Annual survey measurements of sleep disturbances ranging from 7 years before to 7 years after retirement (a mean of 12 measurements). Before retirement 22.2% to 24.6% of participants reported having disturbed sleep. According to repeated-measures logistic-regression analysis with generalized estimating equations estimation, the odds ratio (OR) for having a sleep disturbance in the postretirement period was 0.74 (95% confidence interval 0.71-0.77), compared with having a sleep disturbance in the preretirement period. The postretirement improvement in sleep was more pronounced in men (OR 0.66 [0.63-0.69]) than in women (OR 0.89 [0.84-0.95]) and in higher-grade workers than lower-grade workers. Postretirement sleep improvement was explained by the combination of preretirement risk factors suggesting removal of work-related exposures as a mechanism. The only exception to the general improvement in sleep after retirement was related to retirement on health grounds. In this group of participants, there was an increase in sleep disturbances following retirement. Conclusions: Repeated measurements provide strong evidence for a substantial and sustained decrease in sleep disturbances following retirement. The possibility that the health and well-being of individuals are significantly worse when in employment than following retirement presents a great challenge to improve the quality of work life in Western societies in which the cost of the aging population can only be met through an increase in average retirement age. Citation: Vahtera J; Westerlund H; Hall M; Sjösten N; Kivimäki M; Salo P; Ferrie JE; Jokela M

  16. Liver elasticity measurement before and after biliary drainage in patients with obstructive jaundice: a prospective cohort studya prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Kimitoshi; Kawakami, Hiroshi; Kuwatani, Masaki; Nishida, Mutsumi; Kawakubo, Kazumichi; Kawahata, Shuhei; Taya, Yoko; Kubota, Yoshimasa; Amano, Toraji; Shirato, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Naoya

    2016-07-08

    Obstructive jaundice has been reported to influence liver elasticity, independent of liver fibrosis. The aim of our prospective study was to evaluate the changes in liver elasticity, before and after biliary drainage, in patients with obstructive jaundice, and to evaluate the correlation between elasticity measures and serum markers of liver fibrosis. This is a prospective cohort study of 20 patients with obstructive jaundice. Liver elasticity was assessed by Transient Elastography (TE) and Virtual Touch™ Quantification (VTQ). Serum total bilirubin (T-Bil) level was measured before biliary drainage (Day 0), with measures repeated at 2 days (Day 2) and 7 days (Day 7) after biliary drainage. Serum levels of the following markers of liver fibrosis were also obtained on Day 0 and Day 7: hyaluronic acid (HA), procollagen-III-peptide (P-III-P). T-Bil, TE, and VTQ for the left (VTQ-L) and right (VTQ-R) lobes of the liver were all elevated before biliary drainage, with respective levels, measured at Day 0, of 11.9 ± 1.5 mg/dl, 12.1 ± 0.9 kPa, 2.23 ± 0.10 m/s, and 1.85 ± 0.10 m/s. All values decreased on Day 7 after drainage: T-Bil, 4.7 ± 1.0 mg/dl (P < 0.001); TE, 7.6 ± 0.6 kPa (P < 0.001); VTQ-L, 1.53 ± 0.08 m/s (P < 0.001); and VTQ-R, 1.30 ± 0.05 m/s (P < 0.001). Similar changes were observed in serum markers of liver fibrosis. Liver elasticity measures correlated with serum levels of T-Bil, P-III-P, and HA (r = 0.35-0.67, P < 0.001). This study confirmed decreases in liver elasticity, measured by TE and VTQ, after biliary drainage. Measures of liver elasticity correlated to levels of T-Bil and serum markers of liver fibrosis. (UMIN ID: UMIN00001284313). University Hospital Medical Information Network (UMIN) Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN ID: UMIN00001284313 ); Registration date: 2014-01-14.

  17. Failure to reduce drinking and driving in France: a 6-year prospective study in the GAZEL cohort.

    PubMed

    Constant, Aymery; Lafont, Sylviane; Chiron, Mireille; Zins, Marie; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Messiah, Antoine

    2010-01-01

    An unprecedented decline in alcohol consumption and road mortality has been observed recently in France, but it is still unclear whether or not these changes affected driving while alcohol-intoxicated (DWI). The objective of the study was to estimate prospectively trends of excessive speed on the roads, alcohol consumption and DWI between 2001 and 2007 in a large cohort of experienced drivers. Participants were current employees or recent retirees of the French national electricity and gas company, who volunteered to participate in a research cohort established in 1989 under strict conditions of anonymity. An annual cohort questionnaire is sent to participants that includes two questions about overall alcohol consumption. In 2001 and 2007, 10,684 participants reported their driving behaviours using the same self-administered questionnaire. Between 2001 and 2007, the proportion of participants (n = 10,684) who reported having driven at speeds at least 20 km/hour above the limit decreased from 23.7% to 4.1% in built-up areas (P < 0.001), from 34.3% to 9.3% on rural roads (P < 0.001) and from 24.3% to 2.7% on highways (P < 0.001). Regular and non-regular excessive alcohol consumption decreased from 22.7% to 19.7% and from 18.0% to 14.9%, respectively, whereas DWI increased from 22.9% to 25.3% over the same period (P < 0.001). A recent crackdown on road violations by the French government has failed to deter DWI. Given that DWI seems to be a sporadic and rarely punished behaviour, its prevention requires more coercive measures, such as using a breath alcohol ignition interlock device.

  18. Failure to reduce drinking and driving in France: a 6-year prospective study in the GAZEL cohort

    PubMed Central

    Constant, Aymery; Lafont, Sylviane; Chiron, Mireille; Zins, Marie; Lagarde, Emmanuel; Messiah, Antoine

    2010-01-01

    Aim An unprecedented decline in alcohol consumption and road mortality has recently been observed in France, but it is still unclear whether or not these changes affected Driving While alcohol-Intoxicated (DWI). The objective of the study was to prospectively estimate trends of excessive speed on the roads, alcohol consumption and DWI between 2001 and 2007 in a large cohort of experienced drivers. Methods Participants were current employees or recent retirees of the French national electricity and gas company, who volunteered to participate in a research cohort established in 1989 under strict conditions of anonymity. An annual cohort questionnaire is sent each year to participants that includes two questions about overall alcohol consumption. In 2001 and 2007, 10 684 participants reported their driving behaviours using the same self-administered questionnaire. Results Between 2001 and 2007, the proportion of participants (N=10 684) who reported having driven at speeds at least 20 km/h above the limit decreased from 23.7% to 4.1% in built-up areas (p<0.001), from 34.3% to 9.3% on rural roads (p<0.001) and from 24.3% to 2.7% on highways (p<0.001). Regular and non-regular excessive alcohol consumption decreased from 22.7 to 19.7% and from 18.0% to 14.9% respectively, whereas DWI increased from 22.9% to 25.3% over the same period (p<0.001). Conclusions A recent crackdown on road violations by the French government has failed to deter DWI. Given that DWI seems to be a sporadic and rarely punished behaviour, its prevention requires more coercive measures, such as using a breath alcohol ignition interlock device. PMID:19922521

  19. Carbohydrate intake, glycemic index, glycemic load, and risk of postmenopausal breast cancer in a prospective study of French women.

    PubMed

    Lajous, Martin; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Fabre, Alban; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Romieu, Isabelle

    2008-05-01

    Diets high in carbohydrates may result in chronically elevated insulin concentrations and may affect breast cancer risk by stimulation of insulin receptors or through insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I)-mediated mitogenesis. Insulin response to carbohydrate intake is increased in insulin-resistant states such as obesity. We sought to evaluate carbohydrate intake, glycemic index (GI), and glycemic load (GL) and subsequent overall and hormone-receptor-defined breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women. A prospective cohort analysis of dietary carbohydrate and fiber intakes was conducted among 62 739 postmenopausal women from the E3N French study who had completed a validated dietary history questionnaire in 1993. During a 9-y period, 1812 cases of pathology-confirmed breast cancer were documented through follow-up questionnaires. Nutrients were categorized into quartiles and energy-adjusted with the regression-residual method. Cox model-derived relative risks (RRs) were adjusted for known determinants in breast cancer. Dietary carbohydrate and fiber intakes were not associated with overall breast cancer risk. Among overweight women, we observed an association between GI and breast cancer (RR(Q1-Q4): 1.35; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.82; P for trend = 0.04). For women in the highest category of waist circumference, the RR(Q1-Q4) was 1.28 (95% CI: 0.98, 1.67; P for trend = 0.10) for carbohydrates, 1.35 (95% CI: 1.04, 1.75; P for trend = 0.01) for GI, and 1.37 (95% CI: 1.05, 1.77; P for trend = 0.003) for GL. We also observed a direct association between carbohydrate intake, GL, and estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer risk. Rapidly absorbed carbohydrates are associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk among overweight women and women with large waist circumference. Carbohydrate intake may also be associated with estrogen receptor-negative breast cancer.

  20. Predictors of Cerebral Palsy in Very Preterm Infants: The EPIPAGE Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaino, Ghada; Khoshnood, Babak; Kaminski, Monique; Pierrat, Veronique; Marret, Stephane; Matis, Jacqueline; Ledesert, Bernard; Thiriez, Gerard; Fresson, Jeanne; Roze, Jean-Christophe; Zupan-Simunek, Veronique; Arnaud, Catherine; Burguet, Antoine; Larroque, Beatrice; Breart, Gerard; Ancel, Pierre-Yves

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the independent role of cerebral lesions on ultrasound scan, and several other neonatal and obstetric factors, as potential predictors of cerebral palsy (CP) in a large population-based cohort of very preterm infants. Method: As part of EPIPAGE, a population-based prospective cohort study, perinatal data…

  1. Predictors of Cerebral Palsy in Very Preterm Infants: The EPIPAGE Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaino, Ghada; Khoshnood, Babak; Kaminski, Monique; Pierrat, Veronique; Marret, Stephane; Matis, Jacqueline; Ledesert, Bernard; Thiriez, Gerard; Fresson, Jeanne; Roze, Jean-Christophe; Zupan-Simunek, Veronique; Arnaud, Catherine; Burguet, Antoine; Larroque, Beatrice; Breart, Gerard; Ancel, Pierre-Yves

    2010-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the independent role of cerebral lesions on ultrasound scan, and several other neonatal and obstetric factors, as potential predictors of cerebral palsy (CP) in a large population-based cohort of very preterm infants. Method: As part of EPIPAGE, a population-based prospective cohort study, perinatal data…

  2. Mortality (1968-2008) in a French cohort of uranium enrichment workers potentially exposed to rapidly soluble uranium compounds.

    PubMed

    Zhivin, Sergey; Guseva Canu, Irina; Samson, Eric; Laurent, Olivier; Grellier, James; Collomb, Philippe; Zablotska, Lydia B; Laurier, Dominique

    2016-03-01

    Until recently, enrichment of uranium for civil and military purposes in France was carried out by gaseous diffusion using rapidly soluble uranium compounds. We analysed the relationship between exposure to soluble uranium compounds and exposure to external γ-radiation and mortality in a cohort of 4688 French uranium enrichment workers who were employed between 1964 and 2006. Data on individual annual exposure to radiological and non-radiological hazards were collected for workers of the AREVA NC, CEA and Eurodif uranium enrichment plants from job-exposure matrixes and external dosimetry records, differentiating between natural, enriched and depleted uranium. Cause-specific mortality was compared with the French general population via standardised mortality ratios (SMR), and was analysed via Poisson regression using log-linear and linear excess relative risk models. Over the period of follow-up, 131 161 person-years at risk were accrued and 21% of the subjects had died. A strong healthy worker effect was observed: all causes SMR=0.69, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.74. SMR for pleural cancer was significantly increased (2.3, 95% CI 1.06 to 4.4), but was only based on nine cases. Internal uranium and external γ-radiation exposures were not significantly associated with any cause of mortality. This is the first study of French uranium enrichment workers. Although limited in statistical power, further follow-up of this cohort, estimation of internal uranium doses and pooling with similar cohorts should elucidate potential risks associated with exposure to soluble uranium compounds. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Severe intestinal malabsorption associated with olmesartan: a French nationwide observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Basson, Mickael; Mezzarobba, Myriam; Weill, Alain; Ricordeau, Philippe; Allemand, Hubert; Alla, Francois; Carbonnel, Franck

    2016-10-01

    Severe sprue-like enteropathy associated with olmesartan has been reported, but there has been no demonstration of an increased risk by epidemiological studies. To assess, in a nationwide patient cohort, the risk of hospitalisation for intestinal malabsorption associated with olmesartan compared with other angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) and ACE inhibitors (ACEIs). From the French National Health Insurance claim database, all adult patients initiating ARB or ACEI between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2012 with no prior hospitalisation for intestinal malabsorption, no serology testing for coeliac disease and no prescription for a gluten-free diet product were included. Incidence of hospitalisation with a discharge diagnosis of intestinal malabsorption was the primary endpoint. 4 546 680 patients (9 010 303 person-years) were included, and 218 events observed. Compared with ACEI, the adjusted rate ratio of hospitalisation with a discharge diagnosis of intestinal malabsorption was 2.49 (95% CI 1.73 to 3.57, p<0.0001) in olmesartan users. This adjusted rate ratio was 0.76 (95% CI 0.39 to 1.49, p=0.43) for treatment duration shorter than 1 year, 3.66 (95% CI 1.84 to 7.29, p<0.001) between 1 and 2 years and 10.65 (95% CI 5.05 to 22.46, p<0.0001) beyond 2 years of exposure. Median length of hospital stay for intestinal malabsorption was longer in the olmesartan group than in the other groups (p=0.02). Compared with ACEI, the adjusted rate ratio of hospitalisation for coeliac disease was 4.39 (95% CI 2.77 to 6.96, p<0.0001) in olmesartan users and increased with treatment duration. Olmesartan is associated with an increased risk of hospitalisation for intestinal malabsorption and coeliac disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. Alcohol consumption and fecundability: prospective Danish cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Riis, Anders H; Wise, Lauren A; Hatch, Elizabeth E; Rothman, Kenneth J; Cueto, Heidi T; Sørensen, Henrik Toft

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate to what extent alcohol consumption affects female fecundability. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Denmark, 1 June 2007 to 5 January 2016. Participants 6120 female Danish residents, aged 21-45 years, in a stable relationship with a male partner, who were trying to conceive and not receiving fertility treatment. Main outcome measures Alcohol consumption was self reported as beer (330 mL bottles), red or white wine (120 mL glasses), dessert wine (50 mL glasses), and spirits (20 mL) and categorized in standard servings per week (none, 1-3, 4-7, 8-13, and ≥14). Participants contributed menstrual cycles at risk until the report of pregnancy, start of fertility treatment, loss to follow-up, or end of observation (maximum 12 menstrual cycles). A proportional probability regression model was used to estimate fecundability ratios (cycle specific probability of conception among exposed women divided by that among unexposed women). Results 4210 (69%) participants achieved a pregnancy during follow-up. Median alcohol intake was 2.0 (interquartile range 0-3.5) servings per week. Compared with no alcohol consumption, the adjusted fecundability ratios for alcohol consumption of 1-3, 4-7, 8-13, and 14 or more servings per week were 0.97 (95% confidence interval 0.91 to 1.03), 1.01 (0.93 to 1.10), 1.01 (0.87 to 1.16) and 0.82 (0.60 to 1.12), respectively. Compared with no alcohol intake, the adjusted fecundability ratios for women who consumed only wine (≥3 servings), beer (≥3 servings), or spirits (≥2 servings) were 1.05 (0.91 to1.21), 0.92 (0.65 to 1.29), and 0.85 (0.61 to 1.17), respectively. The data did not distinguish between regular and binge drinking, which may be important if large amounts of alcohol are consumed during the fertile window. Conclusion Consumption of less than 14 servings of alcohol per week seemed to have no discernible effect on fertility. No appreciable difference in fecundability was observed by level of

  5. Trends in Prevalence of Dementia in French Farmers from Two Epidemiological Cohorts.

    PubMed

    Pérès, Karine; Brayne, Carol; Matharan, Fanny; Grasset, Leslie; Helmer, Catherine; Letenneur, Luc; Foubert-Samier, Alexandra; Baldi, Isabelle; Tison, François; Amieva, Hélène; Dartigues, Jean-François

    2017-02-01

    To determine the prevalence of dementia and cognitive impairment in older people across generations. Two prospective cohort studies (Personnes Agées QUID (PAQUID), Aging Multidisciplinary Investigation (AMI)). Baseline data from two subsamples of older farmers in southwestern France. PAQUID (n = 595) and AMI (n = 906) participants aged 65 and older living at home at baseline (1988 PAQUID, 2008 AMI). Two methods were used to diagnose dementia: a clinical consensus diagnosis and a computer-assisted taxonomy approach (cognitive impairment with disability (CIWD)) using Mini-Mental State Examination and instrumental activity of daily living scores. Crude and standardized prevalences (using PAQUID age-sex structure) and 95% confidence intervals were calculated, and logistic regression was used to explore confounding. The prevalence of consensus diagnosis of dementia was higher in AMI in 2008 than in PAQUID in 1988 (12.0% vs 5.7%, P < .001), whereas the reverse was observed for CIWD (14.8% vs 23.8%, P < .001), confirmed by logistic regressions (odds ratio (OR)AMIvsPAQUID = 2.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.52-4.12; ORAMIvs.PAQUID = 0.60, 95% CI = 0.42-0.87, respectively). Educational level increased and management of vascular risk factors improved over the study period, and health and living conditions improved globally. These findings suggest global cognitive and functional improvement in old farmers (the prevalence of CIWD decreased by 40% over 20 years) and simultaneously a marked change in the subjective boundary between dementia and nondementia according to clinicians. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  6. Safe total intrafascial laparoscopic (TAIL™) hysterectomy: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hohl, Michael K.

    2010-01-01

    This study directly compares total intrafascial laparoscopic (TAIL™) hysterectomy with vaginal (VH) and abdominal (AH) hysterectomy with regard to safety, operating time and time of convalescence. The study is a prospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2), including data from patients of a single university-affiliated teaching institution, admitted between 1997 and 2008 for hysterectomy due to benign uterus pathology. Patient data were collected pre-, intra- and postoperatively and complications documented using a standardised data sheet of a Swiss obstetric and gynaecological study group (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Schweizerische Frauenkliniken, Amlikon/Switzerland). Classification of complications (major complications and minor complications) for all three operation techniques, evaluation of surgeons and comparison of operation times and days of hospitalisation were analysed. 3066 patients were included in this study. 993 patients underwent AH, 642 VH and 1,431 total intrafascial hysterectomy. No statistically significant difference for the operation times comparing the three groups can be demonstrated. The mean hospital stay in the TAIL™ hysterectomy, VH and AH groups is 5.8 ± 2.4, 8.8 ± 4.0 and 10.4 ± 3.9 days, respectively. The postoperative minor complications including infection rates are low in the TAIL™ hysterectomy group (3.8%) when compared with either the AH group (15.3%) or the VH group (11.2%), respectively. The total of minor complications is statistically significant lower for TAIL™ hysterectomy as for AH (O.R. 4.52, CI 3.25–6.31) or VH (O.R. 3.16, CI 2.16–4.62). Major haemorrhage with consecutive reoperation is observed statistically significantly more frequent in the AH group when compared to the TAIL™ hysterectomy group, with an O.R. of 6.13 (CI 3.05–12.62). Overall, major intra- and postoperative complications occur significant more frequently in the AH group (8.6%) when compared to the VH group (3

  7. Lymphoproliferative disorders in patients receiving thiopurines for inflammatory bowel disease: a prospective observational cohort study.

    PubMed

    Beaugerie, Laurent; Brousse, Nicole; Bouvier, Anne Marie; Colombel, Jean Frédéric; Lémann, Marc; Cosnes, Jacques; Hébuterne, Xavier; Cortot, Antoine; Bouhnik, Yoram; Gendre, Jean Pierre; Simon, Tabassome; Maynadié, Marc; Hermine, Olivier; Faivre, Jean; Carrat, Fabrice

    2009-11-07

    Reports of an increased risk of lymphoproliferative disorders in patients receiving thiopurines for inflammatory bowel disease are controversial. We assessed this risk in a prospective observational cohort study. 19,486 patients with inflammatory bowel disease, of whom 11,759 (60.3%) had Crohn's disease and 7727 (39.7%) had ulcerative colitis or unclassified inflammatory bowel disease, were enrolled in a nationwide French cohort by 680 gastroenterologists, who reported details of immunosuppressive therapy during the observation period, cases of cancer, and deaths. The risk of lymphoproliferative disorder was assessed according to thiopurine exposure. Median follow-up was 35 months (IQR 29-40). At baseline, 5867 (30.1%) of patients were receiving, 2809 (14.4%) had discontinued, and 10,810 (55.5%) had never received thiopurines. 23 new cases of lymphoproliferative disorder were diagnosed, consisting of one case of Hodgkin's lymphoma and 22 cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoproliferative disorder. The incidence rates of lymphoproliferative disorder were 0.90 per 1000 (95% CI 0.50-1.49) patient-years in those receiving, 0.20/1000 (0.02-0.72) patient-years in those who had discontinued, and 0.26/1000 (0.10-0.57) patient-years in those who had never received thiopurines (p=0.0054). The multivariate-adjusted hazard ratio of lymphoproliferative disorder between patients receiving thiopurines and those who had never received the drugs was 5.28 (2.01-13.9, p=0.0007). Most cases associated with thiopurine exposure matched the pathological range of post-transplant disease. Patients receiving thiopurines for inflammatory bowel disease have an increased risk of developing lymphoproliferative disorders. Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Clinique National (AOM05157), Association François Aupetit, Délégation Inter-régionale de la Recherche clinique Ile de France-Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Ligue contre le Cancer, and Fonds de Recherche de la Société Nationale

  8. Febrile neutropenia in French emergency departments: results of a prospective multicentre survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Febrile neutropenia (FN) is common in cancer patients receiving myelotoxic therapy. The procedures to treat FN are well established in oncology, but it is unclear whether management is adequate in the emergency department (ED). Methods This prospective, multicentre, observational study was carried out in 47 French EDs for 6 months. Patients were adults presenting at the ED with FN after myelotoxic treatment for cancer. Severity of infection was defined according to Bone criteria for severe sepsis and septic shock (SS/SSh) and risk was determined according to Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer (MASCC) criteria. The end point was the implementation of guidelines. Management of patients with SS/SSh required: (i) adequate intravenous (IV) antimicrobial therapy for the first 90 min (broad-spectrum beta-lactam with or without an aminoglycoside); (ii) fluid challenge (500 mL); (iii) lactate measurement; (iv) at least one blood culture; and (v) hospitalization. Management of patients without SS/SSh required: (1) no initiation of granulocyte - cell stimulating factor (G-CSF); (2) adequate IV antimicrobial therapy (broad-spectrum beta-lactam) and hospitalization if the patient was high-risk according to MASCC criteria; (3) adequate oral antimicrobial therapy (quinolone or amoxicillin/clavulanate or cephalosporin) and hospital discharge if the patient was low-risk. Results 198 patients were enrolled; 89 patients had SS/SSh, of whom 19 received adequate antimicrobial therapy within 90 min and 42 received appropriate fluid challenge. Blood cultures were obtained from 87 and lactate concentration was measured in 29. Overall, only 6 (7%) patients with SS/SSh received adequate management. Among 108 patients without SS/SSh, 38 (35%) were high-risk and 70 (65%) low-risk. In the high-risk group, adequate antimicrobial therapy was given to 31 patients, G-CSF was initiated in 4 and 35 were hospitalized. In the low-risk group, 4 patients received

  9. Role of the internet as an information resource before anaesthesia consultation: A French prospective multicentre survey.

    PubMed

    Nucci, Bastian; Claret, Pierre-Geraud; Leclerc, Gilles; Chaumeron, Arnaud; Grillo, Philippe; Buleon, Clément; Leprince, Vincent; Raux, Mathieu; Minville, Vincent; Futier, Emmanuel; Lefrant, Jean-Yves; Cuvillon, Philippe

    2017-09-16

    Use of the internet as an information search tool has increased dramatically. Our study assessed preoperative use of the internet by patients to search for information regarding anaesthesia, surgery, pain or outcomes. The aim of this study was to test whether patients used the internet prior to surgery and what kinds of information they looked for (anaesthetic technique, pain, adverse events, outcomes and surgery). Correlation between patient age and information sought about surgery from the internet was also explored. A prospective multicentre observational study. In total, 14 French private and public institutions from May 2015 to January 2016. In total, 3161 adult patients scheduled for elective surgery under regional or general anaesthesia. An anonymous questionnaire was presented to adult patients scheduled for elective surgery under regional or general anaesthesia for completion before the first meeting with the anaesthesiologist. The investigator at each centre completed specific items that the patient could not complete. We defined the primary endpoint as the number of patients who searched for information about their anaesthesia or surgery on the internet by the time of the their preanaesthetic consultation. Of the 3234 questionnaires distributed, responses were received from 3161 patients. Within this respondent sample, 1304 (45%) were professionally active and 1664 (59%) used the internet at least once per day. Among 3098 (98%) patients who answered the question concerning the primary endpoint, 1506 (48%) had searched the internet for information about their health. In total, 784 (25%) used the internet to find information about their surgery and 113 (3.5%) looked for specific information about anaesthesia. Of the 3161, 52% reported difficulty searching for appropriate information about anaesthesia on the internet. 'Daily use of the web' [odds ratio (OR) 2.0; (95% CI: 1.65 to 2.55) P < 0.001], 'use of the web on mobile devices' [OR 1.24; (95% CI: 1

  10. Clinical features and prognostic factors of listeriosis: the MONALISA national prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Caroline; Perrodeau, Élodie; Leclercq, Alexandre; Cazenave, Benoît; Pilmis, Benoît; Henry, Benoît; Lopes, Amanda; Maury, Mylène M; Moura, Alexandra; Goffinet, François; Dieye, Hélène Bracq; Thouvenot, Pierre; Ungeheuer, Marie-Noëlle; Tourdjman, Mathieu; Goulet, Véronique; de Valk, Henriette; Lortholary, Olivier; Ravaud, Philippe; Lecuit, Marc

    2017-05-01

    Listeriosis is a severe foodborne infection and a notifiable disease in France. We did a nationwide prospective study to characterise its clinical features and prognostic factors. MONALISA was a national prospective observational cohort study. We enrolled eligible cases declared to the National Reference Center for Listeria (all microbiologically proven) between Nov 3, 2009, and July 31, 2013, in the context of mandatory reporting. The outcomes were analysis of clinical features, characterisation of Listeria isolates, and determination of predictors of 3-month mortality or persisting impairment using logistic regression. A hierarchical clustering on principal components was also done for neurological and bacteraemic cases. The study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01520597. We enrolled 818 cases from 372 centres, including 107 maternal-neonatal infections, 427 cases of bacteraemia, and 252 cases of neurolisteriosis. Only five (5%) of 107 pregnant women had an uneventful outcome. 26 (24%) of 107 mothers experienced fetal loss, but never after 29 weeks of gestation or beyond 2 days of admission to hospital. Neurolisteriosis presented as meningoencephalitis in 212 (84%) of 252 patients; brainstem involvement was only reported in 42 (17%) of 252 patients. 3-month mortality was higher for bacteraemia than neurolisteriosis (hazard ratio [HR] 0·54 [95% CI 0·41-0·69], p<0·0001). For both bacteraemia and neurolisteriosis, the strongest mortality predictors were ongoing cancer (odds ratio [OR] 5·19 [95% CI 3·01-8·95], p<0·0001), multi-organ failure (OR 7·98 [4·32-14·72], p<0·0001), aggravation of any pre-existing organ dysfunction (OR 4·35 [2·79-6·81], p<0·0001), and monocytopenia (OR 3·70 [1·82-7·49], p=0·0003). Neurolisteriosis mortality was higher in blood-culture positive patients (OR 3·67 [1·60-8·40], p=0·002) or those receiving adjunctive dexamethasone (OR 4·58 [1·50-13·98], p=0·008). The severity of listeriosis is higher than

  11. No association between coffee, tea or caffeine consumption and breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fagherazzi, Guy; Touillaud, Marina S; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Romieu, Isabelle

    2011-07-01

    Numerous mechanisms for the effects of coffee, tea and caffeine on the risk of breast cancer have been suggested. Caffeine intake has already been associated with high plasma levels of female hormones, but associations have not been clearly demonstrated in epidemiological studies. We examined prospectively the association of coffee, tea and caffeine consumption with breast cancer risk in a French cohort study. Dietary information was obtained from a 208-item diet history questionnaire self-administered in 1993-1995. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazards ratios and 95 % confidence intervals. The study was conducted on 67 703 women with available dietary information. During a median follow-up of 11 years, 2868 breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Median intake was 280 ml/d (2·2 cups/d) for coffee and 214 ml/d (1·7 cups/d) for tea. Median caffeine intake was 164 mg/d. No association was found between consumption of coffee, tea or caffeine and breast cancer risk. Sub-analyses by tumour receptor status, menopausal status, type of coffee (regular or decaffeinated) and meals at which beverages were drunk led to the same conclusion. Results from this prospective study showed no relationship between coffee, tea or caffeine intake and breast cancer risk overall or by hormone receptor status.

  12. Development in Children with Achondroplasia: A Prospective Clinical Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireland, Penelope J.; Donaghey, Samantha; McGill, James; Zankl, Andreas; Ware, Robert S.; Pacey, Verity; Ault, Jenny; Savarirayan, Ravi; Sillence, David; Thompson, Elizabeth; Townshend, Sharron; Johnston, Leanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Achondroplasia is characterized by delays in the development of communication and motor skills. While previously reported developmental profiles exist across gross motor, fine motor, feeding, and communication skills, there has been no prospective study of development across multiple areas simultaneously. Method: This Australasian…

  13. Development in Children with Achondroplasia: A Prospective Clinical Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ireland, Penelope J.; Donaghey, Samantha; McGill, James; Zankl, Andreas; Ware, Robert S.; Pacey, Verity; Ault, Jenny; Savarirayan, Ravi; Sillence, David; Thompson, Elizabeth; Townshend, Sharron; Johnston, Leanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Achondroplasia is characterized by delays in the development of communication and motor skills. While previously reported developmental profiles exist across gross motor, fine motor, feeding, and communication skills, there has been no prospective study of development across multiple areas simultaneously. Method: This Australasian…

  14. Do psychosocial work factors and social relations exert independent effects on sickness absence? A six year prospective study of the GAZEL cohort

    PubMed Central

    Melchior, M; Niedhammer, I; Berkman, L; Goldberg, M

    2003-01-01

    Study objectives: The objective of this prospective cohort study was to determine whether psychosocial work characteristics and social relations exert independent effects on the incidence of sickness absence in a population of middle aged French employees over six years of follow up. Design: This study included 9631 men and 3595 women participating in the French GAZEL cohort. Social relations (social networks, personal social support, and social relations satisfaction) were measured in 1994 by self report. Psychosocial work characteristics (decision latitude, psychological demands, and social support at work) were ascertained in 1995. Sickness absence data were collected independently. The authors studied the incidence of short (>7 days), intermediate (7–21 days), and long (>21 days) spells of absence from 1995 to 31 December 2001. Rate ratios associated with psychosocial exposures, adjusted on sociodemographic characteristics, and health behaviours, were calculated by means of log-linear Poisson regression. Setting: A cohort of 20000 employees of France's national gas and electricity company (the GAZEL study). Main results: Among men and women, levels of decision latitude and personal social support below the median predicted 17% to 24% increases in absence rates. Low satisfaction with social relations and low social support at work lead to a 10% to 26% excess in sick leaves among men. No interactive effects were found between the variables under study. Conclusions: The quality of the work environment and of social relations affect sickness absence over an extended period of follow up. This study supports the hypothesis of independent, not interactive effects. PMID:12646546

  15. Spontaneous disclosure of BRCA1/2 genetic test results to employers: a French prospective study.

    PubMed

    Eisinger, François; Fabre, Roxane; Lasset, Christine; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Julian-Reynier, Claire; Nogues, Catherine

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the patterns of disclosure of BRCA1/2 genetic test results to employers by unaffected carriers. In a national prospective cohort study on unaffected BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, disclosure to employers was assessed prospectively, using self-administered questionnaires, up to 2 years after their test results were delivered by cancer geneticists. Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox-regression analysis were used to assess the factors associated with time to disclosure to the employer. Mean age of the 146 women BRCA1/2 carriers who were employed when their test results were delivered was 37.1 years (range: 19-57). At the end of the second year of follow-up, 47 of them (32.2%) had disclosed their results to their employers; median time to disclosure was 6 months. Reasons spontaneously expressed were first to inform the employer that medical surveillance/surgery was necessary for cancer risk management although these carriers did not actually have cancer. After multivariate adjustment on age, women with a lower educational level (HRadj=2.00, P=0.026) and those who had undergone prophylactic surgery during the 2 years of follow-up (HRadj=2.18, P=0.019) had disclosed their BRCA status to their employers earlier and more frequently. One-third of the female carriers not affected by breast/ovarian cancer disclosed their BRCA1/2 genetic test results spontaneously to their employers, mainly to inform them that they were disease-free but required medical surveillance or a surgical intervention to reduce the risk of cancer.

  16. New architectural design of delivery room reduces morbidity in preterm neonates: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Terrin, Gianluca; Conte, Francesca; Scipione, Antonella; Aleandri, Vincenzo; Di Chiara, Maria; Bacchio, Erica; Messina, Francesco; De Curtis, Mario

    2016-03-23

    A multidisciplinary committee composed of a panel of experts, including a member of the American Academy of Pediatrics and American Institute of Architects, has suggested that the delivery room (DR) and the neonatal intensive care units (NICU) room should be directly interconnected. We aimed to investigate the impact of the architectural design of the DR and the NICU on neonatal outcome. Two cohorts of preterm neonates born at < 32 weeks of gestational age, consecutively observed during 2 years, were compared prospectively before (Cohort 1: "conventional DR") and after architectural renovation of the DR realized in accordance with specific standards (Cohort 2: "new concept of DR"). In Cohort 1, neonates were initially cared for a conventional resuscitation area, situated in the DR, and then transferred to the NICU, located on a separate floor of the same hospital. In Cohort 2 neonates were assisted at birth directly in the NICU room, which was directly connected to the DR via a pass-through door. The primary outcome of the study was morbidity, defined by the proportion of neonates with at least one complication of prematurity (i.e., late-onset sepsis, patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity and necrotizing enterocolitis). Secondary outcomes were mortality and duration of hospitalization. Statistical analysis was performed using standard methods by SPSS software. We enrolled 106 neonates (56 in Cohort 1 and 50 in Cohort 2). The main clinical and demographic characteristics of the 2 cohorts were similar. Moderate hypothermia (body temperature ≤ 35.9 °C) was more frequent in Cohort 1 (57%) compared with Cohort 2 (24%, p = 0.001). Morbidity was increased in Cohort 1 (73%) compared with Cohort 2 (44%, p = 0.002). No statistically significant differences in mortality and median duration of hospitalization were observed between the 2 cohorts of the study. If realized

  17. External Validation of the Updated Partin Tables in a Cohort of French and Italian Men

    SciTech Connect

    Bhojani, Naeem; Salomon, Laurent; Capitanio, Umberto; Suardi, Nazareno; Shariat, Shahrokh F.; Jeldres, Claudio; Zini, Laurent; Pharand, Daniel; Peloquin, Francois; Arjane, Philippe; Abbou, Claude C.; De La Taille, Alexandre; Montorsi, Francesco; Karakiewicz, Pierre I.

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: To test the discrimination and calibration properties of the newly developed 2007 Partin Tables in two European cohorts with localized prostate cancer. Methods: Data on clinical and pathologic characteristics were obtained for 1,064 men treated with radical prostatectomy at the Creteil University Health Center in France (n = 839) and at the Milan University Vita-Salute in Italy (n = 225). Overall discrimination was assessed with receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, which quantified the accuracy of stage predictions for each center. Calibration plots graphically explored the relationship between predicted and observed rates of extracapsular extension (ECE), seminal vesicle invasion (SVI) and lymph node invasion (LNI). Results: The rates of ECE, SVI, and LNI were 28%, 14%, and 2% in the Creteil cohort vs. 11%, 5%, and 5% in the Milan cohort. In the Creteil cohort, the accuracy of ECE, SVI, and LNI prediction was 61%, 71%, and 82% vs. 66%, 92% and 75% for the Milan cohort. Important departures were recorded between Partin Tables' predicted and observed rates of ECE, SVI, and LNI within both cohorts. Conclusions: The 2007 Partin Tables demonstrated worse performance in European men than they originally did in North American men. This indicates that predictive models need to be externally validated before their implementation into clinical practice.

  18. Wine consumption throughout life is inversely associated with type 2 diabetes risk, but only in overweight individuals: results from a large female French cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fagherazzi, Guy; Vilier, Alice; Lajous, Martin; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Balkau, Beverley; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Bonnet, Fabrice

    2014-11-01

    Alcohol has previously been shown to have a U-shaped association with type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk, but less is known regarding the specific association with wine. To evaluate for the first time the associations between T2D risk and both baseline wine consumption and trajectories of wine consumption frequency throughout life, estimated using an innovative group-based trajectory modeling strategy. A total of 66,485 women from the French prospective E3N-EPIC cohort were followed between 1993 and 2007; 1,372 incident cases of T2D were diagnosed during the follow-up. Multivariable Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI) for T2D risk. The average consumption of wine, among alcohol consumers, was 0.81 drinks/day (1 drink = 150 mL). Associations between wine and T2D were restricted to overweight women (P interaction = 0.0084). Among them, wine consumption was inversely associated with T2D risk (P trend = 0.0022). A lower risk was observed for overweight women having two or more drinks/day [HR 0.59 (0.43-0.82)] when compared with non-alcohol consumers. Women who started to drink wine early in life (around age 10-15 years) were at a significantly lower risk than lifetime abstainers. In our study, wine drinking was inversely associated with T2D risk but only in overweight women. Our results also suggest a potential beneficial, cumulative effect of moderate wine consumption throughout life for overweight women, who would already be at higher risk of T2D. We encourage other cohort studies with information on wine consumption to investigate these associations.

  19. The infundibulo-tuberal syndrome caused by craniopharyngiomas: clinicopathological evidence from an historical French cohort (1705-1973).

    PubMed

    Castro-Dufourny, Inés; Carrasco, Rodrigo; Prieto, Ruth; Barrios, Laura; Pascual, José M

    2015-10-01

    Infundibulo-tuberal syndrome groups endocrine, metabolic and behavioral disturbances caused by lesions involving the upper neurohypophysis (median eminence) and adjacent basal hypothalamus (tuber cinereum). It was originally described by Henri Claude and Jean Lhermitte in 1917, in a patient with a craniopharyngioma. This study investigates the clinical, pathological and surgical evidence verifying the infundibulo-tuberal syndrome caused by craniopharyngiomas (CPs). A systematic retrospective review of craniopharyngiomas reported in French literature between 1705 and 1973 was conducted. A total of 128 well described reports providing a comprehensive clinical and pathological description of the tumors were selected. This series represents the historical French cohort of CPs reported in the pre-CT/MRI era. Three major syndromes caused by CPs were categorized: pituitary syndrome (35%), infundibulo-tuberal syndrome (52%) and hypothalamic syndrome (49%). CP topography was significantly related to the type of syndrome described (p < 0.001). Infundibulo-tuberal syndrome occurred in CPs which replaced or invaded the third ventricle floor. In contrast, the majority of sellar/suprasellar CPs growing below the third ventricle showed a pituitary syndrome (82%). Cases with hypothalamic syndrome were characterized by anatomical integrity of the pituitary gland and stalk (p = 0.033) and occurred predominantly in adults older than 41 years old (p < 0.005). Among infundibulo-tuberal symptoms, abnormal somnolence was not related with the presence of hydrocephalus. All squamous-papillary CPs presented psychiatric disturbances (p < 0.001). This historical CP cohort evidences a clinical-topographical correlation between the patient's type of syndrome and the anatomical structures involved by the tumor along the hypophysial-hypothalamic axis.

  20. Tracking low back pain in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a prospective cohort study protocol.

    PubMed

    Théroux, Jean; Stomski, Norman; Hodgetts, Christopher J; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Walker, Bruce F; Le May, Sylvie; Labelle, Hubert

    2017-01-01

    Numerous methodological limitations have constrained the findings of previous studies that have examined the prevalence of low back pain in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. This article presents a study protocol that has been designed to address the shortcomings of prior research in this area. In addition, it will establish the level of disease burden associated with acute, recurrent, and chronic low back pain in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis. This study will involve a prospective cohort of adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis presenting to an outpatient department in a paediatric hospital. Potential participants will be eligible for inclusion if they are aged 10-17 years, experience adolescent idiopathic scoliosis, own a mobile phone, and are able to communicate in either French or English adequately. The primary outcome measure is the presence of low back pain. The secondary outcome will be measures with the Brief Pain Questionnaire and the PedsQL questionnaire. Participants will be followed over a 12-month period reporting weekly, via SMS-tracking. Previous studies frequently established the prevalence of low back pain through asking participants to recall whether they experienced low back pain over certain periods. These periods often extended beyond many months, and hence were subject to recall bias. Our study addresses such bias through gathering data on a weekly basis using SMS-tracking providing detailed information about the progression of low back pain, which allows researchers to establish the prevalence of acute, recurrent, and chronic low back pain with a better certainty. Furthermore, the previous studies failed to use a standardised definition of low back pain. As such, it is not possible to determine whether the reported low back pain was experienced at the following standardised defined location: "pain in the space between the lower posterior margin of the rib cage and the horizontal gluteal fold". This research protocol will be the

  1. β blockers and mortality after myocardial infarction in patients without heart failure: multicentre prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Puymirat, Etienne; Riant, Elisabeth; Aissoui, Nadia; Soria, Angèle; Ducrocq, Gregory; Coste, Pierre; Cottin, Yves; Aupetit, Jean François; Bonnefoy, Eric; Blanchard, Didier; Cattan, Simon; Steg, Gabriel; Schiele, François; Ferrières, Jean; Juillière, Yves; Simon, Tabassome; Danchin, Nicolas

    2016-09-20

     To assess the association between early and prolonged β blocker treatment and mortality after acute myocardial infarction.  Multicentre prospective cohort study.  Nationwide French registry of Acute ST- and non-ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction (FAST-MI) (at 223 centres) at the end of 2005.  2679 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction and without heart failure or left ventricular dysfunction.  Mortality was assessed at 30 days in relation to early use of β blockers (≤48 hours of admission), at one year in relation to discharge prescription, and at five years in relation to one year use.  β blockers were used early in 77% (2050/2679) of patients, were prescribed at discharge in 80% (1783/2217), and were still being used in 89% (1230/1383) of those alive at one year. Thirty day mortality was lower in patients taking early β blockers (adjusted hazard ratio 0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.26 to 0.82), whereas the hazard ratio for one year mortality associated with β blockers at discharge was 0.77 (0.46 to 1.30). Persistence of β blockers at one year was not associated with lower five year mortality (hazard ratio 1.19, 0.65 to 2.18). In contrast, five year mortality was lower in patients continuing statins at one year (hazard ratio 0.42, 0.25 to 0.72) compared with those discontinuing statins. Propensity score and sensitivity analyses showed consistent results.  Early β blocker use was associated with reduced 30 day mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction, and discontinuation of β blockers at one year was not associated with higher five year mortality. These findings question the utility of prolonged β blocker treatment after acute myocardial infarction in patients without heart failure or left ventricular dysfunction.Trial registration Clinical trials NCT00673036. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. β blockers and mortality after myocardial infarction in patients without heart failure: multicentre prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Riant, Elisabeth; Aissoui, Nadia; Soria, Angèle; Ducrocq, Gregory; Coste, Pierre; Cottin, Yves; Aupetit, Jean François; Bonnefoy, Eric; Blanchard, Didier; Cattan, Simon; Steg, Gabriel; Schiele, François; Ferrières, Jean; Juillière, Yves; Simon, Tabassome; Danchin, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the association between early and prolonged β blocker treatment and mortality after acute myocardial infarction. Design Multicentre prospective cohort study. Setting Nationwide French registry of Acute ST- and non-ST-elevation Myocardial Infarction (FAST-MI) (at 223 centres) at the end of 2005. Participants 2679 consecutive patients with acute myocardial infarction and without heart failure or left ventricular dysfunction. Main outcome measures Mortality was assessed at 30 days in relation to early use of β blockers (≤48 hours of admission), at one year in relation to discharge prescription, and at five years in relation to one year use. Results β blockers were used early in 77% (2050/2679) of patients, were prescribed at discharge in 80% (1783/2217), and were still being used in 89% (1230/1383) of those alive at one year. Thirty day mortality was lower in patients taking early β blockers (adjusted hazard ratio 0.46, 95% confidence interval 0.26 to 0.82), whereas the hazard ratio for one year mortality associated with β blockers at discharge was 0.77 (0.46 to 1.30). Persistence of β blockers at one year was not associated with lower five year mortality (hazard ratio 1.19, 0.65 to 2.18). In contrast, five year mortality was lower in patients continuing statins at one year (hazard ratio 0.42, 0.25 to 0.72) compared with those discontinuing statins. Propensity score and sensitivity analyses showed consistent results. Conclusions Early β blocker use was associated with reduced 30 day mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction, and discontinuation of β blockers at one year was not associated with higher five year mortality. These findings question the utility of prolonged β blocker treatment after acute myocardial infarction in patients without heart failure or left ventricular dysfunction. Trial registration Clinical trials NCT00673036. PMID:27650822

  3. A comparison of the results of prospective and retrospective cohort studies in the field of digestive surgery.

    PubMed

    Ukai, Tomohiko; Shikata, Satoru; Nakayama, Takeo; Takemura, Yousuke C

    2017-07-01

    We compared the results of prospective and retrospective cohort studies in the field of digestive surgery to clarify whether the results of prospective cohort studies were more similar to those of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). We conducted a secondary analysis of the results to compare the results of RCTs with those of cohort studies in meta-analyses of 18 digestive surgical topics. The data from the prospective and retrospective cohort studies were combined. The summary estimates of each design were compared with those of RCTs. We used the Z score to investigate discrepancies. Twenty-nine outcomes of 11 topics were investigated in 289 cohort studies (prospective, n = 69; retrospective, n = 220). These were compared with the outcomes of 123 RCTs. In comparison to retrospective studies, the summary estimates of the prospective cohort studies were more similar to those of the RCTs [19/29 (prospective) vs. 10/29 (retrospective), P = 0.035). Five of the 29 outcomes of prospective studies and 6 of 29 outcomes of retrospective studies (P = 0.99) showed significant discrepancies in comparison to RCTs. In the digestive surgical field, the results of prospective cohort studies tended to be more similar to those of RCTs than retrospective studies; however, there were no significant discrepancies between the two types of cohort study.

  4. Involvement in Bullying and Suicide-Related Behavior at 11 Years: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Tanya; Zanarini, Mary; Wolke, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the prospective link between involvement in bullying (bully, victim, bully/victim), and subsequent suicide ideation and suicidal/self-injurious behavior, in preadolescent children in the United Kingdom. Method: A total of 6,043 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort were assessed to…

  5. Asthma and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested an association between asthma and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the temporal relationship was not determined. Using a nationwide population-based prospective case-control cohort study (1:4, age-/gender-matched), we hypothesized that asthma in infanthood or early…

  6. Involvement in Bullying and Suicide-Related Behavior at 11 Years: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Tanya; Zanarini, Mary; Wolke, Dieter

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To study the prospective link between involvement in bullying (bully, victim, bully/victim), and subsequent suicide ideation and suicidal/self-injurious behavior, in preadolescent children in the United Kingdom. Method: A total of 6,043 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort were assessed to…

  7. A Prospective Cohort Study Comparing Workload in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivilis, Irina; Liu, Jian; Cairney, John; Hay, John A.; Klentrou, Panagiota; Faught, Brent E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to assess how cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) of children with probable developmental coordination disorder (DCD) changes over a period of 4.7 years relative to a group of typically developing controls. A school-based sample of children in a large region of Ontario, Canada with 75 out of a possible…

  8. Predicting Dyslexia in a Transparent Orthography from Grade 1 Literacy Skills: A Prospective Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Pinto, Giuliana; Accorti Gamannossi, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    We conducted this prospective cohort study to explore the predictability of dyslexia from 1st-grade literacy skills in Italian students. We followed 407 Italian students in primary school from the 1st through the 3rd grades. Students were diagnosed with dyslexia in the 3rd grade. We retrospectively tested participants' 1st-grade performance in…

  9. COMPARISON OF RECALLED AND PROSPECTIVELY COLLECTED GASTROINTESTINAL SYMPTOM DATA WITHIN A WASHINGTON COHORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparison of Recalled and Prospectively Collected Gastrointestinal Symptom Data Within a Washington Cohort.
    Christina A. Peterson1,2,3; James C. Thomas 1; Twila K. Kunde4; Rebecca L. Calderon2

    1 Department of Epidemiology, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill

  10. Asthma and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Mu-Hong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested an association between asthma and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the temporal relationship was not determined. Using a nationwide population-based prospective case-control cohort study (1:4, age-/gender-matched), we hypothesized that asthma in infanthood or early…

  11. Self-Assessed Personal and Professional Prospects and Program Expectations of Students in Three Doctoral Cohorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahy, Patrick J.; Spencer, Bob; Koole-Ady, Marguerite

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine, through a survey of students registered in the first three cohorts (consisting of 40 students) of Athabasca University's Doctor of Education (Ed.D.) program, the perceived prospects and career and personal plans of students. As they began the program, but before any program interaction had occurred,…

  12. Predicting Dyslexia in a Transparent Orthography from Grade 1 Literacy Skills: A Prospective Cohort Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Pinto, Giuliana; Accorti Gamannossi, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    We conducted this prospective cohort study to explore the predictability of dyslexia from 1st-grade literacy skills in Italian students. We followed 407 Italian students in primary school from the 1st through the 3rd grades. Students were diagnosed with dyslexia in the 3rd grade. We retrospectively tested participants' 1st-grade performance in…

  13. Complications after the treatment of endometrial cancer: a prospective study using the French-Italian glossary.

    PubMed

    Piovano, Elisa; Fuso, Luca; Poma, Cinzia Baima; Ferrero, Annamaria; Perotto, Stefania; Tripodi, Elisa; Volpi, Eugenio; Zanfagnin, Valentina; Zola, Paolo

    2014-03-01

    The evaluation of treatment complications is crucial in modern oncology because they heavily influence the every day life of patients. Several authors confirmed the reproducibility of the French-Italian glossary to score the complications in patients with endometrial cancer after radiotherapy (RT), but the treatment of endometrial carcinoma is primarily surgical and chemotherapy is often used for high-risk disease. This study aimed to analyze the incidence of complications in our patients treated for endometrial cancer and to verify whether the glossary is a suitable instrument in the description of complications after surgery, RT, and chemotherapy. The data of patients affected by endometrial cancer treated in the Gynecology and Obstetrics Academic Department, Azienda Ospedaliera Mauriziano Umberto I in Turin from 2000 to 2009 (with surgery alone or integrated treatments) were prospectively collected, and complications were described using the glossary. Every patient included in the analyses had a minimum of 18 months follow-up. Of the 271 patients, 68 (25%) experienced at least 1 complication with 87 overall complications. Most of the complications were mild (63%) and were found in the urinary (30%) or cutaneous systems (30%). Forty-four (50%) complications appeared within 1 year after treatment, but 9 (10%) complications appeared after 60 months of follow-up. Patients who were submitted to both surgery and RT showed a trend of higher rate of at least 1 complication (19/58 [32.7%]) if compared with surgery alone (36/135 [26.6%]), even if the difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.09). The incidence of complications in patients treated or not with lymphadenectomy was not statistically different (P = 0.088), whereas patients treated with laparotomy had a higher rate of cutaneous complications if compared with the laparoscopic approach (P = 0.018). The glossary included all observed complications. One every 4 women treated for endometrial cancer

  14. Educational and occupational outcomes of childhood cancer survivors 30 years after diagnosis: a French cohort study.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Agnes; Berger, Claire; Auquier, Pascal; Michel, Gérard; Fresneau, Brice; Sètchéou Allodji, Rodrigue; Haddy, Nadia; Rubino, Carole; Vassal, Gilles; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique; Thouvenin-Doulet, Sandrine; Casagranda, Léonie; Pacquement, Hélène; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Oberlin, Odile; Guibout, Catherine; de Vathaire, Florent

    2016-04-26

    Although survival from childhood cancer has increased, little is known on the long-term impact of treatment late effects on occupational attainment or work ability. A total of 3512 five-year survivors treated before the age of 19 years in 10 French cancer centres between 1948 and 2000 were identified. Educational level, employment status and occupational class of survivors were assessed by a self-reported questionnaire. These outcome measures were compared with sex-age rates recorded in the French population, using indirect standardisation. Paternal occupational class was also considered to control for the role of survivors' socioeconomic background on their achievement. Multivariable analyses were conducted to explore clinical characteristics associated with the outcomes. A total of 2406 survivors responded to the questionnaire and survivors aged below 25 years were included in the current analysis. Compared with national statistics adjusted on age and sex, male survivors were more likely to be college graduates (39.2% vs 30.9% expected; P<0.001). This higher achievement was not observed either for leukaemia or central nervous system (CNS) tumour survivors. Health-related unemployment was higher for survivors of CNS tumour (28.1% vs 4.3%; P<0.001) but not for survivors of other diagnoses. Survivors of non-CNS childhood cancer had a similar or a higher occupational class than expected. Survivors treated for CNS tumour or leukaemia, especially when treatment included cranial irradiation, might need support throughout their lifespan.

  15. Educational and occupational outcomes of childhood cancer survivors 30 years after diagnosis: a French cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Dumas, Agnes; Berger, Claire; Auquier, Pascal; Michel, Gérard; Fresneau, Brice; Sètchéou Allodji, Rodrigue; Haddy, Nadia; Rubino, Carole; Vassal, Gilles; Valteau-Couanet, Dominique; Thouvenin-Doulet, Sandrine; Casagranda, Léonie; Pacquement, Hélène; El-Fayech, Chiraz; Oberlin, Odile; Guibout, Catherine; de Vathaire, Florent

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although survival from childhood cancer has increased, little is known on the long-term impact of treatment late effects on occupational attainment or work ability. Methods: A total of 3512 five-year survivors treated before the age of 19 years in 10 French cancer centres between 1948 and 2000 were identified. Educational level, employment status and occupational class of survivors were assessed by a self-reported questionnaire. These outcome measures were compared with sex–age rates recorded in the French population, using indirect standardisation. Paternal occupational class was also considered to control for the role of survivors' socioeconomic background on their achievement. Multivariable analyses were conducted to explore clinical characteristics associated with the outcomes. Results: A total of 2406 survivors responded to the questionnaire and survivors aged below 25 years were included in the current analysis. Compared with national statistics adjusted on age and sex, male survivors were more likely to be college graduates (39.2% vs 30.9% expected; P<0.001). This higher achievement was not observed either for leukaemia or central nervous system (CNS) tumour survivors. Health-related unemployment was higher for survivors of CNS tumour (28.1% vs 4.3% P<0.001) but not for survivors of other diagnoses. Survivors of non-CNS childhood cancer had a similar or a higher occupational class than expected. Conclusions: Survivors treated for CNS tumour or leukaemia, especially when treatment included cranial irradiation, might need support throughout their lifespan. PMID:27115571

  16. Quantitative multiplex PCR of short fluorescent fragments for the detection of large intragenic POLG rearrangements in a large French cohort

    PubMed Central

    Rouzier, Cécile; Chaussenot, Annabelle; Serre, Valérie; Fragaki, Konstantina; Bannwarth, Sylvie; Ait-El-Mkadem, Samira; Attarian, Shahram; Kaphan, Elsa; Cano, Aline; Delmont, Emilien; Sacconi, Sabrina; de Camaret, Bénédicte Mousson; Rio, Marlène; Lebre, Anne-Sophie; Jardel, Claude; Deschamps, Romain; Richelme, Christian; Pouget, Jean; Chabrol, Brigitte; Paquis-Flucklinger, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Polymerase gamma (POLG) is the gene most commonly involved in mitochondrial disorders with mitochondrial DNA instability and causes a wide range of diseases with recessive or dominant transmission. More than 170 mutations have been reported. Most of them are missense mutations, although nonsense mutations, splice-site mutations, small deletions and insertions have also been identified. However, to date, only one large-scale rearrangement has been described in a child with Alpers syndrome. Below, we report a large cohort of 160 patients with clinical, molecular and/or biochemical presentation suggestive of POLG deficiency. Using sequencing, we identified POLG variants in 22 patients (18 kindreds) including five novel pathogenic mutations. Two patients with novel mutations had unusual clinical presentation: the first exhibited an isolated ataxic neuropathy and the second was a child who presented with endocrine signs. We completed the sequencing step by quantitative multiplex PCR of short fluorescent fragments (QMPSF) analysis in 37 patients with either only one POLG heterozygous variant or a family history suggesting a dominant transmission. We identified a large intragenic deletion encompassing part of intron 21 and exon 22 of POLG in a child with refractory epilepsia partialis continua. In conclusion, we describe the first large French cohort of patients with POLG mutations, expanding the wide clinical and molecular spectrum observed in POLG disease. We confirm that large deletions in the POLG gene are rare events and we highlight the importance of QMPSF in patients with a single heterozygous POLG mutation, particularly in severe infantile phenotypes. PMID:23921535

  17. Quantitative multiplex PCR of short fluorescent fragments for the detection of large intragenic POLG rearrangements in a large French cohort.

    PubMed

    Rouzier, Cécile; Chaussenot, Annabelle; Serre, Valérie; Fragaki, Konstantina; Bannwarth, Sylvie; Ait-El-Mkadem, Samira; Attarian, Shahram; Kaphan, Elsa; Cano, Aline; Delmont, Emilien; Sacconi, Sabrina; Mousson de Camaret, Bénédicte; Rio, Marlène; Lebre, Anne-Sophie; Jardel, Claude; Deschamps, Romain; Richelme, Christian; Pouget, Jean; Chabrol, Brigitte; Paquis-Flucklinger, Véronique

    2014-04-01

    Polymerase gamma (POLG) is the gene most commonly involved in mitochondrial disorders with mitochondrial DNA instability and causes a wide range of diseases with recessive or dominant transmission. More than 170 mutations have been reported. Most of them are missense mutations, although nonsense mutations, splice-site mutations, small deletions and insertions have also been identified. However, to date, only one large-scale rearrangement has been described in a child with Alpers syndrome. Below, we report a large cohort of 160 patients with clinical, molecular and/or biochemical presentation suggestive of POLG deficiency. Using sequencing, we identified POLG variants in 22 patients (18 kindreds) including five novel pathogenic mutations. Two patients with novel mutations had unusual clinical presentation: the first exhibited an isolated ataxic neuropathy and the second was a child who presented with endocrine signs. We completed the sequencing step by quantitative multiplex PCR of short fluorescent fragments (QMPSF) analysis in 37 patients with either only one POLG heterozygous variant or a family history suggesting a dominant transmission. We identified a large intragenic deletion encompassing part of intron 21 and exon 22 of POLG in a child with refractory epilepsia partialis continua. In conclusion, we describe the first large French cohort of patients with POLG mutations, expanding the wide clinical and molecular spectrum observed in POLG disease. We confirm that large deletions in the POLG gene are rare events and we highlight the importance of QMPSF in patients with a single heterozygous POLG mutation, particularly in severe infantile phenotypes.

  18. Cardiovascular findings and management in Turner syndrome: insights from a French cohort.

    PubMed

    Donadille, Bruno; Rousseau, Alexandra; Zenaty, Delphine; Cabrol, Sylvie; Courtillot, Carine; Samara-Boustani, Dinane; Salenave, Sylvie; Monnier-Cholley, Laurence; Meuleman, Catherine; Jondeau, Guillaume; Iserin, Laurence; Duranteau, Lise; Cabanes, Laure; Bourcigaux, Nathalie; Bonnet, Damien; Bouchard, Philippe; Chanson, Philippe; Polak, Michel; Touraine, Philippe; Lebouc, Yves; Carel, Jean-Claude; Léger, Juliane; Christin-Maitre, Sophie

    2012-10-01

    Congenital cardiovascular malformations and aortic dilatation are frequent in patients with Turner syndrome (TS). The objective of this study was to investigate the cardiovascular findings and management in a large cohort of patients, including children and adults. We recruited 336 patients with TS from a network of tertiary centers. We reviewed their files, checking for cardiovascular events, cardiac valve abnormalities, and aortic diameters indexed to body surface area (BSA) from magnetic resonance imaging (n=110) or echocardiography (n=300). Informative cardiovascular data were available for only 233 patients. Vascular surgery was reported in 7.4% of the cohort. The first cause of surgery was aortic coarctation, detected in 6.9% at a median age of 9.5 (range: 0-60) years. Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) was detected in 21% at a median age of 20 years (25th-75th percentiles: 15-30). At least one aortic diameter exceeded 32 mm in 12% of the cohort. This was detected at a median age of 19 (7-30) years. When indexed to BSA, at least one aortic diameter exceeded 20 mm/m(2) in 39% of the cohort. Our study shows that cardiovascular monitoring for TS patients is currently insufficient in France. BAV is present at birth, but often remains undiagnosed until later in life. Therefore, improved management in cardiovascular monitoring is required and a more systematic approach should be taken.

  19. Association between very low PTH levels and poor survival rates in haemodialysis patients: results from the French ARNOS cohort.

    PubMed

    Jean, G; Lataillade, D; Genet, L; Legrand, E; Kuentz, F; Moreau-Gaudry, X; Fouque, D

    2011-01-01

    A very low parathyroid hormone (PTH) level (VLPL) is associated with an increased risk of adynamic bone disease, vascular calcification, and mortality in haemodialysis (HD) patients. The aim of the study was to assess the frequency, the associated factors, and the prognosis of non-surgical VLPL in a cohort of prevalent HD patients. In July 2005, a cross-sectional study was performed on the French ARNOS cohort in 1,348 prevalent HD patients from 24 dialysis centres in the Rhône-Alpes area. Patients with a baseline intact PTH level <50 pg/ml (VLPL, Group 1) and ≥ 50 pg/ml (Group 2) were compared and a 42-month survival analysis was performed. Patients with prevalent or incident parathyroidectomy were excluded. We studied 1,138 prevalent HD patients. As compared to patients of Group 2 (n = 1,019), patients with VLPL (Group 1, n = 119) had lower serum albumin levels (34.5 ± 5 vs. 36.4 ± 5 g/l, p < 0.0001), less protein intake (nPCR 0.99 ± 0.28 vs. 1.1 ± 0.28 g/kg/day, p = 0.01), higher calcaemia (2.30 ± 0.2 vs. 2.26 ± 0.2 mmol/l, p = 0.01) and were more frequently treated with calcium carbonate (67 vs. 54%, p < 0.001). Patients with VLPL had a higher mortality rate (HR: 1.4 (1.07-1.8), p = 0.006) after adjustment for age, gender, diabetes, and dialysis vintage. The odds ratios of mortality for patients with VLPL remained higher in all calcaemia and serum albumin quartiles. Only 3/119 patients in Group 1 did not receive any PTH-lowering therapies (i.e. calcium carbonate (67%), alfacalcidol (38%), cinacalcet (10.1%), and dialysate calcium ≥ 1.5 mmol/l (94%)). In this observational French cohort, VLPL was observed in 10% of prevalent HD patients and was associated with poor survival rates. An inadequate therapeutic strategy could be responsible for this observation. The real consequences of this iatrogenic adynamic bone disease remain hypothetical, but it may be related to the risk of developing vascular calcification. It is hypothesized that a more adequate

  20. Why Study French?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunge, Gerard

    This brochure for parents and prospective students of French points out career opportunities available to qualified speakers of French. Suggestions concerning student eligibility and the time requirements of language programs are also offered. (RL)

  1. Nevi, Ambient Ultraviolet Radiation, and Thyroid Cancer Risk: A French Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Mesrine, Sylvie; Kvaskoff, Marina; Bah, Thierno; Wald, Lucien; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine

    2017-09-01

    Incidence rates have increased considerably worldwide for both differentiated thyroid cancer and cutaneous melanoma, and two-way associations between these neoplasms have been described. Whether melanoma risk factors are associated with thyroid cancer risk remains unknown. Using Cox regression modeling, we prospectively analyzed the relationship between self-reported pigmentary traits, baseline residential ultraviolet (UV) exposure, and thyroid cancer risk in 86,960 women from the E3N cohort, followed-up over 1990-2008 through biennial questionnaires. We assessed associations of pigmentary traits and UV exposure with personal history of benign thyroid diseases using logistic regression modeling. All statistical tests were two sided. In models adjusted for age and thyroid cancer risk factors, number of nevi was positively associated with thyroid cancer risk ("very many" vs. "none": hazards ratio [HR] = 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0, 2.8; Ptrend = 0.01), independently of residential UV exposure or iodine intake. Risk was inversely associated with latitude and positively associated with mean daily UV level at baseline (HRs for the fourth vs. first quartile of latitude and spring/summer UVB level = 0.7, 95% CI = 0.5, 0.9; Ptrend = 0.03, and HR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.4, 2.7; Ptrend = 0.02, respectively); associations were restricted to women with dietary iodine below the median intake. Number of nevi and UV level were also associated with personal histories of dysthyroidism and of goiter/nodules, although more weakly so. Our results suggest that number of nevi and residential UV exposure are associated with the risks of thyroid cancer and benign conditions. They point to novel pathways in thyroid cancer or melanoma etiologies and warrant replication.

  2. Microscopic colitis or functional bowel disease with diarrhea: a French prospective multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Macaigne, Gilles; Lahmek, Pierre; Locher, Christophe; Lesgourgues, Bruno; Costes, Laurent; Nicolas, Max Pierre; Courillon-Mallet, Anne; Ghilain, Jean-Michel; Bellaïche, Guy; de Montigny-Lehnardt, Stéphanie; Barjonet, Georges; Vitte, René-Louis; Faroux, Roger; Lambare, Benedicte; Fleury, Antoine; Pariente, Alexandre; Nahon, Stéphane

    2014-09-01

    To describe the characteristics of a cohort of patients with microscopic colitis (MC; lymphocytic (LC) or collagenous (CC) colitis) and to compare them with patients with functional bowel disorder with diarrhea (FBD-D). Between September 2010 and June 2012, patients fulfilling the following inclusion criteria were prospectively included in 26 centers in France: (i) having at least three bowel movements daily with change in stool consistency; (ii) duration of abnormal bowel habit >4 weeks; and (iii) normal or near-normal colonoscopy. Each patient underwent a colonoscopy and colonic biopsies. We compared the demographic, clinical, biological, and etiological characteristic of patients with MC (CC and LC) with those of control patients with FBD-D. A total of 433 patients were included: 129 with MC (87 LC and 42 CC), 23 with another organic disease, and 278 with FDB-D, including patients with diarrhea and abdominal pain who met the criteria of Rome III (irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea) and patients with functional diarrhea without abdominal pain. Logistic regression analysis identified the following independent predictors of MC: age >50 years (odds ratio (OR)=3.1, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.6-5.9), presence of nocturnal stools (OR=2, 95% CI=1.1-3.9), weight loss (OR=2.5, 95% CI=1.3-4.7), duration of diarrhea <12 months (OR=2.0, 95% CI=1.1-3.5), recent introduction of new drugs (OR=3.7, 95% CI=2.1-6.6; P<0.0001), and the presence of a known autoimmune disorder (OR=5.5, 95% CI=2.5-12). Age >50 years, the presence of nocturnal stools, weight loss, the introduction of a new drug, and the presence of a known autoimmune disease increase the probability of MC and thus the indication for colonoscopy with biopsies.

  3. Helical tomotherapy of spinal chordomas: French Multicentric, retrospective study of a cohort of 30 cases.

    PubMed

    Bobin, Maxime; Zacharatou, Christina; Sargos, Paul; Brouste, Véronique; Lisbona, Albert; Mahé, Marc-André; Noël, Georges; Halley, Amandine; Feuvret, Loïc; Gras, Louis; Hoppe, Stéphanie; de Figueiredo, Bénédicte Henriques; Kantor, Guy

    2017-01-31

    To evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of helical tomotherapy (HT) in the management of spine chordomas when proton therapy is unavailable or non-feasible. Between 2007 and 2013, 30 patients with biopsy-proven chordomas were treated by HT in five French institutions. Information regarding local control (LC), overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS) and metastasis-free survival (MFS) was collected. Clinical efficacy, toxicity and treatment quality were evaluated. Two-year actuarial LC, OS, PFS and MFS were 69.9%, 96.7%, 61.2% and 76.4%, respectively. HT treatments were well tolerated and no Grade 4-5 toxicities were observed. HT permitted the delivery of a mean dose of 68 Gy while respecting organ at risk (OAR) dose constraints, in particular in the spinal cord and cauda equina. This multicentric, retrospective study demonstrated the feasibility of HT in the treatment of spine chordomas, in the absence of hadron therapy.

  4. Childhood social hardships and fertility: A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Harville, Emily W.; Boynton-Jarrett, Renée

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effect of lifetime social hardships on fertility. Methods Using the British National Child Development Study, a longitudinal cohort study, the impact of exposure to childhood hardships on becoming pregnant, reported infertility, and time to pregnancy was investigated. 6477 women reported on whether they had become pregnant by age 41, and 5198 women had data on at least one pregnancy. Factor analysis was used to identify six types of childhood hardships (as reported by parent, child, social worker, or teacher); retrospective report of child abuse was also examined. Logistic regression and discrete failure-time analysis was used to adjust for potential confounders. Results Never-married women were more likely to have become pregnant at some point if they had experienced more childhood hardships. Retrospectively reported child abuse was associated with an increased likelihood of having been told one was unable to have children. Among ever-married women, childhood hardships were associated with reduced fecundability, but the association was weakened by adjustment for adult social class. Conclusions The relationship between childhood adversity and adult fertility is complex. Future research should investigate pathways between characteristics of adversities and fertility. PMID:24404568

  5. Subclinical thyroid dysfunction and cardiovascular outcomes among prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Gencer, Baris; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Virgini, Vanessa; Auer, Reto; Rodondi, Nicolas

    2013-03-01

    The association between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and cardiovascular outcomes has been recently clarified with the publication of three individual participant data (IPD) analyses from the Thyroid Studies Collaboration. We identified original cohort studies with a systematic review and pooled individual data from over 70'000 participants to obtain a more precise estimate of the risks of cardiovascular outcomes associated with subclinical thyroid dysfunction. Subclinical hypothyroidism and subclinical hyperthyroidism, defined as normal thyroxine (FT4) levels with increased or decreased Thyroid-Stimulating Hormones (TSH or thyrotropin) respectively, are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular outcomes compared to euthyroid state, particularly in those with a more pronounced thyroid dysfunction. Specifically, subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) events, CHD mortality and heart failure (HF) events in individuals with higher TSH levels, particularly in those with TSH levels ≥10.0 mIU/L. Conversely, subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with an increased risk of total mortality, CHD mortality, HF and atrial fibrillation, particularly in those with suppressed TSH levels <0.10 mIU/L. Pending ongoing randomized controlled trials, these observational findings allow identifying potential TSH thresholds for thyroid medication initiation based on risk of clinical outcomes, although clinical decision based solely on observational data need caution. The impact of thyroid replacement among the elderly with subclinical hypothyroidism is currently studied in a multicenter international randomized controlled trial (Thyroid Hormone Replacement for Subclinical Hypothyroidism Trial, TRUST trial).

  6. Childhood social hardships and fertility: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Harville, Emily W; Boynton-Jarrett, Renée

    2013-12-01

    To examine the effect of lifetime social hardships on fertility. Using the British National Child Development Study, a longitudinal cohort study, the impact of exposure to childhood hardships on becoming pregnant, reported infertility, and time-to-pregnancy was investigated. In total, 6477 women reported on whether they had become pregnant by 41 years, and 5198 women had data on at least one pregnancy. Factor analysis was used to identify six types of childhood hardships (as reported by parent, child, social worker, or teacher); retrospective report of child abuse was also examined. Logistic regression and discrete failure-time analysis was used to adjust for potential confounders. Never-married women were more likely to have become pregnant at some point if they had experienced more childhood hardships. Retrospectively, reported child abuse was associated with an increased likelihood of having been told that one was unable to have children. Among ever-married women, childhood hardships were associated with reduced fecundability, but the association was weakened by adjustment for adult social class. The relationship between childhood adversity and adult fertility is complex. Future research should investigate pathways between characteristics of adversities and fertility. 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Postmenopausal hormone therapy and Alzheimer disease: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Imtiaz, Bushra; Tuppurainen, Marjo; Rikkonen, Toni; Kivipelto, Miia; Soininen, Hilkka; Kröger, Heikki; Tolppanen, Anna-Maija

    2017-03-14

    To explore the association between postmenopausal hormone therapy (HT) and Alzheimer disease (AD). Twenty-year follow-up data from the Kuopio Osteoporosis Risk Factor and Prevention study cohort were used. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to all women aged 47-56 years, residing in Kuopio Province starting in 1989 until 2009, every 5th year. Register-based information on HT prescriptions was available since 1995. Probable AD cases, based on DSM-IV and National Institute of Neurological and Communicative Disorders and Stroke-Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders Association criteria, were identified from the special reimbursement register (1999-2009). The study population included 8,195 women (227 cases of incident AD). Postmenopausal estrogen use was not associated with AD risk in register-based or self-reported data (hazard ratio/95% confidence interval 0.92/0.68-1.2, 0.99/0.75-1.3, respectively). Long-term self-reported postmenopausal HT was associated with reduced AD risk (0.53/0.31-0.91). Similar results were obtained with any dementia diagnosis in the hospital discharge register as an outcome. Our results do not provide strong evidence for a protective association between postmenopausal HT use and AD or dementia, although we observed a reduced AD risk among those with long-term self-reported HT use. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  8. Leukemia risk associated with chronic external exposure to ionizing radiation in a French cohort of nuclear workers.

    PubMed

    Metz-Flamant, C; Samson, E; Caër-Lorho, S; Acker, A; Laurier, D

    2012-11-01

    Leukemia is one of the earliest cancer effects observed after acute exposure to relatively high doses of ionizing radiation. Leukemia mortality after external exposure at low doses and low-dose rates has been investigated at the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) and Nuclear Fuel Company (AREVA NC) after an additional follow-up of 10 years. The cohort included radiation-monitored workers employed for at least one year during 1950-1994 at CEA or AREVA NC and followed during 1968-2004. Association between external exposure and leukemia mortality was estimated with excess relative risk (ERR) models and time-dependent modifying factors were investigated with time windows. The cohort included 36,769 workers, followed for an average of 28 years, among whom 73 leukemia deaths occurred. Among the workers with a positive recorded dose, the mean cumulative external dose was 21.7 mSv. Results under a 2-year lag assumption suggested that the risk of leukemia (except chronic lymphatic leukemia) increased significantly by 8% per 10 mSv. The magnitude of the association for myeloid leukemia was larger. The higher ERR/Sv for doses received 2-14 years earlier suggest that time since exposure modifies the effect. The ERR/Sv also appeared higher for doses received at exposure rates ≥20 mSv per year. These results are consistent with those found in other studies of nuclear workers. However, confidence intervals are still wide. Further analyses should be conducted in pooled cohorts of nuclear workers.

  9. Maternal caffeine consumption and infant nighttime waking: prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Santos, Iná S; Matijasevich, Alicia; Domingues, Marlos R

    2012-05-01

    Coffee and other caffeinated beverages are commonly consumed in pregnancy. In adults, caffeine may interfere with sleep onset and have a dose-response effect similar to those seen during insomnia. In infancy, nighttime waking is a common event. With this study, we aimed to investigate if maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy and lactation leads to frequent nocturnal awakening among infants at 3 months of age. All children born in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, during 2004 were enrolled on a cohort study. Mothers were interviewed at delivery and after 3 months to obtain information on caffeine drinking consumption, sociodemographic, reproductive, and behavioral characteristics. Infant sleeping pattern in the previous 15 days was obtained from a subsample. Night waking was defined as an episode of infant arousal that woke the parents during nighttime. Multivariable analysis was performed by using Poisson regression. The subsample included 885 of the 4231 infants born in 2004. All but 1 mother consumed caffeine in pregnancy. Nearly 20% were heavy consumers (≥300 mg/day) during pregnancy and 14.3% at 3 months postpartum. Prevalence of frequent nighttime awakeners (>3 episodes per night) was 13.8% (95% confidence interval: 11.5%-16.0%). The highest prevalence ratio was observed among breastfed infants from mothers consuming ≥300 mg/day during the whole pregnancy and in the postpartum period (1.65; 95% confidence interval: 0.86-3.17) but at a nonsignificant level. Caffeine consumption during pregnancy and by nursing mothers seems not to have consequences on sleep of infants at the age of 3 months.

  10. Maternal Caffeine Consumption and Infant Nighttime Waking: Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Iná S.; Matijasevich, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Coffee and other caffeinated beverages are commonly consumed in pregnancy. In adults, caffeine may interfere with sleep onset and have a dose-response effect similar to those seen during insomnia. In infancy, nighttime waking is a common event. With this study, we aimed to investigate if maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy and lactation leads to frequent nocturnal awakening among infants at 3 months of age. METHODS: All children born in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, during 2004 were enrolled on a cohort study. Mothers were interviewed at delivery and after 3 months to obtain information on caffeine drinking consumption, sociodemographic, reproductive, and behavioral characteristics. Infant sleeping pattern in the previous 15 days was obtained from a subsample. Night waking was defined as an episode of infant arousal that woke the parents during nighttime. Multivariable analysis was performed by using Poisson regression. RESULTS: The subsample included 885 of the 4231 infants born in 2004. All but 1 mother consumed caffeine in pregnancy. Nearly 20% were heavy consumers (≥300 mg/day) during pregnancy and 14.3% at 3 months postpartum. Prevalence of frequent nighttime awakeners (>3 episodes per night) was 13.8% (95% confidence interval: 11.5%–16.0%). The highest prevalence ratio was observed among breastfed infants from mothers consuming ≥300 mg/day during the whole pregnancy and in the postpartum period (1.65; 95% confidence interval: 0.86–3.17) but at a nonsignificant level. CONCLUSIONS: Caffeine consumption during pregnancy and by nursing mothers seems not to have consequences on sleep of infants at the age of 3 months. PMID:22473365

  11. Clinical features of celiac disease: a prospective birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Agardh, Daniel; Lee, Hye-Seung; Kurppa, Kalle; Simell, Ville; Aronsson, Carin Andrén; Jörneus, Ola; Hummel, Michael; Liu, Edwin; Koletzko, Sibylle

    2015-04-01

    To investigate clinical features of celiac disease (CD) and their association with risk factors for CD in a genetic risk birth cohort. Children from 6 clinical centers in 4 countries positive for HLA-DR3-DQ2 or DR4-DQ8 were annually screened for tissue transglutaminase antibodies (tTGA) and assessed for symptoms by questionnaires. Associations of symptoms with anthropometrics, known risk factors for CD, tTGA levels, and mucosal lesions in those biopsied were examined. Of 6706 screened children, 914 developed persistent positive tTGA, 406 underwent biopsies, and 340 had CD. Compared with age-matched tTGA-negative children, those with persistent tTGA were more likely to have symptoms at 2 (34% vs 19%, P < .001) and 3 years of age (28% vs 19%, P = .009) but not at 4 years (27% vs 21%, NS). Z-scores for height, weight, and BMI did not differ between groups. In children with persistent tTGA, having ≥ 1 symptom was associated with family history of CD (odds ratio = 2.59, 95% confidence interval, 1.21-5.57) but not with age, gender, or HLA-DR3-DQ2 homozygosity. At seroconversion, tTGA levels were higher in symptomatic than asymptomatic children (P < .001), in those from CD families (P < .001), and in US participants (P < .001) but not associated with age, gender, or HLA genotype. tTGA levels correlated with severity of mucosal lesions both in symptomatic (r = 0.53, P < .001) and asymptomatic children (r = 0.22, P = .01). A majority of children detected with persistent tTGA in screenings are asymptomatic and have normal growth by age 4 years. tTGA levels correlate more strongly with severity of mucosal lesions in symptomatic as compared with asymptomatic children. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Psychosocial work environment and antidepressant medication: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Bonde, Jens Peter E; Munch-Hansen, Torsten; Wieclaw, Joanna; Westergaard-Nielsen, Niels; Agerbo, Esben

    2009-01-01

    Background Adverse psychosocial work environments may lead to impaired mental health, but it is still a matter of conjecture if demonstrated associations are causal or biased. We aimed at verifying whether poor psychosocial working climate is related to increase of redeemed subscription of antidepressant medication. Methods Information on all antidepressant drugs (AD) purchased at pharmacies from 1995 through 2006 was obtained for a cohort of 21,129 Danish public service workers that participated in work climate surveys carried out during the period 2002–2005. Individual self-reports of psychosocial factors at work including satisfaction with the work climate and dimensions of the job strain model were obtained by self-administered questionnaires (response rate 77,2%). Each employee was assigned the average score value for all employees at his/her managerial work unit [1094 units with an average of 18 employees (range 3–120)]. The risk of first-time AD prescription during follow-up was examined according to level of satisfaction and psychosocial strain by Cox regression with adjustment for gender, age, marital status, occupational status and calendar year of the survey. Results The proportion of employees that received at least one prescription of ADs from 1995 through 2006 was 11.9% and prescriptions rose steadily from 1.50% in 1996 to the highest level 6.47% in 2006. ADs were prescribed more frequent among women, middle aged, employees with low occupational status and those living alone. None of the measured psychosocial work environment factors were consistently related to prescription of antidepressant drugs during the follow-up period. Conclusion The study does not indicate that a poor psychosocial work environment among public service employees is related to prescription of antidepressant pharmaceuticals. These findings need cautious interpretation because of lacking individual exposure assessments. PMID:19635130

  13. Work schedules and fatigue: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, N; van Amelsvoort, L G P M; Kristensen, T; van den Brandt, P A; Kant, I.

    2003-01-01

    Aims: (1) To describe the prevalence of fatigue among employees in different work schedules (day work, three-shift, five-shift, and irregular shift work); (2) to investigate whether different work schedules are related to increasing fatigue over time, while taking into account job title and job characteristics; and (3) to study fatigue among shift workers changing to day work. Methods: Data from nine consecutive four-monthly self administered questionnaires from the Maastricht Cohort Study on Fatigue at work (n = 12 095) were used with 32 months of follow up. Day and shift workers were matched on job title. Results: The prevalence of fatigue was 18.1% in day workers, 28.6% in three-shift, 23.7% in five-shift, and 19.1% in irregular shift workers. For three-shift and five-shift workers substantial higher fatigue levels were observed compared to day workers at baseline measurement. In the course of fatigue over the 32 months of follow up there were only small and insignificant differences between employees in different work schedules. However, among employees fatigued at baseline, fatigue levels decreased faster over time among five-shift workers compared to fatigued day workers. Shift workers changing to day work reported substantially higher fatigue levels prior to change, compared to those remaining in shift work. Conclusions: Substantial differences in fatigue existed between day and shift workers. However, as no considerable differences in the course of fatigue were found, these differences have probably developed within a limited time span after starting in a shift work job. Further, evidence was found that fatigue could be an important reason for quitting shift work and moving to day work. Finally, in the relation between work schedules and fatigue, perceived job characteristics might play an important role. PMID:12782747

  14. Tea Consumption and Endometrial Cancer Risk: Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies.

    PubMed

    Je, Youjin; Park, Taeyoung

    2015-01-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that tea consumption may reduce the risk of endometrial cancer due to antioxidant properties of tea, but the results of prospective data to date are inconsistent. We thus conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to examine the relationship between tea consumption and endometrial cancer risk, using a random-effects model. We identified 5 eligible cohort studies, which included 231,870 female participants and 1831 cases for endometrial cancer. The pooled relative risk (RR) for the highest (median 2 cups/day) vs. no/lowest category of tea consumption on endometrial cancer risk was 0.95 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.80-1.12] with no significant heterogeneity (P for heterogeneity = 0.68, I(2) = 0.0%). By country of origin, the pooled RR of 3 studies conducted in the United States was 1.00 (95% CI: 0.83-1.21), in which black tea was consumed by most people. Because of limited data on Asian population, the association of green tea on endometrial cancer was not calculated separately. There was no indication of publication bias (Begg's P = 0.46; Egger's P = 0.43). Our findings from prospective data do not support a role of tea consumption in endometrial carcinogenesis. More prospective cohort studies with green tea consumption should be conducted.

  15. Prescription of cardiovascular drugs in the French ODIN cohort of heart failure patients according to age and type of chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Juillière, Yves; Suty-Selton, Christine; Riant, Elisabeth; Darracq, Jean-Pierre; Dellinger, Arnaud; Labarre, Jean-Philippe; Druelle, Justine; Mulak, Geneviève; Danchin, Nicolas; Jourdain, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a frequent severe disease. Disease-management programmes, which contain a therapeutic patient education component, will play a central role in improving delivery of care and reducing mortality and hospitalizations for CHF. In order to have an up-to-date overview of medical treatment of CHF in France implemented by hospital and clinic cardiologists especially interested in CHF and therapeutic patient education, we described the prescription of cardiovascular drugs in the large ODIN cohort of CHF patients, according to age and type of CHF. From 2007 to 2010 (median follow-up 27.2 months), CHF patients were prospectively enrolled in a multicentre 'real-world' French cohort by centres previously trained in therapeutic patient education. Patients were grouped according to age (< 60 years, 60 to<70 years, 70 to<80 years and ≥ 80 years) and type of CHF (characterized by level of LVEF: reduced, borderline or preserved). Medical prescription was described and mortality was assessed at long-term follow-up. The cohort consisted of 3237 patients (67.6 years; 69.4% men). The oldest age group had the highest LVEF. Blockers of the angiotensin-aldosterone system were prescribed progressively and significantly less frequently as the population advanced in age or as LVEF was more preserved. The mean dosages of the main prescribed CHF drugs remained ≥ 50% lower than those recommended for most drugs in all age and LVEF groups. Drug prescriptions were related to aetiology of reduced or preserved CHF. A global decrease in CHF drug prescription was observed for all medication classes except calcium blockers, according to maintenance of relatively or totally preserved LVEF. Survival was related to age but not to type of CHF. In CHF, and despite management by cardiologists particularly interested in CHF and specifically trained to deliver therapeutic patient education, medical prescription differed substantially from guidelines. Age and type of CHF

  16. Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infection and Endocarditis - A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Le Moing, Vincent; Alla, François; Doco-Lecompte, Thanh; Delahaye, François; Piroth, Lionel; Chirouze, Catherine; Tattevin, Pierre; Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Erpelding, Marie-Line; Hoen, Bruno; Vandenesch, François; Duval, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To update the epidemiology of S. aureus bloodstream infection (SAB) in a high-income country and its link with infective endocarditis (IE). Methods All consecutive adult patients with incident SAB (n = 2008) were prospectively enrolled between 2009 and 2011 in 8 university hospitals in France. Results SAB was nosocomial in 54%, non-nosocomial healthcare related in 18% and community-acquired in 26%. Methicillin resistance was present in 19% of isolates. SAB Incidence of nosocomial SAB was 0.159/1000 patients-days of hospitalization (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.111-0.219). A deep focus of infection was detected in 37%, the two most frequent were IE (11%) and pneumonia (8%). The higher rates of IE were observed in injecting drug users (IE: 38%) and patients with prosthetic (IE: 33%) or native valve disease (IE: 20%) but 40% of IE occurred in patients without heart disease nor injecting drug use. IE was more frequent in case of community-acquired (IE: 21%, adjusted odds-ratio (aOR) = 2.9, CI = 2.0-4.3) or non-nosocomial healthcare-related SAB (IE: 12%, aOR = 2.3, CI = 1.4-3.5). S. aureus meningitis (IE: 59%), persistent bacteremia at 48 hours (IE: 25%) and C-reactive protein > 190 mg/L (IE: 15%) were also independently associated with IE. Criteria for severe sepsis or septic shock were met in 30% of SAB without IE (overall in hospital mortality rate 24%) and in 51% of IE (overall in hospital mortality rate 35%). Conclusion SAB is still a severe disease, mostly related to healthcare in a high-income country. IE is the most frequent complication and occurs frequently in patients without known predisposing conditions. PMID:26020939

  17. Optimism and Cause-Specific Mortality: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eric S; Hagan, Kaitlin A; Grodstein, Francine; DeMeo, Dawn L; De Vivo, Immaculata; Kubzansky, Laura D

    2017-01-01

    Growing evidence has linked positive psychological attributes like optimism to a lower risk of poor health outcomes, especially cardiovascular disease. It has been demonstrated in randomized trials that optimism can be learned. If associations between optimism and broader health outcomes are established, it may lead to novel interventions that improve public health and longevity. In the present study, we evaluated the association between optimism and cause-specific mortality in women after considering the role of potential confounding (sociodemographic characteristics, depression) and intermediary (health behaviors, health conditions) variables. We used prospective data from the Nurses' Health Study (n = 70,021). Dispositional optimism was measured in 2004; all-cause and cause-specific mortality rates were assessed from 2006 to 2012. Using Cox proportional hazard models, we found that a higher degree of optimism was associated with a lower mortality risk. After adjustment for sociodemographic confounders, compared with women in the lowest quartile of optimism, women in the highest quartile had a hazard ratio of 0.71 (95% confidence interval: 0.66, 0.76) for all-cause mortality. Adding health behaviors, health conditions, and depression attenuated but did not eliminate the associations (hazard ratio = 0.91, 95% confidence interval: 0.85, 0.97). Associations were maintained for various causes of death, including cancer, heart disease, stroke, respiratory disease, and infection. Given that optimism was associated with numerous causes of mortality, it may provide a valuable target for new research on strategies to improve health. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. A one season prospective cohort study of volleyball injuries

    PubMed Central

    Verhagen, E; Van der Beek, A J; Bouter, L; Bahr, R; Mechelen, W

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To estimate the overall incidence of acute and overuse volleyball injuries, and to describe factors associated with ankle sprains. Methods: 486 players from the second and third Dutch national volleyball divisions participated in the study and were followed prospectively during a whole season. Three measurements were made during the season (baseline, follow up 1, and follow up 2), where all players completed a questionnaire on demographic variables (only at baseline), sports participation, use of preventive measures, and previous injuries. Volleyball exposure during training and matches was recorded for each individual player by the coach on a weekly exposure form. In case of injury the coach provided the injured player with an injury registration form, which had to be completed within one week after the onset of injury. Results: 100 injuries were reported, resulting in an overall injury incidence of 2.6 injuries/1000 hours. The incidence of acute injuries was 2.0/1000 hours. Ankle sprains (n = 41) accounted for most of the acute injuries, and 31 (75%) of all players with an ankle sprain reported a previous ankle sprain. Twenty five overuse injuries were reported. The overall incidence of overuse injuries was 0.6/1000 hours; the back and the shoulder were the most common sites. Conclusions: Ankle sprain is the most common injury in volleyball, accounting for 41% of all volleyball related injuries. Previous injury seems to be an important risk factor for an ankle sprain. Injury prevention programmes should focus on ankle sprains and concentrate on players with previous ankle sprains. PMID:15273190

  19. Outcomes of borderline rheumatic heart disease: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bertaina, Geneviève; Rouchon, Bernard; Huon, Bertrand; Guillot, Nina; Robillard, Corinne; Noël, Baptiste; Nadra, Marie; Tribouilloy, Christophe; Marijon, Eloi; Jouven, Xavier; Mirabel, Mariana

    2017-02-01

    The advent of systematic screening for rheumatic heart disease (RHD) by echocardiography in endemic regions has led to a new entity: borderline RHD. The pathogenicity and natural history of borderline RHD needs to be addressed. The aim of this study was to assess the outcomes of children detected by echocardiography as having borderline RHD. Schoolchildren in 4th grade (i.e., aged 9-10years) who were prospectively echo-screened for RHD (2012-2014) in Nouméa, New Caledonia, were asked to participate. Children with borderline RHD according to consistent independent review by two cardiologists were included and followed-up in 2015. Among the 8684 schoolchildren screened, 49 were diagnosed with borderline RHD according to the Cardiologist clinically involved in the child's management plan. After independent review by two cardiologists, 25 children were consistently diagnosed with borderline RHD and included in the follow-up study. Overall, inter-observer agreement was moderate with diagnostic kappa values of 0.63 (95% CI 0.45-0.78). After a median follow-up of 23months (IQR (20.5-33.0), 15 children (60.0%) had stability of valvular lesions, 8 (32.0%) had normal findings according to the WHF criteria. Two children (8.0%) had definite RHD on the follow-up echocardiogram, but no clinical events or audible pathological murmur during the study period. No factor could be identified as prognostic of either stability or progression. Borderline RHD diagnosed by systematic screening in high-risk populations remains mostly unchanged at 2years follow-up. Diagnosis of borderline RHD may require two reviewers for consistency. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  20. Dietary and cancer-related behaviors of vitamin/mineral dietary supplement users in a large cohort of French women

    PubMed Central

    Touvier, Mathilde; Kesse, Emanuelle; Volatier, Jean-Luc; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine

    2006-01-01

    Summary Background Several epidemiological studies suggested an association between vitamin/mineral dietary supplement use and cancer risk. However, characteristics of supplement users may themselves be related to cancer risk, and therefore could confound such etiological studies. Very little is known about the characteristics of French supplement users. Aim of the study To identify cancer-related behaviors and dietary characteristics of vitamin/mineral supplement users in the E3N cohort of French women. Methods Data on supplement use and cancer-related and socio-demographic characteristics were collected by self-administered questionnaires completed by 83,058 women, 67,229 of whom also completed a food frequency questionnaire. Supplement users were compared to non-users by unconditional logistic regression. Results Vitamin/mineral supplement users were significantly older and leaner (odds ratio [OR] for BMI ≥ 30 vs. <18.5 kg/m2=0.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.31–0.39), were less often current smokers, had a higher level of education and had more leisure physical activity. They used more phytooestrogen supplements (OR=3.95, 95 % CI 3.69–4.23), had more often a family history of breast cancer and had more often undergone cancer-screening. Users tended to have a healthier diet: less alcohol, more vegetables, fruit, dairy products, fish and soups. They had higher dietary intakes for most micronutrients, fiber and ω3 fatty acids, lower fat intake and either similar or lower prevalence of inadequate dietary intake for all relevant nutrients except magnesium. Conclusions To avoid major confounding, the lifestyle characteristics of supplement users should be considered in studies investigating the association between supplement use and cancer risk. PMID:16382374

  1. Age at Menarche and Risk of Multiple Sclerosis: A Prospective Cohort Study Based on the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Harpsøe, Maria; Simonsen, Jacob; Stenager, Egon; Magyari, Melinda; Koch-Henriksen, Nils; Baker, Jennifer L; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Frisch, Morten; Bager, Peter

    2017-03-25

    Few studies have addressed the possible association between age at menarche and multiple sclerosis (MS), and results are conflicting. We studied this issue in a large prospective cohort study. The study cohort comprised 77,330 women included in the Danish National Birth Cohort (1996-2002). Information on menarcheal age was ascertained at the first interview, which took place in the 16th week of pregnancy. Women were followed for MS from the first interview to December 31, 2011. Associations between age at menarche and risk of MS were evaluated with hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals using Cox proportional hazards regression models. Overall, 226 women developed MS during an average follow-up period of 11.7 years. Age at menarche among women with MS was generally lower than that among women without MS (Wilcoxon rank-sum test; P = 0.002). We observed an inverse association between age at menarche and MS risk. For each 1-year increase in age at menarche, risk of MS was reduced by 13% (hazard ratio = 0.87, 95% confidence interval: 0.79, 0.96). Early age at menarche appears to be associated with an increased risk of MS. The mechanisms behind this association remain to be established.

  2. Effectiveness of Anti-Psychotics and Related Drugs in the Huntington French-Speaking Group Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Désaméricq, Gaëlle; Dolbeau, Guillaume; Verny, Christophe; Charles, Perrine; Durr, Alexandra; Youssov, Katia; Simonin, Clémence; Azulay, Jean-Philippe; Tranchant, Christine; Goizet, Cyril; Damier, Philippe; Broussolle, Emmanuel; Demonet, Jean-François; Morgado, Graca; de Langavant, Laurent Cleret; Macquin-Mavier, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Huntington's disease is a rare condition. Patients are commonly treated with antipsychotics and tetrabenazine. The evidence of their effect on disease progression is limited and no comparative study between these drugs has been conducted. We therefore compared the effectiveness of antipsychotics on disease progression. Methods: 956 patients from the Huntington French Speaking Group were followed for up to 8 years between 2002 and 2010. The effectiveness of treatments was assessed using Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale (UHDRS) scores and then compared using a mixed model adjusted on a multiple propensity score. Results: 63% of patients were treated with antipsychotics during the survey period. The most commonly prescribed medications were dibenzodiazepines (38%), risperidone (13%), tetrabenazine (12%) and benzamides (12%). There was no difference between treatments on the motor and behavioural declines observed, after taking the patient profiles at the start of the drug prescription into account. In contrast, the functional decline was lower in the dibenzodiazepine group than the other antipsychotic groups (Total Functional Capacity: 0.41±0.17 units per year vs. risperidone and 0.54±0.19 vs. tetrabenazine, both p<0.05). Benzamides were less effective than other antipsychotics on cognitive evolution (Stroop interference, Stroop color and Literal fluency: p<0.05). Conclusions: Antipsychotics are widely used to treat patients with Huntington's disease. Although differences in motor or behavioural profiles between patients according to the antipsychotics used were small, there were differences in drug effectiveness on the evolution of functional and cognitive scores. PMID:24454865

  3. Testosterone deficiency and quality of life in Australasian testicular cancer survivors: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    O'Carrigan, B; Fournier, M; Olver, I N; Stockler, M R; Whitford, H; Toner, G C; Thomson, D B; Davis, I D; Hanning, F; Singhal, N; Underhill, C; Clingan, P; McDonald, A; Boland, A; Grimison, P

    2014-08-01

    This is the first prospective study in a contemporary Australian/New Zealand population to determine the prevalence of testosterone deficiency in testicular cancer survivors at 12 months from treatment, and any association with poorer quality of life. Hormone assays from 54 evaluable patients in a prospective cohort study revealed biochemical hypogonadism in 18 patients (33%) and low-normal testosterone in 13 patients (24%). We found no association between testosterone levels and quality of life (all P > 0.05). Hypogonadal patients should be considered for testosterone replacement to prevent long-term morbidity.

  4. French cohort of the uranium processing workers: mortality pattern after 30-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Guseva Canu, Irina; Cardis, Elisabeth; Metz-Flamant, Camille; Caër-Lorho, Sylvaine; Auriol, Bernard; Wild, Pascal; Laurier, Dominique; Tirmarche, Margot

    2010-03-01

    To investigate mortality among nuclear workers with potential internal exposure to uranium. The cohort included 2,709 workers employed at the AREVA NC Pierrelatte plant for at least 6 months (72,787 person-years). This plant processed uranium enrichment during the period 1960-1996 and chemical conversion since 1980. Mortality was compared to the national and regional mortality rates available for the period 1968-2005. For causes of death of interest with respect to occupational exposure, mortality trends according to occupational characteristics were assessed. As expected, an important healthy worker effect (all causes SMR = 0.55 (95% CI: 0.50-0.61), n = 411; all cancers SMR = 0.70 (95% CI: 0.60-0.81), n = 193) was observed. Among cancer sites a priori related to uranium exposure, only mortality for lymphatic cancer was increased among potentially exposed workers (SMR = 1.49 (95% CI: 0.68-2.82); n = 9). An important increase in mortality from pleural cancer was observed (SMR = 2.85 (95% CI: 0.93-6.66), n = 5); none of the deceased workers were exposed to radiation whereas all handled asbestos. In spite of limited statistical power, results show consistency with previous studies of nuclear workers potentially exposed to uranium. Further investigation based on more precise uranium exposure data should allow the estimation of uranium hazard effects among this cohort.

  5. The French Chronic Kidney Disease-Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (CKD-REIN) cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, Bénédicte; Combe, Christian; Jacquelinet, Christian; Briançon, Serge; Fouque, Denis; Laville, Maurice; Frimat, Luc; Pascal, Christophe; Herpe, Yves-Edouard; Deleuze, Jean-François; Schanstra, Joost; Pisoni, Ron L.; Robinson, Bruce M.; Massy, Ziad A.

    2014-01-01

    Background While much has been learned about the epidemiology and treatment of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the last 30 years, chronic kidney disease (CKD) before the end-stage has been less investigated. Not enough is known about factors associated with CKD progression and complications, as well as its transition to ESRD. We designed the CKD-renal epidemiology and information network (REIN) cohort to provide a research platform to address these key questions and to assess clinical practices and costs in patients with moderate or advanced CKD. Methods A total of 46 clinic sites and 4 renal care networks participate in the cohort. A stratified selection of clinic sites yields a sample that represents a diversity of settings, e.g. geographic region, and public versus for-profit and non-for-profit private clinics. In each site, 60–90 patients with CKD are enrolled at a routine clinic visit during a 12-month enrolment phase: 3600 total, including 1800 with Stage 3 and 1800 with Stage 4 CKD. Follow-up will continue for 5 years, including after initiation of renal replacement therapy. Data will be collected from medical records at inclusion and at yearly intervals, as well as from self-administered patient questionnaires and provider-level questionnaires. Patients will also be interviewed at baseline, and at 1, 3 and 5 years. Healthcare costs will also be determined. Blood and urine samples will be collected and stored for future studies on all patients at enrolment and at study end, and at 1 and 3 years in a subsample of 1200. Conclusions The CKD-REIN cohort will serve to improve our understanding of the biological, clinical and healthcare system determinants associated with CKD progression and adverse outcomes as well as of international variations in collaboration with the CKD Outcome and Practice Pattern Study (CKDopps). It will foster CKD epidemiology and outcomes research and provide evidence to improve the health and quality of life of patients with CKD and

  6. The French Chronic Kidney Disease-Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (CKD-REIN) cohort study.

    PubMed

    Stengel, Bénédicte; Combe, Christian; Jacquelinet, Christian; Briançon, Serge; Fouque, Denis; Laville, Maurice; Frimat, Luc; Pascal, Christophe; Herpe, Yves-Edouard; Deleuze, Jean-François; Schanstra, Joost; Pisoni, Ron L; Robinson, Bruce M; Massy, Ziad A

    2014-08-01

    While much has been learned about the epidemiology and treatment of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the last 30 years, chronic kidney disease (CKD) before the end-stage has been less investigated. Not enough is known about factors associated with CKD progression and complications, as well as its transition to ESRD. We designed the CKD-renal epidemiology and information network (REIN) cohort to provide a research platform to address these key questions and to assess clinical practices and costs in patients with moderate or advanced CKD. A total of 46 clinic sites and 4 renal care networks participate in the cohort. A stratified selection of clinic sites yields a sample that represents a diversity of settings, e.g. geographic region, and public versus for-profit and non-for-profit private clinics. In each site, 60-90 patients with CKD are enrolled at a routine clinic visit during a 12-month enrolment phase: 3600 total, including 1800 with Stage 3 and 1800 with Stage 4 CKD. Follow-up will continue for 5 years, including after initiation of renal replacement therapy. Data will be collected from medical records at inclusion and at yearly intervals, as well as from self-administered patient questionnaires and provider-level questionnaires. Patients will also be interviewed at baseline, and at 1, 3 and 5 years. Healthcare costs will also be determined. Blood and urine samples will be collected and stored for future studies on all patients at enrolment and at study end, and at 1 and 3 years in a subsample of 1200. The CKD-REIN cohort will serve to improve our understanding of the biological, clinical and healthcare system determinants associated with CKD progression and adverse outcomes as well as of international variations in collaboration with the CKD Outcome and Practice Pattern Study (CKDopps). It will foster CKD epidemiology and outcomes research and provide evidence to improve the health and quality of life of patients with CKD and the performances of the

  7. Association between self-reported vegetarian diet and the irritable bowel syndrome in the French NutriNet cohort.

    PubMed

    Buscail, Camille; Sabate, Jean-Marc; Bouchoucha, Michel; Torres, Marion J; Allès, Benjamin; Hercberg, Serge; Benamouzig, Robert; Julia, Chantal

    2017-01-01

    There is growing interest in using diet counselling in the management of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Among new emerging diets, vegetarian diets (VD) seem to be experiencing an important popularity, partly because of their alleged health benefits. A recent study performed among a rural Indian population showed that predominant VD could be associated with IBS. This cross-sectional study aimed at assessing the association between the VD and IBS, among a large French cohort, the NutriNet-santé study. Subjects participating in the NutriNet-Santé cohort study completed a questionnaire based on Rome III criteria (N = 41,682). Anthropometrics, socio-demographical and lifestyle data, including VD, were collected prior to the completion of Rome III questionnaire via self-administered questionnaires. Association between VD and IBS and its subtypes was investigated through multivariate logistic regression. The included subjects were mainly women (78.0%) and the mean age was 49.8±14.3 years. Among these individuals, 2,264 (5.4%) presented an IBS, and 805 (1.9%) reported a VD. Overall, VD was not associated with IBS or subtypes. A stable VD (i.e. self-declared at least three times) was associated with IBS (aOR 2.60 95%CI [1.37-4.91]), IBS mixed (aOR 2.97 95%CI [1.20-7.36]) and IBS diarrhoea (aOR 2.77 95%CI [1.01-7.59]). This study suggests that a long term VD could be associated with IBS. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to confirm these results, and investigate the multiple aspects of the vegetarian diet, possibly related to the IBS.

  8. Association between self-reported vegetarian diet and the irritable bowel syndrome in the French NutriNet cohort

    PubMed Central

    Sabate, Jean-Marc; Bouchoucha, Michel; Torres, Marion J.; Allès, Benjamin; Hercberg, Serge; Benamouzig, Robert; Julia, Chantal

    2017-01-01

    Background There is growing interest in using diet counselling in the management of patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Among new emerging diets, vegetarian diets (VD) seem to be experiencing an important popularity, partly because of their alleged health benefits. A recent study performed among a rural Indian population showed that predominant VD could be associated with IBS. Objective This cross-sectional study aimed at assessing the association between the VD and IBS, among a large French cohort, the NutriNet-santé study. Methods Subjects participating in the NutriNet-Santé cohort study completed a questionnaire based on Rome III criteria (N = 41,682). Anthropometrics, socio-demographical and lifestyle data, including VD, were collected prior to the completion of Rome III questionnaire via self-administered questionnaires. Association between VD and IBS and its subtypes was investigated through multivariate logistic regression. Results The included subjects were mainly women (78.0%) and the mean age was 49.8±14.3 years. Among these individuals, 2,264 (5.4%) presented an IBS, and 805 (1.9%) reported a VD. Overall, VD was not associated with IBS or subtypes. A stable VD (i.e. self-declared at least three times) was associated with IBS (aOR 2.60 95%CI [1.37–4.91]), IBS mixed (aOR 2.97 95%CI [1.20–7.36]) and IBS diarrhoea (aOR 2.77 95%CI [1.01–7.59]). Conclusions This study suggests that a long term VD could be associated with IBS. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to confirm these results, and investigate the multiple aspects of the vegetarian diet, possibly related to the IBS. PMID:28841661

  9. Hearing impairment and risk of Alzheimer's disease: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuqiu; Fan, Shengnuo; Liao, Wang; Fang, Wenli; Xiao, Songhua; Liu, Jun

    2017-02-01

    Observational studies suggested an association between hearing impairment and cognitive disorders. However, whether hearing impairment is an independent risk factor or a harbinger of Alzheimer's disease remains controversial. Our goal was to assess the association between hearing impairment (HI) and the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by conducting a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. We comprehensively searched the PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane Library databases on January 19, 2016 to incorporate all the prospective cohort studies meeting the inclusion criteria to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis. Four prospective cohort studies with comparison between hearing impairment and normal hearing were incorporated, with 7461 participants. The outcomes of three studies were the incidence of Alzheimer's disease and the outcome of the fourth study was the incidence of mild cognitive impairment. The overall combined relative risk of people with hearing impairment to develop Alzheimer's disease was 4.87 (95% CI 0.90-26.35; p = 0.066), compared with the control group. Since both Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment are cognitive disorders, we incorporated all the four studies and the overall combined relative risk was 2.82 (95% CI 1.47-5.42; p = 0.002), indicating that the difference was significant. This meta-analysis suggests that hearing impairment significantly increases the risk of cognitive disorders and future well-designed prospective cohort studies are awaited to confirm the association between hearing impairment and risk of Alzheimer's disease.

  10. Mercury Exposure and Risk of Hypertension in US Men and Women in Two Prospective Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffarian, Dariush; Shi, Peilin; Morris, J. Steven; Grandjean, Philippe; Siscovick, David S.; Spiegelman, Donna; Willett, Walter C.; Rimm, Eric B.; Curhan, Gary C.; Forman, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies and animal-experiments suggest that methylmercury exposure could increase risk of hypertension. This relationship has not been evaluated in large prospective studies. Using data from prior nested case-control studies in two separate prospective cohorts, we measured toenail mercury, a valid biomarker of long-term methylmercury exposure, among 6,045 US men and women free of hypertension at baseline. Median toenail mercury concentrations were 0.09 μg/g in the lowest quintile and 0.64 μg/g in the highest quintile, the latter corresponding to exposures about 1.7-fold higher than the EPA reference dose (RfD). Participants were followed prospectively (mean±SD=14.9±7.9 years) for a new self-report of physician-diagnosed hypertension (3,540 cases), shown to be >95% sensitive and specific for diagnosing hypertension in these cohorts as compared with review of medical records and direct blood pressure measurement, respectively. After adjustment for demographic, clinical, and lifestyle risk factors, the hazard ratio (95% CI) for incident hypertension in the highest vs. lowest quintile of mercury exposure was 0.96 (0.84–1.09) in women, 0.82 (0.62–1.08) in men, and 0.94 (0.84–1.06) in both cohorts combined. Findings were similar when more extreme categories of mercury were compared (across deciles, with median levels in highest decile about 2.5-fold higher than the RfD); and in analyses stratified by fish or omega-3 consumption, selenium levels, body mass index, and age. These findings from two separate large prospective cohort studies do not support any clinically apparent adverse effects of methylmercury exposure on risk of hypertension in men or women, including at levels up to 2.5-fold higher than the RfD. PMID:22868395

  11. Current developments and prospects for the future: French security policy in a changing world. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, J.M.

    1991-06-01

    This thesis provides an analysis of the effects of recent historical events on the future of French security policy. The end of the Cold War division of Europe, the rebirth of Germany, the growing pressures for major defense cuts, the calls for France to review its nuclear doctrine, abandon its independent policies and rejoin NATO's integrated military structure, and finally, the lessons of the recent Gulf War, are issues that threaten to divide France in a way that has not occurred in several decades. The fundamental question for the decade of the 1990s is how to, or perhaps whether to, preserve the legacy of national independence and grandeur handed down by former President Charles de Gaulle. The thesis concludes that the Gaullist myth of grandeur and independence can no longer be sustained. French security must now be achieved by strengthening ties with NATO, and building a stronger West European defense posture centered around close Franco-German relations.

  12. Coffee consumption and risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shiyi; Liu, Ling; Yin, Xiaoxu; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Junan; Lu, Zuxun

    2014-02-01

    Observational studies and animal evidence suggest an association between coffee consumption and the risk of prostate cancer. However, the results are inconsistent. We evaluated the association by conducting a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. PubMed and Embase were searched through June 2013 to identify studies that met predetermined inclusion criterion. A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled risk estimates. Ten prospective cohort studies involving 8973 patients with prostate cancer and 206 096 participants were included in this systematic review. Compared with individuals who seldom or never drink coffee, the pooled relative risk of prostate cancer was 0.88 (95% confidence interval: 0.82-0.95) for regular coffee drinkers. Exclusion of any single study did not materially alter the combined risk estimate. Visual inspection of a funnel plot and Begg's and Egger's tests did not indicate evidence of publication bias. In summary, integrated evidence from prospective cohort studies supports the hypothesis that coffee consumption may decrease the risk of prostate cancer.

  13. Effect of coffee intake on hip fracture: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuai; Dai, Zhipeng; Wu, Qiang

    2015-04-18

    Several observational studies suggest an association between coffee intake and hip fracture risk. However, the results among them are inconsistent. We aimed to evaluate the association between coffee consumption and risk of hip fracture by performing a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched through July 2014 to identify studies that met pre-stated inclusion criterion and reference lists of retrieved articles were reviewed. Information on the characteristics of the included study, risk estimates, and control for possible confounding factors were extracted independently by two authors. A random effects model of meta-analysis was used to calculate the pooled risk estimate. Ten prospective cohort studies involving 5408 patients with hip fracture and 205,930 participants were included in this systematic review. Compared with individuals who did not or seldom drink coffee, the pooled relative risks of hip fracture was 1.13 (95% confidence interval: 0.86 to 1.48) for individuals with the highest coffee consumption. Exception of any single study did not materially alter the combined risk estimate. Visual inspection of funnel plot and Begg's and Egger's tests did not indicate evidence of publication bias. In summary, integrated evidence from prospective cohort studies does not suggest a statistically significant association between coffee consumption and risk of hip fracture in developed countries.

  14. Current Developments and Prospects for the Future: French Security Policy in a Changing World

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    This new world power would assert a more independent role in the new era of detente and would compete economically against America and Japan . Mitterrand...January 1963 (Elysee Treaty), which provided for the coordination of the two countries’ policies in foreign affairs, defense, information and cultural ...role, the French along with the U.S. and other Western allies successfully turned aside the :-utgestion from some East 15 Jo1 coff " , "’Ce.. .ny After

  15. Longitudinal study of associations between perceived health status and self reported diseases in the French Gazel cohort

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, P; Gueguen, A; Schmaus, A; Nakache, J; Goldberg, M

    2001-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE—Although perceived health status is an indicator widely used in epidemiological studies, its relation to various diseases is not well known. The objective of this study is to examine these relations in detail.
DESIGN—Marginal models used for a longitudinal study of the association between three health scales and 47 diseases among 12 164 men and 44 diseases among 4415 women.
SETTING—French Gazel cohort during the period from 1991 to 1996.
MAIN RESULTS—The general health status scale was significantly associated with 43 diseases among men, and 31 among women. Some of these significantly associated diseases were physical (for example, cancer and cerebrovascular accident) and others, psychological (for example, depression). The mental fatigue scale was more specifically associated with psychological disorders, including sleep problems, depression, and nervous diseases. Moreover, modifications in subjects' assessment of their health from one year to the next were generally associated with modifications in reported diseases.
CONCLUSION—Although the mechanism that relates the presence of a disease to perceived health status remains in question, these results show clearly that there is a close association between these two domains that justifies the use of perceived health as a proxy for self reported diseases.


Keywords: marginal model; health scale; self rated disease PMID:11238577

  16. Psychological factors associated with development of TMD: the OPPERA prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Fillingim, Roger B; Ohrbach, Richard; Greenspan, Joel D; Knott, Charles; Diatchenko, Luda; Dubner, Ronald; Bair, Eric; Baraian, Cristina; Mack, Nicole; Slade, Gary D; Maixner, William

    2013-12-01

    Case-control studies have consistently associated psychological factors with chronic pain in general and with temporomandibular disorder (TMD) specifically. However, only a handful of prospective studies have explored whether preexisting psychological characteristics represent risk factors for first-onset TMD. The current findings derive from the prospective cohort study of the Orofacial Pain: Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment (OPPERA) cooperative agreement. For this study, 3,263 TMD-free participants completed a battery of psychological instruments assessing general psychological adjustment and personality, affective distress, psychosocial stress, somatic symptoms, and pain coping and catastrophizing. Study participants were then followed prospectively for an average of 2.8 years to ascertain cases of first-onset of TMD, and 2,737 provided follow-up data and were considered in the analyses of TMD onset. In bivariate and demographically adjusted analyses, several psychological variables predicted increased risk of first-onset TMD, including reported somatic symptoms, psychosocial stress, and affective distress. Principal component analysis of 26 psychological scores was used to identify latent constructs, revealing 4 components: stress and negative affectivity, global psychological and somatic symptoms, passive pain coping, and active pain coping. In multivariable analyses, global psychological and somatic symptoms emerged as the most robust risk factor for incident TMD. These findings provide evidence that measures of psychological functioning can predict first onset of TMD. Future analyses in the OPPERA cohort will determine whether these psychological factors interact with other variables to increase risk for TMD onset and persistence. This article reports that several premorbid psychological variables predict first-onset TMD in the OPPERA study, a large prospective cohort study designed to discover causal determinants of TMD pain. Measures of somatic

  17. Evaluation of the Pooled Cohort Equations for Prediction of Cardiovascular Risk in a Contemporary Prospective Cohort.

    PubMed

    Emdin, Connor A; Khera, Amit V; Natarajan, Pradeep; Klarin, Derek; Baber, Usman; Mehran, Roxana; Rader, Daniel J; Fuster, Valentin; Kathiresan, Sekar

    2017-03-15

    Most guidelines suggest a baseline risk assessment to guide atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) prevention strategies. The American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Pooled Cohort Equations (PCEs) is one tool to assess baseline risk; however, the accuracy of this tool has been called into question. We aimed to examine the calibration and discrimination of the PCEs in the BioImage study, a contemporary multiethnic cohort of asymptomatic adults enrolled from 2008 to 2009 in the Humana Health System in Chicago, Illinois, and Fort Lauderdale, Florida. Our primary end point was hard ASCVD, defined as cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, and stroke. A total of 3,635 adults who were not on lipid-lowering therapy at baseline were followed for a maximum of 4.6 years. The mean age was 68.6 years; 2000 (55%) participants were women and 935 patients reported being of non-white race (26%). Although 74 ASCVD events were observed over a median follow-up of 2.7 years, 198 events were predicted by the PCEs. The observed event rate was 7.9 per 1,000 participant-years (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.1 to 9.8), whereas the predicted rate by the PCEs was 21 per 1,000 participant-years (95% CI 20.7 to 21.8). This represents an overestimation of 167% (Hosmer-Lemeshow chi-square = 173; p <0.001). With regard to discrimination, the C-statistic of the PCEs was 0.65 (CI 0.58 to 0.71). In an analysis restricted to 3,080 participants without diabetes mellitus and with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol between 70 and 189 mg/dl, the PCEs similarly overestimated risk by 181% (152 predicted events vs 54 observed events; p <0.001). The PCEs substantially overestimate ASCVD risk in this middle-aged adult insured population. Refinement of existing risk prediction functions may be warranted.

  18. A single cohort prospective trial of the immediate effects of spinal manipulation on visual acuity

    PubMed Central

    Athaide, Michelle; Rego, Carol; Budgell, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: There is no high quality evidence on which to judge the generalizability of isolated reports of improvement in vision following manipulation. The current paucity of research results also precludes the thoughtful design of a controlled, prospective clinical study. Hence, the purpose of the current study was to test the feasibility of conducting a clinical trial of the acute effects of spinal manipulation on visual acuity. Methods: New adult patients presenting to a community based chiropractic clinic were recruited into a single cohort prospective trial to determine the immediate effects of cervical spinal manipulation on visual acuity. Results: The experimental protocol was well accepted by patients and caused minimal or no disruption of the clinic routine. By some measures, chiropractic treatment was accompanied by statistically significant improvements in visual acuity. Discussion: The results of this study indicate that it is quite feasible to conduct a prospective, community based clinical study of the acute effects of spinal manipulation on visual acuity. PMID:27069271

  19. Pulmonary Outcome Differences in U.S. and French Cystic Fibrosis Cohorts Diagnosed through Newborn Screening

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Aimee C.; Rault, Gilles; Li, Zhanhai; Scotet, Virginie; Duguépéroux, Ingrid; Férec, Claude; Roussey, Michel; Laxova, Anita; Farrell, Philip M.

    2009-01-01

    Background A comparison of the longitudinal progression of lung disease in cystic fibrosis patients identified through newborn screening (NBS) in cohorts located in two different countries has never been performed and was the primary objective of this study. Methods The study included 56 patients in Brittany diagnosed through NBS between 1989 and 1994 and 69 similar patients in Wisconsin between 1985 and 1994. The onset and progression of lung disease was radiographically quantified using the Wisconsin Chest X-ray (WCXR) scoring system. A single pediatric pulmonologist blinded to all identifiers scored the films. Results Generalized estimating equation analyses adjusted for age, genotype, sex, pancreatic insufficiency, and meconium ileus showed worse WCXR scores in Brittany patients compared to Wisconsin patients (average score difference=4.48; p<0.001). Percent predicted FEV1 was also worse among Brittany patients (p<0.001). Conclusions The finding of milder radiographically-quantified lung disease using the WCXR scoring system, as well as better FEV1 values, may be explained by variations in nutrition, environmental exposures, or healthcare delivery. PMID:19926349

  20. Neighbourhood deprivation and very preterm birth in an English and French cohort

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Social factors affect the risk of very preterm birth and may affect subsequent outcomes in those born preterm. We assessed the influence of neighbourhood socio-economic characteristics on the risk and outcomes of singleton very preterm birth (<32 weeks of gestation) in two European regions with different health systems. Methods Live births (n=1118) from a population-based cohort of very preterm infants in 2003 in Trent (UK) and Ile-de-France (France) regions were geocoded to their neighbourhood census tracts. Odds ratios for very preterm singleton birth by neighbourhood characteristics (unemployment rate, proportion manual workers, proportion with high school education only, non home ownership) were computed using infants enumerated in the census as a control population. The impact of neighbourhood variables was further assessed by pregnancy and delivery characteristics and short term infant outcomes. Results Risk of very preterm singleton birth was higher in more deprived neighbourhoods in both regions (OR between 2.5 and 1.5 in the most versus least deprived quartiles). No consistent associations were found between neighbourhood deprivation and maternal characteristics or health outcomes for very preterm births, although infants in more deprived neighbourhoods were less likely to be breastfed at discharge. Conclusions Neighbourhood deprivation had a strong consistent impact on the risk of singleton very preterm birth in two European regions, but did not appear to be associated with maternal characteristics or infant outcomes. Differences in breastfeeding at discharge suggest that socio-economic factors may affect long term outcomes. PMID:23617598

  1. Dealing with missing data in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression self-report scale: a study based on the French E3N cohort

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression scale (CES-D) is a validated tool commonly used to screen depressive symptoms. As with any self-administered questionnaire, missing data are frequently observed and can strongly bias any inference. The objective of this study was to investigate the best approach for handling missing data in the CES-D scale. Methods Among the 71,412 women from the French E3N prospective cohort (Etude Epidémiologique auprès des femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l’Education Nationale) who returned the questionnaire comprising the CES-D scale in 2005, 45% had missing values in the scale. The reasons for failure to complete certain items were investigated by semi-directive interviews on a random sample of 204 participants. The prevalence of high depressive symptoms (score ≥16, hDS) was estimated after applying various methods for ignorable missing data including multiple imputation using imputation models with CES-D items with or without covariates. The accuracy of imputation models was investigated. Various scenarios of nonignorable missing data mechanisms were investigated by a sensitivity analysis based on the mixture modelling approach. Results The interviews showed that participants were not reluctant to answer the CES-D scale. Possible reasons for nonresponse were identified. The prevalence of hDS among complete responders was 26.1%. After multiple imputation, the prevalence was 28.6%, 29.8% and 31.7% for women presenting up to 4, 10 and 20 missing values, respectively. The estimates were robust to the various imputation models investigated and to the scenarios of nonignorable missing data. Conclusions The CES-D scale can easily be used in large cohorts even in the presence of missing data. Based on the results from both a qualitative study and a sensitivity analysis under various scenarios of missing data mechanism in a population of women, missing data mechanism does not appear to be nonignorable and estimates

  2. Dealing with missing data in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression self-report scale: a study based on the French E3N cohort.

    PubMed

    Resseguier, Noémie; Verdoux, Hélène; Giorgi, Roch; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Paoletti, Xavier

    2013-02-21

    The Center for Epidemiologic Studies - Depression scale (CES-D) is a validated tool commonly used to screen depressive symptoms. As with any self-administered questionnaire, missing data are frequently observed and can strongly bias any inference. The objective of this study was to investigate the best approach for handling missing data in the CES-D scale. Among the 71,412 women from the French E3N prospective cohort (Etude Epidémiologique auprès des femmes de la Mutuelle Générale de l'Education Nationale) who returned the questionnaire comprising the CES-D scale in 2005, 45% had missing values in the scale. The reasons for failure to complete certain items were investigated by semi-directive interviews on a random sample of 204 participants. The prevalence of high depressive symptoms (score ≥ 16, hDS) was estimated after applying various methods for ignorable missing data including multiple imputation using imputation models with CES-D items with or without covariates. The accuracy of imputation models was investigated. Various scenarios of nonignorable missing data mechanisms were investigated by a sensitivity analysis based on the mixture modelling approach. The interviews showed that participants were not reluctant to answer the CES-D scale. Possible reasons for nonresponse were identified. The prevalence of hDS among complete responders was 26.1%. After multiple imputation, the prevalence was 28.6%, 29.8% and 31.7% for women presenting up to 4, 10 and 20 missing values, respectively. The estimates were robust to the various imputation models investigated and to the scenarios of nonignorable missing data. The CES-D scale can easily be used in large cohorts even in the presence of missing data. Based on the results from both a qualitative study and a sensitivity analysis under various scenarios of missing data mechanism in a population of women, missing data mechanism does not appear to be nonignorable and estimates are robust to departures from

  3. Red and processed meat intake and cancer risk: Results from the prospective NutriNet-Santé cohort study.

    PubMed

    Diallo, Abou; Deschasaux, Mélanie; Latino-Martel, Paule; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar; Fassier, Philippine; Allès, Benjamin; Guéraud, Françoise; Pierre, Fabrice H; Touvier, Mathilde

    2017-09-15

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer (WHO-IARC) classified red meat and processed meat as probably carcinogenic and carcinogenic for humans, respectively. These conclusions were mainly based on studies concerning colorectal cancer, but scientific evidence is still limited for other cancer locations. In this study, we investigated the prospective associations between red and processed meat intakes and overall, breast, and prostate cancer risk. This prospective study included 61,476 men and women of the French NutriNet-Santé cohort (2009-2015) aged ≥35y and who completed at least 3 24h dietary records during the first year of follow-up. The risk of developing cancer was compared across sex-specific quintiles of red and processed meat intakes by multivariable Cox models. 1,609 first primary incident cancer cases were diagnosed during follow-up, among which 544 breast cancers and 222 prostate cancers. Red meat intake was associated with increased risk of overall cancers (HRQ5vs.Q1 =1.31 (1.10-1.55), Ptrend =0.01) and breast cancer (HRQ5vs.Q1 =1.83 (1.33-2.51), Ptrend =0.002). The latter association was observed in both premenopausal (HRQ5vs.Q1 =2.04 (1.03-4.06)) and postmenopausal women (HRQ5vs.Q1 =1.79 (1.26-2.55)). No association was observed between red meat intake and prostate cancer risk. Processed meat intake was relatively low in this study (cut-offs for the 5(th) quintile=46g/d in men and 29g/d in women) and was not associated with overall, breast or prostate cancer risk. This large cohort study suggested that red meat may be involved carcinogenesis at several cancer locations (other than colon-rectum), in particular breast cancer. These results are consistent with mechanistic evidence from experimental studies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2017 UICC.

  4. Opium use and mortality in Golestan Cohort Study: prospective cohort study of 50,000 adults in Iran.

    PubMed

    Khademi, Hooman; Malekzadeh, Reza; Pourshams, Akram; Jafari, Elham; Salahi, Rasool; Semnani, Shahryar; Abaie, Behrooz; Islami, Farhad; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Etemadi, Arash; Byrnes, Graham; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M; Day, Nicholas E; Pharoah, Paul D; Boffetta, Paolo; Brennan, Paul; Kamangar, Farin

    2012-04-17

    To investigate the association between opium use and subsequent risk of death. Prospective cohort study. The Golestan Cohort Study in north-eastern Iran collected detailed validated data on opium use and other exposures at baseline. Participants were enrolled between January 2004 and June 2008 and were followed to May 2011, with a follow-up success rate of over 99%. 50,045 participants aged 40-75 at baseline. Mortality, all cause and major subcategories. 17% (n = 8487) of the participants reported opium use, with a mean duration of 12.7 years. During the follow-up period 2145 deaths were reported. The adjusted hazard ratio for all cause mortality associated with ever use of opium was 1.86 (95% confidence interval 1.68 to 2.06). Opium consumption was significantly associated with increased risks of deaths from several causes including circulatory diseases (hazard ratio 1.81) and cancer (1.61). The strongest associations were seen with deaths from asthma, tuberculosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (11.0, 6.22, and 5.44, respectively). After exclusion of people who self prescribed opium after the onset of major chronic illnesses, the associations remained strong with a dose-response relation. Opium users have an increased risk of death from multiple causes compared with non-users. Increased risks were also seen in people who used low amounts of opium for a long period and those who had no major illness before use.

  5. The PROSPECTS study: design of a prospective cohort study on prognosis and perpetuating factors of medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS).

    PubMed

    van Dessel, Nikki; Leone, Stephanie S; van der Wouden, Johannes C; Dekker, Joost; van der Horst, Henriëtte E

    2014-03-01

    This paper describes the rationale and methodology of the PROSPECTS study, a study which aims to assess the course and prognosis of medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS), in terms of symptom severity and physical and social functioning. Additionally, it aims to identify different course types and to determine which factors are associated with these course types. Based on these factors, one or more prediction models will be developed. This study is a prospective, multicenter longitudinal cohort study with 1 baseline and 4 follow-up measurements during a 3 year period. 450 MUPS patients (age 18-70 years) will be included, divided over a primary care group, recruited in general practices, and a secondary/tertiary care group, recruited in specialized MUPS care programs. Primary outcome measures are severity of symptoms and degree of functional impairment. Secondary outcome measures are health care consumption and level of depressive symptoms and anxiety. Potential predictors are based on current theoretical models describing the perpetuation of MUPS and include somatic, psychological and social factors. Latent Class Growth Mixture Modeling will be used to identify distinct course types. Logistic regression analysis will be used to identify risk factors associated with these course types. Finally, one or more multivariate prediction models for the course of MUPS will be developed and tested. The PROSPECTS study aims to enhance our insight into the course of MUPS, thus contributing to better recognition of future patients at risk for persistent MUPS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. External validation of prognostic models to predict risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in one Dutch cohort: prospective multicentre cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lamain-de Ruiter, Marije; Kwee, Anneke; Naaktgeboren, Christiana A; de Groot, Inge; Evers, Inge M; Groenendaal, Floris; Hering, Yolanda R; Huisjes, Anjoke J M; Kirpestein, Cornel; Monincx, Wilma M; Siljee, Jacqueline E; Van 't Zelfde, Annewil; van Oirschot, Charlotte M; Vankan-Buitelaar, Simone A; Vonk, Mariska A A W; Wiegers, Therese A; Zwart, Joost J; Franx, Arie; Moons, Karel G M; Koster, Maria P H

    2016-08-30

     To perform an external validation and direct comparison of published prognostic models for early prediction of the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus, including predictors applicable in the first trimester of pregnancy.  External validation of all published prognostic models in large scale, prospective, multicentre cohort study.  31 independent midwifery practices and six hospitals in the Netherlands.  Women recruited in their first trimester (<14 weeks) of pregnancy between December 2012 and January 2014, at their initial prenatal visit. Women with pre-existing diabetes mellitus of any type were excluded.  Discrimination of the prognostic models was assessed by the C statistic, and calibration assessed by calibration plots.  3723 women were included for analysis, of whom 181 (4.9%) developed gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnancy. 12 prognostic models for the disorder could be validated in the cohort. C statistics ranged from 0.67 to 0.78. Calibration plots showed that eight of the 12 models were well calibrated. The four models with the highest C statistics included almost all of the following predictors: maternal age, maternal body mass index, history of gestational diabetes mellitus, ethnicity, and family history of diabetes. Prognostic models had a similar performance in a subgroup of nulliparous women only. Decision curve analysis showed that the use of these four models always had a positive net benefit.  In this external validation study, most of the published prognostic models for gestational diabetes mellitus show acceptable discrimination and calibration. The four models with the highest discriminative abilities in this study cohort, which also perform well in a subgroup of nulliparous women, are easy models to apply in clinical practice and therefore deserve further evaluation regarding their clinical impact. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  7. An historical prospective study of mortality within a cohort of gas distribution workers.

    PubMed

    Liveright, T; Stanbury, M

    1983-01-01

    An historical prospective study of mortality within a cohort of 1,410 gas distribution workers was conducted. This cohort was followed for ten years (1971-1980) and data on 118 deaths were obtained. Five-year (1973-1977) averages of both St. Louis and United States age-specific mortality figures were used to create "expected" mortality rates for comparison with the observed deaths in the cohort. Analyses of the cohort were done according to: 1) person-years contributed during the study period (the "age-attained" method) and 2) the number of years from commencement of work in the company until the end of the study period (1980) or death (the "latency" methods of analysis, Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) were calculated for all causes of death, all malignant neoplasms, and for cardiovascular disease and malignant neoplasms of the respiratory and digestive systems. In no case was the SMR found to be beyond the range of what would be expected in the "standard" populations. While the present study does not contradict the negative findings of the one previous investigation of mortality of gas distribution workers, the limitations of small cohort size, reliance on death certificates and non-industrial comparison populations make any conclusions at best provisional.

  8. Description and outcome of a cohort of 8 patients with WHIM syndrome from the French Severe Chronic Neutropenia Registry

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background WHIM syndrome (WS), a rare congenital neutropenia due to mutations of the CXCR4 chemokine receptor, is associated with Human Papillomavirus (HPV)-induced Warts, Hypogammaglobulinemia, bacterial Infections and Myelokathexis. The long term follow up of eight patients highlights the clinical heterogeneity of this disease as well as the main therapeutic approaches and remaining challenges in the light of the recent development of new CXCR4 inhibitors. Objective This study aims to describe the natural history of WS based on a French cohort of 8 patients. Methods We have reviewed the clinical, biological and immunological features of patients with WS enrolled into the French Severe Chronic Neutropenia Registry. Results We identified four pedigrees with WS comprised of eight patients and one foetus. Estimated incidence for WS was of 0.23 per million births. Median age at the last visit was 29 years. Three pedigrees encompassing seven patients and the fetus displayed autosomal dominant heterozygous mutations of the CXCR4 gene, while one patient presented a wild-type CXCR4 gene. Two subjects exhibited congenital conotruncal heart malformations. In addition to neutropenia and myelokathexis, all patients presented deep monocytopenia and lymphopenia. Seven patients presented repeated bacterial Ears Nose Throat as well as severe bacterial infections that were curable with antibiotics. Four patients with late onset prophylaxis developed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Two patients reported atypical mycobacteria infections which in one case may have been responsible for one patient’s death due to liver failure at the age of 40.6 years. HPV-related disease manifested in five subjects and progressed as invasive vulvar carcinoma with a fatal course in one patient at the age of 39.5 years. In addition, two patients developed T cell lymphoma skin cancer and basal cell carcinoma at the age of 38 and 65 years. Conclusions Continuous prophylactic anti

  9. Does uranium induce circulatory diseases? First results from a French cohort of uranium workers.

    PubMed

    Guseva Canu, Irina; Garsi, Jerome-Philippe; Caër-Lorho, Sylvaine; Jacob, Sophie; Collomb, Philippe; Acker, Alain; Laurier, Dominique

    2012-06-01

    Increased risk of circulatory system diseases (CSDs) was observed in nuclear workers handling uranium and plutonium in Russia and the UK. This work examines the CSD mortality after chronic intake of uranium among 2897 workers (79,892 person-years) at a uranium processing plant (1960-2006) in France. Cumulative exposure to different uranium compounds, classified by their isotopic composition and solubility type, was quantified on the basis of a plant-specific job-exposure matrix and individual job histories. HRs and associated 95% CI for CSD (n = 111) and specific CSD categories were estimated using Cox regression models, stratified on sex and birth cohort and adjusted for potential confounders. The effect of smoking was analysed among 260 smokers (42 CSD deaths). Compared to unexposed workers, CSD mortality was increased among workers exposed to slowly soluble reprocessed uranium (RPU) (HR = 2.13, 95% CI = 0.96 to 4.70) and natural uranium (HR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.11 to 2.69). The risk increased with cumulative exposure and exposure duration. In the subgroup of smokers, the risk estimates were higher but with larger CIs: HR=1.91 (95% CI = 0.92 to 3.98) for natural uranium and HR = 4.78 (95% CI = 1.38 to 16.50) for RPU. The authors observed that exposure to slowly soluble uranium, namely RPU, may increase the risk of CSD mortality. However, these results are preliminary since the study is lacking statistical power and many other biological and lifestyle-related factors may cause CSD. More detailed investigations are necessary to confirm these findings and analyse in depth the effects of internal radiation exposure on the circulatory system.

  10. Analysis of SPINK 5, KLK 7 and FLG genotypes in a French atopic dermatitis cohort.

    PubMed

    Hubiche, Thomas; Ged, Cécile; Benard, Antoine; Léauté-Labrèze, Christine; McElreavey, Ken; de Verneuil, Hubert; Taïeb, Alain; Boralevi, Franck

    2007-01-01

    The role of a genetically impaired epidermal barrier as a major predisposing factor in the pathogenesis of atopic disorders is currently under closer investigation. Variants on three candidate genes (SPINK5, KLK7 and FLG) have been associated with atopic dermatitis. A functional relevance has already been established for filaggrin variants, but not for SPINK5 and KLK7 polymorphisms. The objectives of this study were to confirm the association between SPINK5, KLK7, FLG variants and atopic dermatitis and to assess how variants influence selected phenotypic traits. This cross-sectional study was carried out over 20 months in 99 children and adults with atopic dermatitis (median age 7 years). The following items were analysed: SCORAD, TEWL, ichthyosis vulgaris, presence of asthma, total IgE serum levels. The SPINK5 E420K SNP, the KLK7 4bp insertion polymorphism and the filaggrin mutants (R510X and 2282del4) were analysed as described previously. The control group for genetic analysis was recruited in an ethnically matched, phenotypically anonymous cohort (n=102). The allelic frequencies were 0.525 for SPINK5, 0.26 for KLK7 polymorphisms, 0.101 and 0.075 for 2282del4 and R501X FLG mutants, respectively. The association of atopic dermatitis with filaggrin variants was confirmed, but not that of SPINK5 or KLK7 polymorphisms. SCORAD and TEWL measurements were not influenced by any of the variants. The SPINK5 polymorphism was associated with high IgE serum levels (p=0.011). Abnormal barrier genes do not influence the severity of atopic dermatitis. The SPINK5 gene polymorphism may modulate systemic immune effects favouring the IgE response to atopens. TEWL does not allow the characterization of subsets of patients with or without abnormal barrier genes.

  11. Does personality explain social inequalities in mortality? The French GAZEL cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Nabi, Hermann; Kivimäki, Mika; Marmot, Michael G.; Ferrie, Jane; Zins, Marie; Ducimetière, Pierre; Consoli, Silla M.; Singh-Manoux, Archana

    2008-01-01

    Background The “indirect-selection” hypothesis proposes that some quality of the individual, a personality characteristic or intelligence, leads to both socioeconomic position (SEP) and health. We aim to quantify the contribution of personality measures to the associations between SEP and mortality. Methods 14 445 participants of the GAZEL cohort, aged 39–54 years in 1993 and followed-up over 12.7 years, completed the Bortner-Type-A-scale, the Buss-Durkee-Hostility-Inventory, and the Grossarth-Maticek and Eysenck-Personality-Stress-Inventory. Indicators of SEP, such as father’s social class, education, occupational grade and income, were assessed at baseline. Relative indices of inequality in Cox regression models were used to estimate associations. Results In age-adjusted-analyses, risk of death was inversely associated with SEP among men and women. Among men, the attenuation in this association depended on the measures of SEP and was 28–29% for “neurotic-hostility”, 13–22% for “anti-social” and 13–16% for “CHD-prone” personality. In women, the attenuation was evident only for type-A-behaviour, by 11%. After controlling simultaneously for all personality factors that predicted mortality, associations between SEP and mortality were attenuated in men: by 34% for education, 29% for occupational position and 28% for income; but were only attenuated by 11% for income in women. For cardiovascular mortality, the corresponding percentages of reduction were 42%, 31% and 44% after adjustment for “CHD-prone” personality in men. Conclusions Personality measures explained some of the mortality gradients observed for measures of adult socioeconomic position in men, but had little explanatory power in women. Whether personality represents a predictor or an outcome of social circumstances needs further research. PMID:18276626

  12. Study protocol title: a prospective cohort study of low back pain.

    PubMed

    Garg, Arun; Hegmann, Kurt T; Moore, J Steven; Kapellusch, Jay; Thiese, Matthew S; Boda, Sruthi; Bhoyr, Parag; Bloswick, Donald; Merryweather, Andrew; Sesek, Richard; Deckow-Schaefer, Gwen; Foster, James; Wood, Eric; Sheng, Xiaoming; Holubkov, Richard

    2013-03-07

    Few prospective cohort studies of workplace low back pain (LBP) with quantified job physical exposure have been performed. There are few prospective epidemiological studies for LBP occupational risk factors and reported data generally have few adjustments for many personal and psychosocial factors. A multi-center prospective cohort study has been incepted to quantify risk factors for LBP and potentially develop improved methods for designing and analyzing jobs. Due to the subjectivity of LBP, six measures of LBP are captured: 1) any LBP, 2) LBP ≥ 5/10 pain rating, 3) LBP with medication use, 4) LBP with healthcare provider visits, 5) LBP necessitating modified work duties and 6) LBP with lost work time. Workers have thus far been enrolled from 30 different employment settings in 4 diverse US states and performed widely varying work. At baseline, workers undergo laptop-administered questionnaires, structured interviews, and two standardized physical examinations to ascertain demographics, medical history, psychosocial factors, hobbies and physical activities, and current musculoskeletal disorders. All workers' jobs are individually measured for physical factors and are videotaped. Workers are followed monthly for the development of low back pain. Changes in jobs necessitate re-measure and re-videotaping of job physical factors. The lifetime cumulative incidence of low back pain will also include those with a past history of low back pain. Incident cases will exclude prevalent cases at baseline. Statistical methods planned include survival analyses and logistic regression. Data analysis of a prospective cohort study of low back pain is underway and has successfully enrolled over 800 workers to date.

  13. Study protocol title: a prospective cohort study of low back pain

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Few prospective cohort studies of workplace low back pain (LBP) with quantified job physical exposure have been performed. There are few prospective epidemiological studies for LBP occupational risk factors and reported data generally have few adjustments for many personal and psychosocial factors. Methods/design A multi-center prospective cohort study has been incepted to quantify risk factors for LBP and potentially develop improved methods for designing and analyzing jobs. Due to the subjectivity of LBP, six measures of LBP are captured: 1) any LBP, 2) LBP ≥ 5/10 pain rating, 3) LBP with medication use, 4) LBP with healthcare provider visits, 5) LBP necessitating modified work duties and 6) LBP with lost work time. Workers have thus far been enrolled from 30 different employment settings in 4 diverse US states and performed widely varying work. At baseline, workers undergo laptop-administered questionnaires, structured interviews, and two standardized physical examinations to ascertain demographics, medical history, psychosocial factors, hobbies and physical activities, and current musculoskeletal disorders. All workers’ jobs are individually measured for physical factors and are videotaped. Workers are followed monthly for the development of low back pain. Changes in jobs necessitate re-measure and re-videotaping of job physical factors. The lifetime cumulative incidence of low back pain will also include those with a past history of low back pain. Incident cases will exclude prevalent cases at baseline. Statistical methods planned include survival analyses and logistic regression. Discussion Data analysis of a prospective cohort study of low back pain is underway and has successfully enrolled over 800 workers to date. PMID:23497211

  14. Multicenter cohort study on association of genotypes with prospective sports concussion: methods, lessons learned, and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Terrell, Thomas R; Bostick, Roberd; Barth, Jeffrey; Sloane, Richard; Cantu, Robert C; Bennett, Ellen; Galloway, Leslie; Laskowitz, Daniel; Erlanger, Dave; McKeag, Doug; Valentine, Verle; Nichols, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 3.8 million sports related TBIs occur per year. Genetic variation may affect both TBI risk and post-TBI clinical outcome. Limited research has focused on genetic risk for concussion among athletes. We describe the design, methods, and baseline characteristics of this prospective cohort study designed to investigate a potential association between genetic polymorphisms of apolipoprotein E gene, APOE promoter G-219T, and Tau gene exon 6 polymorphisms (Ser53 Pro and Hist47Tyr) with: 1) the risk of prospective concussion; 2) concussion severity; and 3) postconcussion neurocognitive recovery. The prospective cohort study included a final population of 2947 college, high school, and professional athletes. Baseline data collection included a concussion/medical history questionnaire, neuropsychological (NP) testing, and genetic sampling for the genetic polymorphisms. Data collection on new concussions experienced utilized post-concussion history/mental status form, Lovell post-concussion symptom score, Standardized Assessment of Concussion (SAC) and/or the Sports Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT)-1/SCAT-2, and post-concussion NP testing. This paper is focused on discussing the important methodological considerations, organizational challenges and lessons learned in the completion of a multi-center prospective cohort study. A total of 3740 subjects enrolled, with a total of 335 concussions experienced. Of critical importance to the success of a study of this type is to successfully recruit committed institutions with qualified local study personnel, obtain "buy-in" from study sites, and cultivate strong working relationships with study sites. The use of approved incentives may improve study site recruitment, enhance retention, and enhance compliance with study protocols. Future publications will detail the specific findings of this study. Collaborative research is very likely needed given the nature of this study population.

  15. Effectiveness of the Surgery Core Clerkship Flipped Classroom: a prospective cohort trial.

    PubMed

    Liebert, Cara A; Lin, Dana T; Mazer, Laura M; Bereknyei, Sylvia; Lau, James N

    2016-02-01

    The flipped classroom has been proposed as an alternative curricular approach to traditional didactic lectures but has not been previously applied to a surgery clerkship. A 1-year prospective cohort of students (n = 89) enrolled in the surgery clerkship was taught using a flipped classroom approach. A historical cohort of students (n = 92) taught with a traditional lecture curriculum was used for comparison. Pretest and post-test performance, end-of-clerkship surveys, and National Board of Medical Examiners (NBME) scores were analyzed to assess effectiveness. Mean pretest and post-test scores increased across all modules (P < .001). There was no difference between mean NBME examination score in the prospective and historical cohorts (74.75 vs 75.74, P = .28). Mean ratings of career interest in surgery increased after curriculum completion (4.75 to 6.50, P < .001), with 90% reporting that the flipped classroom contributed to this increase. Implementation of a flipped classroom in the surgery clerkship is feasible and results in high learner satisfaction, effective knowledge acquisition, and increased career interest in surgery with noninferior NBME performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Height and Risk of Hip Fracture: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zhihong; Ren, Dong; Feng, Wei; Chen, Yan; Kan, Wusheng

    2016-01-01

    The association between height and risk of hip fracture has been investigated in several studies, but the evidence is inconclusive. We therefore conducted this meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to explore whether an association exists between height and risk of hip fracture. We searched PubMed and EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for studies of height and risk of hip fracture up to February 16, 2016. The random-effects model was used to combine results from individual studies. Seven prospective cohort studies, with 7,478 incident hip fracture cases and 907,913 participants, were included for analysis. The pooled relative risk (RR) was 1.65 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26–2.16) comparing the highest with the lowest category of height. Result from dose-response analysis suggested a linear association between height and hip fracture risk (P-nonlinearity = 0.0378). The present evidence suggests that height is positively associated with increased risk of hip fracture. Further well-designed cohort studies are needed to confirm the present findings in other ethnicities. PMID:27818998

  17. Height and Risk of Hip Fracture: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zhihong; Ren, Dong; Feng, Wei; Chen, Yan; Kan, Wusheng; Xing, Danmou

    2016-01-01

    The association between height and risk of hip fracture has been investigated in several studies, but the evidence is inconclusive. We therefore conducted this meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to explore whether an association exists between height and risk of hip fracture. We searched PubMed and EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for studies of height and risk of hip fracture up to February 16, 2016. The random-effects model was used to combine results from individual studies. Seven prospective cohort studies, with 7,478 incident hip fracture cases and 907,913 participants, were included for analysis. The pooled relative risk (RR) was 1.65 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26-2.16) comparing the highest with the lowest category of height. Result from dose-response analysis suggested a linear association between height and hip fracture risk (P-nonlinearity = 0.0378). The present evidence suggests that height is positively associated with increased risk of hip fracture. Further well-designed cohort studies are needed to confirm the present findings in other ethnicities.

  18. Obesity and prostate cancer incidence and mortality: a systematic review of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Golabek, Tomasz; Bukowczan, Jakub; Chłosta, Piotr; Powroźnik, Jan; Dobruch, Jakub; Borówka, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    There has been a large body of research on obesity and the risk of prostate cancer (PCa) that has been published recently. However, the epidemiological evidence for such an association has not been consistent. This may be attributed to the nature of case-control and retrospective studies, which generally are more prone to biases. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of prospective cohort studies to assess the association between obesity and the risk of PCa incidence and death. A search of the PubMed database and references of published studies (from inception until March 2013) was conducted. Twenty-three eligible studies were identified and included in the systematic review. The evidence from the prospective cohort studies linking obesity with PCa incidence has not been consistent. However, cumulative data is compelling for a strong positive association between obesity and fatal PCa. Obesity is a significant diet-related risk factor for fatal PCa. Further well-constructed, large cohort studies on the potential association between obesity and PCa, as well as on underlying mechanisms, are needed. 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel

  19. Weekly miscarriage rates in a community-based prospective cohort study in rural western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Dellicour, Stephanie; Aol, George; Ouma, Peter; Yan, Nicole; Bigogo, Godfrey; Hamel, Mary J; Burton, Deron C; Oneko, Martina; Breiman, Robert F; Slutsker, Laurence; Feikin, Daniel; Kariuki, Simon; Odhiambo, Frank; Stergachis, Andreas; Laserson, Kayla F; ter Kuile, Feiko O; Desai, Meghna

    2016-01-01

    Objective Information on adverse pregnancy outcomes is important to monitor the impact of public health interventions. Miscarriage is a challenging end point to ascertain and there is scarce information on its rate in low-income countries. The objective was to estimate the background rate and cumulative probability of miscarriage in rural western Kenya. Design This was a population-based prospective cohort. Participants and setting Women of childbearing age were followed prospectively to identify pregnancies and ascertain their outcomes in Siaya County, western Kenya. The cohort study was carried out in 33 adjacent villages under health and demographic surveillance. Outcome measure Miscarriage. Results Between 2011 and 2013, among 5536 women of childbearing age, 1453 pregnancies were detected and 1134 were included in the analysis. The cumulative probability was 18.9%. The weekly miscarriage rate declined steadily with increasing gestation until approximately 20 weeks. Known risk factors for miscarriage such as maternal age, gravidity, occupation, household wealth and HIV infection were confirmed. Conclusions This is the first report of weekly miscarriage rates in a rural African setting in the context of high HIV and malaria prevalence. Future studies should consider the involvement of community health workers to identify the pregnancy cohort of early gestation for better data on the actual number of pregnancies and the assessment of miscarriage. PMID:27084287

  20. A Prospective Cohort Evaluation of a Robotic, Auto-Navigating Operating Microscope.

    PubMed

    Bohl, Michael A; Oppenlander, Mark E; Spetzler, Robert

    2016-06-30

    The unique challenges inherent to microneurosurgery demand that we stay on the forefront of new surgical technologies. Many believe the next major technological advance in neurosurgery will be the widespread application of image-guided robotics in the operating room. We evaluated a novel technology for image-guided robotic auto-navigation of the operating microscope in a prospectively enrolled cohort of patients. Twenty patients were prospectively enrolled for analysis. Data were collected on the extent of resection, operative time, estimated blood loss, time taken to set up the new software, and complications encountered. Software accuracy, reliability, and usefulness in the case were subjectively evaluated. The most commonly  treated pathologies were cavernous malformation (n = 5), arteriovenous malformation (n = 4), and meningioma (n = 4). The time to set up the new software interface before the start of the operation was <60 seconds in all cases. Subjective evaluation in each case revealed the robotic interface to be accurate, reliable, and useful. The new technology was significantly more useful in deeper lesions. The addition of image-guided robotic auto-positioning features to the operating microscope has a great potential to advance the field of neurosurgery. This study is the first prospective evaluation of such a technology in a patient cohort. The results suggest that the newest robotic auto-positioning technology has the potential to improve the neurosurgeon's efficiency and efficacy, thereby positively impacting patient safety and surgical outcomes, especially in cases involving deep-seated lesions.

  1. Use and Safety of Anthroposophic Medications for Acute Respiratory and Ear Infections: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hamre, Harald J.; Glockmann, Anja; Fischer, Michael; Riley, David S.; Baars, Erik; Kiene, Helmut

    2007-01-01

    Objective Anthroposophic medications (AMED) are widely used, but safety data on AMED from large prospective studies are sparse. The objective of this analysis was to determine the frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADR) to AMED in outpatients using AMED for acute respiratory and ear infections. Methods A prospective four-week observational cohort study was conducted in 21 primary care practices in Europe and the U.S.A. The cohort comprised 715 consecutive outpatients aged ≥1 month, treated by anthroposophic physicians for acute otitis and respiratory infections. Physicians’ prescription data and patient reports of adverse events were analyzed. Main outcome measures were use of AMED and ADR to AMED. Results Two patients had confirmed ADR to AMED: 1) swelling and redness at the injection site after subcutaneous injections of Prunus spinosa 5%, 2) sleeplessness after intake of Pneumodoron® 2 liquid. These ADR lasted one and two days respectively; both subsided after dose reduction; none were unexpected; none were serious. The frequency of confirmed ADR to AMED was 0.61% (2/327) of all different AMED used, 0.28% (2/715) of patients, and 0.004% (3/73,443) of applications. Conclusion In this prospective study, anthroposophic medications used by primary care patients with acute respiratory or ear infections were well tolerated. PMID:21901075

  2. A Prospective Cohort Evaluation of a Robotic, Auto-Navigating Operating Microscope

    PubMed Central

    Bohl, Michael A; Oppenlander, Mark E

    2016-01-01

    The unique challenges inherent to microneurosurgery demand that we stay on the forefront of new surgical technologies. Many believe the next major technological advance in neurosurgery will be the widespread application of image-guided robotics in the operating room. We evaluated a novel technology for image-guided robotic auto-navigation of the operating microscope in a prospectively enrolled cohort of patients. Twenty patients were prospectively enrolled for analysis. Data were collected on the extent of resection, operative time, estimated blood loss, time taken to set up the new software, and complications encountered. Software accuracy, reliability, and usefulness in the case were subjectively evaluated. The most commonly  treated pathologies were cavernous malformation (n = 5), arteriovenous malformation (n = 4), and meningioma (n = 4). The time to set up the new software interface before the start of the operation was <60 seconds in all cases. Subjective evaluation in each case revealed the robotic interface to be accurate, reliable, and useful. The new technology was significantly more useful in deeper lesions. The addition of image-guided robotic auto-positioning features to the operating microscope has a great potential to advance the field of neurosurgery. This study is the first prospective evaluation of such a technology in a patient cohort. The results suggest that the newest robotic auto-positioning technology has the potential to improve the neurosurgeon's efficiency and efficacy, thereby positively impacting patient safety and surgical outcomes, especially in cases involving deep-seated lesions. PMID:27493844

  3. Body shape throughout life and the risk for breast cancer at adulthood in the French E3N cohort.

    PubMed

    Fagherazzi, Guy; Guillas, Gwenaelle; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Mesrine, Sylvie

    2013-01-01

    Although earlier studies have indicated an inverse association between corpulence during childhood and the risk for breast cancer in adulthood, no study had evaluated body shape at different ages or body shape evolution in relation to the risk for breast cancer defined by menopausal status and hormone receptor status. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated using multivariate Cox models in 81,089 women from the French E3N cohort to evaluate the risk for breast cancer associated with body shape (Sørensen's scale) at ages 8, menarche, 20-25, and 35-40 years. Six lifetime body shape trajectories were also estimated according to Nagin's approach to group-based trajectory modeling, and were analyzed in relation to the risk for breast cancer. During follow-up, 3573 breast cancer cases were diagnosed. At age 8 and at menarche, an increasing size of the body was associated with a significantly negative risk for estrogen receptor (ER)+/progesterone receptor (PR)+ postmenopausal breast cancer [both had a P(trend)=0.001; HR=0.80 (0.67-0.94) and HR=0.74 (0.64-0.86), respectively], for the largest body shapes compared with the first body shape. No significant association with body shape was found at the other ages. In terms of body shape evolution throughout life, women with a large body shape at menarche, irrespective of their body shape before or after menarche, tended to have a decreased risk for ER+/PR+ postmenopausal breast cancer compared with women who were constantly lean. Adjustment for current BMI or age at menarche did not modify any associations. Our study found an inverse association between adiposity at menarche and the risk for ER+/PR+ postmenopausal breast cancer, independent of corpulence at other ages. This work should encourage longitudinal studies with hormonal information to examine the underlying biological mechanisms.

  4. Determinants of folate and vitamin B12 plasma levels in the French E3N-EPIC cohort.

    PubMed

    de Batlle, Jordi; Matejcic, Marco; Chajes, Veronique; Moreno-Macias, Hortensia; Amadou, Amina; Slimani, Nadia; Cox, David G; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Fagherazzi, Guy; Romieu, Isabelle

    2016-12-21

    Impaired B vitamin status has been identified as a risk factor for major chronic diseases. This study aims at examining the determinants of plasma folate and vitamin B12 concentrations, considering lifestyle factors and MTHFR polymorphisms. A total of 988 women aged 40-65 years from the French E3N cohort were investigated. Intakes of folate and vitamin B12 were assessed using food frequency questionnaires, and plasma concentrations were measured by microbiological assay. Dietary scores were computed to summarize folate and vitamin B12 dietary sources. MTHFR-C677T and MTHFR-A1298C were determined by Kaspar assay. Pearson's partial correlation coefficients and multivariable linear regression models were used to assess correlations between main determinants and plasma folate and vitamin B12 levels. The partial correlation coefficient between dietary intakes and plasma folate was 0.19 (p value <0.001) and 0.08 (p value = 0.008) for vitamin B12. Dietary scores were the main determinant of B vitamin plasma concentrations with a percent change per unit increase of 12.64% (p value <0.001) for folate and 7.6% (p value <0.001) for vitamin B12. Homozygous (T/T) or heterozygous (C/T) women for MTHFR-C677T had lower plasma folate concentrations [C/T: -6.48% (p value = 0.038) and T/T: -15.89% (p value <0.001)] compared to women carrying the C/C genotype. Other determinants of B vitamin plasma concentration include: smoking status for folate, and age and hormone replacement therapy for vitamin B12. We confirmed previous findings on the role of diet as main determinant of folate and vitamin B12 plasma concentrations. However, the impact of genetic polymorphisms and lifestyle factors on plasma B vitamin concentrations should not be neglected.

  5. Observational Study of a French and Belgian Multicenter Cohort of 23 Patients Diagnosed in Adulthood With Mevalonate Kinase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Durel, Cécile-Audrey; Aouba, Achille; Bienvenu, Boris; Deshayes, Samuel; Coppéré, Brigitte; Gombert, Bruno; Acquaviva-Bourdain, Cécile; Hachulla, Eric; Lecomte, Frédéric; Touitou, Isabelle; Ninet, Jacques; Philit, Jean-Baptiste; Messer, Laurent; Brouillard, Marc; Girard-Madoux, Marie-Hélène; Moutschen, Michel; Raison-Peyron, Nadia; Hutin, Pascal; Duffau, Pierre; Trolliet, Pierre; Hatron, Pierre-Yves; Heudier, Philippe; Cevallos, Ramiro; Lequerré, Thierry; Brousse, Valentine; Lesire, Vincent; Audia, Sylvain; Maucort-Boulch, Delphine; Cuisset, Laurence; Hot, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and biological features of Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) in patients diagnosed in adulthood. This is a French and Belgian observational retrospective study from 2000 to 2014. To constitute the cohort, we cross-check the genetic and biochemical databases. The clinical, enzymatic, and genetic data were gathered from medical records. Twenty-three patients were analyzed. The mean age at diagnosis was 40 years, with a mean age at onset of symptoms of 3 years. All symptomatic patients had fever. Febrile attacks were mostly associated with arthralgia (90.9%); lymphadenopathy, abdominal pain, and skin lesions (86.4%); pharyngitis (63.6%); cough (59.1%); diarrhea, and hepatosplenomegaly (50.0%). Seven patients had psychiatric symptoms (31.8%). One patient developed recurrent seizures. Three patients experienced renal involvement (13.6%). Two patients had angiomyolipoma (9.1%). All but one tested patients had elevated serum immunoglobulin (Ig) D level. Twenty-one patients had genetic diagnosis; most of them were compound heterozygote (76.2%). p.Val377Ile was the most prevalent mutation. Structural articular damages and systemic AA amyloidosis were the 2 most serious complications. More than 65% of patients displayed decrease in severity and frequency of attacks with increasing age, but only 35% achieved remission. MKD diagnosed in adulthood shared clinical and genetic features with classical pediatric disease. An elevated IgD concentration is a good marker for MKD in adults. Despite a decrease of severity and frequency of attacks with age, only one-third of patients achieved spontaneous remission. PMID:26986117

  6. The activity of French Research Ethics Committees and characteristics of biomedical research protocols involving humans: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Decullier, Evelyne; Lhéritier, Véronique; Chapuis, François

    2005-01-01

    Background Clinical trials throughout the world must be evaluated by research ethics committees. No one has yet attempted to clearly quantify at the national level the activity of ethics committees and describe the characteristics of the protocols submitted. The objectives of this study were to describe 1) the workload and the activity of Research Ethics Committees in France, and 2) the characteristics of protocols approved on a nation-wide basis. Methods Retrospective cohort of 976 protocols approved by a representative sample of 25/48 of French Research Ethics Committees in 1994. Protocols characteristics (design, study size, investigator), number of revisions requested by the ethics committee before approval, time to approval and number of amendments after approval were collected for each protocol by trained research assistant using the committee's files and archives. Results Thirty-one percent of protocols were approved with no modifications requested in 16 days (95% CI: 14–17). The number of revisions requested by the committee, and amendments submitted by the investigator was on average respectively 39 (95% CI: 25–53) and 37 (95% CI: 27–46), per committee and per year. When revisions were requested, the main reasons were related to information to the patient (28%) and consent modalities (18%). Drugs were the object of research in 68% of the protocols examined. The majority of the research was national (80%) with a predominance of single-centre studies. Workload per protocol has been estimated at twelve and half hours on average for administrative support and at eleven and half hours for expertise. Conclusion The estimated workload justifies specific and independent administrative and financial support for Research Ethics Committees. PMID:16229743

  7. Tumor characteristics and family history in relation to mammographic density and breast cancer: The French E3N cohort.

    PubMed

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Dartois, Laureen; Delaloge, Suzette; Hopper, John; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Baglietto, Laura

    2017-08-01

    Mammographic density is a known heritable risk factor for breast cancer, but reports how tumor characteristics and family history may modify this association are inconsistent. Dense and total breast areas were assessed using Cumulus™ from pre-diagnostic mammograms for 820 invasive breast cancer cases and 820 matched controls nested within the French E3N cohort study. To allow comparisons across models, percent mammographic density (PMD) was standardized to the distribution of the controls. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of breast cancer risk for mammographic density were estimated by conditional logistic regression while adjusting for age and body mass index. Heterogeneity according to tumor characteristic and family history was assessed using stratified analyses. Overall, the OR per 1 SD for PMD was 1.50 (95% CI, 1.33-1.69). No evidence for significant heterogeneity by tumor size, lymph node status, grade, and hormone receptor status (estrogen, progesterone, and HER2) was detected. However, the association of PMD was stronger for women reporting a family history of breast cancer (OR1SD=2.25; 95% CI, 1.67-3.04) than in women reporting none (OR1SD=1.41; 95% CI, 1.24-1.60; pheterogeneity=0.002). Similarly, effect modification by FHBC was observed using categories of PMD (pheterogeneity=0.02) with respective ORs of 15.16 (95% CI, 4.23-54.28) vs. 3.14 (95% CI, 1.89-5.22) for ≥50% vs. <10% PMD. The stronger association between mammographic density and breast cancer risk with a family history supports the hypothesis of shared genetic factors responsible for familial aggregation of breast cancer and the heritable component of mammographic density. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Disability-free life expectancy of older French people: gender and education differentials from the PAQUID cohort.

    PubMed

    Pérès, Karine; Jagger, Carol; Lièvre, Agnès; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale

    2005-09-01

    In countries with low mortality rates, the quality of the years of life is more important to consider than total life expectancy (TLE). Disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) is one of the most relevant indicators of health and the quality of life. This paper aims to estimate TLE and DFLE with four levels of severity of disability and to explore gender and educational differences in older French people. In this cohort study, four levels of disability severity were distinguished, disability being evaluated for mobility, instrumental and basic activities of daily living. For each level, TLE and DFLE were calculated using multi-state models from transition probabilities. From the population of two areas of South West France 3,777 subjects were randomly selected from the electoral rolls. At the baseline, they were aged 65 years and over, living in the community and were interviewed 6 times over the 10-year follow-up. At age 65, women lived longer than men (4.5 extra years), but shorter fully independent lives (-2.2 years). They also lived longer in each of the three degrees of disability (+4.2 years with moderate or severe disability). The higher educated lived longer (1.3 extra years at age 65), with the additional years free of disability. Regardless of age, gender and education, there appeared to be a 1-year incompressible time spent with severe disability. To conclude, these are the first health expectancies based on the longitudinal data for France. Whilst most of the studies were based on cross-sectional data, this paper gives a more realistic indicator of the health and socio-economic inequalities in France in the 1990 s.

  9. Outcomes of patients with Goodpasture syndrome: A nationwide cohort-based study from the French Society of Hemapheresis.

    PubMed

    Huart, Antoine; Josse, Anne-Gaëlle; Chauveau, Dominique; Korach, Jean-Michel; Heshmati, Farhad; Bauvin, Eric; Cointault, Olivier; Kamar, Nassim; Ribes, David; Pourrat, Jacques; Faguer, Stanislas

    2016-09-01

    The overall and renal outcomes of patients with Goodpasture syndrome (GS), a rare autoimmune disorder characterized by circulating anti-GBM antibodies and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and/or pulmonary hemorrhage, have mostly been reported in small-sized cohorts or by aggregating patients receiving a variety of therapies that include aggressive (i.e., combined plasma exchanges, corticosteroids, and cyclophosphamide) and less aggressive (i.e., either plasma exchanges or immunosuppressive drugs, or no treatment). To address the prognosis of GS patients with relatively homogeneous management including plasma exchanges, we conducted a multicenter retrospective study on GS patients included in the registry of the French Society of Hemapheresis. 122 patients were included (kidney alone (n = 28), lung alone (n = 5), or combined involvement (n = 89)). All 122 patients received plasma exchanges (median number of sessions: 13 [9-17]), either alone (n = 8) or associated with combined corticosteroids and oral or IV cyclophosphamide (n = 101) or with corticosteroids alone (n = 12) or cyclophosphamide alone (n = 2). One-year survival was 86.9%. 7/16 patients died from severe infection. In multivariate analyses (Cox's regression model), being aged <60 years, and number of plasma exchanges were correlated to overall survival. The use of alternative immunosuppressive drugs (because of refractory or relapsing GS) was correlated to mortality at one year. Superiority of oral cyclophosphamide compared to intravenous intake was close to significant. Using a logistic regression model, renal survival in patients alive at 1 year was only predicted by serum creatinine <500 μmol/L at presentation. This large series describes the predictive factors for overall and renal survival of GS patients treated by plasma exchanges. Interventional studies that compare oral and intravenous cyclophosphamide, as well as testing new immunosuppressive therapies, are warranted

  10. Dengue seroprevalence in the French West Indies: a prospective study in adult blood donors.

    PubMed

    L'Azou, Maïna; Jean-Marie, Janick; Bessaud, Maël; Cabié, André; Césaire, Raymond; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Courbil, Rémi; Richard, Pascale

    2015-06-01

    Using an anti-dengue immunoglobulin G (IgG) indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, seroprevalence was determined among 783 adult blood donors in the French Caribbean islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique in 2011. Overall, 93.5% [91.5; 95.1] samples were positive for dengue antibodies, 90.7% (350 of 386) in Martinique and 96.2% (382 of 397) in Guadeloupe. Only 30% of these adults recalled having had dengue disease before. Serotype-specific neutralization assays applied to a subset of IgG-positive samples indicated that a majority (77 of 96; 80%) reacted to the four serotypes. These seroprevalence findings are the first reported for Guadeloupe and Martinique and are consistent with the dengue epidemiology in these territories.

  11. Dengue Seroprevalence in the French West Indies: A Prospective Study in Adult Blood Donors

    PubMed Central

    L'Azou, Maïna; Jean-Marie, Janick; Bessaud, Maël; Cabié, André; Césaire, Raymond; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Courbil, Rémi; Richard, Pascale

    2015-01-01

    Using an anti-dengue immunoglobulin G (IgG) indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, seroprevalence was determined among 783 adult blood donors in the French Caribbean islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique in 2011. Overall, 93.5% [91.5; 95.1] samples were positive for dengue antibodies, 90.7% (350 of 386) in Martinique and 96.2% (382 of 397) in Guadeloupe. Only 30% of these adults recalled having had dengue disease before. Serotype-specific neutralization assays applied to a subset of IgG-positive samples indicated that a majority (77 of 96; 80%) reacted to the four serotypes. These seroprevalence findings are the first reported for Guadeloupe and Martinique and are consistent with the dengue epidemiology in these territories. PMID:25846291

  12. Factors associated with Clostridium difficile infection: A nested case-control study in a three year prospective cohort.

    PubMed

    Khanafer, Nagham; Vanhems, Philippe; Barbut, Frédéric; Luxemburger, Christine

    2017-04-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a serious medical condition that is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Identification of risk factors associated with CDI and prompt recognition of patients at risk is key to successfully preventing CDI. A 3-year prospective, observational, cohort study was conducted in a French university hospital and a nested case-control study was performed to identify risk factors for CDI. Inpatients aged 18 years or older, suffering from diarrhea suspected to be related to CDI, were asked to participate. A total of 945 patients were included, of which 233 cases had a confirmed CDI. CDI infection was more common in men (58.4%) (P = 0.04) compared with patients with diarrhea not related to C. difficile. Previous hospitalization (P < 0.001), prior treatment with antibiotics (P = 0.001) or antiperistaltics (P = 0.002), liver disease (P = 0.003), malnutrition (P < 0.001), and previous CDI (P < 0.001) were significantly more common in patients with CDI. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that exposure to antibiotics in the last 60 days (especially third generation cephalosporins and penicillins with β-lactamase inhibitor), chronic renal or liver disease, malnutrition or previous CDI, were associated with an independent high risk of CDI. Age was not related with CDI. This study showed that antibiotics and some comorbid conditions were predictors of CDI. Patients at high risk of acquiring CDI at the time of admission may benefit from careful monitoring of antibiotic prescriptions and early attention to infection control issues. In future, these "high-risk" patients may benefit from novel agents being developed to prevent CDI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Is external cephalic version at term contraindicated in previous caesarean section? A prospective comparative cohort study.

    PubMed

    Burgos, J; Cobos, P; Rodríguez, L; Osuna, C; Centeno, M M; Martínez-Astorquiza, T; Fernández-Llebrez, L

    2014-01-01

    To determine if external cephalic version (ECV) can be performed with safety and efficacy in women with previous caesarean section. Prospective comparative cohort study. Cruces University Hospital (Spain). Single pregnancy with breech presentation at term. We compared 70 ECV performed in women with previous caesarean section with 387 ECV performed in multiparous women (March 2002 to June 2012). Success rate, complications of the ECV and caesarean section rate. The success rate of ECV in women after previous caesarean section was 67.1% versus 66.1% in multiparous women (P = 0.87). The logistic regression analysis confirmed this result (odds ratio 0.93, 95% CI 0.52-1.68; P = 0.82) adjusted by the variables associated with success of ECV. There were no complications in the previous caesarean section cohort. The vaginal delivery rate in the previous caesarean section cohort was 52.8% versus 74.9% in the multiparous cohort (P < 0.01). There were no cases of uterine rupture. Based on our data, we conclude that complications are uncommon with ECV in women with previous caesarean section, with a success rate comparable to that of multiparous women. Uterine scar should not be considered a contraindication and ECV should be offered to women with previous caesarean section with breech presentation at term. © 2013 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  14. Social deprivation and stroke severity on admission: a French cohort study in Burgundy and the West Indies - Guyana region.

    PubMed

    Béjot, Y; Guilloteau, A; Joux, J; Lannuzel, A; Mimeau, E; Mislin-Tritsch, C; Fournel, I; Bonithon-Kopp, C

    2017-05-01

    Although there is growing and convincing evidence that socially deprived patients are at higher risk of stroke and worse outcomes, it remains controversial whether or not they suffer more severe stroke. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of social deprivation on initial clinical severity in patients with stroke. A total of 1536 consecutive patients with an acute first-ever stroke (both ischaemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage) were prospectively enrolled from six French study centers. Stroke severity on admission was measured by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score. Social deprivation was assessed at the individual level by the Evaluation de la Précarité et des Inégalités de santé dans les Centres d'Examen de Santé (EPICES) score, a validated multidimensional questionnaire, and several additional single socioeconomic indicators. Polytomous logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate the association between social deprivation and stroke severity. In univariate analysis, the EPICES score (P = 0.039) and level of education (P = 0.018) were the only two socioeconomic variables associated with stroke severity. Multivariate analysis of the association between EPICES and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale scores showed that more deprived patients presented a significantly higher risk of both mild and moderate/severe stroke (odds ratio for mild versus minor stroke, 1.39; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-1.84; odds ratio for moderate/severe versus minor stroke, 1.44; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.92). A non-significant trend towards a higher risk of both mild and moderate/severe stroke in less educated patients was observed. Social deprivation was associated with a more severe clinical presentation in patients with stroke. These findings may contribute to the worse outcome after stroke in deprived patients, and underline the need for strategies to reduce social inequalities for stroke. © 2017 EAN.

  15. Predicting Reading and Spelling Disorders: A 4-Year Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Caudek, Corrado; Pinto, Giuliana

    2016-01-01

    In this 4-year prospective cohort study, children with a reading and spelling disorder, children with a spelling impairment, and children without a reading and/or spelling disorder (control group) in a transparent orthography were identified in third grade, and their emergent literacy performances in kindergarten compared retrospectively. Six hundred and forty-two Italian children participated. This cohort was followed from the last year of kindergarten to third grade. In kindergarten, the children were assessed in phonological awareness, conceptual knowledge of writing systems and textual competence. In third grade, 18 children with a reading and spelling impairment and 13 children with a spelling impairment were identified. Overall, conceptual knowledge of the writing system was the only statistically significant predictor of the clinical samples. No differences were found between the two clinical samples. PMID:27014145

  16. Prospective birth cohort in a hyperendemic dengue area in Northeast Brazil: methods and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Braga, Cynthia; Albuquerque, Maria de Fátima Pessoa Militão de; Cordeiro, Marli Tenório; Castanha, Priscila M S; Ramesh, Anita; Alexander, Neal; Mello, Maria Júlia G de; Marques, Ernesto T A; Martelli, Celina M Turchi

    2016-01-01

    Dengue cases have increased in younger age groups in Brazil. Maternal anti-dengue antibodies can have a protective effect in the first months of life, but their decline can increase the risk of severe dengue. A prospective birth cohort was established in 2011-2012 in the city of Recife, Pernambuco State, Brazil, to determine the incidence of serotype-specific dengue infection and the kinetics of transferred maternal anti-dengue antibodies in the first years of life. This article describes the design, methods and preliminary results of this cohort study. 354 children underwent clinical and laboratory monitoring for two years, with 15% losses to follow-up. The overall rate of new infections was approximately 10% in the first year of follow-up. Information on the force of serotype-specific dengue infection and the evaluation of transferred maternal antibodies can contribute to understanding dengue etiopathogenesis.

  17. Predicting Reading and Spelling Disorders: A 4-Year Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Caudek, Corrado; Pinto, Giuliana

    2016-01-01

    In this 4-year prospective cohort study, children with a reading and spelling disorder, children with a spelling impairment, and children without a reading and/or spelling disorder (control group) in a transparent orthography were identified in third grade, and their emergent literacy performances in kindergarten compared retrospectively. Six hundred and forty-two Italian children participated. This cohort was followed from the last year of kindergarten to third grade. In kindergarten, the children were assessed in phonological awareness, conceptual knowledge of writing systems and textual competence. In third grade, 18 children with a reading and spelling impairment and 13 children with a spelling impairment were identified. Overall, conceptual knowledge of the writing system was the only statistically significant predictor of the clinical samples. No differences were found between the two clinical samples.

  18. Relationship Between Prehypertension/Hypertension and Periodontal Disease: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Kawabata, Yuya; Ekuni, Daisuke; Miyai, Hisataka; Kataoka, Kota; Yamane, Mayu; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu

    2016-03-01

    Most cross-sectional studies have found a significant positive relationship between periodontal disease and prehypertension/hypertension. However, these studies had limitations and there are few prospective cohort studies in young adults. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to investigate whether periodontal disease was related to prehypertension/hypertension in Japanese university students. Students (n = 2,588), who underwent health examinations before entering university and before graduation, were included in the analysis. The association between periodontal disease such as the percentage of bleeding on probing (BOP) and community periodontal index (CPI) scores, and change in blood pressure status was determined. At the reexamination, the numbers of participants with prehypertension (systolic blood pressure 120-139mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure 80-89mm Hg) and hypertension (≥140/90mm Hg) were 882 (34.1%) and 109 (4.2%), respectively. In a logistic regression model, the risk of hypertension was significantly associated with male (odds ratio (OR): 6.31; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.63-15.13; P < 0.001), no habitual physical activity at baseline (OR: 2.90; 95% CI: 1.56-5.38; P < 0.01) and periodontal disease defined as the presence of both probing pocket depth (PPD) ≥ 4mm and BOP ≥ 30% at baseline (OR: 2.74; 95% CI: 1.19-6.29; P = 0.02) in participants with prehypertension at baseline. On the other hand, the risk of prehypertension was not associated with presence of periodontal disease (OR: 0.93; 95% CI: 0.51-1.70; P = 0.82). In the short-term prospective cohort study, a significant association between presence of periodontal disease and hypertension was observed in Japanese university students. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2015. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Dietary acrylamide intake and risk of endometrial cancer in prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Je, Youjin

    2015-06-01

    Acrylamide has been associated with carcinogenicity in experimental animals, but potential health risks of dietary acrylamide intake and endometrial cancer in human are inconclusive. Thus, a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies was conducted to provide a quantitative assessment of the association between dietary acrylamide intake and endometrial cancer risk. PubMed database was used to identify prospective cohort studies on dietary acrylamide intake and endometrial cancer risk published up to June 2014. Since smoking is an important source of acrylamide and is inversely associated with endometrial cancer risk, the association was examined in women who never smoked as well. Multivariable relative risks (RR) adjusting for potential confounders were combined using random effects models. Four large prospective cohort studies were identified, which included 453,355 female participants and 2,019 endometrial cancer cases. There was no association between dietary acrylamide intake and endometrial cancer risk overall [pooled RR for high vs. low intake = 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-1.34]. High acrylamide intake, however, was significantly associated with increased risk of endometrial cancer among women who never smoked (pooled RR for high vs. low intake = 1.39; 95% CI 1.09-1.77). In dose-response analyses, pooled RRs for an increase of 10 µg/day were 1.04 (95% CI 0.97-1.11) among all women and 1.11 (95% CI 1.04-1.19) among never-smoking women. Endometrial cancer risk was not associated with dietary acrylamide intake overall. Among women who never smoked, however, there was a significantly increased endometrial cancer risk in women who consumed high dietary acrylamide.

  20. The WISTAH hand study: A prospective cohort study of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few prospective cohort studies of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders have been performed. Past studies have provided somewhat conflicting evidence for occupational risk factors and have largely reported data without adjustments for many personal and psychosocial factors. Methods/design A multi-center prospective cohort study was incepted to quantify risk factors for distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders and potentially develop improved methods for analyzing jobs. Disorders to analyze included carpal tunnel syndrome, lateral epicondylalgia, medial epicondylalgia, trigger digit, deQuervain’s stenosing tenosynovitis and other tendinoses. Workers have thus far been enrolled from 17 different employment settings in 3 diverse US states and performed widely varying work. At baseline, workers undergo laptop administered questionnaires, structured interviews, two standardized physical examinations and nerve conduction studies to ascertain demographic, medical history, psychosocial factors and current musculoskeletal disorders. All workers’ jobs are individually measured for physical factors and are videotaped. Workers are followed monthly for the development of musculoskeletal disorders. Repeat nerve conduction studies are performed for those with symptoms of tingling and numbness in the prior six months. Changes in jobs necessitate re-measure and re-videotaping of job physical factors. Case definitions have been established. Point prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome is a combination of paraesthesias in at least two median nerve-served digits plus an abnormal nerve conduction study at baseline. The lifetime cumulative incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome will also include those with a past history of carpal tunnel syndrome. Incident cases will exclude those with either a past history or prevalent cases at baseline. Statistical methods planned include survival analyses and logistic regression. Discussion A prospective cohort study of

  1. Dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jia-Yi; He, Ka; Wang, Peiyu; Qin, Li-Qiang

    2011-09-01

    Observational and preclinical studies suggest that dietary fiber intake may reduce the risk of breast cancer, but the results are inconclusive. We aimed to examine the association between dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer by conducting a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Relevant studies were identified by a PubMed database search through January 2011. Reference lists from retrieved articles were also reviewed. We included prospective cohort studies that reported RRs with 95% CIs for the association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk. Both fixed- and random-effects models were used to calculate the summary risk estimates. We identified 10 prospective cohort studies of dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer involving 16,848 cases and 712,195 participants. The combined RR of breast cancer for the highest compared with the lowest dietary fiber intake was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.83, 0.96), and little evidence of heterogeneity was observed. The association between dietary fiber intake and risk of breast cancer did not significantly differ by geographic region, length of follow-up, or menopausal status of the participants. Omission of any single study had little effect on the combined risk estimate. Dose-response analysis showed that every 10-g/d increment in dietary fiber intake was associated with a significant 7% reduction in breast cancer risk. Little evidence of publication bias was found. This meta-analysis provides evidence of a significant inverse dose-response association between dietary fiber intake and breast cancer risk.

  2. Opium use and mortality in Golestan Cohort Study: prospective cohort study of 50 000 adults in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Khademi, Hooman; Pourshams, Akram; Jafari, Elham; Salahi, Rasool; Semnani, Shahryar; Abaie, Behrooz; Islami, Farhad; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh; Etemadi, Arash; Byrnes, Graham; Abnet, Christian C; Dawsey, Sanford M; Day, Nicholas E; Pharoah, Paul D; Boffetta, Paolo; Kamangar, Farin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between opium use and subsequent risk of death. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The Golestan Cohort Study in north-eastern Iran collected detailed validated data on opium use and other exposures at baseline. Participants were enrolled between January 2004 and June 2008 and were followed to May 2011, with a follow-up success rate of over 99%. Participants 50 045 participants aged 40-75 at baseline. Main outcomes Mortality, all cause and major subcategories. Results 17% (n=8487) of the participants reported opium use, with a mean duration of 12.7 years. During the follow-up period 2145 deaths were reported. The adjusted hazard ratio for all cause mortality associated with ever use of opium was 1.86 (95% confidence interval 1.68 to 2.06). Opium consumption was significantly associated with increased risks of deaths from several causes including circulatory diseases (hazard ratio 1.81) and cancer (1.61). The strongest associations were seen with deaths from asthma, tuberculosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (11.0, 6.22, and 5.44, respectively). After exclusion of people who self prescribed opium after the onset of major chronic illnesses, the associations remained strong with a dose-response relation. Conclusion Opium users have an increased risk of death from multiple causes compared with non-users. Increased risks were also seen in people who used low amounts of opium for a long period and those who had no major illness before use. PMID:22511302

  3. The Korean Gastric Cancer Cohort Study: Study Protocol and Brief Results of a Large-Scale Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Eom, Bang Wool; Kim, Young-Woo; Nam, Byung-Ho; Ryu, Keun Won; Jeong, Hyun-Yong; Park, Young-Kyu; Lee, Young-Joon; Yang, Han-Kwang; Yu, Wansik; Yook, Jeong-Hwan; Song, Geun Am; Youn, Sei-Jin; Kim, Heung Up; Noh, Sung-Hoon; Park, Sung Bae; Yang, Doo-Hyun; Kim, Sung

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to establish a large-scale database of patients with gastric cancer to facilitate the development of a national-cancer management system and a comprehensive cancer control policy. Materials and Methods An observational prospective cohort study on gastric cancer was initiated in 2010. A total of 14 cancer centers throughout the country and 152 researchers were involved in this study. Patient enrollment began in January 2011, and data regarding clinicopathological characteristics, life style-related factors, quality of life, as well as diet diaries were collected. Results In total, 4,963 patients were enrolled until December 2014, and approximately 5% of all Korean patients with gastric cancer annually were included. The mean age was 58.2±11.5 years, and 68.2% were men. The number of patients in each stage was as follows: 3,394 patients (68.4%) were in stage IA/B; 514 patients (10.4%), in stage IIA/B; 469 patients (9.5%), in stage IIIA/B/C; and 127 patients (2.6%), in stage IV. Surgical treatment was performed in 3,958 patients (79.8%), endoscopic resection was performed in 700 patients (14.1%), and 167 patients (3.4%) received palliative chemotherapy. The response rate for the questionnaire on the quality of life was 95%; however, diet diaries were only collected for 27% of patients. Conclusions To provide comprehensive information on gastric cancer for patients, physicians, and government officials, a large-scale database of Korean patients with gastric cancer was established. Based on the findings of this cohort study, an effective cancer management system and national cancer control policy could be developed. PMID:27752396

  4. Infant Sleeping Environment and Asthma at 7 Years: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Trevillian, Leigh F.; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Dwyer, Terence; Kemp, Andrew; Cochrane, Jennifer; Lim, Lynette L.-Y.; Carmichael, Allan

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the role of infant bedding items, as part of a composite bedding environment, in the development of childhood wheezing. Methods. This prospective cohort investigation involved 863 children who participated in an infant survey in 1988 and an asthma study in Tasmania, Australia, in 1995. The derived 3 composite infant bedding categories corresponded to increasing numbers of house dust mite (HDM)–rich bedding items used. Outcomes measured included recent and frequent wheezing. Results. Composite infant bedding used was associated with recent wheezing. Effects increased at increasing levels of HDM–rich bedding items used. Effects were further enhanced by home environmental factors of bedroom heating, recent bedroom painting, and absence of bedroom carpeting. When any 2 or more of these environmental factors were present, a strong dose–response relationship was evident. Conclusions. Our results show that bedding exposures in infancy are prospectively associated with childhood wheezing and that home environmental conditions may modify this association. PMID:16304135

  5. Lymphoma in patients treated with anti-TNF: results of the 3-year prospective French RATIO registry

    PubMed Central

    Mariette, Xavier; Tubach, Florence; Bagheri, Haleh; Bardet, Michel; Berthelot, Jean-Marie; Gaudin, Philippe; Heresbach, Denis; Martin, Antoine; Schaeverbeke, Thierry; Salmon, Dominique; Lemann, Marc; Hermine, Olivier; Raphael, Martine; Ravaud, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe cases of lymphoma associated with anti-TNF therapy, identify risk factors, estimate the incidence and compare risks for different anti-TNF agents. Methods We designed a national prospective registry (RATIO) from 2004 to 2006, for collecting all cases of lymphoma in French patients receiving anti-TNF therapy, whatever the indication. We conducted a case-control analysis including two controls treated with anti-TNF per case and an incidence study of lymphoma with the French population used as reference.. Results We collected 38 cases of lymphoma, 31 non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) (26 B-cell and 5 T-cell), 5 Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) and 2 Hodgkin’s-like lymphoma. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was detected in 2 of 2 Hodgkin’s-like lymphoma, 3 of 5 HL and one NHL. Patients receiving adalimumab or infliximab had a higher risk than those treated with etanercept: SIR = 4.1 (2.3–7.1) and 3.6 (2.3–5.6) versus 0.9 (0.4– 1.8). The exposure to adalimumab or infliximab versus etanercept was an independent risk factor for lymphoma in the case-control study: odds ratio=4.7 (1.3– 17.7) and 4.1 (1.4–12.5), respectively. The sex and age- adjusted incidence rate of lymphoma was 42.1 per 100,000 patient-years. The standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7–3.2). Conclusion Some lymphomas associated with immunosuppression may occur in patients receiving anti TNF therapy, and the risk of lymphoma is higher with monoclonal-antibody therapy than with soluble-receptor therapy. PMID:19828563

  6. Quality of travel health advice in a French travel medicine and vaccine center: a prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Bouldouyre, Marie-Anne; De Verdière, Nathalie Colin; Pavie, Juliette; De Castro, Nathalie; Ponscarme, Diane; Hamane, Samia; Rachline, Anne; Ferret, Samuel; Molina, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    The number of international trips undertaken by French citizens is rising and we wished to assess the appropriateness of advices given to travelers in a vaccine and travel medicine center in France. We conducted a 3-month prospective study in one center in Paris where prescriptions and advice to travelers are given by trained physicians in travel medicine who have access to a computerized decision support system (Edisan). A questionnaire was used to record trip characteristics, patients' demographics, and prescriptions. Main outcome measure was the adequacy of prescriptions for malaria prophylaxis, yellow fever, and hepatitis A vaccines to French guidelines. A total of 730 subjects were enrolled in this study, with a median age of 28 years. Travel destinations were sub-Saharan Africa (58%), Asia (21%), and South America (18%). Among the 608 patients (83%) traveling to malaria-endemic areas, malaria prophylaxis was in accordance with guidelines in 578/608 patients (95.1%, 95% CI: 93-96.5), and doxycycline was the regimen of choice (48%). Inappropriate malaria prophylaxis was given to eight patients, one of whom developed plasmodium falciparum malaria. All 413 patients (100%, 95% CI: 99-100) traveling to yellow fever-endemic areas who needed vaccination were correctly vaccinated. However, three patients received yellow fever vaccination without indication. Also, 442 of 454 patients (97.4%, 95% CI: 95.4-98.5) eligible to receive hepatitis A vaccination were immunized. Appropriate advice for malaria prophylaxis, yellow fever, and hepatitis A vaccinations was provided in a travel medicine and vaccine center where trained physicians used a computerized decision support system. Even in this setting, however, errors can occur and professional practices should be regularly assessed to improve health care. © 2012 International Society of Travel Medicine.

  7. Psychological Factors Associated with Development of TMD: the OPPERA Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Fillingim, Roger B.; Ohrbach, Richard; Greenspan, Joel D.; Knott, Charles; Diatchenko, Luda; Dubner, Ronald; Bair, Eric; Baraian, Cristina; Mack, Nicole; Slade, Gary D.; Maixner, William

    2013-01-01

    Case-control studies have consistently associated psychological factors with chronic pain in general and with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) specifically. However, only a handful of prospective studies has explored whether pre-existing psychological characteristics represent risk factors for first-onset TMD. The current findings derive from the prospective cohort study of the Orofacial Pain Prospective Evaluation and Risk Assessment (OPPERA) cooperative agreement. For this study, 3,263 TMD-free participants completed a battery of psychological instruments assessing general psychological adjustment and personality, affective distress, psychosocial stress, somatic symptoms, and pain coping and catastrophizing. Study participants were then followed prospectively for an average of 2.8 years to ascertain cases of first-onset of TMD, and 2,737 provided follow-up data and were considered in the analyses of TMD onset. In bivariate and demographically-adjusted analyses, several psychological variables predicted increased risk of first-onset TMD, including reported somatic symptoms, psychosocial stress, and affective distress. Principal component analysis of 26 psychological scores was used to identify latent constructs, revealing four components: stress and negative affectivity, global psychological and somatic symptoms, passive pain coping, and active pain coping. In multivariable analyses, global psychological and somatic symptoms emerged as the most robust risk factor for incident TMD. These findings provide evidence that measures of psychological functioning can predict first-onset of TMD. Future analyses in the OPPERA cohort will determine whether these psychological factors interact with other variables to increase risk for TMD onset and persistence. PMID:24275225

  8. Clinical progression and outcome of dysphagia following thermal burn injury: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rumbach, Anna F; Ward, Elizabeth C; Cornwell, Petrea L; Bassett, Lynell V; Muller, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were 1) to establish clinical profiles of dysphagic and nondysphagic individuals following thermal burn injury and 2) to provide a clinical profile of the progression and outcome of dysphagia resolution by hospital discharge for a dysphagic cohort. A total of 438 consecutively admitted patients with thermal burns were included. All patients underwent a clinical swallowing examination. Medical parameters regarding burn presentation and its treatment and speech-language pathology specific variables from admission to discharge were collected for each participant. Dysphagia was identified in 49 patients via clinical assessment, and their course of recovery was followed up until the point of dysphagia resolution or discharge. No significant difference was observed between the dysphagic and nondysphagic groups in age, gender, and injury etiology. However, the dysphagic cohort was significantly different from the nondysphagic group in all variables pertaining to injury presentation and medical management. Individuals with dysphagia took significantly longer to start, and maintain, oral intake and required nonoral supplementation for three and a half times longer than those who were nondysphagic. Length of speech-language pathology intervention averaged 1 month for the dysphagics and increased with dysphagia severity. Return to normal fluid consistencies occurred in >75% of dysphagic individuals by week 7 after injury, although resumption of normal diet textures was more protracted, with 75% resuming normal oral intake by week 9. Dysphagia had resolved in 50% of the cohort by week 6, and by hospital discharge, 85% of the dysphagic individuals had resumed normal oral intake of thin fluids and a general diet. This is the first large prospective cohort study to establish clinical profiles of dysphagic and nondysphagic cohorts and document the nature of dysphagia and patterns of recovery within the thermal burn population. These current data will

  9. Coffee consumption and risk of colorectal cancer in a population based prospective cohort of Swedish women

    PubMed Central

    Terry, P; Bergkvist, L; Holmberg, L; Wolk, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The presumed protective effect of coffee consumption on colorectal cancer, which is supported by case control studies, has not been confirmed in prospective cohort studies. Cohort studies are few in number however and often suffer from a small number of cases, limited attention to confounding variables, and a low percentage of heavy coffee drinkers.
METHODS—We examined data from a large population based cohort of Swedish women who were free from cancer at the start of follow up, with a wide range of coffee consumption, information on many potentially confounding variables, and a larger number of cases than any previous cohort study of coffee consumption and colorectal cancer.
RESULTS—During an average of 9.6 years of follow up of 61 463 women aged 40-74 years, we observed 460 incident cases of colorectal cancer (291 with colon cancer, 159 with rectal cancer, 10 with cancer at both sites). We found no association between coffee consumption and colorectal cancer risk. The risk ratio for drinking four or more cups per day compared with none was 1.04 (95% confidence interval 0.63—1.69; p for trend 0.84). The findings were similar for cancers of the distal and proximal colon and rectum.
CONCLUSIONS—The recently published affirmative conclusions regarding the protective effect of coffee consumption may be premature. For patients seeking advice about coffee consumption, the evidence suggests that moderate or even high consumption will probably not influence the risk of colorectal cancer.


Keywords: colorectal neoplasms; cohort studies; coffee drinking PMID:11413115

  10. Large prospective birth cohort studies on environmental contaminants and child health - goals, challenges, limitations and needs.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Liu, Jian-Meng; Fraser, William D

    2010-02-01

    The adverse health effects of environmental contaminants (ECs) are a rising public health concern, and a major threat to sustainable socioeconomic development. The developing fetuses and growing children are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of ECs. However, assessing the health impact of ECs presents a major challenge, given that multiple outcomes may arise from one exposure, multiple exposures may result in one outcome, and the complex interactions between ECs, and between ECs, nutrients and genetic factors, and the dynamic temporal changes in EC exposures during the life course. Large-scale prospective birth cohort studies collecting extensive data and specimen starting from the prenatal or pre-conception period, although costly, hold promise as a means to more clearly quantify the health effects of ECs, and to unravel the complex interactions between ECs, nutrients and genotypes. A number of such large-scale studies have been launched in some developed counties. We present an overview of "why", "what" and "how" behind these efforts with an objective to uncover major unidentified limitations and needs. Three major limitations were identified: (1) limited data and bio-specimens regarding early life EC exposure assessments in some birth cohort studies; (2) heavy participant burdens in some birth cohort studies may bias participant recruitment, and risk substantial loss to follow-up, protocol deviations limiting the quality of data and specimens collection, with an overall potential bias towards the null effect; (3) lack of concerted efforts in building comparable birth cohorts across countries to take advantage of natural "experiments" (large EC exposure level differences between countries) for more in-depth assessments of dose-response relationships, threshold exposure levels, and positive and negative effect modifiers. Addressing these concerns in current or future large-scale birth cohort studies may help to produce better evidence on the health

  11. Long-term efficacy and toxicity of abacavir/lamivudine/nevirapine compared to the most prescribed ARV regimens before 2013 in a French Nationwide Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    de Boissieu, Paul; Dramé, Moustapha; Raffi, François; Cabie, André; Poizot-Martin, Isabelle; Cotte, Laurent; Garraffo, Rodolphe; Delobel, Pierre; Huleux, Thomas; Rey, David; Bani-Sadr, Firouzé

    2016-09-01

    Data on the long-term efficacy and safety of abacavir/lamivudine (ABC/3TC) and nevirapine (NVP) are scarce. This combination has the advantage of simplifying treatment and improving long-term tolerance. The aim of this study was to compare the rate of any discontinuation of antiretroviral (ARV) regimen because of virologic failure (VF), and/or adverse drug reaction (ADR) among patients receiving stable ARV regimens for at least 6 months.ABC/3TC/NVP was compared to ABC/3TC with either ritonavir-boosted darunavir (DRV/r) or ritonavir-boosted atazanavir (ATV/r), unboosted ATV, or tenofovir/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) with either one of the following: ATV/r, unboosted ATV, DRV/r, efavirenz (EFV), or NVP, in the French prospective multicenter Dat'AIDS cohort.The study enrolled 16,511 patients treated with following ARV regimens: ABC/3TC/NVP (n = 1089), TDF/FTC/NVP (n = 1542), ABC/3TC/DRV/r (n = 1065), ABC/3TC/ATV/r (n = 1847), ABC/3TC/ATV (n = 563), TDF/FTC/ATV/r (n = 3519), TDF/FTC/DRV/r (n = 2767), TDF/FTC/ATV (n = 419), and TDF/FTC/EFV (n = 3700). Mean follow-up was 36 ± 24 months. Patients treated with ABC/3TC/NVP received this regimen as a switch regimen in 97% of cases. By multivariable analysis, the risk of treatment discontinuation due to VF was similar between ABC/3TC/NVP and other ARV regimens, except for TDF/FTC/ATV and ABC/3TC/ATV, which were associated with a higher risk of treatment interruption due to VF (hazard ratio [HR] 1.99; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29-3.06 and HR 2.19; 95% CI 1.51-3.18, respectively). Treatment discontinuation due to ADR was lowest with the ABC/3TC/NVP regimen. Other ARV regimens were associated with a 1.80- to 3.19-fold increase in the risk of treatment discontinuation due to ADR (P < 0.0001 for all comparisons).ABC/3TC/NVP as a simplification regimen is a long-term effective regimen with lower discontinuation due to long-term toxicity compared with other standard ARV regimens.

  12. Triple therapy in treatment-experienced patients with HCV-cirrhosis in a multicentre cohort of the French Early Access Programme (ANRS CO20-CUPIC) - NCT01514890.

    PubMed

    Hézode, Christophe; Fontaine, Hélène; Dorival, Céline; Larrey, Dominique; Zoulim, Fabien; Canva, Valérie; de Ledinghen, Victor; Poynard, Thierry; Samuel, Didier; Bourlière, Marc; Zarski, Jean-Pierre; Raabe, Jean-Jacques; Alric, Laurent; Marcellin, Patrick; Riachi, Ghassan; Bernard, Pierre-Henri; Loustaud-Ratti, Véronique; Métivier, Sophie; Tran, Albert; Serfaty, Lawrence; Abergel, Armand; Causse, Xavier; Di Martino, Vincent; Guyader, Dominique; Lucidarme, Damien; Grando-Lemaire, Véronique; Hillon, Patrick; Feray, Cyrille; Dao, Thong; Cacoub, Patrice; Rosa, Isabelle; Attali, Pierre; Petrov-Sanchez, Ventzislava; Barthe, Yoann; Pawlotsky, Jean-Michel; Pol, Stanislas; Carrat, Fabrice; Bronowicki, Jean-Pierre

    2013-09-01

    In phase III trials, the safety profile of triple therapy (pegylated interferon/ribavirin with boceprevir or telaprevir) seems to be similar in HCV treatment-experienced cirrhotic and non-cirrhotic patients, but few cirrhotics were included. We report the week 16 safety and efficacy analysis in a cohort of compensated cirrhotics treated in the French Early Access Programme. 674 genotype 1 patients, prospectively included, received 48 weeks of triple therapy. The analysis is restricted to 497 patients reaching week 16. A high incidence of serious adverse events (40.0%), and of death and severe complications (severe infection or hepatic decompensation) (6.4%), and a difficult management of anaemia (erythropoietin and transfusion use in 50.7% and 12.1%) were observed. Independent predictors of anaemia < 8 g/dl or blood transfusion were: female gender (OR 2.19, 95% CI 1.11-4.33, p=0.024), no lead-in phase (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.15-4.39, p=0.018), age ≥ 65 years (OR 3.04, 95% CI 1.54-6.02, p=0.0014), haemoglobin level (≤ 12 g/dl for females, ≤ 13 g/dl for males) (OR 5.30, 95% CI 2.49-11.5, p=0.0001). Death or severe complications were related to platelets count ≤ 100,000/mm(3) (OR 3.11, 95% CI 1.30-7.41, p=0.0105) and albumin <35 g/dl (OR 6.33, 95% CI 2.66-15.07, p=0.0001), with a risk of 44.1% in patients with both. However, the on-treatment virological response was high. The safety profile was poor and patients with platelet count ≤ 100,000/mm(3) and serum albumin <35 g/L should not be treated with the triple therapy. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Potato Consumption and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes: Results From Three Prospective Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Muraki, Isao; Rimm, Eric B.; Willett, Walter C.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Hu, Frank B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We aimed to elucidate whether potato consumption is associated with a higher risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We analyzed data in three cohorts consisting of U.S. male and female health professionals without diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline: 70,773 women from the Nurses’ Health Study (1984–2010), 87,739 women from Nurses’ Health Study II (1991–2011), and 40,669 men from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986–2010). Potato consumption was assessed quadrennially using validated food frequency questionnaires (FFQs), and we calculated 4-year change in potato consumption from consecutive FFQs. Self-reported T2D diagnosis was confirmed using a validated supplementary questionnaire. RESULTS During 3,988,007 person-years of follow-up, 15,362 new cases of T2D were identified. Higher consumption of total potatoes (including baked, boiled, or mashed potatoes and french fries) was significantly associated with an elevated risk for T2D: the pooled hazard ratio (HR) of T2D compared with <1 serving/week was 1.07 (95% CI 0.97–1.18) for 2–4 servings/week and 1.33 (95% CI 1.17–1.52) for ≥7 servings/week after adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, and dietary factors. In addition, the pooled HRs of T2D for every 3 servings/week were 1.04 (95% CI 1.01–1.08) for baked, boiled, or mashed potatoes, and 1.19 (95% CI 1.13–1.25) for french fries. We further estimated that the HR of T2D was 0.88 (95% CI 0.84–0.91) for replacing 3 servings/week of total potatoes with the same amount of whole grains. Last, in comparison with stable potato consumption, every 3-servings/week increment of potato consumption in 4 years was associated with a 4% (95% CI 0–8%) higher T2D risk. CONCLUSIONS Greater consumption of potatoes, especially french fries, was associated with a higher T2D risk, independent of BMI and other risk factors. Replacement of potatoes with whole grains was associated with a lower T2D risk

  14. Circulating resistin levels and risk of multiple myeloma in three prospective cohorts.

    PubMed

    Santo, Loredana; Teras, Lauren R; Giles, Graham G; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Albanes, Demetrius; Wang, Ye; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Lan, Qing; Rothman, Nathaniel; Birmann, Brenda M; Colditz, Graham A; Pollak, Michael N; Purdue, Mark P; Hofmann, Jonathan N

    2017-10-10

    Resistin is a polypeptide hormone secreted by adipose tissue. A prior hospital-based case-control study reported serum resistin levels to be inversely associated with risk of multiple myeloma (MM). To date, this association has not been investigated prospectively. We measured resistin concentrations for pre-diagnosis peripheral blood samples from 178 MM cases and 358 individually matched controls from three cohorts participating in the MM cohort consortium. In overall analyses, higher resistin levels were weakly associated with reduced MM risk. For men, we observed a statistically significant inverse association between resistin levels and MM (odds ratio, 0.44; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.24-0.83 and 0.54; 95% CI 0.29-0.99, for the third and fourth quartiles, respectively, vs the lowest quartile; Ptrend=0.03). No association was observed for women. This study provides the first prospective evidence that low circulating resistin levels may be associated with an increased risk of MM, particularly for men.

  15. Prospective observational cohort studies for studying rare diseases: the European PedNet Haemophilia Registry.

    PubMed

    Fischer, K; Ljung, R; Platokouki, H; Liesner, R; Claeyssens, S; Smink, E; van den Berg, H M

    2014-07-01

    Haemophilia is a rare disease. To improve knowledge, prospective studies of large numbers of subjects are needed. To establish a large well-documented birth cohort of patients with haemophilia enabling studies on early presentation, side effects and outcome of treatment. Twenty-one haemophilia treatment centres have been collecting data on all children with haemophilia with FVIII/IX levels up to 25% born from 2000 onwards. Another eight centres collected data on severe haemophilia A only. At baseline, details on delivery and diagnosis, gene mutation, family history of haemophilia and inhibitors are collected. For the first 75 exposure days, date, reason, dose and product are recorded for each infusion. Clinically relevant inhibitors are defined as follows: at least two positive inhibitor titres and a FVIII/IX recovery <66% of expected. For inhibitor patients, results of all inhibitor- and recovery tests are collected. For continued treatment, data on bleeding, surgery, prophylaxis and clotting factor consumption are collected annually. Data are downloaded for analysis annually. In May 2013, a total of 1094 patients were included: 701 with severe, 146 with moderate and 247 with mild haemophilia. Gene defect data were available for 87.6% of patients with severe haemophilia A. The first analysis, performed in May 2011, lead to two landmark publications. The outcome of this large collaborative research confirms its value for the improvement of haemophilia care. High-quality prospective observational cohorts form an ideal source to study natural history and treatment in rare diseases such as haemophilia.

  16. Calcium intake and hip fracture risk: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dong; Chen, Xiao-Hu; Fu, Guo; Gu, Li-Qiang; Zhu, Qing-Tang; Liu, Xiao-Lin; Qi, Jian; Xiang, Jian-Ping

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that the amount of calcium intake may influence hip fracture incidence. However, the results of the researches in this regard are inconsistent. We performed this meta-analysis to estimate the association between calcium intake and hip fracture risk. Prospective cohort studies on calcium intake and hip fracture risk were identified by searching databases from the period 1960 to 2014. Results from individual studies were synthetically combined using STATA 11 software. The results indicated that a total of 8 prospective cohort studies were included in our meta-analysis, involving 2,435 cases and 267,759 participants. The combined relative risk (RR) of hip fracture for highest compared with lowest amount calcium intake was 0.97 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.89-1.07). Little evidence of publication bias was found. In conclusion, this meta-analysis provides evidence of no association between calcium intake and hip fracture risk. However, this finding is based on only a limited number of included studies. PMID:26550430

  17. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Risk for Initiating Injection Drug Use: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hadland, Scott E.; Werb, Dan; Kerr, Thomas; Fu, Eric; Wang, Hong; Montaner, Julio S.; Wood, Evan

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study examined whether childhood sexual abuse predicts initiation of injection drug use in a prospective cohort of youth. Method From October 2005 to November 2010, data were collected from the At Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a prospective cohort study of street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. Inclusion criteria were age 14-26 years, no lifetime drug injection, and non-injection drug use in the month preceding enrollment. Participants were interviewed at baseline and semiannually thereafter. Cox regression was employed to identify risk factors for initiating injection. Results Among 395 injection-naïve youth, 81 (20.5%) reported childhood sexual abuse. During a median follow-up of 15.9 months (total follow-up 606.6 person-years), 45 (11.4%) youth initiated injection drug use, resulting in an incidence density of 7.4 per 100 person-years. In univariate analyses, childhood sexual abuse was associated with increased risk of initiating injection (unadjusted hazard ratio [HR], 2.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.29–4.38; p=0.006), an effect that persisted in multivariate analysis despite adjustment for gender, age, Aboriginal ancestry and recent non-injection drug use (adjusted HR, 2.71; 95% CI, 1.42–5.20; p=0.003). Conclusion Childhood sexual abuse places drug users at risk for initiating injection. Addiction treatment programs should incorporate services for survivors of childhood maltreatment. PMID:22954518

  18. Obstructive sleep apnoea and risks of all-cause mortality: preliminary evidence from prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lei; Xie, Xiaomei; Liu, Dayue; Ren, Dunqiang; Guo, Yongzhong

    2016-03-01

    A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies was conducted to clarify the association between obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and future risk of all-cause mortality. Eligible studies were identified by searching the PubMed and EMBASE databases up to July 2015. Pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and their corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the association between OSA and risk of all-cause mortality. Sources of heterogeneity were identified by subgroup and meta-regression analyses. Twelve prospective cohort studies involving 34,382 participants were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled HR of all-cause mortality was 1.262 (95 % CI 1.093-1.431) with significant heterogeneity. Subgroup analyses indicated that the pooled HRs of all-cause mortality in patients with mild, moderate and severe OSA were 0.945 (95 % CI 0.810-1.081), 1.178 (95 % CI 0.978-1.378) and 1.601 (95 % CI 1.298-1.902), respectively. OSA severity could be a possible sources of heterogeneity. Existing publication bias produced a minor contribution to effect size. Severe, but not mild to moderate, OSA is significantly associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality.

  19. Adverse effects of isoniazid preventative therapy for latent tuberculosis infection: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Denholm, Justin T; McBryde, Emma S; Eisen, Damon P; Penington, Jocelyn S; Chen, Caroline; Street, Alan C

    2014-01-01

    Isoniazid preventative therapy (IPT) is a widely used intervention for treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), particularly in patients at high risk for reactivation. While treatment-limiting adverse effects have been well studied, few prospective studies have considered the range of adverse effects that patients may experience with IPT. All patients commencing treatment for LTBI were prospectively enrolled in an ongoing database of LTBI treatment outcomes particularly related to adverse effects, treatment adherence, and treatment completion. Data on the first 100 patients who were prescribed IPT are presented. Fifty-six patients reported at least one adverse effect at some stage during treatment, with six experiencing at least one World Health Organization (WHO) Grade 3-4 adverse effect. Increased age was significantly associated with risk of adverse effects (odds ratio [OR] =1.05 per year; confidence interval [CI] of 1.02-1.08=95%). Eighty-five patients had documented completion of therapy locally, with ten patients ceasing IPT due to adverse effects. This report highlights a variety of somatic adverse effects that occurred in a real-world cohort of patients receiving IPT. While adverse effects were frequently identified in this study, the considerable majority were low grade and transient. Despite frequent adverse effects of LTBI in our treatment cohort, the study demonstrated high levels of treatment adherence and completion.

  20. Dietary fiber intake and total mortality: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngyo; Je, Youjin

    2014-09-15

    Greater intake of dietary fiber has been associated with lower risk of several chronic diseases. Some observational studies have examined the association between dietary fiber intake and total mortality, but the results were inconclusive. We conducted a meta-analysis of data from prospective cohort studies to quantitatively assess the association. Eligible studies were identified by searching the PubMed and Embase databases for all articles published through November 30, 2013, and by reviewing the reference lists of retrieved articles. Study-specific estimates adjusting for potential confounders were combined to calculate a pooled relative risk and 95% confidence interval using a random-effects model. Seven prospective cohort studies of dietary fiber intake and total mortality, including 62,314 deaths among 908,135 participants, were identified. The pooled adjusted relative risk of total mortality for the highest category of dietary fiber intake versus the lowest was 0.77 (95% confidence interval: 0.74, 0.80). In a dose-response meta-analysis, the pooled adjusted relative risk for a 10-g/day increment of dietary fiber intake was 0.89 (95% confidence interval: 0.85, 0 92). By source of fiber, cereal and, to a lesser extent, vegetable fiber were significantly associated with lower total mortality, while fruit fiber showed no association. In conclusion, high dietary fiber intake may reduce the risk of total mortality.

  1. The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet, Western diet, and risk of gout in men: prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rai, Sharan K; Fung, Teresa T; Lu, Na; Keller, Sarah F; Curhan, Gary C; Choi, Hyon K

    2017-05-09

    Objective To prospectively examine the relation between the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and Western diets and risk of gout (ie, the clinical endpoint of hyperuricemia) in men.Design Prospective cohort study.Setting The Health Professionals Follow-up Study.Participants 44 444 men with no history of gout at baseline. Using validated food frequency questionnaires, each participant was assigned a DASH dietary pattern score (based on high intake of fruits, vegetables, nuts and legumes, low fat dairy products, and whole grains, and low intake of sodium, sweetened beverages, and red and processed meats) and a Western dietary pattern score (based on high intake of red and processed meats, French fries, refined grains, sweets, and desserts).Main outcome measure Risk of incident gout meeting the preliminary American College of Rheumatology survey criteria for gout, adjusting for potential confounders, including age, body mass index, hypertension, diuretic use, and alcohol intake.Results During 26 years of follow-up, 1731 confirmed cases of incident gout were documented. A higher DASH dietary pattern score was associated with a lower risk for gout (adjusted relative risk for extreme fifths 0.68, 95% confidence interval 0.57 to 0.80, P value for trend <0.001). In contrast, a higher Western dietary pattern score was associated with an increased risk for gout (1.42, 1.16 to 1.74, P=0.005).Conclusion The DASH diet is associated with a lower risk of gout, suggesting that its effect of lowering uric acid levels in individuals with hyperuricemia translates to a lower risk of gout. Conversely, the Western diet is associated with a higher risk of gout. The DASH diet may provide an attractive preventive dietary approach for men at risk of gout. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  2. Important Variables When Screening for Students at Suicidal Risk: Findings from the French Cohort of the SEYLE Study

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Tubiana, Alexandra; Cohen, Renaud F.; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    Due to early detection of mental ill-health being an important suicide preventive strategy, the multi-centre EU funded “Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe” (SEYLE) study compared three school-based mental health promotion programs to a control group. In France, 1007 students with a mean age of 15.2 years were recruited from 20 randomly assigned schools. This paper explores the French results of the SEYLE’s two-stage screening program (ProfScreen) and of the cross-program suicidal emergency procedure. Two-hundred-thirty-five ProfScreen students were screened using 13 psychopathological and risk behaviour scales. Students considered at risk because of a positive finding on one or more scales were offered a clinical interview and, if necessary, referred for treatment. A procedure for suicidal students (emergency cases) was set up to detect emergencies in the whole cohort (n = 1007). Emergency cases were offered the same clinical interview as the ProfScreen students. The interviewers documented their reasons for referrals in a short report. 16,2% of the ProfScreen students (38/235) were referred to treatment and 2,7% of the emergency cases (27/1007) were also referred to treatment due to high suicidal risk. Frequent symptoms in those students referred for evaluation were depression, alcohol misuse, non-suicidal self-injuries (NSSI), and suicidal behaviours. According to the multivariate regression analysis of ProfScreen, the results show that the best predictors for treatment referral were NSSI (OR 2.85), alcohol misuse (OR 2.80), and depressive symptoms (OR 1.13). Analysis of the proportion for each scale of students referred to treatment showed that poor social relationships (60%), anxiety (50%), and suicidal behaviours (50%) generated the highest rate of referrals. Qualitative analysis of clinician’s motivations to refer a student to mental health services revealed that depressive symptoms (51%), anxiety (38%), suicidal behaviours (40%), and

  3. Important Variables When Screening for Students at Suicidal Risk: Findings from the French Cohort of the SEYLE Study.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Tubiana, Alexandra; Cohen, Renaud F; Carli, Vladimir; Wasserman, Camilla; Hoven, Christina; Sarchiapone, Marco; Wasserman, Danuta

    2015-09-30

    Due to early detection of mental ill-health being an important suicide preventive strategy, the multi-centre EU funded "Saving and Empowering Young Lives in Europe" (SEYLE) study compared three school-based mental health promotion programs to a control group. In France, 1007 students with a mean age of 15.2 years were recruited from 20 randomly assigned schools. This paper explores the French results of the SEYLE's two-stage screening program (ProfScreen) and of the cross-program suicidal emergency procedure. Two-hundred-thirty-five ProfScreen students were screened using 13 psychopathological and risk behaviour scales. Students considered at risk because of a positive finding on one or more scales were offered a clinical interview and, if necessary, referred for treatment. A procedure for suicidal students (emergency cases) was set up to detect emergencies in the whole cohort (n = 1007). Emergency cases were offered the same clinical interview as the ProfScreen students. The interviewers documented their reasons for referrals in a short report. 16,2% of the ProfScreen students (38/235) were referred to treatment and 2,7% of the emergency cases (27/1007) were also referred to treatment due to high suicidal risk. Frequent symptoms in those students referred for evaluation were depression, alcohol misuse, non-suicidal self-injuries (NSSI), and suicidal behaviours. According to the multivariate regression analysis of ProfScreen, the results show that the best predictors for treatment referral were NSSI (OR 2.85), alcohol misuse (OR 2.80), and depressive symptoms (OR 1.13). Analysis of the proportion for each scale of students referred to treatment showed that poor social relationships (60%), anxiety (50%), and suicidal behaviours (50%) generated the highest rate of referrals. Qualitative analysis of clinician's motivations to refer a student to mental health services revealed that depressive symptoms (51%), anxiety (38%), suicidal behaviours (40%), and negative life

  4. AURORA: bariatric surgery registration in women of reproductive age - a multicenter prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jans, Goele; Matthys, Christophe; Bel, Sarah; Ameye, Lieveke; Lannoo, Matthias; Van der Schueren, Bart; Dillemans, Bruno; Lemmens, Luc; Saey, Jean-Pierre; van Nieuwenhove, Yves; Grandjean, Pascale; De Becker, Ben; Logghe, Hilde; Coppens, Marc; Roelens, Kristien; Loccufier, Anne; Verhaeghe, Johan; Devlieger, Roland

    2016-07-29

    The expansion of the obesity epidemic is accompanied with an increase in bariatric procedures, in particular in women of reproductive age. The weight loss induced by the surgery is believed to reverse the negative impact of overweight and obesity on female reproduction, however, research is limited to in particular retrospective cohort studies and a growing number of small case-series and case-(control) studies. AURORA is a multicenter prospective cohort study. The main objective is to collect long-term data on reproductive outcomes before and after bariatric surgery and in a subsequent pregnancy. Women aged 18-45 years are invited to participate at 4 possible inclusion moments: 1) before surgery, 2) after surgery, 3) before 15 weeks of pregnancy and 4) in the immediate postpartum period (day 3-4). Depending on the time of inclusion, data are collected before surgery (T1), 3 weeks and 3, 6, 12 or x months after surgery (T2-T5) and during the first, second and third trimester of pregnancy (T6-T8), at delivery (T9) and 6 weeks and 6 months after delivery (T10-T11). Online questionnaires are send on the different measuring moments. Data are collected on contraception, menstrual cycle, sexuality, intention of becoming pregnant, diet, physical activity, lifestyle, psycho-social characteristics and dietary supplement intake. Fasting blood samples determine levels of vitamin A, D, E, K, B-1, B-12 and folate, albumin, total protein, coagulation parameters, magnesium, calcium, zinc and glucose. Participants are weighted every measuring moment. Fetal ultrasounds and pregnancy course and complications are reported every trimester of pregnancy. Breastfeeding is recorded and breast milk composition in the postpartum period is studied. AURORA is a multicenter prospective cohort study extensively monitoring women before undergoing bariatric surgery until a subsequent pregnancy and postpartum period. Retrospectively registered (July 2015 - NCT02515214 ).

  5. Risk Factors of Developmental Defects of Enamel-A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Hai Ming; Peng, Si-Min; Wen, Yi Feng; King, Nigel M.; McGrath, Colman P. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective Current studies on the aetiology of developmental defects of enamel (DDE) are subject to recall bias because of the retrospective collection of information. Our objective was to investigate potential risk factors associated with the occurrence of DDE through a prospective cohort study. Methods Using a random community sample of Hong Kong children born in 1997, we performed a cohort study in which the subjects’ background information, medical and dental records were prospectively collected. A clinical examination to identify DDE was conducted in 2010 when the subjects were 12 years old. The central incisor, lateral incisor and first molar in each quadrant were chosen as the index teeth and were examined ‘wet’ by two trained and calibrated examiners using the modified FDI (DDE) Index. Results With a response rate of 74.9%, the 514 examined subjects had matched data for background information. Diffuse opacites were the most common type of DDE. Of the various possible aetiological factors considered, only experience of severe diseases during the period 0–3 years was associated with the occurrence of ‘any defect’ (p = 0.017) and diffuse opacities (p = 0.044). The children with experience of severe diseases before 3 years of age were 7.89 times more likely to be affected by ‘any defect’ compared with those who did not have the experience (OR 7.89; 95% CI 1.07, 58.14; p = 0.043). However, after adjusting for confounding factors, the association no longer existed. Conclusion No variables could be identified as risk factors of DDE in this Hong Kong birth cohort. PMID:25275499

  6. Workplace bullying, sleep problems and leisure-time physical activity: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Gullander, Maria; Hogh, Annie; Persson, Roger; Kolstad, Henrik A; Willert, Morten Vejs; Bonde, Jens Peter; Kaerlev, Linda; Rugulies, Reiner; Grynderup, Matias Brødsgaard

    2016-01-01

    Workplace bullying is a potent stressor that may increase sleep problems. Since physical fitness improves resilience to stress, it seems plausible that recreational physical activities may moderate the association between bullying and sleep. The study aimed to examine prospectively whether (i) bullying increases the risk of sleep problems, and (ii) the association between bullying and sleep problems is moderated by leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). The study sample comprised a cohort of public and private sector employees, who were enrolled into the Work Bullying and Harassment (WBH) cohort (N=3278) or the Psychosocial Risk Factors for Stress and Mental Disease (PRISME) cohort (N=4455). We measured workplace bullying using one question that was preceded by a definition of bullying. We used the Karolinska sleep questionnaire to assess sleep problems. The number of hours per week spent on LTPA estimated the degree of physical activity. Workplace bullying at baseline (T1) was associated with awakening problems and lack of restful sleep at follow-up (T2) but not with overall sleep problems and disturbed sleep. T1-LTPA did not moderate the association between T1-workplace bullying and T2-sleep problems. We found support that workplace bullying is related to development of T2-sleep problems, but this association seems not to be modified by LTPA.

  7. The Shozu Herpes Zoster (SHEZ) Study: Rationale, Design, and Description of a Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Takao, Yukiko; Miyazaki, Yoshiyuki; Onishi, Fumitake; Kumihashi, Hideaki; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Toyokazu; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Mori, Yasuko; Asada, Hideo; Yamanishi, Koichi; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2012-01-01

    Background The incidence and risk factors for herpes zoster have been studied in cross-sectional and cohort studies, although most such studies have been conducted in Western countries. Evidence from Asian populations is limited, and no cohort study has been conducted in Asia. We are conducting a 3-year prospective cohort study in Shozu County in Kagawa Prefecture, Japan to determine the incidence and predictive and immunologic factors for herpes zoster among Japanese. Methods The participants are followed for 3 years, and a telephone survey is conducted every 4 weeks. The participants were assigned to 1 of 3 studies. Participants in study A gave information on past history of herpes zoster and completed health questionnaires. Study B participants additionally underwent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) skin testing, and study C participants additionally underwent blood testing. If the participants develop herpes zoster, we evaluate clinical symptoms, measure cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunity using venous blood sampling, photograph skin areas with rash, conduct virus identification testing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and virus isolation from crust sampling, and evaluate postherpetic pain. Results We recruited 12 522 participants aged 50 years or older in Shozu County from December 2009 through November 2010. The participation rate was 65.7% of the target population. Conclusions The present study is likely to provide valuable data on the incidence and predictive and immunologic factors for herpes zoster in a defined community-based population of Japanese. PMID:22343323

  8. Nut intake and stroke risk: A dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Chuan; Tang, Hui; Zhao, Wei; He, Jianquan

    2016-01-01

    We aim to quantify the effects of nut intake on risk of stroke by a dose-response meta-analysis with a random-effects model. Two databases (PubMed and Emabse) were searched for prospective cohort studies regarding nut intake and stroke risk. Studies were included if they fulfilled the predefined criteria. Eleven articles encompassing fourteen cohort studies were included in final analysis. The pooled relative risk (RR) of stroke for the highest versus (vs.) lowest category of nut intake was 0.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.80-0.97). The power to detect a RR of 0.88 for the highest versus vs. lowest category of nut intake was 86.2%. In multiple subset analyses by gender, location, and stroke subtype, the inverse association was only found in women (RR = 0.84, 95% CI 0.73–0.96) and Asia (RR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.67–0.93). In the dose-response meta-analysis, evidence for a nonlinear association between nut intake and stroke risk was observed and a RR of 0.86 was conferred for 12 g/day. Based on the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system, the quality of evidence was moderate. In conclusions, finding from current meta-analysis of fourteen cohort studies indicates that nut intake may be related to decreased risk of stroke. PMID:27469072

  9. A Prospective Cohort Study of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Risk and Opium Addiction in South Eastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Aflatoonian, Mohammad Reza; Sharifi, Iraj; Hakimi Parizi, Maryam; Fekri, Ali Reza; Aflatoonian, Behnaz; Sharifi, Maryam; Khosravi, Ahmad; Khamesipour, Ali; Sharifi, Hamid

    2014-01-01

    Opium addiction and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are endemic in different parts of Iran, particularly in Bam, where a massive earthquake occurred. This study was designed to compare the incidence rate and severity of CL cases among opium addicted and non-addicted individuals in south-eastern Iran. This study was carried out as a prospective cohort by active house-to-house visits of 1,481 habitants in Bam. CL cases were confirmed by smear and identification of Leishmania species was performed using nested-PCR. The data was analyzed by χ2 and t-tests, using SPSS software and also Kaplan-Meier survival curve and long-rank test in Stata 11.2 and P<0.05 was considered as significant. A total of 904 individuals consisting of 226 opium addicted and 678 non-addicted individuals were followed-up for a period of seven years. The two cohorts were similar in terms of age, sex and place of residency. A similar pattern of incidence was observed among the two cohort groups. In contrast, the severity of CL in terms of the number, duration and the size of the lesions in opium addicted individuals was significantly (P<0.001) higher than non-opium addicted individuals. In conclusion, the present findings indicate that there is no relationship between the incidence of CL and opium addiction. PMID:24586494

  10. The effect of dairy foods on CHD: a systematic review of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Robert A; Makrides, Maria; Smithers, Lisa G; Voevodin, Melanie; Sinclair, Andrew J

    2009-11-01

    There is interest in the degree to which fats in dairy foods contribute to CHD. We undertook a systematic review to investigate the effect of dairy consumption on CHD using prospective cohort studies. A systematic search of electronic databases identified studies relating dairy food intake in adulthood to episodes or death from CHD, IHD and myocardial infarction. Included studies were assessed for quality based on study methodology, validity of dietary assessment, success of follow-up, standardised assessment of CHD, IHD or myocardial infarction end points and appropriateness of statistical adjustment. Data from twelve cohorts involving >280,000 subjects were included. Most studies had follow-up of >80 %, adjusted statistically for three or more confounders and used standard criteria to determine end points. About half the studies used a validated FFQ, administered the FFQ more than once or had follow-up of >20 years. Fewer than half the studies involved subjects representative of the general population. Four of the twelve cohorts found no association between dairy intake and CHD. Eight studies reported varying relationships between different dairy foods and CHD or differential associations based on race, sex or over time. Although dairy foods contribute to the SFA composition of the diet, this systematic review could find no consistent evidence that dairy food consumption is associated with a higher risk of CHD. This could be due to the limited sensitivity of the dietary assessment methods to detect an effect of a single food in a mixed diet on complex clinical outcomes.

  11. The Shozu Herpes Zoster (SHEZ) study: rationale, design, and description of a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Takao, Yukiko; Miyazaki, Yoshiyuki; Onishi, Fumitake; Kumihashi, Hideaki; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Toyokazu; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Mori, Yasuko; Asada, Hideo; Yamanishi, Koichi; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2012-01-01

    The incidence and risk factors for herpes zoster have been studied in cross-sectional and cohort studies, although most such studies have been conducted in Western countries. Evidence from Asian populations is limited, and no cohort study has been conducted in Asia. We are conducting a 3-year prospective cohort study in Shozu County in Kagawa Prefecture, Japan to determine the incidence and predictive and immunologic factors for herpes zoster among Japanese. The participants are followed for 3 years, and a telephone survey is conducted every 4 weeks. The participants were assigned to 1 of 3 studies. Participants in study A gave information on past history of herpes zoster and completed health questionnaires. Study B participants additionally underwent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) skin testing, and study C participants additionally underwent blood testing. If the participants develop herpes zoster, we evaluate clinical symptoms, measure cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunity using venous blood sampling, photograph skin areas with rash, conduct virus identification testing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and virus isolation from crust sampling, and evaluate postherpetic pain. We recruited 12 522 participants aged 50 years or older in Shozu County from December 2009 through November 2010. The participation rate was 65.7% of the target population. The present study is likely to provide valuable data on the incidence and predictive and immunologic factors for herpes zoster in a defined community-based population of Japanese.

  12. Dietary fiber intake and mortality among survivors of myocardial infarction: prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Li, Shanshan; Flint, Alan; Pai, Jennifer K; Forman, John P; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Rimm, Eric B

    2014-04-29

    To evaluate the associations of dietary fiber after myocardial infarction (MI) and changes in dietary fiber intake from before to after MI with all cause and cardiovascular mortality. Prospective cohort study. Two large prospective cohort studies of US women and men with repeated dietary measurements: the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. 2258 women and 1840 men who were free of cardiovascular disease, stroke, or cancer at enrollment, survived a first MI during follow-up, were free of stroke at the time of initial onset of MI, and provided food frequency questionnaires pre-MI and at least one post-MI. Associations of dietary fiber post-MI and changes from before to after MI with all cause and cardiovascular mortality using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for drug use, medical history, and lifestyle factors. Higher post-MI fiber intake was significantly associated with lower all cause mortality (comparing extreme fifths, pooled hazard ratio 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.97). Greater intake of cereal fiber was more strongly associated with all cause mortality (pooled hazard ratio 0.73, 0.58 to 0.91) than were other sources of dietary fiber. Increased fiber intake from before to after MI was significantly associated with lower all cause mortality (pooled hazard ratio 0.69, 0.55 to 0.87). In this prospective study of patients who survived MI, a greater intake of dietary fiber after MI, especially cereal fiber, was inversely associated with all cause mortality. In addition, increasing consumption of fiber from before to after MI was significantly associated with lower all cause and cardiovascular mortality.

  13. Dietary fiber intake and stroke risk: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Chen, G-C; Lv, D-B; Pang, Z; Dong, J-Y; Liu, Q-F

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that dietary fiber intake may be associated with a decreased risk of stroke, but the findings have been inconsistent. We aimed to assess this association by conducting a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. We performed a literature search on PubMed database through July 2012 to identify prospective studies of dietary fiber intake in relation to risk of stroke. We also comprehensively reviewed the reference lists of the retrieved articles to identify additional studies. We used a random-effects model to compute the summary risk estimates. Six prospective cohort studies containing a total of 314 864 subjects and 8920 stroke cases were included. The summary relative risk (RR) of stroke for the highest vs lowest category of dietary fiber intake was 0.87 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.77-0.99). The corresponding RR in the subgroup analyses for men and women was 0.95 (95% CI, 0.83-1.08) and 0.80 (95% CI, 0.66-0.96), respectively; and for ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke was 0.83(95% CI, 0.72-0.96) and 0.86 (95% CI, 0.70-1.06), respectively. Meta-regression indicated no significant difference between gender (P-interaction=0.18), or stroke subtypes (P-interaction =0.85). The dose-response analysis suggested a 12% (RR=0.88; 95% CI, 0.79-0.97) reduction in risk of stroke for each 10 g per day increment in dietary fiber intake. Moderate heterogeneity emerged in some of analyses, but disappeared after removing one study substantially contributing to the heterogeneity. Little evidence of publication bias was detected. Findings of this meta-analysis indicate a significant inverse dose-response relationship between dietary fiber intake and risk of stroke.

  14. Exposure to Greenness and Mortality in a Nationwide Prospective Cohort Study of Women

    PubMed Central

    James, Peter; Hart, Jaime E.; Banay, Rachel F.; Laden, Francine

    2016-01-01

    Background: Green, natural environments may ameliorate adverse environmental exposures (e.g., air pollution, noise, and extreme heat), increase physical activity and social engagement, and lower stress. Objectives: We aimed to examine the prospective association between residential greenness and mortality. Methods: Using data from the U.S.-based Nurses’ Health Study prospective cohort, we defined cumulative average time-varying seasonal greenness surrounding each participant’s address using satellite imagery [Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)]. We followed 108,630 women and observed 8,604 deaths between 2000 and 2008. Results: In models adjusted for mortality risk factors (age, race/ethnicity, smoking, and individual- and area-level socioeconomic status), women living in the highest quintile of cumulative average greenness (accounting for changes in residence during follow-up) in the 250-m area around their home had a 12% lower rate of all-cause nonaccidental mortality [95% confidence interval (CI); 0.82, 0.94] than those in the lowest quintile. The results were consistent for the 1,250-m area, although the relationship was slightly attenuated. These associations were strongest for respiratory and cancer mortality. The findings from a mediation analysis suggested that the association between greenness and mortality may be at least partly mediated by physical activity, particulate matter < 2.5 μm, social engagement, and depression. Conclusions: Higher levels of green vegetation were associated with decreased mortality. Policies to increase vegetation may provide opportunities for physical activity, reduce harmful exposures, increase social engagement, and improve mental health. Planting vegetation may mitigate the effects of climate change; in addition, evidence of an association between vegetation and lower mortality rates suggests it also might be used to improve health. Citation: James P, Hart JE, Banay RF, Laden F. 2016. Exposure to greenness

  15. Dietary fiber intake and mortality among survivors of myocardial infarction: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Flint, Alan; Pai, Jennifer K; Forman, John P; Hu, Frank B; Willett, Walter C; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Rimm, Eric B

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the associations of dietary fiber after myocardial infarction (MI) and changes in dietary fiber intake from before to after MI with all cause and cardiovascular mortality. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Two large prospective cohort studies of US women and men with repeated dietary measurements: the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Participants 2258 women and 1840 men who were free of cardiovascular disease, stroke, or cancer at enrollment, survived a first MI during follow-up, were free of stroke at the time of initial onset of MI, and provided food frequency questionnaires pre-MI and at least one post-MI. Main outcome measures Associations of dietary fiber post-MI and changes from before to after MI with all cause and cardiovascular mortality using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for drug use, medical history, and lifestyle factors. Results Higher post-MI fiber intake was significantly associated with lower all cause mortality (comparing extreme fifths, pooled hazard ratio 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.97). Greater intake of cereal fiber was more strongly associated with all cause mortality (pooled hazard ratio 0.73, 0.58 to 0.91) than were other sources of dietary fiber. Increased fiber intake from before to after MI was significantly associated with lower all cause mortality (pooled hazard ratio 0.69, 0.55 to 0.87). Conclusions In this prospective study of patients who survived MI, a greater intake of dietary fiber after MI, especially cereal fiber, was inversely associated with all cause mortality. In addition, increasing consumption of fiber from before to after MI was significantly associated with lower all cause and cardiovascular mortality. PMID:24782515

  16. Afro-Caribbean pemphigus: epidemiological data from a 5-year prospective study on the island of Guadeloupe (French West Indies).

    PubMed

    Cordel, Nadège; Maire, Cyril; le Gilbert, Daniè; Courville, Philippe; Tressières, Benoît

    2013-11-01

    There are no reported epidemiological data regarding autoimmune pemphigus in the Afro-Caribbean population. To present the epidemiology of autoimmune pemphigus on the island of Guadeloupe (French West Indies, 400,736 inhabitants, mostly black Caribbean of African European descent). Five-year prospective study. Inclusion of the incident cases when directly referred to the Dermatology Department or secondarily referred by their private practice dermatologist once identified by the computerized databases of the Guadeloupian pathology laboratories. World-population-standardized incidence was 6.96 (95% CI: 3.41-10.52) for pemphigus vulgaris and 3.75 (95% CI: 1.12-6.39) for pemphigus foliaceus. Patients usually live in the rural countryside, whereas 75% of the population of Guadeloupe Island live in an urban environment. We report a high incidence of autoimmune pemphigus in Guadeloupe, especially for the foliaceus type, and the existence of particular epidemiological features such as the rural countryside habitat. © 2013 The International Society of Dermatology.

  17. Gastro esophageal reflux disease is associated with absence from work: results from a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Leodolter, Andreas; Nocon, Marc; Kulig, Michael; Willich, Stefan N; Malfertheiner, Peter; Labenz, Joachim

    2005-12-07

    To study the association of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) with the absence from work and to estimate the extent of loss in gross domestic product due to inability to work. Analysis was based on the prospectively gathered data of a large European cohort study involving 6 215 symptomatic GERD patients (ProGERD). Among these patients, 2 871 were initially employed. The calculation of the loss of gross domestic product was based on the assumption that the prevalence of GERD was about 15% in Germany. According to the German Federal Statistical Office, the mean gross wage of employees was 150 EUR/d in 2002. The data of 2 078 employed patients who were prospectively followed up for over 2 years were analyzed. At study entry, the patients reported a mean of 1.8 d per year of inability to work. During the prospective follow-up under routine clinical care, the proportion of patients reporting days with inability to work decreased from 14% to 6% and the mean number of days per year with inability to work decreased to 0.9 d. Assuming a prevalence of troublesome GERD of 15% in the employed German population, the loss of gross domestic product amounted to 668 million EUR/year in Germany. GERD causes a relevant impairment on the national economics by absence from work. The presented data demonstrate the importance of GERD, not only for patients and health insurance companies, but also for the community at large.

  18. Association between sleep duration and cancer risk: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan; Tian, Nong; Yin, Jie; Shi, Yuhua; Huang, Zhenping

    2013-01-01

    Sleep duration has been shown to play an important role in the development of cancer. However, the results have been inconsistent. A meta-analysis with prospective cohort studies was performed to clarify the association between short or long sleep duration and cancer risk. PubMed and Embase databases were searched for eligible publications. Pooled relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated using random- or fixed- model. A total of 10 prospective studies (8392 incident cases and 555678 participants) were included in the meta-analysis. Neither short nor long sleep duration was statistically associated with increased risk of cancer (short sleep duration: RR=1.05, 95%CI=0.90-1.24, p=0.523; long sleep duration: RR=0.92, 95%CI=0.76-1.12, p=0.415). In the subgroup by cancer type, long sleep duration was positively associated with colorectal cancer (RR=1.29, 95%CI=1.09-1.52, p=0.003). The present meta-analysis suggested that neither short nor long sleep duration was significantly associated with risk of cancer, although long sleep duration increased risk of with colorectal cancer. Large-scale well-design prospective studies are required to be conducted to further investigate the observed association.

  19. Parental Hopeful Patterns of Thinking, Emotions, and Pediatric Palliative Care Decisionmaking: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Feudtner, Chris; Carroll, Karen W.; Hexem, Kari R.; Silberman, Jordan; Kang, Tammy I.; Kazak, Anne E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Test the hypothesis that hopeful patterns of thoughts and emotions of parents of pediatric patients receiving palliative care consultative services are related to subsequent decisions, specifically regarding limit of intervention (LOI) orders. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Children's hospital and surrounding region. Participants 33 pediatric patients receiving palliative care consult services who did not have LOI orders at time of cohort entry and their 43 parental adults. Main Exposures Parental levels at time of cohort entry of hopeful patterns of thinking and emotions, in conjunction with perceptions about patients' health trajectories Main Outcome Measures Enactment of an LOI order after entry into the cohort. Results During the 6 months of observation, 14 patients had (42.4%) an LOI order enacted. In adjusted analyses, higher levels of parental hopeful patterns of thinking were significantly associated with increased odds of enactment of an LOI order [AOR 2.73; 95% CI: 1.04, 7.22]. Increased odds of LOI enactment were associated to non-significant degrees with lower levels of parental positive affect [AOR 0.44; 95% CI: 0.17, 1.12], higher levels of parental negative affect [AOR 2.02; 95% CI: 0.98, 4.16], and parental perceptions of worsening health over time [AOR 1.72; 95% CI: 0.73, 4.07]. Conclusions For pediatric patients receiving palliative care consultative services, higher levels of parents' hopeful patterns of thinking are associated with subsequent enactment of LOI orders, suggesting that emotional and cognitive processes have a combined effect on medical decisionmaking. PMID:20819965

  20. Occupational exposures and Parkinson's disease mortality in a prospective Dutch cohort.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Maartje; Koeman, Tom; van den Brandt, Piet A; Kromhout, Hans; Schouten, Leo J; Peters, Susan; Huss, Anke; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the association between six occupational exposures (ie, pesticides, solvents, metals, diesel motor emissions (DME), extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF) and electric shocks) and Parkinson's disease (PD) mortality in a large population-based prospective cohort study. The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer enrolled 58,279 men and 62,573 women aged 55-69 years in 1986. Participants were followed up for cause-specific mortality over 17.3 years, until December 2003, resulting in 402 male and 207 female PD deaths. Following a case-cohort design, a subcohort of 5,000 participants was randomly sampled from the complete cohort. Information on occupational history and potential confounders was collected at baseline. Job-exposure matrices were applied to assign occupational exposures. Associations with PD mortality were evaluated using Cox regression. Among men, elevated HRs were observed for exposure to pesticides (eg, ever high exposed, HR 1.27, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.88) and ever high exposed to ELF-MF (HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.00 to 2.36). No association with exposure duration or trend in cumulative exposure was observed for any of the occupational exposures. Results among women were unstable due to small numbers of high-exposed women. Associations with PD mortality were observed for occupational exposure to pesticides and ELF-MF. However, the weight given to these findings is limited by the absence of a monotonic trend with either duration or cumulative exposure. No associations were found between PD mortality and occupational exposure to solvents, metals, DME or electric shocks. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Stressful life events and leukocyte telomere attrition in adulthood: a prospective population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    van Ockenburg, S L; Bos, E H; de Jonge, P; van der Harst, P; Gans, R O B; Rosmalen, J G M

    2015-10-01

    Telomere attrition might be one of the mechanisms through which psychosocial stress leads to somatic disease. To date it is unknown if exposure to adverse life events in adulthood is associated with telomere shortening prospectively. In the current study we investigated whether life events are associated with shortening of telomere length (TL). Participants were 1094 adults (mean age 53.1, range 33-79 years) from the PREVEND cohort. Data were collected at baseline (T1) and at two follow-up visits after 4 years (T2) and 6 years (T3). Life events were assessed with an adjusted version of the List of Threatening Events (LTE). TL was measured by monochrome multiplex quantitative PCR at T1, T2, and T3. A linear mixed model was used to assess the effect of recent life events on TL prospectively. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to assess whether the lifetime life events score or the score of life events experienced before the age of 12 predicted TL cross-sectionally. All final models were adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, presence of chronic diseases, frequency of sports, smoking status, and level of education. Recent life events significantly predicted telomere attrition prospectively (B = -0.031, p = 0.007). We were not able to demonstrate a significant cross-sectional relationship between the lifetime LTE score and TL. Nor did we find exposure to adverse life events before the age of 12 to be associated with TL in adulthood. Exposure to recent adverse life events in adulthood is associated with telomere attrition prospectively.

  2. Studies of radon-exposed miner cohorts using a biologically based model: comparison of current Czech and French data with historic data from China and Colorado.

    PubMed

    Heidenreich, W F; Tomásek, L; Rogel, A; Laurier, D; Tirmarche, M

    2004-12-01

    The biologically based two-stage clonal expansion (TSCE) model is used to analyze lung cancer in several miners studies, two new ones (Czech, French) and two historic ones (Chinese, Colorado). In all cases, the model assumptions are identical. An action of radiation on initiation, promotion, and transformation is allowed. While all four studies indicate a highly significant action of radiation on promotion, the action on initiation is not significant in the French cohort, and barely significant in the Colorado miners cohort. No action on transformation is found in the Colorado miners, while the other data sets indicate a borderline significance. The model can describe all the data sets adequately, with different model parameters. The observed patterns in exposure, time since beginning of exposure, birth year, age and calendar year are reproduced well. The doubling exposure rate for initiation is about 3.5 WLM/year in the new data sets, while it is higher in the historic data sets. For transformation the doubling rate is about 20 WLM/year for the new data sets, while again the historic data give higher estimates. The action of radiation on promotion is quite different in the four data sets. These differences also induce different risk estimates at low exposures. The larger power of the new studies at these low exposures, compared to the historic data requires less extrapolation when the risk at very low exposures is estimated.

  3. Prospective survey of acute osteoarticular infections in a French paediatric orthopedic surgery unit.

    PubMed

    Ferroni, A; Al Khoury, H; Dana, C; Quesne, G; Berche, P; Glorion, C; Péjin, Z

    2013-09-01

    The epidemiology of acute paediatric osteoarticular infections (OAI) has recently evolved, mainly due to the improvement of microbiological diagnosis. We conducted a prospective study to analyse the recent epidemiology and the clinical evolution of paediatric OAI in order to validate the adequacy of our probabilistic first-line antibiotic treatment (intraveinous cefamandole + gentamicin). All children suspected of community acquired OAI were included and followed-up for 3 years. The etiologic diagnosis was based on blood cultures, joint aspirations and bone punctures. All osteoarticular (OA) samples were systematically inoculated into blood culture bottles. Real-time universal 16S rRNA and PCR targeted on Staphylococcus aureus, Kingella kingae, Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes were performed twice a week. From 17 March 2007 to 26 February 2009, 98 septic arthritis, 70 osteomyelitis, 23 osteoarthritis and six spondylodiscitis were analysed. A portal of entry was suspected in 44% of cases, including 55% of otorhinolaryngological infections. C reactive protein was the most sensitive inflammatory marker. PCR increased by 54% the performance of bacteriological diagnosis. Among the patients completely investigated (blood culture and OAI samples), there were 63% documented OAI. The main pathogens found were K. kingae (52%), S. aureus (28%), S. pyogenes (7%), S. pneumoniae (3%) and Streptococcus agalactiae (2%). All isolated bacteria were sensitive to the probabilist treatment and outcome was favorable. PCR has significantly improved the performance and the delay of IOA diagnosis in children, for which K. kingae turned out to be the first causative agent. The probabilistic treatment was active against the main bacteria responsible for paediatric OAI.

  4. Predictive factors of difficulty in lower third molar extraction: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Alvira-González, J; Figueiredo, R; Valmaseda-Castellón, E; Quesada-Gómez, C; Gay-Escoda, C

    2017-01-01

    Several publications have measured the difficulty of third molar removal, trying to establish the main risk factors, however several important preoperative and intraoperative variables are overlooked. A prospective cohort study comprising a total of 130 consecutive lower third molar extractions was performed. The outcome variables used to measure the difficulty of the extraction were operation time and a 100mm visual analogue scale filled by the surgeon at the end of the surgical procedure. The predictors were divided into 4 different groups (demographic, anatomic, radiographic and operative variables). A descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analysis of the data was performed. Patients' weight, the presence of bulbous roots, the need to perform crown and root sectioning of the lower third molar and Pell and Gregory 123 classification significantly influenced both outcome variables (p< 0.05). Certain anatomical, radiological and operative variables appear to be important factors in the assessment of surgical difficulty in the extraction of lower third molars.

  5. Evaluation of the pressure ulcers risk scales with critically ill patients: a prospective cohort study 1

    PubMed Central

    Borghardt, Andressa Tomazini; do Prado, Thiago Nascimento; de Araújo, Thiago Moura; Rogenski, Noemi Marisa Brunet; Bringuente, Maria Edla de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: to evaluate the accuracy of the Braden and Waterlow risk assessment scales in critically ill inpatients. METHOD: this prospective cohort study, with 55 patients in intensive care units, was performed through evaluation of sociodemographic and clinical variables, through the application of the scales (Braden and Waterlow) upon admission and every 48 hours; and through the evaluation and classification of the ulcers into categories. RESULTS: the pressure ulcer incidence was 30.9%, with the Braden and Waterlow scales presenting high sensitivity (41% and 71%) and low specificity (21% and 47%) respectively in the three evaluations. The cut off scores found in the first, second and third evaluations were 12, 12 and 11 in the Braden scale, and 16, 15 and 14 in the Waterlow scale. CONCLUSION: the Braden scale was shown to be a good screening instrument, and the Waterlow scale proved to have better predictive power. PMID:25806628

  6. Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields and Sleep Quality: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohler, Evelyn; Frei, Patrizia; Fröhlich, Jürg; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Röösli, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Background There is persistent public concern about sleep disturbances due to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to investigate whether sleep quality is affected by mobile phone use or by other RF-EMF sources in the everyday environment. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study with 955 study participants aged between 30 and 60 years. Sleep quality and daytime sleepiness was assessed by means of standardized questionnaires in May 2008 (baseline) and May 2009 (follow-up). We also asked about mobile and cordless phone use and asked study participants for consent to obtain their mobile phone connection data from the mobile phone operators. Exposure to environmental RF-EMF was computed for each study participant using a previously developed and validated prediction model. In a nested sample of 119 study participants, RF-EMF exposure was measured in the bedroom and data on sleep behavior was collected by means of actigraphy during two weeks. Data were analyzed using multivariable regression models adjusted for relevant confounders. Results In the longitudinal analyses neither operator-recorded nor self-reported mobile phone use was associated with sleep disturbances or daytime sleepiness. Also, exposure to environmental RF-EMF did not affect self-reported sleep quality. The results from the longitudinal analyses were confirmed in the nested sleep study with objectively recorded exposure and measured sleep behavior data. Conclusions We did not find evidence for adverse effects on sleep quality from RF-EMF exposure in our everyday environment. PMID:22624036

  7. Health care utilization in patients with gout: a prospective multicenter cohort study.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jasvinder A; Bharat, Aseem; Khanna, Dinesh; Aquino-Beaton, Cleopatra; Persselin, Jay E; Duffy, Erin; Elashoff, David; Khanna, Puja P

    2017-05-31

    All published studies of health care utilization in gout have been cross-sectional to date, and most used a patient-reported diagnosis of gout. Our objective was to assess health care utilization and its predictors in patients with physician-confirmed gout in a prospective cohort study. In a multi-center prospective cohort study of U.S. veterans with rheumatologist-confirmed gout (N = 186; two centers), we assessed patient self-reported overall and gout-specific health care utilization with the Gout Assessment Questionnaire (GAQ) every 3-months for a 9-month period. Comparisons were made using the student's t test or the chi-square, Wilcoxon rank sum test or Fisher exact test, as appropriate. Mixed effects Poisson regression was used to assess potential correlates of gout-related health care utilization. Mean age was 64.6 years, 98% were men, 13% Hispanic or Latino, 32% were African-American, 6% did not graduate high school, mean serum urate was 8.3 and mean Deyo-Charlson score was 3.1. During the past year, mean gout-related visits were as follows: rheumatologist, 1.5; primary care physician, 2 visits; ≥1 inpatient visits, 7%; ≥1 ER visits, 26%; and urgent care/walk-in visit, 33%. In longitudinal analyses, African-American race and gout flares in the last 3 months were associated with significantly higher rate ratio of gout-related outpatient visits. African-American race and lack of college education were associated with significantly higher rate ratio for gout-related urgent visits and overnight stays. African-American race and recent gout flares were associated with higher outpatient utilization and African-American race and no college education with higher urgent or inpatient utilization. Future studies should examine whether modifiable predictors of utilization can be targeted to reduce healthcare utilization in patients with gout.

  8. Lifestyle Factors and Risk of Restless Legs Syndrome: Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Batool-Anwar, Salma; Li, Yanping; De Vito, Katerina; Malhotra, Atul; Winkelman, John; Gao, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine the association between modifiable lifestyle factors, and the risk of developing restless legs syndrome (RLS). Methods: This is a Prospective Cohort study of population including 12,812 men participating in Health Professionals Follow-up Study and 42,728 women participating in the Nurses' Health study II. The participants were free of RLS at baseline (2002 for the HPFS and 2005 for the NHS II) and free of diabetes and arthritis through follow-up. RLS was assessed via a set of questions recommended by International Restless Legs Syndrome Study group. The Information was collected on height, weight, level of physical activity, dietary intake, and smoking status via questionnaires. Results: During 4–6 years of follow-up, we identified 1,538 incident RLS cases. Participants with normal weight, and who were physically active, non-smoker, and had some alcohol consumption had a lower risk of developing RLS. When we combined the effects of these four factors together, we observed a dose response relationship between the increased number of healthy lifestyle factors and a low risk of RLS: after adjusting for potential confounders the pooled odds ratio was 0.67 (95% CI: 0.47–0.97) for 4 vs.0 healthy factors (p trend < 0.001). In contrast, we did not observe significant associations between caffeine consumption or diet quality as assessed by the Alternate Healthy Eating Index, and altered RLS risk in men and women. Conclusions: Several modifiable lifestyle factors may play an important role in RLS risk. Citation: Batool-Anwar S, Li Y, De Vito K, Malhotra A, Winkelman J, Gao X. Lifestyle factors and risk of restless legs syndrome: prospective cohort study. J Clin Sleep Med 2016;12(2):187–194. PMID:26446243

  9. Childhood infectious disease and premature death from cancer: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Peter W G; Parker, Louise; Thomas, Julian E; Craft, Sir Alan W; Pearce, Mark S

    2013-03-01

    Studies of the association between early life infections and cancer have produced inconsistent findings, possibly due to limited adjustment for confounding and retrospective designs. This study utilised data from the Newcastle Thousand Families Study, a prospective cohort of 1,142 individuals born in Newcastle-upon-Tyne in 1947, to assess the impact of various childhood infectious diseases on cancer mortality during ages 15-60 years. Detailed information was collected prospectively on a number of early life factors. Deaths from cancer during ages 15-60 years were analysed in relation to childhood infections, adjusting for potential early-life confounders, using Cox proportional-hazards regression. In a subsample who returned questionnaires at aged 49-51 years, additional adjustment was made for adult factors to predict death from cancer during ages 50-60 years. Childhood history of measles and influenza, were both independently associated with lower cancer mortality during ages 15-60 years (adjusted hazard ratios = 0.39, 95% CI 0.17-0.88 and 0.49, 95% CI 0.24-0.98 respectively). In contrast, childhood pertussis was associated with higher cancer mortality during ages 15-60 years (adjusted hazard ratio = 4.88, 95% CI 2.29-10.38). In the subsample with additional adjustment for adult variables, measles and pertussis remained significantly associated with cancer mortality during ages 50-60 years. In this pre-vaccination cohort, childhood infection with measles and influenza were associated with a reduced risk of death from cancer in adulthood, while pertussis was associated with an increased risk. While these results suggest some disease-specific associations between early-life infections and cancer, further studies are required to confirm the specific associations identified.

  10. Exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and prostate cancer: population-based prospective cohort and experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Ali, Imran; Julin, Bettina; Glynn, Anders; Högberg, Johan; Berglund, Marika; Johansson, Jan-Erik; Andersson, Swen-Olof; Andrén, Ove; Giovannucci, Edward; Wolk, Alicja; Stenius, Ulla; Åkesson, Agneta

    2016-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are highly persistent environmental pollutants and are undesirable components of our daily food. PCBs are classified as human carcinogens, but the evidence for prostate cancer is limited and available data are inconsistent. We explored the link between non-dioxin-like PCB and grade of prostate cancer in a prospective cohort as well as in cell experiments. A population-based cohort of 32496 Swedish men aged 45-79 years was followed prospectively through 1998-2011, to assess the association between validated estimates of dietary PCB exposure and incidence of prostate cancer by grade (2789 cases, whereof 1276 low grade, 756 intermediate grade, 450 high grade) and prostate cancer mortality (357 fatal cases). In addition, we investigated a non-dioxin-like PCB153-induced cell invasion and related markers in normal prostate stem cells (WPE-stem) and in three different prostate cancer cell lines (PC3, DU145 and 22RV1) at exposure levels relevant to humans. After multivariable-adjustment, dietary PCB exposure was positively associated with high-grade prostate cancer, relative risk (RR) 1.35 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03-1.76] and with fatal prostate cancer, RR 1.43 (95% CI: 1.05-1.95), comparing the highest tertile with the lowest. We observed no association with low or intermediate grade of prostate cancer. Cell invasion and related markers, including MMP9, MMP2, Slug and Snail, were significantly increased in human prostate cancer cells as well as in prostate stem cells after exposure to PCB153. Our findings both from the observational and experimental studies suggest a role of non-dioxin-like PCB153 in the development of high-grade and fatal prostate cancer. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Work time control and sleep disturbances: prospective cohort study of Finnish public sector employees.

    PubMed

    Salo, Paula; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Tucker, Philip; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2014-07-01

    Employee control over work times has been associated with favorable psychosocial and health-related outcomes, but the evidence regarding sleep quality remains inconclusive. We examined cross-sectional and prospective associations between work time control and sleep disturbances in a large working population, taking into account total hours worked. The data were from a full-panel longitudinal cohort study of Finnish public sector employees who responded to questions on work time control and sleep disturbances in years 2000-2001, 2004-2005, 2008-2009, and 2012. The analysis of cross-sectional associations was based on 129,286 person measurements from 68,089 participants (77% women) aged 17-73 years (mean 43.1). Data from 16,503 participants were used in the longitudinal analysis. Log-binomial regression analysis with the generalized estimating equations method was used. Consistently in both cross-sectional and longitudinal models, less control over work time was associated with greater sleep disturbances in the total population and among those working normal 40-hour weeks. Among participants working more than 40 hours a week, work time that was both very high (cross-sectional prevalence ratio compared to intermediate work time control [PR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.65) and very low (PR 1.23, 95% CI 1.08-1.39) was associated with sleep disturbances, after adjustment for potential confounding factors. These data suggest that having few opportunities to influence the duration and positioning of work time may increase the risk of sleep disturbances among employees. For persons working long hours, very high levels of control over working times were also associated with increased risk of sleep disturbances. Salo P, Ala-Mursula L, Rod NH, Tucker P, Pentti J, Kivimäki M, Vahtera J. Work time control and sleep disturbances: prospective cohort study of Finnish public sector employees. SLEEP 2014;37(7):1217-1225.

  12. Multilocus genetic risk score associates with ischemic stroke in case-control and prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Malik, Rainer; Bevan, Steve; Nalls, Michael A; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Devan, William J; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Ibrahim-Verbaas, Carla A; Verhaaren, Benjamin F J; Bis, Joshua C; Joon, Aron Y; de Stefano, Anita L; Fornage, Myriam; Psaty, Bruce M; Ikram, M Arfan; Launer, Lenore J; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Sharma, Pankaj; Mitchell, Braxton D; Rosand, Jonathan; Meschia, James F; Levi, Christopher; Rothwell, Peter M; Sudlow, Cathie; Markus, Hugh S; Seshadri, Sudha; Dichgans, Martin

    2014-02-01

    Genome-wide association studies have revealed multiple common variants associated with known risk factors for ischemic stroke (IS). However, their aggregate effect on risk is uncertain. We aimed to generate a multilocus genetic risk score (GRS) for IS based on genome-wide association studies data from clinical-based samples and to establish its external validity in prospective population-based cohorts. Three thousand five hundred forty-eight clinic-based IS cases and 6399 controls from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2 were used for derivation of the GRS. Subjects from the METASTROKE consortium served as a replication sample. The validation sample consisted of 22 751 participants from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium. We selected variants that had reached genome-wide significance in previous association studies on established risk factors for IS. A combined GRS for atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, hypertension, and systolic blood pressure significantly associated with IS both in the case-control samples and in the prospective population-based studies. Subjects in the top quintile of the combined GRS had >2-fold increased risk of IS compared with subjects in the lowest quintile. Addition of the combined GRS to a simple model based on sex significantly improved the prediction of IS in the combined clinic-based samples but not in the population-based studies, and there was no significant improvement in net reclassification. A multilocus GRS based on common variants for established cardiovascular risk factors was significantly associated with IS both in clinic-based samples and in the general population. However, the improvement in clinical risk prediction was found to be small.

  13. Fruits and vegetables consumption and risk of stroke: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dan; Huang, Junqian; Wang, Yuchun; Zhang, Dongfeng; Qu, Yan

    2014-06-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize evidence from prospective cohort studies about the association of fruits and vegetables consumption with the risk of stroke. Pertinent studies were identified by a search of Embase and PubMed databases to January 2014. Study-specific relative risks with 95% confidence intervals were pooled using a random-effects model. Dose-response relationship was assessed by restricted cubic spline. Twenty prospective cohort studies were included, involving 16 981 stroke events among 760 629 participants. The multivariable relative risk (95% confidence intervals) of stroke for the highest versus lowest category of total fruits and vegetables consumption was 0.79 (0.75-0.84), and the effect was 0.77 (0.71-0.84) for fruits consumption and 0.86 (0.79-0.93) for vegetables consumption. Subgroup and meta-regression showed that the inverse association of total fruits and vegetables consumption with the risk of stroke was consistent in subgroup analysis. Citrus fruits, apples/pears, and leafy vegetables might contribute to the protection. The linear dose-response relationship showed that the risk of stroke decreased by 32% (0.68 [0.56-0.82]) and 11% (0.89 [0.81-0.98]) for every 200 g per day increment in fruits consumption (P for nonlinearity=0.77) and vegetables consumption (P for nonlinearity=0.62), respectively. Fruits and vegetables consumption are inversely associated with the risk of stroke. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. The effect of HIV infection on adult meningitis in Indonesia: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ganiem, A Rizal; Parwati, Ida; Wisaksana, Rudi; van der Zanden, Adri; van de Beek, Diederik; Sturm, Patrick; van der Ven, Andre; Alisjahbana, Bachti; Brouwer, Anne-Marie; Kurniani, Nani; de Gans, Jan; van Crevel, Reinout

    2009-11-13

    Indonesia has a concentrated but rapidly growing HIV epidemic. We examined the effect of HIV on causative organisms, clinical features and prognosis of adult meningitis. A prospective cohort study. All adult patients at a referral hospital who underwent cerebrospinal fluid examination for suspected meningitis were examined for HIV and included in a prospective cohort study. Microbiological testing was done for common bacterial pathogens, mycobacteria and fungi. Patients were followed for at least 6 months, and logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors for mortality. Among 185 patients who mostly presented with subacute meningitis, 60% were male and the median age was 30 years. HIV infection was present in 25% of the patients; almost two-thirds were newly confirmed, and all presented with severe immunosuppression (median CD4 cell count 13/microl, range 2-98). One-third of HIV-infected patients had cryptococcal meningitis whereas two-thirds suffered from tuberculosis. After 1 month, 41% of patients had died. HIV infection was strongly associated with 1-month mortality (adjusted odds ratio 12.15; 95% confidence interval 3.04-15.72) and death during extended follow-up (hazard ratio 2.48; 95% confidence interval 1.97-5.74). Although HIV is still uncommon in the general population in Indonesia, its prevalence among adult meningitis cases already seems high. Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Cryptococcus neoformans are the main causes of meningitis in this setting, and mortality is very high, especially in HIV-infected patients. Our data suggest that adult meningitis cases in Indonesia should be screened routinely for HIV infection. Further studies are needed to address the high mortality.

  15. Multilocus genetic risk score associates with ischemic stroke in case-control and prospective cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Malik, R; Bevan, S; Nalls, MA; Holliday, EG; Devan, WJ; Cheng, YC; Ibrahim-Verbaas, CA; Verhaaren, BF; Bis, JC; Joon, AY; de Stefano, AL; Fornage, M; Psaty, BM; Ikram, MA; Launer, LJ; van Duijn, CM; Sharma, P; Mitchell, BD; Rosand, J; Meschia, JF; Levi, C; Rothwell, PM; Sudlow, C; Markus, HS; Seshadri, S; Dichgans, M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Genome-wide association studies have revealed multiple common variants associated with known risk factors for ischemic stroke (IS). However, their aggregate effect on risk is uncertain. We aimed to generate a multilocus genetic risk score (GRS) for IS based on genome-wide association studies data from clinical-based samples and to establish its external validity in prospective population-based cohorts. METHODS Three thousand five hundred forty-eight clinic-based IS cases and 6399 controls from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2 were used for derivation of the GRS. Subjects from the METASTROKE consortium served as a replication sample. The validation sample consisted of 22 751 participants from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology consortium. We selected variants that had reached genome-wide significance in previous association studies on established risk factors for IS. RESULTS A combined GRS for atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, hypertension, and systolic blood pressure significantly associated with IS both in the case-control samples and in the prospective population-based studies. Subjects in the top quintile of the combined GRS had >2-fold increased risk of IS compared with subjects in the lowest quintile. Addition of the combined GRS to a simple model based on sex significantly improved the prediction of IS in the combined clinic-based samples but not in the population-based studies, and there was no significant improvement in net reclassification. CONCLUSIONS A multilocus GRS based on common variants for established cardiovascular risk factors was significantly associated with IS both in clinic-based samples and in the general population. However, the improvement in clinical risk prediction was found to be small. PMID:24436234

  16. Prediagnosis aspirin use and outcomes in a prospective cohort of esophageal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, James L.; Altorki, Nasser K.; Sonett, Joshua R.; Rodriguez, Adriana; Sungur-Stasik, Kivilcim; Spinelli, Cathy F.; Neugut, Alfred I.; Abrams, Julian A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Esophageal cancer remains associated with poor outcomes, yet little is known regarding factors that influence survival. Aspirin use prior to cancer diagnosis may influence outcomes. We aimed to assess the effects of prediagnosis aspirin use in patients with esophageal cancer. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study of newly-diagnosed esophageal cancer patients at two tertiary care centers. We assessed history of prediagnosis aspirin use, and prospectively followed patients and assessed mortality, cause of death, and development of metastases. Results: We enrolled 130 patients, the majority of whom were male (81.5%) and had adenocarcinoma (80.8%). Overall, 57 patients (43.9%) were regular aspirin users. In unadjusted analyses, we found no difference in all-cause mortality between aspirin users and nonusers. In multivariate analyses, prediagnosis aspirin use was not associated with all-cause mortality [hazard ratio (HR) 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48–1.57] or esophageal cancer-specific mortality (HR 1.07, 95% CI 0.52–2.21). Prediagnosis aspirin use was associated with a significantly increased risk of interval metastasis (HR 3.59, 95% CI 1.08–11.96). Conclusions: In our cohort of esophageal cancer patients, prediagnosis aspirin use was not associated with all-cause or cancer-specific mortality. However, risk of interval metastatic disease was increased among those who took aspirin regularly prediagnosis. Future studies are warranted to assess whether aspirin influences the molecular characteristics of esophageal tumors, with potential prognostic and therapeutic implications. PMID:27803735

  17. Association between dietary patterns and coronary heart disease: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lina; Li, Fei; Wang, Yuanyuan; Ou, Zejin; Xu, Dingli; Tan, Wanlong; Dai, Meng

    2015-01-01

    The associations of dietary patterns with coronary heart disease (CHD) risk remain unclear. Thereby, a meta-analysis was conducted to examine potential relations between dietary patterns and CHD. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched up to March 2014 for eligible prospective cohort studies regarding the relationships between common dietary patterns and CHD. Random-effects models were applied to calculate the summary relative risk estimates (SRRE) for the highest versus the lowest category of dietary pattern. Sensitivity analyses were conducted and publication bias was assessed using Begg or Egger’s tests. Twelve prospective cohort studies were included involving 409,780 participants and 6298 CHD cases. There was an inverse association between prudent/healthy dietary pattern and CHD risk (SRRE = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.74-0.87, P-value for heterogeneity = 0.497, I2 = 0%). Furthermore, no significant association was observed between western/unhealthy dietary pattern and risk of CHD (SRRE = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.86-1.27, P-value for heterogeneity = 0.007, I2 = 61.9%). However, increased risk was detected between western/unhealthy dietary pattern and CHD in the United States (USA) (SRRE = 1.45, 95% CI: 1.15-1.82, P-value for heterogeneity = 0.930, I2 = 0%). In conclusion, our analysis provides evidence of an inverse association between prudent/healthy dietary pattern and CHD risk, and suggests null association between western/unhealthy dietary pattern and CHD. However, greater adherence to western/unhealthy pattern possibily increases by 45% the risk of CHD in USA. Further efforts are warranted to confirm these findings and clarify the role of dietary patterns and CHD risk. PMID:25785058

  18. Genomic landscape of the individual host response and outcomes in sepsis: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Davenport, Emma E; Burnham, Katie L; Radhakrishnan, Jayachandran; Humburg, Peter; Hutton, Paula; Mills, Tara C; Rautanen, Anna; Gordon, Anthony C; Garrard, Christopher; Hill, Adrian V S; Hinds, Charles J; Knight, Julian C

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Effective targeted therapy for sepsis requires an understanding of the heterogeneity in the individual host response to infection. We investigated this heterogeneity by defining interindividual variation in the transcriptome of patients with sepsis and related this to outcome and genetic diversity. Methods We assayed peripheral blood leucocyte global gene expression for a prospective discovery cohort of 265 adult patients admitted to UK intensive care units with sepsis due to community-acquired pneumonia and evidence of organ dysfunction. We then validated our findings in a replication cohort consisting of a further 106 patients. We mapped genomic determinants of variation in gene transcription between patients as expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL). Findings We discovered that following admission to intensive care, transcriptomic analysis of peripheral blood leucocytes defines two distinct sepsis response signatures (SRS1 and SRS2). The presence of SRS1 (detected in 108 [41%] patients in discovery cohort) identifies individuals with an immunosuppressed phenotype that included features of endotoxin tolerance, T-cell exhaustion, and downregulation of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class II. SRS1 was associated with higher 14 day mortality than was SRS2 (discovery cohort hazard ratio (HR) 2·4, 95% CI 1·3–4·5, p=0·005; validation cohort HR 2·8, 95% CI 1·5–5·1, p=0·0007). We found that a predictive set of seven genes enabled the classification of patients as SRS1 or SRS2. We identified cis-acting and trans-acting eQTL for key immune and metabolic response genes and sepsis response networks. Sepsis eQTL were enriched in endotoxin-induced epigenetic marks and modulated the individual host response to sepsis, including effects specific to SRS group. We identified regulatory genetic variants involving key mediators of gene networks implicated in the hypoxic response and the switch to glycolysis that occurs in sepsis, including HIF1α and

  19. Ageing, retirement and changes in vegetable consumption in France: findings from the prospective GAZEL cohort.

    PubMed

    Plessz, Marie; Guéguen, Alice; Goldberg, Marcel; Czernichow, Sébastien; Zins, Marie

    2015-09-28

    The aim of this study was to describe the change in vegetable consumption with ageing and the transition to retirement. Study subjects were the participants of the GAZEL prospective cohort (Gaz and Électricité de France) aged 40-49 years at inclusion in 1989 who retired between 1991 and 2008 (12,942 men and 2739 women). Four FFQ were completed from 1990 to 2009. We used multiple imputation by chained equations in order to avoid dropping incomplete cases. The OR for eating vegetables everyday was estimated as a function of ageing, retirement status and the place of lunch before retirement through generalised estimating equations. Analyses were stratified by sex, and models were adjusted for confounders, including current spousal status. In 1990, 17.7% of men and 31% of women reported eating vegetables daily. The odds of consuming vegetables everyday increased with ageing for both men and women. The usual place of lunch was home for less than half the sample before retirement and for almost every respondent after retirement. For those who changed their place of lunch, the association between being retired and the odds of eating vegetables daily was positive and significant. We found that, in this cohort, vegetable consumption increased with ageing. Retirement had an indirect effect on vegetable consumption mediated by changes in the place of lunch.

  20. HIV burden in men who have sex with men: a prospective cohort study 2007-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zhongwei; Huang, Xiaojie; Wu, Hao; Zhang, Tong; Li, Ning; Ding, Peipei; Sun, Yixuan; Liu, Zhiying; Wei, Feili; Zhang, Hongwei; Jiao, Yanmei; Ji, Yunxia; Zhang, Yonghong; Guo, Caiping; Li, Wei; Mou, Danlei; Xia, Wei; Li, Zhen; Chen, Dexi; Yan, Huiping; Chen, Xinyue; Zhao, Jinkou; Meyers, Kathrine; Cohen, Ted; Mayer, Kenneth; Salomon, Joshua A.; Lu, Zuhong; Dye, Christopher

    2015-07-01

    We conducted a prospective cohort study among HIV-negative MSM aged 18 years or older between 2007 and 2012 in Beijing, China to measure the rates of incident HIV and identify risk factors for infection. Among 5,800 participants evaluated at enrollment, we identified 486 prevalent cases of HIV (8.4%). Among the 3,625 enrollees who were HIV-negative at enrollment and completed at least one follow-up interview, we identified 440 incident cases of HIV in the follow up period: this constituted an HIV incidence rate of 7.1 per 100 person-years (95% CI: 6.4-7.7). Early treatment of syphilis may have significantly reduced risk of HIV infection (RR: 1.45, 95% CI: 1.11-1.93), while MSM presenting perfect compliance in the cohort did not show reduction in HIV infection. Our study suggested that HIV incidence has been remained high in this sample of Chinese MSM during the intensive preventive intervention, suggesting that we need to find new strategies to prevent HIV infection in this population.

  1. Participation in sports clubs is a strong predictor of injury hospitalization: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Mattila, V M; Parkkari, J; Koivusilta, L; Kannus, P; Rimpelä, A

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the nature and risk factors of injuries leading to hospitalization. A cohort of 57 407 Finns aged 14-18 years was followed in the Hospital Discharge Register for an average of 10.6 years, totaling 608 990 person-years. We identified 5889 respondents (10.3%) with injury hospitalization. The most common anatomical location was the knee and shin (23.9%), followed by the head and neck (17.8%), and the ankle and foot (16.7%). Fractures (30.4%) and distortions (25.4%) were the most common injury types. The strongest risk factor for injury hospitalization was frequent participation in sports clubs [hazard ratio (HR) in males 1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7-2.0 and in females 2.3; 95% CI: 1.9-2.7], followed by recurring drunkenness (HR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.4-2.7 in males and 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.6 in females) and daily smoking (HR 1.4; 95% CI: 1.3-1.5 in males and 1.43 95% CI: 1.2-1.5 in females). The association between injuries and sports clubs participation remained after adjusting for sociodemographic background, health, and health behaviors. Health behavior in adolescence, particularly sports club activity, predicted injury hospitalization. Preventive interventions directed toward adolescents who participate in sports clubs may decrease injury occurrence.

  2. High frequency of germline TP53 mutations in a prospective adult-onset sarcoma cohort.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Gillian; Ballinger, Mandy L; Wong, Stephen; Hewitt, Chelsee; James, Paul; Young, Mary-Anne; Cipponi, Arcadi; Pang, Tiffany; Goode, David L; Dobrovic, Alex; Thomas, David M

    2013-01-01

    Sarcomas are a key feature of Li-Fraumeni and related syndromes (LFS/LFL), associated with germline TP53 mutations. Current penetrance estimates for TP53 mutations are subject to significant ascertainment bias. The International Sarcoma Kindred Study is a clinic-based, prospective cohort of adult-onset sarcoma cases, without regard to family history. The entire cohort was screened for mutations in TP53 using high-resolution melting analysis and Sanger sequencing, and multiplex-ligation-dependent probe amplification and targeted massively parallel sequencing for copy number changes. Pathogenic TP53 mutations were detected in blood DNA of 20/559 sarcoma probands (3.6%); 17 were germline and 3 appeared to be somatically acquired. Of the germline carriers, one appeared to be mosaic, detectable in the tumor and blood, but not epithelial tissues. Germline mutation carriers were more likely to have multiple cancers (47% vs 15% for non-carriers, P = 3.0×10(-3)), and earlier cancer onset (33 vs 48 years, P = 1.19×10(-3)). The median survival of mutation carriers following first cancer diagnosis was not significantly different from non-carriers. Only 10/17 (59%) pedigrees met classical or Chompret criteria for LFS. In summary, germline TP53 mutations are not rare in adult patients with sarcoma, with implications for screening, surveillance, treatment and genetic counselling of carriers and family members.

  3. High Frequency of Germline TP53 Mutations in a Prospective Adult-Onset Sarcoma Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Stephen; Hewitt, Chelsee; James, Paul; Young, Mary-Anne; Cipponi, Arcadi; Pang, Tiffany; Goode, David L.; Dobrovic, Alex; Thomas, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Sarcomas are a key feature of Li-Fraumeni and related syndromes (LFS/LFL), associated with germline TP53 mutations. Current penetrance estimates for TP53 mutations are subject to significant ascertainment bias. The International Sarcoma Kindred Study is a clinic-based, prospective cohort of adult-onset sarcoma cases, without regard to family history. The entire cohort was screened for mutations in TP53 using high-resolution melting analysis and Sanger sequencing, and multiplex-ligation-dependent probe amplification and targeted massively parallel sequencing for copy number changes. Pathogenic TP53 mutations were detected in blood DNA of 20/559 sarcoma probands (3.6%); 17 were germline and 3 appeared to be somatically acquired. Of the germline carriers, one appeared to be mosaic, detectable in the tumor and blood, but not epithelial tissues. Germline mutation carriers were more likely to have multiple cancers (47% vs 15% for non-carriers, P = 3.0×10−3), and earlier cancer onset (33 vs 48 years, P = 1.19×10−3). The median survival of mutation carriers following first cancer diagnosis was not significantly different from non-carriers. Only 10/17 (59%) pedigrees met classical or Chompret criteria for LFS. In summary, germline TP53 mutations are not rare in adult patients with sarcoma, with implications for screening, surveillance, treatment and genetic counselling of carriers and family members. PMID:23894400

  4. Phytosterol plasma concentrations and coronary heart disease in the prospective Spanish EPIC cohort

    PubMed Central

    Escurriol, Verónica; Cofán, Montserrat; Moreno-Iribas, Concepción; Larrañaga, Nerea; Martínez, Carmen; Navarro, Carmen; Rodríguez, Laudina; González, Carlos A.; Corella, Dolores; Ros, Emilio

    2010-01-01

    Phytosterol intake with natural foods, a measure of healthy dietary choices, increases plasma levels, but increased plasma phytosterols are believed to be a coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factor. To address this paradox, we evaluated baseline risk factors, phytosterol intake, and plasma noncholesterol sterol levels in participants of a case control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) Spanish cohort who developed CHD (n = 299) and matched controls (n = 584) who remained free of CHD after a 10 year follow-up. Sitosterol-to-cholesterol ratios increased across tertiles of phytosterol intake (P = 0.026). HDL-cholesterol level increased, and adiposity measures, cholesterol/HDL ratios, and levels of glucose, triglycerides, and lathosterol, a cholesterol synthesis marker, decreased across plasma sitosterol tertiles (P < 0.02; all). Compared with controls, cases had nonsignificantly lower median levels of phytosterol intake and plasma sitosterol. The multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for CHD across the lowest to highest plasma sitosterol tertile was 0.59 (95% confidence interval, 0.36–0.97). Associations were weaker for plasma campesterol. The apolipoprotein E genotype was unrelated to CHD risk or plasma phytosterols. The data suggest that plasma sitosterol levels are associated with a lower CHD risk while being markers of a lower cardiometabolic risk in the EPIC-Spain cohort, a population with a high phytosterol intake. PMID:19786566

  5. Coffee consumption during pregnancy and the risk of hyperkinetic disorder and ADHD: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Linnet, Karen Markussen; Wisborg, Kirsten; Secher, Niels Jørgen; Thomsen, Per Hove; Obel, Carsten; Dalsgaard, Søren; Henriksen, Tine Brink

    2009-01-01

    Based on hypotheses from experimental studies, we studied the association between intrauterine exposure to coffee and the risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A cohort study with prospectively collected data from the Aarhus Birth Cohort, Denmark. We included 24 068 singletons delivered between 1990 and 1998. Linkage was performed with three Danish longitudinal registers: The Danish Psychiatric Central Register, The Integrated Database for Labour Market Research and The Danish Civil Registration System. We identified 88 children with hyperkinetic disorder and ADHD. Information about coffee consumption during pregnancy was obtained at 16 weeks of gestation from self-administrated questionnaires. Potential confounding factors were evaluated using Cox regression analyses. We found that intrauterine exposure to 10 or more cups of coffee per day was associated with a threefold increased risk of hyperkinetic disorder and ADHD. After adjustments for a number of confounding factors, the risk decreased and became statistically insignificant (RR 2.3, 95% CI 0.9-5.9). Prenatal exposure to high levels of coffee did not significantly increase the risk of clinically verified hyperkinetic disorder and ADHD in childhood.

  6. Early childhood otitis media and later school performance - A prospective cohort study of associations.

    PubMed

    Fougner, Vincent; Kørvel-Hanquist, Asbjørn; Koch, Anders; Dammeyer, Jesper; Niclasen, Janni; Lous, Jørgen; Homøe, Preben

    2017-03-01

    Otitis media (OM) is a common disease in childhood and hearing loss (HL) is the most common complication. Prolonged HL may lead to language delay and cognitive difficulties. However, the consequences of HL due to OM are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine the possible association between number of OM episodes in childhood and self-rated school performance controlling for potential confounders. Prospectively gathered systematic interview data on OM episodes in early childhood and school performance at 11 years of age were obtained from The Danish National Birth Cohort, involving >100,000 individual pregnancies and their offspring. We defined four exposure groups (0, 1-3, 4-6 and ≥7 OM episodes) and assessed general school performance, mathematics and literacy. Possible confounders were recognized à priori and associations were determined using proportional odds regression. Out of 94,745 successful pregnancies, 35,946 children without malformations and their parents completed a questionnaire at age 11 years. No associations were observed between number of OM episodes and school performance, even in children with ≥7 OM episodes. This national birth-cohort study did not support the hypothesis that the number of OM episodes in childhood is associated with reduced self-reported school performance in children at 11 years of age. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Early risk factors for miscarriage: a prospective cohort study in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Arck, Petra C; Rücke, Mirjam; Rose, Matthias; Szekeres-Bartho, Julia; Douglas, Alison J; Pritsch, Maria; Blois, Sandra M; Pincus, Maike K; Bärenstrauch, Nina; Dudenhausen, Joachim W; Nakamura, Katrina; Sheps, Sam; Klapp, Burghard F

    2008-07-01

    Many pregnancies are lost during early gestation, but clinicians still lack tools to recognize risk factors for miscarriage. Thus, the identification of risk factors for miscarriage during the first trimester in women with no obvious risk for a pregnancy loss was the aim of this prospective cohort trial. A total of 1098 women between gestation weeks 4 and 12 in whom no apparent signs of a threatened pregnancy could be diagnosed were recruited. Demographic, anamnestic, psychometric and biological data were documented at recruitment and pregnancy outcomes were registered subsequently. Among the cases with sufficiently available data, 809 successfully progressing pregnancies and 55 subsequent miscarriages were reported. In this cohort, risk of miscarriage was significantly increased in women at higher age (>33 years), lower body mass index (< or =20 kg/ m(2)) and lower serum progesterone concentrations (< or =12 ng/ml) prior to the onset of the miscarriage. Women with subsequent miscarriage also perceived higher levels of stress/demands (supported by higher concentrations of corticotrophin-releasing hormone) and revealed reduced concentrations of progesterone-induced blocking factor. These risk factors were even more pronounced in the subcohort of women (n = 335) recruited between gestation weeks 4 and 7. The identification of these risk factors and development of an interaction model of these factors, as introduced in this article, will help clinicians to recognize pregnant women who require extra monitoring and who might benefit from therapeutic interventions such as progestogen supplementation, especially during the first weeks of pregnancy, to prevent a miscarriage.

  8. A prospective cohort study to evaluate peridomestic infection as a determinant of dengue transmission: Protocol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Vector control programs, which have focused mainly on the patient house and peridomestic areas around dengue cases, have not produced the expected impact on transmission. This project will evaluate the assumption that the endemic/epidemic transmission of dengue begins around peridomestic vicinities of the primary cases. Its objective is to assess the relationship between symptomatic dengue case exposure and peridomestic infection incidence. Methods/Design A prospective cohort study will be conducted (in Tepalcingo and Axochiapan, in the state of Morelos, Mexico), using the state surveillance system for the detection of incident cases. Paired blood specimens will be collected from both the individuals who live with the incident cases and a sample of subjects residing within a 25-meter radius of such cases (exposed cohort), in order to measure dengue-specific antibodies. Other subjects will be selected from areas which have not presented any incident cases within 200 meters, during the two months preceding the sampling (non-exposed cohort). Symptomatic/asymptomatic incident infection will be considered as the dependent variable, exposure to confirmed dengue cases, as the principal variable, and the socio-demographic, environmental and socio-cultural conditions of the subjects, as additional explanatory variables. Discussion Results indicating a high infection rate among the exposed subjects would justify the application of peridomestic control measures and call for an evaluation of alternate causes for insufficient program impact. On the other hand, a low incidence of peridomestic-infected subjects would support the hypothesis that infection occurs outside the domicile, and would thus explain why the vector control measures applied in the past have exerted such a limited impact on cases incidence rates. The results of the present study may therefore serve to reassess site selection for interventions of this type. PMID:22471857

  9. Higher education and psychological distress: a 27-year prospective cohort study in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Brännlund, Annica; Hammarström, Anne

    2014-03-01

    Research identifies a positive link between education and a reduction of psychological distress, but few studies have analysed the long-term impact of education on psychological distress. This study followed the same cohort for 27 years, investigating the association between education and adult psychological distress. Further, it discuss whether the link can be understood through the mediating mechanisms of social and labour-market resources, furthermore, if the mechanisms operate differently for men and women. A 27-year prospective cohort study was performed at ages 16, 18, 21, 30 and 43. The cohort consisted of all students (n = 1083, of which 1001 are included in this study) in their final year of compulsory school in Sweden. Data were collected through comprehensive questionnaires (response rate 96.4%), and analysed with OLS regression, with psychological distress at age 21, 30 and 43 as dependent variable. Baseline psychological distress, measures of social and labour-market resources, and possible educational selection factors were used as independent variables. To compare the overall magnitude of educational differences, a kappa index was calculated. A positive relation between higher education and less psychological distress was found. When becoming older this relation weakens and a link between social and labour-market resources and psychological distress is observed, indicating that education in a long-term perspective operates through the suggested mechanisms. Additionally, the mechanisms work somewhat differently for men than for women: labour-market resources were significant for men and social resources were important for women. higher education is positively linked to less psychological distress, and the link can somewhat be understood through the mechanisms of social and labour-market resources.

  10. Pregnancy Outcome After First Trimester Use of Methyldopa: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Hoeltzenbein, Maria; Beck, Evelin; Fietz, Anne-Katrin; Wernicke, Juliane; Zinke, Sandra; Kayser, Angela; Padberg, Stephanie; Weber-Schoendorfer, Corinna; Meister, Reinhard; Schaefer, Christof

    2017-07-01

    Published experience on first trimester exposure to methyldopa is still limited, although it is recommended as first-line treatment for hypertensive disorders in pregnancy in most countries. The primary aim of this prospective observational cohort study was to analyze the rate of major birth defects and spontaneous abortions in women with methyldopa therapy for chronic hypertension. Outcomes of 261 pregnancies with first trimester exposure to methyldopa and 526 comparison pregnancies without chronic hypertension reported to the German Embryotox pharmacovigilance institute were evaluated. The rate of major birth defects in the exposed cohort was not significantly increased compared with the comparison cohort (3.7% versus 2.5%; adjusted odds ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-4.0). There was a tendency toward a higher rate of spontaneous abortions in exposed women. The risk of preterm birth was significantly higher, and adjusted birth weight scores were significantly lower in the methyldopa group. Head circumferences were significantly reduced in exposed boys only. There was neither evidence for an increased risk for birth defects or increase in early pregnancy loss nor evidence for growth restriction or a reduced head circumference in a sensitivity analysis comparing monotherapies with methyldopa to metoprolol. However, the significantly increased risk of preterm birth in methyldopa-treated pregnancies was confirmed. In conclusion, our study does not indicate a teratogenic risk of methyldopa. Further studies are needed to confirm its safety in the first trimester and clarify the influence of hypertension and methyldopa on preterm birth and intrauterine growth. URL: https://drks-neu.uniklinik-freiburg.de/drks_web/. Unique identifier: DRKS00010502. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue 6 years after giardia infection: a controlled prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hanevik, Kurt; Wensaas, Knut-Arne; Rortveit, Guri; Eide, Geir Egil; Mørch, Kristine; Langeland, Nina

    2014-11-15

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders and fatigue may follow acute infections. This study aimed to estimate the persistence, prevalence, and risk of irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue 6 years after Giardia infection. We performed a controlled prospective study of a cohort of 1252 individuals who had laboratory-confirmed Giardia infection during a waterborne outbreak in 2004. In total, 748 cohort cases (exposed) and 878 matched controls responded to a postal questionnaire 6 years later (in 2010). Responses were compared to data from the same cohort 3 years before (in 2007). The prevalences of irritable bowel syndrome (39.4%) by Rome III criteria and chronic fatigue (30.8%) in the exposed group 6 years after giardiasis were significantly elevated compared with controls, with adjusted relative risks (RRs) of 3.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9-3.9) and 2.9 (95% CI, 2.3-3.4), respectively. In the exposed group, the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome decreased by 6.7% (RR, 0.85 [95% CI, .77-.93]), whereas the prevalence of chronic fatigue decreased by 15.3% from 3 to 6 years after Giardia infection (RR, 0.69 [95% CI, .62-.77]). Giardia exposure was a significant risk factor for persistence of both conditions, and increasing age was a risk factor for persisting chronic fatigue. Giardia infection in a nonendemic setting is associated with an increased risk for irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue 6 years later. The prevalences of both conditions decrease over time, indicating that this intestinal protozoan parasite may elicit very long-term, but slowly self-limiting, complications. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  12. Effect of maternal intravenous fluid therapy on external cephalic version at term: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Burgos, Jorge; Quintana, Eider; Cobos, Patricia; Osuna, Carmen; Centeno, María del Mar; Melchor, Juan Carlos

    2014-12-01

    We sought to analyze whether maternal intravenous fluid therapy prior to external cephalic version (ECV) increases the amount of amniotic fluid and the success rate of the procedure. This was a prospective single-center cohort study of 200 women with a consecutive cohort of 100 pregnant women with a breech presentation at term who were administered intravenous fluid therapy with 2 L of hypotonic saline before the version attempt, compared to a control cohort of 100 pregnant women not given hydration treatment. The mean increase in the amniotic fluid index (AFI) after intravenous maternal hydration was 3.75 ± 2.71 cm. The amount of fluid before hydration was the only variable found to be associated with increases in amniotic fluid levels, both in absolute and relative terms (odds ratio, -0.21; 95% confidence interval, -0.37 to -0.05 and odds ratio, -4.62; 95% confidence interval, -6.17 to -3.06; P < .01, respectively). We did not observe any severe complications secondary to the intravenous fluid therapy. The ECV success rate was 43% in the study group compared to 47% in the control group (P = .67). The success rate was significantly lower the larger the relative increase in the AFI, although no correlation was found in absolute terms (χ(2) for linear trend = 0.03 and 0.34, respectively). Maternal intravenous fluid therapy with 2 L of hypotonic saline prior to ECV is an effective and safe technique for increasing the AFI. However, its use in ECV does not increase the success rate of the procedure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Incidence and risk factors for surgically acquired pressure ulcers: a prospective cohort study investigators.

    PubMed

    Webster, Joan; Lister, Carolyn; Corry, Jean; Holland, Michelle; Coleman, Kerrie; Marquart, Louise

    2015-01-01

    To assess the incidence of hospital-acquired, surgery-related pressure injury (ulcers) and identify risk factors for these injuries. We used a prospective cohort study to investigate the research question. The study was conducted at a major metropolitan hospital in Brisbane, Australia. Five hundred thirty-four adult patients booked for any surgical procedure expected to last more than 30 minutes were eligible for inclusion. Patients who provided informed consent for study participation were assessed for pressure ulcers, using the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel and National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel Guidelines, before entering the operating room and again in the post-anesthetic care unit (PACU). Research nurses and all PACU nurses were trained in skin assessment and in pressure ulcer staging. Patients were not assessed again after their discharge from the PACU. Seven patients (1.3%) had existing pressure injuries (ulcers) and a further 6 (1.3%) developed a surgery-related pressure ulcer. Risk factors associated with surgery-related pressure injuries were similar to non-surgically related risks and included older age, skin condition, and being admitted from a location other than one's own home. Length of surgery was not associated with pressure ulcer development in this cohort. Perioperative nurses play an important role in identifying existing or new pressure injuries. However, many of these nurses are unfamiliar with pressure ulcer classification, so education in this area is essential. Although the incidence of surgically acquired pressure ulcers was low in this cohort, careful skin inspection before and after surgery provides an opportunity for early treatment and may prevent existing lesions progressing to higher stages.

  14. Living at Higher Altitude and Incidence of Overweight/Obesity: Prospective Analysis of the SUN Cohort.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Gutiérrez, Jesús; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Pons Izquierdo, Juan José; González-Muniesa, Pedro; Martínez, J Alfredo; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira

    2016-01-01

    Residence at high altitude has been associated with lower obesity rates probably due to hypoxia conditions. However, there is no evidence of this association in a free-living population. We assessed the association between the altitude where each participant of a Spanish cohort (the SUN Project) was living and the incidence of overweight/obesity. The SUN Project is a dynamic, prospective, multipurpose cohort of Spanish university graduates with a retention rate of 89%. We included in the analysis 9 365 participants free of overweight/obesity at baseline. At the baseline questionnaire, participants reported their postal code and the time they had been living in their city/village. We imputed the altitude of each postal code according to the data of the Spanish National Cartographic Institute and categorized participants in tertiles. We used Cox regression models to adjust for potential confounding variables. During a median follow-up of 10 years, we identified 2 156 incident cases of overweight/obesity. After adjusting for sex, age, time of residence at current city, baseline body mass index, physical activity, sedentarism and years of education (≤ 3 years, ≥ 4 years, Master/PhD), those participants in the third tertile (>456 m) exhibited a statistically significant 14% reduction in the risk of developing overweight/obesity in comparison to those in the first tertile (<124 m) (adjusted HR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.96). Living in cities of higher altitude was inversely associated with the risk of developing overweight/obesity in a cohort of Spanish university graduates.

  15. Living at Higher Altitude and Incidence of Overweight/Obesity: Prospective Analysis of the SUN Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Pons Izquierdo, Juan José; González-Muniesa, Pedro; Martínez, J. Alfredo; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira

    2016-01-01

    Background Residence at high altitude has been associated with lower obesity rates probably due to hypoxia conditions. However, there is no evidence of this association in a free-living population. Objectives We assessed the association between the altitude where each participant of a Spanish cohort (the SUN Project) was living and the incidence of overweight/obesity. Methods The SUN Project is a dynamic, prospective, multipurpose cohort of Spanish university graduates with a retention rate of 89%. We included in the analysis 9 365 participants free of overweight/obesity at baseline. At the baseline questionnaire, participants reported their postal code and the time they had been living in their city/village. We imputed the altitude of each postal code according to the data of the Spanish National Cartographic Institute and categorized participants in tertiles. We used Cox regression models to adjust for potential confounding variables. Results During a median follow-up of 10 years, we identified 2 156 incident cases of overweight/obesity. After adjusting for sex, age, time of residence at current city, baseline body mass index, physical activity, sedentarism and years of education (≤ 3 years, ≥ 4 years, Master/PhD), those participants in the third tertile (>456 m) exhibited a statistically significant 14% reduction in the risk of developing overweight/obesity in comparison to those in the first tertile (<124 m) (adjusted HR = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.96). Conclusions Living in cities of higher altitude was inversely associated with the risk of developing overweight/obesity in a cohort of Spanish university graduates. PMID:27812092

  16. Incidence of Neuralgic Amyotrophy (Parsonage Turner Syndrome) in a Primary Care Setting - A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    van Alfen, Nens; van Eijk, Jeroen J. J.; Ennik, Tessa; Flynn, Sean O.; Nobacht, Inge E. G.; Groothuis, Jan T.; Pillen, Sigrid; van de Laar, Floris A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Neuralgic amyotrophy is considered a rare peripheral nervous system disorder but in practice seems grossly under recognized, which negatively affects care for these patients. In this study we prospectively counted the one-year incidence rate of classic neuralgic amyotrophy in a primary care setting. Methods In a prospective cohort study during the year 2012 we registered all new cases of neck, shoulder or arm complaints from two large primary care centers serving a population of 14,118. Prior to study, general practitioners received a short training on how to diagnose classic neuralgic amyotrophy. Neuralgic amyotrophy was defined according to published criteria irrespective of family history. Only patients with a classic phenotype were counted as definite cases. After inclusion, patients with suspected neuralgic amyotrophy who had not yet seen a neurologist were offered neurologic evaluation for diagnostic confirmation. Results Of the 492 patients identified with new onset neck, shoulder or arm complaints, 34 were suspected of having neuralgic amyotrophy. After neurologic evaluation the diagnosis was confirmed in 14 patients. This amounts to a one-year incidence rate for classic neuralgic amyotrophy of 1 per 1000. Conclusions Our findings suggest that neuralgic amyotrophy is 30-50 times more common than previously thought. Unawareness of the disorder and its clinical presentation seems the most likely explanation for this difference. An incidence rate of 1 per 1000 and the long-term sequelae many patients suffer warrant more vigilance in diagnosing the disorder, to pave the way for timely treatment and prevent complications. PMID:26016482

  17. Coffee, tea, and fatal oral/pharyngeal cancer in a large prospective US cohort.

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, Janet S; Patel, Alpa V; McCullough, Marjorie L; Gaudet, Mia M; Chen, Amy Y; Hayes, Richard B; Gapstur, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that coffee intake is associated with reduced risk of oral/pharyngeal cancer. The authors examined associations of caffeinated coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and tea intake with fatal oral/pharyngeal cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II, a prospective US cohort study begun in 1982 by the American Cancer Society. Among 968,432 men and women who were cancer free at enrollment, 868 deaths due to oral/pharyngeal cancer occurred during 26 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate multivariable-adjusted relative risk. Intake of >4 cups/day of caffeinated coffee was associated with a 49% lower risk of oral/pharyngeal cancer death relative to no/occasional coffee intake (relative risk = 0.51, 95% confidence interval: 0.40, 0.64) (1 cup/day = 237 ml). A dose-related decline in relative risk was observed with each single cup/day consumed (P(trend) < 0.001). The association was not modified by sex, smoking status, or alcohol use. An inverse association for >2 cups/day of decaffeinated coffee intake was suggested (relative risk = 0.61, 95% confidence interval: 0.37, 1.01). No association was found for tea drinking. In this large prospective study, caffeinated coffee intake was inversely associated with oral/pharyngeal cancer mortality. Research is needed to elucidate biologic mechanisms whereby coffee might help to protect against these often fatal cancers.

  18. Alcohol and Risk of Parkinson Disease in a Large Prospective Cohort of Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Palacios, N.; Gao, X.; O’Reilly, E.; Schwarzschild, M.; McCullough, M.L.; Mayo, T.; Gapstur, S.M.; Ascherio, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Addictive behaviors such as cigarette smoking and coffee drinking have been associated with a reduced risk of Parkinson disease. Whether alcohol consumption is also associated with risk is less certain. Methods We prospectively followed 132,403 participants in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort from 1992 to 2005. Alcohol intake was assessed at baseline. Incident cases of Parkinson Disease (n = 605; 389 male and 216 female) were confirmed by treating physicians and medical record review. Relative risks were estimated using proportional hazards models, adjusting for age, smoking and other risk factors. Results Alcohol consumption was not significantly associated with Parkinson Disease risk. After adjustment for age, smoking, and other risk factors, the Relative Risk comparing men consuming 30 or more grams of alcohol (highest category) to non-drinker men was 1.29 (95% CI: 0.90, 1.86, p-trend: 0.40) and the Relative Risk comparing women consuming 15 or more grams of alcohol (highest category) per day to non-drinker women was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.41, 1.45, p-trend: 0.87). Consumption of beer, wine or liquor was also not associated with Parkinson Disease risk. Conclusions The results of this large prospective study do not support an association between alcohol intake and risk of Parkinson disease. PMID:22714720

  19. Childhood abuse history, posttraumatic stress disorder, postpartum mental health and bonding: A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Seng, Julia S.; Sperlich, Mickey; Low, Lisa Kane; Ronis, David L.; Muzik, Maria; Liberzon, Israel

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Research is needed that prospectively characterizes the intergenerational pattern of effects of childhood maltreatment and lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on women’s mental health in pregnancy and on postpartum mental health and bonding outcomes. This prospective study included 566 nulliparous women in 3 cohorts: PTSD-positive, trauma-exposed resilient, and non-exposed to trauma. Methods Standardized telephone interviews with women who were less than 28 gestational weeks ascertained trauma history, PTSD diagnosis, and depression diagnosis. A six-week postpartum interview reassessed interim trauma, labor experience, PTSD, depression, and bonding outcomes. Results Regression modeling indicates posttraumatic stress in pregnancy, alone, or comorbid with depression, is associated with postpartum depression (R2=.204, P<.001). Postpartum depression alone, or comorbid with posttraumatic stress, was associated with impaired bonding (R2=.195, P<.001). In both models, higher quality of life ratings in pregnancy were associated with better outcomes, while reported dissociation in labor was a risk for worse outcomes. The effect of a history of childhood maltreatment on both postpartum mental health and bonding outcomes was mediated by pre-existing mental health status. Discussion Pregnancy represents an opportune time to interrupt the pattern of intergenerational transmission of abuse and psychiatric vulnerability. Further dyadic research is warranted beyond six weeks postpartum. Trauma-informed interventions for women who enter care with abuse-related PTSD or depression should be developed and tested. PMID:23374491

  20. Hyperuricemia and coronary heart disease mortality: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Tian; Liu, Xuehui; Jiang, Lu; Mao, Shuai; Yin, Xin; Guo, Liheng

    2016-10-28

    Hyperuricemia may be associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality; however, the results from prospective studies are conflicting. The objective of this study was to assess the association between hyperuricemia and risk of CHD mortality by performing a meta-analysis. Pubmed and Embase were searched for relevant prospective cohort studies published until July 2015. Studies were included only if they reported data on CHD mortality related to hyperuricemia in a general population. The pooled adjusted relative risk (RR) was calculated using a random-effects model. A total of 14 studies involving 341 389 adults were identified. Hyperuricemia was associated with an increased risk of CHD mortality (RR: 1.14; 95 % CI: 1.06-1.23) and all-cause mortality (RR: 1.20; 95 % CI: 1.13-1.28). For each increase of 1 mg/dl of serum uric acid (SUA), the overall risks of CHD and all-cause mortality increased by 20 and 9 %, respectively. According to the gender subgroup analyses, hyperuricemia increased the risk of CHD mortality in women (RR: 1.47; 95 % CI: 1.21-1.73) compared to men (RR: 1.10; 95 % CI: 1.00-1.19). The risk of all-cause mortality was greater in women. Hyperuricemia may modestly increase the risk of CHD and all-cause mortality. Future research is needed to determine whether urate-lowering therapy has beneficial effects for reducing CHD mortality.

  1. Micronutrient levels and supplement intake in pregnancy after bariatric surgery: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Devlieger, Roland; Guelinckx, Isabelle; Jans, Goele; Voets, Willy; Vanholsbeke, Caroline; Vansant, Greet

    2014-01-01

    Studies report frequent micronutrient deficiencies after bariatric surgery, but less is known about micronutrient levels of pregnant women after bariatric surgery. To prospectively evaluate micronutrient levels and supplement intake in pregnancy following bariatric surgery. A multicenter prospective cohort study including women with restrictive or malabsorptive types of bariatric surgery. Nutritional deficiencies, together with supplement intake, were screened during pregnancy. The total population included 18 women in the restrictive and 31 in the malabsorptive group. Most micronutrients were depleted and declined significantly during pregnancy. The proportion of women with low vitamin A and B-1 levels increased to respectively 58 and 17% at delivery (P = 0.005 and 0.002). The proportion of women with vitamin D deficiency decreased from 14% at trimester 1 to 6% at delivery (P = 0.030). Mild anemia was found in respectively 22 and 40% of the women at trimester 1 and delivery. In the first trimester, most women took a multivitamin (57.1%). In the second and third trimester, the majority took additional supplements (69.4 and 73.5%). No associations were found between supplement intake and micronutrient deficiencies. Pregnant women with bariatric surgery show frequent low micronutrient levels. Supplementation partially normalizes low levels of micronutrients.

  2. Prospective cohort study of factors influencing the relative weights of the placenta and the newborn infant.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, L. A.; Evans, S. F.; Newnham, J. P.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the demographic, environmental, and medical factors that influence the relative weights of the newborn infant and the placenta and compare this ratio with other factors known to predispose to adult ill health. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: The tertiary referral centre for perinatal care in Perth, Western Australia. SUBJECTS: 2507 pregnant women who delivered a single live infant at term. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Placental weight, birth weight, and the ratio of placental weight to birth weight. RESULTS: By multiple regression analysis the placental weight to birthweight ratio was significantly and positively associated with gestational age, female sex, Asian parentage, increasing maternal body mass index, increased maternal weight at booking, lower socioeconomic status, maternal anaemia, and increasing number of cigarettes smoked daily. There were no consistent relations between the placental weight to birthweight ratio and measures of newborn size. CONCLUSIONS: The ratio of placental weight to birth weight is not an accurate marker of fetal growth. In its role as a predictor of adult disease the ratio may be acting as a surrogate for other factors which are already known to influence health and may act before or after birth. Determining the role that relative growth rates of the fetus and placenta have in predisposing to adult disease requires prospective study to account for the many confounding variables which complicate this hypothesis. PMID:9224128

  3. Prospective cohort study of the risk factors for stress fractures in Chinese male infantry recruits

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Lin; Chang, Qi; Huang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Objective To determine potential risk factors that could predict stress fractures over an 8-week basic military training in Chinese male infantry recruits. Methods Recruits from three infantry units enrolled in this prospective study. At baseline, demographic data, personal history of stress fractures, mean duration of weekly exercise and smoking history were recorded on questionnaires and blood samples taken for analysis of bone turnover biomarkers and genetic factors. Results Of the 1516 male recruits who volunteered to participate in the study, 1398 recruits provided data for analysis. In total, 189 stress fracture cases were observed (incidence rate: 13.5%) during the 8-week training period. Recruits with stress fractures had a significantly higher incidence of prior fracture history and lower exercise level prior to enrolment compared with those without stress fractures. A significant difference in both allelic frequency and genotypic distribution of the growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) gene rs143383 polymorphism was observed between recruits with and without stress fractures. However, no difference in serum bone turnover biomarkers was detected between groups. Conclusion This prospective, cohort study indicates that fracture history, lower exercise level and GDF5 rs143383 may be predictive risk factors for stress fractures in Chinese male infantry recruits. PMID:27207942

  4. Prospective cohort study of the risk factors for stress fractures in Chinese male infantry recruits.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lin; Chang, Qi; Huang, Tao; Huang, Changlin

    2016-08-01

    To determine potential risk factors that could predict stress fractures over an 8-week basic military training in Chinese male infantry recruits. Recruits from three infantry units enrolled in this prospective study. At baseline, demographic data, personal history of stress fractures, mean duration of weekly exercise and smoking history were recorded on questionnaires and blood samples taken for analysis of bone turnover biomarkers and genetic factors. Of the 1516 male recruits who volunteered to participate in the study, 1398 recruits provided data for analysis. In total, 189 stress fracture cases were observed (incidence rate: 13.5%) during the 8-week training period. Recruits with stress fractures had a significantly higher incidence of prior fracture history and lower exercise level prior to enrolment compared with those without stress fractures. A significant difference in both allelic frequency and genotypic distribution of the growth differentiation factor 5 (GDF5) gene rs143383 polymorphism was observed between recruits with and without stress fractures. However, no difference in serum bone turnover biomarkers was detected between groups. This prospective, cohort study indicates that fracture history, lower exercise level and GDF5 rs143383 may be predictive risk factors for stress fractures in Chinese male infantry recruits. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Alcohol and risk of Parkinson's disease in a large, prospective cohort of men and women.

    PubMed

    Palacios, Natalia; Gao, Xiang; O'Reilly, Eilis; Schwarzschild, Michael; McCullough, Marjorie L; Mayo, Tinisha; Gapstur, Susan M; Ascherio, Alberto A

    2012-07-01

    Addictive behaviors, such as cigarette smoking and coffee drinking, have been associated with a reduced risk of Parkinson's disease (PD). Whether alcohol consumption is also associated with PD risk is less certain. We prospectively followed 132,403 participants in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort from 1992 to 2005. Alcohol intake was assessed at baseline. Incident cases of PD (n = 605; 389 male and 216 female) were confirmed by treating physicians and medical record review. Relative risks (RRs) were estimated using proportional hazards models, adjusting for age, smoking, and other risk factors. Alcohol consumption was not significantly associated with PD risk. After adjustment for age, smoking, and other risk factors, the RR comparing men consuming 30 or more grams of alcohol per day (highest category) to nondrinker men was 1.29 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.90, 1.86; P trend: 0.40), and the RR comparing women consuming 15 or more grams of alcohol (highest category) per day to nondrinker women was 0.77 (95% CI: 0.41, 1.45; P trend: 0.87). Consumption of beer, wine, or liquor was also not associated with PD risk. The results of this large, prospective study do not support an association between alcohol intake and risk of PD.

  6. Self-reported compliance with capecitabine: findings from a prospective cohort analysis.

    PubMed

    Winterhalder, Ralph; Hoesli, Pierre; Delmore, Geoffrey; Pederiva, Stefanie; Bressoud, Albéric; Hermann, Frank; von Moos, Roger

    2011-01-01

    While oral anticancer treatment has increased the convenience for patients with no risk of venous access complications compared to intravenous drug administration, a high level of compliance cannot always be assumed. The aim of the present report was to evaluate real-life drug adherence in a prospective cohort analysis of patients with gastrointestinal or breast cancer treated with capecitabine-based chemotherapy. Twenty-nine Swiss oncologists recruited patients receiving capecitabine, either as monotherapy or in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents, in a prospective fashion. Patients recorded both their capecitabine intake and any adverse effects each day in patient diaries. A total of 177 patients were included, 143 (81%) with gastrointestinal tumours and 34 (19%) with breast cancer. Overall, 161 patients (91%) were considered as fully compliant, while 16 patients (9%) reported some kind of compliance error. Reasons for non-compliance included forgetting to take treatment (n = 9), side effects (n = 4) and misunderstanding instructions (n = 3). Self-reported compliance was not influenced by age or Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, but there was a trend towards better compliance with capecitabine therapy if fewer adverse effects occurred (p = 0.07, simple logistic regression). Self-reported compliance with capecitabine-based therapy in clinical practice is high and seems to be adversely affected by side effects. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. General health status and incidence of first-onset temporomandibular disorder: OPPERA prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Anne E.; Slade, Gary D.; Bair, Eric; Fillingim, Roger B.; Knott, Charles; Dubner, Ronald; Greenspan, Joel D.; Maixner, William; Ohrbach, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) overlap with other health conditions but no study has examined which of these conditions increase the risk of developing first-onset TMD. The authors prospectively evaluated the relationship between health status at enrollment and subsequent incidence of TMD in 2,722 men and women. Participants aged 18–44 years had no history of TMD and were clinically free of TMD when enrolled in 2006–08 at four U.S. study sites in the OPPERA prospective cohort study. First-onset examiner-classified TMD developed in 260 people over a median 2.8 years of follow-up. Cox regression estimated the association between health conditions and TMD incidence while accounting for potential confounders. Incidence of first-onset TMD was 50% higher for people with lower back pain (adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] = 1.50, 95% confidence limits [95% CL]: 1.08, 2.10) and 75% higher for people with genital pain symptoms (AHR = 1.75 [95% CL: 1.04, 2.93]) than people without a history of these pain disorders. Digit ratio, a marker of intra-uterine exposure to sex hormones, was significantly associated with TMD incidence. Other independent predictors of first-onset TMD were sleep disturbance and cigarette smoking. These findings reveal multiple-influences of health status on incidence of first-onset TMD. PMID:24275223

  8. Micronutrient Levels and Supplement Intake in Pregnancy after Bariatric Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Devlieger, Roland; Guelinckx, Isabelle; Jans, Goele; Voets, Willy; Vanholsbeke, Caroline; Vansant, Greet

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies report frequent micronutrient deficiencies after bariatric surgery, but less is known about micronutrient levels of pregnant women after bariatric surgery. Objective To prospectively evaluate micronutrient levels and supplement intake in pregnancy following bariatric surgery. Design A multicenter prospective cohort study including women with restrictive or malabsorptive types of bariatric surgery. Nutritional deficiencies, together with supplement intake, were screened during pregnancy. Results The total population included 18 women in the restrictive and 31 in the malabsorptive group. Most micronutrients were depleted and declined significantly during pregnancy. The proportion of women with low vitamin A and B-1 levels increased to respectively 58 and 17% at delivery (P = 0.005 and 0.002). The proportion of women with vitamin D deficiency decreased from 14% at trimester 1 to 6% at delivery (P = 0.030). Mild anemia was found in respectively 22 and 40% of the women at trimester 1 and delivery. In the first trimester, most women took a multivitamin (57.1%). In the second and third trimester, the majority took additional supplements (69.4 and 73.5%). No associations were found between supplement intake and micronutrient deficiencies. Conclusion Pregnant women with bariatric surgery show frequent low micronutrient levels. Supplementation partially normalizes low levels of micronutrients. PMID:25470614

  9. Childhood abuse history, posttraumatic stress disorder, postpartum mental health, and bonding: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Seng, Julia S; Sperlich, Mickey; Low, Lisa Kane; Ronis, David L; Muzik, Maria; Liberzon, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Research is needed that prospectively characterizes the intergenerational pattern of effects of childhood maltreatment and lifetime posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on women's mental health in pregnancy and on postpartum mental health and bonding outcomes. This prospective study included 566 nulliparous women in 3 cohorts: PTSD-positive, trauma-exposed resilient, and not exposed to trauma. Trauma history, PTSD diagnosis, and depression diagnosis were ascertained using standardized telephone interviews with women who were pregnant at less than 28 gestational weeks. A 6-week-postpartum interview reassessed interim trauma, labor experience, PTSD, depression, and bonding outcomes. Regression modeling indicates that posttraumatic stress in pregnancy, alone, or comorbid with depression is associated with postpartum depression (R(2) = .204; P < .001). Postpartum depression alone or comorbid with posttraumatic stress was associated with impaired bonding (R(2) = .195; P < .001). In both models, higher quality of life ratings in pregnancy were associated with better outcomes, while reported dissociation in labor was a risk for worse outcomes. The effect of a history of childhood maltreatment on both postpartum mental health and bonding outcomes was mediated by preexisting mental health status. Pregnancy represents an opportune time to interrupt the pattern of intergenerational transmission of abuse and psychiatric vulnerability. Further dyadic research is warranted beyond 6 weeks postpartum. Trauma-informed interventions for women who enter care with abuse-related PTSD or depression should be developed and tested. © 2013 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.

  10. Brachytherapy versus prostatectomy in localized prostate cancer: Results of a French multicenter prospective medico-economic study

    SciTech Connect

    Buron, Catherine; Le Vu, Beatrice; Cosset, Jean-Marc; Peiffert, Didier; Delannes, Martine; Flam, Thierry; Guerif, Stephane; Salem, Naji; Chauveinc, Laurent; Livartowski, Alain . E-mail: alain.livartowski@curie.net

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To prospectively compare health-related quality of life (HRQOL), patient-reported treatment-related symptoms, and costs of iodine-125 permanent implant interstitial brachytherapy (IB) with those of radical prostatectomy (RP) during the first 2 years after these treatments for localized prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: A total of 435 men with localized low-risk prostate cancer, from 11 French hospitals, treated with IB (308) or RP (127), were offered to complete the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer core Quality of Life Questionnaire QLQ-C30 version 3 (EORTC QLQ-C30) and the prostate cancer specific EORTC QLQ-PR25 module before and at the end of treatment, 2, 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after treatment. Repeated measures analysis of variance and analysis of covariance were conducted on HRQOL changes. Comparative cost analysis covered initial treatment, hospital follow-up, outpatient and production loss costs. Results: Just after treatment, the decrease of global HRQOL was less pronounced in the IB than in the RP group, with a 13.5 points difference (p < 0.0001). A difference slightly in favor of RP was observed 6 months after treatment (-7.5 points, p = 0.0164) and was maintained at 24 months (-8.2 points, p = 0.0379). Impotence and urinary incontinence were more pronounced after RP, whereas urinary frequency, urgency, and urination pain were more frequent after IB. Mean societal costs did not differ between IB ( Euro 8,019 at T24) and RP ( Euro 8,715 at T24, p = 0.0843) regardless of the period. Conclusions: This study suggests a similar cost profile in France for IB and RP but with different HRQOL and side effect profiles. Those findings may be used to tailor localized prostate cancer treatments to suit individual patients' needs.

  11. [French brain tumor database: general results on 40,000 cases, main current applications and future prospects].

    PubMed

    Zouaoui, S; Rigau, V; Mathieu-Daudé, H; Darlix, A; Bessaoud, F; Fabbro-Peray, P; Bauchet, F; Kerr, C; Fabbro, M; Figarella-Branger, D; Taillandier, L; Duffau, H; Trétarre, B; Bauchet, L

    2012-02-01

    This work aimed at prospectively record all primary central nervous system tumor (PCNST) cases in France, for which histological diagnosis was available. The objectives were to (i) create a national database and network to perform epidemiological studies, (ii) implement clinical and basic research protocols, and (iii) harmonize the health care of patients affected by PCNST. The methodology is based on a multidisciplinary national network already established by the French Brain Tumor DataBase (FBTDB) (Recensement national histologique des tumeurs primitives du système nerveux central [RnhTPSNC]), and the active participation of the Scientific Societies involved in neuro-oncology in France. From 2004 to 2009, 43,929 cases of newly diagnosed and histologically confirmed PCNST have been recorded. Histological diagnoses included gliomas (42,4%), all other neuroepithelial tumors (4,4%), tumors of the meninges (32,3%), nerve sheath tumors (9,2%), lymphomas (3,4%) and others (8,3%). Cryopreservation was reported for 9603 PCNST specimens. Tumor resections were performed in 78% cases, while biopsies accounted for 22%. Median age at diagnosis, sex, percentage of resections and number of cryopreserved tumors were detailed for each histology, according to the WHO classification. Many current applications and perspectives for the FBTDB are illustrated in the discussion. To our knowledge, this work is the first database in Europe, dedicated to PCNST, including clinical, surgical and histological data (with also cryopreservation of the specimens), and which may have major epidemiological, clinical and research implications. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Impact on fetal growth of prenatal exposure to pesticides due to agricultural activities: a prospective cohort study in Brittany, France

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pesticide use is widespread in agriculture. Several studies have shown that pesticides used in agricultural fields can contaminate the domestic environment and thus be an important source of pesticide exposure of populations residing nearby. Epidemiological studies that have examined the health effects of in utero pesticide exposure from residence near agricultural activities suggest adverse effects, but the results are inconsistent. Our purpose was to investigate the effect on intrauterine growth of such exposure due to agricultural activities in the residential municipality. Methods A prospective birth cohort recruited 3421 pregnant women in a French agricultural region (Brittany, 2002-2006) through gynecologists, ultrasonographers, and maternity hospitals during routine prenatal care visits before 19 weeks of gestation. The national agricultural census in 2000 provided the percentages of the municipality area devoted to cultivation of corn, wheat, colza, peas, potatoes, and fresh vegetables. Results Birth weight and the risk of fetal growth restriction were not associated with agricultural activities in the municipality of residence in early pregnancy. Children whose mother lived in a municipality where peas were grown had a smaller head circumference at birth than those in municipalities not growing peas (-0.2 cm, p = 0.0002). Head circumference also tended to be lower when wheat was grown, but not to a statistically significant degree (p-trend = 0.10). Risk of an infant with a small head circumference was higher for mothers living in a municipality where peas (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.2-3.6) or potatoes (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 0.9-2.4) were grown. Conclusions Agricultural activities in the municipality of residence may have negative effects on cranial growth. Cultivation of pea crops and, to a lesser degree, potato and wheat crops, may negatively affect head circumference. Insecticides, including organophosphate insecticides, were applied to most of the

  13. Impact on fetal growth of prenatal exposure to pesticides due to agricultural activities: a prospective cohort study in Brittany, France.

    PubMed

    Petit, Claire; Chevrier, Cécile; Durand, Gaël; Monfort, Christine; Rouget, Florence; Garlantezec, Ronan; Cordier, Sylvaine

    2010-11-15

    Pesticide use is widespread in agriculture. Several studies have shown that pesticides used in agricultural fields can contaminate the domestic environment and thus be an important source of pesticide exposure of populations residing nearby. Epidemiological studies that have examined the health effects of in utero pesticide exposure from residence near agricultural activities suggest adverse effects, but the results are inconsistent. Our purpose was to investigate the effect on intrauterine growth of such exposure due to agricultural activities in the residential municipality. A prospective birth cohort recruited 3421 pregnant women in a French agricultural region (Brittany, 2002-2006) through gynecologists, ultrasonographers, and maternity hospitals during routine prenatal care visits before 19 weeks of gestation. The national agricultural census in 2000 provided the percentages of the municipality area devoted to cultivation of corn, wheat, colza, peas, potatoes, and fresh vegetables. Birth weight and the risk of fetal growth restriction were not associated with agricultural activities in the municipality of residence in early pregnancy. Children whose mother lived in a municipality where peas were grown had a smaller head circumference at birth than those in municipalities not growing peas (-0.2 cm, p = 0.0002). Head circumference also tended to be lower when wheat was grown, but not to a statistically significant degree (p-trend = 0.10). Risk of an infant with a small head circumference was higher for mothers living in a municipality where peas (OR = 2.2; 95% CI = 1.2-3.6) or potatoes (OR = 1.5; 95% CI = 0.9-2.4) were grown. Agricultural activities in the municipality of residence may have negative effects on cranial growth. Cultivation of pea crops and, to a lesser degree, potato and wheat crops, may negatively affect head circumference. Insecticides, including organophosphate insecticides, were applied to most of the area devoted to pea and potato crops; this

  14. Long-term mortality in older patients discharged after acute decompensated heart failure: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Natella, Pierre-André; Le Corvoisier, Philippe; Paillaud, Elena; Renaud, Bertrand; Mahé, Isabelle; Bergmann, Jean-François; Perchet, Hervé; Mottier, Dominique; Montagne, Olivier; Bastuji-Garin, Sylvie

    2017-01-26

    Data are available on short- and intermediate-term mortality rates after discharge for acutely decompensated heart failure (ADHF). However, few studies specifically addressed ADHF outcomes in patients aged 75 years or over, who contribute more than half of all ADHF admissions. Our objectives here were to estimate the long-term mortality of patients aged 75 years or over who were discharged after admission for ADHF and to identify factors, especially geriatric findings, independently associated with 2-year mortality. This prospective cohort study in five French hospitals included consecutive patients aged 75 years or older and discharged after emergency-department admission for ADHF meeting Framingham criteria (N = 478; median age, 85 years; 68% female). Kaplan-Meier 1-year and 2-year survival curves were plotted. Admission characteristics independently associated with overall 2-year mortality were identified using multivariable Cox proportional-hazards regression. Mortality was 41.7% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 37.2%-53.5%) after 1 year and 56.0% (95% CI, 51.5%-60.7%) after 2 years. By multivariable analysis, independent predictors of 2-year mortality were male sex (hazard ratio [HR], 1.36; 95% CI, 1.00-1.82), age >85 years (HR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.19-2.07), higher number of impaired activities of daily living (HR, 1.11 per impaired item; 95% CI, 1.05-1.17), recent weight loss (HR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.14-2.28), and lower systolic blood pressure (HR, 0.86 per standard deviation increase; 95% CI, 0.74-0.99). Creatinine clearance ≤30 mL/min showed a trend toward an association with 2-year mortality (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 0.97-2.00). Functional impairment before admission is associated with higher long-term mortality in patients ≥75 years admitted for ADHF. This study focused on geriatric markers not traditionally collected in heart-failure patients but did not analyse all cardiologic parameters associated with outcomes in other studies. Nevertheless, our

  15. Migraine and risk of cardiovascular disease in women: prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kurth, Tobias; Winter, Anke C; Eliassen, A Heather; Dushkes, Rimma; Mukamal, Kenneth J; Rimm, Eric B; Willett, Walter C; Manson, JoAnn E; Rexrode, Kathryn M

    2016-05-31

     To evaluate the association between migraine and incident cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular mortality in women.  Prospective cohort study among Nurses' Health Study II participants, with follow-up from 1989 and through June 2011.  Cohort of female nurses in United States.  115 541 women aged 25-42 years at baseline and free of angina and cardiovascular disease. Cumulative follow-up rates were more than 90%.  The primary outcome of the study was major cardiovascular disease, a combined endpoint of myocardial infarction, stroke, or fatal cardiovascular disease. Secondary outcome measures included individual endpoints of myocardial infarction, stroke, angina/coronary revascularization procedures, and cardiovascular mortality.  17 531 (15.2%) women reported a physician's diagnosis of migraine. Over 20 years of follow-up, 1329 major cardiovascular disease events occurred and 223 women died from cardiovascular disease. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, migraine was associated with an increased risk for major cardiovascular disease (hazard ratio 1.50, 95% confidence interval 1.33 to 1.69), myocardial infarction (1.39, 1.18 to 1.64), stroke (1.62, 1.37 to 1.92), and angina/coronary revascularization procedures (1.73, 1.29 to 2.32), compared with women without migraine. Furthermore, migraine was associated with a significantly increased risk for cardiovascular disease mortality (hazard ratio 1.37, 1.02 to 1.83). Associations were similar across subgroups of women, including by age (<50/≥50), smoking status (current/past/never), hypertension (yes/no), postmenopausal hormone therapy (current/not current), and oral contraceptive use (current/not current).  Results of this large, prospective cohort study in women with more than 20 years of follow-up indicate a consistent link between migraine and cardiovascular disease events, including cardiovascular mortality. Women with migraine should be evaluated for their vascular risk. Future

  16. Migraine and Breast Cancer Risk: A Prospective Cohort Study and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Anke C.; Rice, Megan S.; Fortner, Renée T.; Eliassen, A. Heather; Kurth, Tobias; Tamimi, Rulla M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The evidence for an association between migraine and breast cancer risk is inconclusive. While female sex hormones have been proposed as one underlying mechanism, data on sex hormone levels in migraineurs are sparse. Methods: We prospectively evaluated the association between migraine and breast cancer risk among 115378 Nurses’ Health Study II participants using Cox proportional hazards models. Differences in endogenous sex hormone levels according to migraine status were assessed among 2034 premenopausal women using linear regression. We performed a meta-analysis of studies investigating the association between migraine and invasive breast cancer risk published through October 2013. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: Seventeen thousand six hundred ninety-six women (15.3%) reported a physician’s diagnosis of migraine at baseline. Over 20 years of follow-up, 833 in situ and 3091 invasive breast malignancies occurred. Migraine was not associated with total (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.88 to 1.04), in situ (HR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.82 to 1.15), or invasive breast cancer risk (HR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.87 to 1.04). Endogenous sex hormone levels did not differ according to migraine status. In the meta-analysis, migraine was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer overall (pooled risk ratio [RR] = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.73 to 0.98). However, this inverse association was apparent only among case-control studies (pooled RR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.66 to 0.79), and not among cohort studies (pooled RR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.87 to 1.10). Conclusion: In this large cohort study, migraine was not associated with breast cancer risk or differences in endogenous sex hormone levels. While case-control studies suggest an inverse association between migraine and breast cancer risk, prospective cohort studies do not support an association in pooled analyses. PMID:25505231

  17. Migraine and breast cancer risk: a prospective cohort study and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Winter, Anke C; Rice, Megan S; Fortner, Renée T; Eliassen, A Heather; Kurth, Tobias; Tamimi, Rulla M

    2015-01-01

    The evidence for an association between migraine and breast cancer risk is inconclusive. While female sex hormones have been proposed as one underlying mechanism, data on sex hormone levels in migraineurs are sparse. We prospectively evaluated the association between migraine and breast cancer risk among 115378 Nurses' Health Study II participants using Cox proportional hazards models. Differences in endogenous sex hormone levels according to migraine status were assessed among 2034 premenopausal women using linear regression. We performed a meta-analysis of studies investigating the association between migraine and invasive breast cancer risk published through October 2013. All statistical tests were two-sided. Seventeen thousand six hundred ninety-six women (15.3%) reported a physician's diagnosis of migraine at baseline. Over 20 years of follow-up, 833 in situ and 3091 invasive breast malignancies occurred. Migraine was not associated with total (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.88 to 1.04), in situ (HR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.82 to 1.15), or invasive breast cancer risk (HR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.87 to 1.04). Endogenous sex hormone levels did not differ according to migraine status. In the meta-analysis, migraine was associated with a lower risk of breast cancer overall (pooled risk ratio [RR] = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.73 to 0.98). However, this inverse association was apparent only among case-control studies (pooled RR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.66 to 0.79), and not among cohort studies (pooled RR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.87 to 1.10). In this large cohort study, migraine was not associated with breast cancer risk or differences in endogenous sex hormone levels. While case-control studies suggest an inverse association between migraine and breast cancer risk, prospective cohort studies do not support an association in pooled analyses. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Retention of female volunteer community health workers in Dhaka urban slums: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Volunteer community health workers (CHWs) are a key approach to improving community-based maternal and child health services in developing countries. BRAC, a large Bangladeshi non-governmental organization (NGO), has employed female volunteer CHWs in its community-based health programs since 1977, recently including its Manoshi project, a community-based maternal and child health intervention in the urban slums of Bangladesh. A case–control study conducted in response to high dropout rates in the first year of the project showed that financial incentives, social prestige, community approval and household responsibilities were related to early retention in the project. In our present prospective cohort study, we aimed to better understand the factors associated with retention of volunteer CHWs once the project was more mature. Methods We used a prospective cohort study design to examine the factors affecting retention of volunteer CHWs who remained in the project after the initial start-up period. We surveyed a random sample of 542 CHWs who were working for BRAC Manoshi in December 2008. In December 2009, we revisited this cohort of CHWs and interviewed those who had dropped out about the main reasons for their dropping out. We used a multivariable generalized linear model regression analysis with a log link to estimate the relative risk (RR) of independent factors on retention. Results Of the 542 CHWs originally enrolled, 120 had dropped out by the end of one year, mainly because they left the slums. CHWs who received positive community appraisal (adjusted RR = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.10 to 1.91) or were associated with other NGOs (adjusted RR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.04 to 1.23) were more likely to have been retained in the project. Although refresher training was also associated with increased retention (adjusted RR = 2.25, 95% CI = 1.08 to 4.71) in this study, too few CHWs had not attended refresher training

  19. Back pain outcomes in primary care following a practice improvement intervention:- a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Back pain is one of the UK's costliest and least understood health problems, whose prevalence still seems to be increasing. Educational interventions for general practitioners on back pain appear to have had little impact on practice, but these did not include quality improvement learning, involve patients in the learning, record costs or document practice activities as well as patient outcomes. Methods We assessed the outcome of providing information about quality improvement techniques and evidence-based practice for back pain using the Clinical Value Compass. This included clinical outcomes (Roland and Morris Disability Questionnaire), functional outcomes, costs of care and patient satisfaction. We provided workshops which used an action learning approach and collected before and after data on routine practice activity from practice electronic databases. In parallel, we studied outcomes in a separate cohort of patients with acute and sub-acute non-specific back pain recruited from the same practices over the same time period. Patient data were analysed as a prospective, split-cohort study with assessments at baseline and eight weeks following the first consultation. Results Data for 1014 patients were recorded in the practice database study, and 101 patients in the prospective cohort study. We found that practice activities, costs and patient outcomes changed little after the intervention. However, the intervention was associated with a small, but statistically significant reduction in disability in female patients. Additionally, baseline disability, downheartedness, self-rated health and leg pain had small but statistically significant effects (p < 0.05) on follow-up disability scores in some subgroups. Conclusions GP education for back pain that both includes health improvement methodologies and involves patients may yield additional benefits for some patients without large changes in patterns of practice activity. The effects in this study were

  20. Gastro esophageal reflux disease is associated with absence from work: Results from a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Leodolter, Andreas; Nocon, Marc; Kulig, Michael; Willich, Stefan N; Malfertheiner, Peter; Labenz, Joachim

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study the association of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) with the absence from work and to estimate the extent of loss in gross domestic product due to inability to work. METHODS: Analysis was based on the prospectively gathered data of a large European cohort study involving 6 215 symptomatic GERD patients (ProGERD). Among these patients, 2 871 were initially employed. The calculation of the loss of gross domestic product was based on the assumption that the prevalence of GERD was about 15% in Germany. According to the German Federal Statistical Office, the mean gross wage of employees was 150 €/d in 2002. RESULTS: The data of 2 078 employed patients who were prospectively followed up for over 2 years were analyzed. At study entry, the patients reported a mean of 1.8 d per year of inability to work. During the prospective follow-up under routine clinical care, the proportion of patients reporting days with inability to work decreased from 14% to 6% and the mean number of days per year with inability to work decreased to 0.9 d. Assuming a prevalence of troublesome GERD of 15% in the employed German population, the loss of gross domestic product amounted to 668 million €/year in Germany. CONCLUSION: GERD causes a relevant impairment on the national economics by absence from work. The presented data demonstrate the importance of GERD, not only for patients and health insurance companies, but also for the community at large. PMID:16437662

  1. Active Commuting Throughout Adolescence and Central Fatness before Adulthood: Prospective Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Gomez, David; Mielke, Gregore I.; Menezes, Ana M.; Gonçalves, Helen; Barros, Fernando C.; Hallal, Pedro C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Active commuting is a good opportunity to accumulate physical activity (PA) across the lifespan that potentially might influence central body fat. We aimed to examine the prospective associations of active commuting at 11, 15 and 18 years of age with central body fat at 18 years. Methods Participants were part of a large birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil (n = 3,649 participants). Active commuting, leisure-time PA and income were self-reported at 11, 15 and 18 years. Waist circumference and trunk fat mass were collected at 18 years with the use of a 3-dimensional photonic scanner and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, respectively. Results Active commuting at 11 years was not prospectively associated with central body fat. However, we found that active commuting at 15 and 18 years were prospectively and cross-sectionally associated with central body fat variables, respectively, in boys but not in girls. Also, boys in the highest tertile of accumulated active commuting (i.e., average of active commuting at 11, 13 and 18 years) were associated with −2.09 cm (95%CI: −3.24; −0.94) of waist circumference and −1.11 kg (95%CI: −1.74; −0.48) of trunk fat mass compared to boys in the lowest tertile. Analyses on changes in tertiles of active commuting from 11 and 15 years to 18 years with central body fat variables at 18 years showed that boys who remained consistently in the highest tertile or moved to a higher tertile had lower levels of central body fat compared to those consistently in the lowest tertile. Conclusions Active commuting throughout adolescence in boys, especially during middle and late adolescence, is associated with lower levels in central fatness before adulthood. PMID:24791780

  2. Exposure to Secondhand Smoke and Risk of Tuberculosis: Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hsien-Ho; Chiang, Yi-Ting; Chuang, Jen-Hsiang; Yang, Shiang-Lin; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Ezzati, Majid; Murray, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Background Prospective evidence on the association between secondhand-smoke exposure and tuberculosis is limited. Methods We included 23,827 never smokers from two rounds (2001 and 2005) of Taiwan National Health Interview Survey. Information on exposure to secondhand smoke at home as well as other sociodemographic and behavioral factors was collected through in-person interview. The participants were prospectively followed for incidence of tuberculosis through cross-matching the survey database to the national tuberculosis registry of Taiwan. Results A total of 85 cases of active tuberculosis were identified after a median follow-up of 7.0 years. The prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke at home was 41.8% in the study population. In the multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis, secondhand smoke was not associated with active tuberculosis (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.03; 95% CI, 0.64 to 1.64). In the subgroup analysis, the association between secondhand smoke and tuberculosis decreased with increasing age; the adjusted HR for those <18, > = 18 and <40, > = 40 and <60, and > = 60 years old was 8.48 (0.77 to 93.56), 2.29 (0.75 to 7.01), 1.33 (0.58 to 3.01), and 0.66 (0.35 to 1.23) respectively. Results from extensive sensitivity analyses suggested that potential misclassification of secondhand-smoke exposure would not substantially affect the observed associations. Conclusions The results from this prospective cohort study did not support an overall association between secondhand smoke and tuberculosis. However, the finding that adolescents might be particularly susceptible to secondhand smoke's effect warrants further investigation. PMID:24204811

  3. Exposure to secondhand smoke and risk of tuberculosis: prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hsien-Ho; Chiang, Yi-Ting; Chuang, Jen-Hsiang; Yang, Shiang-Lin; Chang, Hsing-Yi; Ezzati, Majid; Murray, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Prospective evidence on the association between secondhand-smoke exposure and tuberculosis is limited. We included 23,827 never smokers from two rounds (2001 and 2005) of Taiwan National Health Interview Survey. Information on exposure to secondhand smoke at home as well as other sociodemographic and behavioral factors was collected through in-person interview. The participants were prospectively followed for incidence of tuberculosis through cross-matching the survey database to the national tuberculosis registry of Taiwan. A total of 85 cases of active tuberculosis were identified after a median follow-up of 7.0 years. The prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke at home was 41.8% in the study population. In the multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis, secondhand smoke was not associated with active tuberculosis (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.03; 95% CI, 0.64 to 1.64). In the subgroup analysis, the association between secondhand smoke and tuberculosis decreased with increasing age; the adjusted HR for those <18, > = 18 and <40, > = 40 and <60, and > = 60 years old was 8.48 (0.77 to 93.56), 2.29 (0.75 to 7.01), 1.33 (0.58 to 3.01), and 0.66 (0.35 to 1.23) respectively. Results from extensive sensitivity analyses suggested that potential misclassification of secondhand-smoke exposure would not substantially affect the observed associations. The results from this prospective cohort study did not support an overall association between secondhand smoke and tuberculosis. However, the finding that adolescents might be particularly susceptible to secondhand smoke's effect warrants further investigation.

  4. Dietary Vitamin K intake and anticoagulation control during the initiation phase of warfarin therapy: A prospective cohort study

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effect of varying levels of dietary vitamin K intake on therapeutic International Normalized Ratio (INR) values among patients starting warfarin therapy has not been well studied. We performed a prospective cohort study among 282 patients to explore the independent associations between usual in...

  5. Breast milk parasite-specific antibodies and protection from amebiasis and cryptosporidiosis in Bangladeshi infants: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Korpe, Poonum S; Liu, Yue; Siddique, Abdullah; Kabir, Mamun; Ralston, Katherine; Ma, Jennie Z; Haque, Rashidul; Petri, William A

    2013-04-01

    In this prospective cohort study, the presence of parasite-specific immunoglobulin A in breast milk was associated with protection of Bangladeshi infants from cryptosporidiosis and amebiasis. Our findings suggest that passive immunity could be harnessed for the prevention of Entamoeba histolytica and Cryptosporidium species infection in children living in endemic regions.

  6. The Institution-Based Prospective Inception Cohort Study: Design, Implementation, and Quality Assurance in Pediatric Thrombosis and Stroke Research

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, Timothy J.; Armstrong-Wells, Jennifer; Goldenberg, Neil A.

    2014-01-01

    The development of well-designed cohort studies in rare diseases can lead to the discovery of new risk factors and prognostic markers, enhance understanding of natural history and outcomes, and provide preliminary data for randomized controlled trials of treatment strategies. Designing a robust cohort requires substantial upfront design and planning. Ideally, a cohort study of diseased individuals follows patients prospectively from the time of diagnosis (i.e., from the disease’s inception). The objective of this article is to discuss the design and implementation of an institution-based prospective inception cohort study, with applied examples in pediatric stroke and thrombosis. Furthermore, we will discuss the ongoing management and quality assurance mechanisms necessary to optimize such a study. Although the resources necessary to implement a prospective inception cohort study are large, this approach can provide critical observational evidence on natural history and prognostic factors. Following multicenter validation, its findings can inform the design and execution of much-needed randomized controlled clinical trials. PMID:23269572

  7. Cadmium Exposure and Cancer Mortality in a Prospective Cohort: The Strong Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Pollan, Marina; Tellez-Plaza, Maria; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Guallar, Eliseo; Umans, Jason G.; Yeh, Jeunliang; Best, Lyle G.; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal classified as a human carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Objective: We evaluated the association of long-term Cd exposure, as measured in urine, with cancer mortality in American Indians from Arizona, Oklahoma, and North and South Dakota who participated in the Strong Heart Study during 1989–1991. Methods: The Strong Heart Study was a prospective cohort study of 3,792 men and women 45–74 years of age who were followed for up to 20 years. Baseline urinary Cd (U-Cd) was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. We assessed cancer events by annual mortality surveillance. Results: The median (interquintile range) U-Cd concentration was 0.93 (0.55, 1.63) μg/g creatinine. After adjusting for sex, age, smoking status, cigarette pack-years, and body mass index, the adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) comparing the 80th versus the 20th percentiles of U-Cd were 1.30 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.55) for total cancer, 2.27 (95% CI: 1.58, 3.27) for lung cancer, and 2.40 (95% CI: 1.39, 4.17) for pancreatic cancer mortality. For all smoking-related cancers combined, the corresponding HR was 1.56 (95% CI: 1.24, 1.96). Cd was not significantly associated with liver, esophagus and stomach, colon and rectum, breast, prostate, kidney, or lymphatic and hematopoietic cancer mortality. On the basis of mediation analysis, we estimated that the percentage of lung cancer deaths due to tobacco smoking that could be attributed to Cd exposure was 9.0% (95% CI: 2.8, 21.8). Conclusions: Low-to-moderate Cd exposure was prospectively associated with total cancer mortality and with mortality from cancers of the lung and pancreas. The implementation of population-based preventive measures to decrease Cd exposure could contribute to reducing the burden of cancer. Citation: García-Esquinas E, Pollan M, Tellez-Plaza M, Francesconi KA, Goessler W, Guallar E, Umans JG, Yeh J, Best LG, Navas-Acien A. 2014. Cadmium exposure and

  8. Radiation-induced CD8 T-lymphocyte Apoptosis as a Predictor of Breast Fibrosis After Radiotherapy: Results of the Prospective Multicenter French Trial.

    PubMed

    Azria, David; Riou, Olivier; Castan, Florence; Nguyen, Tan Dat; Peignaux, Karine; Lemanski, Claire; Lagrange, Jean-Léon; Kirova, Youlia; Lartigau, Eric; Belkacemi, Yazid; Bourgier, Céline; Rivera, Sofia; Noël, Georges; Clippe, Sébastien; Mornex, Françoise; Hennequin, Christophe; Kramar, Andrew; Gourgou, Sophie; Pèlegrin, André; Fenoglietto, Pascal; Ozsahin, Esat Mahmut

    2015-12-01

    Monocentric cohorts suggested that radiation-induced CD8 T-lymphocyte apoptosis (RILA) can predict late toxicity after curative intent radiotherapy (RT). We assessed the role of RILA as a predictor of breast fibrosis (bf +) after adjuvant breast RT in a prospective multicenter trial. A total of 502 breast-cancer patients (pts) treated by conservative surgery and adjuvant RT were recruited at ten centers. RILA was assessed before RT by flow cytometry. Impact of RILA on bf + (primary endpoint) or relapse was assessed using a competing risk method. Receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were also performed in intention to treat. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00893035 and final analyses are presented here. Four hundred and fifty-six pts (90.8%) were included in the final analysis. One hundred and eight pts (23.7%) received whole breast and node irradiation. A boost dose of 10-16 Gy was delivered in 449 pts (98.5%). Adjuvant hormonotherapy was administered to 349 pts (76.5%). With a median follow-up of 38.6 months, grade ≥ 2 bf + was observed in 64 pts (14%). A decreased incidence of grade ≥ 2 bf + was observed for increasing values of RILA (p = 0.012). No grade 3 bf + was observed for patients with RILA ≥ 12%. The area under the ROC curve was 0.62. For cut-off values of RILA ≥ 20% and < 12%, sensitivity and specificity were 80% and 34%, 56% and 67%, respectively. Negative predictive value for grade ≥ 2 bf + was equal to 91% for RILA ≥ 20% and positive predictive value was equal to 22% for RILA < 12% where the overall prevalence of grade ≥ 2 bf + was estimated at 14%. A significant decrease in the risk of grade ≥ 2 bf + was found if patients had no adjuvant hormonotherapy (sHR = 0.31, p = 0.007) and presented a RILA ≥ 12% (sHR = 0.45, p = 0.002). RILA significantly predicts the risk of breast fibrosis. This study validates the use of RILA as a rapid screening test before RT delivery and will change

  9. The epidemiology of 1345 shoulder dislocations and subluxations in French Rugby Union players: a five-season prospective study from 2008 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Bohu, Yoann; Klouche, Shahnaz; Lefevre, Nicolas; Peyrin, Jean-Claude; Dusfour, Bernard; Hager, Jean-Philippe; Ribaut, Aurélie; Herman, Serge

    2015-12-01

    An understanding of the epidemiology of shoulder dislocation/subluxation in rugby union players could help develop targeted prevention programmes and treatment. We performed a multiyear epidemiological survey of shoulder dislocation/subluxation in a large cohort of rugby players. A descriptive epidemiological study was performed prospectively for five playing seasons (2008-2013) in all players licensed in the French Rugby Union. Rugby players were categorised into five groups by age. The player and the team physician reported the injury to the club insurance company if it occurred during training or a match. The goals of the study were to define the rate, type and causes of shoulder dislocation/subluxation. 88,044 injuries were reported, including 1345 (1.5%) episodes of dislocation/subluxation in 1317 men and 28 women, mean age 22.5±5.9 years. About 10/10,000 men and 5/10,000 women reported an episode of shoulder dislocation/subluxation per season, including 83/10,000 senior professionals, 17/10,000 senior amateurs, 21/10,000 juniors, 12/10,000 cadets and <1/10,000 rugby school players. Shoulder dislocation/subluxation was significantly more frequent in senior and junior players (p<0.001). Injuries mainly occurred during a match (66%) in the middle of the season (44%). The most frequent playing position was forwards (56%) and the main mechanism was tackling (69%). When reported, the history of recurrence was found in 66% of injured players, fractures in 22% and acromioclavicular injury in 6.7%. Nerve injury was associated with shoulder dislocation in 6% of cases. Senior professionals and junior male forward rugby players with a history of shoulder dislocation/subluxation should receive special attention from sports medicine professionals and orthopaedic surgeons. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Relationships between socioeconomic position and objectively measured sedentary behaviour in older adults in three prospective cohorts.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Richard John; Čukić, Iva; Deary, Ian J; Gale, Catharine R; Chastin, Sebastien Fm; Dall, Philippa M; Skelton, Dawn A; Der, Geoff

    2017-06-15

    To investigate whether sedentary behaviour in older adults is associated with a systematic and comprehensive range of socioeconomic position (SEP) measures across the life course. SEP measures included prospective measures of social class, income, educational qualifications and parental social class and contemporaneous measures of area deprivation. Glasgow and the surrounding (West of Scotland) combined with Edinburgh and the surrounding area (the Lothians). Community-dwelling adults aged around 79, 83, and 64 years from, respectively, the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 (LBC1936) (n=271) and the 1930s (n=119) and 1950s (n=310) cohorts of the West of Scotland Twenty-07 study. Sedentary behaviour was measured objectively using an activPAL activity monitor worn continuously for 7 days and used to calculate percentage of waking time spent sedentary. Among retired participants, for most cohort and SEP combinations, greater social disadvantage was associated with increased sedentary time. For example, in the Twenty-07 1930s cohort, those most deprived on the Carstairs measure spent 6.5% (95% CI 0.3 to 12.7) more of their waking time sedentary than the least deprived. However, for employed people, the relationship between SEP and sedentary behaviour was much weaker. For example, in terms of social class differences, among the retired, the most disadvantaged spent 5.7% more waking time sedentary (95% CI 2.6% to 87%), whereas among the employed, there was effectively no difference (-0.5%; 95% CI -9.0 to 8.0). Diverse SEP measures were associated with increased sedentary behaviour among retired people. There was little evidence for a relationship between SEP measures and sedentary behaviour among employed older adults. Prior to retirement, the constraints of the workplace may be masking effects that are only apparent at weekends. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is

  11. Symptoms in Swiss adolescents in relation to exposure from fixed site transmitters: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Schoeni, Anna; Roser, Katharina; Bürgi, Alfred; Röösli, Martin

    2016-07-16

    There is public concern regarding potential health effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) emitted by fixed site transmitters. We therefore investigated whether self-reported general well-being in adolescents is affected by RF-EMF exposure from mobile phone base stations (downlink) and broadcast transmitters (TV and radio). In a prospective cohort study, 439 study participants aged 12-17 years, completed questionnaires about their self-reported well-being and possible confounding factors at baseline and one year later. Exposure from fixed site transmitters at home and school was calculated by using a geospatial propagation model. Data were analysed using a mixed-logistic cross-sectional model of a combined dataset consisting of baseline and follow-up data and a longitudinal approach where we investigated whether exposure at baseline (cohort analysis) or changes in exposure between baseline and follow-up (change analysis) were related to a new onset of a symptom between baseline and follow-up. All analyses were adjusted for relevant confounders. Mean exposure (median; 75(th)) for broadcast transmitters, downlink and total exposure at baseline were 1.9 μW/m(2) (1.0 μW/m(2); 2.8 μW/m(2)), 14.4 μW/m(2) (3.8 μW/m(2); 11.0 μW/m(2)) and 16.3 μW/m(2) (5.8 μW/m(2); 13.4 μW/m(2)), respectively. In cross-sectional analyses no associations were observed between any symptom and RF-EMF exposure from fixed site transmitters. In the cohort and change analyses only a few significant associations were observed including an increased OR for tiredness (2.94, 95%CI: 1.43 to 6.05) for participants in the top 25(th) percentile of total RF-EMF exposure from fixed site transmitters at baseline, in comparison to participants exposed below the median and a decreased OR for exhaustibility (0.50, 95%CI: 0.27 to 0.93) for participants with an exposure increase between baseline and follow-up. In this cohort study, using a geospatial propagation model, RF

  12. Impact of measurement error in radon exposure on the estimated excess relative risk of lung cancer death in a simulated study based on the French Uranium Miners' Cohort.

    PubMed

    Allodji, Rodrigue S; Leuraud, Klervi; Thiébaut, Anne C M; Henry, Stéphane; Laurier, Dominique; Bénichou, Jacques

    2012-05-01

    Measurement error (ME) can lead to bias in the analysis of epidemiologic studies. Here a simulation study is described that is based on data from the French Uranium Miners' Cohort and that was conducted to assess the effect of ME on the estimated excess relative risk (ERR) of lung cancer death associated with radon exposure. Starting from a scenario without any ME, data were generated containing successively Berkson or classical ME depending on time periods, to reflect changes in the measurement of exposure to radon ((222)Rn) and its decay products over time in this cohort. Results indicate that ME attenuated the level of association with radon exposure, with a negative bias percentage on the order of 60% on the ERR estimate. Sensitivity analyses showed the consequences of specific ME characteristics (type, size, structure, and distribution) on the ERR estimates. In the future, it appears important to correct for ME upon analyzing cohorts such as this one to decrease bias in estimates of the ERR of adverse events associated with exposure to ionizing radiation.

  13. Association between Prenatal Exposure to Antiretroviral Therapy and Birth Defects: An Analysis of the French Perinatal Cohort Study (ANRS CO1/CO11)

    PubMed Central

    Sibiude, Jeanne; Mandelbrot, Laurent; Blanche, Stéphane; Le Chenadec, Jérôme; Boullag-Bonnet, Naima; Faye, Albert; Dollfus, Catherine; Tubiana, Roland; Bonnet, Damien; Lelong, Nathalie; Khoshnood, Babak; Warszawski, Josiane

    2014-01-01

    Background Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has major benefits during pregnancy, both for maternal health and to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV. Safety issues, including teratogenic risk, need to be evaluated. We estimated the prevalence of birth defects in children born to HIV-infected women receiving ART during pregnancy, and assessed the independent association of birth defects with each antiretroviral (ARV) drug used. Methods and Findings The French Perinatal Cohort prospectively enrolls HIV-infected women delivering in 90 centers throughout France. Children are followed by pediatricians until 2 y of age according to national guidelines. We included 13,124 live births between 1994 and 2010, among which, 42% (n = 5,388) were exposed to ART in the first trimester of pregnancy. Birth defects were studied using both European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies (EUROCAT) and Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program (MACDP) classifications; associations with ART were evaluated using univariate and multivariate logistic regressions. Correction for multiple comparisons was not performed because the analyses were based on hypotheses emanating from previous findings in the literature and the robustness of the findings of the current study. The prevalence of birth defects was 4.4% (95% CI 4.0%–4.7%), according to the EUROCAT classification. In multivariate analysis adjusting for other ARV drugs, maternal age, geographical origin, intravenous drug use, and type of maternity center, a significant association was found between exposure to zidovudine in the first trimester and congenital heart defects: 2.3% (74/3,267), adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.2 (95% CI 1.3–3.7), p = 0.003, absolute risk difference attributed to zidovudine +1.2% (95% CI +0.5; +1.9%). Didanosine and indinavir were associated with head and neck defects, respectively: 0.5%, AOR = 3.4 (95% CI 1.1–10.4), p = 0.04; 0.9%, AOR = 3.8 (95% CI 1.1–13.8), p = 0

  14. [Predicting bipolar disorder: what can we learn from prospective cohort studies?].

    PubMed

    Geoffroy, P A; Leboyer, M; Scott, J

    2015-02-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a life course illness; and there is increasing awareness of the many personal, social and economic consequences of the illness in older adults. However, it is important to emphasize that BD usually begins in late adolescence or early adulthood and 75 % cases have a first episode in this age period. This early onset and the associated level of disability mean that BD is the 4th leading cause of global disease burden in adolescents and young adults. Internationally, mental health services are increasingly striving to diagnose and treat BD as early as possible to try to prevent poor outcomes. In addition, researchers are using methods employed previously in psychosis studies as these may help us to recognise the earliest manifestations of BD. If it is possible to identify sub-threshold and 'ultra high risk' syndromes for BD, this might lead to new interventions that could target the prevention of first episodes of mania. One approach to understanding these risk syndromes is to examine prospective community cohort studies and BD offspring studies. This paper reviews prospective cohort studies that identify robust risk factors in early illness onset, which was defined as age at onset of BD between 15-25 years. We found that although > 50 % of individuals who developed BD had developed a putative BD prodrome prior to 14 years of age, this usually began with non-specific symptoms that overlap with similar presentations for those who later develop psychosis or severe depression. However, there are some features that seem to better identify groups with a BD "at-risk" syndrome. This syndrome is frequently composed of several factors such as mood lability, depressive episodes, prior anxiety, sleep and/or conduct disorders, attention and concentration impairment, altered energy patterns, and a family history of mania and/or depression. The course of these early predictors suggests the precursor syndromes are composed of mini-clusters of symptoms many

  15. Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors and risk of fractures: a prospective cohort study and meta-analysis of published observational cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Kunutsor, Setor K; Blom, Ashley W; Whitehouse, Michael R; Kehoe, Patrick G; Laukkanen, Jari A

    2017-07-27

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) represents an important target of antihypertensive medications. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), which are widely-used RAS inhibiting drugs, have been suggested to have beneficial effects on bone tissue. We aimed to assess the associations of use of ACEIs and/or ARBs with the risk of fractures using a population-based prospective cohort and a meta-analysis of published prospective cohort studies. Information on antihypertensive medication use (including both ACEIs and ARBs) were assessed in 1743 men and women of the Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease prospective cohort study. Hazard ratios (HRs) [95% confidence intervals (CI)] of ACEIs or ARBs use with incident fractures were calculated. A total of 203 composite (hip, humeral, and wrist) fractures occurred during a median follow-up of 14.8 years. In multivariate adjusted analysis, the HR for composite fractures comparing users of ACEIs or ARBs with non-users was 1.00 (0.59-1.69). The corresponding adjusted HR for hip fractures comparing users versus non-users of ACEIs or ARBs was 0.89 (0.32-2.47). Including the current study, a total of 11 observational cohort studies involving 3526,319 participants and >323,355 fractures were included in a meta-analysis. Comparing ACEI users with non-users and ARB users with non-users, the HRs for composite fractures were 1.09 (0.89-1.33) and 0.87 (0.76-1.01) respectively. The corresponding HRs for hip fractures were 0.91 (0.86-0.95) and 0.80 (0.75-0.85) respectively. Use of RAS inhibitors was not associated with long-term risk of composite fractures in both primary and pooled analyses. Pooled evidence however suggests a beneficial effect of RAS blockers on hip fracture risk.

  16. Discordant Treatment Responses to Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Rwanda: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Kayigamba, Felix R.; Franke, Molly F.; Bakker, Mirjam I.; Rodriguez, Carly A.; Bagiruwigize, Emmanuel; Wit, Ferdinand WNM; Rich, Michael L.; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Some antiretroviral therapy naïve patients starting combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) experience a limited CD4 count rise despite virological suppression, or vice versa. We assessed the prevalence and determinants of discordant treatment responses in a Rwandan cohort. Methods A discordant immunological cART response was defined as an increase of <100 CD4 cells/mm3 at 12 months compared to baseline despite virological suppression (viral load [VL] <40 copies/mL). A discordant virological cART response was defined as detectable VL at 12 months with an increase in CD4 count ≥100 cells/mm3. The prevalence of, and independent predictors for these two types of discordant responses were analysed in two cohorts nested in a 12-month prospective study of cART-naïve HIV patients treated at nine rural health facilities in two regions in Rwanda. Results Among 382 patients with an undetectable VL at 12 months, 112 (29%) had a CD4 rise of <100 cells/mm3. Age ≥35 years and longer travel to the clinic were independent determinants of an immunological discordant response, but sex, baseline CD4 count, body mass index and WHO HIV clinical stage were not. Among 326 patients with a CD4 rise of ≥100 cells/mm3, 56 (17%) had a detectable viral load at 12 months. Male sex was associated with a virological discordant treatment response (P = 0.05), but age, baseline CD4 count, BMI, WHO HIV clinical stage, and travel time to the clinic were not. Conclusions Discordant treatment responses were common in cART-naïve HIV patients in Rwanda. Small CD4 increases could be misinterpreted as a (virological) treatment failure and lead to unnecessary treatment changes. PMID:27438000

  17. Determinants of facility delivery after implementation of safer mother programme in Nepal: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Karkee, Rajendra; Binns, Colin W; Lee, Andy H

    2013-10-20

    There are several barriers for pregnant women to deliver in a health care facility. This prospective cohort study investigated factors affecting facility delivery and reasons for unplanned place of delivery after implementation of the safer mother programme in Nepal. Baseline interviews using a validated questionnaire were conducted on a sample of 700 pregnant women representative of the Kaski district in central Nepal. Follow-up interviews of the cohort were then conducted within 45 days postpartum. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors associated with the facility delivery outcome. Of the 644 pregnant women whose delivery location had been identified, 547 (85%) gave birth in a health care facility. Women were more likely to deliver in a health facility if they were educated especially with higher secondary or above qualification (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 12.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.09 to 30.17), attended 4 or more antenatal care visits (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.25 to 3.69), and lived within 30 minutes to the facility (OR 11.61, 95% CI 5.77 to 24.04). For the 97 women who delivered at home, 72 (74.2%) were unplanned, mainly due to quick precipitation of labour making it impossible to reach a health facility. It appeared that facility delivery occurs more frequent among educated women and those who live nearby, even though maternity services are now freely available in Nepal. Because of the difficult terrain and transportation problem in rural areas, interventions that make maternity service physically accessible during antenatal period are needed to increase the utilisation of health facility for child birth.

  18. The persistence of adolescent binge drinking into adulthood: findings from a 15-year prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Degenhardt, Louisa; O'Loughlin, Christina; Swift, Wendy; Romaniuk, Helena; Carlin, John; Coffey, Carolyn; Hall, Wayne; Patton, George

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the prevalence of binge drinking in adolescence and its persistence into adulthood in an Australian cohort. Design 15-year prospective cohort study. Setting Victoria, Australia. Participants 1943 adolescents were recruited from secondary schools at age 14–15 years. Primary outcome measures Levels of past-week ‘binge’ drinking (5+ standard drinks on a day, each 10 g alcohol) and ‘heavy binge’ drinking (20+ standard drinks on a day for males, 11+ for females) were assessed during six adolescent waves, and across three adult waves up to age 29 years. Results Half of the males (52%) and a third of the females (34%) reported past-week adolescent binge drinking. 90% of male and 70% of female adolescent-onset binge drinkers continued to binge in young adulthood; 70% of males and 48% of females who were not adolescent-onset binge drinkers reported young adult binge drinking. Past-week heavy bingeing was less common in adolescence than adulthood. Overall, 35% of the sample (95% CI 33% to 38%) reported past-week binge drinking in adolescence and young adulthood and one-third (33%; 30% to 35%) first reported binge drinking in young adulthood; only 7% of the sample (6–8%) had binge drinking in adolescence but not young adulthood. ‘Heavy binge’ drinking occurred in adolescence and young adulthood for 9% (8% to 10%); 8% (7% to 10%) reported it in adolescence but no longer in young adulthood; and 24% (22% to 26%) began ‘heavy binge’ drinking in young adulthood. Among adolescent binge drinkers (n=821), young adult binge and heavy binge drinking were predicted by being male, adolescent antisocial behaviour and adverse consequences of drinking in adolescence. Conclusions Binge alcohol use is common and persistent among young Australians. Efforts to prevent the onset of binge drinking during adolescence may substantially reduce harmful patterns of alcohol use in young adulthood. PMID:23959750

  19. Residential Radon Exposure and Skin Cancer Incidence in a Prospective Danish Cohort.

    PubMed

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Loft, Steffen; Sørensen, Mette; Jensen, Allan; Andersen, Claus Erik; Ulbak, Kaare; Hertel, Ole; Pedersen, Camilla; Tjønneland, Anne; Krüger Kjær, Susanne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Although exposure to UV radiation is the major risk factor for skin cancer, theoretical models suggest that radon exposure can contribute to risk, and this is supported by ecological studies. We sought to confirm or refute an association between long-term exposure to residential radon and the risk for malignant melanoma (MM) and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) using a prospective cohort design and long-term residential radon exposure. During 1993-1997, we recruited 57,053 Danish persons and collected baseline information. We traced and geocoded all residential addresses of the cohort members and calculated radon concentrations at each address lived in from 1 January 1971 until censor date. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate-ratios (IRR) and confidence intervals (CI) for the risk associated with radon exposure for NMSC and MM, and effect modification was assessed. Over a mean follow-up of 13.6 years of 51,445 subjects, there were 3,243 cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 317 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 329 cases of MM. The adjusted IRRs per 100 Bq/m3 increase in residential radon levels for BCC, SCC and MM were 1.14 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.27), 0.90 (95% CI: 0.70, 1.37) and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.77, 1.50), respectively. The association between radon exposure and BCC was stronger among those with higher socio-economic status and those living in apartments at enrollment. Long-term residential radon exposure may contribute to development of basal cell carcinoma of the skin. We cannot exclude confounding from sunlight and cannot conclude on causality, as the relationship was stronger amongst persons living in apartments and non-existent amongst those living in single detached homes.

  20. Residential Radon Exposure and Skin Cancer Incidence in a Prospective Danish Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Loft, Steffen; Sørensen, Mette; Jensen, Allan; Andersen, Claus Erik; Ulbak, Kaare; Hertel, Ole; Pedersen, Camilla; Tjønneland, Anne; Krüger Kjær, Susanne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Background Although exposure to UV radiation is the major risk factor for skin cancer, theoretical models suggest that radon exposure can contribute to risk, and this is supported by ecological studies. We sought to confirm or refute an association between long-term exposure to residential radon and the risk for malignant melanoma (MM) and non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) using a prospective cohort design and long-term residential radon exposure. Methods During 1993–1997, we recruited 57,053 Danish persons and collected baseline information. We traced and geocoded all residential addresses of the cohort members and calculated radon concentrations at each address lived in from 1 January 1971 until censor date. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate-ratios (IRR) and confidence intervals (CI) for the risk associated with radon exposure for NMSC and MM, and effect modification was assessed. Results Over a mean follow-up of 13.6 years of 51,445 subjects, there were 3,243 cases of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), 317 cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and 329 cases of MM. The adjusted IRRs per 100 Bq/m3 increase in residential radon levels for BCC, SCC and MM were 1.14 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.27), 0.90 (95% CI: 0.70, 1.37) and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.77, 1.50), respectively. The association between radon exposure and BCC was stronger among those with higher socio-economic status and those living in apartments at enrollment. Conclusion and Impact Long-term residential radon exposure may contribute to development of basal cell carcinoma of the skin. We cannot exclude confounding from sunlight and cannot conclude on causality, as the relationship was stronger amongst persons living in apartments and non-existent amongst those living in single detached homes. PMID:26274607

  1. Premature birth and insulin resistance in infancy: A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Payal, Vikas; Jora, Rakesh; Sharma, Pramod; Gupta, Pradeep Kumar; Gupta, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study was done to determine the role of prematurity and other variables to predict insulin sensitivity in infancy. Subjects and Methods: In this prospective study, 36 preterm appropriate for gestational age (AGA), 11 preterm small for gestational age (SGA), and 17 term SGA included as study cohort and 36 term AGA as control cohort. Detailed anthropometry assessment was performed at birth, 3, 6, and 9 months and at 9 months, fasting plasma glucose and serum insulin was done. Insulin resistance was determined by using homeostasis model assessment version 2. Results: It is found that preterm AGA (mean difference 0.617, 95% confidence interval [CI]; 0.43–0.80, P = 0.0001), preterm SGA (mean difference 0.764, 95% CI; 0.44–1.09, P = 0.0001), and term AGA (mean difference 0.725, 95% CI; 0.49–0.96, P = 0.0001) group had significantly higher insulin resistance than control. There was no significant difference in between preterm SGA and preterm AGA (mean difference 0.147 95% CI; −0.13–0.42, P = 0.927). In multiple regression models, SGA status (β =0.505) was more significant predictor of insulin resistance index than gestational age (β = −0.481), weight-for-length (β =0.315), and ponderal index (β = −0.194). Conclusion: Preterm birth is a risk factor for the future development of insulin resistance which may develop as early as infancy. PMID:27366716

  2. Course and prognosis of older back pain patients in general practice: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Scheele, Jantine; Enthoven, Wendy T M; Bierma-Zeinstra, Sita M A; Peul, Wilco C; van Tulder, Maurits W; Bohnen, Arthur M; Berger, Marjolein Y; Koes, Bart W; Luijsterburg, Pim A J

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the current study was to determine the course of back pain in older patients and identify prognostic factors for non-recovery at 3 months' follow-up. We conducted a prospective cohort study (the BACE study) of patients aged >55 years visiting a general practitioner (GP) with a new episode of back pain in the Netherlands. The course of back pain was described in terms of self-perceived recovery, pain severity, disability, pain medication, and GP visits at 6 weeks' and 3 months' follow-up. Prognostic factors for non-recovery at 3 months' follow-up were derived from the baseline questionnaire and physical examination. Variables with a prognostic value were identified with multivariable logistic regression analysis (method backward), and an area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) was calculated for the prognostic model. A total of 675 back pain patients (mean age 66.4 (SD 7.6) years) participated in the BACE cohort study. At 6 weeks' follow-up 64% of the patients reported non-recovery from back pain. At 3 months' follow-up 61% still reported non-recovery, but only 26% of these patients had revisited the GP. Longer duration of the back pain, severity of back pain, history of back pain, absence of radiating pain in the leg below the knee, number of comorbidities, patients' expectation of non-recovery, and a longer duration of the timed 'Up and Go' test were significantly associated with non-recovery in a multiple regression model (AUC 0.79). This information can help GPs identify older back pain patients at risk for non-recovery.

  3. Predictors of Acute, Rehabilitation and Total Length of Stay in Acute Stroke: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Ng, Yee Sien; Tan, Kristin Hx; Chen, Cynthia; Senolos, Gilmore C; Chew, Effie; Koh, Gerald Ch

    2016-09-01

    The poststroke acute and rehabilitation length of stay (LOS) are key markers of stroke care efficiency. This study aimed to describe the characteristics and identify the predictors of poststroke acute, rehabilitation and total LOS. This study also defined a subgroup of patients as "short" LOS and compared its complication rates and functional outcomes in rehabilitation with a "long" acute LOS group. A prospective cohort study (n = 1277) was conducted in a dedicated rehabilitation unit within a tertiary academic acute hospital over a 5-year period between 2004 and 2009. The functional independence measure (FIM) was the primary functional outcome measure in the rehabilitation phase. A group with an acute LOS of less than 7 days was defined as "short" acute LOS. Ischaemic strokes comprised 1019 (80%) of the cohort while the rest were haemorrhagic strokes. The mean acute and rehabilitation LOS were 9 ± 7 days and 18 ± 10 days, respectively. Haemorrhagic strokes and anterior circulation infarcts had significantly longer acute, rehabilitation and total LOS compared to posterior circulation and lacunar infarcts. The acute, rehabilitation and total LOS were significantly shorter for stroke admissions after 2007. There was poor correlation (r = 0.12) between the acute and rehabilitation LOS. In multivariate analyses, stroke type was strongly associated with acute LOS, while rehabilitation admission FIM scores were significantly associated with rehabilitation LOS. Patients in the short acute LOS group had fewer medical complications and similar FIM efficacies compared to the longer acute LOS group. Consideration for stroke type and initial functional status will facilitate programme planning that has a better estimation of the LOS duration, allowing for more equitable resource distribution across the inpatient stroke continuum. We advocate earlier transfers of appropriate patients to rehabilitation units as this ensures rehabilitation efficacy is maintained while the

  4. A prospective cohort study of stroke mortality and arsenic in drinking water in Bangladeshi adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Arsenic in drinking water causes increased coronary artery disease (CAD) and death from CAD, but its association with stroke is not known. Methods Prospective cohort study with arsenic exposure measured in well water at baseline. 61074 men and women aged 18 years or older on January 2003 were enrolled in 2003. The cohort was actively followed for an average of 7 years (421,754 person-years) through December 2010. Based on arsenic concentration the population was categorized in three groups and stroke mortality HR was compared to the referent. The risk of stroke mortality Hazard Ratio (HR) and 95% Confidence Interval was calculated in relation to arsenic exposure was estimated by Cox proportional hazard models with adjustment for potential confounders. Results A total of 1033 people died from stroke during the follow-up period, accounting for 23% of the total deaths. Multivariable adjusted HRs (95% confidence interval) for stroke for well water arsenic concentrations <10, 10-49, and ≥50 μg/L were 1.0 (reference), 1.20 (0.92 to 1.57), and 1.35 (1.04 to 1.75) respectively (Ptrend=0.00058). For men, multivariable adjusted HRs (95%) for well water arsenic concentrations <10, 10-49, and ≥50 μg/L were 1.0 (reference), 1.12 (0.78 to 1.60), and 1.07 (0.75 to 1.51) respectively (Ptrend=0.45) and for women 1.0 (reference),1.31 (0.87 to 1.98), and 1.72 (1.15 to 2.57) respectively (Ptrend=0.00004). Conclusion The result suggests that arsenic exposure was associated with increased stroke mortality risk in this population, and was more significant in women compared to men. PMID:24548416

  5. The impact of a healthy lifestyle on Disability-Adjusted Life Years: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    May, Anne M; Struijk, Ellen A; Fransen, Heidi P; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; de Wit, G Ardine; Boer, Jolanda M A; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Hoekstra, Jeljer; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M; Beulens, Joline W J

    2015-02-27

    The association between single health behaviours and incidence of and premature mortality from major chronic diseases, including myocardial infarction, stroke, diabetes mellitus, and cancer, has been demonstrated thoroughly. However, the association of several healthy behaviours with Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs), which is a measure for total health combining Years Lost due to Disability and the Years of Life Lost due to premature mortality, has not been studied yet. A prospective cohort study was conducted among 33,066 healthy men and women aged 20 to 70 years recruited into the EPIC-NL study during 1993 to 1997. Participants' smoking status, BMI, physical activity, and adherence to a Mediterranean-style diet (excluding alcohol) were investigated separately and combined into a simple health behaviour score ranging from 0 to 4. Participants were followed until the end of 2007 for occurrence of and mortality from the most important chronic diseases. The association between lifestyle (separate lifestyle factors and a simple health behaviour score) and DALYs were adjusted for relevant confounders. After a median follow-up of 12.4 years, 6,647 disease incidences and 1,482 deaths were documented. Non-smoking, low BMI (BMI <25), being physically active, and adherence to a Mediterranean diet were all associated with a significantly lower disease burden. Persons adhering to all four healthy lifestyle characteristics lived a minimum of 2 years longer in good health (DALYs: -2.13; 95% CI: -2.65 to -1.62) than persons with none. Due to our non-extinct cohort, the total number of DALYs, and consequently the estimates, is underestimated. Therefore, true lifetime health benefits of a healthy lifestyle will be even larger. Non-smoking, a low BMI, being physically active, and adherence to a Mediterranean diet were associated with a lower disease burden. Each additional healthy lifestyle factor contributed to a longer life in good health.

  6. Anthroposophic therapy for migraine: a two-year prospective cohort study in routine outpatient settings.

    PubMed

    Hamre, Harald J; Witt, Claudia M; Kienle, Gunver S; Glockmann, Anja; Ziegler, Renatus; Rivoir, Andreas; Willich, Stefan N; Kiene, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    Anthroposophic treatment for migraine is provided by physicians and includes special artistic and physical therapies and special medications. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 45 consecutive adult outpatients (89% women) starting anthroposophic treatment for migraine under routine conditions. Main outcomes were Average Migraine Severity (physician and patient ratings 0-10, primary outcome), Symptom Score (patient rating, 0-10), and quality of life (SF-36); main follow-up time point was after six months. The anthroposophic treatment modalities used were medications (67% of patients), eurythmy therapy (38%), art therapy (18%), and rhythmical massage therapy (13%). Median therapy duration was 105 days. In months 0-6, conventional prophylactic antimigraine medications were used by 14% (n=5/36) of evaluable patients. From baseline to six-month follow-up, physician-rated Average Migraine Severity improved by 3.14 points (95% confidence interval 2.40-3.87, p<0.001); patient-rated Average Migraine Severity improved by 2.82 points (2.05-3.64, p<0.001); and Symptom Score improved by 2.32 points (1.68-2.95, p<0.001). In addition, three SF-36 scales (Social Functioning, Bodily Pain, Vitality), the SF-36 Physical Component summary measure, and the SF-36 Health Change item improved significantly. All improvements were maintained at last follow-up after 24 months. Patients not using conventional prophylactic antimigraine medications had improvements similar to the whole cohort. Patients with migraine under anthroposophic treatment had long-term improvement of symptoms and quality of life. Although the pre-post design of the present study does not allow for conclusions about comparative effectiveness, study findings suggest that anthroposophic therapies may be useful in the long-term care of patients with migraine.

  7. Motor vehicle driver injury and marital status: a cohort study with prospective and retrospective driver injuries

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, G; Norton, R; Clark, T; Jackson, R; MacMahon, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association of marital status with risk of motor vehicle driver injury. Design: A cohort study with prospective and retrospective outcomes. Setting: New Zealand. Participants: A total of 10 525 adults (a volunteer sample of a multi-industry workforce, n = 8008; and a random sample of urban electoral rolls, n = 2517). Exposure variable: Self reported marital status, assessed from a questionnaire administered in 1992–93 (baseline). Main outcome measure: Motor vehicle driver injury resulting in admission of the driver to hospital and/or the driver's death, during the period 1988–98; hospitalisation and mortality data were obtained by record linkage to national health databases. Results: During 108 741 person-years of follow up, 139 driver injury cases occurred (85 before baseline, 54 after). After adjustment for age, sex, and study cohort, never married participants had twice the risk of driver injury (hazard ratio [HR] 2.06, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.35 to 3.16) as married participants (HR 1.00). The relative risk for never married participants was slightly higher (HR 2.29), though less precise (95% CI 1.39 to 3.76), after further adjustment for alcohol intake, driving exposure, area of residence, body mass index, and occupational status. Conclusions: After taking age, sex, and other variables into account, never married people had a substantially higher risk of driver injury than married people. While requiring corroboration, these findings imply that it may be appropriate for driver injury countermeasures to be targeted to never married people. PMID:14760024

  8. Racial/ethnic variations in perineal length and association with perineal lacerations: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Yeaton-Massey, Amanda; Wong, Luchin; Sparks, Teresa N; Handler, Stephanie J; Meyer, Michelle R; Granados, Jesus M; Stasenko, Marina; Sit, Anita; Caughey, Aaron B

    2015-02-01

    To examine the association between race/ethnicity, perineal length and the risk of perineal laceration. This is a prospective cohort study of a diverse group of women with singleton gestations in the third trimester of pregnancy. Perineal length was measured and mean values calculated for several racial/ethnic groups. Chi-squared analyses were used to examine rates of severe perineal laceration (third or fourth degree laceration) by race/ethnicity among women considered to have a short perineal length. Further, subgroup analyses were performed comparing nulliparas to multiparas. Among 344 study participants, there was no statistically significant difference in mean perineal length by race/ethnicity (White 4.0 ± 1.1 cm, African-American 3.7 ± 1.0 cm, Latina 4.1 ± 1.1 cm, Asian 3.8 ± 1.0 cm, and other/unknown 4.0 ± 0.9 cm). Considering parity, more multiparous Asian and African-American women had a short perineal length (20.7 and 23.5%, respectively, p = 0.05). Finally, the rate of severe perineal lacerations in our cohort was 2.6% overall, but was 8.2% among Asian women (p = 0.04). We did not find a relationship between short perineal length and risk of severe perineal laceration with vaginal delivery, or a difference in mean perineal length by maternal race/ethnicity. However, we did find that women of different racial/ethnic groups have varying rates of severe perineal laceration, with Asian women comprising the highest proportion.

  9. Flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease mortality in a prospective cohort of US adults1234

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Julia J; Patel, Roshni; Jacques, Paul F; Shah, Roma; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2012-01-01

    Background: Flavonoids are plant-based phytochemicals with cardiovascular protective properties. Few studies have comprehensively examined flavonoid classes in relation to cardiovascular disease mortality. Objective: We examined the association between flavonoid intake and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality among participants in a large, prospective US cohort. Design: In 1999, a total of 38,180 men and 60,289 women in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort with a mean age of 70 and 69 y, respectively, completed questionnaires on medical history and lifestyle behaviors, including a 152-item food-frequency questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to calculate multivariate-adjusted hazard RRs and 95% CIs for associations between total flavonoids, 7 flavonoid classes, and CVD mortality. Results: During 7 y of follow-up, 1589 CVD deaths in men and 1182 CVD deaths in women occurred. Men and women with total flavonoid intakes in the top (compared with the bottom) quintile had a lower risk of fatal CVD (RR: 0.82; 95% CI: 0.73, 0.92; P-trend = 0.01). Five flavonoid classes—anthocyanidins, flavan-3-ols, flavones, flavonols, and proanthocyanidins—were individually associated with lower risk of fatal CVD (all P-trend < 0.05). In men, total flavonoid intakes were more strongly associated with stroke mortality (RR: 0.63; 95% CI: 0.44, 0.89; P-trend = 0.04) than with ischemic heart disease (RR: 0.90; 95% CI: 0.72, 1.13). Many associations appeared to be nonlinear, with lower risk at intakes above the referent category. Conclusions: Flavonoid consumption was associated with lower risk of death from CVD. Most inverse associations appeared with intermediate intakes, suggesting that even relatively small amounts of flavonoid-rich foods may be beneficial. PMID:22218162

  10. Validity of self reported diagnoses of cancer in a major Spanish prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, C; Chirlaque, M D; Tormo, M J; Pérez‐Flores, D; Rodríguez‐Barranco, M; Sánchez‐Villegas, A; Agudo, A; Pera, G; Amiano, P; Dorronsoro, M; Larrañaga, N; Quirós, J R; Ardanaz, E; Barricarte, A; Martínez, C; Sánchez, M J; Berenguer, A; González, C A

    2006-01-01

    Introduction This study aims to assess the validity of self reported diagnoses of cancer by persons recruited for the Spanish EPIC (European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition) cohort study and to identify variables associated with correctly reporting a diagnosis of cancer. Methods 41 440 members of EPIC were asked at the time of recruitment whether they had been diagnosed with cancer and the year of diagnosis and site. The process of validating self reported diagnoses of cancer included comparison of the cohort database with the data from the population based cancer registries. Cancer diagnostic validity tests were calculated. The association between a correct report and certain sociodemographic, tumour related, or health related variables were analysed by logistic regression. Results The overall sensitivity of self reported diagnoses of cancer is low (57.5%; 95% CI: 51.9 to 63.0), the highest values being shown by persons with a higher level of education or with a family history of cancer and the lowest values by smokers. Breast and thyroid cancers are those with the highest diagnostic validity and uterus, bladder, and colon‐rectum those with the lowest. In both sexes the variables showing a significant association with a correct report of cancer are: higher education level, number of previous pathologies, invasive tumour, and, in women, a history of gynaecological surgery. Conclusions The overall sensitivity of self reported diagnoses of cancer is comparatively low and it is not recommended in epidemiological studies for identifying tumours. However, self reported diagnoses might be highly valid for certain tumour sites, malignant behaviour, and average to high levels of education. PMID:16790831

  11. Mode of childbirth and neonatal outcome after external cephalic version: A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Rosman, A N; Vlemmix, F; Ensing, S; Opmeer, B C; Te Hoven, S; Velzel, J; de Hundt, M; van den Berg, S; Rota, H; van der Post, J A M; Mol, B W J; Kok, M

    2016-08-01

    to assess the mode of childbirth and adverse neonatal outcomes in women with a breech presentation with or without an external cephalic version attempt, and to compare the mode of childbirth among women with successful ECV to women with a spontaneous cephalic presentation. prospective matched cohort study. 25 clusters (hospitals and its referring midwifery practices) in the Netherlands. Data of the Netherlands perinatal registry for the matched cohort. singleton pregnancies from January 2011 to August 2012 with a fetus in breech presentation and a childbirth from 36 weeks gestation onwards. Spontaneous cephalic presentations (selected from national registry 2009 and 2010) were matched in a 2:1 ratio to cephalic presentations after a successful version attempt. Matching criteria were maternal age, parity, gestational age at childbirth and fetal gender. Main outcomes were mode of childbirth and neonatal outcomes. of 1613 women eligible for external cephalic version, 1169 (72.5%) received an ECV attempt. The overall caesarean childbirth rate was significantly lower compared to women who did not receive a version attempt (57% versus 87%; RR 0.66 (0.62-0.70)). Women with a cephalic presentation after ECV compared to women with a spontaneous cephalic presentation had a decreased risk for instrumental vaginal childbirth (RR 0.52 (95% CI 0.29-0.94)) and an increased risk of overall caesarean childbirth (RR 1.7 (95%CI 1.2-2.5)). women who had a successful ECV are at increased risk for a caesarean childbirth but overall, ECV is an important tool to reduce the caesarean rate. ECV is an important tool to reduce the caesarean section rates. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Nosocomial Rotavirus Gastroenteritis in pediatric patients: a multi-center prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Few data are available on the incidence of nosocomial Rotavirus infections (NRVI) in pediatric hospitals and on their economic impact. The goals of this study were: to evaluate the incidence of NRVI in various Italian pediatric wards during the course of two peak RV seasons; to investigate possible risk factors for NRVI; to estimate the costs caused by NRVI. Methods prospective cohort study. Population: all the children under 30 months of age who were admitted without any symptom or diagnosis of gastroenteritis in the pediatric hospitals of Florence, Naples, Brescia and Ancona, Italy, during the winter-spring periods 2006-2007 and 2007-2008. Serial RV rapid tests and clinical monitoring were carried out on the cohort. Telephone interviews were performed from 3 to 5 days after discharge. Results 520 out of 608 children completed the study (85.6%). The overall incidence of NRVI was 5.3% (CI95% 3.6-7.5), (7.9 per 1,000 days of hospital stay, CI 95% 5.3-11.3). The average duration of hospital stay was significantly longer for children who had NRVI (8.1 days, SD 5.4) than for non-infected children (6.4 days, SD 5.8, difference 1.7 days, p = 0.004). The risk of contracting NRVI increased significantly if the child stayed in hospital more than 5 days, RR = 2.8 (CI95% 1.3-6), p = 0.006. In Italy the costs caused by NRVI can be estimated at 8,019,155.44 Euro per year. 2.7% of the children hospitalized with no gastroenteritis symptoms tested positive for RV. Conclusions Our study showed a relevant incidence of NRVI, which can increase the length of the children's stay in hospital. Limiting the number of nosocomial RV infections is important to improve patients' safety as well as to avoid additional health costs. PMID:20696065

  13. The Role of Alcohol Consumption in Regulating Circulating Levels of Adiponectin: A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Annie

    2015-01-01

    Context: The role of alcohol intake in influencing longitudinal trajectories of adiponectin is unclear. Objective: The objective of the study was to examine the association between alcohol intake and changes in the circulating levels of adiponectin over repeat measures. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective cohort study of 2855 men and women (74% men with a mean age of 50 y at baseline) drawn from the Whitehall II study. Data from study phases 3 (1991–1993), 5 (1997–1999), and 7 (2002–2004) were used. Main Outcome Measure: Adiponectin serum concentrations (nanograms per milliliter) were measured, and alcohol intake was defined in terms of number of UK units (1 U = 8 g ethanol) consumed in the previous 7 days on three occasions. Cross-sectional associations between alcohol and adiponectin levels were calculated using linear regression. A bivariate dual-change score model was used to estimate the effect of alcohol intake on upcoming change in adiponectin. Models were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity, and smoking status. Results: Alcohol consumption was cross-sectionally associated with (log transformed) adiponectin levels (β ranging from .001 to .004, depending on phase and level of adjustment) but was not associated with changes in adiponectin levels over time [γ = −0.002 (SE 0.002), P = 0.246]. Conclusion: Alcohol intake is not associated with changes in circulating adiponectin levels in this cohort. This finding provides evidence that adiponectin levels are unlikely to mediate the relationship between moderate alcohol consumption and reduced risk of type 2 diabetes. It is important to consider dynamic longitudinal relationships rather than cross-sectional associations. PMID:26000546

  14. Ethanol, Neurodevelopment, Infant and Child Health (ENRICH) prospective cohort: Study design considerations

    PubMed Central

    Bakhireva, Ludmila N.; Lowe, Jean R.; Gutierrez, Hilda L.; Stephen, Julia M.

    2015-01-01

    Background While intervention is the leading factor in reducing long-term disabilities in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), early identification of children affected by prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) remains challenging. Deficits in higher-order cognitive domains (e.g. executive function) might be more specific to FASD than global neurodevelopmental tests, yet these functions are not developed in very young children. Measures of early sensorimotor development may provide early indications of atypical brain development during the first two years of life. Methods This paper describes the novel methodology of the Ethanol, Neurodevelopment, Infant and Child Health (ENRICH) prospective cohort study of 120 maternal-infant pairs with a goal to identify early indices of functional brain impairment associated with PAE. The cohort is established by recruiting women early in pregnancy and classifying them into one of three study groups: patients on opioid-maintenance therapy who consume alcohol during pregnancy (Group 1), patients on opioid-maintenance therapy who abstain from alcohol during pregnancy (Group 2), and healthy controls (Group 3). After the initial prenatal assessment (Visit 1), patients are followed to Visit 2 occurring at delivery, and two comprehensive assessments of children at six (Visit 3) and 20 months (Visit 4) of age. ENRICH recruitment started in November 2013 and 87 women were recruited during the first year. During Year 1, the biospecimen (maternal whole blood, serum, urine, dry blood spots of a newborn) collection rate was 100% at Visit 1, and 97.6% for those who completed Visit 2. Discussion The tiered screening approach, evaluation of confounders, neurocognitive and magneto-/electro-encephalography (MEG/EEG) outcomes, and ethical considerations are discussed. PMID:26491726

  15. Fetal growth in early pregnancy and risk of delivering low birth weight infant: prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gordon C S; Malone, Fergal D; Ball, Robert H; Nyberg, David A; Comstock, Christine H; Hankins, Gary D V; Berkowitz, Richard L; Gross, Susan J; Dugoff, Lorraine; Craigo, Sabrina D; Timor-Tritsch, Ilan E; Carr, Stephen R; Wolfe, Honor M; D'Alton, Mary E

    2007-01-01

    Objective To determine if first trimester fetal growth is associated with birth weight, duration of pregnancy, and the risk of delivering a small for gestational age infant. Design Prospective cohort study of 38 033 pregnancies between 1999 and 2003. Setting 15 centres representing major regions of the United States. Participants 976 women from the original cohort who conceived as the result of assisted reproductive technology, had a first trimester ultrasound measurement of fetal crown-rump length, and delivered live singleton infants without evidence of chromosomal or congenital abnormalities. First trimester growth was expressed as the difference between the observed and expected size of the fetus, expressed as equivalence to days of gestational age. Main outcome measures Birth weight, duration of pregnancy, and risk of delivering a small for gestational age infant. Results For each one day increase in the observed size of the fetus, birth weight increased by 28.2 (95% confidence interval 14.6 to 41.2) g. The association was substantially attenuated by adjustment for duration of pregnancy (adjusted coefficient 17.1 (6.6 to 27.5) g). Further adjustments for maternal characteristics and complications of pregnancy did not have a significant effect. The risk of delivering a small for gestational age infant decreased with increasing size in the first trimester (odds ratio for a one day increase 0.87, 0.81 to 0.94). The association was not materially affected by adjustment for maternal characteristics or complications of pregnancy. Conclusion Variation in birth weight may be determined, at least in part, by fetal growth in the first 12 weeks after conception through effects on timing of delivery and fetal growth velocity. PMID:17355993

  16. Anthroposophic Therapy for Migraine: A Two-Year Prospective Cohort Study in Routine Outpatient Settings

    PubMed Central

    Hamre, Harald J; Witt, Claudia M; Kienle, Gunver S; Glockmann, Anja; Ziegler, Renatus; Rivoir, Andreas; Willich, Stefan N; Kiene, Helmut

    2010-01-01

    Background and Methods: Anthroposophic treatment for migraine is provided by physicians and includes special artistic and physical therapies and special medications. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 45 consecutive adult outpatients (89% women) starting anthroposophic treatment for migraine under routine conditions. Main outcomes were Average Migraine Severity (physician and patient ratings 0-10, primary outcome), Symptom Score (patient rating, 0-10), and quality of life (SF-36); main follow-up time point was after six months. Results: The anthroposophic treatment modalities used were medications (67% of patients), eurythmy therapy (38%), art therapy (18%), and rhythmical massage therapy (13%). Median therapy duration was 105 days. In months 0-6, conventional prophylactic antimigraine medications were used by 14% (n=5/36) of evaluable patients. From baseline to six-month follow-up, physician-rated Average Migraine Severity improved by 3.14 points (95% confidence interval 2.40-3.87, p<0.001); patient-rated Average Migraine Severity improved by 2.82 points (2.05-3.64, p<0.001); and Symptom Score improved by 2.32 points (1.68-2.95, p<0.001). In addition, three SF-36 scales (Social Functioning, Bodily Pain, Vitality), the SF-36 Physical Component summary measure, and the SF-36 Health Change item improved significantly. All improvements were maintained at last follow-up after 24 months. Patients not using conventional prophylactic antimigraine medications had improvements similar to the whole cohort. Conclusions: Patients with migraine under anthroposophic treatment had long-term improvement of symptoms and quality of life. Although the pre-post design of the present study does not allow for conclusions about comparative effectiveness, study findings suggest that anthroposophic therapies may be useful in the long-term care of patients with migraine. PMID:21673981

  17. Glycaemic index, glycaemic load and ovarian cancer risk: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Silvera, Stephanie A N; Jain, Meera; Howe, Geoffrey R; Miller, Anthony B; Rohan, Thomas E

    2007-10-01

    There is some evidence that plasma insulin levels might influence ovarian cancer risk. Glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) are measures that allow the carbohydrate content of individual foods to be classified according to their postprandial glycaemic effects and hence their effects on circulating insulin levels. Therefore, we examined ovarian cancer risk in association with GI and GL, and intake of dietary carbohydrate and sugar. The study was conducted in a prospective cohort of 49 613 Canadian women enrolled in the National Breast Screening Study (NBSS) who completed a self-administered food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) between 1980 and 1985. Linkages to national mortality and cancer databases yielded data on deaths and cancer incidence, with follow-up ending between 1998 and 2000. Data from the FFQ were used to estimate overall GI and GL, and Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between energy-adjusted quartile levels of GL, overall GI, total carbohydrates, total sugar and ovarian cancer risk. During a mean 16.4 years of follow-up, we observed 264 incident ovarian cancer cases. GI and total carbohydrate and sugar intakes were not associated with ovarian cancer risk in the total cohort. GL was positively associated with a 72% increase in risk of ovarian cancer (HR=1.72, 95% CI=1.13-2.62, Ptrend=0.01) and the magnitude of the association was slightly greater among postmenopausal (HR=1.89, 95% CI=0.98-3.65, Ptrend=0.03) than among premenopausal women (HR=1.64, 95% CI=0.95-2.88, Ptrend=0.07). Our data suggest that consumption of diets with high GL values may be associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer.

  18. Maternal micronutrient consumption periconceptionally and during pregnancy: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Livock, Michelle; Anderson, Peter J; Lewis, Sharon; Bowden, Stephen; Muggli, Evelyne; Halliday, Jane

    2017-02-01

    To examine overall micronutrient intake periconceptionally and throughout pregnancy in a population-based cohort of Australian women. In a prospective cohort study, micronutrient dosages were extracted from self-reported maternal supplement use, recorded pre-conception, and for each trimester of pregnancy. A food frequency scale (DQESv2) captured usual maternal diet for gestational weeks 14-26. The influence of sociodemographic and lifestyle factors associated with supplement use was examined using logistic regression, and changes in micronutrient intakes prior to and throughout pregnancy were assessed using repeated-measures ANOVA analyses. Metropolitan hospital sites in Melbourne, Australia. Women with a viable singleton pregnancy were recruited at less than 19 weeks' gestation (n 2146). Compared with non-users, women using supplements during pregnancy were more likely to have planned their pregnancy, be >25 years old, primiparous, Caucasian, non-smokers, have a tertiary education and be consuming a folate-rich diet. Intakes of folate, Fe and Zn were significantly lower in the periconceptional period, compared with other periods (P<0·001). Intakes below Recommended Daily Intake levels were common both periconceptionally and throughout pregnancy, with 19-46 % of women not meeting the Recommended Daily Intake for folate, 68-82 % for Fe and 17-36 % for Zn. Conversely, 15-19 % of women consumed beyond the recommended Upper Limit for folate and 11-24 % for Fe. The study highlights the need for improved public health education on nutritional needs during pregnancy, especially among women with lower educational achievements and income.

  19. Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy and risk of acute pancreatitis: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Oskarsson, Viktor; Orsini, Nicola; Sadr-Azodi, Omid; Wolk, Alicja

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several case reports have suggested that women’s use of exogenous sex hormones is associated with acute pancreatitis; however, relevant epidemiologic data are sparse. We examined the association between postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy and risk of acute pancreatitis. Methods: We conducted a prospective study involving 31 494 postmenopausal women (aged 48–83 yr) from the population-based Swedish Mammography Cohort. Participants completed a baseline questionnaire in 1997 assessing their use of hormone replacement therapy. We linked the cohort to the hospital-based Swedish National Patient Register to determine hospital admissions for acute pancreatitis through 2010. Relative risks (RRs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models. Results: Over a total follow-up of 389 456 person-years, we identified 237 cases of incident acute pancreatitis. The age-standardized incidence rates per 100 000 person-years were 71 cases among women who had ever used hormone replacement therapy and 52 cases among women who had never used such hormones. Among ever users of hormone replacement therapy, the multivariable-adjusted RR of acute pancreatitis was 1.57 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20–2.05) compared with never users. The risk did not differ by current or past use, but it seemed to be higher among women who used systemic therapy (RR 1.92, 95% CI 1.38–2.66) and among those with duration of therapy of more than 10 years (RR 1.87, 95% CI 1.11–3.17). Interpretation: Use of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy was associated with increased risk of acute pancreatitis. Physicians should consider this potential increase in risk when prescribing such therapy. PMID:24468693

  20. Feeding frequency in infancy and dental caries in childhood: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Rodrigues, Priscila Humbert; de Anastácio, Gislaine; Vítolo, Márcia Regina; Chaffee, Benjamin W

    2017-09-03

    Feeding patterns in infancy are plausible contributors to dental caries later in childhood, yet relatively few cohort studies have examined potential dietary risk factors at this age. This study aimed to investigate the associations between feeding frequency at age 12 months and caries prevalence at age 3 years. In this prospective birth cohort of 345 Brazilian children, all foods and drinks consumed at age 12 months, including bottle-use and breastfeeding, were recorded using two 24-hour infant dietary recalls with mothers. The prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) and severe ECC (S-ECC) at age 38 months were compared in groups defined according to 12-month feeding frequency, using regression models to adjust for sociodemographic characteristics and total carbohydrate intake. Independent of other variables, compared with children with infrequent bottle-use and breastfeeding at 12 months, at 38 months the ECC prevalence was 1.8-times higher in children breastfed more than three times/day (P = 0.001), 1.4-times higher in children bottle-fed more than three times/day (P = 0.07) and 1.5-times higher with combined high frequency of bottle and breastfeeding together (P = 0.04), but the association with consumption of other foods or drinks more than five times/day [risk ratio (RR) = 1.2; P = 0.10] was not statistically significant. Prevalence of S-ECC was significantly associated with frequent breastfeeding (RR = 2.4; P < 0.001) and with greater frequency of consumption of other foods or drinks (RR = 1.7, P = 0.001). High-frequency feeding in late infancy, including both bottle use and breastfeeding, were positively associated with dental caries in early childhood, suggesting possible early-life targets for caries prevention. © 2017 FDI World Dental Federation.

  1. Opium use and risk of mortality from digestive diseases: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Malekzadeh, Masoud M; Khademi, Hooman; Pourshams, Akram; Etemadi, Arash; Poustchi, Hossein; Bagheri, Mohammad; Khoshnia, Masoud; Sohrabpour, Amir Ali; Aliasgari, Ali; Jafari, Elham; Islami, Farhad; Semnani, Shahryar; Abnet, Christian C; Pharoah, Paul D P; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Dawsey, Sanford M; Malekzadeh, Reza; Kamangar, Farin

    2013-11-01

    Opium use, particularly in low doses, is a common practice among adults in northeastern Iran. We aimed to investigate the association between opium use and subsequent mortality from disorders of the digestive tract. We used data from the Golestan Cohort Study, a prospective cohort study in northeastern Iran, with detailed, validated data on opium use and several other exposures. A total of 50,045 adults were enrolled during a 4-year period (2004-2008) and followed annually until December 2012, with a follow-up success rate of 99%. We used Cox proportional hazard regression models to evaluate the association between opium use and outcomes of interest. In all, 8,487 (17%) participants reported opium use, with a mean duration of 12.7 years. During the follow-up period 474 deaths from digestive diseases were reported (387 due to gastrointestinal cancers and 87 due to nonmalignant etiologies). Opium use was associated with an increased risk of death from any digestive disease (adjusted hazard ratio (HR)=1.55, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.24-1.93). The association was dose dependent, with a HR of 2.21 (1.57-3.31) for the highest quintile of cumulative opium use vs. no use (Ptrend=0.037). The HRs (95% CI) for the associations between opium use and malignant and nonmalignant causes of digestive mortality were 1.38 (1.07-1.76) and 2.60 (1.57-4.31), respectively. Increased risks were seen both for smoking opium and for ingestion of opium. Long-term opium use, even in low doses, is associated with increased risk of death from both malignant and nonmalignant digestive diseases.

  2. The quantified self during travel: mapping health in a prospective cohort of travellers.

    PubMed

    Farnham, Andrea; Furrer, Reinhard; Blanke, Ulf; Stone, Emily; Hatz, Christoph; Puhan, Milo A

    2017-09-01

    Travel medicine research has remained relatively unchanged in the face of rapid expansion of international travel and is unlikely to meet health challenges beyond infectious diseases. Our aim was to identify the range of health outcomes during travel using real-time monitoring and daily reporting of health behaviours and outcomes and identify traveller subgroups who may benefit from more targeted advice before and during travel. We recruited a prospective cohort of travellers ≥ 18 years and planning travel to Thailand for <5 weeks from the travel clinics in Zurich and Basel (Switzerland). Participants answered demographic, clinical and risk behaviour questionnaires pre-travel and a daily health questionnaire each day during travel using a smartphone application. Environmental and location data were collected passively by GPS. Classification trees were used to identify predictors of health behaviour and outcomes during travel. Non-infectious disease events were relatively common, with 22.7% (17 out of 75 travellers) experiencing an accident, 40.0% ( n  = 30) a wound or cut and 14.7% ( n  = 11) a bite or lick from an animal. Mental health associated events were widely reported, with 80.0% ( n  = 60) reporting lethargy, 34.7% ( n  = 26) anxiety and 34.7% ( n  = 26) feeling tense or irritable. Classification trees identified age, trip length, previous travel experience and having experienced a sports injury in the past year as the most important discriminatory variables for health threats. Our study offers a revolutionary look at an almost real-time timeline of health events and behaviours during travel using mHealth technology. Non-infectious disease related health issues were common in this cohort, despite being largely unaddressed in traditional travel medicine research and suggest a substantial potential for improving evidence-based travel medicine advice.

  3. Prospective cohort analyzing risk factors for chronic kidney disease progression in children.

    PubMed

    Belangero, Vera M S; Prates, Liliane C; Watanabe, Andreia; Schvartsman, Benita S G; Nussenzveig, Paula; Cruz, Natalia A; Abreu, Ana L S; Paz, Isabel P; Facincani, Inalda; Morgantetti, Fernanda E C; Silva, Andreia O; Andrade, Olberes V B; Camargo, Maria F C; Nogueira, Paulo C Koch

    2017-10-02

    To identify risk factors for chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression in Brazilian children and to evaluate the interactions between factors. This was a multicenter prospective cohort in São Paulo, involving 209 children with CKD stages 3-4. The study outcome included: (a) death, (b) start of kidney replacement therapy, (c) eGFR decrease >50% during the followup. Thirteen risk factors were tested using univariate regression models, followed by multivariable Cox regression models. The terms of interaction between the variables showing significant association with the outcome were then introduced to the model. After a median follow-up of 2.5 years (IQR=1.4-3.0), the outcome occurred in 44 cases (21%): 22 started dialysis, 12 had >50% eGFR decrease, seven underwent transplantation, and three died. Advanced CKD stage at onset (HR=2.16, CI=1.14-4.09), nephrotic proteinuria (HR=2.89, CI=1.49-5.62), age (HR=1.10, CI=1.01-1.17), systolic blood pressure Z score (HR=1.36, CI=1.08-1.70), and anemia (HR=2.60, CI=1.41-4.77) were associated with the outcome. An interaction between anemia and nephrotic proteinuria at V1 (HR=0.25, CI=0.06-1.00) was detected. As the first CKD cohort in the southern hemisphere, this study supports the main factors reported in developed countries with regards to CKD progression, affirming the potential role of treatments to slow CKD evolution. The detected interaction suggests that anemia may be more deleterious for CKD progression in patients without proteinuria and should be further studied. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. Airborne exposures and risk of gastric cancer: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Sjödahl, Krister; Jansson, Catarina; Bergdahl, Ingvar A; Adami, Johanna; Boffetta, Paolo; Lagergren, Jesper

    2007-05-01

    There is an unexplained male predominance among patients with gastric cancer, and many carcinogens are found in male-dominated dusty occupations. However, the relation between occupational exposures and risk of gastric cancer remains unclear. To investigate whether airborne occupational exposures might influence the risk of noncardia gastric cancer, we used a large, prospective cohort study of male Swedish construction workers. These workers were, during the period 1971-1993, regularly invited to health examinations by a nationwide occupational health service organization. Data on job titles and other variables were collected through self-administered questionnaires and forms completed by the health organization's staff. Industrial hygienists assessed 12 specific airborne occupational exposures for 200 job titles. Gastric cancer, death or emigration occurring during follow-up in 1971-2002 were identified by linkage to the Swedish registers of Cancer, Causes of Death and Total Population, respectively. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), adjusted for attained age, tobacco smoking, calendar period and body mass, were derived from Cox regression. Among 256,357 cohort members, contributing 5,378,012 person-years at risk, 948 noncardia gastric cancers were identified. Increased risk of this tumor was found among workers exposed to cement dust (IRR 1.5 [95% CI 1.1-2.1]), quartz dust (IRR 1.3 [95% CI 1.0-1.7]) and diesel exhaust (IRR 1.4 [95% CI 1.1-1.9]). Dose-response relations were observed for these exposures. No consistent positive associations were found regarding exposure to asbestos, asphalt fumes, concrete dust, epoxy resins, isocyanates, metal fumes, mineral fibers, organic solvents or wood dust. In conclusion, this study provides some support to the hypothesis that specific airborne exposures increase the risk of noncardia gastric cancer.

  5. Distressing Symptoms, Disability, and Hospice Services at the End of Life: Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Gill, Thomas M; Han, Ling; Leo-Summers, Linda; Gahbauer, Evelyne A; Allore, Heather G

    2017-09-12

    To evaluate the relationship between the presence and number of restricting symptoms and number of disabilities and subsequent admission to hospice at the end of life. Prospective cohort study. Greater New Haven, Connecticut, from March 1998 to December 2014. Decedents from a cohort of 754 persons aged 70 and older (N = 562). Hospice admissions were identified primarily from Medicare claims, and 15 restricting symptoms and disability in 13 activities were assessed during monthly interviews. During their last year of life, 244 (43.4%) participants were admitted to hospice. The median duration of hospice was 12.5 days (interquartile range 4-43 days). Although the largest increases were observed in the last 2 months of life, the prevalence of restricting symptoms and mean number of restricting symptoms and disabilities in the preceding months were high and trending upward. During a specific month, the likelihood of hospice admission increased by 66% (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 1.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.30-2.12) in the setting of any restricting symptoms, by 9% (aHR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.05-1.12) for each additional restricting symptom, and by 10% (aHR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.05-1.14) for each additional disability. Each additional month with any restricting symptoms increased the likelihood of hospice admission by 7% (aHR = 1.07, 95% CI = 1.01-1.13). Hospice services appear to be suitably targeted to older persons with the greatest needs at the end of life, although the short duration of hospice suggests that additional strategies are needed to better address the high burden of distressing symptoms and disability at the end of life. © 2017, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2017, The American Geriatrics Society.

  6. A prospective cohort study of stroke mortality and arsenic in drinking water in Bangladeshi adults.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mahfuzar; Sohel, Nazmul; Yunus, Mohammad; Chowdhury, Mahbub Elahi; Hore, Samar Kumar; Zaman, Khalequ; Bhuiya, Abbas; Streatfield, Peter Kim

    2014-02-18

    Arsenic in drinking water causes increased coronary artery disease (CAD) and death from CAD, but its association with stroke is not known. Prospective cohort study with arsenic exposure measured in well water at baseline. 61074 men and women aged 18 years or older on January 2003 were enrolled in 2003. The cohort was actively followed for an average of 7 years (421,754 person-years) through December 2010. Based on arsenic concentration the population was categorized in three groups and stroke mortality HR was compared to the referent. The risk of stroke mortality Hazard Ratio (HR) and 95% Confidence Interval was calculated in relation to arsenic exposure was estimated by Cox proportional hazard models with adjustment for potential confounders. A total of 1033 people died from stroke during the follow-up period, accounting for 23% of the total deaths. Multivariable adjusted HRs (95% confidence interval) for stroke for well water arsenic concentrations <10, 10-49, and ≥50 μg/L were 1.0 (reference), 1.20 (0.92 to 1.57), and 1.35 (1.04 to 1.75) respectively (Ptrend=0.00058). For men, multivariable adjusted HRs (95%) for well water arsenic concentrations <10, 10-49, and ≥50 μg/L were 1.0 (reference), 1.12 (0.78 to 1.60), and 1.07 (0.75 to 1.51) respectively (Ptrend=0.45) and for women 1.0 (reference),1.31 (0.87 to 1.98), and 1.72 (1.15 to 2.57) respectively (Ptrend=0.00004). The result suggests that arsenic exposure was associated with increased stroke mortality risk in this population, and was more significant in women compared to men.

  7. Health costs in anthroposophic therapy users: a two-year prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hamre, Harald J; Witt, Claudia M; Glockmann, Anja; Ziegler, Renatus; Willich, Stefan N; Kiene, Helmut

    2006-01-01

    Background Anthroposophic therapies (counselling, special medication, art, eurythmy movement, and rhythmical massage) aim to stimulate long-term self-healing processes, which theoretically could lead to a reduction of healthcare use. In a prospective two-year cohort study, anthroposophic therapies were followed by a reduction of chronic disease symptoms and improvement of quality of life. The purpose of this analysis was to describe health costs in users of anthroposophic therapies. Methods 717 consecutive outpatients from 134 medical practices in Germany, starting anthroposophic therapies for chronic diseases, participated in a prospective cohort study. We analysed direct health costs (anthroposophic therapies, physician and dentist consultations, psychotherapy, medication, physiotherapy, ergotherapy, hospital treatment, rehabilitation) and indirect costs (sick leave compensation) in the pre-study year and the first two study years. Costs were calculated from resource utilisation, documented by patient self-reporting. Data were collected from January 1999 to April 2003. Results Total health costs in the first study year (bootstrap mean 3,297 Euro; 95% confidence interval 95%-CI 3,157 Euro to 3,923 Euro) did not differ significantly from the pre-study year (3,186 Euro; 95%-CI 3,037 Euro to 3,711 Euro), whereas in the second year, costs (2,771 Euro; 95%-CI 2,647 Euro to 3,256 Euro) were significantly reduced by 416 Euro (95%-CI 264 Euro to 960 Euro) compared to the pre-study year. In each period hospitalisation and sick-leave together amounted to more than half of the total health costs. Anthroposophic therapies and medication amounted to 3%, 15%, and 8% of total health costs in the pre-study year, first year, and second study year, respectively. The cost reduction in the second year was largely accounted for by a decrease of inpatient hospitalisation, leading to a hospital cost reduction of 519 Euro (95%-CI 377 Euro to 904 Euro) compared to the pre-study year

  8. Health costs in anthroposophic therapy users: a two-year prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hamre, Harald J; Witt, Claudia M; Glockmann, Anja; Ziegler, Renatus; Willich, Stefan N; Kiene, Helmut

    2006-06-02

    Anthroposophic therapies (counselling, special medication, art, eurythmy movement, and rhythmical massage) aim to stimulate long-term self-healing processes, which theoretically could lead to a reduction of healthcare use. In a prospective two-year cohort study, anthroposophic therapies were followed by a reduction of chronic disease symptoms and improvement of quality of life. The purpose of this analysis was to describe health costs in users of anthroposophic therapies. 717 consecutive outpatients from 134 medical practices in Germany, starting anthroposophic therapies for chronic diseases, participated in a prospective cohort study. We analysed direct health costs (anthroposophic therapies, physician and dentist consultations, psychotherapy, medication, physiotherapy, ergotherapy, hospital treatment, rehabilitation) and indirect costs (sick leave compensation) in the pre-study year and the first two study years. Costs were calculated from resource utilisation, documented by patient self-reporting. Data were collected from January 1999 to April 2003. Total health costs in the first study year (bootstrap mean 3,297 Euro; 95% confidence interval 95%-CI 3,157 Euro to 3,923 Euro) did not differ significantly from the pre-study year (3,186 Euro; 95%-CI 3,037 Euro to 3,711 Euro), whereas in the second year, costs (2,771 Euro; 95%-CI 2,647 Euro to 3,256 Euro) were significantly reduced by 416 Euro (95%-CI 264 Euro to 960 Euro) compared to the pre-study year. In each period hospitalisation and sick-leave together amounted to more than half of the total health costs. Anthroposophic therapies and medication amounted to 3%, 15%, and 8% of total health costs in the pre-study year, first year, and second study year, respectively. The cost reduction in the second year was largely accounted for by a decrease of inpatient hospitalisation, leading to a hospital cost reduction of 519 Euro (95%-CI 377 Euro to 904 Euro) compared to the pre-study year. In patients starting

  9. Work Time Control and Sleep Disturbances: Prospective Cohort Study of Finnish Public Sector Employees

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Paula; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Tucker, Philip; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Employee control over work times has been associated with favorable psychosocial and health-related outcomes, but the evidence regarding sleep quality remains inconclusive. We examined cross-sectional and prospective associations between work time control and sleep disturbances in a large working population, taking into account total hours worked. Methods: The data were from a full-panel longitudinal cohort study of Finnish public sector employees who responded to questions on work time control and sleep disturbances in years 2000-2001, 2004-2005, 2008-2009, and 2012. The analysis of cross-sectional associations was based on 129,286 person measurements from 68,089 participants (77% women) aged 17-73 years (mean 43.1). Data from 16,503 participants were used in the longitudinal analysis. Log-binomial regression analysis with the generalized estimating equations method was used. Results: Consistently in both cross-sectional and longitudinal models, less control over work time was associated with greater sleep disturbances in the total population and among those working normal 40-hour weeks. Among participants working more than 40 hours a week, work time that was both very high (cross-sectional prevalence ratio compared to intermediate work time control [PR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.65) and very low (PR 1.23, 95% CI 1.08-1.39) was associated with sleep disturbances, after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Conclusions: These data suggest that having few opportunities to influence the duration and positioning of work time may increase the risk of sleep disturbances among employees. For persons working long hours, very high levels of control over working times were also associated with increased risk of sleep disturbances. Citation: Salo P, Ala-Mursula L, Rod NH, Tucker P, Pentti J, Kivimäki M, Vahtera J. Work time control and sleep disturbances: prospective cohort study of Finnish public sector employees. SLEEP 2014

  10. Potential drug-drug interactions in hospitalized patients undergoing systemic chemotherapy: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Paula; Kopittke, Luciane

    2015-06-01

    Adverse drug-drug interactions (DDI) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in susceptible populations. Cancer patients are a population at high risk for DDI especially because they commonly receive several drugs concomitantly. The knowledge about the most common interactions between drugs used in oncology inpatients is essential to reduce drug-related problems and increase the safety and efficacy of the therapy. To assess the frequency of potential DDI throughout the hospital stay of cancer patients undergoing systemic chemotherapy, describe their epidemiology, and identify risk factors for major DDI. Setting An oncology-hematology inpatient unit of a public hospital in southern Brazil. Drug prescriptions were prospectively reviewed throughout the hospital stay of patients admitted for systemic chemotherapy. Descriptive statistics and Poisson regression were used for data analysis. Potential DDI and their characteristics. The cohort consisted of 113 patients, who used a mean of 8.9 ± 2.7 drugs/day. All patients had at least one potential DDI (median, 7.0/patient; 25th-75th percentile, 3.5-12.0), and 46 % of the patients had at least one DDI classified as major, i.e. that it may result in death, hospitalization, permanent injury, or therapeutic failure. Only 13.7 % of all interactions involved antineoplastic agents, identified in 62.8 % of patients. Most interactions were of moderate severity, 6.4 % were major, and 8.5 % had a recommendation for therapy modification. Multivariate analysis revealed mean number of drugs prescribed [relative risk (RR) for each additional drug: 1.12; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.07-1.17; P < 0.01] and age ≥60 years (RR 1.48; 95 % CI 1.03-2.14; P < 0.01) as independent risk factors for major DDI. Potential DDI were highly frequent in this cohort. Older age and number of drugs prescribed were more likely to lead to major interactions. Prospective surveillance is required to detect adverse DDI, aiming primarily at reducing the

  11. [Impact of the A influenza pandemic on anti-seasonal influenza vaccination of French general practitioners: A cohort follow-up 2007-2010].

    PubMed

    Hurtaud, A; Songis, P-H; Di Patrizio, P; Boivin, J-M

    2014-06-01

    Our objective was to assess the impact of the A influenza pandemic on the anti-seasonal influenza vaccination of French general practitioners. A survey was conducted in 2007 in a random sample of general practitioners. A second survey conducted in 2010 included all general practitioners who had not been vaccinated in 2007 and one-third of those who had been. Responses were obtained from 1010 general practitioners in 2007. The coverage rate of anti-seasonal influenza vaccination reached 73%. In 2010, the coverage was 73.5% and rate of anti-A influenza vaccination was 59% (weighted numbers). Between the two surveys, 130 family physicians (15.5%) changed their behavior. Analysis showed that the A influenza pandemic had a slight positive impact on anti-seasonal influenza vaccination. This first cohort of French general practitioners concerning influenza vaccination found the same anti-seasonal influenza vaccination rates widely reported in the literature and showed that the A influenza pandemic had slight impact on it. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Comprehensive CFTR gene analysis of the French cystic fibrosis screened newborn cohort: implications for diagnosis, genetic counseling, and mutation-specific therapy.

    PubMed

    Audrézet, Marie Pierre; Munck, Anne; Scotet, Virginie; Claustres, Mireille; Roussey, Michel; Delmas, Dominique; Férec, Claude; Desgeorges, Marie

    2015-02-01

    Newborn screening (NBS) for cystic fibrosis (CF) was implemented throughout France in 2002. It involves a four-tiered procedure: immunoreactive trypsin (IRT)/DNA/IRT/sweat test [corrected] was implemented throughout France in 2002. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of molecular CFTR gene analysis from the French NBS cohort, to evaluate CF incidence, mutation detection rate, and allelic heterogeneity. During the 8-year period, 5,947,148 newborns were screened for cystic fibrosis. The data were collected by the Association Française pour le Dépistage et la Prévention des Handicaps de l'Enfant. The mutations identified were classified into four groups based on their potential for causing disease, and a diagnostic algorithm was proposed. Combining the genetic and sweat test results, 1,160 neonates were diagnosed as having cystic fibrosis. The corresponding incidence, including both the meconium ileus (MI) and false-negative cases, was calculated at 1 in 4,726 live births. The CF30 kit, completed with a comprehensive CFTR gene analysis, provides an excellent detection rate of 99.77% for the mutated alleles, enabling the identification of a complete genotype in 99.55% of affected neonates. With more than 200 different mutations characterized, we confirmed the French allelic heterogeneity. The very good sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value obtained suggest that the four-tiered IRT/DNA/IRT/sweat test procedure may provide an effective strategy for newborn screening for cystic fibrosis.

  13. Effect of a Mediterranean diet during pregnancy on fetal growth and preterm delivery: results from a French Caribbean Mother-Child Cohort Study (TIMOUN).

    PubMed

    Saunders, Lauren; Guldner, Laurence; Costet, Nathalie; Kadhel, Philippe; Rouget, Florence; Monfort, Christine; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Multigner, Luc; Cordier, Sylvaine

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies suggest that a Mediterranean dietary pattern during pregnancy may influence pregnancy outcomes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of adherence to a Mediterranean diet (MD) during pregnancy on fetal growth restriction (FGR) and preterm delivery (PTD) in a French Caribbean island where the population is largely of African descent and presents dietary patterns similar to MD. Using data from the TIMOUN Mother-Child Cohort Study conducted in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) between 2004 and 2007, we analysed data for 728 pregnant women who delivered liveborn singletons without any major congenital malformations. Degree of adherence to MD during pregnancy was evaluated with a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire based on nine dietary criteria. Multiple logistic regression models were used to analyse birth outcomes while taking potential confounders into account. Overall there was no association between MD adherence during pregnancy and the risk of PTD or FGR. However, pre-pregnancy body mass index was a strong effect modifier, and MD adherence was associated with a decreased risk of PTD specifically in overweight and obese women (adjusted odds ratio 0.7, 95% confidence interval 0.6, 0.9) (P heterogeneity <0.01). These results suggest that Caribbean diet during pregnancy may carry some benefits of MD and may contribute to reduce the risk of PTD in overweight and obese pregnant women. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Age- and sex-related reference values for serum insulin concentration and its biological determinants in a French healthy population. The STANISLAS cohort.

    PubMed

    François, Aurélie; Maumus, Sandy; Vincent-Viry, Monique; Guéguen, René; Siest, Gérard; Visvikis, Sophie

    2004-01-01

    Insulin is involved in coronary heart disease through diabetes and metabolic syndrome. A great deal is known about insulin and its correlates, as well as factors related to changes in insulin. However, few studies consider the broad variety of correlates simultaneously. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to characterize the main factors of biological variation affecting serum insulin concentration and to establish reference limits of insulinemia in a presumably healthy French population. Insulin was measured using a microparticular enzymatic immunoassay. A total of 646 subjects aged 11-58 years from the STANISLAS cohort and divided into four groups of 162 males, 157 females, 163 boys and 164 girls, were included in the statistical analyses. In the whole population, serum insulin concentration varied from 0.80 to 54.60 microU/ml. Significant factors affecting insulin were age, gender, body mass index and glucose, in addition to alanine aminotransferase and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in men, triglycerides and oral contraceptive use in women, and alkaline phosphatase in girls. In summary, we presented biological correlates of insulin in both healthy French male and female adults and children/adolescents and determined reference limits for insulin for each group. These results will contribute to a better interpretation of insulin data in further studies and laboratory investigations.

  15. Predictors of breast-feeding in a developing country: results of a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Al-Sahab, Ban; Tamim, Hala; Mumtaz, Ghina; Khawaja, Marwan; Khogali, Mustafa; Afifi, Rima; Nassif, Yolla; Yunis, Khalid A

    2008-12-01

    Data on the prevalence and predictors of breast-feeding remain scarce in Lebanon. Moreover, no study has previously addressed the effect of the paediatrician's sex on breast-feeding. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence and predictors of breast-feeding at 1 and 4 months of infant age while exploring the potential role of the sex of the paediatrician. Prospective cohort study. Predictors of breast-feeding significant at the bivariate level were tested at 1 and 4 months through two stepwise regression models. Infants were enrolled through the clinics and dispensaries of 117 paediatricians located in Beirut, Lebanon, and its suburbs. A total of 1,320 healthy newborn infants born between August 2001 and February 2002 were prospectively followed during the first year. Breast-feeding rates at 1 and 4 months were 56.3 % and 24.7 %, respectively. Early discharge, high parity and religion were significantly associated with higher breast-feeding rates at 1 and 4 months of age. Maternal age proved significant only at 1 month, while maternal working status and sex of the paediatrician were significant at 4 months. A novel finding of our study was the positive effect of female paediatricians on breast-feeding continuation until 4 months of age (OR = 1.49; 95 % CI 1.03, 2.15). Breast-feeding rates are low at 1 and 4 months of infant age in Beirut. Further research to investigate the interactions between female physicians and lactating mothers in maintaining breast-feeding in other populations is warranted. The results constitute the basis for designing interventions targeting policy makers, health professionals and mothers.

  16. Prenatal maternal depression is associated with offspring inflammation at 25 years: a prospective longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Plant, D T; Pawlby, S; Sharp, D; Zunszain, P A; Pariante, C M

    2016-01-01

    Animal studies and a handful of prospective human studies have demonstrated that young offspring exposed to maternal prenatal stress show abnormalities in immune parameters and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis function. No study has examined the effect of maternal prenatal depression on offspring inflammation and HPA axis activity in adulthood, nor the putative role of child maltreatment in inducing these abnormalities. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and awakening cortisol were measured at age 25 in 103 young-adult offspring of the South London Child Development Study (SLCDS), a prospective longitudinal birth cohort of mother–offspring dyads recruited in pregnancy in 1986. Maternal prenatal depression was assessed in pregnancy at 20 and 36 weeks; offspring child maltreatment (birth 17 years) was assessed at offspring ages 11, 16 and 25; and offspring adulthood depression (18–25 years) was assessed at age 25. Exposure to maternal prenatal depression predicted significantly elevated offspring hs-CRP at age 25 (odds ratio=11.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) (1.1, 127.0), P=0.041), independently of child maltreatment and adulthood depression, known risk factors for adulthood inflammation. In contrast, maternal prenatal depression did not predict changes in offspring adulthood cortisol; however, offspring exposure to child maltreatment did, and was associated with elevated awakening cortisol levels (B=161.9, 95% CI (45.4, 278.4), P=0.007). Fetal exposure to maternal depression during pregnancy has effects on immune function that persist for up to a quarter of a century after birth. Findings are consistent with the developmental origins of health and disease (DOHaD) hypothesis for the biological embedding of gestational psychosocial adversity into vulnerability for future physical and mental illness. PMID:27801895

  17. Risk factors for shunt malfunction in pediatric hydrocephalus: a multicenter prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Riva-Cambrin, Jay; Kestle, John R W; Holubkov, Richard; Butler, Jerry; Kulkarni, Abhaya V; Drake, James; Whitehead, William E; Wellons, John C; Shannon, Chevis N; Tamber, Mandeep S; Limbrick, David D; Rozzelle, Curtis; Browd, Samuel R; Simon, Tamara D

    2016-04-01

    OBJECT The rate of CSF shunt failure remains unacceptably high. The Hydrocephalus Clinical Research Network (HCRN) conducted a comprehensive prospective observational study of hydrocephalus management, the aim of which was to isolate specific risk factors for shunt failure. METHODS The study followed all first-time shunt insertions in children younger than 19 years at 6 HCRN centers. The HCRN Investigator Committee selected, a priori, 21 variables to be examined, including clinical, radiographic, and shunt design variables. Shunt failure was defined as shunt revision, subsequent endoscopic third ventriculostomy, or shunt infection. Important a priori-defined risk factors as well as those significant in univariate analyses were then tested for independence using multivariate Cox proportional hazard modeling. RESULTS A total of 1036 children underwent initial CSF shunt placement between April 2008 and December 2011. Of these, 344 patients experienced shunt failure, including 265 malfunctions and 79 infections. The mean and median length of follow-up for the entire cohort was 400 days and 264 days, respectively. The Cox model found that age younger than 6 months at first shunt placement (HR 1.6 [95% CI 1.1-2.1]), a cardiac comorbidity (HR 1.4 [95% CI 1.0-2.1]), and endoscopic placement (HR 1.9 [95% CI 1.2-2.9]) were independently associated with reduced shunt survival. The following had no independent associations with shunt survival: etiology, payer, center, valve design, valve programmability, the use of ultrasound or stereotactic guidance, and surgeon experience and volume. CONCLUSIONS This is the largest prospective study reported on children with CSF shunts for hydrocephalus. It confirms that a young age and the use of the endoscope are risk factors for first shunt failure and that valve type has no impact. A new risk factor-an existing cardiac comorbidity-was also associated with shunt failure.

  18. High risk clinical characteristics for subarachnoid haemorrhage in patients with acute headache: prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Perry, Jeffrey J; Stiell, Ian G; Sivilotti, Marco L A; Bullard, Michael J; Lee, Jacques S; Eisenhauer, Mary; Symington, Cheryl; Mortensen, Melodie; Sutherland, Jane; Lesiuk, Howard; Wells, George A

    2010-10-28

    To identify high risk clinical characteristics for subarachnoid haemorrhage in neurologically intact patients with headache. Multicentre prospective cohort study over five years. Six university affiliated tertiary care teaching hospitals in Canada. Data collected from November 2000 until November 2005. Neurologically intact adults with a non-traumatic headache peaking within an hour. Subarachnoid haemorrhage, as defined by any of subarachnoid haemorrhage on computed tomography of the head, xanthochromia in the cerebrospinal fluid, or red blood cells in the final sample of cerebrospinal fluid with positive results on angiography. Physicians completed data collection forms before investigations. In the 1999 patients enrolled there were 130 cases of subarachnoid haemorrhage. Mean (range) age was 43.4 (16-93), 1207 (60.4%) were women, and 1546 (78.5%) reported that it was the worst headache of their life. Thirteen of the variables collected on history and three on examination were reliable and associated with subarachnoid haemorrhage. We used recursive partitioning with different combinations of these variables to create three clinical decisions rules. All had 100% (95% confidence interval 97.1% to 100.0%) sensitivity with specificities from 28.4% to 38.8%. Use of any one of these rules would have lowered rates of investigation (computed tomography, lumbar puncture, or both) from the current 82.9% to between 63.7% and 73.5%. Clinical characteristics can be predictive for subarachnoid haemorrhage. Practical and sensitive clinical decision rules can be used in patients with a headache peaking within an hour. Further study of these proposed decision rules, including prospective validation, could allow clinicians to be more selective and accurate when investigating patients with headache.

  19. Good prognosis for pericarditis with and without myocardial involvement: results from a multicenter, prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Imazio, Massimo; Brucato, Antonio; Barbieri, Andrea; Ferroni, Francesca; Maestroni, Silvia; Ligabue, Guido; Chinaglia, Alessandra; Cumetti, Davide; Della Casa, Giovanni; Bonomi, Federica; Mantovani, Francesca; Di Corato, Paola; Lugli, Roberta; Faletti, Riccardo; Leuzzi, Stefano; Bonamini, Rodolfo; Modena, Maria Grazia; Belli, Riccardo

    2013-07-02

    The natural history of myopericarditis/perimyocarditis is poorly known, and recently published studies have presented contrasting data on their outcomes. The aim of the present article is to assess the prognosis of myopericarditis/perimyocarditis in a multicenter, prospective cohort study. A total of 486 patients (median age, 39 years; range, 18-83 years; 300 men) with acute pericarditis or a myopericardial inflammatory syndrome (myopericarditis/perimyocarditis; 85% idiopathic, 11% connective tissue disease or inflammatory bowel disease, 5% infective) were prospectively evaluated from January 2007 to December 2011. The diagnosis of acute pericarditis was based on the presence of 2 of 4 clinical criteria (chest pain, pericardial rubs, widespread ST-segment elevation or PR depression, and new or worsening pericardial effusion). Myopericardial inflammatory involvement was suspected with atypical ECG changes for pericarditis, arrhythmias, and cardiac troponin elevation or new or worsening ventricular dysfunction on echocardiography and confirmed by cardiac magnetic resonance. After a median follow-up of 36 months, normalization of left ventricular function was achieved in >90% of patients with myopericarditis/perimyocarditis. No deaths were recorded, as well as evolution to heart failure or symptomatic left ventricular dysfunction. Recurrences (mainly as recurrent pericarditis) were the most common complication during follow-up and were recorded more frequently in patients with acute pericarditis (32%) than in those with myopericarditis (11%) or perimyocarditis (12%; P<0.001). Troponin elevation was not associated with an increase in complications. The outcome of myopericardial inflammatory syndromes is good. Unlike acute coronary syndromes, troponin elevation is not a negative prognostic marker in this setting.

  20. Gender differences in expectations and outcomes for total shoulder arthroplasty: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Jawa, Andrew; Dasti, Umer; Brown, Amy; Grannatt, Kathryn; Miller, Suzanne

    2016-08-01

    Gender has an impact on the expectations and the outcomes of orthopedic procedures. The data examining the effect of gender on total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) are limited but suggest that women may have worse outcomes. We performed a prospective comparison between men and women with regard to expectations and midterm functional outcomes for TSA. The study prospectively enrolled 63 patients receiving a TSA with a minimum of 3 years of follow-up. The cohort included 36 men and 27 women with a mean age of 60.8 years for men (range, 37-79 years) and 66.4 years (P = .01) for women (range, 52-77 years.) Each patient was given a preoperative survey in which patients were asked to select 3 expectations they most hoped to gain from surgery. Functional outcomes were measured with American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons and 12-Item Short Form Health Survey scores. There were differences in expectations between the genders. Men chose exercise or participation in sports (24/36) whereas women chose to maintain daily routine and chores (18/27) (P < .01) as their top expectation. Both, however, chose to sleep through the night similarly as the next most important expectation. Each achieved their expectations at similar and high rates. American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons and 12-Item Short Form Health Survey scores, respectively, increased significantly but did not differ between genders. TSA results in excellent improvement of functional outcomes for both men and women without a significant difference at midterm follow-up. Men, on average, are younger and value participation in sports. Women hope to improve their ability to do their daily routine and chores. Both value sleeping through the night. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. High rates of general practice attendance by former prisoners: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Megan; Spittal, Matthew J; Kemp-Casey, Anna R; Lennox, Nicholas G; Preen, David B; Sutherland, Georgina; Kinner, Stuart A

    2017-07-17

    To determine the rates at which people recently released from prison attend general practitioners, and to describe service users and their encounters. Prospective cohort study of 1190 prisoners in Queensland, interviewed up to 6 weeks before expected release from custody (August 2008 - July 2010); their responses were linked prospectively with Medicare and Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme data for the 2 years after their release. General practice attendance was compared with that of members of the general Queensland population of the same sex and in the same age groups. Rates of general practice attendance by former prisoners during the 2 years following their release from prison. In the 2 years following release from custody, former prisoners attended general practice services twice as frequently (standardised rate ratio, 2.04; 95% CI, 2.00-2.07) as other Queenslanders; 87% of participants visited a GP at least once during this time. 42% of encounters resulted in a filled prescription, and 12% in diagnostic testing. Factors associated with higher rates of general practice attendance included history of risky opiate use (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 2.09; 95% CI, 1.65-2.65), having ever been diagnosed with a mental disorder (IRR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.14-1.53), and receiving medication while in prison (IRR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.58-2.10). Former prisoners visited general practice services with greater frequency than the general Queensland population. This is consistent with their complex health needs, and suggests that increasing access to primary care to improve the health of former prisoners may be insufficient, and should be accompanied by improving the quality, continuity, and cultural appropriateness of care.

  2. Same-day discharge in benign esophageal surgery: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Desbeaux, A; Gronnier, C; Piessen, G; Vanderbeken, M; Ruolt, N; Triboulet, J-P; Mariette, C

    2017-04-01

    Day-case esophageal surgery has been demonstrated to be safe in small prospective cohorts and only for laparoscopic fundoplication. The aims of this study are to assess the feasibility and safety of a large series of esophageal day-case surgeries, including laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication (LNF), Zenker diverticulectomy (ZD), and laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM) and to compare the outcomes among three procedures.This was a prospective, observational study of selected patients who underwent day-case LNF, ZD, and LHM between 2003 and 2013. Postoperative outcomes, the patients' satisfaction, and functional results were evaluated with dedicated scores and compared.Of the 427 patients who underwent surgery for those indications during the study period, 168 (39.3%) eligible patients underwent day-case procedures (134 LNF, 14 LHM, and 20 ZD). The overnight unplanned admission rate was 16.2% and was similar among the groups (P = 0.681). Ten patients were readmitted during the first postoperative week because of dysphagia (n = 6, all in the LNF group), flu-like syndrome (n = 1), and secondary perforation (n = 3, all in the LHM group). The unplanned seven-day readmission rate was significantly higher in the LHM group than in the ZD and LNF groups (P = 0.042). The 30-day rates of unplanned readmission and consultation were 8.9% (P = 0.300) and 4.8%, respectively. At follow-up, 87.5% of the patients were satisfied with day-case treatment, and the functional results were good for 81.4% of the patients.Day-case esophageal surgery is feasible for LNF and seems to be feasible for ZD. Safety criteria have not yet been met for LHM, requiring further adaptations.

  3. Attributable cost of a nosocomial infection in the intensive care unit: A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Chacko, Binila; Thomas, Kurien; David, Thambu; Paul, Hema; Jeyaseelan, Lakshmanan; Peter, John Victor

    2017-01-01

    AIM To study the impact of hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) on cost and outcome from intensive care units (ICU) in India. METHODS Adult patients (> 18 years) admitted over 1-year, to a 24-bed medical critical care unit in India, were enrolled prospectively. Treatment cost and outcome data were collected. This cost data was merged with HAI data collected prospectively by the Hospital Infection Control Committee. Only infections occurring during ICU stay were included. The impact of HAI on treatment cost and mortality was assessed. RESULTS The mean (± SD) age of the cohort (n = 499) was 42.3 ± 16.5 years. Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation-II score was 13.9 (95%CI: 13.3-14.5); 86% were ventilated. ICU and hospital length of stay were 7.8 ± 5.5 and 13.9 ± 10 d respectively. Hospital mortality was 27.9%. During ICU stay, 76 (15.3%) patients developed an infection (ventilator-associated pneumonia 50; bloodstream infection 35; urinary tract infections 3), translating to 19.7 infections/1000 ICU days. When compared with those who did not develop an infection, an infection occurring during ICU stay was associated with significantly higher treatment cost [median (inter-quartile range, IQR) INR 92893 (USD 1523) (IQR 57168-140286) vs INR 180469 (USD 2958) (IQR 140030-237525); P < 0.001 and longer duration of ICU (6.7 ± 4.5 d vs 13.4 ± 7.0 d; P < 0.01) and hospital stay (12.4 ± 8.2 d vs 21.8 ± 13.9 d; P < 0.001)]. However ICU acquired infections did not impact hospital mortality (31.6% vs 27.2%; P = 0.49). CONCLUSION An infection acquired during ICU stay was associated with doubling of treatment cost and prolonged hospitalization but did not significantly increase mortality. PMID:28224111

  4. A Prospective Cohort Study on Cardiotoxicity of Adjuvant Trastuzumab Therapy in Breast Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Matos, Erika; Jug, Borut; Blagus, Rok; Zakotnik, Branko

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiotoxicity is an important side effect of trastuzumab therapy and cardiac surveillance is recommended. Objectives The aim of our study was to prospectively assess baseline patients' characteristics, level of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and echocardiographic parameters as possible predictors of trastuzumab-related cardiac dysfunction. Methods In a prospective cohort study, clinical, echocardiographic and neurohumoral assessment was performed at baseline, after 4, 8 and 12 months in breast cancer patients undergoing post-anthracycline (3-4 cycles) adjuvant therapy with trastuzumab. Trastuzumab-related cardiac dysfunction was defined as a decline of ≥ 10% in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Results 92 patients (mean age, 53.6 ± 9.0 years) were included. Patients who developed trastuzumab-related LVEF decline ≥ 10% (20.6%) during treatment had significantly higher baseline LVEF (70.7 ± 4.4%) than those without (64.8 ± 5.5%) (p = 0.0035). All other measured baseline parameters (age, body mass index, arterial hypertension, level of NT-proBNP and other echocardiographic parameters) were not identified as significant. Conclusions Our findings suggest that baseline patient' characteristics, level of NT-proBNP and echocardiographic parameters, as long as they are within normal range, are not a reliable tool to predict early trastuzumab-related cardiac dysfunction in patients undergoing post-low dose anthracycline adjuvant trastuzumab therapy. A LVEF decline in patients with high-normal baseline level although statistically significant is not clinically relevant. PMID:27305108

  5. Antibiotic prescribing and associated diarrhoea: a prospective cohort study of care home residents.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, David; Hood, Kerenza; Bayer, Antony; Carter, Ben; Duncan, Donna; Espinasse, Aude; Evans, Meirion; Nuttall, Jacqueline; Stanton, Helen; Acharjya, Arun; Allen, Stephen; Cohen, David; Groves, Sam; Francis, Nick; Howe, Robin; Johansen, Antony; Mantzourani, Efi; Thomas-Jones, Emma; Toghill, Alun; Wood, Fiona; Wigglesworth, Neil; Wootton, Mandy; Butler, Christopher C

    2015-09-01

    the risk factors for and frequency of antibiotic prescription and antibiotic-associated diarrhoea (AAD) among care home residents are unknown. to prospectively study frequency and risks for antibiotic prescribing and AAD for care home residents. a 12-month prospective cohort study in care homes across South Wales. antibiotic prescriptions and the development of AAD were recorded on case report forms. We defined AAD as three or more loose stools in a 24-h period occurring within 8 weeks of exposure to an antibiotic. we recruited 279 residents from 10 care homes. The incidence of antibiotic prescriptions was 2.16 prescriptions per resident year (95% CI: 1.90-2.46). Antibiotics were less likely to be prescribed to residents from dual-registered homes (OR compared with nursing homes: 0.38, 95% CI: 0.18-0.79). For those who were prescribed antibiotics, the incidence of AAD was 0.57 episodes per resident year (95% CI: 0.41-0.81 episodes). AAD was more likely in residents who were prescribed co-amoxiclav (hazards ratio, HR = 2.08, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.18-3.66) or routinely used incontinence pads (HR = 2.54, 95% CI: 1.26-5.13) and less likely in residents from residential homes (HR compared with nursing homes: 0.14, 95% CI: 0.06-0.32). residents of care homes, particularly of nursing homes, are frequently prescribed antibiotics and often experience diarrhoea following such prescriptions. Co-amoxiclav is associated with greater risk of AAD. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Diagnostic staging laparoscopy in gastric cancer: a prospective cohort at a cancer institute in Japan.

    PubMed

    Irino, Tomoyuki; Sano, Takeshi; Hiki, Naoki; Ohashi, Manabu; Nunobe, Souya; Kumagai, Koshi; Ida, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Toshiharu

    2017-06-29

    There have been many studies that describe the value of diagnostic staging laparoscopy (DSL) in gastric cancer. However, different studies use different indications, making study results difficult to compare. This study aimed to clarify the diagnostic feasibility of DSL for gastric cancer in a prospective manner and investigated the impact of DSL on clinical decision-making in gastric cancer treatment. The study was a prospective cohort study based at a single institution between January 2010 and December 2013. We treated 2213 patients with potentially resectable gastric cancer during this period. DSL was primarily indicated for asymptomatic patients with: (1) large Borrmann type 3 tumours ≥8 cm, (2) Borrmann type 4 tumours (linitis plastica), (3) bulky lymph nodes or paraaortic lymph node swelling, or (4) clinical suspicion of peritoneal disease. The primary outcome is change in treatment strategy, and the secondary outcomes are diagnostic accuracy of the indications and false negative rate of DSL. DSL was performed on 156 (7%) of 2213 patients. Of these, peritoneal disease was found in 74 (47%) patients: (1) 56% for large type 3, (2) 54% for type 4, (3) 21% for bulky lymph nodes or paraaortic lymph node swelling, and (4) 20% for suspected peritoneal disease. The diagnostic accuracy of our indication for DSL was 92% for all patients and 74% for patients with cT3/T4 tumours. Among 82 patients without peritoneal disease, 66 patients (81%) underwent subsequent radical gastrectomy; peritoneal disease was discovered intraoperatively for 7 patients at laparotomy, indicating a false negative rate of 11%. We confirmed that DSL performed according to our indication, in the context of gastric cancer, possesses diagnostic feasibility. Approximately half of the patients who underwent DSL consequently avoided unnecessary laparotomy and were able to receive appropriate alternative treatment.

  7. Gout and Risk of Fracture in Women: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Paik, Julie M; Kim, Seoyoung C; Feskanich, Diane; Choi, Hyon K; Solomon, Daniel H; Curhan, Gary C

    2017-02-01

    Uric acid may be linked to bone health through its antioxidant or prooxidant effects, thereby affecting bone resorption and formation, or through its dual inhibition of vitamin D activation and parathyroid hormone production. Results of prior studies on the relationship between uric acid and bone mineral density have been conflicting. This prospective study was undertaken to examine the relationship between gout, a disease characterized by hyperuricemia and inflammation, and risk of hip or wrist fracture in women. We conducted a prospective observational study of gout and risk of incident wrist and hip fracture in women participating in the Nurses' Health Study (n = 103,799 at baseline, with 14 years of follow-up for the wrist fracture analysis and 22 years of follow-up for the hip fracture analysis). Gout history and incident cases of wrist and hip fracture were assessed by biennial questionnaire. Cox proportional hazards models were used to simultaneously adjust for potential confounders. In this cohort, there were 3,769 incident wrist fractures (1990-2004) and 2,147 incident hip fractures (1990-2012), with 107 wrist fractures and 117 hip fractures occurring in participants with gout. In those women with a history of gout compared with women without gout, the multivariable-adjusted relative risk of wrist fracture was 1.12 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.92-1.36) and the multivariable-adjusted relative risk of hip fracture was 1.38 (95% CI 1.14-1.68). In women, a history of gout is associated with a modestly increased risk of hip fracture, but not significantly associated with a risk of wrist fracture. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  8. Domestic Radon Exposure and Risk of Childhood Cancer: A Prospective Census-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Hauri, Dimitri; Spycher, Ben; Huss, Anke; Zimmermann, Frank; Grotzer, Michael; von der Weid, Nicolas; Weber, Damien; Spoerri, Adrian; Kuehni, Claudia E.

    2013-01-01

    Background: In contrast with established evidence linking high doses of ionizing radiation with childhood cancer, research on low-dose ionizing radiation and childhood cancer has produced inconsistent results. Objective: We investigated the association between domestic radon exposure and childhood cancers, particularly leukemia and central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Methods: We conducted a nationwide census-based cohort study including all children < 16 years of age living in Switzerland on 5 December 2000, the date of the 2000 census. Follow-up lasted until the date of diagnosis, death, emigration, a child’s 16th birthday, or 31 December 2008. Domestic radon levels were estimated for each individual home address using a model developed and validated based on approximately 45,000 measurements taken throughout Switzerland. Data were analyzed with Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for child age, child sex, birth order, parents’ socioeconomic status, environmental gamma radiation, and period effects. Results: In total, 997 childhood cancer cases were included in the study. Compared with children exposed to a radon concentration below the median (< 77.7 Bq/m3), adjusted hazard ratios for children with exposure ≥ the 90th percentile (≥ 139.9 Bq/m3) were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.74, 1.16) for all cancers, 0.95 (95% CI: 0.63, 1.43) for all leukemias, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.56, 1.43) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and 1.05 (95% CI: 0.68, 1.61) for CNS tumors. Conclusions: We did not find evidence that domestic radon exposure is associated with childhood cancer, despite relatively high radon levels in Switzerland. Citation: Hauri D, Spycher B, Huss A, Zimmermann F, Grotzer M, von der Weid N, Weber D, Spoerri A, Kuehni C, Röösli M, for the Swiss National Cohort and the Swiss Paediatric Oncology Group (SPOG). 2013. Domestic radon exposure and risk of childhood cancer: a prospective census-based cohort study. Environ Health Perspect 121:1239–1244; http://dx.doi.org/10

  9. The risk of oesophageal adenocarcinoma in a prospectively recruited Barrett’s oesophagus cohort

    PubMed Central

    Theron, BT; Padmanabhan, H; Aladin, H; Smith, P; Campbell, E; Nightingale, P; Cooper, BT

    2016-01-01

    Background Varying rates of oesophageal adenocarcinoma (OAC) complicating Barrett’s oesophagus (BO) have been reported. Recent studies and meta-analyses suggest a lower incidence, questioning the value of endoscopic surveillance. Aim We aimed to retrospectively examine the rate of OAC, risk factors and causes of death in a prospectively recruited BO cohort. Methods Data from patients with BO from a cohort from 1982–2007 were studied. Patients were subdivided into surveyed, failed to attend surveillance and unfit for surveillance. Standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated for common causes of death. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine which factors were associated with progression to OAC. Results In total, 671 BO patients (61% male) were studied; 37 (76% male) were diagnosed with OAC. OAC incidence was 0.47% per annum and stable across three decades (1982–1991 0.56%, 1992–2001 0.46%, 2002–2012 0.41% (p = 0.8)). All-cause mortality was increased for the whole cohort (SMR 163(95% CI 145–183)). Mortality from OAC appeared higher in patients who failed to attend surveillance (SMR 3216(95% CI 1543–5916)) compared with surveyed (SMR 1753(95% CI 933–2998)) and those unfit for surveillance due to co-morbidity (SMR 440(95% CI 143–1025)). Multivariable analysis identified low-grade dysplasia (HR 4.4(95% CI 1.56–12.43), p = 0.005) and length of BO (HR 1.2(95% (1.1–1.3)), p < 0.001)) as associated with OAC. Conclusions Progression to OAC appeared stable over three decades at 0.47% per annum. Patients with BO had a modest increase in all-cause mortality and a large increase in OAC mortality, particularly if fit for surveillance. Low-grade dysplasia and the length of the BO segment were associated with developing OAC. PMID:28408992

  10. Relationship between body image disturbance and incidence of depression: the SUN prospective cohort

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta, Adriano Marçal; Sánchez-Villegas, Almudena; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; López, Celeste Nicole; Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel

    2009-01-01

    Background Body image disturbance is an increasing problem in Western societies and is associated with a number of mental health outcomes including anorexia, bulimia, body dysmorphia, and depression. The aim of this study was to assess the association between body image disturbance and the incidence of depression. Methods This study included 10,286 participants from a dynamic prospective cohort of Spanish university graduates, who were followed-up for a median period of 4.2 years (Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra – the SUN study). The key characteristic of the study is the permanently open recruitment that started in 1999. The baseline questionnaire included information about body mass index (BMI) and the nine figure schemes that were used to assess body size perception. These variables were grouped according to recommended classifications and the difference between BMI and body size perception was considered as a proxy of body image disturbance. A subject was classified as an incident case of depression if he/she was initially free of depression and reported a physician-made diagnosis of depression and/or the use of antidepressant medication in at least one of the follow-up questionnaires. The association between body image disturbance and the incidence of depression was estimated by calculating the multivariable adjusted Odds Ratio (OR) and its 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI), using logistic regression models. Results The cumulative incidence of depression during follow-up in the cohort was 4.8%. Men who underestimated their body size had a high percentage of overweight and obesity (50.1% and 12.6%, respectively), whereas women who overestimated their body size had a high percentage of underweight (87.6%). The underestimation exhibited a negative association with the incidence of depression among women (OR: 0.72, 95% CI: 0.54 – 0.95), but this effect disappeared after adjusting for possible confounding variables. The proportion of participants who

  11. Mortality in Sickle Cell Anemia in Africa: A Prospective Cohort Study in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Makani, Julie; Cox, Sharon E.; Soka, Deogratius; Komba, Albert N.; Oruo, Julie; Mwamtemi, Hadija; Magesa, Pius; Rwezaula, Stella; Meda, Elineema; Mgaya, Josephine; Lowe, Brett; Muturi, David; Roberts, David J.; Williams, Thomas N.; Pallangyo, Kisali; Kitundu, Jesse; Fegan, Gregory; Kirkham, Fenella J.; Marsh, Kevin; Newton, Charles R.

    2011-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization has declared Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA) a public health priority. There are 300,000 births/year, over 75% in Africa, with estimates suggesting that 6 million Africans will be living with SCA if average survival reaches half the African norm. Countries such as United States of America and United Kingdom have reduced SCA mortality from 3 to 0.13 per 100 person years of observation (PYO), with interventions such as newborn screening, prevention of infections and comprehensive care, but implementation of interventions in African countries has been hindered by lack of locally appropriate information. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and factors associated with death from SCA in Dar-es-Salaam. Methods and Findings A hospital-based cohort study was conducted, with prospective surveillance of 1,725 SCA patients recruited from 2004 to 2009, with 209 (12%) lost to follow up, while 86 died. The mortality rate was 1.9 (95%CI 1.5, 2.9) per 100 PYO, highest under 5-years old [7.3 (4.8–11.0)], adjusting for dates of birth and study enrollment. Independent risk factors, at enrollment to the cohort, predicting death were low hemoglobin (<5 g/dL) [3.8 (1.8–8.2); p = 0.001] and high total bilirubin (≥102 µmol/L) [1.7 (1.0–2.9); p = 0.044] as determined by logistic regression. Conclusions Mortality in SCA in Africa is high, with the most vulnerable period being under 5-years old. This is most likely an underestimate, as this was a hospital cohort and may not have captured SCA individuals with severe disease who died in early childhood, those with mild disease who are undiagnosed or do not utilize services at health facilities. Prompt and effective treatment for anemia in SCA is recommended as it is likely to improve survival. Further research is required to determine the etiology, pathophysiology and the most appropriate strategies for management of anemia in SCA. PMID:21358818

  12. Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Risk of Hip Fracture in Men: A Meta-Analysis of 14 Prospective Cohort Studies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhen-Jie; Zhao, Peng; Liu, Bin; Yuan, Zhen-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Several observational studies have suggested an association between cigarette smoking and risk of hip fracture. However, no formal systematic review or meta-analysis was performed to summarize this risk in men. A search was applied to MEDLINE, EMBASE, and web of science (up to November 1 2016). All prospective cohort studies assessing risk of hip fracture with the factor of cigarette smoking in men without language restriction were reviewed, and qualities of all included studies were assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Two authors independently assessed literatures and extracted information eligibility, and any disagreement was resolved by consensus. Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale was used to evaluate studies' quality in meta-analyses. We calculated the RR with 95% CIs in a random-effects model as well as the fixed-effects model using the metan command in the STATA version 12.0 (StataCorp, USA). Fourteen prospective cohort studies were eligible for the present analysis. A meta-analysis of 12 prospective studies showed that the relative risk (RR) for current male smoking was 1.47 [95% confidence interval (CI) (1.28-1.66), p = 0.54; I2 = 0%]. Subgroup analyses show study characteristics (including geography region, length of follow-up, size of cohorts and study quality) did not substantially influence these positive associations. Eight studies reported the RRs for former smokers compared with never smokers and the pooled RR was 1.15 [95% CI, (0.97-1.34), (I2 = 0%, p = 0.975)]. The present meta-analysis of 14 prospective studies suggests that, compared with never smokers, cigarette smoking increases risk of hip fracture in man, specifically in current smokers. However, further larger prospective cohorts with more power or meta-analysis of individual patient data are needed to confirm this association.

  13. Effect of Cigarette Smoking on Risk of Hip Fracture in Men: A Meta-Analysis of 14 Prospective Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bin; Yuan, Zhen-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Background Several observational studies have suggested an association between cigarette smoking and risk of hip fracture. However, no formal systematic review or meta-analysis was performed to summarize this risk in men. Materials and Methods A search was applied to MEDLINE, EMBASE, and web of science (up to November 1 2016). All prospective cohort studies assessing risk of hip fracture with the factor of cigarette smoking in men without language restriction were reviewed, and qualities of all included studies were assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Two authors independently assessed literatures and extracted information eligibility, and any disagreement was resolved by consensus. Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale was used to evaluate studies’ quality in meta-analyses. We calculated the RR with 95% CIs in a random-effects model as well as the fixed-effects model using the metan command in the STATA version 12.0 (StataCorp, USA). Results Fourteen prospective cohort studies were eligible for the present analysis. A meta-analysis of 12 prospective studies showed that the relative risk (RR) for current male smoking was 1.47 [95% confidence interval (CI) (1.28–1.66), p = 0.54; I2 = 0%]. Subgroup analyses show study characteristics (including geography region, length of follow-up, size of cohorts and study quality) did not substantially influence these positive associations. Eight studies reported the RRs for former smokers compared with never smokers and the pooled RR was 1.15 [95% CI, (0.97–1.34), (I2 = 0%, p = 0.975)]. Conclusions The present meta-analysis of 14 prospective studies suggests that, compared with never smokers, cigarette smoking increases risk of hip fracture in man, specifically in current smokers. However, further larger prospective cohorts with more power or meta-analysis of individual patient data are needed to confirm this association. PMID:28036356

  14. The Dutch String-of-Pearls Stroke Study: protocol of a large prospective multicenter genetic cohort study.

    PubMed

    Nederkoorn, Paul J; van Dijk, Ewoud J; Koudstaal, Peter J; Luijckx, Gert-Jan; van Oostenbrugge, Robert J; Visser, Marieke C; Wermer, Marieke J H; Ruigrok, Ynte M; Algra, Ale; Kappelle, L Jaap

    2015-01-01

    In the last couple of years, genome-wide association studies have largely altered the scope in genetic research in diseases in which both environmental and genetic risk factors contribute to the disease. To date, the genetic risk loci identified in stroke have lagged behind those in other complex diseases, possibly because of the heterogeneity of stroke phenotypes. Sufficiently large cohorts with well-defined and detailed phenotyping of stroke patients are needed to identify additional genetic risk loci. The String-of-Pearls Institute is a unique partnership between all eight University Medical Centers in the Netherlands. It was established in 2007 by the Netherlands Federation of University Medical Centers, and it conducts a large prospective cohort study in which comprehensive clinical data, detailed phenotyping of stroke, imaging data, and biomaterials are collected in a large cohort of stroke patients. The study aims (1) to collect a sufficiently large prospective cohort of stroke patients, with well-defined phenotypes; (2) to collect blood samples and DNA in a standardized infrastructure, allowing for storing and analyzing the samples in a uniform way; (3) to investigate associations between genetic risk loci and stroke; (4) to create possibilities to perform epidemiological studies in a well-defined hospital-based cohort of stroke patients; and (5) to allow for pooling data with other large ongoing genetic stroke studies. © 2014 World Stroke Organization.

  15. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: results from five prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Fondell, Elinor; O'Reilly, Éilis J; Fitzgerald, Kathryn C; Falcone, Guido J; McCullough, Marjorie L; Thun, Michael J; Park, Yikyung; Kolonel, Laurence N; Ascherio, Alberto

    2012-10-01

    Animal and pathological studies suggest that inflammation may contribute to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathology and that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) might be protective. However, there are no prospective data on the relation between NSAID use and ALS risk in humans. The relation between NSAID use and ALS risk was explored in five large prospective cohort studies (the Nurses' Health Study, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort, the Multiethnic Cohort Study, and the National Institutes of Health - AARP Diet and Health Study). Detailed NSAID information was sought from 780,000 participants, 708 of whom developed ALS during follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models were used within each cohort and cohort-specific estimates were pooled with random effects models. Results showed that neither non-aspirin NSAID use, nor aspirin use was associated with ALS risk overall. The multivariable, pooled relative risk was 0.96 (95% CI 0.76-1.22) among non-aspirin NSAID users compared with non-users. Duration of NSAID use in years and frequency of NSAID use were not associated with ALS risk overall. In conclusion, the results do not support an overall effect of NSAIDs on ALS risk, but because NSAIDs have heterogeneous effects, a role of individual compounds cannot be excluded.

  16. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Results from 5 prospective cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Fondell, Elinor; O’Reilly, Éilis J.; Fitzgerald, Kathryn C.; Falcone, Guido J.; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Thun, Michael J.; Park, Yikyung; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Ascherio, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Objective Animal and pathological studies suggest that inflammation may contribute to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathology and that non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) might be protective. However, there are no prospective data on the relation between NSAID use and ALS risk in humans. Methods The relation between NSAID use and ALS risk was explored in five large prospective cohort studies (the Nurses’ Health Study, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort, the Multiethnic Cohort Study, and the National Institutes of Health – AARP Diet and Health Study). Detailed NSAID information was sought from 780,000 participants, 708 of whom developed ALS during follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models were used within each cohort and cohort-specific estimates were pooled with random effects models. Results Neither non-aspirin NSAID use, nor aspirin use was associated with ALS risk overall. The multivariable, pooled relative risk was 0.96 (95% CI 0.76-1.22) among non-aspirin NSAID users compared with non-users. Duration of NSAID use in years and frequency of NSAID use were not associated with ALS risk overall. Conclusion The results do not support an overall effect of NSAIDs on ALS risk, but because NSAIDs have heterogeneous effects, a role of individual compounds cannot be excluded. PMID:22871075

  17. High prevalence of abnormal cervical smears in a hospital cohort of French women beyond the upper age limit screening program.

    PubMed

    Luquain, Alexandra; Belglaiaa, Essaada; Guenat, David; Vrecko, Sindy; Riethmuller, Didier; Valmary-Degano, Séverine; Bedgedjian, Isabelle; Chouham, Said; Prétet, Jean-Luc; Mougin, Christiane

    2015-12-01

    To determine the prevalence of cytological abnormalities and high risk Human PapillomaVirus (hrHPV) in cervical smears from French women aged over 65 years who attended the referent Gynecology Clinic of the Besançon University Hospital. Between 2002 and 2012, 796 French women aged 66-99 years were cotested for cytology and hrHPV by Hybrid Capture 2 (hc2). hc2-positive cases were subjected to real time PCR for specific HPV 16/18/45 genotyping. Women with normal Pap smears and positive for hrHPV were followed-up every 12 months. Cytological abnormalities were detected in more than 30% of women and cervical cancers (CC) in 2.9% of women. Benign lesions were more frequent in women aged 66-75 years while (pre)-malignant lesions were preferentially found in women over 76. The prevalence of hrHPV was 22.7%. HPV 16 was the most frequent (23.8%), followed by HPV 45 (7.7%) and HPV 18 (3.9%). The rate of hrHPV increased with the lesion severity and HPV 16 was identified in 50% of CC. Among the followed-up women, those who developed CIN3 were HPV16 positive at study entry. The study provides important estimates of the prevalence of cervical abnormalities and hrHPV positivity in a French hospital based-population over 65. Findings suggest to consider this high risk population in regards to cervical cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Hereditary angioedema with normal C1 inhibitor in a French cohort: Clinical characteristics and response to treatment with icatibant

    PubMed Central

    Boccon‐Gibod, Isabelle; Launay, David; Gompel, Anne; Kanny, Gisele; Fabien, Vincent; Fain, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction The clinical characteristics and icatibant‐treatment outcomes of patients with hereditary angioedema with normal C1 inhibitor (HAE‐nC1 INH) are limited. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data from French HAE patients enrolled in the Icatibant Outcome Survey registry (from July 2009 to September 2013) to compare disease characteristics and the effectiveness and safety of acute icatibant‐treated angioedema attacks in patients with HAE‐nC1 INH, HAE with C1 INH deficiency (type I), or dysfunction (type II). Results One center in Grenoble contributed 22 patients with HAE‐nC1 INH and a family history of HAE while 15 centers across France contributed 153 patients with HAE type I and seven patients with HAE type II. Patients with HAE‐nC1 INH compared to HAE type I, respectively, were more likely to be female (88.1% vs. 63.4%), older at median age of disease onset (21 years vs. 15 years), and have a greater rate of abdominal (80% vs. 61%) and laryngeal (23% vs. 14%) attacks. Icatibant was effective in both groups though the median time to resolution of attack was significantly longer in the HAE‐nC1 INH group (20.0 h, 37 attacks) versus the HAE type I group (14.0 h, 67 attacks). Icatibant was self‐administered for 96.1% of attacks in patients with HAE‐nC1 INH and 75.8% in patients with HAE type I. No serious adverse side effects related to icatibant were reported. Conclusions These data help further define the disease characteristics of HAE‐nC1 INH in the French population and extend the limited data reporting the safe and effective use of icatibant in acute treatment of angioedema in French patients diagnosed with HAE‐nC1 INH. PMID:28250922

  19. Association between Low to Moderate Arsenic Exposure and Incident Cardiovascular Disease. A Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Katherine A.; Guallar, Eliseo; Umans, Jason G.; Devereux, Richard B.; Best, Lyle G.; Francesconi, Kevin A.; Goessler, Walter; Pollak, Jonathan; Silbergeld, Ellen K.; Howard, Barbara V.; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Background Inorganic arsenic exposure in water and food is a global public health problem. Chronic exposure to high levels of arsenicis consistently associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, whereas prospective data on low to moderate chronic arsenic exposure (<100μg/L in drinking water) are lacking. Objective To evaluate the association between chronic low to moderate arsenic exposure and incident cardiovascular disease. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The Strong Heart Study baseline visit in 1989-1991, with follow-up through 2008. Patients 3,575 American Indian men and women aged 45-74 years living in Arizona, Oklahoma, and North and South Dakota. Measurements The sum of inorganic and methylated arsenic species in urine at baseline was used as a biomarker of chronic arsenic exposure. Participants were followed for incident fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease and stroke. Results 1,184 participants developed fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular disease and 439 participants developed fatal cardiovascular disease. Comparing the highest to lowest quartile arsenic concentrations (>15.7 vs. <5.8 μg/g creatinine), the hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke mortality after adjustment for socio-demographic factors, smoking, body mass index, and lipids were 1.65 (1.20, 2.27; p-trend<0.001), 1.71 (1.19, 2.44; p-trend<0.001) and 3.03 (1.08, 8.50; p-trend=0.061), respectively. The corresponding hazard ratios for incident cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease, and stroke were 1.32 (1.09, 1.59; p-trend=0.002), 1.30 (1.04, 1.62; p-trend=0.006), and 1.47 (0.97, 2.21; p-trend=0.032), respectively. These associations varied by study region and were attenuated following further adjustment for diabetes, hypertension, and measures of kidney disease. Limitations Direct measurement of individual arsenic in drinking water was unavailable. Residual

  20. Cost of injuries from a prospective cohort study of North Carolina high school athletes

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, S B; Marshall, S W; Miller, T; Spicer, R; Bowling, J M; Loomis, D; Millikan, R W; Yang, J; Mueller, F O

    2007-01-01

    Objective To estimate the economic cost of injuries in a population of US high school varsity athletes. Design and Setting The North Carolina High School Athletic Injury Study, conducted from 1996 to 1999, was a prospective cohort study of injury incidence and severity. A two‐stage cluster sampling technique was used to select athletic teams from 100 high schools in North Carolina. An injury cost model was used to estimate the economic cost of injury. Participants Varsity athletes from 12 sports: football, girls' and boy's soccer, girls' and boys' track, girls' and boy's basketball, baseball, softball, wrestling, volleyball, and cheerleading. Main outcome measures Descriptive data were collected at the time of injury. Three types of costs were estimated: medical, human capital (medical costs plus loss of future earnings), and comprehensive (human capital costs plus lost quality of life). Results The annual statewide estimates were $9.9 million in medical costs, $44.7 million in human capital costs, and $144.6 million in comprehensive costs. The mean medical cost was $709 per injury (95% CI $542 to $927), $2223 per injury (95% CI $1709 to $2893) in human capital costs, and $10 432 per injury (95% CI $8062 to $13 449) in comprehensive costs. Sport and competition division were significant predictors of injury costs. Conclusions Injuries among high school athletes represent a significant economic cost to society. Further research should estimate costs in additional populations to begin to develop cost‐effective sports injury prevention programs. PMID:18056320

  1. Cost of injuries from a prospective cohort study of North Carolina high school athletes.

    PubMed

    Knowles, S B; Marshall, S W; Miller, T; Spicer, R; Bowling, J M; Loomis, D; Millikan, R W; Yang, J; Mueller, F O

    2007-12-01

    To estimate the economic cost of injuries in a population of US high school varsity athletes. The North Carolina High School Athletic Injury Study, conducted from 1996 to 1999, was a prospective cohort study of injury incidence and severity. A two-stage cluster sampling technique was used to select athletic teams from 100 high schools in North Carolina. An injury cost model was used to estimate the economic cost of injury. Varsity athletes from 12 sports: football, girls' and boy's soccer, girls' and boys' track, girls' and boy's basketball, baseball, softball, wrestling, volleyball, and cheerleading. Descriptive data were collected at the time of injury. Three types of costs were estimated: medical, human capital (medical costs plus loss of future earnings), and comprehensive (human capital costs plus lost quality of life). The annual statewide estimates were $9.9 million in medical costs, $44.7 million in human capital costs, and $144.6 million in comprehensive costs. The mean medical cost was $709 per injury (95% CI $542 to $927), $2223 per injury (95% CI $1709 to $2893) in human capital costs, and $10,432 per injury (95% CI $8062 to $13,449) in comprehensive costs. Sport and competition division were significant predictors of injury costs. Injuries among high school athletes represent a significant economic cost to society. Further research should estimate costs in additional populations to begin to develop cost-effective sports injury prevention programs.

  2. Does parental drinking influence children's drinking? A systematic review of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Rossow, Ingeborg; Keating, Patrick; Felix, Lambert; McCambridge, Jim

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate evidence of the capacity for causal inference in studies of associations between parental and offspring alcohol consumption in the general population. A systematic search for, and narrative analysis of, prospective cohort studies of the consequences of drinking, except where assessed prenatally only, or with clinically derived instruments. Primary outcome measures were alcohol use or related problems in offspring, which were collected at least 3 years after exposure measures of parental drinking. The systematic review included 21 studies comprising 26,354 families or parent-child dyads with quantitative effect measures available for each study. Criteria for capacity of causal inference included (1) theory-driven approach and analysis; (2) analytical rigour; and (3) minimization of sources of bias. Four of the 21 included studies filled several, but not all, criteria and were assessed to have some capacity for causal inference. These four studies found some evidence that parental drinking predicted drinking behaviour in adolescent offspring. The remaining 17 studies had little or no such capacity. There is a fairly large and consistent literature demonstrating that more parental drinking is associated with more drinking in offspring. Despite this, existing evidence is insufficient to warrant causal inferences at this stage. © 2015 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Recreational Physical Activity and the Risk of Preeclampsia: A Prospective Cohort of Norwegian Women

    PubMed Central

    Trogstad, Lill; Owe, Katrine M.; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Nystad, Wenche

    2008-01-01

    Previous case-control studies suggest that recreational physical activity protects against preeclampsia. Using a prospective design, the authors estimated the risk of preeclampsia for pregnant women according to level of physical activity, taking other variables that influence risk into consideration. The data set comprised 59,573 pregnancies from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (1999–2006). Information on physical activity and other exposures was extracted from questionnaire responses given in pregnancy weeks 14–22, whereas diagnosis of preeclampsia was retrieved from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Estimation and confounder control was performed with multiple logistic regression. About 24% of pregnant women reported no physical activity, and 7% reported more than 25 such activities per month. The adjusted odds ratio was 0.79 (95% confidence interval: 0.65, 0.96) for preeclampsia when comparing women who exercised 25 times or more per month with inactive women. The association appeared strongest among women whose body mass index was less than 25 kg/m2 and was absent among women whose body mass index was higher than 30 kg/m2. These results suggest that the preventive effect of recreational physical activity during pregnancy may be more limited than has been shown in case-control studies and may apply to nonobese women only. PMID:18701444

  4. Sensibility and taste alterations after impacted lower third molar extractions. A prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Ridaura-Ruiz, Lourdes; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard; Berini-Aytés, Leonardo; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the incidence, severity and duration of lingual tactile and gustatory function impairments after lower third molar removal. Study Design: Prospective cohort study with intra-subject measures of 16 patients undergoing lower third molar extractions. Sensibility and gustatory functions were evaluated in each subject preoperatively, one week and one month after the extraction, using Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments and 5 different concentrations of NaCl, respectively. Additionally, all patients filled a questionnaire to assess subjective perceptions. Results: Although patients did not perceive any sensibility impairments, a statistically significant decrease was detected when Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments. This alteration was present at one week after the surgical procedure and fully recovered one month after the extraction. There were no variations regarding the gustatory function. Conclusions: Lower third molar removal under local anesthesia may cause light lingual sensibility impairment. Most of these alterations remain undetected to patients. These lingual nerve injuries are present one week after the extraction and recover one month after surgery. The taste seems to remain unaffected after these procedures. Key words:Lingual nerve, third molar, nerve injury, paresthesia, surgical extraction PMID:22322520

  5. Sensibility and taste alterations after impacted lower third molar extractions. A prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ridaura-Ruiz, Lourdes; Figueiredo, Rui; Valmaseda-Castellón, Eduard; Berini-Aytés, Leonardo; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2012-09-01

    To determine the incidence, severity and duration of lingual tactile and gustatory function impairments after lower third molar removal. Prospective cohort stu