The introduction of activity based pricing in combination with hospitals' reorganizations has created a new financial logic in French public hospitals. The organization has an obligation to produce certain levels of activity, since hospitals' resources are directly dependent on the activity level. These changes also imply the implementation of financial results controls in these organizations. The purpose of this answer is to demonstrate how the literature on management control can help to understand what has been happening within the French public hospitals.
Clark, Andrew E; Milcent, Carine
This paper uses an unusual administrative dataset covering the universe of French hospitals to consider hospital employment: this is consistently higher in public hospitals than in not-for-profit (NFP) or private hospitals, even controlling for a number of measures of hospital output. NFP hospitals serve as a benchmark, being very similar to public hospitals, but without political influence on their hiring. Public-hospital employment is positively correlated with the local unemployment rate, whereas no such relationship is found in other hospitals. This is consistent with public hospitals providing employment in depressed areas. We appeal to the Political Science literature and calculate local political allegiance, using expert evaluations on various parties' political positions and local election results. The relationship between public-hospital employment and local unemployment is stronger the more left-wing the local municipality. This latter result holds especially when electoral races are tight, consistent with a concern for re-election.
Traditional consensus holds that hospitals are ill-suited to the healthcare priorities in Africa countries whose policies must focused mainly on promoting primary services. Indeed hospitals are generally considered as inefficient and wasteful of financial resources that could be used for more important healthcare priorities. Long excluded from major development programs, most hospital facilities have gone from crisis to crisis over the last 10 years and are now unable to provide adequate services. The sometimes dramatic state of these institutions raises serious doubt not only about the effectiveness of current healthcare policies but also about the long-term survival of the healthcare systems now being established. But this situation is not the result of fate but rather of the failure of public hospitals to adapt their organization to the realities of today's world. Indeed hospital services are provided within a purely administrative structure with total disregard for the principles of good management. A new vision for revival of healthcare systems make hospitals a key component in a network of healthcare institutions and recommends that they be included in an in-depth reform of healthcare systems that consider any healthcare act as a service in the "economic" sense of the word and its availability as the end-result of a production process. To ensure fulfillment of the public service mission of the hospital, the resulting "entrepreneurial" approach must be accompanied by appropriation of subsidies so that charges are affordable to a majority of the population, implementation of welfare programs to insure that even the poorest users have sufficient resources, and development of monitoring capabilities.
L'Huillier, M C; Mann, C; Migliori, G
To assess ambulatory surgery practices in France, make an inventory of projects for the creation of ambulatory structures and analyze the perception of different hospital personnel of ambulatory surgery. A questionnaire was sent to 541 public hospitals with a surgery unit in France. The first part of the questionnaire was used to record current activity and existing projects for ambulatory surgery. The questionnaire also collected opinions concerning the analysis of difficulties encountered and possibilities offered by ambulatory surgery. Overall participation rate was 59%. Ambulatory surgery was practised in 81% of the hospitals. Sixty-six percent had a projects under consideration, including several at the decision making stage (17%). 1550 ambulatory surgery clinics could be created by the year 2000. In 66% of the cases, the future facility would be integrated into the traditional surgery unit. There was favorable opinion concerning the development of ambulatory surgery clinics in public hospitals in 83% of the cases. Inconveniences suggested generally involved organizational aspects, particularly concerning medical organization. Foreseen obstacles to the development of ambulatory surgery clinics were regulatory procedures, unfavorable exchange rate, insufficient investment funds and the lack of a policy favoring their development. The development of ambulatory surgery clinics in public hospitals in France can be expected in the near future. Budgeting and regulatory procedures must however be adapted to promote implementation of the existing projects.
Nohuz, E; Schumacher, J-C; Alaboud, M; Dalkiliç, S; Lenglet, Y; Varga, J; Ab Der Halden, M; Chaumette, D; Desroches, A; Collet, J; Brunel, A; Dauptain, G; Dognin, C; Zerr, V
Restructuring the surgery and gynecology-obstetrics departments taking place now raise many interrogations. It appears as a mandatory necessity to some people and as a tribute to financial strategies to others to the detriment of quality and accessibility of care. Its effect is to clarify a good amount of socioeconomical and medical indicators. The plans of perinatality for the obstetrical aspect and the thresholds of activity for the surgical aspect constitute the major lines of these restructurings. A survey soliciting all the French public hospitals was used to assess the state of obstetrics and gynecology departments in the light of these recent restructurings. Medical demography, preserving and improving the quality and continuity of care, efficiency of the technical supports are discriminating criteria of the involved challenges. Such restructurings have an impact on the doctor's lives, which looks globally positive and a good omen to complete this remodeling process. The activity was safeguarded by a redistribution and a refocusing of institutions. One should not minimize the social impact of these changes, with a potential deterioration of working conditions (internal professional reclassifications, mobility obligation towards other sites). It thus appears that the deep changes which affect the small size institutions will be able to achieve well only if they are clearly done (information) and truly integrated in their medical project.
Georgescu, Irène; Hartmann, Frank G H
Drawing upon role theory and the literature concerning unintended consequences of financial pressure, this study investigates the effects of health care decision pressure from the hospital's administration and from the professional peer group on physician's inclination to engage in up coding. We explore two kinds of up coding, information-related and action-related, and develop hypothesis that connect these kinds of data manipulation to the sources of pressure via the intermediate effect of role conflict. Qualitative data from initial interviews with physicians and subsequent questionnaire evidence from 578 physicians in 14 French hospitals suggest that the source of pressure is a relevant predictor of physicians' inclination to engage in data-manipulation. We further find that this effect is partly explained by the extent to which these pressures create role conflict. Given the concern about up coding in treatment-based reimbursement systems worldwide, our analysis adds to understanding how the design of the hospital's management control system may enhance this undesired type of behavior.
Tramini, Paul; Al Qadi Nassar, Buthaïna; Valcarcel, Jean; Gibert, Philippe
This study was undertaken to qualitatively analyze patients' profiles and to identify the sociodemographic and oral health factors associated with emergency visits to the public dental service in Montpellier, France. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the dental care service at Montpellier Hospital. Socioeconomic and clinical variables were compared between the patients using the emergency dental care service and those utilizing the general dental services, which were by appointment. An evaluation of the results indicated that younger patients and people from lower socioeconomic groups used the emergency dental service more frequently. Unemployed people (OR = 1.60) and manual workers (OR = 1.86) were also more likely to use this service. The need for treatment of caries was significantly higher in the group that used the emergency service. It appeared that the two groups of patients had different attendance behavior and showed significantly different socioeconomic and oral health status.
Pascal, Jean; Abbey-Huguenin, Hélène; Leux, Christophe; Lombrail, Pierre; Lert, France
Background Outpatients attending consultations at public hospitals may have unmet needs for preventive medical care. The present study aimed to identify and assess the association between these needs, social vulnerability, and mode of healthcare use. Methods In a multicentre epidemiological study, a group of socially vulnerable outpatients was compared with a non-vulnerable group in a sample of 1316 outpatients selected in hospital consultations, using a validated tool for detection of social vulnerability. Before the patient was seen by medical staff, investigators collected data on social characteristics, healthcare use and preventive medical care received (interventions and advice). Results More than 75% of outpatients stated that they were regularly followed by a physician, usually a general practitioner, but fewer vulnerable than non-vulnerable outpatients were followed (77% vs 89%, p<10−3). For the majority of preventive interventions (vaccinations, screening for cardiovascular risk factors and gynaecological cancers), vulnerable outpatients presented a more marked shortage than non-vulnerable patients, but there was an overall shortage in both groups. When recommended preventive interventions had not been delivered, they had rarely been offered in either group. After adjustment for mode of healthcare use, the differences in preventive care received persisted to the disadvantage of vulnerable outpatients with regard to technical preventive interventions, but there was no difference between the two groups regarding advice received to reduce risk behaviours. Conclusion Unmet needs for preventive care primarily resulted from social inequalities in secondary access to such care. It may be necessary to set up specific interventions targeting vulnerable patients within hospital consultations. PMID:19307244
Quenon, J-L; Eveillard, M; Vivien, A; Bourderont, D; Lepape, A; Lathelize, M; Jestin, C
Deep wound infection is a rare but dreaded postoperative complication after total hip prosthesis (THP) procedures but its incidence can be reduced by systemic antimicrobial prophylaxis. The objective of the present study was to evaluate whether antimicrobial prophylaxis for elective primary THP in patients without any history of hip infection, in orthopaedic wards, participating on a voluntary basis, in French public hospitals and private institutions, complies with published guidelines. Three types of data were collected from anaesthetic and surgical records (November 2000-January 2001) in participating hospitals: (1) administrative data on the hospitals and orthopaedic wards, (2) data on patients, (3) data on compliance of practices with five critical criteria derived from published French guidelines. These criteria concerned administration of prophylaxis, choice of antimicrobial agent, dose of first injection, timing of administration and total length of prophylaxis. Thirty institutions sent data files on 1257 THPs to the coordination centre. Compliance exceeded 80% for all criteria except one (interval between first and second injection). Cumulative compliance with the five criteria was 66.9%. Major compliance failures were an inappropriate interval between the first injection and incision, and total antimicrobial prophylaxis exceeding 48 h. Cumulative compliance was 87.9% in teaching hospitals, 61.8% in general hospitals and 67.7% in private institutions (P<1 x 10(-6)). It was slightly higher when the annual number of interventions was > or =100 (69.4 versus 62.3%; P<0.02). Although the protocol for antimicrobial prophylaxis in THP was clear and easy, one-third of practices did not conform with all five standards. Knowledge of the results by the participating institutions should encourage them to set up working groups to draft care protocols for THP and other surgical interventions, in order to improve practice and perhaps reduce costs.
Maguerez, G; Erbault, M; Terra, J L; Maisonneuve, H; Matillon, Y
To evaluate the feasibility of implementing continuous quality improvement (CQI) projects in French health care organizations. The French Ministry of Health issued two calls for CQI projects (in 1995 and 1996). ANAES was commissioned to monitor and evaluate the projects, and to provide advice. ANAES in collaboration with French public hospitals. A jury selected 64 projects from 483 submissions. The first series of projects related to safety issues (e.g. blood transfusions), the second related chiefly to patient management. ANAES instructed project leaders in process analysis (modified four-step FOCUS-PDCA model), convened regular meetings between leaders and performed on-site visits. Objective outcomes: goal achievement, extension of projects to other topics and departments, allocation of resources. Subjective outcomes: changes in attitudes. Statistics were obtained from two questionnaires completed by project leaders. Four projects were discontinued; 82% (49 out of 60) met more than half their objectives. The CQI method was adopted by other departments in 65% and 50% (1st and 2nd series respectively) of cases. Hospital management often chose to provide continued support (81%/88%), offer training (59%/80%), create a CQI unit (62%/73%), and allocate a budget (61%/65%). A positive impact on staff attitudes was noted in over 75% of projects. ANAES' co-ordinated initiative to acquaint a hard core of French public hospitals with CQI proved successful. Identification of the factors for success and of potential hurdles helped pave the way for the national hospital accreditation procedure currently underway.
Gandré, Coralie; Gervaix, Jeanne; Thillard, Julien; Macé, Jean-Marc; Roelandt, Jean-Luc; Chevreul, Karine
International recommendations for mental health care have advocated for a reduction in the length of stay (LOS) in full-time hospitalization and the development of alternatives to full-time hospitalizations (AFTH) could facilitate alignment with those recommendations. Our objective was therefore to assess whether the development of AFTH in French psychiatric sectors was associated with a reduction in the LOS in full-time hospitalization. Using data from the French national discharge database of psychiatric care, we computed the LOS of patients admitted for full-time hospitalization. The level of development of AFTH was estimated by the share of human resources allocated to those alternatives in the hospital enrolling the staff of each sector. Multi-level modelling was carried out to adjust the analysis on other factors potentially associated with the LOS (patients’, psychiatric sectors’ and environmental characteristics). We observed considerable variations in the LOS between sectors. Although the majority of these variations resulted from patients’ characteristics, a significant negative association was found between the LOS and the development of AFTH, after adjusting for other factors. Our results provide first evidence of the impact of the development of AFTH on mental health care and will provide a lever for policy makers to further develop these alternatives. PMID:28335580
FSPH is based on the foundations of the 45-year-old National School of Public Health Administration (ENSP), located in Rennes (Brittany) on a 22-acre campus. The annual budget is 55 milion euros, which is only partly adequate for FSPH missions and objectives. What is currently needed, in addition to ENSP is a high-level academic establishment. It has been argued that France lacks the research resources and funding necessary to hold a leading international position in public health research and expertise. About 85% of international scientific papers published by French teams in the field of public health are produced by Inserm (the French equivalent of NIH) and university hospitals, which are mainly located in Paris. It is proposed to initially network and reinforce existing forces, in close collaboration with top-level institutions in the French capital. This series of three papers proposes to establish a dynamic in two domains: (i) risk analysis and regulation, and (ii) prevention and screening in public health. FSPH will be grounded on scientific excellence, French-English bilingual training, openness to Europe and North America, worldwide notoriety, and collaboration with top-flight academic and research institutions, hospitals, and the private sector.
Rousseau, A-C; Blanchon, T; Turbelin, C; Cabane, J; Hanslik, T; Feron, J-M; Rousseau, B; Fardet, L
In France, primary-care physicians referring patients for admission can choose between public and private hospitals. The factors that govern their choices are unknown. Among all patient admissions reported from 1997 to 2011 by primary-care physicians participating in the Sentinels(®) network, we identified those due to orthopaedic conditions or trauma. We then identified the factors associated with referral to a private hospital rather than to a public hospital. Of 45,960 admissions reported to Sentinels(®) in 1997-2011, 2794 (6.1%) were for orthopaedic/trauma care. The main reasons for admission were hip fractures (27.5%), elective orthopaedic surgery (15.5%), fractures of the humerus (5.9%), wrist fractures (5.4%), soft-tissue lesions of the forearm or hand (5.0%), and spinal injuries (4.5%). Private hospitals were chosen more often for orthopaedic/trauma patients than for patients with other conditions (40% vs. 21.6% of cases, P<0.0001). When fracture of the humerus was used as the reference, referral to private hospitals was significantly more common for elective surgery (odds ratio, 3.30 [2.02-5.40]) and hip fracture (odds ratio, 1.50 [1.03-2.18]) and significantly less common for spinal injuries (odds ratio, 0.35 [0.19-0.66]). Other factors associated with referral to private hospitals were patient age, admission decision during an office visit or in a non-emergent setting, and admission decision made by the patient's usual physician. Specific factors seem to govern decisions by primary-care physicians to refer orthopaedic/trauma patients to private vs. public hospitals. Identical pricing scales for private and public hospitals will be implemented soon in France, a change that requires further analyses. Level IV. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Raphaël, Remonnay; Yves, Devaux; Giselle, Chvetzoff; Magali, Morelle; Odile, Carrere Marie
The objective of this study was to evaluate the cost of home-cancer-healthcare programs and their potential interest for public health insurance as compared to inpatient cancer care. The study was conducted at the Centre Leon Berard (CLB), a comprehensive cancer centre in Lyon, France. Hospitals at home patients were monitored by nurses and oncologists from the CLB. All patients, who received home treatment over a 15-day period in 2001, were included in the study. Patients were broken down into groups according to the type of healthcare required and the corresponding impact on health insurance expenditure. For each of these patients, a fictive-hospital stay was then reconstructed, which corresponded to the inpatient hospital care that would have been required during the observation period, had hospital at home not been available. The average cost of hospital at home was significantly lower than the corresponding estimated cost for treatment at the hospital (776.6 versus 2012.5, P < 0.001). This difference was particularly high for patients in the "palliative care" group (N = 33) (1201.7 versus 3489.7, P < 0.001), whereas in the "chemotherapy" group, results were not significantly different (N = 34) (225.5 versus 318). Our study suggests that hospitalisation alternatives can generate substantial savings for public health insurance in France.
Fontan, J E; Combeau, D; Brion, F
Drug formulations that are specifically intended for pediatric use have not been widely developed in France and do not adequately meet therapeutic needs, particularly as regards hospital requirements. A multicenter study was therefore carried out to evaluate the situation. A questionnaire was sent out in June 1998 to all French university hospital pharmacies and also to those public and private hospitals known to be involved in pediatric care. Of the 78 questionnaires mailed, 63 answers were received. The information requested concerned all the drug formulations prepared in 1997. Ten out of the 63 hospitals that replied stated that the questionnaire was not relevant in their particular case. Fifty-three answers were therefore evaluated, i.e., corresponding to data from 35 university hospitals, 15 public general hospitals, and three private hospitals. For 7,022 pediatric beds, 1,155,544 units were prepared consisting of 968,520 capsules prepared from 220 active substances, 33,493 liquid preparations for oral intake, 87,592 parenteral nutrition bags, 48,225 injectable antibiotic drugs, 10,663 injectable anticancer agents, and 7,051 miscellaneous sterile preparations. The most frequently prescribed active substances were, in decreasing order of importance, as follows: diphemanil, captopril, fludrocortisone, ranitidine, spironolactone, and ursodesoxycholic acid. A marked heterogeneity was displayed in galenic forms and drug dosages. In conclusion, this study has shown the most commonly prescribed drugs and the most frequently prepared dosages for pediatric use. Drug manufacturing companies may find it an useful source of information on the limited pediatric market; it may also encourage pediatricians to homogenize and optimize their therapeutic strategies, and pharmacists to establish specific quality-control procedures. The authors recommend that national guidelines be set up, and it is suggested that the health authorities could participate in organizing the means
A study of 50 years of French petroleum policy, this book is a theoretical analysis of public enterprise and a general analysis of the relationship of state to society. The author reveals the French government's lack of actual control over French public enterprises in the oil industry. Demonstrating that French regulatory policy protects petroleum firms, he goes on to show that these firms fail to promote the state's goals and the public interest. French policy is molded by an ideological commitment to managerial autonomy and unfettered profits. The linkage of the state to society by elite recruitment, socialization, and career paths closes all but a limited number of policy options, with a resultant weakening of dedication to public goals. 83 references, 4 tables.
Degrassat-Théas, A; Bensadon, M; Rieu, C; Angalakuditi, M; Le Pen, C; Paubel, P
In 2005, the French Government implemented a new way of financing high-cost drugs for hospitals in order to promote innovation. Such drugs are gathered on a positive list, established by the Ministry of Health, with a reimbursement price cap. Hospitals still negotiate with pharmaceutical firms, who set their prices freely, and then charge the national health insurance according to their consumption, without budgetary constraints, but on the condition of good use of care. They are not allowed to charge a price higher than this ceiling price, which is called the 'responsibility tariff' (RT). This measure is included in another, larger reform, which concerns hospital financing through allotted amounts at a specific diagnosis-based level. The purpose of this add-on payment on top of the health funds is firstly to avoid heterogeneity in costs per diagnostic-related group and secondly to avoid an uncontrolled increase of prices due to a lack of interest in negotiation from hospitals, as supplementary funding could reduce hospital price sensitivity. The aim of this work was to assess the bargaining power of hospitals with the pharmaceutical firms in the monopoly market of innovative cancer drugs since the implementation of this reimbursement price cap. This study used data from the French Technical Agency of Information on Hospitals (ATIH; Agence Technique de l'Information sur l'Hospitalisation) and included 487 hospitals, which were public and non-profit private. The analysis was conducted on the cancer drugs of the regulated list. An index representing the ratio of the purchase prices to the RT was built from 2004 to 2007 in order to make a 'before-and-after' comparison. Results showed a transient price decrease in 2005 before an alignment of patented drugs with regulated prices in the context of a dynamic market with a 22.5% yearly growth rate in value between 2004 and 2007. Hospitals are able to impose the RT for single-brand drugs. However, they are no longer able to
Karpowicz-Lazreg, C.; Mullet, E. )
Mean risk magnitude judgments expressed by French students on 90 hazardous activities are reported and compared with findings on American, Hungarian, and Norwegian samples. In many respects, rating of perceived risk in the French sample is highly comparable to rating in American subjects. American and French people tend to share the same preoccupations to the same extent. The only major differences concern hallucinatory drugs and oral contraceptives. The Norwegians and French ratings differ much more. Norwegians and French people generally have the same preoccupations (which make Norwegian ratings the best predictor of French ratings) but not to the same extent. The French are much more concerned with a whole series of activities connected to violence, the implementation of high technology or agricultural technology. However, like the Norwegians, the French are extremely concerned about the spread of hallucinogenic drugs. The Hungarian and French ratings differ on practically all instances, except on basic activities or substances in all industrialized nations (caffeine, motorcycles, ...). Differences were observed within the French sample itself. Women more than men consider that home appliances in general and large-scale public transportation are potentially dangerous. Science students more than art students tend to fear a certain number of medical techniques and a certain number of toxic substances (e.g., smoking). 7 refs., 1 tab.
Pedro II Hospital was inaugurated in Recife in 1861 and for several decades was the leading center of its kind in the state of Pernambuco and in Northeast Brazil. Its construction followed French design, as developed by physician Jacques-René Tenon, that is, the so-called pavilion style that was the norm in Pernambuco and in Brazil for many years. After being nearly abandoned in 1982, the hospital was reformed shortly thereafter and reopened its doors to offer a variety of services, thanks to negotiations between the Instituto de Medicina Integral Professor Fernando Figueira and the Archdiocese of Olinda and Recife.
The French Infectious Diseases Society (SPILF) conducted a web-based survey of physicians' referent for antimicrobial therapy (ABT). The 106 respondents came mostly from public (95%) big (median 815 beds) hospitals. A referent according to health ministry requirements was identified in 88 hospitals. In, 18 others, a physician performed the job without identification per se. This activity had a specific financing in only 12% of cases. Two thirds of the referents were infectious diseases physicians, the others had for training a university degree in ABT. Expectations about SPILF were mostly implementation of good practices of ABT (73%), organization of CME sessions (61%), a referent dedicated session during the annual SPILF meeting (58%), a SPILF driven certification (58%) and the creation of regional networks of referents (55%). Implementing a training and evaluation program for ABT referents becomes a priority for the SPILF.
Ruiller, Caroline; Van Der Heijden, Beatrice I J M
In spite of the differences in human resource management (HRM) practices between the non-profit health care sector and business life, the majority of health care sector research appears to be based on the HRM (for human resources management) blueprint for business life staff policy and practice. This study is aimed to better understand the impact of workplace social support in the context of French hospitals. Concrete, the first objective of this article comprises a thorough conceptualization and operationalization of workplace social support (i.e. both professional and personal social support). Data were collected in a French hospital among a sample of 62 respondents (for the qualitative part of our study), and among a sample of 171 health care professionals (nurses and nurse aids) (for the quantitative part of our study). Our outcomes indicate that, especially, personal support given by one's supervisor is strongly and positively related to nurses' and nurse aides' affective commitment. After a discussion about the outcomes, followed by some recommendations for future research, the article concludes with some practical implications for management in hospitals.
The French health care system embraced New Public Management (NPM) selectively, and crafted their own version of NPM using Diagnostic-Related-Group accounting to re-centralize the health care system. Other organizational changes include the adoption of quasi-markets, public private partnerships, and pay-for-performance schemes for General Practitioners. There is little evidence that these improved the performance of the system. Misrepresentation has remained high. With the 2009 Hospital, Patients, Health and Territories Act physician participation in hospital governance receded. Decision-making powers and health units were re-concentrated to instill greater national coherence into the health system.
Chabridon, G; Nekrouf, N; Bioy, A
Hypnosis is very fashionable as an entertainment through TV shows searching for new sensational experiences. What about its practice in the medical world? The aim of this article is to answer to this question. Therefore, we contacted every French University Hospital of each region to find out if hypnosis was practiced for the care of pain (hypnoanalgesia), for chirurgical procedures (hypnosedation) and in adult psychiatry care units (hypnotherapy). For this last practice, we also questioned the type of indications. All 30 of the French University Hospitals had replied by November 2015. Hypnoanalgesia is practiced by all and two-thirds offer hypnosedation. Hypnotherapy is practiced by 40 % of the University Hospitals, 91,7 % for anxiety disorders, 66,7 % for psychotraumatic care and 25 % for mood disorders. Therefore, hypnosis seems to have found its place in the care of pain and as an anesthetic to replace standard procedures. However, the use of hypnotherapy in psychiatry is less frequent, indications for its use being variable and not very consensual. Copyright © 2016 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Uhart, M; Blein, C; L'Azou, M; Thomas, L; Durand, L
Dengue is a major emerging public health concern in tropical and subtropical countries. Severe dengue can lead to hospitalisation and death. This study was performed to assess the economic burden of hospitalisations for dengue from 2007 to 2011 in three French territories of the Americas where dengue is endemic (French Guiana, Martinique and Guadeloupe). Data on dengue-associated hospitalisations were extracted from the French national hospital administrative database, Programme de Médicalisation des Systèmes d'Information (PMSI). The numbers of stays and the corresponding number of hospitalised patients were determined using disease-specific ICD-10 codes. Associated hospital costs were estimated from the payer perspective, using French official tariffs. Overall, 4183 patients (mean age 32 years; 51 % male) were hospitalised for dengue, corresponding to 4574 hospital stays. In nearly all hospital stays (98 %; 4471), the illness was medically managed and the mean length of stay was 4.3 days. The mean cost per stay was €2522, corresponding to a total hospital cost of €11.5 million over the 5 years assessed. The majority of hospitalisations (80 % of patients) and associated costs (75 % of total hospital costs) were incurred during two epidemics. Severe dengue is associated with significant hospital costs that escalate during outbreaks.
Dowd, Bryan E
Why do we need "public policy" regarding specialty hospitals? What is the rationale for government involvement in decisions by the private sector to invest in specialty hospitals? Two possibilities are reduced access to services primarily by the uninsured (a fairness concern) and changes in the types of patients receiving care resulting from poor consumer information (an efficiency concern). The fairness argument faces logical and empirical difficulties, and even if it proved to be true, it is not clear that limiting the growth of specialty hospitals would be an efficient way to address the problem. However, there is some empirical evidence to support the efficiency concern, and if specialty hospitals result in the treatment of patients with lower expected net benefits from treatment, then it is possible that physician-owned facilities could result in an increasingly inefficient allocation of health care resources, higher insurance premiums, and higher rates of uninsurance.
Khanafer, Nagham; Oltra, Luc; Hulin, Monique; Dauwalder, Olivier; Vandenesch, Francois; Vanhems, Philippe
Abstract The epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has changed with an increase in incidence and severity. Prospective surveillance was therefore implemented in a French university hospital to monitor the characteristics of patients at risk and to recognize local trends. Between 2007 and 2014, all hospitalized patients (≥18 years) with CDI were included. During the survey, the mean incidence rate of CDI was 2.9 per 10,000 hospital-days. In all, 590 patients were included. Most of the episodes were healthcare-associated (76.1%). The remaining cases were community-acquired (18.1%) and unknown (5.9%). The comparison with healthcare-associated cases showed that the community-acquired group had a lower rate of antimicrobial exposure (P < 0.001), proton pump inhibitor (P < 0.001), and immunosuppressive drugs (P = 0.02). Over the study period, death occurred in 61 patients (10.3%), with 18 (29.5%) being related to CDI according to the physician in charge of the patient. Active surveillance of CDI is required to obtain an accurate picture of the real dimensions of CDI. PMID:27281101
Lequilliec, N; Raymond, R; Vanjak, D; Baghdadi, N; Boulestreau, H; Zahar, J-R; Gangneux, J-P
Neutropenic patients represent a growing and fragile population in our hospitals. Numerous treatments induce neutropenia in haematology wards and elsewhere. Although strict isolation is recommended during post-haematopoietic stem cell transplantation neutropenia, this may not be the current practice in other situations. In this study, our objective was to analyse what protective measures are applied in neutropenic patients in a French survey. A questionnaire was sent out to infection control teams of 400 public and private French hospitals to enquire about their local recommendations regarding infection prevention in neutropenic patients. Among the 166 (41%) responders, 134 (81%) managed neutropenic patients. All of the centres recommended protective isolation for neutropenic patients. However, only 46 (34%) had clearly defined patients warranting specific isolation measures in terms of the level of neutropenia. All of the centres recommended several barrier measures, but these were highly variable according to the type of air treatment in the wards (note that only 72% of haematology wards are equipped with air treatment). Gowns, gloves, masks, hats and shoe covers were respectively recommended in 128 (95%), 79 (59%), 132 (98%), 87 (65%), and 34 (25%) of the establishments. Surprisingly, the recommendations vary both among hospitals and within the same hospital among different clinical wards. In conclusion, protective measures for neutropenic patients are applied variably and urgently require a consensus to homogenize practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
van Schingen, Edith; Dariel, Odessa; Lefebvre, Hélène; Challier, Marie-Pierre; Rothan-Tondeur, Monique
To describe the impact of a mandatory internal mobility policy on nurses working in French state-funded health establishments. Public hospitals in France rely on the internal mobility of nursing staff to respond to organisational needs, to reduce costs and to increase productivity. However, there is very little data on the impact of such management practices on the nurses themselves. A cross-sectional study, including 3077 nurses from 35 hospitals in the region of Paris, was conducted. Data were collected using a validated self-assessment questionnaire. Forty per cent of French nurses are required to work in different units. This mobility differs according to individual characteristics [age (P = 0.04), length of service (P = 0.017)] and type of environment [hospital (P < 0.0001), specialty (P < 0.0001)]. We can distinguish two types of approaches for implementing a mandatory staff nurse mobility policy. The first is an event that is regular, planned and lasts for several days. The second is an event that is irregular, short and organised the day before or the day of the change. Overall, while nurses are dissatisfied with all types of mandatory unit changes, this dissatisfaction is primarily a result of the irregular mobility events. This study demonstrates the importance of implementing a planned inter-unit mobility event and proposes recommendations for this type of implementation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Geier, Julie, Comp.
Instructional materials from the Milwaukee Public School System's elementary school French immersion program are presented. The materials for the Multi-Language School-German/French, are as follows: (1) Summer Reading Booklet, First Grade French Immersion; (2) L'automne: Livret de la premiere annee; (3) L'Halloween: Livret de la premiere annee;…
Geier, Julie, Comp.
Instructional materials from the Milwaukee Public School System's elementary school French immersion program are presented. The materials for the Multi-Language School-German/French, are as follows: (1) Summer Reading Booklet, First Grade French Immersion; (2) L'automne: Livret de la premiere annee; (3) L'Halloween: Livret de la premiere annee;…
Neusprachliche Mitteilungen, 1976
Reviews 15 publications on teaching French (1972-1975). Encluded are books on: spoken vs. written French, linguistic grammar and teaching grammar, minimum French grammar, error linguistics, text collections for Secondary Grade 2, a stylistic exercise book, a collection for dictation, and literature. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)
Hao, Aimin; Yi, Tao; Li, Xia; Wei, Lei; Huang, Pei; Xu, Xinzhou; Yi, Lihua
Purpose: The quality of medical services provided by competing public hospitals is the primary consideration of the public in determining the selection of a specific hospital for treatment. The main objective of strategic planning is to improve the quality of public hospital medical services. This paper provides an introduction to the history, significance, principles and practices of public hospital medical service strategy, as well as advancing the opinion that public hospital service strategy must not merely aim to produce but actually result in the highest possible level of quality, convenience, efficiency and patient satisfaction.
Bohand, Xavier; Aupée, Olivier; Le Garlantezec, Patrick; Mullot, Hélène; Lefeuvre, Leslie; Simon, Laurent
To determine the rate and the primary types of medication dispensing errors detected by pharmacists during implementation of a unit dose drug dispensing system. The central pharmacy at the Percy French military hospital (France). The check of the unit dose medication cassettes was performed by pharmacists to identify dispensing errors before delivering to the care units. From April 2006 to December 2006, detected errors were corrected and recorded into seven categories: unauthorized drug, wrong dosage-form, improper dose, omission, wrong time, deteriorated drug, and wrong patient errors. Dispensing error rate, calculated by dividing the total of detected errors by the total of filled and omitted doses; classification of recorded dispensing errors. During the study, 9,719 unit dose medication cassettes were filled by pharmacy technicians. Pharmacists detected 706 errors for a total of 88,609 filled and omitted unit doses. An overall error rate of 0.80% was found. There were approximately 0.07 detected dispensing errors per medication cassette. The most common error types were improper dose errors (n = 265, 37.5%) and omission errors (n = 186, 26.3%). Many causes may probably explain the occurrence of dispensing errors, including communication failures, problems related to drug labeling or packaging, distractions, interruptions, heavy workload, and difficulties in reading handwriting prescriptions. The results showed that a wide range of errors occurred during the dispensing process. A check performed after the initial medication selection is also necessary to detect and correct dispensing errors. In order to decrease the occurrence of dispensing errors, some practical measures have been implemented in the central pharmacy. But because some dispensing errors may remain undetected, there is a requirement to develop other strategies that reduce or eliminate these errors. The pharmacy staff is widely involved in this duty.
Clement, J P; Grazier, K L
The purpose of this study is to determine the extent to which health maintenance organization (HMO) penetration within the public hospitals' market area affects the financial performance and viability of these institutions, relative to private hospitals. Hospital- and market-specific measures are examined in a fully interacted model of over 2,300 hospitals in 321 metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) in 1995. Although hospitals located in markets with higher HMO penetration have lower financial performance as reflected in revenues, expenses and operating margin, public hospitals are not more disadvantaged than other hospitals by managed care.
Shmueli, Amir; Savage, Elizabeth
The nature of the private-public mix in health insurance and in health care is a major issue in most health systems. To compare the hospitalization characteristics of private and public patients hospitalized in public hospitals. We focused on planned, overnight and same-day admissions, discharged during 2004-2005 from the public New South Wales hospitals, and run fixed-effects regressions in order to identify the effect of accommodation status (private/public) on the hospitalization characteristics. Private patients have one third less waiting days than public patients, and they are assigned higher urgency of admission. Length of stay and length of visit are both unrelated to the accommodation status, however, private patients tend to have more hours in ICU and more procedures performed during the hospitalization. In-hospital mortality and the number of transfers (wards) are not affected by the accommodation status. Private patients are treated differently than public patients in public hospitals, reinforcing the private health insurance-related inequity in inpatient care identified by others. Two health policy issues emerge from the findings: the role of private health insurance in the Australian socialized medicine system, and in particular, in the public hospitals; and the way public hospitals are reimbursed for private patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Frautschi, Richard L.
Pennsylvania State University's Department of French and Institute of Public Administration have responded to the need for language-trained civil servants by developing a dual master's degree program in French and public administration. Degree requirements include the full requirements for each program, with six credits from each curriculum…
Wright, Donald J
A soft budget constraint arises when a government is unable to commit to not 'bailout' a public hospital if the public hospital exhausts its budget before the end of the budget period. It is shown that if the political costs of a 'bailout' are relatively small, then the public hospital exhausts the welfare-maximising budget before the end of the budget period and a 'bailout' occurs. In anticipation, the government offers a budget to the public hospital that may be greater than or less than the welfare-maximising budget. In either case, the public hospital treats 'too many' elective patients before the 'bailout' and 'too few' after. The introduction of a private hospital reduces the size of any 'bailout' and increases welfare. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Vantilcke, Vincent; Boukhari, Rachida; Jolivet, Anne; Vautrin, Cyrille; Misslin, Caroline; Adenis, Antoine; Nacher, Mathieu
In Western French Guiana, there was a dramatic increase in HIV prevalence between 1990 and 2000. The present study describes the causes of fever among HIV patients hospitalized in the medical ward of the only hospital in the western part of French Guiana. A retrospective descriptive study was conducted between 1 January 2008 and 30 June 2010 in the department of medicine of Saint Laurent du Maroni Hospital. The main characteristics of 67 patients having presented with fever in the first 48 hours of hospitalization were described. Among patients with CD4 <200/mm(3)the main febrile opportunistic infection was disseminated histoplasmosis (41.1%). Among patients with CD4 counts <50/mm(3)and fever without focal points 85.7% had disseminated histoplasmosis. Three patients died and all had disseminated histoplasmosis. Disseminated histoplasmosis is the most common febrile opportunistic infection in western French Guiana. Primary prophylaxis with itraconazole among immunocompromised patients seems warranted.
[Treatment for pulmonary arterial hypertension under the new French hospital financing system. Recommendations of the Pulmonary Vascular Diseases Working Group of the French Society of Pulmonary Medicine].
Sitbon, O; Humbert, M; Simonneau, G
Activity-based financing (that is, casemix-based hospital payments, known as T2A) is intended to harmonize and improve the fairness of remuneration of public and private hospitals. T2A will ultimately rely mainly on a flat rate per admission, set according to the diagnosis-related group (DRG). Although payment for drugs is usually included in the DRG price, some expensive drugs will be reimbursed on an additional cost basis after implementation of a "best practices" agreement. Four drugs used for treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension are eligible for this additional reimbursement: 3 prostacyclin derivatives (intravenous epoprostenol, inhaled iloprost, and subcutaneous treprostinil), and oral bosentan, an endothelin receptor antagonist. The Pulmonary Vascular Diseases working group of the French Society of Pulmonary Medicine has developed guidelines for the best practices in use of these drugs.
Bret, P; Bret, M-C; Queuille, E
The commercial introduction of atypical antipsychotics, called second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs), a few years ago, has led to a world-wide reappraisal of the established treatment strategies for people with psychotic or bipolar disorders. They permitted improvements in the pharmacologic management of psychiatric diseases. As compared to conventional neuroleptics or first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs), they promised better efficacy especially on negative symptoms and cognitive impairments of psychiatric diseases and, at the same time, better tolerance on neurological side effects. Now, they have shown other side effects and they have a higher acquisition cost than FGAs. The aim of this paper is to describe and analyse the prescribing practices of antipsychotic drugs in French psychiatric hospitals for adult inpatients and to compare them with other surveys and guidelines. In June 2004, we conducted a one-day, cross-sectional, observational and naturalistic study in 13 hospitals, members of the PIC network. Two thousand one hundred and ninety-two prescriptions with antipsychotic treatment were collected. One thousand one hundred and fifty-four prescriptions (52.6%) included a SGA, but the FGAs were the most prescribed (65.8%; n=2259), principally cyamemazine (24.7%). There was one antipsychotic in 50.7% of prescriptions, two antipsychotics in 42.2%, but the second neuroleptic used was a sedative (82.6%), principally cyamemazine. Multiple antipsychotics were present in 1081 prescriptions (49.3%), with an average number of 1.57 antipsychotics. A mood stabiliser, an antidepressant, an anxiolytic and a hypnotic were coprescribed in respectively 37, 30.5, 65.1 and 41.6%. There were 2.48 psychotropic drugs associated with the principal antipsychotic; in total, with correctors of side-effects of the antipsychotics, there were 3.38 drugs per prescription. The SGAs aimed more often for psychotic (F20-F29) patients (61.9% versus 43.3% with FGAs), who were males (61
Caseris, M; Houhou, N; Longuet, P; Rioux, C; Lepeule, R; Choquet, C; Yazdanpanah, Y; Yeni, P; Joly, V
We reviewed 80 adult cases of measles seen in a Parisian hospital during the French 2010-2011 outbreak. Fifty per cent had at least one complication: pneumonia and hepatitis were the most frequent. Forty per cent of hospitalized cases did not have any complications, suggesting clinically poor tolerance of measles in adults. The outcome was always favourable. Subjects were younger, were more often French nationals and had a higher socio-economic status than the overall population. This report suggests that immunity resulting from natural disease in patients from an area where the disease is endemic is protective in the long term.
Felland, Laurie E; Stark, Lucy
Over the last 15 years, public hospitals have pursued multiple strategies to help maintain financial viability without abandoning their mission to care for low-income people, according to findings from the Center for Studying Health System Change's (HSC) site visits to 12 nationally representative metropolitan communities. Local public hospitals serve as core safety net providers in five of these communities--Boston, Cleveland, Indianapolis, Miami and Phoenix--weathering increased demand for care from growing numbers of uninsured and Medicaid patients and fluctuations in public funding over the past 15 years. Generally, these public hospitals have adopted six key strategies to respond to growing capacity and financial pressures: establishing independent governance structures; securing predictable local funding sources; shoring up Medicaid revenues; increasing attention to revenue collection; attracting privately insured patients; and expanding access to community-based primary care. These strategies demonstrate how public hospitals often benefit from functioning somewhat independently from local government, while at the same time, relying heavily on policy decisions and funding from local, state and federal governments. While public hospitals appear poised for changes under national health reform, they will need to adapt to changing payment sources and reduced federal subsidies and compete for newly insured people. Moreover, public hospitals in states that do not expand Medicaid eligibility to most low-income people as envisioned under health reform will likely face significant demand from uninsured patients with less federal Medicaid funding.
Nwagbara, Vitalis Chukwudi; Rasiah, Rajah; Aslam, Md. Mia
Abstract Background: Public hospitals have come under heavy scrutiny across the world owing to rising expenditures. However, much of the focus has been on cutting down costs to raise efficiency levels. Although not denying the importance of efficiency measures, this article targets a performance issue that is relevant to address the quality of services rendered in public hospitals. Thus, it is important to focus on the effectiveness of resource utilization in these hospitals. Consequently, this article seeks to examine the impact of average length of stay (ALOS) and bed turnover rates (BTR) on bed occupancy rates (BOR). Methods: Public hospital inpatient utilization records during the period 2006 to 2013 were gathered from the Ministry of Health, Malaysia. A 2-step generalized method of moments (GMM) statistical method was used to analyze the data. BOR was adopted as the dependent variable, whereas BTR and ALOS were used as the explanatory variables. The logarithm of total bed count (BED), admission (ADM), and patient days (PD) was deployed as control variables. Three regression models were developed to explore the correlates of BOR as a hospital performance measure. Ethics committee approval was waived because no patients were identified in the study. Results: The statistical analyses show that ALOS and BTR are inversely correlated with BOR, with both coefficients significant at 1%. The control variables of BED, ADM, and PD had the right positive signs and they were significant in both sets of equations. Hence, reducing ALOS and BTR can help raise performance of public hospitals in Malaysia. Conclusion: In light of the robust results obtained, this study offers implications for improving public hospital performance. It shows a need to reduce ALOS and BTR in public hospitals to improve BOR. PMID:27603363
Jennings, P; Lotito, A; Baysson, H; Pineau-Blondel, E; Berlioz, J
The purpose of the study was to evaluate physician's satisfaction with the clinical pharmacy activities in a French regional hospital. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews carried out by a public health intern with physicians from 14 different departments of medicine and surgery. A specifically designed questionnaire was used for this study. This contained 18 closed-ended questions, 3 open-ended questions and 6 questions relating to the multidisciplinary analysis of prescriptions of elderly patients. The questionnaire was proposed to 78 physicians, of which 62 replied (participation rate of 79%). Thirty-seven percent were interns (23/62), 19% were assistants (12/62) and 44% were senior physicians (27/62). Clinical pharmacy satisfaction levels were generally very high. In regard to clinical skills, 87% of the physicians were satisfied with pharmacists' competencies and 91% by the pertinence of transmitted information. Ninety-five percent of the physicians were also satisfied by the logistical aspect and the relationship with pharmacists (reactivity, availability and communication). Analysis of the open-ended questions showed that physicians were in favour of the increased presence of clinical pharmacists on the wards. This study shows a high level of physician satisfaction in relation to the clinical pharmacy activities in our hospital, and should be viewed as a strong endorsement of the work of the clinical pharmacy. This study highlights some areas of improvement such as increase presence of the clinical pharmacists on the wards. In order to assess periodically our activity, this study must be repeated in the future. Copyright © 2016 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Dumartin, Catherine; L'Hériteau, François; Péfau, Muriel; Bertrand, Xavier; Jarno, Pascal; Boussat, Sandrine; Angora, Pacôme; Lacavé, Ludivine; Saby, Karine; Savey, Anne; Nguyen, Florence; Carbonne, Anne; Rogues, Anne-Marie
Antibiotic use in French hospitals is among the highest in Europe. A study was carried out to describe antibiotic consumption for inpatients at hospital and at ward levels. Data were voluntarily collected retrospectively by 530 hospitals accounting for approximately 40 million patient-days (PD) on the following: antibacterials for systemic use [J01 class of the WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification, defined daily doses (DDD) system, 2007], rifampicin and oral imidazole derivatives, expressed in number of DDD and number of PD in 2007. Consumption was expressed in DDD/1000 PD. Median antibiotic use ranged from 60 DDD/1000 PD in long-term care (LTC) and psychiatric hospitals to 633 DDD/1000 PD in teaching hospitals. Penicillins and beta-lactamase inhibitors combinations were the most frequently used antibiotics, accounting for 26% of total use in cancer hospitals to 40% in LTC/psychiatric hospitals. Glycopeptides and carbapenems were mostly used in cancer and teaching hospitals. Level of consumption and pattern of use differed according to clinical ward from 60 DDD/1000 PD in psychiatric wards up to 1466 DDD/1000 PD in intensive care units (ICUs). In medicine, surgery, ICU and rehabilitation wards, fluoroquinolones accounted for 13%-19% of the total use. This multicentre survey provided detailed information on antibiotic use in a large sample of hospitals and wards, allowing relevant comparisons and benchmarking. Analysis of consumption at the ward level should help hospitals to target practice audits to improve antibiotic use.
Escrivão Junior, Alvaro
This study investigates managerial perceptions of the use of information in health management and planning in 24 Public Hospitals in the São Paulo Metropolitan Region, analyzing its usefulness for the decision-making process. In addition, some characteristics of the existing information system are studied. The findings show that ample amounts of information and data are available in the hospitals covered by this study, despite some gaps, and that managers do not know about the existing data and do not use this information to guide hospital management.
Bataille, Julie; Prot-Labarthe, Sonia; Bourdon, Olivier; Joret, Perrine; Brion, Françoise; Hartmann, Jean-François
High-alert medications (HAMs) are medications that are associated with a high risk of serious harm if used improperly. The objective of this study was to identify paediatric HAM used in our institution and to identify safety measures for their use. The list of HAM and the list of safety measures that were introduced in our department were based on (1) a literature search; (2) a survey of health care professionals in our department including doctors, head nurses, nurses and pharmacists; and (3) the drug steering committee. We found four lists of HAM based on a literature search, including 27 classes of pharmaceutical agents, and 63 common drug names. The response rate of the survey was 20.7% (230 of 1113). Some of the HAMs included in our list were not identified by the literature search. These included neuroleptic drugs, anti-malarial agents, antiviral agents, anti-retroviral agents and intravenous acetaminophen. The drug steering committee selected 17 HAM and highlighted 53 safety measures involving seven broad aspects of pharmacological management. This project was part of the new safety strategies developed in a paediatric hospital. We set out to make a list of HAM relevant to paediatrics with additional safety measures to prevent medication errors associated and a 'joker' system. The various safety measures, such as double-checking of HAM prescriptions, should be reviewed during the year following their implementation. This list, which was developed in our hospital specifically for use in paediatrics, can be adapted for use in other paediatric departments. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Leblanc, Soline; Blein, Cécile; Andremont, Antoine; Bandinelli, Pierre-Alain; Galvain, Thibaut
OBJECTIVE To describe the hospital stays of patients with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and to measure the hospitalization costs of CDI (as primary and secondary diagnoses) from the French national health insurance perspective DESIGN Burden of illness study SETTING All acute-care hospitals in France METHODS Data were extracted from the French national hospitalization database (PMSI) for patients covered by the national health insurance scheme in 2014. Hospitalizations were selected using the International Classification of Diseases, 10 th revision (ICD-10) code for CDI. Hospital stays with CDI as the primary diagnosis or the secondary diagnosis (comorbidity) were studied for the following parameters: patient sociodemographic characteristics, mortality, length of stay (LOS), and related costs. A retrospective case-control analysis was performed on stays with CDI as the secondary diagnosis to assess the impact of CDI on the LOS and costs. RESULTS Overall, 5,834 hospital stays with CDI as the primary diagnosis were included in this study. The total national insurance costs were €30.7 million (US $33,677,439), and the mean cost per hospital stay was €5,267±€3,645 (US $5,777±$3,998). In total, 10,265 stays were reported with CDI as the secondary diagnosis. The total national insurance additional costs attributable to CDI were estimated to be €85 million (US $93,243,725), and the mean additional cost attributable to CDI per hospital stay was €8,295±€17,163, median, €4,797 (US $9,099±$8,827; median, $5,262). CONCLUSION CDI has a high clinical and economic burden in the hospital, and it represents a major cost for national health insurance. When detected as a comorbidity, CDI was significantly associated with increased LOS and economic burden. Preventive approaches should be implemented to avoid CDIs. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:906-911.
Tripodi, D; Roedlich, C; Laheux, M A; Longuenesse, C; Roquelaure, Y; Lombrail, P; Geraut, C
Nantes University Hospital comprises 20 activity sectors. To investigate the role of the work environment at the individual level, as well as the workplace level, in explaining the variability in employees' perception of stress. A self-administered enhanced Karasek Job Content Questionnaire was sent to employees. The main variables were the psychological job demand (PJD) score and the job decision latitude (JDL) score. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to estimate crude odds ratio (OR) and adjusted OR. One thousand eight hundred and sixty-eight workers were included. Nursing managers (25.9 ± 3.4), non-specialized nurses (25.6 ± 3.5) and physicians (25.3 ± 3.4) had the highest PJD. Cleaning staff (61.4 ± 11.4) and nurse aides (63.6 ± 8.8) had the lowest JDL. Items correlated with high PJD are: unacceptable work schedule, adjusted OR 2.16 (95% CI = 1.3-3.5); unsatisfactory workstation accessibility, OR 1.92 (95% CI = 1.1-3.2); getting from A to B, OR 1.67 (95% CI = 1.2-2.4); and heavy manual handling, OR 1.62 (95% CI = 1.1-2.3). Sleeping tablet use was linked to high PJD (P < 0.01), extra workload (P < 0.05) and tiredness (P < 0.05). Use of painkillers was correlated with musculoskeletal disorders (P < 0.05). Our study highlighted women >40 years old, nurse managers, physicians, permanent and/or full-time workers having a high PJD. Nursing aides, medical secretary and nurses presented with high strain. Better control measures should be implemented for those socioprofessional categories to improve prevention measures. This study should be repeated in the future with a multi-centre approach to determine the generalizability of the findings.
Martelli, Nicolas; Billaux, Mathilde; Borget, Isabelle; Pineau, Judith; Prognon, Patrice; van den Brink, Helene
Local health technology assessment (HTA) to determine whether new health technologies should be adopted is now a common practice in many healthcare organizations worldwide. However, little is known about hospital-based HTA activities in France. The objective of this study was to explore hospital-based HTA activities in French university hospitals and to provide a picture of organizational approaches to the assessment of new and innovative medical devices. Eighteen semi-structured interviews with hospital pharmacists were conducted from October 2012 to April 2013. Six topics were discussed in depth: (i) the nature of the institution concerned; (ii) activities relating to innovative medical devices; (iii) the technology assessment and decision-making process; (iv) the methodology for technology assessment; (v) factors likely to influence decisions and (vi) suggestions for improving the current process. The interview data were coded, collated and analyzed statistically. Three major types of hospital-based HTA processes were identified: medical device committees, innovation committees, and "pharmacy & management" processes. HTA units had been set up to support medical device and innovation committees for technology assessment. Slow decision making was the main limitation to both these committee-based approaches. As an alternative, "pharmacy & management" processes emerged as a means of rapidly obtaining a formal assessment. This study provides an overview of hospital-based HTA initiatives in France. We hope that it will help to promote hospital-based HTA activities in France and discussions about ways to improve and harmonize practices, through the development of national guidelines and/or a French mini-HTA tool, for example.
Gallini, Adeline; Juillard-Condat, Blandine; Saux, Marie-Claude; Taboulet, Florence
AIM To give a panorama of the selectivity and agreement of French university hospitals' drug formularies (HDF) for nine competitive classes. METHODS All university hospitals were asked to send their HDF and selection criteria as of January 2009 for nine competitive pharmacological classes (proton pump inhibitors, serotonin antagonists, low molecular weight heparins, erythropoietins, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor antagonists, statins, α-adrenoreceptor antagonists and selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors). Selectivity of HDF was estimated by the percentage of drug entities selected by the hospital within the pharmacological class. Agreement between hospitals was assessed with modified kappa coefficients for multi-raters. RESULTS Twenty-one out of the 29 hospitals agreed to participate. These hospitals selected between 34% and 63% of the drug entities available for the nine classes, which represented 18 to 35 agents. Regarding the nature of chosen drug entities, the overall level of agreement was ‘fair’ and varied with pharmacological classes. Selection criteria were sent by only 12 hospitals. The technical component was the most important element in all hospitals. The weight of the economic component varied between 20% and 40% in the tender's grade. DISCUSSION Large variations were seen in the number and nature of drugs selected by university hospitals which can be attributable to two successive decision-making processes (evaluation by the Drug and Therapeutics Committee followed by the purchasing process). PMID:21518387
Management of neutropenic patients in the intensive care unit (NEWBORNS EXCLUDED) recommendations from an expert panel from the French Intensive Care Society (SRLF) with the French Group for Pediatric Intensive Care Emergencies (GFRUP), the French Society of Anesthesia and Intensive Care (SFAR), the French Society of Hematology (SFH), the French Society for Hospital Hygiene (SF2H), and the French Infectious Diseases Society (SPILF).
Schnell, David; Azoulay, Elie; Benoit, Dominique; Clouzeau, Benjamin; Demaret, Pierre; Ducassou, Stéphane; Frange, Pierre; Lafaurie, Matthieu; Legrand, Matthieu; Meert, Anne-Pascale; Mokart, Djamel; Naudin, Jérôme; Pene, Frédéric; Rabbat, Antoine; Raffoux, Emmanuel; Ribaud, Patricia; Richard, Jean-Christophe; Vincent, François; Zahar, Jean-Ralph; Darmon, Michael
Neutropenia is defined by either an absolute or functional defect (acute myeloid leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome) of polymorphonuclear neutrophils and is associated with high risk of specific complications that may require intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Specificities in the management of critically ill neutropenic patients prompted the establishment of guidelines dedicated to intensivists. These recommendations were drawn up by a panel of experts brought together by the French Intensive Care Society in collaboration with the French Group for Pediatric Intensive Care Emergencies, the French Society of Anesthesia and Intensive Care, the French Society of Hematology, the French Society for Hospital Hygiene, and the French Infectious Diseases Society. Literature review and formulation of recommendations were performed using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation system. Each recommendation was then evaluated and rated by each expert using a methodology derived from the RAND/UCLA Appropriateness Method. Six fields are covered by the provided recommendations: (1) ICU admission and prognosis, (2) protective isolation and prophylaxis, (3) management of acute respiratory failure, (4) organ failure and organ support, (5) antibiotic management and source control, and (6) hematological management. Most of the provided recommendations are obtained from low levels of evidence, however, suggesting a need for additional studies. Seven recommendations were, however, associated with high level of evidences and are related to protective isolation, diagnostic workup of acute respiratory failure, medical management, and timing surgery in patients with typhlitis.
Dimitropoulos, Vera; Bennett, Adam; McIntosh, Jean
The aims of this study were to compare Sydney public hospitals regarding medical record coding times to compare observed coding times with coding times necessary to avoid backlog and to evaluate the impact on coding time of casemix complexity, coder age, experience, job satisfaction, employment status, and salary. Coding time (in minutes) for each medical record over a two-week period was documented by 61 coders employed in 13 hospitals: six principal referral (PR), six major metropolitan (MM), and one paediatric specialist (PS) hospitals. The mean coding time for each coder was estimated by averaging across coding times for all records during the two-week period. In order to compare hospital mean coding times, the hospitals were grouped into PR and MM/PS groups. The mean coding time necessary to avoid coding backlog (expected coding time) for each hospital group was based on the total number of annual separations and filled full-time equivalent coding positions. The observed mean coding time was longer in the PR group than in the MM/PS group (p = 0.019); however, the observed coding time was within the expected coding time limit in both the PR and MM/PS groups. Casemix complexity tended to influence coding time, but neither age, experience, job satisfaction, employment status nor salary had any impact. In conclusion, the expected coding times, if reliable, indicate that coders in the two hospital groups were keeping coding up-to-date. Thus, the variation between hospital groups in coding time is of little importance, given that the main objective in coding productivity is to maintain the coding workload.
Dangouloff-Ros, V; Ronot, M; Lagadec, M; Vilgrain, V
To evaluate the publication rate of scientific abstracts that were presented orally at the 2008, 2009, and 2010 annual meetings of the French Society of Radiology by French radiologists, and to perform a French regional analysis. Orally presented abstracts were identified by examining online abstract books of the 2008, 2009, and 2010 annual meetings of the French Society of Radiology, and cross-checked by reviewing the paper version of abstracts for the same period. Only abstracts from French teams were selected. The administrative region of submission was noted for each abstract and for each region the total population, the number of active radiologists, the number of active members of the French Society of Radiology and the number of academic radiologists were noted. Imaging subspecialties were also noted. 625 abstracts were identified resulting in 268 publications (publication rate: 43%). The median number of presentations and publications per region was 18 (range: 1-255) and 7 (range: 0-101), respectively. The ratio per million inhabitants was 7.5 and 3 respectively. The median number of presentations and publications per 100 active radiologists (respectively members of the FSR) was 7 and 3 (respectively 10 and 4). The median number of presentations and publications per academic radiologist were 2.6, and 1.2, respectively. The regional variations for each indicator were high (40-180%). Three subspecialties had a publication rate of more than 50%: thoracic imaging (58%), abdominal imaging (52%), and genitourinary imaging (51%). The publication rate of orally presented French scientific abstracts was high, with important variations according to the regions of origin and imaging subspecialties. Copyright © 2015 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Vaghetti, Helena Heidtmann; Padilha, Maria Itayra; da Silva, Rosimeri Carvalho; de Almeida Simões, Jorge Manuel Trigo
That was a review study that aimed to analyze the interpretations that authors of dissertations and thesis about the meanings expressed by health workers, about the relations of subsistence with the job, in the organizational culture of public hospitals in Brazil. Data were extracted from from dissertations and theses in the period from 2002 to 2006. The theoretical methodological reference laid in the interpretive anthropology by Clifford Geertz. The results point that the subsistence relations conduct to alienation from work. The payment generates economic non satisfaction that pry the need to have other jobs. The work stability feeds the disengagement and actions that stimulates the transgression of standards and help the own governs in public hospitals in Brazil.
McKee, Martin; Edwards, Nigel; Atun, Rifat
While some forms of public-private partnerships are a feature of hospital construction and operation in all countries with mixed economies, there is increasing interest in a model in which a public authority contracts with a private company to design, build and operate an entire hospital. Drawing on the experience of countries such as Australia, Spain, and the United Kingdom, this paper reviews the experience with variants of this model. Although experience is still very limited and rigorous evaluations lacking, four issues have emerged: cost, quality, flexibility and complexity. New facilities have, in general, been more expensive than they would have been if procured using traditional methods. Compared with the traditional system, new facilities are more likely to be built on time and within budget, but this seems often to be at the expense of compromises on quality. The need to minimize the risk to the parties means that it is very difficult to "future-proof" facilities in a rapidly changing world. Finally, such projects are extremely, and in some cases prohibitively, complex. While it is premature to say whether the problems experienced relate to the underlying model or to their implementation, it does seem that a public-private partnership further complicates the already difficult task of building and operating a hospital.
McKee, Martin; Edwards, Nigel; Atun, Rifat
While some forms of public-private partnerships are a feature of hospital construction and operation in all countries with mixed economies, there is increasing interest in a model in which a public authority contracts with a private company to design, build and operate an entire hospital. Drawing on the experience of countries such as Australia, Spain, and the United Kingdom, this paper reviews the experience with variants of this model. Although experience is still very limited and rigorous evaluations lacking, four issues have emerged: cost, quality, flexibility and complexity. New facilities have, in general, been more expensive than they would have been if procured using traditional methods. Compared with the traditional system, new facilities are more likely to be built on time and within budget, but this seems often to be at the expense of compromises on quality. The need to minimize the risk to the parties means that it is very difficult to "future-proof" facilities in a rapidly changing world. Finally, such projects are extremely, and in some cases prohibitively, complex. While it is premature to say whether the problems experienced relate to the underlying model or to their implementation, it does seem that a public-private partnership further complicates the already difficult task of building and operating a hospital. PMID:17143463
Girault, Anne; Bellanger, Martine; Lalloué, Benoît; Loirat, Philippe; Moisdon, Jean-Claude; Minvielle, Etienne
Despite a wide implementation of pay-for-performance (P4P) programs, evidence on their impact in hospitals is still limited. Our objective was to assess the implementation of the French P4P pilot program (IFAQ1) across 222 hospitals. The study consisted of a questionnaire among four leaders in each enrolled hospital, combined with a qualitative analysis based on 33 semi-structured interviews conducted with staff in four participating hospitals. For the questionnaire results, descriptive statistics were performed and responses were analyzed by job title. For the interviews, transcripts were analysed using coding techniques. Survey results showed that leaders were mostly positive about the program and reported a good level of awareness, in contrast to the frontline staff, who remained mostly unaware of the program's existence. The main barriers were attributed to lack of clarity in program rules, and to time constraints. Different strategies were then suggested by leaders. The qualitative results added further explanations for low program adoption among hospital staff, so far. Ultimately, although paying for quality is still an intuitive approach; gaps in program awareness within enrolled hospitals may pose an important challenge to P4P efficacy. Implementation evaluations are therefore necessary for policymakers to better understand P4P adoption processes among hospitals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Schnitzler, A; Ruet, A; Baron, S; Buzzi, J-C; Genet, F
Intramuscular injection of botulinum toxin (BoNTA) is one of the primary treatments for focal spasticity. This treatment is considered costly and the level of reimbursement by health insurance has been decreasing in many countries for several years. The aim of this study was to determine the real cost of treating spasticity with BoNTA and to compare this with the level of reimbursement by the national health insurance in France in 2008 and with a new fee, specific to the injection of BoNTA in ambulatory services. A single-center, retrospective study using the 2008 database from a French secondary-care day-hospital unit (treating spasticity in adults with sequelae of stroke, multiple sclerosis or traumatic brain injuries). The level of reimbursement by the French ministry of health for BoNTA treatment for adults with spasticity constituted the "calculated cost" and corresponded to the hospital's "budget". The "real cost" (incurred by the hospital) included the sum of staffing and material costs as well as the number of toxin vials used. The calculated costs for 2009 and 2013 were based on the levels of reimbursement during those years. The difference between real and calculated cost for 2009 and 2013 was estimated considering that the real cost of 2008 was stable. In 2008, 364 patients received BoNTA, resulting in 870 day-hospital admissions. The calculated cost was 459,056€/year and the real cost was 567,438€/year (equivalent to 4.27€/day/patient). The total budget deficit (hospital income minus hospital costs) was 108,383€. The deficit was estimated at 222,892€ in 2009 and 241,188€ in 2013. The daily cost of BoNTA treatment for spasticity is reasonable; however, because of the level of reimbursement by the national health insurance in France, the treatment is costly for French hospitals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Liaropoulos, Lycourgos; Siskou, Olga; Kaitelidou, Daphne; Theodorou, Mamas; Katostaras, Theofanis
Informal payments are an ingrained social institution in Greece. In some cases, they are also part of corruption in the health area, which includes a variety of other forms. The objective of this paper is to measure and analyze the size and nature of informal payments in the Greek public hospitals, concentrating on payments made to health personnel to facilitate access to services and preferred providers. We used a randomized countrywide sample of 1616 households, amounting to 4738 individuals. The survey methodology was telephone interviews with a questionnaire supported by the software of Computer Assisted Telephone Interviewing. Out of the total number of those reporting treatment in public hospitals (N=336), 36% reported at least one informal payment to a doctor. Of these, 42% reported it was given because of the fear of receiving sub-standard care (if they did not pay) and another 20% claimed that the doctor demanded such a payment. None of the socio-economic characteristics of the family were related to the size of extra (informal) payments. The probability of extra payments is 72% higher for patients aiming to "jump the queue", compared to those admitted through normal procedures. Also, surgical cases had a 137% higher probability for extra payments compared to non-surgical patients. A very high percentage of informal payments are made in order to gain access to public hospitals and to receive a higher quality of services. Despite near universal coverage of the population by public health insurance, informal payments are widespread and a major source of inequity and inefficiency in the Greek health care system.
Robert, J; Péan, Y; Alfandari, S; Bru, J-P; Bedos, J-P; Rabaud, C; Gauzit, R
In 2011, the French Agency for Safety of Health Products issued guidelines underlining the principles of proper aminoglycosides' use. The aim of the survey was to evaluate adherence to these guidelines two years after their issue. Characteristics of patients receiving aminoglycosides were recorded by voluntary facilities during a 3-month survey in 2013-2014. The modalities of aminoglycosides treatment were analysed by comparison with the French guidelines. A total of 3,323 patients were included by 176 facilities. Patients were mainly hospitalized in medical wards (33.0%), and treated for urinary-tract infections (24.7%). Compliance regarding the clinical indication and the daily aminoglycosides dose was observed in 65.2% and 62.9% of the cases, respectively. A 30-min once-daily IV administration was recorded in 62.5% of the cases. Aminoglycosides treatment duration was appropriate (≤5 days) for 93.6% of the patients. When considering the four criteria together, 23.2% of the patients had a treatment regimen aligned with the guidelines. Requests for measurements of peak and trough AG serum concentrations matched the guidelines in 24.9% and 67.4% of the cases, respectively. Two years after guidelines issue, aminoglycosides use remains unsatisfactory in French health-care facilities. Efforts should be made for guidelines promotion, especially regarding the issue of underdosing.
Dumartin, Catherine; Rogues, Anne-Marie; Amadéo, Brice; Péfau, Muriel; Venier, Anne-Gaëlle; Parneix, Pierre; Maurain, Catherine
French hospitals are urged by health authorities to develop antibiotic stewardship (ABS) programmes in order to improve antibiotic use and to decrease their consumption. We performed a longitudinal survey to describe ABS measures implementation and antibiotic use and to study relationships between ABS measures and trends in antibiotic use between 2005 and 2009. Data on ABS, antibiotic use and activity were retrospectively collected by questionnaires sent to hospitals voluntarily participating in the south-western France network. ABS measures covered organization, resources, restrictive and persuasive actions. Antibiotic use was retrieved from pharmacy records and expressed as the number of defined daily doses/1000 patient-days according to national and WHO guidelines using 2009 defined daily dose values to monitor trends. Relationships between ABS measures and antibiotic use were studied by multivariate logistic regression. Between 2005 and 2009, the degree of implementation of ABS increased in the 74 participating hospitals. Antibiotic use remained stable, with variations according to hospital groups and antibiotic classes. In hospitals with more ABS measures, antibiotic use in general and fluoroquinolone use tended to remain stable or to decrease. Educational activities were associated with a decrease in fluoroquinolone use in the univariate analysis. In the multivariate analysis, practice audits and time dedicated by the antibiotic advisor were significantly associated with a decrease in total antibiotic use and fluoroquinolone use, respectively. This first longitudinal study, in 74 hospitals, showed that human resources and persuasive ABS measures, in the context of a multidisciplinary approach, are helpful in controlling total antibiotic and fluoroquinolone use.
Hornez, Emmanuel; Maurin, Olga; Mayet, Aurélie; Monchal, Tristan; Gonzalez, Federico; Kerebel, Delphine
AIM: To evaluate the performance of the specific French Vittel “Pre-Hospital (PH) resuscitation” criteria in selecting polytrauma patients during the pre-hospital stage and its potential to increase the positive predictive value (PPV) of pre-hospital trauma triage. METHODS: This was a monocentric prospective cohort study of injured adults transported by emergency medical service to a trauma center. Patients who met any of the field trauma triage criteria were considered “triage positive”. Hospital data was statistically linked to pre-hospital records. The primary outcome of defining a “major trauma patient” was Injury Severity Score (ISS) > 16. RESULTS: There were a total of 200 injured patients evaluated over a 2 years period who met at least 1 triage criterion. The number of false positives was 64 patients (ISS < 16). The PPV was 68%. The sensitivity and the negative predictive value could not be evaluated in this study since it only included patients with positive Vittel criteria. The criterion of “PH resuscitation” was present for 64 patients (32%), but 10 of them had an ISS < 16. This was statistically significant in correlation with the severity of the trauma in univariate analysis (OR = 7.2; P = 0.005; 95%CI: 1.6-31.6). However, despite this correlation the overall PPV was not significantly increased by the use of the criterion “PH resuscitation” (68% vs 67.8%). CONCLUSION: The criterion of “pre-hospital resuscitation” was statistically significant with the severity of the trauma, but did not increase the PPV. The use of “pre-hospital resuscitation” criterion could be re-considered if these results are confirmed by larger studies. PMID:25379459
A "competitive cluster" is a partnership between businesses, research units and training centers, working together to generate synergies for innovative projects in a particular geographic area. Since 2005, the first five calls for cluster projects have led to the funding of 645 R&D projects involving 13,000 researchers. Together, the R&D expenditure of these projects has so far totaled nearly Euro 3.6 billion. This included public funding of Euro 1300 million, Euro 840 million of which was provided by central government. In the biomedical field, 80 R&D projects have been funded to the tune of Euro 140 million (Euro 81 million from central government and Euro 59 million from local government). A total of 288 agreements have been signed, 12% with large companies, 36% with SMEs and 49.8% with public research laboratories. Alongside the more classical biomedical research funding sources, such as the National Research Agency and government-sponsored projects (on cancer, Alzheimer's disease, rare diseases, etc.), competitive clusters provide the impetus for profound changes in research culture. They draw on the principle of professional guidance and public-private partnerships to build a bridge between the "academic" and "industrial" research arenas. By facilitating knowledge generation and sharing, competitive clusters create a climate of action-driven mutual respect and trust.
Le Coz, P; Carlet, J; Roblot, F; Pulcini, C
In January 2015, the French ministry of Health set up a task force on antibiotic resistance. Members of the task force's "antimicrobial stewardship" group conducted a study to evaluate the human resources needed to implement all the required activities of the multidisciplinary antimicrobial stewardship teams (AST - antibiotic/infectious disease lead supervisors, microbiologists, and pharmacists) in French healthcare facilities. We conducted an online cross-sectional nationwide survey. The questionnaire was designed based on regulatory texts and experts' consensus. The survey took place between March and May 2015. We used the mailing list of the French Infectious Diseases Society (SPILF) to send out questionnaires. A total of 65 healthcare facilities completed the questionnaire. The human resources needed to implement all AST's activities were estimated at 3.6 full-time equivalent (FTE) positions/1000 acute care beds for antibiotic/infectious disease lead supervisors, at 2.5 FTE/1000 beds for pharmacists, and at 0.6 FTE/1000 beds for microbiologists. This almost amounts to a total of 2000 FTE positions for all healthcare facilities (public and private) in France and to an annual cost of 200 million euros. Dedicated and sustainable funding for AST is urgently needed to implement comprehensive and functional AST programs in all healthcare facilities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Rococo, E; Mazouni, C; Or, Z; Mobillion, V; Koon Sun Pat, M; Bonastre, J
Minimum volume thresholds were introduced in France in 2008 to improve the quality of cancer care. We investigated whether/how the quality of treatment decisions in breast cancer surgery had evolved before and after this policy was implemented. We used Hospital Episode Statistics for all women having undergone breast conserving surgery (BCS) or mastectomy in France in 2005 and 2012. Three surgical procedures considered as better treatment options were analyzed: BCS, immediate breast reconstruction (IBR) and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). We studied the mean rates and variation according to the hospital profile and volume. Between 2005 and 2012, the volume of breast cancer surgery increased by 11% whereas one third of the hospitals no longer performed this type of surgery. In 2012, the mean rate of BCS was 74% and similar in all hospitals whatever the volume. Conversely, IBR and SLNB rates were much higher in cancer centers (CC) and regional teaching hospitals (RTH) [IBR: 19% and 14% versus 8% on average; SLNB: 61% and 47% versus 39% on average]; the greater the hospital volume, the higher the IBR and SLNB rates (p < 0.0001). Overall, whatever the surgical procedure considered, inter-hospital variation in rates declined substantially in CC and RTH. We identified considerable variation in IBR and SLNB rates between French hospitals. Although more complex and less standardized than BCS, most clinical guidelines recommended these procedures. This apparent heterogeneity suggests unequal access to high-quality procedures for women with breast cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Borella, Laurent; Philip, Thierry
A recent report of the Senate revealed the difficulties of elaborating an effective cancer policy in France. Senators particularly pointed to the necessity of establishing cancer care priorities and to the tremendous need for medical coordination. This paper will develop the annual state debate on social security funding. The authors will show that health policy is entirely dependent on health economics. We believe that health priorities and health outcomes should be defined before any financial decision is made, this preliminary debate being an essential contribution to evidence-based policy-making in public health.
Lewis, Maureen; Penteado, Evandro; Malik, Ana Maria
Brazil's hospital sector is vibrant and growing. Under the 1988 Brazilian constitution all citizens have the right to health care, anticipating the global commitment to Universal Health Care. Brazil's public sector prides itself on having one of the world's largest single payer health care systems, but complementing that is a significant and larger private sector that is seeing big increase in investment, utilization and prices. This article outlines the structure of the hospital system and analyzes the nature and direction of private health sector expansion. Twenty-six percent of Brazilians have private health insurance and although coverage is concentrated in the urban areas of the Southeastern part of the country, it is growing across the nation. The disease burden shift to chronic diseases affects the nature of demand and the directly affects overall health care costs, which are rising rapidly outstripping national inflation by a factor of 3. Increasingly costs will have to be brought under control to maintain the viability of the private sector. Adaption of integrated care networks and strengthening of the public reimbursement system represent important areas for improvement.
Contarino, F; Grosso, G; Mistretta, A
The growing debate in recent years over how to finance public works through private capital has progressively highlighted the role of project finance (PF) and publicprivate partnerships (PPP) in general. More and more European countries are turning to PF to finance their public infrastructure development. The UK, which pioneered the adoption of project finance in this field, has been followed by Italy, Spain, France, Portugal and Germany and more recently by Greece, Czech Republic and Poland. Beginning in the late 1990's, Italy has steadily amplified its use of PF and PPPs in key sectors such as healthcare as an alternative way of funding the modernisation of its health facilities and hospitals. The trend reveal an average annual growth of 10.9% since 2002 with peaks of varying intensity over the five year period. Project finance and PPPs represent an effective response to the country's infrastructure gap and support the competitiveness of local systems and the quality of public services. None of this will transpire, however without energetic new planning efforts and adequate policy at the centre.
Charpiat, B; Bedouch, P; Rose, F X; Juste, M; Roubille, R; Conort, O; Allenet, B
Little is known about the manner in which hospital pharmacists intervene for overdosed paracetamol prescriptions. The aim of this retrospective study was to describe the number and nature of pharmacists' interventions (PIs) for overdosed paracetamol adult prescriptions in hospitals. We studied PIs that had been documented by pharmacists on the French Society of Clinical Pharmacy website tool between 2007 and 2010. We identified PIs that were related to paracetamol-containing prescriptions of one brand name only (type 1) particularly for patients with body weight ≤ 50 kg who were prescribed 4 g/day, and PIs that concerned the co-prescription of two paracetamol-containing products (type 2). Among 60 hospitals, seven did not report any paracetamol overdose-related PIs. Of the 53 hospitals that had at least one PI, 16 did not report any type 1 PIs. Bodyweight, liver disease, cirrhosis and chronic alcoholism were absent recorded criterion by most of the hospitals included in this study. Previously published studies have highlighted that the most frequent PIs are type 1, especially for patients whose body weight is ≤ 50 kg. We observed a broad variability in the number or type of PI that were related to overdosed paracetamol prescriptions compared with the total of all recorded types of PI. These data suggest that a significant number of hospital pharmacists are unaware of the risks that adult patients with low body weight are exposed to when receiving four grams paracetamol/day over several days. Pharmacist educational programs are needed. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Jurkowski, Janine M; Svistova, Juliana; Nguyen, Trang; Dennison, Barbara A
Establishing breastfeeding in the first days of an infant's life is important for longer term success in breastfeeding. In 2009, New York State (NYS) was the second state to require maternity care facilities to collect infant feeding information and to publicly disseminate hospital-specific infant feeding statistics. Public reporting of these statistics as performance measures is a strategy to prompt hospitals to improve breastfeeding support. This qualitative study sought to explore how maternity care administrators and clinical staff responded to the mandate for publicly reported performance measures and whether they used this information to improve maternity care practices. This study used a stratified random sample of NYS hospitals with maternity care units. Participants were recruited by email and telephone calls. A total of 25 hospitals participated in the study, and 37 hospital administrators and staff completed in-depth interviews by telephone. The interviews were analyzed using an explanatory framework in NVivo 8. Publicly reported hospital-specific breastfeeding measures increased attention to breastfeeding performance. Hospital administrators and staff reported comparing their relative rankings to other hospitals in the state. Some hospitals used publicly reported breastfeeding measures to monitor performance, whereas others were prompted to generate additional measures for more frequent monitoring. Hospitals with relatively low breastfeeding statistics took certain actions to improve their maternity care practices to support breastfeeding. Limitations of the usefulness of publicly reported measures were reported by interview participants. Publicly reported, hospital-specific breastfeeding measures may prompt hospitals to monitor and improve maternity care practices related to supporting breastfeeding.
Cayla, Guillaume; Lapostolle, Frédéric; Ecollan, Patrick; Stibbe, Olivier; Benezet, Jean Francois; Henry, Patrick; Hammett, Christopher J; Lassen, Jens Flensted; Storey, Robert F; Ten Berg, Jur M; Hamm, Christian W; Van't Hof, Arnoud W; Montalescot, Gilles
ATLANTIC was a randomized study comparing pre- and in-hospital treatment with a ticagrelor loading dose (LD) in ongoing ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). We sought to compare patient characteristics and clinical outcomes in France with other countries participating in ATLANTIC. The population comprised 1862 patients, 660 (35.4%) from France and 1202 from 12 other countries. The main endpoints were reperfusion (≥70% ST-segment elevation resolution) and TIMI flow grade 3 before (co-primary endpoints) and after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Other endpoints included a composite ischaemic endpoint (death/myocardial infarction/stroke/urgent revascularization/definite stent thrombosis) and bleeding events at 30days. In France, median times from first LD to angiography and between first and second LDs were 49 and 35min, respectively, and were similar to other countries. French patients were younger (mean 58.7 vs 61.9years, p<0.0001) and characterized by a higher rate of radial access (89.9% vs 54.8%, p<0.0001), more frequent use of pre-hospital glycoprotein (GP) IIb/IIIa inhibitors (14.1% vs 3.1%, p<0.0001) and intravenous enoxaparin (57.3% vs 10.1%, p<0.0001). In France, as in other countries, the co-primary endpoints did not differ between the two randomization groups. The composite ischaemic endpoint was numerically lower in France (3.3% vs 5.1%, p=0.07), with a lower mortality (1.4% vs 3.3%, p=0.01). PLATO major bleeding was numerically less frequent in France (1.8% vs 3.2%, p=0.07). The French population appears to have better outcomes than the rest of the study population, and seems related to differences in demographics and management characteristics. ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01347580). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Bourdon, Nancy; Fines-Guyon, Marguerite; Thiolet, Jean-Michel; Maugat, Sylvie; Coignard, Bruno; Leclercq, Roland; Cattoir, Vincent
Unprecedented outbreaks of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) have occurred in French hospitals since 2004. The aim of this study was to provide a picture of the spread and control of VRE in France and to characterize the isolates. Notification of VRE cases to Institut de Veille Sanitaire has been mandatory since 2001. Isolates of VRE were sent to the National Reference Centre for species and vancomycin-resistance gene identification. Isolates were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility and typed by PFGE and multilocus sequence typing. Five hundred and four VRE notifications from 195 hospitals were recorded, corresponding to 2475 cases of infection (n=243) or colonization (n=2232) and 74 episodes of clustered cases. Outbreaks were controlled by implementation of infection control measures, although the number of new hospitals reporting isolation of VRE was increasing. The majority of 902 VRE isolated from 2006 to 2008 were Enterococcus faecium (94.8%) with the vanA or vanB gene. No isolate was resistant to linezolid, tigecycline or fusidic acid. PFGE analysis showed 161 different patterns. Generally a few predominant clones and several minor clones spread in a single hospital. In a subset of 46 representatives of PFGE clones, 13 different sequence types were characterized, all belonging to clonal complex CC17, while the esp and hyl genes were inconsistently detected. The national mandatory notification of unusual nosocomial events allowed rapid identification of VRE outbreaks and early implementation of control measures that have proved effective. However, VRE continue to emerge in a growing number of hospitals.
Jourdain, F.; Girod, R.; Vassal, J.M.; Chandre, F.; Lagneau, C.; Fouque, F.; Guiral, D.; Raude, J.; Robert, V.
The females of the moths Hylesia metabus have their abdomens covered by urticating hairs looking like micro-arrows and causing a puriginous dermatitis to humans known as “papillonite” in French Guiana and also called yellowtail moth dermatitis or Caripito itch. The densities of the moths show great seasonal and annual variations depending on mechanisms mostly unknown. When H. metabus infestations occur, numerous cases of dermatologic manifestations are reported from people living near the mangrove swamps where the moths are developing. One hundred years after the first “papillonite” epidemic reported from French Guiana in 1912, the data presented herein summarize the actual state of knowledge on H. metabus biology and ecology and on the lepidopterism. Some recommendations are proposed for the surveillance and warning systems of H. metabus infestations and to avoid contact with the moths. Research priorities are suggested to improve the control against this problem emerging between nuisance and public health. PMID:22550622
Jourdain, F; Girod, R; Vassal, J M; Chandre, F; Lagneau, C; Fouque, F; Guiral, D; Raude, J; Robert, V
The females of the moths Hylesia metabus have their abdomens covered by urticating hairs looking like micro-arrows and causing a puriginous dermatitis to humans known as "papillonite" in French Guiana and also called yellowtail moth dermatitis or Caripito itch. The densities of the moths show great seasonal and annual variations depending on mechanisms mostly unknown. When H. metabus infestations occur, numerous cases of dermatologic manifestations are reported from people living near the mangrove swamps where the moths are developing. One hundred years after the first "papillonite" epidemic reported from French Guiana in 1912, the data presented herein summarize the actual state of knowledge on H. metabus biology and ecology and on the lepidopterism. Some recommendations are proposed for the surveillance and warning systems of H. metabus infestations and to avoid contact with the moths. Research priorities are suggested to improve the control against this problem emerging between nuisance and public health.
Chetwynd, S J
A fully national sample of 1255 people were questioned about their degree of satisfaction with hospital care in New Zealand. Questions covered both public and private hospitals and concerned actual experience of care as well as general attitudes to that care. Almost half the sample (49%) rated public hospital care as "excellent" or "very good", and a similar proportion (48%) assigned those grades to private hospitals. Only 7% of the sample rated public hospital care as "poor" or "very poor" and only 1% rated private hospitals in this way. Major reasons for satisfaction with public hospital care were the high standard of nursing care (41% of sample), the high qualifications of staff (34%) and the availability of appropriate equipment for emergencies (17%). The most common complaints were that hospitals are short-staffed/overworked (15%) and there are long waiting lists (14%). Reasons for satisfaction with private hospital care were no waiting (26%), good standard of care (20%) and good hotel facilities (14%). In general, both public and private hospitals were highly regarded. Dissatisfaction with public hospitals was most evident amongst younger, working people and amongst those in the north and central regions. Dunedin respondents were more satisfied with their hospital care than those in other parts of the country.
Zhao, Dahai; Zhang, Zhiruo
Reforms in public hospitals are among the most important improvements in China's health care system over the last two decades. However, the reforms that should be implemented in public hospitals are unclear. Thus, a feasible direction of reforms in Chinese public hospitals is suggested and reliable policy suggestions are provided for the government to reform public hospitals. The data used in this study were mainly derived from a qualitative study. Focus group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted in Shanghai, Guangdong, and Gansu between May and December 2014. Government funding accounted for approximately eight percent of the total annual revenue of public hospitals in China, and the insufficient government subsidy considerably affects the operation mechanism of public hospitals. However, solely increasing this subsidy cannot address the inappropriate incentives of public hospitals in China. The most crucial step in setting the direction of reforms in public hospitals in China is transforming inappropriate incentives by implementing a new evaluation index system for directors and physicians in public hospitals.
Spranzi, Marta; Brunet, Laurence
The French bioethics laws of 1994 contain the principles of the anonymity and non commodification of all donations of body parts and products including gametes in medically assisted reproduction. The two revisions of the law, in 2004 and 2011 have upheld the rule. In view of the latest revision process, the French government organized a large public consultation in 2009 ("Etats généraux de la bioéthique"). Within the event a "consensus conference" was held in Rennes about different aspects of assisted reproduction (access, anonymity, gratuity and surrogacy). In what follows we shall first describe the anonymity clause for gamete donations in the French law and the debates surrounding it. We shall then analyse the procedure used for the 2009 public consultation and the related consensus conference, as well as its upshot concerning the anonymity doctrine. In this respect we shall compare the citizens' own recommendations on the gamete anonymity issue and its translation in the consultation's final report drafted by a philosopher mandated by the organizing committee. Whereas the final report cited some fundamental ethical arguments as reason for upholding the provisions of the law-most notably the refusal of the 'all biological' approach to reproductive issues-citizens were more careful and tentative in their position although they also concluded that for pragmatic reasons the anonymity rule should continue to hold. We shall argue that the conservative upshot of the public consultation is due to some main underlying presuppositions concerning the citizens' role and expertise as well as to the specific design of the consensus conference. Our conclusion will be that public consultations and consensus conferences can only serve as an empirical support for devising suitable bioethics norms by using second-order normative assumptions.
Alfandari, S; Robert, J; Péan, Y; Rabaud, C; Bedos, J P; Varon, E; Lepape, A; Bru, J P; Gauzit, R
We aimed to assess antibiotic prescriptions to identify potential targets for improvement. We conducted a point prevalence survey (November 2010) of antibiotic use in 314 voluntary hospitals recruited by the French Infectious Diseases Society (SPILF) and the National Observatory for Epidemiology of Bacterial Resistance to Antimicrobials (ONERBA). Data were entered online, immediately analyzed and exported. The prevalence of antibiotic use was 19.5% (9059/46,446patients). A higher prevalence was observed in the infectious disease (58.4%), hematology (58%), and intensive care (48.7%) units. The three most frequently used antibiotic classes were aminopenicillins (23.8%), fluoroquinolones (17.9%), and 3rd-generation cephalosporins (16.7%). A monotherapy was prescribed to 64% of patients. The reasons for the antibiotic prescription were written in the medical records of 74% of patients and 62% were consistent with the local guidelines. Our results are similar to that of other studies. Various local targets for improvement have been identified to help hospitals define a better antibiotic stewardship. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Abdulmalak, Caroline; Cottenet, Jonathan; Beltramo, Guillaume; Georges, Marjolaine; Camus, Philippe; Bonniaud, Philippe; Quantin, Catherine
Haemoptysis is a serious symptom with various aetiologies. Our aim was to define the aetiologies, outcomes and associations with lung cancer in the entire population of a high-income country.This retrospective multicentre study was based on the French nationwide hospital medical information database collected over 5 years (2008-2012). We analysed haemoptysis incidence, aetiologies, geographical and seasonal distribution and mortality. We studied recurrence, association with lung cancer and mortality in a 3-year follow-up analysis.Each year, ~15 000 adult patients (mean age 62 years, male/female ratio 2/1) were admitted for haemoptysis or had haemoptysis as a complication of their hospital stay, representing 0.2% of all hospitalised patients. Haemoptysis was cryptogenic in 50% of cases. The main aetiologies were respiratory infections (22%), lung cancer (17.4%), bronchiectasis (6.8%), pulmonary oedema (4.2%), anticoagulants (3.5%), tuberculosis (2.7%), pulmonary embolism (2.6%) and aspergillosis (1.1%). Among incident cases, the 3-year recurrence rate was 16.3%. Of the initial cryptogenic haemoptysis patients, 4% were diagnosed with lung cancer within 3 years. Mortality rates during the first stay and at 1 and 3 years were 9.2%, 21.6% and 27%, respectively.This is the first epidemiological study analysing haemoptysis and its outcomes in an entire population. Haemoptysis is a life-threatening symptom unveiling potentially life-threatening underlying conditions. Copyright ©ERS 2015.
Longest, Beaufort B
Hospitals in the United States are heavily impacted by public policies that affect them. For example, Medicare and Medicaid programs account for more than half the revenue in most of the nation's almost 5,000 community hospitals, including the almost 1,100 public hospitals controlled by state and local governments (American Hospital Association, 2012). The public hospitals are especially closely aligned with and controlled by governmental entities compared with hospitals with other kinds of sponsorship. This article addresses the management challenges at the intersection of the strategic management of public hospitals and their public policy environments. Public hospitals are complicated entities designed not only to provide health services but also in many cases to play key roles in health-related research and education and to play important general economic development roles in their communities. The multi-faceted strategic decision making in these organizations is as heavily affected by their public policy environments as by their business, demographic, technological or other external environments. Effectively managing the intersection of their public policy environments and their strategic management is indeed vital for contemporary public hospitals. This article is intended to clarify certain aspects of this intersection through a description and model of the strategic activity in public hospitals and the connection between this activity and their external environments. Specific attention is focused on the concept of public policy environments and their features. Attention is also given to how managers can assess public policy environments and incorporate the results into strategic activities.
Martelli, Nicolas; Devaux, Capucine; van den Brink, Hélène; Billaux, Mathilde; Pineau, Judith; Prognon, Patrice; Borget, Isabelle
The number of new medical devices for individual use that are launched annually exceeds the assessment capacity of the French national health technology assessment (HTA) agency. This has resulted in hospitals, and particularly university hospitals (UHs), developing hospital-based HTA initiatives to support their decisions for purchasing innovative devices. However, the methodologies used in such hospitals have no common basis. The aim of this study was to assess a mini-HTA model as a potential solution to harmonize HTA methodology in French UHs. A systematic review was conducted on Medline, Embase, Health Technology Assessment database, and Google Scholar to identify published articles reporting the use of mini-HTA tools and decision support-like models. A survey was also carried out in eighteen French UHs to identify in-house decision support tools. Finally, topics evaluated in the Danish mini-HTA model and in French UHs were compared using Jaccard similarity coefficients. Our findings showed differences between topics evaluated in French UHs and those assessed in decision support models from the literature. Only five topics among the thirteen most evaluated in French UHs were similar to those assessed in the Danish mini-HTA model. The organizational and ethical/social impacts were rarely explored among the surveyed models used in French UHs when introducing new medical devices. Before its widespread and harmonized use in French UHs, the mini-HTA model would first require adaptations to the French context.
Ramamonjiarivelo, Zo; Weech-Maldonado, Robert; Hearld, Larry; Menachemi, Nir; Epané, Josué Patien; O'Connor, Stephen
As safety net providers, public hospitals operate in more challenging environments than private hospitals. Such environments put public hospitals at greater risk of financial distress, which may result in privatization and deterioration of the safety net. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether financial distress is associated with privatization among public hospitals. We used panel data merged from the American Hospital Association Annual Survey, Medicare Cost Reports, Area Resource File, and Local Area Unemployment Statistics. Our study population consisted of all U.S. nonfederal acute care public hospitals in 1997 tracked through 2009, resulting in 6,426 hospital-year observations. The dependent variable "privatization" was defined as conversion from public status to either private not-for-profit or private for-profit status. The main independent variable, "financial distress," was based on the Altman Z-score methodology. Control variables included market and organizational factors. Two random-effects logistic regression models with state and year fixed-effects were constructed. The independent and control variables were lagged by 1 year and 2 years for Models 1 and 2, respectively. Public hospitals in financial distress had greater odds of being privatized than public hospitals not in financial distress: (OR = 4.53, p < .001) for Model 1 and (OR = 3.05, p = .001) for Model 2. Privatization eases access to resources and may provide financial relief to government entities from the burden of continuously funding a hospital operating at a loss, which in turn may help keep the hospital open and preserve access to care for the community. Privatizing a financially distressed public hospital may be a better strategic alternative than closure. The Altman Z-score could be used as a managerial tool to monitor hospitals' financial condition and take corrective actions.
Gray, N A; Dent, H; McDonald, S P
Clinical outcomes for patients treated in public and private hospitals may be different. The aim of the study was to compare the characteristics and outcomes of patients receiving dialysis at public and private hospitals in Queensland. Incident adult dialysis patients in Queensland registered with the Australia and New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry between 1999 and 2009 were classified by dialysis modality at either a public or private hospital. Outcomes were dialysis patient characteristics and survival. Three thousand, three hundred and ten patients commenced dialysis in public hospitals, 1939 haemodialysis (HD) and 1371 peritoneal dialysis (PD). Seven hundred and ninety-three patients commenced dialysis in private hospitals, 757 HD and 36 PD. Compared with public HD, private HD patients were older, had more coronary artery disease and less diabetes, and were more likely to live in an urban area. Public HD patients were more likely to be obese and referred late to a nephrologist. Nearly all indigenous patients were managed in public hospitals. Private patients were more likely to have an arteriovenous fistula or graft at first HD (P < 0.001) but not after excluding late referrals (P = 0.09). Public hospitals provided longer HD sessions and more HD hours per week for all age groups except 75+ years. Compared with public hospital HD, patient survival adjusted for multiple variables was comparable for private hospital HD (hazard ratio 1.20 (95% confidence interval 0.98-1.46, P = 0.07)) but worse for public PD (hazard ratio 1.14 (95% confidence interval 1.05-1.24, P = 0.002)). Private HD patients are older and less likely to be diabetic than public patients. Patient survival is worse for public PD than public HD. © 2012 The Authors. Internal Medicine Journal © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Famed owing to his research works about fats and colours, the chemist M.-E. Chevreul was also greatly interested in public health. He expressed himself on this matter especially as member then chairman of the Advisory Committee of Crafts et Factories: set of laws on insanitary factories to be reconsidered, choices of processes which do not affect workers' health. He has relations with old pupils of the Polytechnics School: so he was at the beginning of Charles Freycinet's brilliant career. He read papers to the French Agricultural Society and Sciences Academy and was a juror of the academic committees of insanitary crafts.
Tengilimoglu, Dilaver; Yesiltas, Mehmet; Kisa, Adnan; Dziegielewski, Sophia F
Public relations activities for all organizations can have an important effect on consumer decision-making when buying goods or services. This study examines the effect that public relations activities can have regarding consumer decisions and choice. To explore exemplify this relationship a questionnaire was given to 971 patients within public, university and private hospitals in Ankara, Turkey. Study results show that public relations activities were a crucial factor in determining consumer hospital choice. The majority of respondents reported that the behaviors and attitude of personnel as public relations activities that support the hospital's reputation within the public were the primary variables in hospital choice. Health care managers can use these findings to further understand how patients make informed choices related to usage of a health care facility and to develop and/or improve public relations activities.
Rice, Mitchell F.
Describes the health care functions provided for the Black community by urban public hospitals; considers the impact of Federal retrenchment on these institutions; and examines the negative impact on Blacks, other minorities, and the poor that the sale of urban public hospitals to private, for-profit chains will have. (GC)
Haroche, Julien; Morvan, Anne; Davi, Marilyne; Allignet, Jeanine; Bimet, François; El Solh, Névine
We analyzed 62 clinical isolates of streptogramin A-resistant (SGAr) Staphylococcus aureus collected between 1981 and 2001 in 14 hospitals located in seven French cities. These isolates, including five with decreased susceptibility to glycopeptides, were distributed into 45 antibiotypes and 38 SmaI genotypes. Each of these genotypes included between 1 and 11 isolates, the SmaI patterns of which differed by no more than three bands. Although numerous clones were identified, we observed the spread of monoclonal isolates either within the same hospital or within hospitals in distinct cities and at large time intervals. Hybridization with probes directed against 10 SGAr genes (vatA, vatB, vatC, vatD, vatE, vgaA, vgaB, vgaAv, vgbA, and vgbB) revealed six patterns: vgaAv (21 isolates), vatA-vgbA (24 isolates), vgaAv-vatB-vgaB (14 isolates), vgaAv-vatA-vgbA (1 isolate), vgaAv-vatA-vgbA-vatB-vgaB (1 isolate), and vgaA (1 isolate). We detected at least one SGAr determinant in all of the tested isolates. vgaAv, which is part of the recently characterized transposon Tn5406, was found in 59.7% of the tested isolates. Of the 16 streptogramin B-susceptible isolates, 14 carried vgaAv alone and were susceptible to the mixtures of streptogramins, whereas the 2 isolates carrying vgaAv-vatB-vgaB were resistant to these mixtures. vatA-vgbA was found on plasmids of the same apparent size in 26 (42%) of the tested clinical isolates from 18 unrelated SmaI genotypes. The possible dissemination of some of the multiple clones characterized in the present study with an expected increased selective pressure of streptogramins following the recent licensing of Synercid (quinupristin-dalfopristin) must be carefully monitored. PMID:12574251
Brouard, Agnes; Fagon, Jean Yves; Daniels, Charles E
This project was designed to underline any actions relative to medication error prevention and patient safety improvement setting up in North American hospitals which could be implemented in French Parisian hospitals. A literature research and analysis of medication-use process in the North American hospitals and a validation survey of hospital pharmacist managers in the San Diego area was performed to assess main points of hospital medication-use process. Literature analysis, survey analysis of respondents highlighted main differences between the two countries at three levels: nationwide, hospital level and pharmaceutical service level. According to this, proposal development to optimize medication-use process in the French system includes the following topics: implementation of an expanded use of information technology and robotics; increase pharmaceutical human resources allowing expansion of clinical pharmacy activities; focus on high-risk medications and high-risk patient populations; develop a collective sense of responsibility for medication error prevention in hospital settings, involving medical, pharmaceutical and administrative teams. Along with a strong emphasis that should be put on the identified topics to improve the quality and safety of hospital care in France, consideration of patient safety as a priority at a nationwide level needs to be reinforced.
Edwards, Nigel; Saltman, Richard B
Public hospitals are well known to be difficult to reform. This paper provides a comprehensive six-part analytic framework that can help policymakers and managers better shape their organizational and institutional behavior. The paper first describes three separate structural characteristics which, together, inhibit effective problem description and policy design for public hospitals. These three structural constraints are i) the dysfunctional characteristics found in most organizations, ii) the particular dysfunctions of professional health sector organizations, and iii) the additional dysfunctional dimensions of politically managed organizations. While the problems in each of these three dimensions of public hospital organization are well-known, and the first two dimensions clearly affect private as well as publicly run hospitals, insufficient attention has been paid to the combined impact of all three factors in making public hospitals particularly difficult to manage and steer. Further, these three structural dimensions interact in an institutional environment defined by three restrictive context limitations, again two of which also affect private hospitals but all three of which compound the management dilemmas in public hospitals. The first contextual limitation is the inherent complexity of delivering high quality, safe, and affordable modern inpatient care in a hospital setting. The second contextual limitation is a set of specific market failures in public hospitals, which limit the scope of the standard financial incentives and reform measures. The third and last contextual limitation is the unique problem of generalized and localized anxiety, which accompanies the delivery of medical services, and which suffuses decision-making on the part of patients, medical staff, hospital management, and political actors alike. This combination of six institutional characteristics - three structural dimensions and three contextual dimensions - can help explain why
Objectives To investigate whether the long term lease of public hospital owned land could be an additional financing mechanism for Greek public (mental) health hospitals. Methods We performed a financial analysis of the official 2008 data of a case - study hospital (Mental Health Hospital of Chania). We used a capital budgeting approach to investigate whether value is created for the public hospital by engaging its assets in a project for the development of a private renal dialysis Unit. Results The development of the private unit in hospital owned land is a good investment decision, as it generates high project Net Present Value and Internal Rate of Return. When the project commences generating operating cash flows, nearly €400.000 will be paid annually to the Mental Health Hospital of Chania as rent, thereby gradually decreasing the annual deficit of the hospital. Conclusions Revenue generated from the long term lease of public hospital land is crucial to gradually eliminate hospital deficit. The Ministry of Health should encourage similar forms of Public Private Partnerships in order to ensure the sustainability of public (mental) hospitals. PMID:21067580
Massoullié, Grégoire; Wintzer-Wehekind, Jérome; Chenaf, Chouki; Mulliez, Aurélien; Pereira, Bruno; Authier, Nicolas; Eschalier, Alain; Clerfond, Guillaume; Souteyrand, Géraud; Tabassome, Simon; Danchin, Nicolas; Citron, Bernard; Lusson, Jean-René; Puymirat, Étienne; Motreff, Pascal; Eschalier, Romain
Multicentre registries of myocardial infarction management show a steady improvement in prognosis and greater access to myocardial revascularization in a more timely manner. While French registries are the standard references, the question arises: are data stemming solely from the activity of French cardiac intensive care units (ICUs) a true reflection of the entire French population with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)? To compare data on patients hospitalized for STEMI from two French registries: the French registry of acute ST-elevation or non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (FAST-MI) and the Échantillon généraliste des bénéficiaires (EGB) database. We compared patients treated for STEMI listed in the FAST-MI 2010 registry (n=1716) with those listed in the EGB database, which comprises a sample of 1/97th of the French population, also from 2010 (n=403). Compared with the FAST-MI 2010 registry, the EGB database population were older (67.2±15.3 vs 63.3±14.5 years; P<0.001), had a higher percentage of women (36.0% vs 24.7%; P<0.001), were less likely to undergo emergency coronary angiography (75.2% vs 96.3%; P<0.001) and were less often treated in university hospitals (27.1% vs 37.0%; P=0.001). There were no significant differences between the two registries in terms of cardiovascular risk factors, comorbidities and drug treatment at admission. Thirty-day mortality was higher in the EGB database (10.2% vs 4.4%; P<0.001). Registries such as FAST-MI are indispensable, not only for assessing epidemiological changes over time, but also for evaluating the prognostic effect of modern STEMI management. Meanwhile, exploitation of data from general databases, such as EGB, provides additional relevant information, as they include a broader population not routinely admitted to cardiac ICUs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Scarlett, Henroy P; Postlethwait, Edward; Delzell, Elizabeth; Sathiakumar, Nalini; Oestenstad, R Kent
Asbestos is an established human carcinogen. Asbestos-containing building materials (ACBM) are used in surfacing materials, thermal system insulation (TSI), and miscellaneous materials, and they have been used in buildings in Jamaica in the past. The objective of the study described here was to identify ACBM, its characteristics, and its determinants in Jamaican hospitals. A walk-through survey of all hospitals was undertaken and 152 bulk samples were collected from 26 public and private hospitals. The samples were analyzed using polarized light microscopy. Sixteen (61.5%) hospitals had ACBM used mainly as TSI. The ACBM in most cases was friable and in a poor condition indicative of fiber release and contained the fibers chrysotile, amosite, and crocidolite. The age of hospitals was not associated with the presence of ACBM. Results indicated potential risk of asbestos exposure in hospitals. The hospital authorities should formulate and implement an asbestos policy for hospitals and undertake proper management of asbestos in all hospitals.
Allen, Pauline; Cao, Qi; Wang, Hufeng
Following decades of change in health care structures and modes of funding, China has recently been making pilot reforms to the governance of its public hospitals, primarily by increasing the autonomy of public hospitals and redefining the roles of the health authorities. In this paper, we analyse the historical evolution and current situation of public hospital governance in China, focussing the range of governance models being tried out in pilot cities across China. We then draw on the experiences of public hospital governance reform in a wide range of other countries to consider the nature of the Chinese pilots. We find that the key difference in China is that the public hospitals in the pilot schemes do not receive sufficient funding from government and are able to distribute profits to staff. This creates incentives to charge patients for excessive treatment. This situation has undermined public service orientation in Chinese public hospitals. We conclude that the pilot reforms of governance will not be sufficient to remedy all the problems facing these hospitals, although they are a step in the right direction. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Nguyen, Oanh Kieu; Halm, Ethan A; Makam, Anil N
Hospitals that have robust financial performance may have improved publicly reported outcomes. To assess the relationship between hospital financial performance and publicly reported outcomes of care, and to assess whether improved outcome metrics affect subsequent hospital financial performance. Observational cohort study. Hospital financial data from the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development in California in 2008 and 2012 were linked to data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Hospital Compare website. Hospital financial performance was measured by net revenue by operations, operating margin, and total margin. Outcomes were 30-day risk-standardized mortality and readmission rates for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), congestive heart failure (CHF), and pneumonia (PNA). Among 279 hospitals, there was no consistent relationship between measures of financial performance in 2008 and publicly reported outcomes from 2008 to 2011 for AMI and PNA. However, improved hospital financial performance (by any of the 3 measures) was associated with a modest increase in CHF mortality rates (ie, 0.26% increase in CHF mortality rate for every 10% increase in operating margin [95% confidence interval: 0.07%-0.45%]). Conversely, there were no significant associations between outcomes from 2008 to 2011 and subsequent financial performance in 2012 (P > 0.05 for all). Robust financial performance is not associated with improved publicly reported outcomes for AMI, CHF, and PNA. Financial incentives in addition to public reporting, such as readmissions penalties, may help motivate hospitals with robust financial performance to further improve publicly reported outcomes. Reassuringly, improved mortality and readmission rates do not necessarily lead to loss of revenue. Journal of Hospital Medicine 2016;11:481-488. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine. © 2016 Society of Hospital Medicine.
Srivastava, Rajendu; Downie, James; Hall, Jane; Reynolds, Graham
To describe the hospital costs, hospital types and differences across states and territories for children with medical complexity cared for in Australian public hospitals. Retrospective national administrative database study of 212 Australian public hospitals from six states (excluding Queensland) and two territories that submitted cost data to the National Hospital Costing Data Collection for 2010-2011. Participants included all hospitalised patients with comparisons between adults and children (17 years of age and younger), and adults with chronic diseases and children with medical complexity. Total hospital costs were the main outcome measure. The National Hospital Costing Data Collection contained data from 212 public hospitals; total admissions (adults and children) were 3 519 140 at a total hospital cost of $16 187 400 000. Children accounted for 350 499 (9.9%) of the admissions at a total hospital cost of $1 931 585 123 (11.9%). Of all children, those with medical complexity accounted for 48 758 (13.9%), and their total hospital costs were $620 948 769 (32.1%). Six children's hospitals had 145 213 (41%) of the total children admissions at a total hospital cost of $936 041 843 (48%). Across the states and territories, the number of childhood admissions ranged from 9164 to 146 618 with 4.7-14.8% for children with medical complexity. Total hospital costs ranged from $44 to $592 million with 15.4-39.4% for children with medical complexity. The national burden of hospitalised children is substantial. Children with medical complexity only account for a small percentage of hospitalisations but almost one third of total hospital costs for children, with children's hospitals bearing the major costs. © 2016 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (The Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Tang, Chengxiang; Zhang, Yucheng; Chen, Lieping; Lin, Yongqiang
China significantly opened its healthcare market through a series of market-opening policies in 2000-1. This study aims to explore the direct consequences of these policies-the growth of private hospitals, their workforce characteristics compared with public hospitals in China and the source of their healthcare workforce. First, we performed a segmented regression analysis of a longitudinal data series of the number of hospitals in China between 1990 and 2009 to examine the before and after effects of the market-opening policy on private hospitals. Then, to highlight the workforce differences between private and public hospitals, provincial survey data collected in 2009 were compared with data from a second database collected in 2002 to detect the mobility of medical staff from the public to the private hospitals. The number of private hospitals rapidly increased after 2001, and the yearly growth rate increased from 19 to 205, represented primarily by an increase in specialty hospitals. Approximately 22.03% of the physicians in private hospitals are over the age of 60, whereas this proportion in public hospitals is only 2.97%. In 2008, at least 4.1% of the staff working in private hospitals had previously worked in local public hospitals in 2001. The broad expansion of private hospitals since 2001 is most likely the result of an unbiased market policy environment for private hospitals. Moreover, specific features of the hospital-physician relationship in China may account for the unbalanced age distribution feature among doctors and the mobility of the healthcare workforce in private hospitals.
Carme, B.; Sobesky, M.; Biard, M. H.; Cotellon, P.; Aznar, C.; Fontanella, J. M.
The emergence of dengue haemorrhagic fever is a public health problem in Latin America and the Caribbean. This study, carried out in French Guiana where malaria is endemic, evaluated the value and the limitations of a non-specific alert system including all patients admitted to the emergency department of Cayenne Hospital, between 1 January 1996 and June 2001. Four indices were studied on a weekly basis: the emergency malaria negative index (EMN), the EMN thrombocytopenia index (EMNT), the dengue suspected index: EMNT/EMN ratio; and the number of hospitalized patients with dengue fever according to the Department of Medical Information. These indices were retrospectively compared with data from the Arbovirus Reference Centre at the Pasteur Institute in French Guiana. Using the non-specific indices, we were able to identify four clear epidemics, two of which were shown to be linked to dengue. Variations in the incidence of malaria had no marked effect on this alert system. We propose that this simple, cheap, sensitive and reactive alert system be used to improve the serological and virological monitoring of dengue and to facilitate adequate and timely vector control measures. It could be used in all regions at risk of dengue and malaria. PMID:12613750
Jiang, Yiling; Gervais, Frédéric; Gauthier, Aline; Baptiste, Charles; Martinon, Prescilla; Bresse, Xavier
In 2002, a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) was introduced to French infants and toddlers. A change has been witnessed in the incidence of pneumococcal diseases in adults: the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) of serotypes covered by PCV decreased, and serotypes not covered by PCV increased. This study aimed to quantify the public health and budget impact of pneumococcal vaccination strategies in at-risk adults in France over 5 years. A previously published population-based Markov model was adapted to the French situation. At-risk adults received either PPV23 (pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine; for the immunocompetent) or PCV13 (for the immunosuppressed). The strategy was compared to PCV13 alone. Uncertainty was addressed using extreme scenario analyses. Between 2014 and 2018, vaccination with PPV23/PCV13 led to a higher reduction in terms of IPD and non-bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia cases avoided in most scenarios analyzed when compared to PCV13 alone. For budget impact, none of the scenarios was in favor of PCV13. Under conservative coverage assumptions, the total incremental budget impact ranged from € 39.8 million to € 69.3 million if PCV13 were to replace PPV23 in the immunocompetent. With the epidemiological changes of pneumococcal diseases and the broader serotype coverage of PPV23, the current program remains an optimal strategy from public health perspective. Given the additional budget required for the use of PCV13 alone and its uncertain public health benefits, vaccination with PPV23 remains the preferred strategy.
Jiang, Yiling; Gervais, Frédéric; Gauthier, Aline; Baptiste, Charles; Martinon, Prescilla; Bresse, Xavier
In 2002, a pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) was introduced to French infants and toddlers. A change has been witnessed in the incidence of pneumococcal diseases in adults: the incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) of serotypes covered by PCV decreased, and serotypes not covered by PCV increased. This study aimed to quantify the public health and budget impact of pneumococcal vaccination strategies in at-risk adults in France over 5 years. A previously published population-based Markov model was adapted to the French situation. At-risk adults received either PPV23 (pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine; for the immunocompetent) or PCV13 (for the immunosuppressed). The strategy was compared to PCV13 alone. Uncertainty was addressed using extreme scenario analyses. Between 2014 and 2018, vaccination with PPV23/PCV13 led to a higher reduction in terms of IPD and non-bacteremic pneumococcal pneumonia cases avoided in most scenarios analyzed when compared to PCV13 alone. For budget impact, none of the scenarios was in favor of PCV13. Under conservative coverage assumptions, the total incremental budget impact ranged from € 39.8 million to € 69.3 million if PCV13 were to replace PPV23 in the immunocompetent. With the epidemiological changes of pneumococcal diseases and the broader serotype coverage of PPV23, the current program remains an optimal strategy from public health perspective. Given the additional budget required for the use of PCV13 alone and its uncertain public health benefits, vaccination with PPV23 remains the preferred strategy. PMID:26267239
Background & Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the economic burden of hospitalisations for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), to describe the patterns of prescribing expensive drugs and to explore the impact of geographic and socio-demographic factors on the use of these drugs. Methods We performed a retrospective analysis from the French national hospitals database. Hospital stays for mRCC between 2008 and 2013 were identified by combining the 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) codes for renal cell carcinoma (C64) and codes for metastases (C77 to C79). Incident cases were identified out of all hospital stays and followed till December 2013. Descriptive analyses were performed with a focus on hospital stays and patient characteristics. Costs were assessed from the perspective of the French National Health Insurance and were obtained from official diagnosis-related group tariffs for public and private hospitals. Results A total of 15,752 adult patients were hospitalised for mRCC, corresponding to 102,613 hospital stays. Of those patients, 68% were men and the median age at first hospitalisation was 69 years [Min-Max: 18–102]. Over the study period, the hospital mortality rate reached 37%. The annual cost of managing mRCC at hospital varied between 28M€ in 2008 and 42M€ in 2012 and was mainly driven by inpatient costs. The mean annual per capita cost of hospital management of mRCC varied across the study period from 8,993€ (SD: €8,906) in 2008 to 10,216€ (SD: €10,527) in 2012. Analysis of the determinants of prescribing expensive drugs at hospital did not show social or territorial differences in the use of these drugs. Conclusion This study is the first to investigate the in-hospital economic burden of mRCC in France. Results showed that in-hospital costs of managing mRCC are mainly driven by expensive drugs and inpatient costs. PMID:27649305
Vignac, Élie; Lebihain, Pascal; Soulé, Bastien
In France, to prevent drowning accidents in public swimming pools (PSPs), bathing must be constantly supervised by qualified staff. However, fatal drowning regularly occurs in supervised aquatic facilities. A review of the literature shows that human supervision is a complex task. The aim of this research is to fully assess the periods during which supervision is not carried out, or carried out in an inadequate manner. The observations made in 108 French PSPs show that supervision is not carried out 18% of the time and that it is carried out inadequately 33% of the time. The medical literature shows that, in order to expect to survive without after-effects, an immersed victim requires intervention within a time limit of not more than three minutes; however, we noted, over a total observation time of 54 hours, 147 periods (29.8%) during which the supervision system was degraded for three minutes or more. This quantification research on the periods of degraded supervision is complemented by an identification of the causes leading to these degradations, from which we can draw interesting areas for improvement, particularly from an organizational point of view, in order to improve safety management in French PSPs.
Vivien, A; Kowalski, V; Chatellier, A; Babin, E; Bénateau, H; Veyssière, A
The goal set by the French highest national authorities in the 2014-2019 Cancer Plan is to "heal more sick persons by promoting early diagnosis through screening". Screening requires information. Nowadays, Internet allows for access to information "in one click". The aim of our study was to evaluate the quality of information found on the Internet. Several sites dedicated to oral cavity cancer screening were selected on Google. The quality of health information found in these sites was evaluated by the DISCERN questionnaire. The quality of decision support provided by the sites was evaluated by the IPDAS checklist. Twenty-seven sites were selected. The average DISCERN score was 25.1/75 (15/75 to 40/75). Eighteen sites (66.6%) had very poor, 8 sites (29.6%) had poor and 1 site had average information quality. IPDAS scores ranged from 11.1 to 38.1. Eight sites (29.6%) had less than 20%, 14 sites (51.9%) had between 20 and 30% and 5 sites (18.5%) had 30% or more validated criteria. No site achieved the pass mark. The quality of general public French-speaking website dedicated to oral cancer detection is very bad. The role of health professionals such as general practitioners and head and neck surgeons, remains essential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Zhou, Ping; Bundorf, Kate; Chang, Ji; Huang, Jin Xin; Xue, Di
Objective To measure perceptions of organizational culture among employees of public hospitals in China and to determine whether perceptions are associated with hospital performance. Data Sources Hospital, employee, and patient surveys from 87 Chinese public hospitals conducted during 2009. Study Design Developed and administered a tool to assess organizational culture in Chinese public hospitals. Used factor analysis to create measures of organizational culture. Analyzed the relationships between employee type and perceptions of culture and between perceptions of culture and hospital performance using multivariate models. Principal Findings Employees perceived the culture of Chinese public hospitals as stronger in internal rules and regulations, and weaker in empowerment. Hospitals in which employees perceived that the culture emphasized cost control were more profitable and had higher rates of outpatient visits and bed days per physician per day but also had lower levels of patient satisfaction. Hospitals with cultures perceived as customer-focused had longer length of stay but lower patient satisfaction. Conclusions Managers in Chinese public hospitals should consider whether the culture of their organization will enable them to respond effectively to their changing environment. PMID:22092228
Zhou, Ping; Bundorf, Kate; Le Chang, Ji; Huang, Jin Xin; Xue, Di
To measure perceptions of organizational culture among employees of public hospitals in China and to determine whether perceptions are associated with hospital performance. Hospital, employee, and patient surveys from 87 Chinese public hospitals conducted during 2009. Developed and administered a tool to assess organizational culture in Chinese public hospitals. Used factor analysis to create measures of organizational culture. Analyzed the relationships between employee type and perceptions of culture and between perceptions of culture and hospital performance using multivariate models. Employees perceived the culture of Chinese public hospitals as stronger in internal rules and regulations, and weaker in empowerment. Hospitals in which employees perceived that the culture emphasized cost control were more profitable and had higher rates of outpatient visits and bed days per physician per day but also had lower levels of patient satisfaction. Hospitals with cultures perceived as customer-focused had longer length of stay but lower patient satisfaction. Managers in Chinese public hospitals should consider whether the culture of their organization will enable them to respond effectively to their changing environment. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Souza, Victor L; Rosner, Fred
Despite the acknowledged value of autopsies, autopsy rates are low in American hospitals. We developed an extensive intervention to increase the autopsy rate on the medical service of our urban teaching hospital and to identify obstacles to obtaining permission for autopsy. The 6-month intervention increased the autopsy rate from 7.5% during the previous 2 years to 16.8%, but this effect disappeared after the intervention. Among patients for whom permission for autopsy was not obtained, physicians failed to request permission for 31% and families refused permission for 69%. PMID:9159702
Camilleri, D; O'Callaghan, M
The study applies the principles behind the SERVQUAL model and uses Donabedian's framework to compare and contrast Malta's public and private hospital care service quality. Through the identification of 16 service quality indicators and the use of a Likert-type scale, two questionnaires were developed. The first questionnaire measured patient pre-admission expectations for public and private hospital service quality (in respect of one another). It also determined the weighted importance given to the different service quality indicators. The second questionnaire measured patient perceptions of provided service quality. Results showed that private hospitals are expected to offer a higher quality service, particularly in the "hotel services", but it was the public sector that was exceeding its patients' expectations by the wider margin. A number of implications for public and private hospital management and policy makers were identified.
Liao, Sen-Kuei; Chang, Kuei-Lun
This study describes the use of analytic network process (ANP) in the Taiwanese hospital public relations personnel selection process. Starting with interviewing 48 practitioners and executives in north Taiwan, we collected selection criteria. Then, we retained the 12 critical criteria that were mentioned above 40 times by theses respondents, including: interpersonal skill, experience, negotiation, language, ability to follow orders, cognitive ability, adaptation to environment, adaptation to company, emotion, loyalty, attitude, and Response. Finally, we discussed with the 20 executives to take these important criteria into three perspectives to structure the hierarchy for hospital public relations personnel selection. After discussing with practitioners and executives, we find that selecting criteria are interrelated. The ANP, which incorporates interdependence relationships, is a new approach for multi-criteria decision-making. Thus, we apply ANP to select the most optimal public relations personnel of hospitals. An empirical study of public relations personnel selection problems in Taiwan hospitals is conducted to illustrate how the selection procedure works.
Brown, Paul; Panattoni, Laura; Cameron, Linda; Knox, Stephanie; Ashton, Toni; Tenbensel, Tim; Windsor, John
This study uses a discrete choice experiment (DCE) to measure patients' preferences for public and private hospital care in New Zealand. A labeled DCE was administered to 583 members of the general public, with the choice between a public and private hospital for a non-urgent surgery. The results suggest that cost of surgery, waiting times for surgery, option to select a surgeon, convenience, and conditions of the hospital ward are important considerations for patients. The most important determinant of hospital choice was whether it was a public or private hospital, with respondents far more likely to choose a public hospital than a private hospital. The results have implications for government policy toward using private hospitals to clear waiting lists in public hospitals, with these results suggesting the public might not be indifferent to policies that treat private hospitals as substitutes for public hospitals.
Ozgulbas, Nermin; Koyuncugil, Ali Serhan
This paper presents an application of the data mining method to determine the financial profiles of the public hospitals in Turkey. The study is based on the data compiled in 2004, covering 645 public hospitals run by the Ministry of Health (MoH) as the main provider of primary and secondary health services in Turkey. The public hospitals, currently financed by a mixture of funds allocated from the general budget and individually operated revolving funds, need urgent solutions to their financial problems as a part of an ongoing national reform effort. The analysis adopts the Chi-Square Automatic Interaction Detector (CHAID) decision tree algorithm, as one of the most efficient and up-to-date data mining method used for segmentation. The study has found that the public hospitals could be categorized by the CHAID into 12 different profiles in terms of their financial performance. These profiles have guided us in determining the key financial indicators to be focused upon in the public hospitals and present best practices to improve their respective financial performances. The findings have also allowed policy suggestions as to the financial strategies that may be considered in improving the financial performance of the public hospitals toward a successful health sector reform in Turkey.
Handayani, P W; Hidayanto, A N; Ayuningtyas, Dumilah; Budi, Indra
The Hospital Information System (HIS) could help hospitals as a public entity to provide optimal health services. One of the main challenges of HIS implementation is an institutional change. Using institutional theory as the analytical lens, this study aims to explain the institutionalization of HIS as an instance of e-health initiatives in Indonesia. Furthermore, this paper aims for hospital management and researchers to improve the understanding of the social forces that influence hospital personnel's HIS acceptance within an organizational context. We use case studies from four public, government-owned hospitals and four privately owned (public and specialty) hospitals to explain the HIS institutionalization process by exploring the three concepts of institutional theory: institutional isomorphism, institutional logic, and institutional entrepreneurship. This study reveals that differences exist between public, government-owned and private hospitals with regard to the institutionalization process: public, government-owned hospitals' management is more motivated to implement HIS to comply with the regulations, while private hospitals' management views HIS as an urgent requirement that must be achieved. The study findings also reveal that various institutional isomorphism mechanisms and forms of institutional logic emerge during the process. Finally, three factors-self-efficacy, social influence, and management support-have a significant influence on the individual acceptance of HIS. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Haeffner-Cavaillon, Nicole; Devos, Patrick; Ledoux, Sylvie; Ménard, Joël
The Third National Alzheimer Plan (2008-2012) was a major public health initiative in France that included €200 million of funding for research in Alzheimer disease and related disorders (AD). The aim of this study was to document trends in French academic output in AD following the implementation of the plan. Academic output (i.e., number of original articles) and scientific impact (i.e., article citations) of French research in AD were obtained from the Web of Knowledge core collection database. Analyses compared the 5-year period immediately before (2004-2008) and after (2009-2013) initiation of the plan. Comparisons were made with stroke, Parkinson disease, AIDS, and diabetes in the 14 leading countries worldwide and regionally within France. Worldwide production of original scientific articles between the periods 2004-2008 and 2009-2013 increased by 39%, and that for AD increased by 46%. China showed the largest increase and Japan the smallest. The absolute increase in French output on AD (54.6%) was larger than that for stroke, Parkinson disease, AIDS, or diabetes. Globally, France had the third largest relative increase in output in AD (1.7-fold), behind only India (2.5-fold) and China (1.9-fold). There was a relative 2.3-fold increase in the proportion of French AD articles in the top 1% globally most cited, larger than that for French articles on stroke, Parkinson disease, AIDS, or diabetes. At the national level, university hospitals participated in nearly 50% of French AD publications. Analyses by geographical area demonstrated marked heterogeneity. We observed a strong correlation between level of funding and volume of output (R2 = 0.70), but not between funding and article impact (proportion of top 10% globally cited articles; correlation R2 = 0.03). Our study provides evidence of a specific positive impact of the funding provided by the Third National Alzheimer Plan in nearly doubling the global academic scientific output and increasing by 2
Nguyen, Oanh Kieu; Halm, Ethan A.; Makam, Anil N.
Background Hospitals that have robust financial performance may have improved publicly reported outcomes. Objectives To assess the relationship between hospital financial performance and publicly reported outcomes of care, and to assess whether improved outcome metrics affect subsequent hospital financial performance. Design Observational cohort study. Setting And Patients Hospital financial data from the Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development in California in 2008 and 2012 were linked to data from the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services Hospital Compare website. Measurements Hospital financial performance was measured by net revenue by operations, operating margin, and total margin. Outcomes were 30-day risk-standardized mortality and readmission rates for acute myocardial infarction (AMI), congestive heart failure (CHF), and pneumonia (PNA). Results Among 279 hospitals, there was no consistent relationship between measures of financial performance in 2008 and publicly reported outcomes from 2008 to 2011 for AMI and PNA. However, improved hospital financial performance (by any of the 3 measures) was associated with a modest increase in CHF mortality rates (ie, 0.26% increase in CHF mortality rate for every 10% increase in operating margin [95% confidence interval: 0.07%-0.45%]). Conversely, there were no significant associations between outcomes from 2008 to 2011 and subsequent financial performance in 2012 (P > 0.05 for all). Conclusions Robust financial performance is not associated with improved publicly reported outcomes for AMI, CHF, and PNA. Financial incentives in addition to public reporting, such as readmissions penalties, may help motivate hospitals with robust financial performance to further improve publicly reported outcomes. Reassuringly, improved mortality and readmission rates do not necessarily lead to loss of revenue. PMID:26929094
Kalhor, Rohollah; Tajnesaei, Mahsa; Kakemam, Edris; Keykaleh, Mesam Safi; Kalhor, Leila
Hospital managers should have enough managerial competencies to coordinate the complex environment. The underlying assumption is that there is a potential gap in management capacity between public and private hospitals in Iran. This study aims to evaluate competency level of hospital managers and to compare their competencies in public and private hospitals. This study was descriptive-analytic, carried out in 2015. A survey using a self-administered questionnaire was conducted among 127 public and private hospitals managers in Tehran Province, Iran. Respondents were asked to rate their competencies in a five-key subscale that included people-related skills, health delivery, self-management, task-related skills, and strategic planning and management. Ratings were based on a five-point Likert scale ranging from very low to excellent competency level. Self-assessment of competencies level showed that managers in all state hospitals evaluate their competency at a low level. Managers felt most competent in health-delivery skills (3.71), people-related skills (3.61), and strategic planning and management (3.57), relatively less competent in self-management (3.54) and task-related skills (3.49). While being the mean total competency levels were significantly higher among male managers, those who participated in the healthcare/hospital management training courses, and those whose primary formal qualification was management in healthcare/hospital management (P<0.05). Similarly, managers who had more experience in their current position were more likely to report higher competencies level (P<0.05). Managers in private hospitals perceived themselves to be significantly more competent than their public hospitals colleagues in most of the management facets (P<0.001). There is a perceived lack of management capacity by managers of both public and private hospitals and the gap between public and private hospitals is small. There is widespread need for management training to be
Renard, Jean-Marie; Bourde, Annabel; Cuggia, Marc; Garcelon, Nicolas; Souf, Nathalie; Darmoni, Stephan; Beuscart, Régis; Brunetaud, Jean-Marc
The " Université Médicale Virtuelle Francophone" (UMVF) is a federation of French medical schools. Its main goal is to share the production and use of pedagogic medical resources generated by academic medical teachers. We developed an Open-Source application based upon a workflow system, which provides an improved publication process for the UMVF. For teachers, the tool permits easy and efficient upload of new educational resources. For web masters it provides a mechanism to easily locate and validate the resources. For librarian it provide a way to improve the efficiency of indexation. For all, the utility provides a workflow system to control the publication process. On the students side, the application improves the value of the UMVF repository by facilitating the publication of new resources and by providing an easy way to find a detailed description of a resource and to check any resource from the UMVF to ascertain its quality and integrity, even if the resource is an old deprecated version. The server tier of the application is used to implement the main workflow functionalities and is deployed on certified UMVF servers using the PHP language, an LDAP directory and an SQL database. The client tier of the application provides both the workflow and the search and check functionalities. A unique signature for each resource, was needed to provide security functionality and is implemented using a Digest algorithm. The testing performed by Rennes and Lille verified the functionality and conformity with our specifications.
Perneger, Thomas V; Staines, Anthony; Kundig, François
To assess the psychometric properties of the French-language version of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC). Data were obtained from a staff survey at a Swiss multisite hospital. We computed descriptive statistics and internal consistency coefficients, then conducted a confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis, and performed construct validity tests. 1171 staff members participated (response rate 74%). The internal consistency coefficients of the 12 dimension scores ranged from 0.57 to 0.86 (median 0.73). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a reasonable but not perfect fit of the hypothesised measurement model (root mean square error of approximation 0.043, comparative fit index 0.89). Exploratory data analysis suggested 10 dimensions instead of 12, grouping items from teamwork across hospital units with those of hospital handoffs and transitions, and items from communication openness with those of feedback and communication about error. However, the loading pattern was clean: 41 of 42 main loadings exceeded 0.40, and only 3 of 378 cross-loadings exceeded 0.30. All 10 process scores were higher among respondents who rated the global safety grade as 'excellent' or 'very good' rather than 'good', 'fair' or 'poor' (effect sizes 0.41-0.79, all p<0.001), but score differences between those who have and have not reported an incident in the past year were weak or inconsistent with theory. The French version of the HSOPSC did not perform as well as the original in standard psychometric analyses.
Martelli, Nicolas; van den Brink, Hélène
Financing innovative medical devices is an important challenge for national health policy makers, and a crucial issue for hospitals. However, when innovative medical devices are launched on the European market there is generally little clinical evidence regarding both efficacy and safety, both because of the flaws in the European system for regulating such devices, and because they are at an early stage of development. To manage the uncertainty surrounding the reimbursement of innovation, several European countries have set up temporary funding schemes to generate evidence about the effectiveness of devices. This article explores two different French approaches to funding innovative in-hospital devices and collecting supplementary data: the coverage with evidence development (CED) scheme introduced under Article L. 165-1-1 of the French Social Security Code; and national programs for hospital-based research. We discuss pros and cons of both approaches in the light of CED policies in Germany and the UK. The CED policies for devices share common limitations. Thus, transparency of CED processes should be enhanced and decisions need to be made in a timely way. Finally, we think that closer collaboration between manufacturers, health authorities and hospitals is essential to make CED policies more operational.
More and more hospital marketing and public relations executives are recognizing that publications, such as newsletters and magazines, are a very important part of their arsenal of marketing tools. They're also finding that custom publishers are valuable allies when it comes to target market opportunities.
Background In 2003, 11 public health epidemiologists were placed in North Carolina's largest hospitals to enhance communication between public health agencies and healthcare systems for improved emergency preparedness. We describe the specific services public health epidemiologists provide to local health departments, the North Carolina Division of Public Health, and the hospitals in which they are based, and assess the value of these services to stakeholders. Methods We surveyed and/or interviewed public health epidemiologists, communicable disease nurses based at local health departments, North Carolina Division of Public Health staff, and public health epidemiologists' hospital supervisors to 1) elicit the services provided by public health epidemiologists in daily practice and during emergencies and 2) examine the value of these services. Interviews were transcribed and imported into ATLAS.ti for coding and analysis. Descriptive analyses were performed on quantitative survey data. Results Public health epidemiologists conduct syndromic surveillance of community-acquired infections and potential bioterrorism events, assist local health departments and the North Carolina Division of Public Health with public health investigations, educate clinicians on diseases of public health importance, and enhance communication between hospitals and public health agencies. Stakeholders place on a high value on the unique services provided by public health epidemiologists. Conclusions Public health epidemiologists effectively link public health agencies and hospitals to enhance syndromic surveillance, communicable disease management, and public health emergency preparedness and response. This comprehensive description of the program and its value to stakeholders, both in routine daily practice and in responding to a major public health emergency, can inform other states that may wish to establish a similar program as part of their larger public health emergency preparedness
Markiewicz, Milissa; Bevc, Christine A; Hegle, Jennifer; Horney, Jennifer A; Davies, Megan; MacDonald, Pia D M
In 2003, 11 public health epidemiologists were placed in North Carolina's largest hospitals to enhance communication between public health agencies and healthcare systems for improved emergency preparedness. We describe the specific services public health epidemiologists provide to local health departments, the North Carolina Division of Public Health, and the hospitals in which they are based, and assess the value of these services to stakeholders. We surveyed and/or interviewed public health epidemiologists, communicable disease nurses based at local health departments, North Carolina Division of Public Health staff, and public health epidemiologists' hospital supervisors to 1) elicit the services provided by public health epidemiologists in daily practice and during emergencies and 2) examine the value of these services. Interviews were transcribed and imported into ATLAS.ti for coding and analysis. Descriptive analyses were performed on quantitative survey data. Public health epidemiologists conduct syndromic surveillance of community-acquired infections and potential bioterrorism events, assist local health departments and the North Carolina Division of Public Health with public health investigations, educate clinicians on diseases of public health importance, and enhance communication between hospitals and public health agencies. Stakeholders place on a high value on the unique services provided by public health epidemiologists. Public health epidemiologists effectively link public health agencies and hospitals to enhance syndromic surveillance, communicable disease management, and public health emergency preparedness and response. This comprehensive description of the program and its value to stakeholders, both in routine daily practice and in responding to a major public health emergency, can inform other states that may wish to establish a similar program as part of their larger public health emergency preparedness and response system.
García, I García; Castillo, R F; Santa-Bárbara, E S
Researchers study climate to gain an understanding of the psychological environment of organizations, especially in healthcare institutions. Climate is considered to be the set of recurring patterns of individual and group behaviour in an organization. There is evidence confirming a relationship between ethical climate within organizations and job satisfaction. The aim of this study is to describe organizational climate for nursing personnel in public and private hospitals and to confirm the relationships among the climate variables of such hospitals. A correlational study was carried out to measure the organizational climate of one public hospital and two private hospitals in Granada. The Work Environment Scale was used for data collection. The Work Environment Scale includes 10 scales, ranging from 0 to 9, which were used to evaluate social, demographic and organizational climate variables. In this study, 386 subjects were surveyed in three hospitals. A total of 87% of the participants were female and 16% were male. Most participants were nurses (65.6%), followed by nursing aides (20%), and technicians (14.4%). The results obtained reflected different patterns of organizational climate formation, based on hospital type (i.e. public or private) within the Spanish context. Most of the dimensions were below the midpoint of the scale. In conclusion, in public hospitals, there is a greater specialization and the organizational climate is more salient than in the private hospitals. In addition, in the public hospitals, the characteristics of the human resources and their management can have a significant impact on the perception of the climate, which gives greater importance to the organizational climate as decisive of the ethical climate. © The Author(s) 2013.
Echevarria Moreno, M; Ortega Garcia, J L; Herrera Silva, J; Galvez Mateo, R; Torres Morera, L M; de la Torre Liebanas, R
To determine the prevalence of pain in medical and surgical patients admitted to reference hospitals in Andalusia, as well as their features and the most population groups most affected. A cross-sectional, multicenter epidemiological study was conducted simultaneously on the population admitted to 5 hospitals. Using a structured questionnaire the demographics, hospital area, presence of pain at the time of the interview, and pre- and post-variables related to the intensity of pain and its treatment at 24h were investigated. All patients over 18 years old were included, except those patients with difficulty in understanding the questionnaire, and psychiatric and obstetric patients. Pain intensity was assessed by simple verbal scale. Of the 1,236 patients included, 54.2% were male, with 51.1% of patients aged 65 years, and 69.17% were admitted to medical areas. Pain was observed in 52.9% of patients admitted to the surgical area compared to 29.4% in the medical area. Of the 19.4% who reported having had pain in the last 24h prior to the questionnaire, 57.7% of them were surgical patients and 32% were medical, P<.005), and of the 42.2% who had pain at the time of study, 52.7% were female. The incidence of pain on movement was higher than that observed at rest. The mean resting pain was 1.8 and 1.4 for the surgical and medical patients, respectively (P<.01). The mean pain on movement was 2.2 and 1.6 for the surgical and medical patients, respectively (P<.01). More than one quarter (25.8%) of surgical patients and 16.5% of medical patients had difficulty sleeping (P<.005). Some 12.8% of all patients had no analgesic regimen, and 66.2% and 85.6% of surgical and medical patients, respectively, did not request analgesics (P<.005). The main drugs were prescribed paracetamol analgesic and metamizole, and in 54.4% of patients. We believe that the presence of pain in patients admitted to our study population is high and it is essential to encourage an improvement in the pain
Bezin, Julien; Francis, Florence; Nguyen, Nam Vinh; Robinson, Philip; Blin, Patrick; Fourrier-Réglat, Annie; Pariente, Antoine; Moore, Nicholas
In February 2013, a retired French professor of medicine published a book denying the benefits of statins for cardiovascular prevention. The book was the subject of extensive media coverage and multiple public discussions and debate. To investigate the impact of this media event on use of statins among regular users. This repeated cohort study used the French claims database sample Échantillon généraliste des bénéficiaires to identify regular statin users and quantify the number who discontinued statins after February 2013, compared to discontinuation patterns in previous years (2011 and 2012). Discontinuation was defined as a gap of at least 2months without statin exposure. In 2013, 30,725 regular statin users were identified; 29,517 in 2012 and 28,272 in 2011. Statin discontinuation at 9-month follow-up in 2013 was 11.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 11.5-12.2), compared with 8.5% (95% CI 8.2-8.8) in 2012 and 8.5% (95% CI 8.2-8.8) in 2011. Discontinuation varied according to cardiovascular risk: 19.4% (95% CI 18.2-20.6) in low risk, 11.6% (95% CI 11.1-12.0) in moderate risk, and 7.4% (95% CI 6.8-8.1) in high risk for the 2013 cohort. These discontinuation rates were, respectively, 1.53 (95% CI 1.36-1.72), 1.40 (95% CI 1.31-1.49), and 1.25 (95% CI 1.08-1.46) times higher in 2013 than in 2012 for low risk, moderate risk, or high risk patients. The rate of statin discontinuation, overall and in each cardiovascular risk group, was greater in 2013 after the media event than in previous years. The clinical impact of the increased discontinuation could be important. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Eggleston, Karen; Lu, Mingshan; Li, Congdong; Wang, Jian; Yang, Zhe; Zhang, Jing; Quan, Hude
The literature comparing private not-for-profit, for-profit, and government providers mostly relies on empirical evidence from high-income and established market economies. Studies from developing and transitional economies remain scarce, especially regarding patient case-mix and quality of care in public and private hospitals, even though countries such as China have expanded a mixed-ownership approach to service delivery. The purpose of this study is to compare the operations and performance of public and private hospitals in Guangdong Province, China, focusing on differences in patient case-mix and quality of care. We analyze survey data collected from 362 government-owned and private hospitals in Guangdong Province in 2005, combining mandatorily reported administrative data with a survey instrument designed for this study. We use univariate and multi-variate regression analyses to compare hospital characteristics and to identify factors associated with simple measures of structural quality and patient outcomes. Compared to private hospitals, government hospitals have a higher average value of total assets, more pieces of expensive medical equipment, more employees, and more physicians (controlling for hospital beds, urban location, insurance network, and university affiliation). Government and for-profit private hospitals do not statistically differ in total staffing, although for-profits have proportionally more support staff and fewer medical professionals. Mortality rates for non-government non-profit and for-profit hospitals do not statistically differ from those of government hospitals of similar size, accreditation level, and patient mix. In combination with other evidence on health service delivery in China, our results suggest that changes in ownership type alone are unlikely to dramatically improve or harm overall quality. System incentives need to be designed to reward desired hospital performance and protect vulnerable patients, regardless of
Background The literature comparing private not-for-profit, for-profit, and government providers mostly relies on empirical evidence from high-income and established market economies. Studies from developing and transitional economies remain scarce, especially regarding patient case-mix and quality of care in public and private hospitals, even though countries such as China have expanded a mixed-ownership approach to service delivery. The purpose of this study is to compare the operations and performance of public and private hospitals in Guangdong Province, China, focusing on differences in patient case-mix and quality of care. Methods We analyze survey data collected from 362 government-owned and private hospitals in Guangdong Province in 2005, combining mandatorily reported administrative data with a survey instrument designed for this study. We use univariate and multi-variate regression analyses to compare hospital characteristics and to identify factors associated with simple measures of structural quality and patient outcomes. Results Compared to private hospitals, government hospitals have a higher average value of total assets, more pieces of expensive medical equipment, more employees, and more physicians (controlling for hospital beds, urban location, insurance network, and university affiliation). Government and for-profit private hospitals do not statistically differ in total staffing, although for-profits have proportionally more support staff and fewer medical professionals. Mortality rates for non-government non-profit and for-profit hospitals do not statistically differ from those of government hospitals of similar size, accreditation level, and patient mix. Conclusions In combination with other evidence on health service delivery in China, our results suggest that changes in ownership type alone are unlikely to dramatically improve or harm overall quality. System incentives need to be designed to reward desired hospital performance and protect
Eiden, Céline; Peyrière, Hélène; Diot, Caroline; Mathieu, Olivier
The prevalence of levamisole in urine samples of subjects positive for cocaine in the US was estimated at 78% (95%confidence interval or CI: 73%-83%). However, levamisole was not quantified, and at the time of this report, aminorex was not known to be a possible metabolite of levamisole in human. Moreover no data are available in Europe. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and concentration of levamisole and aminorex in positive cocaine urine toxicology tests, and in serum samples of cocaine-positive subjects driving under the influence of drugs or forensic autopsies. Consecutive urine toxicology samples tested positive for cocaine by immunoassay (EMIT, Siemens) from April to May 2014 at the toxicology laboratory of a French University Hospital, and blood samples of cocaine-positive subjects driving under the influence of drugs or forensic autopsies from April to December 2014 were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry or LC-MS/MS (3200 QTrap, AB Sciex) to detect and quantify the presence of levamisole and aminorex. Forty-two urine samples tested positive for cocaine in 39 patients (79.5% males) with a median age of 43 [range: 20-51] years. Toxicological analyses were mainly required by addictions care centers (n = 17; 40%) in the context of the routine management of addict patients. Cocaine concentrations were above the limit of quantification for 33 patients, with a median value of 228 [0-645,000] ng/ml. Levamisole was detected in 32 urine samples (76%) (median concentration: 1,430 ng/ml, range: 30-258,000). Aminorex was never detected. During the study period, levamisole was detected in 87.5% of cocaine-positive blood samples of the subjects driving under the influence of drugs or forensic autopsies. In this prospective study, the prevalence of levamisole in cocaine-positive samples was 76%. Over this period, although clinical complications related to cocaine use were reported (agitation, road accident, and cardiac arrest
Hrifach, Abdelbaste; Brault, Coralie; Couray-Targe, Sandrine; Badet, Lionel; Guerre, Pascale; Ganne, Christell; Serrier, Hassan; Labeye, Vanessa; Farge, Pierre; Colin, Cyrille
The costing method used can change the results of economic evaluations. Choosing the appropriate method to assess the cost of organ recovery is an issue of considerable interest to health economists, hospitals, financial managers and policy makers in most developed countries. The main objective of this study was to compare a mixed method, combining top-down microcosting and bottom-up microcosting versus full top-down microcosting to assess the cost of organ recovery in a French hospital group. The secondary objective was to describe the cost of kidney, liver and pancreas recovery from French databases using the mixed method. The resources consumed for each donor were identified and valued using the proposed mixed method and compared to the full top-down microcosting approach. Data on kidney, liver and pancreas recovery were collected from a medico-administrative French database for the years 2010 and 2011. Related cost data were recovered from the hospital cost accounting system database for 2010 and 2011. Statistical significance was evaluated at P < 0.05. All the median costs for organ recovery differ significantly between the two costing methods (non-parametric test method; P < 0.01). Using the mixed method, the median cost for recovering kidneys was found to be €5155, liver recovery was €2528 and pancreas recovery was €1911. Using the full top-down microcosting method, median costs were found to be 21-36% lower than with the mixed method. The mixed method proposed appears to be a trade-off between feasibility and accuracy for the identification and valuation of cost components when calculating the cost of organ recovery in comparison to the full top-down microcosting approach.
Giraldes, Maria Do Rosário
, and by the Garcia de Orta Hospital, which are the less efficient hospitals. In Group V, with central hospitals and hospitals with functions of central hospital, it is the Hospital of Vila Real/Régua, EPE, to present the best situation of the Composite Efficiency Indicator, followed by the Santo António Hospital, EPE, the Santa Maria Hospital, EPE, and the HUC, while the hospitals with a worst situation of the Composite Efficiency Indicator are the Hospitals of Faro, Evora and S. José. In Group VI hospitals with a better Composite Efficiency Indicator are the hospitals of Santa Marta, Gama Pinto Institute and Orthopedic Hospital of Outão, while the Estefânia Hospital is the most inefficient. Tondela, Valongo and Peniche Hospitals (Group I), have a good value of the Composite Efficiency and Quality Indicator, while Barcelos, Oliveira de Azeméis and Póvoa de Varzim/Vila do Conde Hospitals (Group II) present also good values of this indicator. The Hospitals of Vila Franca de Xira, Bragança and Setúbal (Group III), the Hospitals of Santarém, Garcia de Orta, and Curry Cabral (Group IV), the Hospital of Vila Real/Régua, the Egas Moniz Hospital and the Santa Maria Hospital (Group V), and the Gama Pinto Institute, the Orthopedic Hospital of Outão, and the Santa Cruz Hospital (Group VI) are the best classified in their groups. EPE Hospitals (Hospitals publicly owned with private management) are the best classified in their groups in what efficiency is concerned, what is a better result tan the one shown in 2003. The lower inequality in relation to management indicators, in all hospital groups, exists in the areas of expenditure with inpatient care by user, what shows the existence of a norm of proceeding, in this traditional hospital area. The higher inequalities are those of day hospital, drugs in day hospital, drugs in outpatient care and rehabilitation by user. In what management indicators are concerned incentives must be created. The most efficient hospitals
Champagne, F; Langley, A; Denis, J L; Contandriopoulos, A P; Cazale, L; Rivard, M
It has been suggested that strategic management in public services tends to be oriented towards preserving and perpetuating current patterns of service provision, rather than changing priorities. However, faced with severe resource constraints combined with growing demand and rapidly developing technology, public hospitals in Canada have come under increasing pressure. Based on an empirical study of strategic management and change in 32 Montreal hospitals, this paper examines the relationship between financial adversity and the extent and nature of strategic change in these organizations. Strategic change indicators considered in the study include overall product mix, product diversity, product complexity, market demographics, efficiency, and revenue diversification. Results suggest that resource constraints have indeed stimulated changes within these organizations. In particular, hospitals suffering more severe financial difficulties have reduced their size and focused on a narrower range of services. Moreover, there is evidence that greater complementarity has been achieved among the entire sample of hospitals.
La Forgia, Gerard M; Harding, April
Public hospitals that are directly managed by government perform poorly in many developing countries. Approaches to improving them through internal managerial reforms have failed, and effective alternatives are much needed. Policymakers are considering reforms through public-private partnerships (PPPs)--a promising but so far unevaluated approach. We present results of a successful reform in São Paulo, Brazil. The PPP model gave facility managers latitude to manage human resources--a factor critical to success. Given the prevalence of direct management of public hospitals in developing countries, the São Paulo experience has implications for policymakers seeking to improve hospital performance.
Gholamzadeh Nikjoo, Raana; Jabbari Beyrami, Hossein; Jannati, Ali; Asghari Jaafarabadi, Mohammad
The present study was conducted to scrutinize Public- Private Partnership (PPP) models in public hospitals of different countries based on performance indicators in order to se-lect appropriated models for Iran hospitals. In this mixed (quantitative-qualitative) study, systematic review and expert panel has been done to identify varied models of PPP as well as performance indicators. In the second step we prioritized performance indicator and PPP models based on selected performance indicators by Analytical Hierarchy process (AHP) technique. The data were analyzed by Excel 2007 and Expert Choice11 software's. In quality - effectiveness area, indicators like the rate of hospital infections (100%), hospital accidents prevalence rate (73%), pure rate of hospital mortality (63%), patient satisfaction percentage (53%), in accessibility equity area indicators such as average inpatient waiting time (100%) and average outpatient waiting time (74%), and in financial - efficiency area, indicators including average length of stay (100%), bed occupation ratio (99%), specific income to total cost ratio (97%) have been chosen to be the most key performance indicators. In the pri¬oritization of the PPP models clinical outsourcing, management, privatization, BOO (build, own, operate) and non-clinical outsourcing models, achieved high priority for various performance in¬dicator areas. This study had been provided the most common PPP options in the field of public hospitals and had gathered suitable evidences from experts for choosing appropriate PPP option for public hospitals. Effect of private sector presence in public hospital performance, based on which PPP options undertaken, will be different.
During the reform of public hospitals, medical staff's enthusiasm and participation must be mobilized. In the positive factors, such as benefit, power, reputation, humanistic concern and satisfaction evaluation, benefit stands at the core position, power and reputation guides the medical staff's enthusiasm, and humanistic concern and satisfaction evaluation guarantees the enthusiasm of medical staff. By the institutionalized settings of benefit, power, reputation, and other factors, medical staffs of Xuzhou Central Hospital have been effectively mobilized, the development of hospital operates well, and the function of ensuring people health level regionally is further developed.
Nabirye, Rose C.; Beinempaka, Florence; Okene, Cindrella; Groves, Sara
Background A serious shortage of nurses and midwives in public hospitals has been reported in Uganda. In addition, over 80% of the nurses and midwives working in public hospitals have been found to have job stress and only 17% to be satisfied on the job. Stress and lack of job satisfaction affect quality of nursing and midwifery care and puts patients’ lives at risk. This is coupled with rampant public outcry about the deteriorating nursing and midwifery care in Ugandan public hospitals. Objective To explore factors that result in poor quality of midwifery care and strategies to improve this care from the perspective of the midwives. Method It was a qualitative exploratory design. Participants were midwives and their supervisors working in four Regional Referral hospitals in Uganda. Data was collected by FGDs and KIIs. Content analysis was used to analyze the transcribed data from the voice recordings. Results Four major themes emerged from the study. They were organizational (poor work environment and lack of materials/equipment), professional (midwives’ attitudes, lack of supervision), public/consumer issues (interference) and policy issues (remuneration, promotion and retirement). Conclusions and implications for Practice Midwives love their work but they need support to provide quality care. Continuous neglect of midwives’ serious concerns will lead to more shortages as more dissatisfied midwives leave service. PMID:27738665
... public or private hospitals. 17.53 Section 17.53 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Use of Public Or Private Hospitals § 17.53 Limitations on use of public or private hospitals. The admission of any patient to a private or public hospital at Department of Veterans Affairs...
... public or private hospitals. 17.53 Section 17.53 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Use of Public Or Private Hospitals § 17.53 Limitations on use of public or private hospitals. The admission of any patient to a private or public hospital at Department of Veterans Affairs...
... public or private hospitals. 17.53 Section 17.53 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Use of Public Or Private Hospitals § 17.53 Limitations on use of public or private hospitals. The admission of any patient to a private or public hospital at Department of Veterans Affairs...
Luquain, Alexandra; Belglaiaa, Essaada; Guenat, David; Vrecko, Sindy; Riethmuller, Didier; Valmary-Degano, Séverine; Bedgedjian, Isabelle; Chouham, Said; Prétet, Jean-Luc; Mougin, Christiane
To determine the prevalence of cytological abnormalities and high risk Human PapillomaVirus (hrHPV) in cervical smears from French women aged over 65 years who attended the referent Gynecology Clinic of the Besançon University Hospital. Between 2002 and 2012, 796 French women aged 66-99 years were cotested for cytology and hrHPV by Hybrid Capture 2 (hc2). hc2-positive cases were subjected to real time PCR for specific HPV 16/18/45 genotyping. Women with normal Pap smears and positive for hrHPV were followed-up every 12 months. Cytological abnormalities were detected in more than 30% of women and cervical cancers (CC) in 2.9% of women. Benign lesions were more frequent in women aged 66-75 years while (pre)-malignant lesions were preferentially found in women over 76. The prevalence of hrHPV was 22.7%. HPV 16 was the most frequent (23.8%), followed by HPV 45 (7.7%) and HPV 18 (3.9%). The rate of hrHPV increased with the lesion severity and HPV 16 was identified in 50% of CC. Among the followed-up women, those who developed CIN3 were HPV16 positive at study entry. The study provides important estimates of the prevalence of cervical abnormalities and hrHPV positivity in a French hospital based-population over 65. Findings suggest to consider this high risk population in regards to cervical cancer. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Barik, Henri C.; Swain, Merrill
The school performance of pupils in grades 1-3 of the French immersion program in operation in Ottawa public schools is evaluated in comparison with that of pupils in the regular English program. The results indicate that by the end of grade 1 immersion program pupils taught reading in French are found to lag behind their peers in the regular…
Dagain, Arnaud; Aoun, Olivier; Bordes, Julien; Roqueplo, Cédric; Joubert, Christophe; Esnault, Pierre; Sellier, Aurore; Delmas, Jean-Marc; Desse, Nicolas; Fouet, Mathilde; Pernot, Philippe; Dulou, Renaud
France deployed to Afghanistan from 2001 to 2014 within the International Security and Assistance Force. A French role 3 hospital was built in 2009 in the vicinity of Kabul International Airport (KaIA). The objectives of this study were to describe the epidemiology, management, and outcome of war-related craniocerebral injuries during the Afghan campaign in a French role 3 hospital. From March 1, 2010 to September 30, 2012, we conducted a retrospective descriptive study in Kabul, Afghanistan. All patients presenting with a ballistic craniocerebral injury to the KaIA role 3 hospital were included. We analyzed 48 records. Mean age was 21.9 years (1-46 years) with a 37:11 (male:female) sex ratio and a majority Afghan population (n = 41). Civilians represented 64.6% (n = 31) of casualties. On the battlefield, mean Glasgow Coma Scale score was 9.4 [3-15]. On arrival at the KaIA field hospital, 20 of the 48 patients were hemodynamically unstable. All patients underwent a full-body computed tomography scan. The majority of our casualties had associated injuries. Neurosurgery was indicated for 42 (87.5%) patients. The surgery consisted of wound debridement plane by plane associated with decompressive craniectomy (n = 11), debridement craniectomy (n = 19), and craniotomy (n = 12). A total of 32.4% wounded died at the point of injury, 8.4% at the emergency department, and 16.9% after surgery. War casualties with ballistic head injuries were predominantly multitraumatized patients with hemodynamic compromise requiring neurosurgical damage control management and multidisciplinary care. The neurosurgeon has thus an essential role to play. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This paper aims at analysing the impact of prospective payment schemes on cost efficiency of acute care hospitals in Switzerland. We study a panel of 121 public hospitals subject to one of four payment schemes. While several hospitals are still reimbursed on a per diem basis for the treatment of patients, most face flat per-case rates-or mixed schemes, which combine both elements of reimbursement. Thus, unlike previous studies, we are able to simultaneously analyse and isolate the cost-efficiency effects of different payment schemes. By means of stochastic frontier analysis, we first estimate a hospital cost frontier. Using the two-stage approach proposed by Battese and Coelli (Empir Econ 20:325-332, 1995), we then analyse the impact of these payment schemes on the cost efficiency of hospitals. Controlling for hospital characteristics, local market conditions in the 26 Swiss states (cantons), and a time trend, we show that, compared to per diem, hospitals which are reimbursed by flat payment schemes perform better in terms of cost efficiency. Our results suggest that mixed schemes create incentives for cost containment as well, although to a lesser extent. In addition, our findings indicate that cost-efficient hospitals are primarily located in cantons with competitive markets, as measured by the Herfindahl-Hirschman index in inpatient care. Furthermore, our econometric model shows that we obtain biased estimates from frontier analysis if we do not account for heteroscedasticity in the inefficiency term.
Simou, Effie; Pliatsika, Paraskevi; Koutsogeorgou, Eleni; Roumeliotou, Anastasia
The current study describes the development of a preliminary set of quality indicators for public Greek National Health System (GNHS) hospitals, which were used in the "Health Monitoring Indicators System: Health Map" (Ygeionomikos Chartis) project, with the purpose that these quality indicators would assess the quality of all the aspects relevant to public hospital healthcare workforce and services provided. A literature review was conducted in the MEDLINE database to identify articles referring to international and national hospital quality assessment projects, together with an online search for relevant projects. Studies were included if they were published in English, from 1980 to 2010. A consensus panel took place afterwards with 40 experts in the field and tele-voting procedure. Twenty relevant projects and their 1698 indicators were selected through the literature search, and after the consensus panel process, a list of 67 indicators were selected to be implemented for the assessment of the public hospitals categorized under six distinct dimensions: Quality, Responsiveness, Efficiency, Utilization, Timeliness, and Resources and Capacity. Data gathered and analyzed in this manner provided a novel evaluation and monitoring system for Greece, which can assist decision-makers, healthcare professionals, and patients in Greece to retrieve relevant information, with the long-term goal to improve quality in care in the GNHS hospital sector. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Whitley, Evangeline L.
The governance options matrix is provided to offer a way for state and university policymakers to examine the functioning environments of specific university-owned public teaching hospitals. With it, they can consider the benefits and problems involved with different options for governance. The issues related to the environmental factors affecting…
dos Reis, Valesca Nunes; Paixão, Isabella Bertolin; Perrone, Ana Carolina Amaral de São José; Monteiro, Maria Inês; dos Santos, Kelli Borges
ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the process of recording transfusion monitoring at a public teaching hospital. Methods A descriptive and retrospective study with a quantitative approach, analyzing the instruments to record transfusion monitoring at a public hospital in a city in the State of Minas Gerais (MG). Data were collected on the correct completion of the instrument, time elapsed from transfusions, records of vital signs, type of blood component more frequently transfused, and hospital unit where transfusion was performed. Results A total of 1,012 records were analyzed, and 53.4% of them had errors in filling in the instruments, 6% of transfusions started after the recommended time, and 9.3% of patients had no vital signs registered. Conclusion Failures were identified in the process of recording transfusion monitoring, and they could result in more adverse events related to the administration of blood components. Planning and implementing strategies to enhance recording and to improve care delivered are challenging. PMID:27074233
Sherlaw, William; Raude, Jocelyn
To understand the French public's response to the 2009 pandemic A/H1N1 influenza health threat a sequence analysis framework has been employed mobilising different theoretical strands such as innovations diffusion theory, surprise theory and social representation theory. These tend to suggest that disease episodes, public health policy and the public's response should be considered within a larger socio-cognitive frame incorporating representations anchored by prior disease episodes and campaigns. It is suggested in this article that the public's response was greatly influenced by the pervasive anchoring of the social representations of the pandemic threat to the 1918 Spanish flu in the lay and scientific media. These representations were eventually seen not to match the reality of the disease and consequently the French public did not panic during the 2009 pandemic. This hypothesis has been tested empirically by examining retrospective media, bibliographical data and an analysis of risk perception carried out through three cross-sectional studies prior to and during the pandemic episode and one month after the launch of the vaccination campaign. These findings suggest that alarmist framings of health threats may be counterproductive since they may reduce the capacity of public health organisations to mobilise the public in the case of more serious emerging disease.
Almeida, Alvaro Santos; Cima, Joana Ferreira
In this paper, we evaluate the effect of demand uncertainty on hospital costs. Since hospital managers want to minimize the probability of not having enough capacity to satisfy demand, and since demand is uncertain, hospitals have to build excess capacity and incur the associated costs. Using panel data comprising information for 43 Portuguese public hospitals for the period 2007-2009, we estimate a translog cost function that relates total variable costs to the usual variables (outputs, the price of inputs, some of the hospitals' organizational characteristics) and an additional term measuring the excess capacity related to the uncertainty of demand. Demand uncertainty is measured as the difference between actual and projected demand for emergency services. Our results indicate that the cost function term associated with the uncertainty of demand is significant, which means that cost functions that do not include this type of term may be misspecified. For most of our sample, hospitals that face higher demand uncertainty have higher excess capacity and higher costs. Furthermore, we identify economies of scale in hospital costs, at least for smaller hospitals, suggesting that a policy of merging smaller hospitals would contribute to reducing hospital costs.
Parissis, John; Athanasakis, Kostas; Farmakis, Dimitrios; Boubouchairopoulou, Nadia; Mareti, Christina; Bistola, Vasiliki; Ikonomidis, Ignatios; Kyriopoulos, John; Filippatos, Gerasimos; Lekakis, John
Heart failure (HF) is the first reason for hospital admission in the elderly and represents a major financial burden, the greatest part of which results from hospitalization costs. We sought to analyze current HF hospitalization-related expenditure and identify predictors of cost in a public tertiary hospital in Europe. We performed a retrospective chart review of 197 consecutive patients, aged 56±16years, 80% male, with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of 30±10%, hospitalized for HF in a major university hospital in Athens, Greece. The survey involved the number of hospitalization days, laboratory investigations and medical therapies. Patients who were hospitalized in CCU/ICU or underwent interventional procedures or device implantations were excluded from analysis. Costs were estimated based on the Greek healthcare system perspective in 2013. Patients were hospitalized for a median of 7 days with a total direct cost of €3198±3260/patient. The largest part of the expenses (79%) was attributed to hospitalization (ward), while laboratory investigations and medical treatment accounted for 17% and 4%, respectively. In multivariate analysis, pre-admission New York Heart Association NYHA class (p=0.001), serum creatinine (p=0.003) and NT-proBNP (p=0.004) were significant independent predictors of hospitalization cost. Direct cost of HF hospitalization is high particularly in patients with more severe symptoms, profound neurohormonal activation and renal dysfunction. Strategies to lower hospitalization rates are warranted in the current setting of financial constraints faced by many European countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
The study aim was to evaluate effectiveness of epidemiological surveillance in Public Health Care Center in Staszów. Active surveillance significantly increased the detection rate of hospital infections. It was determined that active surveillance should be aimed at patients hospitalized in intensive therapy wards, undergoing surgery, older than 70 years and neonates. Short-time active monitoring of other selected groups of patients (e.g. with intravenous catheter, vesical catheter, with decubitus ulcer) is also advisable.
Charney, Rachel L; Rebmann, Terri; Esguerra, Cybill R; Lai, Charlene W; Dalawari, Preeti
The public's expectations of hospital services during disasters may not reflect current hospital disaster plans. The objective of this study was to determine the public's expected hospital service utilization during a pandemic, earthquake, and terrorist bombing. A survey was distributed to adult patients or family members at 3 emergency departments (EDs). Participants identified resources and services they expect to need during 3 disaster scenarios. Linear regression was used to describe factors associated with higher expected utilization scores for each scenario. Of the 961 people who participated in the study, 66.9% were women, 47.5% were white, and 44.6% were black. Determinants of higher pandemic resource utilization included persons who were younger (P < .01); non-white (P < .001); had higher ED visits (P < .01), hospitalization (P = .001), or fewer primary care provider visits (P = .001) in the past year; and did not have a reunification plan (P < .001). Determinants of higher earthquake resource utilization included persons who were non-white (P < .001); who were a patient or spouse (vs parent) participating in the study (P < .05 and P = .001); and had higher ED visits in the past year (P = .001). Determinants of higher bombing resource utilization included persons who were female (P = .001); non-white (P < .001); had higher ED (P = .001) or primary care provider (P < .01) visits in past year; and experienced the loss of home or property during a past disaster (P < .05). Public expectations of hospitals during disasters are high, and some expectations are inappropriate. Better community disaster planning and public risk communication are needed.
Bonastre, Julia; Chevalier, Julie; Van der Laan, Chantal; Delibes, Michel; De Pouvourville, Gerard
In DRG-based hospital payment systems, expensive drugs are often funded separately. In France, specific expensive drugs (including a large proportion of anticancer drugs) are fully reimbursed up to national reimbursement tariffs to ensure equity of access. Our objective was to analyse the use of expensive anticancer drugs in public and private hospitals, and between regions. We had access to sales per anticancer drug and per hospital in the year 2008. We used a multilevel model to study the variation in the mean expenditure of expensive anticancer drugs per course of chemotherapy and per hospital. The mean expenditure per course of chemotherapy was €922 [95% CI: 890-954]. At the hospital level, specialisation in chemotherapies for breast cancers was associated with a higher expenditure of anticancer drugs per course for those hospitals with the highest proportion of cancers at this site. There were no differences in the use of expensive drugs between the private and the public hospital sector after controlling for case mix. There were no differences between the mean expenditures per region. The absence of disparities in the use of expensive anticancer drugs between hospitals and regions may indicate that exempting chemotherapies from DRG-based payments and providing additional reimbursement for these drugs has been successful at ensuring equal access to care.
Chantry, A A; Deneux-Tharaux, C; Bal, G; Zeitlin, J; Quantin, C; Bouvier-Colle, M-H
The organization of obstetric care in France brings all women in contact with the hospital system. Thus, hospital discharge data from the Program of Medicalization of the Information System (PMSI) constitute a potentially valuable source of information, particularly regarding rare events such as severe maternal morbidity. These data cover a large population but their quality has not been assessed in that field. Our objectives were to study the processes of production and the validity of PMSI data related to severe maternal morbidity. The study was conducted in four French tertiary teaching hospitals (Caen, Cochin [AP-HP, Paris], Grenoble and Lille). First, the organization of each step of the medical information process -production, formatting, verification and processing- was detailed in each center with a standardized form. Second, the validation study was based on the comparison of data related to severe maternal morbid events in the PMSI from these centers for 2006 and 2007, with the content of medical records which constituted the gold standard. Indicators of sensitivities and positive predictive values of PMSI were calculated. The processes of PMSI data production showed major differences between the four centers. In hospital discharge data, diagnoses (eclampsia and pulmonary embolism) had a high proportion of false-positives (68%). Inversely, procedures (four procedures for management of severe haemorrhage) had less than 1% of false-positives, but a low sensitivity with 37% false-negatives which could be corrected in 95%. Regarding intensive care provision, all indicators of hospital data quality were very high. In addition, the validity of hospital data in centers 1 and 2 was higher for all events. The heterogeneity of the process of PMSI data production is associated with a variable quality of these data. Intensive care provision can be used in the PMSI, as well as procedures after correction. For diagnoses, the quality of the PMSI data is better in
Gholamzadeh Nikjoo, Raana; Jabbari Beyrami, Hossein; Jannati, Ali; Asghari Jaafarabadi, Mohammad
Background: The present study was conducted to scrutinize Public- Private Partnership (PPP) models in public hospitals of different countries based on performance indicators in order to se-lect appropriated models for Iran hospitals. Methods: In this mixed (quantitative-qualitative) study, systematic review and expert panel has been done to identify varied models of PPP as well as performance indicators. In the second step we prioritized performance indicator and PPP models based on selected performance indicators by Analytical Hierarchy process (AHP) technique. The data were analyzed by Excel 2007 and Expert Choice11 software’s. Results: In quality – effectiveness area, indicators like the rate of hospital infections (100%), hospital accidents prevalence rate (73%), pure rate of hospital mortality (63%), patient satisfaction percentage (53%), in accessibility equity area indicators such as average inpatient waiting time (100%) and average outpatient waiting time (74%), and in financial – efficiency area, indicators including average length of stay (100%), bed occupation ratio (99%), specific income to total cost ratio (97%) have been chosen to be the most key performance indicators. In the pri¬oritization of the PPP models clinical outsourcing, management, privatization, BOO (build, own, operate) and non-clinical outsourcing models, achieved high priority for various performance in¬dicator areas. Conclusion: This study had been provided the most common PPP options in the field of public hospitals and had gathered suitable evidences from experts for choosing appropriate PPP option for public hospitals. Effect of private sector presence in public hospital performance, based on which PPP options undertaken, will be different. PMID:24688942
Daban, J-L; Kerleguer, A; Clavier, B; Salliol, A; Ausset, S
The specificities of military medicine have led to the maintenance of fresh whole blood (FWB) transfusion. The aim of our study was to evaluate this practice at the French military hospital in Kabul between 2006-2009. During our study period, 19 FWB transfusions were performed and the data from 15 FWB transfusions could be analyzed. We studied the number of units by recipient, the characteristics of recipients, the results of blood tests performed after transfusion, the incidents in donors and recipients, the period for obtaining a unit of FWB and mortality of recipients. A total of 66 units of FWB were transfused in 15 patients. The median number of FWB units transfused was three per patient. Thirteen out of 15 (87%) were combat-related casualties. All units were tested before transfusion for HIV with rapid diagnostic tests. Every blood samples of donors were negative for pathogens screened at the French Blood Service. No incident in donors and in recipients was reported. The average time between collection and transfusion was 140±197minutes (median 43min). Mortality in recipients was 27% (n=4). In our study, the FWB transfusion was not associated with incidents. Nonetheless, this practice should be used only for exceptional situations like military conflicts where risks of FWB are lower than the absence of transfusion. Copyright © 2012 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.
Bezin, Julien; Girodet, Pierre-Olivier; Rambelomanana, Sahondra; Touya, Maëlys; Ferreira, Paul; Gilleron, Véronique; Robinson, Philip; Moore, Nicholas; Pariente, Antoine
The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of the ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, 10(th) Edition) coding in the French hospitalization database (PMSI) to identify acute coronary syndrome (ACS) occurrence. Eligible hospitalizations were those that occurred at the Bordeaux teaching hospitals between 1 January 2011 and 31 December 2011 and had one of the ICD-10 codes related to ischaemic heart diseases (I20 to I25, excluding I23 and I25.2). Among these, 100 hospitalizations were randomly selected; for each case, the ACS diagnosis was confirmed/excluded after medical file examination by an independent events validation committee and the performance of codes, and combinations of codes, to identify ACS was evaluated by calculating the positive predictive value (PPV). Of the individual codes, I20.0, I21 and I24 had the highest PPV; 100.0% for I24 (95%CI [15.8-100.0]); 90.0% for I21 (95%CI [76.3-97.2]); and 66.7% for I20.0 (95%CI [38.4-88.2]). The combination of I20.0 or I24 codes was able to identify 12 of the 56 validated ACS cases with a PPV of 70.6% (95%CI [44.0-89.7]), the combination of I21 or I24 identified 38 cases with a PPV of 90.5% (95%CI [77.4-97.3]), the combination of I20.0 or I21 identified 46 cases with a PPV of 83.6% (95%CI [71.2-92.2]), and the combination of I20.0, I21 or I24 identified 48 cases with a PPV of 84.2% (95%CI [72.1-92.5]). The combination of I20.0, I21 or I24 codes had the best performance to identify occurrence of ACS in the French hospitalization database.
On Friday, November 13, 2015, Paris was subjected to a multiple terrorist attack that caused widespread carnage. Although French emergency planning, response, and resilience procedures (Plan Blanc) anticipated crisis management of a major incident, these had to be adapted to the local context of Pitié-Salpêtrière University Teaching Hospital. Health care workers had undergone Plan Blanc training and exercises and it was fortunate that such a drill had occurred on the morning of the attack. The procedures were observed to work well because this type of eventuality had been fully anticipated, and staff performance exceeded expectations owing to prior in-depth training and preparations. Staff performance was also facilitated by overwhelming staff solidarity and professionalism, ensuring the smooth running of crisis management and improving victim survival rates. Although lessons learned are ongoing, an initial debriefing of managers found organizational improvements to be made. These included improvements to the activation of Plan Blanc and how staff were alerted, bed management, emergency morgue facilities, and public relations. In conclusion, our preparations for an eventual terrorist attack on this unprecedented scale ensured a successful medical response. Even though anticipating the unthinkable is difficult, contingency plans are being made to face other possible terrorist threats including chemical or biological agents. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2016;page 1 of 6).
Lafolie, Jeremy; Nicolas-Chanoine, Marie-Hélène; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Hocquet, Didier; Bertrand, Xavier
The prevalence of Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) and its subclone H30 was assessed among a collection of 490 E. coli isolated in 2013 in a French university hospital. The prevalence of ST131 was 4% among bloodstream isolates (regardless of antimicrobial resistance) and 17.2% among extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing isolates. Although a much lower prevalence of ST131 was found among bloodstream E. coli isolates compared with other countries, a large predominance of H30 subclone within ST131 was confirmed. It was also confirmed that, among ESBL-producing E. coli, ST131 isolates were more frequently resistant to amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftazidime, fluoroquinolones and aminoglycosides than non-ST131 isolates. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.
Sánchez-Martínez, Fernando; Abellán-Perpiñán, José-María; Martínez-Pérez, Jorge-Eduardo; Puig-Junoy, Jaume
The objective of this paper is to provide a description and analysis of the main costing and pricing (reimbursement) systems employed by hospitals in the Spanish National Health System (NHS). Hospitals cost calculations are mostly based on a full costing approach as opposite to other systems like direct costing or activity based costing. Regional and hospital differences arise on the method used to allocate indirect costs to cost centres and also on the approach used to measure resource consumption. Costs are typically calculated by disaggregating expenditure and allocating it to cost centres, and then to patients and DRGs. Regarding public reimbursement systems, the impression is that unit costs are ignored, except for certain type of high technology processes and treatments.
Niska, Richard W
To identify hospital characteristics that predict collaboration with public safety organizations on bioterrorism response plans and mass casualty drills. The 2003 and 2004 Bioterrorism and Mass Casualty Supplements to the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey examined collaboration with emergency medical services (EMS), hazardous materials teams (HAZMAT), fire departments, and law enforcement. The sample included 112 geographic primary sampling units and 1,110 hospitals. Data were weighted by inverse selection probability, to yield nationally representative estimates. Characteristics included residency and medical school affiliation, bed capacity, ownership, urbanicity and Joint Commission accreditation. The response rate was 84.6%. Chi-square analysis was performed with alpha set at p < 0.05. Logistic regression modeling yielded odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. During a bioterrorism incident, 68.9% of hospitals would contact EMS, 68.7% percent law enforcement, 61.6% fire departments, 58.1% HAZMAT, and 42.8% all four. About 74.2% had staged mass casualty drills with EMS, 70.4% with fire departments, 67.4% with law enforcement, 43.3% with HAZMAT, and 37.0% with all four. Predictors of drilling with some or all of these public safety organizations included larger bed capacity, nonprofit and proprietary ownership, and JCAHO accreditation. Medical school affiliation was a negative predictor of drilling with EMS. The majority of hospitals involve public safety organizations in their emergency plans or drills. Bed capacity was most predictive of drilling with these organizations. Medical school affiliation was the only characteristic negatively associated with drilling.
Shimelis, Dagmawit; Tsige, Mesfin; Atnafu, Asfaw
The availability and quality of radiological service in the developing countries are generally poor. Ethiopia is one of the countries where overall health service has been compromised by inadequate & poorly maintained infrastructure and scarcity of health professionals. Radiological service is a resource intensive unit in a hospital and most developing countries radiological service is expected to be poor or may not be available at all. However, there is no study conducted to assess the radiological service in Ethiopia. The aim of the study is to assess the status of radiological service in all public hospitals in Addis Ababa, capital of Ethiopia, and to render insight to the overall national service status. A cross sectional survey was conducted from Aug 2008 to Oct 2009 G C in all twelve public hospitals in Addis Ababa, including specialized and military hospitals. Self administered pre-tested questioners were used to collect data from key informants, chief radiographers and radiologist. In addition, departmental daily work record book was used to extract the type of radiological examination performed Data analysis was done manually. All hospitals in the study provide a basic level of radiological services. Plain x-ray and ultrasound is the type of service (100%) available, whereas services like mammography (9%), CT scan (18%) and MRI (0%) were found to be the least available. There are a total of 78 radiographers and 20 radiologists in Addis Ababa public hospitals with no radiologist in three. The average number of examinations performed in a year amounts to 113,204 and US and routine x-ray examinations account for nearly 98% of the service offered The study showed 25% of the radiological equipments are non-functional and no appropriately trained dark room technicians & no maintenance staffpresent in all hospitals This study verifies the poor radiological infrastructure, poor level of support and the basic nature of the radiological service in the capital. We
Aiura, Hiroshi; Sanjo, Yasuo
We analyze a duopolistic health care market in which a rural public hospital competes against an urban public hospital on medical quality, by using a Hotelling-type spatial competition model extended into a two-region model. We show that the rural public hospital provides excess quality for each unit of medical service as compared to the first-best quality, and the profits of the rural public hospital are lower than those of the urban public hospital because the provision of excess quality requires larger expenditure. In addition, we investigate the impact of the partial (or full) privatization of local public hospitals.
Philpott, Thomas G
The McGill University Health Centre (MUHC) is undergoing a $1.579 billion redevelopment project, placing it amongst the largest hospital redevelopment projects in the world. As the Quebec government and the MUHC were considering the Public-Private Partnership (PPP) procurement alternative, the MUHC embarked upon an investigation of various jurisdictions' experiences with PPPs. The studies concluded that there are various frameworks available and that the specific characteristics of a project should be considered when determining which model to use.
Background The hierarchical pyramid inside Spanish public hospitals was radically changed by the Health Reform Law promulgated in 1986. According to it, the manpower of the hospitals was divided into three divisions (Medical, Nursing, General Services/Administration), which from then on occupied the same level, only subject to the general manager. Ten years after the implementation of the law, the present study was designed in order to investigate if the legal changes had indeed produced a real change in the balance of power inside the hospitals, as perceived by the different workers within them. Materials and Methods A questionnaire was administered to 1,027 workers from four different public hospitals (two university-based and two district hospitals). The participants belonged to all divisions, and to all three operative levels (staff, supervisory and managerial) within them. The questionnaire inquired about the perceived power inside each division and hierarchical level, as well as about that of the other divisions and hierarchical levels. Results Every division attributed the least power to itself. The Nursing and the Administrative division attributed the highest power to the physicians, and these attributed the highest power to the General Services/Administrative division. All hierarchical levels (including the formal top of the pyramid) attributed significantly more power to the other than to them. Conclusions More than ten years after the implementation of the new law, the majority of workers still perceive that the real power within the hospitals is held by the physicians (whereas these feel that it has shifted to the administrators). No division or hierarchical level believes it holds any significant degree of power, and this carries with it the danger of also not accepting any responsibility. PMID:11574049
Hussain, Matloub; Malik, Mohsin
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to prioritize 21 healthcare wastes in public and private hospitals of United Arab Emirates (UAE). Design/methodology/approach - Seven healthcare wastes linked with lean management are further decomposed in to sub-criteria and to deal with this complexity of multi criteria decision-making process, analytical hierarchical process (AHP) method is used in this research. Findings - AHP framework for this study resulted in a ranking of 21 healthcare wastes in public and private hospitals of UAE. It has been found that management in private healthcare systems of UAE is putting more emphasis on the inventory waste. On the other hand, over processing waste has got highest weight in public hospitals of UAE. Research limitations/implications - The future directions of this research would be to apply a lean set of tools for the value stream optimization of the prioritized key improvement areas. Practical implications - This is a contribution to the continuing research into lean management, giving practitioners and designers a practical way for measuring and implementing lean practices across health organizations. Originality/value - The contribution of this research, through successive stages of data collection, measurement analysis and refinement, is a set of reliable and valid framework that can be subsequently used in conceptualization, prioritization of the waste reduction strategies in healthcare management.
de Oliveira Vasconcelos Filho, Paulo; de Souza, Miriam Regina; Elias, Paulo Eduardo Mangeon; D'Ávila Viana, Ana Luiza
Physician shortage is a global issue that concerns Brazil's authorities. The organizational structure and the environment of a medical institution can hide a low-quality life of a physician. This study examines the relationship between the hospital work environment and physicians' job satisfaction and motivation when working in a large public academic hospital. The study was restricted to one large, multispecialty Brazil's hospital. Six hundred hospital physicians were invited to participate by e-mail. A short version of the Physician Worklife Survey (PWS) was used to measure working satisfaction. Physicians were also asked for socio-demographic information, medical specialty, and the intention to continue working in the hospital. Data from 141 questionnaires were included in the analyses. Forty-five physicians graduated from the hospital's university, and they did not intend to leave the hospital under any circumstance (affective bond). The motivating factor for beginning the career at the hospital and to continue working there were the connection to the medical school and the hospital status as a "prestigious academic hospital"; the physicians were more satisfied with the career than the specialty. Only 30% completely agreed with the statement "If I had to start my career over again, I would choose my current specialty," while 45% completely agreed with the statement "I am not well compensated given my training and experience." The greater point of satisfaction was the relationship with physician colleagues. They are annoyed about the amount of calls they are requested to take and about how work encroaches on their personal time. No significant differences between medical specialties were found in the analysis. The participants were satisfied with their profession. The fact that they remained at the hospital was related to the academic environment, the relationship with colleagues, and the high prestige in which society holds the institution. The points of
Heeren, Alexandre; Ceschi, Grazia; Valentiner, David P; Dethier, Vincent; Philippot, Pierre
The main aim of this study was to assess the reliability and structural validity of the French version of the 12-item version of the Personal Report of Confidence as Speaker (PRCS), one of the most promising measurements of public speaking fear. A total of 611 French-speaking volunteers were administered the French versions of the short PRCS, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale, as well as the Trait version of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory-II, which assess the level of anxious and depressive symptoms, respectively. Regarding its structural validity, confirmatory factor analyses indicated a single-factor solution, as implied by the original version. Good scale reliability (Cronbach's alpha = 0.86) was observed. The item discrimination analysis suggested that all the items contribute to the overall scale score reliability. The French version of the short PRCS showed significant correlations with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (r = 0.522), the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale (r = 0.414), the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = 0.516), and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (r = 0.361). The French version of the short PRCS is a reliable and valid measure for the evaluation of the fear of public speaking among a French-speaking sample. These findings have critical consequences for the measurement of psychological and pharmacological treatment effectiveness in public speaking fear among a French-speaking sample.
Maisonneuve, Herve; Touboul, Chantal; Bonnelye, Genevieve; Bertrand, Dominique
Introduction: Little data on the educational needs and practices of French hospital physicians have been obtained through surveys. Given that continuing medical education (CME) information is now available on http://www.cnfmc.fr and providers are accredited, we investigated CME practices and knowledge of the CME system with the use of a…
Maisonneuve, Herve; Touboul, Chantal; Bonnelye, Genevieve; Bertrand, Dominique
Introduction: Little data on the educational needs and practices of French hospital physicians have been obtained through surveys. Given that continuing medical education (CME) information is now available on http://www.cnfmc.fr and providers are accredited, we investigated CME practices and knowledge of the CME system with the use of a…
Akashi, Hidechika; Yamada, Takako; Huot, Eng; Kanal, Koum; Sugimoto, Takao
User-fee programs have been introduced at health care facilities in many developing countries. Difficulties have been encountered, however, especially at public hospitals. This report describes the effects of user fees introduced in April 1997 at a public hospital, the National Maternal and Child Health Center (NMCHC) of Cambodia, on patient utilization, revenue and expenditure, quality of hospital services, provider attitudes, low-income patients, and the government, by reviewing hospital data, patient and provider surveys, and provider focus group discussions.Before the introduction of user fees, the revenue from patients was taken directly by individual staff as their private income to compensate their low income. After the introduction of user fees, however, revenue was retained by the hospital, and used to improve the quality of hospital services. Consequently, the patient satisfaction rate for the user-fee system showed 92.7%, and the number of outpatients doubled. The average monthly number of delivery of babies increased significantly from 319 before introduction of the system to 585 in the third year after the user-fee introduction, and the bed occupancy rate also increased from 50.6% to 69.7% during the same period. As patient utilization increased, hospital revenue increased. The generated revenue was used to accelerate quality improvement further, to provide staff with additional fee incentives that compensated their low government salaries, and to expand hospital services. Thus, the revenue obtained user fees created a benign cycle for sustainability at NMCHC. Through this process, the user-fee revenue offered payment exemption to low-income users, supported the government financially through user-fee contributions, and reduced financial support from donors. Although the staff satisfaction rate remained at 41.2% due to low salary compensation in the third year of user-fee implementation, staff's work attitude shifted from salary-oriented to patient
Librero, J.; Peiro, S.; Calderon, S. M.
BACKGROUND—The aim of this study was to describe the variability in caesarean rates in the public hospitals in the Valencia Region, Spain, and to analyse the association between caesarean sections and clinical and extra-clinical factors. METHODS—Analysis of data contained in the Minimum Basic Data Set (MBDS) compiled for all births in 11 public hospitals in Valencia during 1994-1995 (n=36 819). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were used to evaluate the association between caesarean section rates and specific risk factors. The multivariate model was used to construct predictions about caesarean rates for each hospital, for comparison with rates observed. RESULTS—Caesarean rates were 17.6% (inter-hospital range: 14.7% to 25.0%), with ample variability between hospitals in the diagnosis of maternal-fetal risk factors (particularly dystocia and fetal distress), and the indication for caesarean in the presence of these factors. Multivariate analysis showed that maternal-fetal risk factors correlated strongly with caesarean section, although extra-clinical factors, such as the day of the week, also correlated positively. After adjusting for the risk factors, the inter-hospital variation in caesarean rates persisted. CONCLUSIONS—Although certain limitations (imprecision of some diagnoses and information biases in the MBDS) make it impossible to establish unequivocal conclusions, results show a high degree of variability among hospitals when opting for caesarean section. This variability cannot be justified by differences in obstetric risks. Keywords: hospital utilisation; medical practice variation; caesarean section; administrative databases PMID:10890876
Jégouzo, X; Desbordes, M; Delègue, S; Le Vacon, G; Patrick, M; Mouchabac, S
Behavioral and psychological symptoms have a high prevalence in dementia. They include mood disorders, psychotic disorders and behavioral disorders such as aggression or screaming. Despite a number of side effects and an increased mortality, antipsychotic drugs are widely prescribed for treatment of this disorder. In France, this increased risk of mortality led in 2009 to the adoption of guidelines concerning all antipsychotics. The guidelines propose a sensible use of antipsychotics after the establishment of non-pharmacological measures. The aim of this study is firstly to assess the impact of the French drug agency warnings on use of antipsychotics in elderly patients with dementia in our psychiatric hospital between 2008 and 2013. Secondly, we compare the prescription of antipsychotics between geriatric psychiatry and other adult medical departments in 2013. Thirty elderly with dementia were included in 2008 and 116 in 2013. We compare the prescriptions of antipsychotics in terms of percentage of subjects under antipsychotics. For these patients, we measure average number of different antipsychotics prescribed during the hospital stay or on the exit prescription, the average daily dosage per patient, the presence or the absence of association of antipsychotics. We show that the percentage of subjects under antipsychotics increased between 2008 and 2013 while the average dosage decreased in adult wards except in the geriatric psychiatry ward where the average dosage increased. There is no difference in the average number of different antipsychotics prescribed. In 2013, the geriatric department prescribed more antipsychotics but with lower dosages and lesser associations than in other departments. The impact of the French guidelines is limited in our psychiatric hospital. It is probable that the lack of means, both human and pharmacologic, as well as the possible worsening of the severity of the behavior and psychotic disorders in patients with dementia
Mwamakamba, Lutufyo Witson; Zucchi, Paola
ABSTRACT Objective: To estimate the direct costs of hospital stay for premature newborns of adolescent mothers, in a public hospital. Methods: A cost estimate study conducted between 2009 and 2011, in which direct hospital costs were estimated for premature newborns of adolescent mothers, with 22 to 36 6/7 gestational weeks, and treated at the neonatal unit of the hospital. Results: In 2006, there were 5,180 deliveries at this hospital, and 17.8% (922) were newborns of adolescent mothers, of which 19.63% (181) were admitted to the neonatal unit. Out of the 181 neonates, 58% (105) were premature and 80% (84) of them were included in this study. These 84 neonates had a total of 1,633 days in-patient hospital care at a total cost of US$195,609.00. Approximately 72% of this total cost (US$141,323.00) accounted for hospital services. The mean daily costs ranged from US$97.00 to US$157.00. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the average cost of premature newborns from adolescent mothers was US$2,328.00 and varied according to birth weight. For those weighing <1,000g at birth, the mean direct cost was US$8,930.00 per stay as opposed to a cost of US$642.00 for those with birth weight >2,000g. The overall estimated direct cost for the 84 neonates in the study totaled US$195,609.00. PMID:25003930
Evaluation of adherence to French clinical practice guidelines in the management of pregnancy loss issued by the French College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, one year after publication: A vignette-based study.
Le Gouic, S; Lavoué, V; Mimouni, M; Levêque, J; Huchon, C
To assess the adhesion of French obstetricians and gynecologists to the French clinical practice guidelines for pregnancy loss, issued by the French College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, one year after publication. An online vignette-based study was emailed to a sample of French obstetricians and gynecologists to compare their management of women with missed early miscarriage and incomplete early miscarriage. A descriptive statistical analysis was performed comparing the rates of appropriate management for these two indications before and after the release of the guidelines. Of the 404 specialists contacted, 143 completed the questionnaire. Forty-three percent stated that they had changed their practices following the release of the guidelines. The rate of adhesion was moderate for the management of missed early miscarriage (53% after publication of the guidelines versus 42% before, P=0.001) with a trend to avoid watching-and-waiting management. The rate of adhesion was poor for the management of incomplete early miscarriage (43% after the publication of the guidelines versus 27% before, P<0.001) with a lower use of misoprostol. Adhesion to the French guidelines appears to be moderate for the management of missed early miscarriage and low for the management of incomplete early miscarriage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Al-Aameri, Ahmed S
This study aims at assessing the different sources of job stress for nurses in a number of public hospitals in Riyadh city, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. In addition, it intends to find out the most and least perceived sources of stress, and the effect of demographic factors on nurses perception of these sources. Four-hundred and twenty-four nurses working in a number of public hospitals in Riyadh city were the sample size. A questionnaire was used as a method of data collection. It was distributed through the first half of year 2002. Validity and reliability were examined and the score of Cronbachs alpha was found at.92. Furthermore, a number of statistical techniques such as mean, standard deviation, and regression analysis were used to examine the research questions. Six possible sources of job stress for nurses in public hospitals were found. These include organizational structure and climate, job itself, managerial role, interpersonal relationships, career and achievement and homework interface. The major sources of stress were the first 3 factors, but they have mixed views on the last 3. Homework interface was not seen as a source of stress for nurses, which may refer to the fact that most of them are expatriate and may have little familial obligations. On the other hand, it was found that the effects of demographic factors on nurses perception of these sources are little. The exception was between age and marital status regarding homework interface factor. It was found that old and unmarried nurses did not see this factor as a stressor on the contrary to young and married ones. There are many sources of job stress for nurses in public hospitals. The most stressors found were organizational structure and climate, the nursing job itself, and the managerial roles. Public hospitals managers must deal with these and other stressors and manage them more constructively in a way that positive consequences will be maintained, and negative ones will be eliminated. Besides
Matejić, Bojana; Milićević, Milena Šantrić; Vasić, Vladimir; Djikanović, Bosiljka
Understanding the experiences and expectations of women across the continuum of antenatal, perinatal, and postnatal care is important to assess the quality of maternal care and to determine problematic areas which could be improved. The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with maternal satisfaction with hospital-based perinatal care in Serbia. Our survey was conducted from January 2009 to January 2010 using a 28-item, self-administered questionnaire. The sample consisted of 50% of women who expected childbirths during the study period from all 76 public institutions with obstetric departments in Serbia. The following three composite outcome variables were constructed: satisfaction with technical and professional aspects of care; communication and interpersonal aspects of care; and environmental factors. We analyzed 34,431 completed questionnaires (84.2% of the study sample). The highest and lowest average satisfaction scores (4.43 and 3.25, respectively) referred to the overall participation of midwives during delivery and the quality of food served in the hospital, respectively. Younger mothers and multiparas were less concerned with the environmental conditions (OR = 0.55, p = 0.006; OR = 1.82, p = 0.004). Final model indicated that mothers informed of patients' rights, pregnancy and delivery through the Maternal Counseling Service were more likely to be satisfied with all three outcome variables. The highest value of the Pearson's coefficient of correlation was between the overall satisfaction score and satisfaction with communication and interpersonal aspects of care. Our study illuminated the importance of interpersonal aspects of care and education for maternal satisfaction. Improvement of the environmental conditions in hospitals, the WHO program, Baby-friendly Hospital, and above all providing all pregnant women with antenatal education, are recommendations which would more strongly affect the perceptions of quality and
Background Understanding the experiences and expectations of women across the continuum of antenatal, perinatal, and postnatal care is important to assess the quality of maternal care and to determine problematic areas which could be improved. The objective of this study was to identify the factors associated with maternal satisfaction with hospital-based perinatal care in Serbia. Methods Our survey was conducted from January 2009 to January 2010 using a 28-item, self-administered questionnaire. The sample consisted of 50% of women who expected childbirths during the study period from all 76 public institutions with obstetric departments in Serbia. The following three composite outcome variables were constructed: satisfaction with technical and professional aspects of care; communication and interpersonal aspects of care; and environmental factors. Results We analyzed 34,431 completed questionnaires (84.2% of the study sample). The highest and lowest average satisfaction scores (4.43 and 3.25, respectively) referred to the overall participation of midwives during delivery and the quality of food served in the hospital, respectively. Younger mothers and multiparas were less concerned with the environmental conditions (OR = 0.55, p = 0.006; OR = 1.82, p = 0.004). Final model indicated that mothers informed of patients’ rights, pregnancy and delivery through the Maternal Counseling Service were more likely to be satisfied with all three outcome variables. The highest value of the Pearson’s coefficient of correlation was between the overall satisfaction score and satisfaction with communication and interpersonal aspects of care. Conclusions Our study illuminated the importance of interpersonal aspects of care and education for maternal satisfaction. Improvement of the environmental conditions in hospitals, the WHO program, Baby-friendly Hospital, and above all providing all pregnant women with antenatal education, are recommendations which would
Dupin, Cécile Marie; Debout, Christophe; Rothan-Tondeur, Monique
Nursing in France is undergoing a transition. In 2009, the preregistration nursing education program was reformed in line with the European Bologna Process, bringing nursing education to the universities. In 2010, the French Programme Hospitalier de Recherche Infirmière, the first national French nursing research funding program, was launched by the French Health Ministry. Of the 149 French research proposals submitted by registered nurses in 2010 and 2011, 13 were mixed-method proposals. The registered nurse principal investigator argued for a complementary use of qualitative and quantitative methods. These trends highlight major issues regarding mixed-method and nursing research. We can reasonably assume that mixed-method research has a broad appeal for nurse scholars, particularly for the exploration of complex phenomena related to nursing. Moreover, the recent movement in the domain of nursing education and research experienced in France highlights the need for dedicated research education in the development of nursing research capacity. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions:]br]sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.
Tamiru, Melesse; Haidar, Jemal
In countries like Ethiopia where the spread of HIV infection is extensive, health services are faced with an increased demand for care. The most obvious reflection of this increased demand is through patient load, longer bed occupancy perhaps to the exclusion of patients with other ailments. The purpose of this study was to describe the bed occupancy rate and the average length of stay of HIV/AIDS inpatients of three major public hospitals. A Retrospective Cross-sectional study was conducted in three major hospitals of Addis Ababa namely Zewditu Memorial Hospital, Tikure Anbessa Hospital and Saint Paul's Hospital from February to March 2004. Of the total 453 sampled inpatients, 293 (65 %) were HIV positives. Over half (55.0%) were Males. The most affected age group was between 24 and 56 years. The majority (85.8%) were from Addis Ababa and over half (57.7%) was married. Housewives constituted about a quarter (26.3%) of all the admitted cases. The most common co-morbidities resulted in admission to the medical wards among the HIV-positive cases were Tuberculosis (73.0%) and jirovicii pneumonia (70.3%), and their occurrence was significantly higher among HIV+ than their counter parts (p=0.001). Although numbers of patients admitted in Tikur Anbesa hospital was more than Saint Paul's and Zewditu Memorial hospitals (ZMH), the proportion of HIV positive cases admitted to ZMH however was higher (49.0%) than Tikur Anbessa (14.0%) and Saint Paul's hospitals (18.0%). Likewise the number of inpatient days was also higher in ZMH (n=7765) than the other hospitals. The bed occupancy rate was however, higher in ZMH (53.0%) than Tikur Anbessa (12.0%) and Saint Paul's (12.0%) hospitals. One of the most obvious consequences of HIV/AIDS patients are the increased occupancy of hospitals beds suggesting that only 81.1 % of the beds are for all other afflictions in the hospitals. It appears that there is a lot of concern that patients with HIV are competing with the non-HIV infected
Tamiru, Melesse; Haidar, Jemal
Background: In countries like Ethiopia where the spread of HIV infection is extensive, health services are faced with an increased demand for care. The most obvious reflection of this increased demand is through patient load, longer bed occupancy perhaps to the exclusion of patients with other ailments. Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the bed occupancy rate and the average length of stay of HIV/AIDS inpatients of three major public hospitals. Methods: A Retrospective Cross-sectional study was conducted in three major hospitals of Addis Ababa namely Zewditu Memorial Hospital, Tikure Anbessa Hospital and Saint Paul’s Hospital from February to March 2004. Results: Of the total 453 sampled inpatients, 293 (65 %) were HIV positives. Over half (55.0%) were Males. The most affected age group was between 24 and 56 years. The majority (85.8%) were from Addis Ababa and over half (57.7%) was married. Housewives constituted about a quarter (26.3%) of all the admitted cases. The most common co-morbidities resulted in admission to the medical wards among the HIV-positive cases were Tuberculosis (73.0%) and jirovicii pneumonia (70.3%), and their occurrence was significantly higher among HIV+ than their counter parts (p=0.001). Although numbers of patients admitted in Tikur Anbesa hospital was more than Saint Paul’s and Zewditu Memorial hospitals (ZMH), the proportion of HIV positive cases admitted to ZMH however was higher (49.0%) than Tikur Anbessa (14.0%) and Saint Paul’s hospitals (18.0%). Likewise the number of inpatient days was also higher in ZMH (n=7765) than the other hospitals. The bed occupancy rate was however, higher in ZMH (53.0%) than Tikur Anbessa (12.0%) and Saint Paul’s (12.0%) hospitals. Conclusion: One of the most obvious consequences of HIV/AIDS patients are the increased occupancy of hospitals beds suggesting that only 81.1 % of the beds are for all other afflictions in the hospitals. It appears that there is a lot of concern that
To describe the first hospital-based health technology assessment (HTA) program in a public hospital in Argentina, and report some clinical, educational, economic and organizational results after 10 years of its implementation. A hospital-based HTA program was created in March 2001 at Hospital Garrahan (Buenos Aires, Argentina), a national pediatric facility with a self-managed budget. Its main goal is to promote a rational and evidence-based technologic development. The program consists of HTA reports for technology acquisition, clinical practice guidelines (CPG), capacity building in research and management, and technical support for health services research (HSR). The evaluation cycle comprises: prioritization, evidence synthesis, dissemination and monitoring. We report program performance, comment educational and organizational effects, and discuss unresolved issues and future challenges. During the first 10 years the program produced 18 HTA reports on drugs (6 = 33 percent), therapeutic (6 = 33 percent), preventive (2 = 11 percent) or diagnostic (2 = 11 percent) procedures and institutional programs (3 = 17 percent). The scope covered effectiveness (12 = 67 percent), safety (10 = 56 percent), budget impact (6 = 33 percent), cost-effectiveness (2 = 11 percent) and organizational impact (3 = 17 percent). Mean time from request to report was 10 months. Eleven pediatric CPGs were submitted to expert consensus and disseminated for full-text Web access. A 1-year course on research and management was completed by 225 professionals in 6 years, and twenty-two projects for HSR were coached. Our experience shows that an HTA program is both feasible and useful in a public hospital of a developing country. Promotion of hospital-based HTA, professional integration in HTA activities and network collaboration to discuss unresolved issues with colleagues can multiply the benefits and optimize the use of hospital budgets.
Giugliani, Camila; Gault, Nathalie; Fares, Valia; Jegu, Jérémie; Trolli, Sergio Eleni dit; Biga, Julie; Vidal-Trecan, Gwenaelle
Background Legislative measures have been identified as one effective way of changing attitude or behaviour towards health care. The aim of this study was to describe trends in patients' complaints for medical issues; to evaluate the contribution of a law regarding patients' rights, and to identify factors associated to patients' perception of a medical error. Methods Patients with a complaint letter for medical issues in a French university hospital were included. Trends in complaint rates were analysed. Comparisons were made between a first (1998–2000) and a second (2001–2004) time period, before and after the diffusion of the law, and according to the perception of a medical error. Results Complaints for medical issues increased from 1998 to 2004. Of 164 complaints analysed, 66% were motivated by the perception of a medical error (47% during the first time period vs. 73% during the second time period; p = 0.001). Error or delay in diagnosis/treatment and surgical/medical complication were the main reasons for complaints. Surgical departments had the higher number of complaints. Second time period, substandard care, disability, and adverse effect of a health product were independently associated with the perception of a medical error, positively for the formers, and negatively for the latter. Conclusion This study revealed an increase with time in the number of complaints for medical issues in a university hospital, as well as an increase in the perception of a medical error after the passing of a law regarding patients' rights in France. PMID:19660131
Bauduer, F; Scribans, C; Renoux, M; Borot, N
A center-based study from the general hospital of Basque country has been performed to evaluate the importance of genetic hemochromatosis among French Basques. A sample of 37 patients from 34 families fulfilling the diagnosis criteria of hemochromatosis was obtained. Only four of them were of Basque origin: two homozygotes for C282Y, one homozygote for H63D, and one heterozygote for C282Y. These results suggest a significant lower prevalence of genetic hemochromatosis in Basques than in people from other French regions (P=0.001). They underline further the biological specificity of this population.
Muzzi, A; Panà, A
Contrary to what has happened so far, hospitals should become a setting which jointly exercise Clinical and Public Health Medicine. The areas of activity that require the presence of multidisciplinary teams and can bring benefits both to the patients and to the community is briefly described.
Abor, Patience Aseweh
The paper aims to examine the healthcare waste management practices of selected hospitals in Ghana. The study adopted a multiple case approach, using two public and two private hospitals. Findings indicate that both public hospitals and one private hospital have a waste management policy. Public and private hospitals have waste management plans and waste management teams. Public hospitals were found to generate more waste than the private hospitals. One private hospital and the public hospitals segregate their waste into different categories. This is done by first identifying the waste type and then separating non-infectious or general waste from infectious waste. Both public and private hospitals have internal storage facilities for temporarily storing the waste before they are finally disposed off-site. On-site transportation in the public hospitals is done by using wheelbarrows, while covered bins with wheels are used to transport waste on-site in the private hospitals. In public and private hospitals, off-site transportation of the hospital waste is undertaken by Municipal Assemblies with the use of trucks. Both public and private hospitals employ standard methods for disposing of healthcare waste. The article provides insights into healthcare waste management from a Ghanaian perspective.
Beny, K; Piriou, V; Dussart, C; Hénaine, R; Aulagner, G; Armoiry, X
Seven Neuromuscular Blocking Agents (NMBA) are commercialized in France. Four of them have an intermediate duration of action. Sugammadex required the use of NMBA slightly employed in clinical practice in France. Its introduction in routine practice could have an impact on NMBA use in clinical practice. This study was then conducted to assess and compare NMBA use before and after the commercialization of sugammadex. A longitudinal, retrospective, observational study was conducted between 2008 and 2011 in French university hospitals and military hospitals. The consumption data for sugammadex and NMBA were collected using a collection grid which was filled by pharmacists or anesthesiologists. Drug use was measured by the number of vials used divided by the annual number of hospitalizations in surgery and obstetrics (HSO). An overall analysis of the annual frequency of NMBA use was firstly performed, then individual data of each hospital were analyzed. Descriptive statistical analysis including mean, standard deviation, median, minimum and maximum was achieved. Thirty-four out of 39 hospitals participated in the study (87%) and analysis was performed on 26 of them (7%). The data of eight institutions were excluded due to missing values or because of the non-admission of sugammadex in their formulary. The NMBA mostly used were non-steroidal NMBA (75% of market share) with an increased use between 2008 and 2011 concerning atracurium (from 41 to 51 vials of 50mg atracurium used per 100 HSO). The overall analysis revealed an increase of the occurrence of rocuronium (between 2008 and 2011: from 1 to 4.8 vials of 50mg rocuronium used per 100 HSO). Individual analyses on each hospital showed a possible effect of sugammadex introduction on NMBA use in nine hospitals. The commercialization of sugammadex seems to have induced a discrete increase of steroidal NMBA but non-steroidal NMBA remain the leading agent in France. A long-term follow-up is deserved. Copyright © 2013 Soci
Cheng, S T; Chung, C H; Leung, Y H; Lai, K K
To identify characteristics of patients who abscond from general hospital wards, and to determine patient outcomes. Retrospective study. In-patient wards of a public general hospital, Hong Kong. Incident reports of 116 absconding episodes over a 20-month period from 1 November 1998 to 30 June 2000 were reviewed. Clinical characteristics, time and reason for absconding, destination of patient, outcomes, and adverse events were recorded. The majority of patients who absconded were middle-aged males admitted through the Accident and Emergency Department to the specialty of general medicine. Most incidences occurred within 24 hours of admission while in the emergency admission wards. Twelve percent of incidents were repeated episodes of absconding. The most common clinical diagnoses given to this patient group were drug overdose, intoxication, and soft tissue injury. Known drug addicts (29.3%) formed a substantial proportion of the patient group. Forty- seven patients returned to the ward within a few hours, while a further nine (7.8%) re-attended the Accident and Emergency Department of the hospital within 4 days. Several adverse outcomes were recorded: one patient died following a fall from height and two patients committed criminal offences. Patient absconding incidents are an important issue in hospital risk management. They can delay the delivery of appropriate medical treatment and may lead to other adverse patient outcomes, in addition to potential medicolegal consequences.
Karatza, Christine; Zyga, Sofia; Tziaferi, Styliani; Prezerakos, Panagiotis
In this quantitative, cross-sectional study, the authors identified the impact of workplace bullying on nursing staff employed at select Greek public hospitals. They conducted the study using the Negative Acts Questionnaire with a convenience sample of 841 participants employed by five Greek hospitals in the 1st Regional Health Authority of Attica. One third of the respondents reported having been psychologically harassed at work in the past 6 months. According to the results, the impact workplace bullying has on nursing staff varies depending on the existence of a supportive familial or friend environment and if nurses parent children. These findings demonstrate the value of family and friend support when coping with workplace bullying.
Charpiat, B; Bedouch, P; Conort, O; Rose, F X; Juste, M; Roubille, R; Allenet, B
Computerized prescription order entry (CPOE) is accelerating in France. CPOE has been shown to reduce the occurrence of some medication errors, but evidence of a beneficial effect on clinical outcomes remains limited. In some cases, new error types have arisen with its use. The aim of this study was to investigate the French data on the nature and frequency of medication errors opportunities generated by the computer use, which led pharmacists to alert prescribers. We performed a search on PubMed and CAT-INIST databases completed by a manual one. Ten publications, 11 abstracts and three personal communications were analysed. As part of the analysis of computerized prescriptions, the rate of pharmaceutical interventions due to CPOE ranges from 5.9 to 35% depending on the study. Duplicate orders, unit errors, the use of free text, parameterization flaws and poor usability of software are probably the root of many prescribing errors. Errors generated by the tool can have serious potential consequences. Pharmacist's interventions due to CPOE are common. It is not known whether variability of the percentage of pharmacist's interventions is due to software used or to conditions by witch studies were carried out. With implementation of CPOE in hospital, pharmacists must acquire new knowledge and new skills in order to prevent prescription errors generated by these tools and its misuse. Studies are urgently needed in order to identify the safest tools and to discard the most dangerous. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Background There is a growing interest in high income countries to control expenditure on medicines by improving the rationale for their selection. However, in middle income countries with differing priorities and needs, little attention has been paid to this issue. In this paper we explore the policies and processes for the selection and use of medicines in a group of hospitals in Chile, a middle income country which has recently joined the OECD. Methods A combination of qualitative and quantitative methods was used. A national survey questionnaire was distributed to investigate the role and operation of PTCs (Pharmacy and Therapeutics Committees). Interviews were conducted with key actors in the selection of medicines in large urban public hospitals. Results The national survey had an overall response rate of 42% (83 out of 196), whilst 7 out of 14 hospitals participated in the qualitative study. High complexity hospitals are large urban hospitals; all of which claim to have a working PTC. The pharmacy offices are mainly involved in dispensing medicines with little involvement in clinical duties. The interviews conducted suggest that the formulary of all the hospitals visited is no more than a stock list. PTCs are unable to influence the prescribing practices of doctors. Members do not feel prepared to challenge the opinions of specialists requesting a certain drug, and decisions are based primarily on costs. The inclusion of medicines in the clinical practice of hospitals is as a result of doctors bypassing the PTC and requesting the purchase of exceptional items, some of which are included in the formulary if they are widely used. Conclusions There is an urgent need to develop medicine policies in hospitals in Chile. The procedures used to purchase medicines need to be revised. Central guidance for PTCs could help ensure a more rational use of medicines. PTCs need to be empowered to design formularies which cover all the clinical needs of doctors, training
The caesarean section rate in Malaysian public hospitals has increased to 15.7% from 10.5% in the year 2000. There are inter-state variations in the rate ranging from a high of 25.4% in Melaka to 10.9% in Sabah. The West Coast states generally had a higher caesarean section rate than the East Coast states as well as East Malaysia. It would be prudent for Malaysia to implement stringent caesarean audits to ensure that rising caesarean section rates are kept in check.
Worley, N K; Lowery, B J
Directors of community mental health centers and superintendents of public mental health hospitals in one state were surveyed to gather data on interagency linkages. Implementation of affiliation agreements, exchange of staff training, and exchange of patient information were investigated. Affiliation agreements tended to be implemented with little difficulty and there was more interagency cooperation than that reported in earlier research. However, exchange of training and staff were still areas of minimal interaction. Geographic proximity was found to have a positive influence and competition a negative influence on cooperation. Further attempts at interagency linkages in the interest of continuity of patient care are recommended.
Ponnou, Sébastien; Gonon, François
ABSTRACT Two models of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) coexist: the biomedical and the psychosocial. We identified in nine French newspapers 159 articles giving facts and opinions about ADHD from 1995 to 2015. We classified them according to the model they mainly supported and on the basis of what argument. Two thirds (104/159) mainly supported the biomedical model. The others either defended the psychodynamic understanding of ADHD or voiced both models. Neurological dysfunctions and genetic risk factors were mentioned in support of the biomedical model in only 26 and eight articles, respectively. These biological arguments were less frequent in the most recent years. There were fewer articles mentioning medication other than asserting that medication must be combined with psychosocial interventions (14 versus 57 articles). Only 11/159 articles claimed that medication protects from school failure. These results were compared to those of our two previous studies. Thus, both French newspapers and the specialized press read by social workers mainly defended either the psychodynamic understanding of ADHD or a nuanced version of the biomedical model. In contrast, most French TV programmes described ADHD as an inherited neurological disease whose consequences on school failure can be counteracted by a very effective medication. PMID:28532330
Dravet, F; Peuvrel, P; Robard, S; Labbe, D; Michy, T; François, T; Théard, J-L; Classe, J-M
Ambulatory breast surgery is not well developed in France. This is especially true for oncologic procedures, Between January 2005 and June 2006, we performed a retrospective evaluation of the factors thought to limit the development of this type of hospitalization. The principal limiting factors were distance restrictions (respect of the 100 km perimeter), the complexity of patient management for small breast tumors (several practitioners involved) and last, the non-motivating reimbursement policy. By changing to the Anglo-American ("one day surgery", i.e. hospital stay less than 24 hours) or hybrid system (less than 12 hours+1 day surgery), ambulatory surgery could easily be offered to patients excluded by the current system (ambulatory department open less than 12 hours). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Gauzit, Rémy; Pean, Yves; Alfandari, Serge; Bru, Jean-Pierre; Bedos, Jean-Pierre; Rabaud, Christian; Robert, Jérôme
The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of carbapenem use in French healthcare settings in order to guide future actions. Healthcare facilities voluntarily participated in a nationwide cross-sectional survey in 2011. Medical data and reasons for carbapenem treatment (CPR) and discontinuation were recorded for all patients treated with carbapenems. A total of 2338 patients were recorded by 207 facilities. The median duration of CPR was 8 days, and 31.4% of patients received CPR for >10 days. An antibiotic consultant was involved in the initial choice of CPR in 36.8% of cases. CPR was chosen on an empirical (EP) basis for 1229 patients (52.6%), mainly because of severe sepsis (48.6%) or a perceived risk of bacterial resistance (33.7%). Among EP patients, de-escalation was more frequent in the case of intervention of an antibiotic consultant (35.1%) than without intervention (22.9%) (P<0.01). Among the 1109 patients receiving CPR initially based on bacteriological results, 607 (54.7%) had ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and 397 (35.8%) had Gram-negative bacilli susceptible to at least one β-lactam other than carbapenems or to fluoroquinolones. Among the latter, de-escalation was performed in 59 cases (14.9%). The intervention of an antibiotic consultant did not favour de-escalation in this group. In conclusion, carbapenems are frequently used for treating suspected or confirmed multidrug-resistant bacteria, and overall CPR duration is long. De-escalation is frequently not implemented despite isolates being susceptible to other drugs. More frequent antibiotic consultant intervention may help to decrease carbapenem use in the case of EP treatment.
Quentin, C; Arpin, C; Dubois, V; André, C; Lagrange, I; Fischer, I; Brochet, J-P; Grobost, F; Jullin, J; Dutilh, B; Larribet, G; Noury, P
Antibiotic resistance among members of the family Enterobacteriaceae was prospectively surveyed by eight French private laboratories over a 5-month period in 1999. A total of 2,599 consecutive and nonduplicate strains were collected, mainly (60.9%) from patients in the community. Most strains (82.9%) derived from urine. Escherichia coli was the predominant (73.9%) organism isolated. The overall rates of antibiotic resistance were as follows: amoxicillin, 53.4%; amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, 27.3%; ticarcillin, 44.2%; piperacillin-tazobactam, 3.2%; cephalothin, 29.2%; cefuroxime, 14.7%; cefoxitin, 11.5%; ceftazidime, 3.6%; cefotaxime, 2.8%; cefepime, 0.3%; imipenem, 0.1%; gentamicin (G), 3.8%; tobramycin (T), 5.0%; netilmicin (Nt), 3.7%; amikacin (A), 0.7%; nalidixic acid, 14.3%; ofloxacin, 10.4%; cotrimoxazole, 21.1%; nitrofurantoin, 12.7%; fosfomycin, 5.2%; tetracycline, 50.1%; and colistin, 12.5%. Beta-lactam resistance phenotypes essentially comprised penicillinase production (33.9%), overexpression of chromosomal cephalosporinase (4.6%), and synthesis of inhibitor-resistant TEM/OXA enzymes (1.5%) or extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (1.5%). Aminoglycoside resistance phenotypes consisted of GTNt (93 strains), TNtA (68 strains), GTNtA (14 strains), T (4 strains), GT (3 strains), G (1 strain), and reduced uptake/permeability (3 strains). Most of the nalidixic acid-resistant strains were resistant to ofloxacin (72.8%). Antibiotic resistance rates and phenotypes varied widely according to the bacterial group and the source of the strains. Significantly higher rates were observed in private healthcare centers than in the community, due to a higher proportion of both resistant species and resistant strains. However, multidrug-resistant isolates, including five extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing strains, were also recovered from the community.
Fourcade, C; Canini, L; Lavigne, J-P; Sotto, A
Enterococci are of considerable relevance in the hospital setting. Their most common location is the urinary tract, where they may be responsible for both colonization and infections. They are often associated with the presence of other microorganisms. The aim was to compare monomicrobial and polymicrobial Enterococcus faecalis bacteriuria. A retrospective study was performed on the demographic, clinical, and laboratory data of 299 patients who had presented with E. faecalis bacteriuria in 2012 at a University Hospital. The bacteriuria was polymicrobial in 46.1 % of cases and in 36.4 % of cases was responsible for a urinary tract infection. Infections appeared to be more prevalent in the polymicrobial than the monomicrobial group (42 % vs 32 %, p = 0.06). Half of the patients who presented with urinary tract colonization received antibiotic treatment (54/ out of 10). A multivariate analysis adjusted for age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.02 per year, p = 0.006), gender (AOR = 2.2, p = 0.007), and clinical classification (colonization or infection, AOR = 1.6, p = 0.091), showed that diabetes mellitus (AOR = 2.0, p = 0.04), hospital length of stay exceeding 28 days (AOR = 2.0, p = 0.03), and presence of a urinary catheter (AOR = 2.4, p = 0.001) were all factors associated with polymicrobial E. faecalis bacteriuria. A reduction in the length of hospital stay and the use of urinary catheters would appear to be required to decrease the incidence of urinary tract colonization and infections by polymicrobial E. faecalis. Improper use of antibiotics to treat urinary tract colonization remains a major concern.
Lepelletier, D; Pinaud, V; Le Conte, P; Bourigault, C; Asseray, N; Ballereau, F; Caillon, J; Ferron, C; Righini, C; Batard, E; Potel, G
The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiology of hospitalized patients with peritonsillar abscess (PTA). We conducted a multicenter survey in 13 French university hospitals in 2009-2012 describing 412 patients. Median age was 29 year (range, 2-84) and current smoking habit was reported by 177 (43 %) patients. Most of the patients (92 %) had consulted a physician for sore throat within 10 days before admission for PTA diagnosis. Additional symptoms such as visible tonsil abnormalities (83 %), tender cervical adenopathy (57 %) and fever ≥ 38.5 °C (53 %) were also reported. A total of 65 % patients (269/412) reported recent systemic anti-inflammatory agents (AIAs) exposure by medical prescription (70 %), self-medication (22 %), or both (8 %); 61 % and 27 % reported recent exposure to antibiotic and topical treatments for sore throat, respectively. Non-steroidal AIAs were used most often (45 %), particularly arylpropionic derivatives. A rapid diagnosis antigen test (RDT) for Streptococcus pyogenes was performed in 70 (17 %) patients and was positive in 17 (24 %), of whom 9 (53 %) were exposed to AIAs and 14 (82 %) to antibiotics. To treat PTA, antibiotic therapy was given to 392 (95 %) patients. Of 333 antibiotic prescriptions, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and metronidazole were the most prescribed antibiotics (42 and 17 %, respectively). Surgical drainage of the abscess was performed in 119 (29 %) cases and tonsillectomy in 75 (18 %) cases. The clinical outcome was favorable during the hospital stay in 404 (98 %) patients. In conclusion, patients with sore throat are often exposed to AIAs before PTA diagnosis, and antibiotic prescription was not often based on the RDT positivity.
Takasaka, Y; Yokota, O; Tanioka, T; Nagata, K; Yasuoka, K; Toda, H
We investigate the effects of music therapy concerts, which were held 60 times over a four year period, 1992 to 1996, in Geiyo Psychiatric Hospital, Kochi Prefecture and found that; 1) Musicians who performed at the concerts were not only from Kochi prefecture but also from other prefectures (10 times) and from four foreign countries (7 times). 2) Live concerts in a small hall had a positive influence on patients and drew the patient's attention and interest away from their hallucinations and delusions to the real world. Moreover, the concerts provided the patients with chances to acquire social graces such as being well-groomed. 3) Explanations by the musicians, interviews with the musicians and the seasonal choruses accompanied by the musicians were helpful to give the patients motives for recovering communication skills and to interact with society. 4) Inquiries to the patients about the concerts indicated discrepancies between the poor observed estimations during the concerts (83.3%) and the good subjective impressions expressed by the patients (82.0%), suggesting that the patients were not good at expressing their internal emotions through facial expressions or attitudes. 5) Many citizens including children came to the concerts and/or gave aid to the hospital because the concerts were open to the public and we suggest that this contributed to improving the general publics' image of psychiatric hospitals. Questionnaires revealed that 90% of people in a control group had a bad image of psychiatric hospitals in Japan, but only 32% of the members of the general public who attended our concerts had a bad image of psychiatric hospitals. In addition, the revolving ratio of the hospital beds rose from 0.4 to 1.2 over the four years, which also suggests a beneficial effect on the patients.
Plantier, Morgane; Havet, Nathalie; Durand, Thierry; Caquot, Nicolas; Amaz, Camille; Philip, Irène; Biron, Pierre; Perrier, Lionel
Electronic health records (EHR) are increasingly being adopted by healthcare systems worldwide. In France, the "Hôpital numérique 2012-2017" program was implemented as part of a strategic plan to modernize health information technology (HIT), including promotion of widespread EHR use. With significant upfront investment costs as well as ongoing operational expenses, it is important to assess this system in terms of its ability to result in improvements in hospital performances. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of EHR use on the organizational performances of acute care hospital surgical units throughout France. This retrospective study was based on data derived from three national databases for year the 2012: IPAQSS (Indicators of improvement in the quality and the management of healthcare, "IPAQSS"), Hospi-Diag (French hospital performance indicators), and the national accreditation database. National data and methodological support were provided by the French Ministry of Health (DGOS) and the French National Authority for Health (HAS). Multivariate linear models were used to assess four organizational performance indicators: the occupancy rate of surgical inpatient beds, operating room utilization, the activity per surgeon, and the activity per both nurse anesthetist and anesthesiologist which were dependent variables. Several independent variables were taken into account, including the degree of EHR use. The models revealed a significant positive impact of EHR use on operating room utilization and bed occupancy rates for surgical inpatient units. No significant association was found between the activity per surgeon or the activity per nurse anesthetist and anesthesiologist with EHR use. All four organizational performance indicators were impacted by the type of hospital, the geographical region, and the severity of the pathologies. We were able to verify the purported potential benefits of EHR use on the organizational performances of surgical
Wagner, J-D; Bezuidenhout, M C; Roos, J H
This study aimed to establish and describe the level of communication satisfaction that professional nurses experience in selected public hospitals in the City of Johannesburg, South Africa. The success of any organisation depends on the effectiveness of its communication systems and the interaction between staff members. Data were collected by means of questionnaires, based on the Communication Satisfaction Questionnaire (CSQ), from a sample of 265 professional nurses from different categories, chosen using a disproportionate random stratified sampling method. The results indicated poor personal feedback between nurse managers (operational managers) and professional nurses, as well as dissatisfaction among nurse managers and professional nurses with regard to informal communication channels. A lack of information pertaining to policies, change, financial standing and achievements of hospitals was identified. Nurse managers should play a leadership role in bringing staff of different departments together by creating interactive communication forums for the sharing of ideas. The results emphasise the need for nurse managers to improve communication satisfaction at all levels of the hospital services in order to enhance staff satisfaction and create a positive working environment for staff members. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Nursing Management Published by John wiley & Sons Ltd.
Neriz, Liliana; Núñez, Alicia; Ramis, Francisco
In Chile, the use of costing systems in the public sector is limited. The Ministry of Health requires hospitals to manage themselves with the aim of decentralizing health care services and increasing their quality. However, self-management with a lack of accounting information is almost impossible. On the other hand, nutrition department costs have barely been studied before, and there are no studies specifically for activity based costing (ABC) systems. ABC focuses on the process and traces health care activities to gain a more accurate measurement of the object costs and the financial performance of an organization. This paper uses ABC in a nutrition unit of a public hospital of high complexity to determine costs associated with the different meals for inpatients. The paper also provides an activity based management (ABM) analysis for this unit. The results show positive effects on the reduction of costs for the nutrition department after implementing ABC/ABM. Therefore, there are opportunities to improve the profitability of the area and the results could also be replicated to other areas in the hospital. ABC shed light on the amount of nutritionist time devoted to completing paperwork, and as a result, system changes were introduced to reduce this burden and allow them to focus on more relevant activities. Additional efficiencies were achieved through the elimination of non-value adding activities and automation of reports. ABC reduced the cost of the nutrition department and could produce similar results in other areas of the hospital. This is a practical application of a financial management tool, ABC, which would be useful for hospital managers to reduce costs and improve the management of the unit. This paper takes ABC and examines its use in an area, which has had little exposure to the benefits of this tool.
Lee, Kunsei; Kim, Hyun Joo; You, Myoungsoon; Lee, Jin-Seok; Eun, Sang Jun; Jeong, Hyoseon; Ahn, Hye Mi; Lee, Jin Yong
This study aims to identify which activities of a public community hospital (PHC) should be included in their definition of publicness and tries to achieve a consensus among experts using the Delphi method. We conduct 2 rounds of the Delphi process with 17 panel members using a developed draft of tentative activities for publicness including 5 main categories covering 27 items. The questions remain the same in both rounds and the applicability of each of the 27 items to publicness is measured on a 9-point scale. If the participants believe government funding is needed, we ask how much they think the government should support each item on a 0% to 100% scale. After conducting 2 rounds of the Delphi process, 22 out of the 27 items reached a consensus as activities defining the publicness of the PHCs. Among the 5 major categories, in category C, activities preventing market failure, all 10 items were considered activities of publicness. Nine of these were evaluated as items that should be compensated at 100% of total financial loss by the Korean government. Throughout results, we were able to define the activities of the PCH that encompassed its publicness and confirm that there are "good deficits" in the context of the PCHs. Thus, some PCH deficits are unavoidable and not wasted as these monies support a necessary role and function in providing public health. The Korean government should therefore consider taking actions such as exempting such "good deficits" or providing additional financial aid to reimburse the PHCs for "good deficits."
Faure-Cognet, O; Fricker-Hidalgo, H; Pelloux, H; Leccia, M T
Superficial fungal infections are predominantly caused by dermatophytes, but the spectrum of species involved is depending on geographic areas and lifestyle. Only few studies have recently described the French epidemiology of these infections, especially dermatophytosis. To determine the epidemiological situation of superficial fungal infections and the spectrum of dermatophytes in Grenoble area. A retrospective study of mycological laboratory records from January 2001 to December 2011 was carried out among patients with suspected fungal infections in the Grenoble University Hospital. Samples (skin scrapings, nail clippings and hair specimens) were collected, and mycological analyses were carried out by conventional methods. A total of 5470 samples collected from 3740 patients were analysed. Among the 1984 (36.3 %) positive cultures, dermatophytes were identified in 1348/1984 (67.9 %) samples, non-dermatophytes in 636/1984 (32.1 %) samples (yeasts 24.4 %, moulds 7.7 %). Toenails and feet were the most frequent localizations collected (2032 samples, 37.1 %, 1181 samples, 21.5 %). These data show the predominance (more than 92.6 %) of anthropophilic dermatophytes (Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton interdigitale and Trichophyton tonsurans). Trichophyton rubrum was the most commonly (78.6 %) isolated dermatophyte. Among zoophilic dermatophytes, Trichophyton verrucosum and Microsporum persicolor were regularly isolated.
This article summarises the findings of recent work on local authority public hospital services in England and Wales in the inter-war years and identifies the lack of a robust hypothesis to explain the variations found, particularly one that would explain the actions of county councils as well as county boroughs. Using public policy techniques on a group of local authorities in the far South West it proposes that variations can be explained by an understanding of the deep core beliefs of councillors, their previous experience of 'commissioner' and 'provider' roles, and the availability or otherwise of a dedicated policy entrepreneur to promote change.
This article summarises the findings of recent work on local authority public hospital services in England and Wales in the inter-war years and identifies the lack of a robust hypothesis to explain the variations found, particularly one that would explain the actions of county councils as well as county boroughs. Using public policy techniques on a group of local authorities in the far South West it proposes that variations can be explained by an understanding of the deep core beliefs of councillors, their previous experience of ‘commissioner’ and ‘provider’ roles, and the availability or otherwise of a dedicated policy entrepreneur to promote change. PMID:23752983
Guiguet, M; Furco, A; Tattevin, P; Costagliola, D; Molina, J-M
To determine the incidence of Isospora belli infection in HIV-infected patients in France, and to study risk factors. The French Hospital Database on HIV (FHDH) is a prospective cohort study that collects demographic, clinical and therapeutic data on patients managed in 62 hospitals. We reviewed all cases of I. belli infection recorded between 1992 and 2003. We compared the incidence in 1992-1994 [before the use of dual therapy and combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)] and in 1997-2003 (when use of cART was widespread), after stratification for CD4 cell count (< 50, 50-99, 100-199 and > 200 cells/microL). A total of 164 patients had I. belli infection either at enrollment (n=71) or during follow up (n=93). During the study period, I. belli infection tended to occur less frequently during follow up, and to be diagnosed mainly at database enrollment. The incidence of I. belli infection during follow up fell by 79% [relative hazard (RH) 0.21; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.13-0.33] in the cART period compared with the pre-cART period; no such change was noted among patients with CD4 cell counts below 50 cells/microL. In multivariable analysis, the risk of I. belli infection was significantly higher among patients from sub-Saharan Africa (RH 4.3; 95% CI 2.6-7.3). After adjustment for CD4 cell count, patients receiving cotrimoxazole prophylaxis were found to be at a lower risk of I. belli infection (RH 0.3; 95% CI 0.2-0.6). In France, I. belli infection among HIV-infected patients is now mainly seen in patients from sub-Saharan Africa, who present at an advanced stage.
Beck, Morgane; Michel, Bruno; Rybarczyk-Vigouret, Marie-Christine; Levêque, Dominique; Sordet, Christelle; Sibilia, Jean; Velten, Michel
This study's aims were: 1) to extract a comprehensive overview of the knowledge, experience and opinions of both community pharmacists and hospital pharmacists regarding biosimilar medicines in France; and 2) to identify the perceived problems and solutions to promoting their prescription. A 2015 web-based survey was conducted by the Observatoire des Médicaments, des Dispositifs Médicaux et de l'Innovation Thérapeutique of Alsace. A total of 802 pharmacists responded to the survey. Many (536, 66.8%, [95% confidence interval (CI) 63.6-70.1]) indicated that they were not familiar with biosimilars. Half of community pharmacists (95% CI 42.7-57.3) stated that they were not at all informed about biosimilar drugs, compared with 15.7% (95% CI 12.9-18.6) of hospital pharmacists. Almost all respondents (781, 97.4%, [95% CI 96.3-98.5]) had at least one pending question on biosimilars. Most of the questions were related to the manufacturing process, safety, substitution rules and the international non-proprietary name prescription. At the time of the study, 467 pharmacists (58.2%, [95% CI 54.8-61.6]) had already validated a prescription for a biosimilar drug, mainly for filgrastim. These latter were more comfortable in explaining the benefit of biosimilar medicines to the patient. Pharmacists were rather favorable to biosimilar drugs, and about 9 of 10 quoted healthcare cost savings as incentives to their prescription. However, many did not agree with allowing biosimilar substitution. "Patients' wishes to be treated with the originator" and "indication extrapolation" were the two main constraints identified. The survey highlighted the need to provide French pharmacists with accurate and comprehensive information regarding biosimilar medicines.
Saillour-Glénisson, F; Domecq, S; Kret, M; Sibe, M; Dumond, J P; Michel, P
Although many organizational culture questionnaires have been developed, there is a lack of any validated multidimensional questionnaire assessing organizational culture at hospital ward level and adapted to health care context. Facing the lack of an appropriate tool, a multidisciplinary team designed and validated a dimensional organizational culture questionnaire for healthcare settings to be administered at ward level. A database of organizational culture items and themes was created after extensive literature review. Items were regrouped into dimensions and subdimensions (classification validated by experts). Pre-test and face validation was conducted with 15 health care professionals. In a stratified cluster random sample of hospitals, the psychometric validation was conducted in three phases on a sample of 859 healthcare professionals from 36 multidisciplinary medicine services: 1) the exploratory phase included a description of responses' saturation levels, factor and correlations analyses and an internal consistency analysis (Cronbach's alpha coefficient); 2) confirmatory phase used the Structural Equation Modeling (SEM); 3) reproducibility was studied by a test-retest. The overall response rate was 80 %; the completion average was 97 %. The metrological results were: a global Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.93, higher than 0.70 for 12 sub-dimensions; all Dillon-Goldstein's rho coefficients higher than 0.70; an excellent quality of external model with a Goodness of Fitness (GoF) criterion of 0.99. Seventy percent of the items had a reproducibility ranging from moderate (Intra-Class Coefficient between 50 and 70 % for 25 items) to good (ICC higher than 70 % for 33 items). COMEt (Contexte Organisationnel et Managérial en Etablissement de Santé) questionnaire is a validated multidimensional organizational culture questionnaire made of 6 dimensions, 21 sub-dimensions and 83 items. It is the first dimensional organizational culture questionnaire
Background In their study ‘Mental Health in the General Population: Images and Realities’ Jean-Luc Roelandt et al. found a huge divide between the French public’s conceptualizations of insanity and depression. The study aims to examine whether such differences can be replicated using modern operationalized diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia and major depressive disorder. Methods In 2012, an online survey was conducted using a representative sample drawn from the adult French population (N = 1600). After presentation of a case-vignette depicting a person with either schizophrenia or major depressive disorder a fully structured interview was carried out. Results Despite some similarities marked differences between both disorders emerge regarding beliefs and attitudes. While respondents presented with the schizophrenia vignette more frequently defined symptoms as the expression of an illness with a stronger biological component and a less favorable prognosis, demanding psychiatric treatment, respondents presented with the depression vignette considered the occurrence of symptoms more frequently as the consequence of current psychosocial stress, benefitting not only from established but also from alternative treatments. People with schizophrenia were more frequently perceived as unpredictable and dangerous, there was a stronger need to separate one-self from them, they were more frequently met with fear and less frequently reacted to with pro-social feelings, and they also faced more rejection. Conclusions The French public draws a clear line between schizophrenia and major depressive disorder. This applies equally to beliefs about both disorders and to attitudes towards the persons afflicted. There is a need for interventions trying to reduce existing misconceptions in order to improve the care of patients. PMID:24252540
La Scola, B; Iorgulescu, I; Bollini, G
Five cases of Kingella kingae skeletal infections were diagnosed in children admitted to La Timone Hospital between 1992 and 1997. Patients were between 6 and 31 months old and presented with septic spondylodiskitis, calcaneus osteomyelitis, and hip-joint arthritis. All displayed either an upper respiratory tract infection or eczema during the month prior to their admission. Laboratory findings included an elevated leukocyte count and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Standard radiography was unrevealing, but 99mTc bone scans and magnetic resonance imaging showed significant abnormalities. Isolation of Kingella kingae was achieved in all cases by culture of fluid aspirates using the Bactec blood culture system. This bacterium was sensitive to the most common antibiotics tested, and the outcome was favourable in all cases.
This article analyzes the reforms introduced over the last quarter century into the French health care system. A particular public-private combination, rooted in French history and institutionalized through a specific division of the policy field between private doctors and public hospitals, explains the system's core characteristics: universal access, free choice, high quality, and a weak capacity for regulation. The dual architecture of this unique system leads to different reform strategies and outcomes in its two main parts. While the state has leverage in the hospital sector, it has failed repeatedly in attempts to regulate the ambulatory care sector. The first section of this article sets out the main characteristics and historical landmarks that continue to affect policy framing and implementation. Section 2 focuses on the evolution in financing and access, section 3 on management and governance in the (private) ambulatory care sector, and section 4 on the (mainly public) hospital sector. The conclusion compares the French model with those developed in the comparative literature and sets out the terms of the dilemma: a state-run social health insurance that lacks both the legitimacy of Bismarckian systems and the leverages of state-run systems. The French system therefore pursues contradictory policy goals, simultaneously developing universalism and liberalism, which explains both the direct state intervention and its limits.
Heeren, Alexandre; Ceschi, Grazia; Valentiner, David P; Dethier, Vincent; Philippot, Pierre
Background: The main aim of this study was to assess the reliability and structural validity of the French version of the 12-item version of the Personal Report of Confidence as Speaker (PRCS), one of the most promising measurements of public speaking fear. Methods: A total of 611 French-speaking volunteers were administered the French versions of the short PRCS, the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale, the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale, as well as the Trait version of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Depression Inventory-II, which assess the level of anxious and depressive symptoms, respectively. Results: Regarding its structural validity, confirmatory factor analyses indicated a single-factor solution, as implied by the original version. Good scale reliability (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.86) was observed. The item discrimination analysis suggested that all the items contribute to the overall scale score reliability. The French version of the short PRCS showed significant correlations with the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (r = 0.522), the Fear of Negative Evaluation scale (r = 0.414), the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (r = 0.516), and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (r = 0.361). Conclusion: The French version of the short PRCS is a reliable and valid measure for the evaluation of the fear of public speaking among a French-speaking sample. These findings have critical consequences for the measurement of psychological and pharmacological treatment effectiveness in public speaking fear among a French-speaking sample. PMID:23662060
Walker, Daniel M; Diana, Mark L
Health information technology (IT) has the potential to improve the nation's public health infrastructure. In support of this belief, meaningful use incentives include criteria for hospitals to electronically report to immunization registries, as well as to public health agencies for reportable laboratory results and syndromic surveillance. Electronic reporting can facilitate faster and more appropriate public health response. However, it remains unclear the extent that hospitals have adopted IT for public health efforts. To examine hospital adoption of IT for public health and to compare hospitals capable of using and not using public health IT. Cross-sectional design with data from the 2012 American Hospital Association annual survey matched with data from the 2013 American Hospital Association Information Technology Supplement. Multivariate logistic regression was used to compare hospital characteristics. Inverse probability weights were applied to adjust for selection bias because of survey nonresponse. All acute care general hospitals in the United States that matched across the surveys and had complete data available were included in the analytic sample. Three separate outcome measures were used: whether the hospital could electronically report to immunization registries, whether the hospital could send electronic laboratory results, and whether the hospital can participate in syndromic surveillance. A total of 2841 hospitals met the inclusion criteria. Weighted results show that of these hospitals, 62.7% can electronically submit to immunization registries, 56.6% can electronically report laboratory results, and 54.4% can electronically report syndromic surveillance. Adjusted and weighted results from the multivariate analyses show that small, rural hospitals and hospitals without electronic health record systems lag in the adoption of public health IT capabilities. While a majority of hospitals are using public health IT, the infrastructure still has
Tilleul, Patrick; Mons, Bisserka; Schmitt, Claude; Laporte, Jean-Marie; Begue, Dominique
To describe current practices for i.v. drug admixture preparation, to identify potential improvements for the enhancement of patient safety. A survey was conducted in a University hospital in Paris. Nurse practices were explored through the evaluation of five i.v. drug delivery systems: reconstituted freeze-dried drugs administered by syringe or i.v. bags, reconstituted drugs from vials administered by syringe or i.v. bags Ready to Use (RtU). i.v. drug preparation practices were documented by a representative sample of nurses in the following departments: intensive care, emergency, abdominal surgery, cardiology, infectious diseases, hepatology. Data were collected regarding: existence of written procedures for preparations, sources of information, labelling, methods of preparation and calculation of doses, nurse satisfaction regarding safety and ease of use of the different i.v. systems. A total of 299 questionnaires were completed and 100 nurses from the chosen wards were surveyed. The study highlighted a lack of procedure (71-85%) and a lack of labelling (37%). This survey highlighted areas for improvement in the preparation of i.v. drugs. It may contribute to raising awareness among nurses and physicians about the risks of medication errors. This survey also helped the pharmacy department in supporting the development of pharmaceutical procedures, the development of satellite pharmacy, the set up of training sessions for i.v. preparation and the switch toward ready to use packages when these are available.
Cunat, C; Flatin, V; Viale, J-P
The check-list (CL) "Safety in Operating Room" has been introduced in our teaching hospital since 2009, associated to a "Quality and Prevention of Risks" program. This introduction was carried out over two distinct phases. The first one was a pilot start including five OR, allowing us to draw firm recommendations on the best way to perform the introduction, followed by a generalization to the other operating room (OR). The recommendations were the followings: a pilot committee including all the professionals should be constituted before the onset of introduction, a dedicated communication should focus on the actual concerns and benefits, and finally, the person questioning other care givers and filling the form should be clearly identified and supported in the OR. Meanwhile a guide on the utilization of the CL in each surgical speciality was written, and a dedicated manager was in charge of the whole procedure. This experience raised several remarks. This implementation of the CL proved to be a cause of self-interrogation on our medical practices, and the opportunity to improve communication among the professionals of the OR. Indeed, the 10 items of the OR should be thought as the last check before the no-return point, which should be shared by anyone in the OR. If these conditions were fulfilled, the CL could be viewed as an actual improvement of safety in the OR. Otherwise, CL is just a supplementary form.
McIntosh, Jean; Dimitropoulos, Vera; Bramley, Michelle
This survey assessed the profiles of ICD-10-AM coding staff employed in 13 major, acute care public hospitals in Sydney, Australia, during a two-week period in 1999. Approximately 90% (56/61) of respondents gave their job title as Clinical Coder or Coding Clerk; of these, 20 (36%) were qualified Health Information Managers, of whom 10 coded for >or=90% of their work-time and three for <75% of the time. One quarter of all Clinical Coders/Coding Clerks spent >25% of their work time performing duties other than coding. Five Health Information Management (HIM) Clinical Coders/Coding Clerks were paid under the Clerical, rather than the HIM, Award.
Davis, T C; Berkel, H J; Arnold, C L; Nandy, I; Jackson, R H; Murphy, P W
To study the effects of three approaches to increasing utilization of screening mammography in a public hospital setting in Northwest Louisiana. Randomized intervention study. Four hundred forty-five women aged 40 years and over, predominantly low-income and with low literacy skills, who had not had a mammogram in the preceding year. All interventions were chosen to motivate women to get a mammogram. Group 1 received a personal recommendation from one of the investigators. Group 2 received the recommendation plus an easy-to-read National Cancer Institute (NCI) brochure. Group 3 received the recommendation, the brochure, and a 12-minute interactive educational and motivational program, including a soap-opera-style video, developed in collaboration with women from the target population. Mammography utilization was determined at 6 months and 2 years after intervention. A significant increase (p = .05) in mammography utilization was observed after the intervention designed in collaboration with patients (29%) as compared with recommendation alone (21%) or recommendation with brochure (18%) at 6 months. However, at 2 years the difference favoring the custom-made intervention was no longer significant. At 6 months there was at least a 30% increase in the mammography utilization rate in the group receiving the intervention designed in collaboration with patients as compared with those receiving the recommendation alone or recommendation with brochure. Giving patients an easy-to-read NCI brochure and a personal recommendation was no more effective than giving them a recommendation alone, suggesting that simply providing women in a public hospital with a low-literacy-level, culturally appropriate brochure is not sufficient to increase screening mammography rates. In a multivariate analysis, the only significant predictor of mammography use at 6 months was the custom-made intervention.
Davis, Terry C; Berkel, Hans J; Arnold, Connie L; Nandy, Indrani; Jackson, Robert H; Murphy, Peggy W
OBJECTIVE To study the effects of three approaches to increasing utilization of screening mammography in a public hospital setting in Northwest Louisiana. DESIGN Randomized intervention study. POPULATION Four hundred forty-five women aged 40 years and over, predominantly low-income and with low literacy skills, who had not had a mammogram in the preceding year. INTERVENTION All interventions were chosen to motivate women to get a mammogram. Group 1 received a personal recommendation from one of the investigators. Group 2 received the recommendation plus an easy-to-read National Cancer Institute (NCI) brochure. Group 3 received the recommendation, the brochure, and a 12-minute interactive educational and motivational program, including a soap-opera-style video, developed in collaboration with women from the target population. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Mammography utilization was determined at 6 months and 2 years after intervention. A significant increase (p = .05) in mammography utilization was observed after the intervention designed in collaboration with patients (29%) as compared with recommendation alone (21%) or recommendation with brochure (18%) at 6 months. However, at 2 years the difference favoring the custom-made intervention was no longer significant. CONCLUSIONS At 6 months there was at least a 30% increase in the mammography utilization rate in the group receiving the intervention designed in collaboration with patients as compared with those receiving the recommendation alone or recommendation with brochure. Giving patients an easy-to-read NCI brochure and a personal recommendation was no more effective than giving them a recommendation alone, suggesting that simply providing women in a public hospital with a low-literacy-level, culturally appropriate brochure is not sufficient to increase screening mammography rates. In a multivariate analysis, the only significant predictor of mammography use at 6 months was the custom-made intervention. PMID
Regazzi, John J.
This study compares the overall spending trends and patterns of growth of Academic Libraries with Public Libraries, K-12 schools, higher education institutions, and hospitals in the period of 1998 to 2008. Academic Libraries, while showing a growth of 13% over inflation for the period, far underperformed the growth of the other public institutions…
Regazzi, John J.
This study compares the overall spending trends and patterns of growth of Academic Libraries with Public Libraries, K-12 schools, higher education institutions, and hospitals in the period of 1998 to 2008. Academic Libraries, while showing a growth of 13% over inflation for the period, far underperformed the growth of the other public institutions…
Yrondi, A; Petiot, D; Arbus, C; Schmitt, L
In times of fiscal restraint for health structures, apart from the clinical input, it seems important to discuss the economic impact of liaison psychiatry. There are only a few studies on the economic added value provided by a liaison psychiatry team. In addition to this, only a few psychiatric pathologies are coded as they should be, hence we make the assumption of an additional development provided by a specialised team. Over a short period of 4months, in three departments of the Toulouse University Hospital Centre, the added value to the general pricing system of liaison psychiatry was studied. The population was represented by all the consecutive requests for consultations from patients over 18years old, men and women, hospitalised at that time. These three departments frequently request consultations with the psychiatry liaison team. They set a diagnostic, and if this is associated with a higher Homogeneous Group of Patients (HGP), it provides added value. Fifty-two patients benefited from a psychiatric consultation over 4months. The results highlight a development of € 8630.43 for the traumatology department, € 3325.03 for the internal medicine department, and € 513.61 for the haematology department over the study period. The overall development over this period was € 12,469.07. To our knowledge, this approach is one of the first in France to highlight an economic impact of the intervention of liaison psychiatry in the claiming departments. Copyright © 2014 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Blanc, Peggy; Dutronc, Hervé; Peuchant, Olivia; Dauchy, Frédéric-Antoine; Cazanave, Charles; Neau, Didier; Wirth, Gaëtane; Pellegrin, Jean-Luc; Morlat, Philippe; Mercié, Patrick; Tunon-de-Lara, José-Manuel; Doutre, Marie-Sylvie; Pélissier, Philippe; Dupon, Michel
Background Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are environmental organisms associated with a range of infections. Reports of NTM epidemiology are mainly focused on pulmonary infections and isolations, and extrapulmonary infections are less frequently described. Methods We conducted a retrospective study of NTM infections at the Bordeaux University Hospital, France, between January 2002 and December 2013. We used the microbiologic component of the American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America's pulmonary NTM disease criteria to define cases of pulmonary NTM, and patients with isolates from a normally sterile site were classified as having extrapulmonary disease. Results In our setting, 170 patients were included. Pulmonary cases predominated (54.1%), followed by skin and soft tissue infections (22.9%), disseminated cases (10.6%), lymphadenitis (7.7%), bone and joint infections (2.9%) and the remaining 1.8% catheter-related infections. Overall, 16 NTM species were isolated. Mycobacterium avium (31.8%) and M. intracellulare (20%) were the most common species identified, followed by M. marinum (13.5%), M. kansasii (10.6%), M. xenopi (9.4%), rapidly growing mycobacteria (9.4%) and other slowly growing mycobacteria (5.3%). In general, NTM isolates were largely prevalent in people older than 50 (62.4%); patients aged 1–10 year-old exclusively yielded M. avium from lymph nodes, almost cases having being diagnosed after 2007. Among the 121 patients with complete follow-up, 78 (64.5%), 24 (19.8%), and 19 (15.7%) were cured, experienced relapse, or died, respectively. Conclusion In our study, extrapulmonary NTM infections represented almost half of cases, consisting mainly in skin and soft tissue infections. The increase lymphadenitis cases in children after 2007 could be linked to the cessation of mandatory BCG vaccination in France. We observed similar cure rates (64%) between pulmonary and extrapulmonary infections. PMID:27959960
Choulika, S; Le Faou, A-L
There is a particular need among HIV-infected patients to stop smoking because of the risk of smoking-related complications and the high prevalence of cigarette smoking among them. Only a few studies have focused on this population in real-world settings. Investigate the effectiveness of a smoking cessation support for HIV-infected patients at the Georges Pompidou University hospital (HEGP) smoking cessation service during the 2011-2012 period. A retrospective study of smoking cessation medical records was performed for 39 smokers who had visited for the first time the HEGP smoking cessation service during the 2011-2012 period and declared to be infected by the HIV on their smoking cessation self-questionnaire. The study has described smokers' characteristics and follow-up to measure the abstinence rate, validated by the patient declaration, the registration of the number of days without cigarettes between each visit and a measure of expired carbon monoxide ≤ 5ppm at each visit. We examined smokers lost to follow-up and they have been considered as smokers. Maintained abstinence rates at 3 month-follow-up and at 9 months/one year were registered. The 39 HIV-infected smokers registered in the study were mainly male (30/39), were heavy smokers with a consumption mean of nearly 23 cigarettes per day. One third presented high nicotine dependence with a Fagerström test ≥ 7. A depression history was reported among one third of them. Symptoms of anxiety and depression were declared by 20% and 33% respectively among them. Thirteen percent of them received opioid replacement therapies, 41% were cannabis users (one out of four were daily users) and 10 % declared alcohol abuse. 85% of patients received nicotine replacement therapy (patch and/or oral forms) and 15% varenicline(®), along with behavioral support techniques. At 3 month-follow-up, smoking cessation was validated for 20.5% of patients and at 9 months/1 year, smoking cessation rate decreased at 13%. When
Woolhandler, S; Himmelstein, D U; Silber, R; Harnly, M; Bader, M; Jones, A A
Government support of public and private hospitals in Oakland and Berkeley, California was investigated. The private hospitals received government subsidies amounting to at least 60 per cent of their total revenues. The dollar amount of the subsidies to private hospitals was four and one-half times greater than government expenditures on the public hospital. In Oakland and Berkeley, as in many cities, public medical services have been reduced while both government health expenditures and private hospital revenues have increased sharply. The private hospitals, although all nominally non-profit, exhibit revenue maximizing behavior which results in socially unjust and medically irrational resource allocation. Funds might be found for public hospitals and clinics, and resources allocated more justly and rationally, if government expenditures in the private sector were brought under greater public scrutiny and control.
Woolhandler, S; Himmelstein, D U; Silber, R; Harnly, M; Bader, M; Jones, A A
Government support of public and private hospitals in Oakland and Berkeley, California was investigated. The private hospitals received government subsidies amounting to at least 60 per cent of their total revenues. The dollar amount of the subsidies to private hospitals was four and one-half times greater than government expenditures on the public hospital. In Oakland and Berkeley, as in many cities, public medical services have been reduced while both government health expenditures and private hospital revenues have increased sharply. The private hospitals, although all nominally non-profit, exhibit revenue maximizing behavior which results in socially unjust and medically irrational resource allocation. Funds might be found for public hospitals and clinics, and resources allocated more justly and rationally, if government expenditures in the private sector were brought under greater public scrutiny and control. PMID:6837825
Lee, Kunsei; Kim, Hyun Joo; You, Myoungsoon; Lee, Jin-Seok; Eun, Sang Jun; Jeong, Hyoseon; Ahn, Hye Mi; Lee, Jin Yong
Abstract This study aims to identify which activities of a public community hospital (PHC) should be included in their definition of publicness and tries to achieve a consensus among experts using the Delphi method. We conduct 2 rounds of the Delphi process with 17 panel members using a developed draft of tentative activities for publicness including 5 main categories covering 27 items. The questions remain the same in both rounds and the applicability of each of the 27 items to publicness is measured on a 9-point scale. If the participants believe government funding is needed, we ask how much they think the government should support each item on a 0% to 100% scale. After conducting 2 rounds of the Delphi process, 22 out of the 27 items reached a consensus as activities defining the publicness of the PHCs. Among the 5 major categories, in category C, activities preventing market failure, all 10 items were considered activities of publicness. Nine of these were evaluated as items that should be compensated at 100% of total financial loss by the Korean government. Throughout results, we were able to define the activities of the PCH that encompassed its publicness and confirm that there are “good deficits” in the context of the PCHs. Thus, some PCH deficits are unavoidable and not wasted as these monies support a necessary role and function in providing public health. The Korean government should therefore consider taking actions such as exempting such “good deficits” or providing additional financial aid to reimburse the PHCs for “good deficits.” PMID:28296785
Lascols, C; Legrand, P; Mérens, A; Leclercq, R; Armand-Lefevre, L; Drugeon, H B; Kitzis, M D; Muller-Serieys, C; Reverdy, M E; Roussel-Delvallez, M; Moubareck, C; Lemire, A; Miara, A; Gjoklaj, M; Soussy, C-J
The aims of the study were to determine the in vitro activity of doripenem, a new carbapenem, against a large number of bacterial pathogens and to propose zone diameter breakpoints for clinical categorization in France according to the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoints. The MICs of doripenem were determined by the broth microdilution method against 1,547 clinical isolates from eight French hospitals. The disk diffusion test was performed (10-μg discs) according to the Comité de l'Antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie (CASFM) method. The MIC(50/90) (mg/L) values were as follows: methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA) (0.03/0.25), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (1/2), methicillin-susceptible coagulase-negative staphylococci (MSCoNS) (0.03/0.12), methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS) (2/8), Streptococcus pneumoniae (0.016/0.25), viridans group streptococci (0.016/2), β-hemolytic streptococci (≤0.008/≤0.008), Enterococcus faecalis (2/4), Enterococcus faecium (128/>128), Enterobacteriaceae (0.06/0.25), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (0.5/8), Acinetobacter baumannii (0.25/2), Haemophilus influenzae (0.12/0.25), and Moraxella catarrhalis (0.03/0.06). According to the regression curve, the zone diameter breakpoints were 24 and 19 mm for MICs of 1 and 4 mg/L, respectively. This study confirms the potent in vitro activity of doripenem against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter, Enterobacteriaceae, MSSA, MSCoNS, and respiratory pathogens. According to the EUCAST MIC breakpoints (mg/L) ≤1/>4 for Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter, and ≤1/>1 for streptococci, pneumococci, and Haemophilus, the zone diameter breakpoints could be (mm) ≥24/<19 and ≥24/<24, respectively.
Barik, Henri C.; And Others
The school performance of pupils in grades K-2 of the French immersion program in operation at Allenby Public School in Toronto is evaluated in comparison with that of pupils in the regular English program. The results indicate that by the end of kindergarten pupils in both programs are equally ready for beginning school work in grade 1. By the…
Sørensen, Erik Elgaard; Olsen, Ida Østrup; Tewes, Marianne; Uhrenfeldt, Lisbeth
In recent years, perioperative nursing has received ongoing attention as part of an interprofessional collaboration. Perioperative nursing is constantly faced with new challenges and opportunities that necessitate continual updates of nursing knowledge and technical skills. In light of the longstanding relationship between nursing and technology, it is interesting that few studies with this focus have been performed. Therefore, our research question was: What is the content of perioperative nursing and how do nurses facilitate the interaction between nursing care and technology in highly specialized operating rooms in public university hospitals? An ethnography involving participant observations and interviews was conducted during a 9-month study period. The participants comprised 24 nurses from 9 different operating wards at 2 university hospitals in different regions of Denmark. Patients were addressed as either human beings or objects. Likewise, the participants' technical skills were observed and described as either technical flair or a lack of technical skills/technophobia. The different ways in which the technical skills were handled and the different ways in which the patients were viewed contributed to the development of three levels of interaction between technology and nursing care: the interaction, declining interaction, and failing interaction levels. Nursing practice at the interaction level is characterized by flexibility and excellence, while practice at the declining interaction level is characterized by inflexibility and rigidity. Nursing practice at the failing interaction level is characterized by staff members working in isolation with limited collaboration with other staff members in operating rooms. Considering that the declining and failing interaction levels are characterized by inflexibility, rigidity, and isolation in nursing practice, nurses at these two levels must develop and improve their qualifications to reach a level of flexible
Barbosa, Flávia Candolo Pupo; Mesquita, Evandro Tinoco; Barachi, Laiz Baniziolli; Salgado, Angelo; Kazuo, Rafael; Rosa, Maria Luiza Garcia; Mesquita, Claudio Tinoco
Aiming at improving the use of echocardiography tests, the Appropriateness Criteria (AC) were created by the American Society of Echocardiography (ASE)/American College of Cardiology (ACC). To compare the appropriateness profile of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) requests in accordance with the AC, between a public University Hospital (UH) and a Private Hospital (PH), and verify which characteristics are associated with a better TTE request profile. We prospectively assessed 779 consecutive TTE requests in a PH (49.8%) and a UH (50.2%), with 55.6% of requests for women and 44.4% for men, aged 59.1 ± 15.7 years. The indications were classified as appropriate, inappropriate or non-classified, and adequacy to AC was correlated with age, patient gender, and the time since graduation of the requesting physician. The statistical analysis used Kappa coefficient and chi-square test. There was no significant difference regarding the adequacy profile of appropriate TTE requests in the two institutions (71% vs. 75%, p = 0.3). At PH, the factors associated with higher rates of appropriate tests were: female gender (p = 0.001) and age younger than 60 years (p <0.001). In the UH, physicians who had graduated between 5 and 10 years before had a higher rate of inappropriate requests (p = 0.02). The variables that were independent predictors of appropriate tests in the PH were: female sex (p = 0.001) and age <60 years (p = 0.001). In this evaluation, the PH and the UH profiles showed similar request appropriateness profiles. Female gender, time since graduation of the requesting physician and the patient's age influenced the appropriateness of requests.
Xu, Guo-Chao; Zheng, Jian; Zhou, Zi-Jun; Zhou, Chuan-Kun; Zhao, Yang
Tertiary hospitals serve as the medical service center within the region and play an important role in the medical and health service system. They are also the key targets of public hospital reform in the new era in China. Through the reform of health system, the public hospital efficiency has changed remarkably. Therefore, this study aimed to provide some advice for efficiency assessment of public hospitals in China by comparing and analyzing the consistency of results obtained by three commonly used methods for examining hospital efficiency, that is, ratio analysis (RA), stochastic frontier analysis (SFA), and data envelopment analysis (DEA). The theoretical basis, operational processes, and the application status of RA, SFA, and DEA were learned through literature analysis. Then, the empirical analysis was conducted based on measured data from 51 tertiary public hospitals in Beijing from 2009 to 2011. The average values of hospital efficiency calculated by SFA with index screening and principal component analysis (PCA) results and those calculated by DEA with index screening results were relatively stable. The efficiency of specialized hospitals was higher than that of general hospitals and that of traditional Chinese medicine hospitals. The results obtained by SFA with index screening results and the results obtained by SFA with PCA results showed a relatively high correlation (r-value in 2009, 2010, and 2011 were 0.869, 0.753, and 0.842, respectively, P < 0.01). The correlation between results obtained by DEA with index screening results and PCA results and results obtained by other methods showed statistical significance, but the correlation between results obtained by DEA with index screening results and PCA results was lower than that between results obtained by SFA with index screening results and PCA results. RA is not suitable for multi-index evaluation of hospital efficiency. In the given conditions, SFA is a stable efficiency analysis method. In the
Schott, Anne-Marie; Hajri, Touria; Colin, Cyrille; Grateau, François; Gilly, François N; Tissot, Etienne; Couchoud, Cécile; Morestin, Catherine; Trillet-Lenoir, Véronique
Measuring the burden of cancer activity in big teaching multidisciplinary hospitals becomes a real challenge in France for organizational, quality of care and economic reasons. At the "Hospices Civils de Lyon" University Hospital in France, we have chosen to face this question by using the french DRG based information system called PMSI. It allows to identify hospital stays related to cancer care through the use of an algorithm based on selected ICD 10 codes for hospital stay. We then estimate the proportion of patients concerned by cancer and classify hospital stays and patients according to various epidemiological and clinical parameters. The results for the year 1999 taken as an example showed that 43,883 out of 293,827 (15%) of hospital stays were related with a diagnostic of cancer, corresponding to 12,777 different patients. The concordance study on 154 patients between the data from the electronic PMSI files and medical paper records showed a 97% concordance for cancer diagnosis and 93% for the precise type of tumor. In absence of hospital based cancer registries, the PMSI data base gives an accurate source of information for cancer burden and provides many potential applications in defining hospital policies for cancer management and resource allocations.
Rapp, Thomas; Lacey, Loretto; Ousset, Pierre-Jean; Cowppli-Bony, Pascale; Vellas, Bruno; Orgogozo, Jean-Marc
It is crucial to define health policies that target patients with the highest needs. In France, public financial support is provided to dependent patients: it can be used to finance informal care time and nonmedical care use. Eligibility for public subsidies and reimbursement of costs is associated with a specific tool: the autonomie gérontologie groupes iso-ressources (AGGIR) scale score. Our objective was to explore whether patients with Alzheimer's disease who are eligible for public financial support have greater needs than do noneligible patients. Using data from the Dépendance des patients atteints de la maladie d'Alzheimer en France study, we calculated nonmedical care expenditures (in €) using microcosting methods and informal care time demand (hours/month) using the Resource Use in Dementia questionnaire. We measured the burden associated with informal care provision with Zarit Burden Interview. We used a modified two-part model to explore the correlation between public financial support eligibility and these three variables. We find evidence of higher informal care use, higher informal caregivers' burden, and higher care expenditures when patients have an AGGIR scale score corresponding to public financial support eligibility. The AGGIR scale is useful to target patients with the highest costs and needs. Given our results, public subsidies could be used to further sustain informal caregivers networks by financing programs dedicated to lowering informal caregivers' burden. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Beauvallet, Godefroy; Boughzala, Younès; Assar, Saïd
Public procurement constitutes a significant portion of national PIB in all countries and electronic platforms for supporting public transactions are an important application of e-government. In France, new regulations since 2005 are pushing public and private actors to adopt electronic means for handling all steps of the purchase process in public organisations. Based on quantitative and qualitative surveys made between 2005 and 2008, this chapter presents the general topic of e-procurement and specifically discusses the problem of e-procurement adoption in public institutions in France. The conclusions of these investigations spanning a three years period, are that public e-procurement is constantly progressing, although difficulties related to insufficient technical skills and the complexity of the juridical context hinder seriously its full adoption. They also show that a digital and an organisational divide is appearing between big administrations which have the adequate resources and skills to fully adopt e-procurement, and small administration (i.e. local authorities) which are still reluctant or unable to conduct a purchase in a digital manner.
Bigelow, B; Arndt, M; Stone, M M
Hospitals engage in a variety of strategies designed to anticipate, shape, and respond to public policy issues. This article describes corporate political strategy and argues for its need throughout a public policy issue's life cycle.
Cheng, Terence C; Haisken-DeNew, John P; Yong, Jongsay
The increasing prominence of the private sector in health care provision has generated considerable interest in understanding its implications on quality and cost. This paper investigates the phenomenon of cream skimming in a mixed public-private hospital setting using the novel approach of analysing hospital transfers. We analyse hospital administrative data of patients with ischemic heart disease from the state of Victoria, Australia. The data set contains approximately 1.77 million admission episodes in 309 hospitals, of which 132 are public hospitals, and 177 private hospitals. We ask if patients transferred between public and private hospitals differ systematically in the severity and complexity of their medical conditions; and if so, whether utilisation also differs. We find that patients with higher disease severity are more likely to be transferred from private to public hospitals whereas the opposite is true for patients transferred to private hospitals. We also find that patients transferred from private to public hospitals stayed longer and cost more than private-to-private transfer patients, after controlling for patients' observed health conditions and personal characteristics. Overall, the evidence is suggestive of the presence of cream skimming in the Victorian hospital system, although we cannot conclusively rule out other mechanisms that might influence hospital transfers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Oh, Juhwan; Lee, Jin-Seok; Choi, Yong-Jun; Park, Hyeung-Keun; Do, Young Kyung; Eun, Sang-Jun
After the 1997 economic crisis, the South Korean government implemented neoliberal policies in many sectors. In health care, the government attempted to privatize nine public hospitals, framing the initiative as "better management." In this discourse, public hospital workers were stereotyped as lazy and incompetent, while public hospitals were portrayed as poorly managed and of low quality. However, the government did not present any relevant evidence of improvement in already privatized hospitals, even though three hospitals had been semi-privatized at that time. In this study, the authors evaluated the effects of the semi-privatization, comparing the performance of the semi-privatized hospitals with that of the nine other hospitals targeted for privatization. The study found adverse effects on performance, unlike the claims made by the government. Semi-privatization intensified the workloads of hospital workers and the instability of employment, froze or decreased real wages, and drastically increased hospital revenue per patient stay. The changes may have resulted from redefining profit as the goal of the hospitals, as opposed to the previous focus on decision-making on public health. These research findings played a decisive role in the struggle to keep the targeted public hospitals free of privatization, especially in two of the nine hospitals targeted for privatization in 2001.
Vogt, Sibylle Emilie; da Silva, Kátia Silveira; Dias, Marcos Augusto Bastos
OBJECTIVE To compare collaborative and traditional childbirth care models. METHODS Cross-sectional study with 655 primiparous women in four public health system hospitals in Belo Horizonte, MG, Southeastern Brazil, in 2011 (333 women for the collaborative model and 322 for the traditional model, including those with induced or premature labor). Data were collected using interviews and medical records. The Chi-square test was used to compare the outcomes and multivariate logistic regression to determine the association between the model and the interventions used. RESULTS Paid work and schooling showed significant differences in distribution between the models. Oxytocin (50.2% collaborative model and 65.5% traditional model; p < 0.001), amniotomy (54.3% collaborative model and 65.9% traditional model; p = 0.012) and episiotomy (collaborative model 16.1% and traditional model 85.2%; p < 0.001) were less used in the collaborative model with increased application of non-pharmacological pain relief (85.0% collaborative model and 78.9% traditional model; p = 0.042). The association between the collaborative model and the reduction in the use of oxytocin, artificial rupture of membranes and episiotomy remained after adjustment for confounding. The care model was not associated with complications in newborns or mothers neither with the use of spinal or epidural analgesia. CONCLUSIONS The results suggest that collaborative model may reduce interventions performed in labor care with similar perinatal outcomes. PMID:24897052
del Llano, J; Martínez-Cantarero, J F; Gol, J; Raigada, F
To determine the opinion of chief executive officers (CEOs) and physicians in public hospitals concerning new managerial trends. We performed a qualitative study designed to determine the opinion of CEOs and physicians on the organizational innovations that affect more than one level of health management intervention. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted to identify behavior, experiences, opinions, knowledge and other personal and institutional aspects related to the study's aim. Focus groups (two study groups and one control group) were also used. Interaction between groups was used to obtain different types of information on the development of ideas, operational capacity, and the degree of consensus and disagreement on the subjects discussed. Comparison between the control and the study groups revealed that the new management trends added value in the following areas: economy of contracts, delegation, administrative decentralization, incentives, risk avoidance, process re-engineering, heath care continuity, competitiveness, leadership, information systems and client centeredness. Physicians are showing increased interest in organizational innovations while CEOs are ambivalent about their changing role and respective responsibilities. There is evidence of resistance to change. There is no single institutional model; institutional design depends on internal factors (cohesion and leadership) and external factors (environment, size and technology). The incipient development of innovations reveals the need for changes in the style and characteristics of management structure (composition, functions, responsibilities).
Cho, Kyoung Won; Kim, Seong Min; An, Chang-Ho; Chae, Young Moon
This study was conducted to evaluate the adoption behavior of a newly developed Electronic Medical Record (EMR)-based information system (IS) at three public hospitals in Korea with a focus on doctors and nurses. User satisfaction scores from four performance layers were analyzed before and two times after the newly develop system was introduced to evaluate the adoption process of the IS with Rogers' diffusion theory. The 'intention to use' scores, the most important indicator for determining whether or not to adopt the IS in Rogers' confirmation stage for doctors, were very high in the third survey (4.21). In addition, the scores for 'reduced medication errors', which is the key indicator for evaluating the success of the IS, increased in the third survey for both doctors and nurses. The factors influencing 'intention to use' with a high odds ratio (>1.5) were the 'frequency of attendance of user training sessions', 'mandatory use of system', 'reduced medication errors', and 'reduced medical record documentation time' for both doctors and nurses. These findings show that the new EMR-based IS was well accepted by doctors. Both doctors and nurses also positively considered the effects of the new IS on their clinical environments.
Leovigildo, Érida Silva; David, Rose Ana Rios; Mendes, Andreia Santos
Background Psoriasis is a chronic dermatosis of unknown etiology with a tendency to relapse after treatment. The disease is frequently linked to psychological stress due to the embarrassment caused by the lesions. Objective To analyze the stress level presented by psoriasis patients followed at the Dermatology Service of a public hospital in Salvador, Bahia state, Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study of a consecutive convenience sample composed of 60 participants. We used Lipp's Stress Symptoms Inventory for Adults to assess stress levels. The questionnaire identifies and classifies physical and psychological symptoms according to three stages of stress: alarming, resistance, and exhaustion. We also collected socio-demographic and clinical data that could be associated with psoriasis. Results 85% of the participants presented stress. Lipp's questionnaire results revealed that 48% were in the resistance stage and 37% in the exhaustion stage. Women presented higher levels of stress. Of the total 28 women, 64% were in exhaustion stage, 29% in the resistance stage, and only 7% presented no stress symptoms. Of the total 32 men, 44% were in resistance stage, 34% in exhaustion stage, and 22% presented no stress symptoms. Regarding physical and psychological symptoms, psychological symptomatology was prevalent (55%). Conclusions Based on the number of patients in exhaustion stage, we can conclude that stress levels of the participants were high regardless the type of psoriasis and treatment duration. PMID:27579739
Barber, Sarah L; Borowitz, Michael; Bekedam, Henk; Ma, Jin
Hospitals compose a large share of total health spending in most countries, and thus have been the target of reforms to improve efficiency and reduce costs. In China, the government implemented national health care reform to improve access to essential services and reduce high out-of-pocket medical spending. A key component is the comprehensive reform of public hospitals on a pilot basis, although it remains one of the least understood aspects of health care reform in China. This article outlines the main goals of the reform of public hospitals in China, progress to date and the direction of reform between now and 2015. Then, we review experiences from industrialized countries and discuss the applicability to the Chinese reform process. Based on the policy directions focusing on efficiency and quality, and reflecting on how hospital systems in other countries have responded, the article concludes that the hospital of the future in China operates at county level. Barriers to realizing this are discussed.
Lascols, C; Legrand, P; Mérens, A; Leclercq, R; Muller-Serieys, C; Drugeon, H B; Kitzis, M D; Reverdy, M E; Roussel-Delvallez, M; Moubareck, C; Brémont, S; Miara, A; Gjoklaj, M; Soussy, C-J
The aims of this study were to determine the in vitro activity profile of ceftobiprole, a pyrrolidinone cephalosporin, against a large number of bacterial pathogens and to propose zone diameter breakpoints for clinical categorisation according to the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) breakpoints. MICs of ceftobiprole were determined by broth microdilution against 1548 clinical isolates collected in eight French hospitals. Disk diffusion testing was performed using 30 μg disks according to the method of the Comité de l'Antibiogramme de la Société Française de Microbiologie (CA-SFM). The in vitro activity of ceftobiprole, expressed by MIC(50/90) (MICs for 50% and 90% of the organisms, respectively) (mg/L), was as follows: meticillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, 0.25/0.5; meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), 1/2; meticillin-susceptible coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), 0.12/0.5; meticillin-resistant CoNS, 1/2; penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae, ≤ 0.008/0.03; penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae, 0.12/0.5; viridans group streptococci, 0.03/0.12; β-haemolytic streptococci, ≤ 0.008/0.016; Enterococcus faecalis, 0.25/1; Enterococcus faecium, 64/128; Enterobacteriaceae, 0.06/32; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 4/16; Acinetobacter baumannii, 0.5/64; Haemophilus influenzae, 0.03/0.12; and Moraxella catarrhalis, 0.25/0.5. According to the regression curve, zone diameter breakpoints could be 28, 26, 24 and 22 mm for MICs of 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg/L respectively. In conclusion, this study confirms the potent in vitro activity of ceftobiprole against many Gram-positive bacteria, including MRSA but not E. faecium, whilst maintaining a Gram-negative spectrum similar to the advanced-generation cephalosporins such as cefepime. Thus ceftobiprole appears to be well suited for the empirical treatment of a variety of healthcare-associated infections. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and the
Parrish, Monique; Cárdenas, Yvette; Epperhart, Regina; Hernandez, Jose; Ruiz, Susana; Russell, Linda; Soriano, Karolina; Thornberry, Kathryn
Through creative practice innovations and a wide range of professional competencies, social work has contributed substantively to the development of the palliative care field (Harper, 2011 ). As the field continues to grow and evolve, new opportunities are emerging to profile palliative social work in diverse health care settings. A statewide initiative to spread palliative care in California's public hospitals provided just such an opportunity. Palliative social workers from six public hospitals participating in the initiative formed a group to discuss palliative social work in this unique hospital setting. This article highlights the group's insights and experiences as they address the significant cultural diversity and psychosocial needs of public hospital patients receiving palliative care.
The publication of Francois Cusset's "French Theory" raises a series of fascinating questions concerning the trans-Atlantic transmission and circulation of ideas. Most important, it impels everyone to inquire why for a time French thought managed to flourish in American universities while French intellectuals rapidly abandoned the entire…
... hospital care under 38 U.S.C. 1710 or 38 CFR 17.46. Use of Public or Private Hospitals ... Department of Defense, Public Health Service or other Federal hospitals. 17.51 Section 17.51 Pensions... Health Service Or Other Federal Hospitals § 17.51 Emergency use of Department of Defense, Public Health...
... hospital care under 38 U.S.C. 1710 or 38 CFR 17.46. Use of Public or Private Hospitals ... Department of Defense, Public Health Service or other Federal hospitals. 17.51 Section 17.51 Pensions... Health Service Or Other Federal Hospitals § 17.51 Emergency use of Department of Defense, Public Health...
... hospital care under 38 U.S.C. 1710 or 38 CFR 17.46. Use of Public or Private Hospitals ... Department of Defense, Public Health Service or other Federal hospitals. 17.51 Section 17.51 Pensions... Health Service Or Other Federal Hospitals § 17.51 Emergency use of Department of Defense, Public Health...
Girou, E; Oppein, F
The baseline compliance with handwashing in a French university hospital was as low as the compliance rates reported in other countries, i.e., less than 50%. By introducing the use of hand-rubbing with an alcoholic solution, as a substitution method for both handwashing with soap and handwashing with an antiseptic agent, we significantly improved hand-cleansing compliance. Despite these encouraging results, mainly due to the accessibility of these non-aqueous products, three major obstacles remain before a wide acceptance by healthcare workers: distrust in terms of efficacy, distrust in terms of skin tolerance and lack of knowledge on hand-cleansing indications.
Opon, Shadrack Ochieng
Essential Health Packages (EHP) delivery is likely to strengthen service delivery. Healthcare utilization rate is 77% for the sick. 44% and 18% who don't seek care are hindered by cost and distance respectively. The overall child mortality rate in Kenya is 121/1000. In Homabay County, child mortality rate is 91/1000, and maternal mortality rate of 583/100000. The study looked into the provision of EHP in public hospitals in Homabay County. Cross-sectional research design was used. Two hospitals were conveniently due to their municipality location. The study targeted 213 Health workers and 350 patients. Stratified sampling and proportionate sampling was used among different health workers. Sample size was determined by Yamane Formula. The study sampled 138 health workers and 186 patients. Questionnaire and key interview guide were used to collect data. There are inadequate health workers based on 138 (100%) health workers. Insufficient drugs were reported by 138 (100%) health workers, and 120 (64.5%) patients. 115 (83.3%) health workers say ambulances are not operational. 26 (18.8%) health workers noted lack medical equipment, 138 (100%) are aware of patients referred elsewhere due to lack of medical equipment. 153 (82.3%) and 135 (72.6%) patients' health access is hindered by cost and distance respectively. 159 (85.5%) patients don't always find services needed. 159 (85.5%) patients affected by long waiting time. Low service provision/utilization rate in Homabay County results from lack of health workers, inadequate drugs, poor health infrastructure, and lack of access in terms of affordability, availability and distance.
Fedder, Jens; Nielsen, Gunnar Lauge; Petersen, Lars J; Rasmussen, Claus; Lauszus, Finn F; Frost, Lars; Hornung, Nete; Lederballe, Ole; Andersen, Jens Peter
As we found no recent published reports on the amount and kind of research published from Danish hospitals without university affiliation, we have found it relevant to conduct a bibliometric survey disclosing these research activities. We retrieved all scientific papers published in the period 2000-2009 emanating from all seven Danish non-university hospitals in two regions, comprising 1.8 million inhabitants, and which were registered in a minimum of one of the three databases: PubMed MEDLINE, Thomson Reuters Web of Science and Elsevier's Scopus. In 878 of 1,252 papers, the first and/or last author was affiliated to a non-university hospital. Original papers made up 69% of these publications versus 86% of publications with university affiliation on first or last place. Case reports and reviews most frequently had authors from regional hospitals as first and/or last authors. The total number of publications from regional hospitals increased by 48% over the 10-year period. Publications were cited more often if the first or last author was from a university hospital and even more so if they were affiliated to foreign institutions. Cardiology, gynaecology and obstetrics, and environmental medicine were the three specialities with the largest number of regional hospital publications. A substantial number of scientific publications originate from non-university hospitals. Almost two thirds of the publications were original research published in international journals. Variations between specialities may reflect local conditions. not relevant. not relevant.
Stone, Geren S; Tarus, Titus; Shikanga, Mainard; Biwott, Benson; Ngetich, Thomas; Andale, Thomas; Cheriro, Betsy; Aruasa, Wilson
Observational data in the United States suggests that those without health insurance have a higher mortality and worse health outcomes. A linkage between insurance coverage and outcomes in hospitalized patients has yet to be demonstrated in resource-poor settings. To determine whether uninsured patients admitted to the public medical wards at a Kenyan referral hospital have any difference in in-hospital mortality rates compared to patients with insurance, we performed a retrospective observational study of all inpatients discharged from the public medical wards at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital in Eldoret, Kenya, over a 3-month study period from October through December 2012. The primary outcome of interest was in-hospital death, and the primary explanatory variable of interest was health insurance status. During the study period, 201 (21.3%) of 956 patients discharged had insurance. The National Hospital Insurance Fund was the only insurance scheme noted. Overall, 211 patients (22.1%) died. The proportion who died was greater among the uninsured compared to the insured (24.7% vs. 11.4%, Chi-square = 15.6, p<0.001). This equates to an absolute risk reduction of 13.3% (95% CI 7.9-18.7%) and a relative risk reduction of 53.8% (95% CI 30.8-69.2%) of in-hospital mortality with insurance. After adjusting for comorbid illness, employment status, age, HIV status, and gender, the association between insurance status and mortality remained statistically significant (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.40, 95% CI 0.24-0.66) and similar in magnitude to the association between HIV status and mortality (AOR = 2.45, 95% CI 1.56-3.86). Among adult patients hospitalized in a public referral hospital in Kenya, insurance coverage was associated with decreased in-hospital mortality. This association was comparable to the relationship between HIV and mortality. Extension of insurance coverage may yield substantial benefits for population health.
Dangouloff-Ros, V; Ronot, M; Lagadec, M; Vilgrain, V
To evaluate the publication rate of scientific abstracts orally presented at the annual meeting of the French Society of Radiology (FSR), and to identify factors associated with publication. Abstracts were selected from the books of abstracts of the 2008-2010 annual meetings of the FSR. For each abstract, country of origin, diagnostic/interventional radiology, imaging techniques (plain radiography, angiography, ultrasound [US], computed tomography [CT], magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]), human/experimental study, retrospective/prospective design, number of subjects, oncologic study or not were noted. Publications were searched in Medline-indexed journals and factors associated analyzed by multivariate analysis. Seven hundred and forty-four abstracts lead to 298 publications (publication rate 40%). Most abstracts reported retrospective studies (61%), in humans (94%), diagnostic imaging (85%), from European authors (90%), and oncology (27%). Median number of subject was 39 (19-87). Main imaging techniques were MRI, CT, US (46%, 29%, 21%). Publications were mostly in English (89%), in radiological journals (72%), with a mean 3.5±3.7 impact factor. Publication was associated with a prospective design (OR=1.80), a submission from Europe (OR=1.71), angiography (OR=2.44), and oncology (OR=1.81). The annual meeting of the FSR is in French, but the rate of publication of presented abstracts is high, mostly in English in reputable journals. Copyright © 2015 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
He, Jun; Hou, Xiang-Yu; Toloo, Ghasem Sam; FitzGerald, Gerry
The aim of this study was to understand what factors influence patients' choice between public and private hospital ED and the relative weight of those factors among adult patients with private health insurance in Australia. A survey of 280 patients was conducted in four public and private hospitals' EDs in Brisbane between May and August 2015. The survey included information about respondent's demographics, nature of illness, decision-making, attitudes and choice. Independent t-test and Pearson's χ²-test were used to identify binary associations, and logistic regression was used to determine what factors influence patients' choice. Patients who agreed that 'long waiting time is a barrier to access public hospital ED' were twice as likely to choose private hospitals (odds ratio [OR] 2.172, P = 0.001). Alternatively patients who did not consider that 'there were long waiting times in public hospital ED' were less likely to access private hospitals (OR 0.200, P = 0.003). More public hospital patients (70.7%) than private hospital patients (56.4%) (P = 0.015) agreed that 'out-of-pocket payment is a barrier to accessing private hospital ED'. Patients attending private hospitals rated the quality of service higher than those attending public hospitals (OR 1.26, P = 0.001). Longer waiting times in public EDs is the principal issue considered by patients choosing private EDs and the out-of-pocket payment for accessing private EDs is the principal issue considered by public ED patients. The study suggests that addressing the out-of-pocket payments will attract more patients with private health insurance to access private EDs. © 2017 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.
As with the rest of biomedicine, psychiatry has, since the Second World War, developed under the strong influence of the transnational accumulation of a whole series of practices and knowledge. Anthropology has taught us to pay attention to the transactions between local-level actors and those operating at the global level in the construction of this new world of medicine. This article examines the role played by the recommendations of the WHO Expert Committee of Mental Health in the reform of the French mental health system during the 1950s. Rooted in the experience of practitioners and administrators participating in the process of reforming local psychiatric systems, the recommendations of the WHO Expert Committee developed a new vision of regulating psychiatry, based on professionalism and an idea of a normativity of the doctor-patient relation. This article shows how, by mobilizing the WHO reports' recommendations, French administrators and doctors succeeded in creating a typically French object: "the psychiatric sector", founded on elaborating a new mandate for the psychiatric profession. The article thus questions the deinstitutionalization model as an explanation of transformations of the structure of the French psychiatry system in the post-war period.
Background The aim of this study were to describe acute care of ischemic stroke patients and adherence to performance measures, as well as the outcomes of these events, in a sample of patients treated in public hospitals in Chile. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of patients with ischemic stroke from a sample of seven public hospitals in the Metropolitan Region of Santiago. We analyzed adherence to the following evidence-based measures: clinical evaluation at admission, use of intravenous thrombolysis, dysphagia screening and prescription of antithrombotic therapy at discharge. As outcome measures we analyzed post-stroke pneumonia and 30-day case-fatality. We used a logistic regression model by each outcome with generalized estimating equations, which accounted for clustering of patients within hospitals and included sex, age (years), clinical status at admission (reduced level of consciousness, speech disturbance, aphasia and hemiplegia), comorbidities, dysphagia screening and neurological evaluation at admission as measures of acute stroke care. Results We reviewed the charts of 677 patients, of which 52.3% were men. The mean age was 69.8 years in women and 66.3 years in men. Diagnosis of stroke was confirmed by a computed tomography scan within 4.5 hours of symptom onset in only 9.6% of the patients. Intravenous thrombolysis was administered in 1.7%. Dysphagia screening was performed in 12.1% (95% CI 9.7-15.0) and antithrombotic therapy was prescribed in 68.9% (95% CI 64.6-72.9). Pneumonia was diagnosed in 23.6% (95% CI 20.4-27.2). Thirty-day fatality was 8.7% (95% CI 6.7-11.3). The variables independently associated with 30-day case fatality were age (OR 1.08, 95% 1.06-1.10), pneumonia (OR 7.7, 95% 95% CI 4.0-14.7), aphasia (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.1-5.6), reduced level of consciousness (OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.3-4.4), and speech disturbance (OR 1.4, 95% CI 1.0-1.9). No association was found between 30-day case fatality and dysphagia screening or
Garcia-Garcia, I; Ramos, V Benítez; Serrano, J L Cobos; Ramos Cobos, M C; Souza, A
Organizational climate is considered one of the most significant determinants of individual and group behaviour in institutions. The International Council of Nurses has launched a campaign to improve professional recognition, support for personal development, safety and health at work. To analyse nursing personnel's organizational climate perceptions using the Work Environment Scale (WES) in two categories of hospitals. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken in public and private hospitals. Two sampling approaches were used. At the Public Hospital, the sample was randomly selected (n = 297, 168 nurses and 129 other nursing personnel). At the Private Hospitals, a convenience sampling method was used (n = 66, 14 nurses and 52 other nursing personnel). The study used descriptive and inferential statistic analyses to explain the nursing personnel perception of organizational climate and to explore variations between nurses and other nursing personnel in both categories of hospitals. Sixty per cent and seventy per cent of WES subscales yielded scores below the midpoint for the perception of work environment in public and private hospitals, respectively. Mean scores for both categories were similar, except for the subscales of Pressure and Control that were higher in Private Hospitals. In the Public Hospital, nurses scored significantly lower than other nursing personnel in Involvement, Innovation and Comfort. Based on these findings, it is suggested that nurse managers should introduce strategies to set conditions for a better work environment in public and private hospitals. © 2011 The Authors. International Nursing Review © 2011 International Council of Nurses.
Dobson, Allen; DaVanzo, Joan E; El-Gamil, Audrey M; Berger, Gregory
Two key health reform bills in the House of Representatives and Senate include the option of a "public plan" as an additional source of health coverage. At least initially, the plan would primarily be structured to cover many of the uninsured and those who now have individual coverage. Because it is possible, and perhaps even likely, that this new public payer would pay less than private payers for the same services, such a plan could negatively affect hospital margins. Hospitals may attempt to recoup losses by shifting costs to private payers. We outline the financial pressures that hospitals and private payers could experience under various assumptions. High uninsured enrollment in a public plan would bolster hospital margins; however, this effect is reversed if the privately insured enter a public plan in large proportions, potentially stressing the hospital industry and increasing private insurance premiums.
Pan, Jay; Qin, Xuezheng; Hsieh, Chee-Ruey
The new round of health care reforms in China achieved significant initial results. New and emerging problems coinciding with the deepening of the reforms, however, require further institutional changes to strengthen the competition mechanism and promote public hospital efficiency. This paper provides a conceptual framework and preliminary assessment of public hospital competition in China. Specifically, we distinguish between two closely related concepts - competition and privatization, and identify several critical conditions under which hospital competition can be used as a policy instrument to improve health care delivery in China. We also investigate the current performance and identify several unintended consequences of public hospital competition - mainly, medical arms race, drug over-prescription and the erosion of a trusting relationship between patients and physicians. Finally, we discuss the policy options for enhancing the internal competition in China's hospital market, and conclude that public investment on information provision is key to reaping the positive outcomes of pro-competition policies.
Hospitals use newsletters to reach their patient base. Within these newsletters, health narratives are communicated to inspire community members to choose that hospital for their health needs. Because health narratives inform our understanding of health care delivery, I employ Bakhtin's (1984) ideas on monologic and dialogic discourse to analyze newsletters published by a major hospital network. Results indicate a monologic rather than dialogic discourse, which excludes patient's unique experiences, advances normalization of medicine, and perpetuates hierarchical power dynamics. In summary, this study suggests practical implications for practitioners producing health knowledge for consumers of health information.
Chan, Zenobia C Y; Tam, W S; Lung, Maggie K Y; Wong, W Y; Chau, C W
To explore the reasons why nurses leave public hospitals for the private sector. While the global shortage of nurses is aggravating, this problem in public hospitals in Hong Kong is worsened by the trend of nurses moving to private hospitals. Thus, it is important to understand from the perspective of nurses the reasons affecting their decision to stay or leave a hospital. Qualitative approach using narrative analysis. Data were collected using individual semistructured interviews. Twelve participants who had moved to a private hospital from a public hospital were encouraged to explain why they had made the move. Crossley's analytic method was adopted to analyse the collected data. The nurses' stories were categorised into five sections: 'life in public hospitals', 'decision-making', 'life in the private hospitals', 'future plans' and 'values and beliefs'. The results are consistent with those of previous studies showing that job satisfaction and demographic factors play significant roles in the decision of nurses to switch to another hospital. This study revealed specific reasons why the nurses made the move, such as the fairness of the remuneration policy, significant people and stressors. The results have relevance for hospital management with regard to strategies to consider when addressing the issues of staff retention and recruitment. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Bhuiyan, Mejbah Uddin; Luby, Stephen P; Zaman, Rashid Uz; Rahman, M Waliur; Sharker, M A Yushuf; Hossain, M Jahangir; Rasul, Choudhury H; Ekram, A R M Saifuddin; Rahman, Mahmudur; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Gurley, Emily S
During April 2007-April 2010, surveillance physicians in adult and pediatric medicine wards of three tertiary public hospitals in Bangladesh identified patients who developed hospital-acquired diarrhea. We calculated incidence of hospital-acquired diarrhea. To identify risk factors, we compared these patients to randomly selected patients from the same wards who were admitted > 72 hours without having diarrhea. The incidence of hospital-acquired diarrhea was 4.8 cases per 1,000 patient-days. Children < 1 year of age were more likely to develop hospital-acquired diarrhea than older children. The risk of developing hospital-acquired diarrhea increased for each additional day of hospitalization beyond 72 hours, whereas exposure to antibiotics within 72 hours of admission decreased the risk. There were three deaths among case-patients; all were infants. Patients, particularly young children, are at risk for hospital-acquired diarrhea and associated deaths in Bangladeshi hospitals. Further research to identify the responsible organisms and transmission routes could inform prevention strategies. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Bhuiyan, Mejbah Uddin; Luby, Stephen P.; Zaman, Rashid Uz; Rahman, M. Waliur; Sharker, M. A. Yushuf; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Rasul, Choudhury H.; Ekram, A. R. M. Saifuddin; Rahman, Mahmudur; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Gurley, Emily S.
During April 2007–April 2010, surveillance physicians in adult and pediatric medicine wards of three tertiary public hospitals in Bangladesh identified patients who developed hospital-acquired diarrhea. We calculated incidence of hospital-acquired diarrhea. To identify risk factors, we compared these patients to randomly selected patients from the same wards who were admitted > 72 hours without having diarrhea. The incidence of hospital-acquired diarrhea was 4.8 cases per 1,000 patient-days. Children < 1 year of age were more likely to develop hospital-acquired diarrhea than older children. The risk of developing hospital-acquired diarrhea increased for each additional day of hospitalization beyond 72 hours, whereas exposure to antibiotics within 72 hours of admission decreased the risk. There were three deaths among case-patients; all were infants. Patients, particularly young children, are at risk for hospital-acquired diarrhea and associated deaths in Bangladeshi hospitals. Further research to identify the responsible organisms and transmission routes could inform prevention strategies. PMID:24778198
Mammeri, H.; Laurans, G.; Eveillard, M.; Castelain, S.; Eb, F.
In 1996, a monitoring program was initiated at the teaching hospital of Amiens, France, and carried out for 3 years. All extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacter aerogenes isolates recovered from clinical specimens were collected for investigation of their epidemiological relatedness by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR) and determination of the type of ESBL harbored by isoelectric focusing and DNA sequencing. Molecular typing revealed the endemic coexistence, during the first 2 years, of two clones expressing, respectively, SHV-4 and TEM-24 ESBLs, while an outbreak of the TEM-24-producing strain raged in the hospital during the third year, causing the infection or colonization of 165 patients. Furthermore, this strain was identified as the prevalent clone responsible for outbreaks in many French hospitals since 1996. This study shows that TEM-24-producing E. aerogenes is an epidemic clone that is well established in the hospital's ecology and able to spread throughout wards. The management of the outbreak at the teaching hospital of Amiens, which included the reinforcement of infection control measures, failed to obtain complete eradication of the clone, which has become an endemic pathogen. PMID:11376055
Mammeri, H; Laurans, G; Eveillard, M; Castelain, S; Eb, F
In 1996, a monitoring program was initiated at the teaching hospital of Amiens, France, and carried out for 3 years. All extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacter aerogenes isolates recovered from clinical specimens were collected for investigation of their epidemiological relatedness by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus PCR (ERIC-PCR) and determination of the type of ESBL harbored by isoelectric focusing and DNA sequencing. Molecular typing revealed the endemic coexistence, during the first 2 years, of two clones expressing, respectively, SHV-4 and TEM-24 ESBLs, while an outbreak of the TEM-24-producing strain raged in the hospital during the third year, causing the infection or colonization of 165 patients. Furthermore, this strain was identified as the prevalent clone responsible for outbreaks in many French hospitals since 1996. This study shows that TEM-24-producing E. aerogenes is an epidemic clone that is well established in the hospital's ecology and able to spread throughout wards. The management of the outbreak at the teaching hospital of Amiens, which included the reinforcement of infection control measures, failed to obtain complete eradication of the clone, which has become an endemic pathogen.
Poissonnet, C M; Iwatsubo, Y; Cosquer, M; Quera Salva, M A; Caillard, J F; Veron, M
This study was designed to investigate the effects of work schedules on the health of hospital workers at the Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP). Out of 40 hospitals, 17 volunteered to participate in this study. The Standard Shiftwork Index and a questionnaire concerning physicians' work schedules were used. Ten thousand questionnaires were distributed anonymously to hospital workers between March and April 1999. Professional categories comprised head nurses, nurses, nursing auxiliaries, hospital agents, midwives and full time physicians. Departments included internal and geriatric medicine, general paediatrics, orthopaedic and general surgery, operating and emergency rooms, and anaesthesiology and intensive care units. 3250 questionnaires were returned. Demographics for the respondents were: 79.2% female, average age 38.1 +/- 9.1 years old. Eleven work schedules were identified. One fourth of the personnel had fixed morning work schedules. The highest level of job satisfaction was found in personnel working in paediatrics while dissatisfaction was strongest in the gerontology and, emergency room personnel. General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) scores were high for head nurses, operating room nurses and junior doctors as well as for personnel with rotating and flexible shifts. This study will be used to make recommendations concerning the reduction of working time for French hospital workers.
Background Empirical evidence on how ownership type affects the quality and cost of medical care is growing, and debate on these topics is ongoing. Despite the fact that the private sector is a major provider of hospital services in Greece, little comparative information on private versus public sector hospitals is available. The aim of the present study was to describe and compare the operation and performance of private for-profit (PFP) and public hospitals in Greece, focusing on differences in nurse staffing rates, average lengths of stay (ALoS), and Social Health Insurance (SHI) payments for hospital care per patient discharged. Methods Five different datasets were prepared and analyzed, two of which were derived from information provided by the National Statistical Service (NSS) of Greece and the other three from data held by the three largest SHI schemes in the country. All data referred to the 3-year period from 2001 to 2003. Results PFP hospitals in Greece are smaller than public hospitals, with lower patient occupancy, and have lower staffing rates of all types of nurses and highly qualified nurses compared with public hospitals. Calculation of ALoS using NSS data yielded mixed results, whereas calculations of ALoS and SHI payments using SHI data gave results clearly favoring the public hospital sector in terms of cost-efficiency; in all years examined, over all specialties and all SHI schemes included in our study, unweighted ALoS and SHI payments for hospital care per discharge were higher for PFP facilities. Conclusions In a mixed healthcare system, such as that in Greece, significant performance differences were observed between PFP and public hospitals. Close monitoring of healthcare provision by hospital ownership type will be essential to permit evidence-based decisions on the future of the public/private mix in terms of healthcare provision. PMID:21943020
Xu, Guo-Chao; Zheng, Jian; Zhou, Zi-Jun; Zhou, Chuan-Kun; Zhao, Yang
Background: Tertiary hospitals serve as the medical service center within the region and play an important role in the medical and health service system. They are also the key targets of public hospital reform in the new era in China. Through the reform of health system, the public hospital efficiency has changed remarkably. Therefore, this study aimed to provide some advice for efficiency assessment of public hospitals in China by comparing and analyzing the consistency of results obtained by three commonly used methods for examining hospital efficiency, that is, ratio analysis (RA), stochastic frontier analysis (SFA), and data envelopment analysis (DEA). Methods: The theoretical basis, operational processes, and the application status of RA, SFA, and DEA were learned through literature analysis. Then, the empirical analysis was conducted based on measured data from 51 tertiary public hospitals in Beijing from 2009 to 2011. Results: The average values of hospital efficiency calculated by SFA with index screening and principal component analysis (PCA) results and those calculated by DEA with index screening results were relatively stable. The efficiency of specialized hospitals was higher than that of general hospitals and that of traditional Chinese medicine hospitals. The results obtained by SFA with index screening results and the results obtained by SFA with PCA results showed a relatively high correlation (r-value in 2009, 2010, and 2011 were 0.869, 0.753, and 0.842, respectively, P < 0.01). The correlation between results obtained by DEA with index screening results and PCA results and results obtained by other methods showed statistical significance, but the correlation between results obtained by DEA with index screening results and PCA results was lower than that between results obtained by SFA with index screening results and PCA results. Conclusions: RA is not suitable for multi-index evaluation of hospital efficiency. In the given conditions, SFA is a
Azevedo, Creuza da Silva; Fernandes, Maria Inês Assumpção; Carreteiro, Tereza Cristina
This article discusses management practices in public hospitals (general hospitals with emergency services) in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, based on a psychosociological approach to organizational analysis. Of the 12 existing hospitals, 8 were included in the current study, conducted from July 2003 to April 2004. The research, drawing on hospital directors' narratives, identified three management models. The first focuses on processes of change, highlighting symbolic and imaginative elements for building a vision of the future for the hospitals. The second concentrates on specific projects, which absorbs all the management efforts. A third pattern (predominant in the study) is marked by the struggle to keep the hospital working, with the image of urgency as the driving force. The imposition of continuous action leaves no room for reflection. The crisis in Rio de Janeiro's public hospitals has led to a "wartime" environment and thus the dissemination of the urgency-based model.
Cotta, M O; Chen, C; Tacey, M; James, R S; Buising, K L; Marshall, C; Thursky, K A
Identifying themes associated with inappropriate prescribing in Australian public and private hospitals will help target future antimicrobial stewardship initiatives. To describe current antimicrobial prescribing practices, identify similarities and differences between hospital sectors and provide target areas for improvement specific to each hospital sector. All hospitals included in the study were part of the 2014 national antimicrobial prescribing survey and conducted one of the following: a whole hospital point prevalence survey, serial point prevalence surveys or a sample of randomly selected patients. Data on the types of antibiotics used, their indications for use and the quality of prescription based on compliance with national and local prescribing guidelines were collected. Two hundred and two hospitals (166 public and 36 private) comprising 10 882 patients and 15 967 antimicrobial prescriptions were included. Public hospitals had higher proportions of prescriptions for treatment (81.5% vs 48.4%) and medical prophylaxis (8.8% and 4.6%), whilst private hospitals had significantly higher surgical prophylaxis use (9.6% vs 46.9%) (P < 0.001). In public hospitals, the main reasons for non-compliance of treatment prescriptions were spectrum being too broad (30.5%) while in private it was incorrect dosing. Prolonged duration was the main reason for non-compliance among surgical prophylaxis prescriptions in both types of hospitals. Australian hospitals need to target specific areas to improve antimicrobial use. Specifically, unnecessary broad-spectrum therapy should be a priority area in public hospitals, whilst emphasis on curtailing antimicrobial overuse in surgical prophylaxis needs to be urgently addressed across in the private hospital sector. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Bartlett, M; Hatcher, D; Johnson, A; Dixon, K
Analysis of data collected in a 1994-95 survey of accredited New South Wales hospitals examined the adoption of key elements of total quality management practice in the public and private sectors. In a number of areas of practice widely considered to be central to a hospital's total quality management efforts, there was no statistically significant difference between the two sectors. Where differences existed, total quality management practices more likely to be adopted by public hospitals were limited in their scope and likely to be explained by structural peculiarities. In contrast, private hospitals were more likely to adopt practices more critical to the successful implementation of total quality management.
Pavel, Md Sadik; Chakrabarty, Sayan; Gow, Jeff
A central aim of Universal Health Coverage (UHC) is protection for all against the cost of illness. In a low income country like Bangladesh the cost burden of health care in tertiary facilities is likely to be significant for most citizens. This cost of an episode of illness is a relatively unexplored policy issue in Bangladesh. The objective of this study was to estimate an outpatient's total cost of illness as result of treatment in private and public hospitals in Sylhet, Bangladesh. The study used face to face interviews at three hospitals (one public and two private) to elicit cost data from presenting outpatients. Other socio-economic and demographic data was also collected. A sample of 252 outpatients were randomly selected and interviewed. The total cost of outpatients comprises direct medical costs, non-medical costs and the indirect costs of patients and caregivers. Indirect costs comprise travel and waiting times and income losses associated with treatment. The costs of illness are significant for many of Bangladesh citizens. The direct costs are relatively minor compared to the large indirect cost burden that illness places on households. These indirect costs are mainly the result of time off work and foregone wages. Private hospital patients have higher average direct costs than public hospital patients. However, average indirect costs are higher for public hospital patients than private hospital patients by a factor of almost two. Total costs of outpatients are higher in public hospitals compared to private hospitals regardless of patient's income, gender, age or illness. Overall, public hospital patients, who tend to be the poorest, bear a larger economic burden of illness and treatment than relatively wealthier private hospital patients. The large economic impacts of illness need a public policy response which at a minimum should include a national health insurance scheme as a matter of urgency.
Herrero Tabanera, Luis; Martín Martín, José Jesús; López del Amo González, Ma del Puerto
To assess the technical efficiency of traditional public hospitals without their own legal identity and subject to administrative law, and that of public enterprise hospitals, with their own legal identities and partly governed by private law, all of them belonging to the taxypayer-funded health system of Andalusia during the period 2005 -2008. The study included the 32 publicly-owned hospitals in Andalusia during the period 2005-2008. The method consisted of two stages. In the first stage, the indices of technical efficiency of the hospitals were calculated using Data Envelopment Analysis, and the change in total factor productivity was estimated using the Malmquist index. The results were compared according to perceived quality, and a sensitivity analysis was conducted through an auxiliary model and bootstrapping. In the second stage, a bivariate analysis was performed between hospital efficiency and organization type. Public enterprises were more efficient than traditional hospitals (on average by over 10%) in each of the study years. Nevertheless, a process of convergence was observed between the two types of organizations because, while the efficiency of traditional hospitals increased slightly (by 0.50%) over the study period, the performance of public enterprises declined by over 2%. The possible reasons for the greater efficiency of public enterprises include their greater budgetary and employment flexibility. However, the convergence process observed points to a process of mutual learning that is not necessarily efficient. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Desgualdo, Claudia Maria; Riera, Rachel; Zucchi, Paola
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the direct costs of hospital stays for premature newborns in the Interlagos Hospital and Maternity Center in São Paulo, Brazil and to assess the difference between the amount reimbursed to the hospital by the Unified Health System and the real cost of care for each premature newborn. METHODS: A cost-estimate study in which hospital and professional costs were estimated for premature infants born at 22 to 36 weeks gestation during the calendar year of 2004 and surviving beyond one hour of age. Direct costs included hospital services, professional care, diagnoses and therapy, orthotics, prosthetics, special materials, and blood products. Costs were estimated using tables published by the Unified Health System and the Brasíndice as well as the list of medical procedures provided by the Brazilian Classification of Medical Procedures. RESULTS: The average direct cost of care for initial hospitalization of a premature newborn in 2004 was $2,386 USD. Total hospital expenses and professional services for all premature infants in this hospital were $227,000 and $69,500 USD, respectively. The costs for diagnostic testing and blood products for all premature infants totaled $22,440 and $1,833 USD. The daily average cost of a premature newborn weighing less than 1,000 g was $115 USD, and the daily average cost of a premature newborn weighing more than 2,500 g was $89 USD. Amounts reimbursed to the hospital by the Unified Health System corresponded to only 27.42% of the real cost of care. CONCLUSIONS: The cost of hospital stays for premature newborns was much greater than the amount reimbursed to the hospital by the Unified Health System. The highest costs corresponded to newborns with lower birth weight. Hospital costs progressively and discretely decreased as the newborns' weight increased. PMID:22012050
Chen, Hsueh-Fen; Bazzoli, Gloria J; Harless, David W; Clement, Jan P
There are many studies examining the effects of financial pressure from different payment sources on hospital quality of care, but most have assumed that quality of care is a public good in that payment changes from one payer will affect all hospital patients rather than just those directly associated with the payer. Although quality of hospital care can be either a public or private good, few studies have tested which of these scenarios are more likely to hold. To examine whether the change in the magnitude of in-hospital mortality for Medicare and managed care patients is different based on financial pressure resulting from the Balanced Budget Act and growing managed care market penetration; and to examine what role hospital competition may play in affecting these changes. The unit of analysis for the study was the hospital. Multiple data sources were used including the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality State Inpatient Databases, American Hospital Association Annual Surveys, Area Resource File, and health maintenance organization data from InterStudy. A difference-in-difference-in-difference model was applied for a 2-period panel design. In general, Balanced Budget Act financial pressure and managed care market share did not magnify the difference in in-hospital mortality rates between Medicare and managed care patients. The results suggest that quality of cardiac care in the hospital setting is more likely to be a public good; however, more investigation using other quality indicators and the role of hospital competition under different payment systems is recommended.
Riveros S, Jorge; Berné M, Carmen
The level of satisfaction of patients with the services provided by public hospitals is becoming an important issue for health authorities. To analyze an enquiry applied to patients, about the level of satisfaction with the service provided by a public regional hospital in Chile. An enquiry was applied to 150 ambulatory (76% women) and 50 hospitalized patients (56% women). It included 28 questions about management aspects of health care and 20 questions about client satisfaction. Data was analyzed using factorial analysis and multiple regressions. The manners of hospital personnel were the factor with the highest impact on the perception of patients about global quality of services. Attention timing was the most influential aspect on global satisfaction. There results confirm those from abroad and can orient an adequate management of public hospital.
Lee, Q J; Mak, W P; Wong, Y C
More than 2000 total knee replacements are performed each year in Hong Kong and more than 10 000 patients are on the waiting list. How safe is total knee replacement, however? The aims of the study were to review the mortality of primary total knee replacement in public hospitals in Hong Kong and to identify risk factors for mortality in a high-volume hospital. All primary total knee replacements performed in Hospital Authority hospitals and Yan Chai Hospital from October 2011 to September 2014 were reviewed. Case-control analysis was performed for risk factors of total all-cause mortality in total knee replacement at Yan Chai Hospital. There were 6588 patients in Hospital Authority hospitals and 1184 in Yan Chai Hospital (1095 unilateral and 89 bilateral total knee replacement). The mean follow-up time of patients in Yan Chai Hospital was 12.8 months. The mortality at 30 days, 90 days and 1 year was 0%, 0.08%, 0.34% for Yan Chai Hospital; and 0.1%, 0.2%, 0.7% for Hospital Authority hospitals, respectively. For Yan Chai Hospital, the mean operation-to-death interval was 21 months (range, 1-35 months). The mean age at death was 78 years and main causes were malignancy (50%) and pneumonia (21%). Predictors of mortality included age at surgery, American Society of Anesthesiologists class 3, and preoperative range of motion. Hospital surgery volume, preoperative co-morbidities, and postoperative deep vein thrombosis were not significant factors. Mortality after primary total knee replacement was low in public hospitals in Hong Kong. Patients of older age or poorer general well-being in terms of poor range of motion or American Society of Anesthesiologists class 3 should be in optimal health before surgery and counselled about the higher mortality rate. A citywide joint replacement registry may help monitor and analyse postoperative total knee replacement mortality specific to our locality.
... Defense, Public Health Service or other Federal hospitals with beds allocated to the Department of... AFFAIRS MEDICAL Use of Department of Defense, Public Health Service Or Other Federal Hospitals § 17.50 Use of Department of Defense, Public Health Service or other Federal hospitals with beds allocated to the...
... Defense, Public Health Service or other Federal hospitals with beds allocated to the Department of... AFFAIRS MEDICAL Use of Department of Defense, Public Health Service Or Other Federal Hospitals § 17.50 Use of Department of Defense, Public Health Service or other Federal hospitals with beds allocated to the...
... Defense, Public Health Service or other Federal hospitals with beds allocated to the Department of... AFFAIRS MEDICAL Use of Department of Defense, Public Health Service Or Other Federal Hospitals § 17.50 Use of Department of Defense, Public Health Service or other Federal hospitals with beds allocated to the...
... Defense, Public Health Service or other Federal hospitals with beds allocated to the Department of... AFFAIRS MEDICAL Use of Department of Defense, Public Health Service Or Other Federal Hospitals § 17.50 Use of Department of Defense, Public Health Service or other Federal hospitals with beds allocated to...
Rodriguez-Alvarez, Ana; Roibás, David; Wall, Alan
A feature of hospitals is that they face uncertain demand for the services they offer. To cover fluctuations in demand, they need to maintain reserve service capacity in the form of beds, equipment, personnel, etc. to minimize the probability of excess queuing or turning away patients, creating a trade-off between reserve service capacity and economic costs. Using a simple theoretical framework, we show how the reserve capacity established depends on institutional characteristics that can affect the objective of the hospital. In particular, we show that private and public hospitals may provide different levels of reserve capacity. In an empirical application using a panel data set of Spanish hospitals over the period 1996-2006, we model reserve service capacity using a distance frontier approach. Our results show that private hospitals generally react to a lesser extent to demand uncertainty than public hospitals.
Monroe, Margaret E., Ed.
A series of institutes for adult service librarians was conducted by the Library School of the University of Wisconsin. This volume contains selected papers from each of the three Institutes: Reading Guidance, Library Services for New Literates, and Serving Readers through Hospital and Institution Libraries. The topics of these selected papers…
Galián Muñoz, Inmaculada; Llor Esteban, Bartolomé; Ruiz Hernández, José Antonio
The workplace violence has special relevance for the health care workers. Nursing staff is one of the professions most affected by this risk. Our objective is to determine the prevalence during the past year of diverse hostile manifestations by users towards professional hospital nursing staff who depend on the "Servicio Murciano de Salud" [Health Service of Murcia] (SMS), as well as to detect the sociodemographic and occupational workers characteristics associated with higher exposure. A cross-sectional study carried out during the year 2010 of a random sample of nursing personnel from all the hospitals of SMS, through a self-administered and anonymous survey (Ecoh-U scale). The sample was stratified by hospitals and services (30% of the workers) and finally we got a sample of 1.489 workers (confidence level 99%; sampling error 1,75%). We compared the punctuation average obtained in the scale according to variables sociodemographics and laborables. We used the test t of student in variables dichotomous and ANOVA and Tukey in variables multi-response. The 21,8% of the surveyed people reported that they suffered from "anger due to assistential delay" at least once a month. The workers who obtained punctuations significantly larger were psychiatric hospital workers (19,7), emergency workers (20,60), temporary (16,38) and with old 6-10 years in the profession (17,20). Although nursing staff is one of the professions most exposed to violence, the risk distribution is not homogeneous. Significant differences were found according to marital status, age, hospital, service, profession, contract type, shift and seniority in the profession.
Gell, G; Madjaric, M; Leodolter, W; Köle, W; Leitner, H
The Steiermärkische Krankenanstaltenges. m.b.H (KAGes) is a company, owned by the province of Styria in Austria, which operates 21 hospitals with about 8000 beds and 14000 employees, serving a population of ca. 1.2 million people. KAGes has purchased a new hospital information system (HIS) for its hospitals. Within the strategic IT plan and the 'system structure new' (SSN) project, a methodology was developed for making an effective HIS purchase. Several steps of this project are described in the paper, request for product information, evaluation of vendor proposals, product presentations, test site evaluation, reference site visits and selection of vendor finalists. The authors present the internal project management methodology, including the structure of the project team, project information management through intranet, criteria for different steps of the evaluation and evaluation site organization. Four major HIS vendors with leading HIS products qualified for this stage of the project (evaluation site). About 60 teams with 400 members (end users and IT-experts) have assessed all the products installed, during one or more, repeated test sessions. The decision on which new HIS to purchase were based on the recommendations derived from this evaluation. After completing SSN-project with the suggestion to KAGes-top-management for negotiations with two vendor finalists, the new project named MEDOCS was started mid-1999. Two pilot installations (one general hospital and one teaching hospital department) are nowadays in the pilot implementation and subsequent roll-out (including substitution of the legacy system) is scheduled until the year 2003.
Ballbè, Montse; Martínez, Cristina; Saltó, Esteve; Cabezas, Carmen; Riccobene, Anna; Valverde, Araceli; Gual, Antoni; Fernández, Esteve
The provision of smoking cessation interventions in hospitals has been strongly recommended. The aim of this study is to determine the maintenance of smoking cessation programmes for inpatients and hospital workers in hospitals of Catalonia (Spain) seven years after the implementation of a Tobacco Cessation Programme. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in all hospitals that offer public service in Catalonia, Spain (n=73). An online questionnaire was sent to all coordinators of the smoke-free hospital project or managers of each hospital. The survey included questions about the type of hospital, type of programmes implemented and availability and source of smoking cessation drugs. Responses to the questionnaire were submitted by 58 hospitals (79.5%). 74% and 93.1% of the hospitals had smoking cessation programmes for inpatients and workers, respectively. Most of the hospitals maintained the programmes and started routinely buying smoking cessation drugs after a period of receiving them free-of-charge. However, 17.2% of the hospitals refused to buy these drugs and 24% never had these drugs available. Through a supportive Tobacco Cessation Programme, most hospitals have smoking cessation programmes for both patients and workers. Most of them have incorporated smoking cessation drugs as a regular resource in their services' portfolio. The lack of these resources may jeopardise the maintenance of well-established programmes in hospitals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hamlin, Robert G.; Patel, Taran
Purpose: This paper aims to report the results of a replication study of perceived managerial and leadership effectiveness within a Romanian public sector hospital, and to discuss the extent to which they are similar to and different from findings from equivalent studies carried out in two British NHS Trust hospitals. Design/methodology/approach:…
This paper contributes to research in health systems and hospitals governance by examining the reasons and expected outcomes of the generalization of corporate governance rules in both public and private non-profit hospitals, all over the world, in order to achieve its clinical, quality and financial objectives.
Agarwal, Renu; Green, Roy; Agarwal, Neeru; Randhawa, Krithika
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the determinants of best management practices in an Australian state-run healthcare system, namely New South Wales (NSW), and studies the impact of a range of hospital factors in driving best management practices as a means of enhancing healthcare delivery. Design/methodology/approach - This study adapts a unique survey instrument globally tested to quantify the multi-dimensional nature of hospital management practices in 42 acute care public hospitals of NSW. The authors then analysed the role of hospital-specific characteristics in driving best management practices, namely hospital size (measured by the number of hospital beds, employees and doctors), level of skill and education, degree of hospital manager autonomy and organisational hierarchy. Findings - The findings of this study show the areas of strength and potential areas of improvement in NSW hospitals. The authors find a positive association between the adoption of better management practices and hospital size (measured by the number of hospital beds and employees), level of skills and education, degree of hospital manager autonomy and organisational hierarchy. However, hospital size as measured by the number of doctors did not have a statistically significant relationship. Practical implications - This paper is of interest to both hospital administrators, clinical doctors and healthcare policy-makers who want to improve and develop strategies for better management in the healthcare sector. Originality/value - This study provides an internationally comparable robust measure of management capability in public hospitals, and contributes to the evidence-base of management practices and performance in hospitals.
Bomba, David T; Prakash, Robert
Handover of patient care has been an ongoing problem within the health care sector. The process remains highly variable and there is a threat to patient safety. Despite the general belief that handover transitions in patient care have become routine, not enough attention or research has been directed at improving this period of care. For this reason there is a need to provide an analysis of the communication processes during handover. A study was conducted of the handover process among doctors during shift changes within a hospital setting. The results suggested a need for process change. Results revealed a handover process which was unstructured, informal and error prone, with the majority of doctors noting that there was no standard or formal procedure for handover. The research found that the majority of hospital doctors recognised the potential benefits of formalising and computerising this process.
Perol, J; Balkau, B; Guillausseau, P-J; Massin, P
This study evaluated the incidence of diabetic retinopathy (DR) over a 3-year period in a French population that was followed by OPHDIAT®, and assessed the clinical and biological risk factors associated with incident retinopathy. The studied patients were screened for DR during hospitalization for their annual diabetes check-up in the endocrinology department by two examinations three years apart. DR screening used the OPHDIAT® telemedical network, and the examination included clinical and biological data. A total of 254 patients were studied. At the 3-year follow-up, the incidence was 14.0%, (CI: 9.5-18.4%). Longer duration of diabetes and the presence of micro- or macroalbuminuria were significantly associated with incident retinopathy (P<0.05). Other potential risk factors were not statistically significantly related to DR progression, and only treatment with insulin showed a trend towards significance (P<0.20). This study provides the first French data on the incidence of DR, which was estimated after a 3-year follow-up at 14.0%. Longer duration of time from the onset of diabetes and higher baseline albuminuria were the only statistically significant risk factors found for the incidence of DR after our 3-year study. Nevertheless, microalbuminuria should be more widely used in ophthalmological practice in the assessment of DR, as is already the case for both blood pressure and HbA(1c). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Nagachinta, T.; Brown, C. P.; Cheng, F.; Temple, W.; Kerndt, P. R.; Janssen, R. S.
In a hospital-based seroprevalence survey for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, a stratified sampling method based on age and gender was used to collect 5429 blood samples at an inner-city hospital. Sentinel Hospital Surveillance System (SHSS) criteria developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were used to classify patient diagnoses into two categories by the likelihood of being associated with HIV-1 infection. The two categories were those with high likelihood of association with HIV-1 (SHSS-ineligible) and those with low likelihood of association with HIV-1 infection (SHSS-eligible). Of the 5429 blood samples, 4262 were SHSS-eligible and 1167 were SHSS-ineligible. After personal identifies were removed, specimens were tested by ELISA and confirmed by Western blot analysis. The overall prevalence rate of HIV-1 infection was 0.98%. The seroprevalence rate was almost 2.6 times higher in high-association patients compared with low-association patients (1.89% versus 0.73%, P < .001). Results from this study indicate a high unsuspected HIV-1 seroprevalence rate in a subpopulation (SHSS-eligible) considered to have diagnoses with low likelihood of association with HIV-1 infection. These patients may better approximate HIV-1 seroprevalence in the general population of the area served by the hospital than would a sample of all patients. Monitoring HIV-1 seroprevalence in the SHSS-eligible group will be a useful measure for community serosurveillance for HIV-1 infection. PMID:8046762
Ramos, Marcelo Cristiano de Azevedo; da Cruz, Lucila Pedroso; Kishima, Vanessa Chaer; Pollara, Wilson Modesto; de Lira, Antônio Carlos Onofre; Couttolenc, Bernard François
OBJECTIVE To analyze if size, administrative level, legal status, type of unit and educational activity influence the hospital network performance in providing services to the Brazilian Unified Health System. METHODS This cross-sectional study evaluated data from the Hospital Information System and the Cadastro Nacional de Estabelecimento s de Saúde (National Registry of Health Facilities), 2012, in Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. We calculated performance indicators, such as: the ratio of hospital employees per bed; mean amount paid for admission; bed occupancy rate; average length of stay; bed turnover index and hospital mortality rate. Data were expressed as mean and standard deviation. The groups were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni correction. RESULTS The hospital occupancy rate in small hospitals was lower than in medium, big and special-sized hospitals. Higher hospital occupancy rate and bed turnover index were observed in hospitals that include education in their activities. The hospital mortality rate was lower in specialized hospitals compared to general ones, despite their higher proportion of highly complex admissions. We found no differences between hospitals in the direct and indirect administration for most of the indicators analyzed. CONCLUSIONS The study indicated the importance of the scale effect on efficiency, and larger hospitals had a higher performance. Hospitals that include education in their activities had a higher operating performance, albeit with associated importance of using human resources and highly complex structures. Specialized hospitals had a significantly lower rate of mortality than general hospitals, indicating the positive effect of the volume of procedures and technology used on clinical outcomes. The analysis related to the administrative level and legal status did not show any significant performance differences between the categories of public hospitals. PMID:26247385
Ramos, Marcelo Cristiano de Azevedo; da Cruz, Lucila Pedroso; Kishima, Vanessa Chaer; Pollara, Wilson Modesto; de Lira, Antônio Carlos Onofre; Couttolenc, Bernard François
OBJECTIVE To analyze if size, administrative level, legal status, type of unit and educational activity influence the hospital network performance in providing services to the Brazilian Unified Health System. METHODS This cross-sectional study evaluated data from the Hospital Information System and the Cadastro Nacional de Estabelecimentos de Saúde (National Registry of Health Facilities), 2012, in Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil. We calculated performance indicators, such as: the ratio of hospital employees per bed; mean amount paid for admission; bed occupancy rate; average length of stay; bed turnover index and hospital mortality rate. Data were expressed as mean and standard deviation. The groups were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Bonferroni correction. RESULTS The hospital occupancy rate in small hospitals was lower than in medium, big and special-sized hospitals. Higher hospital occupancy rate and bed turnover index were observed in hospitals that include education in their activities. The hospital mortality rate was lower in specialized hospitals compared to general ones, despite their higher proportion of highly complex admissions. We found no differences between hospitals in the direct and indirect administration for most of the indicators analyzed. CONCLUSIONS The study indicated the importance of the scale effect on efficiency, and larger hospitals had a higher performance. Hospitals that include education in their activities had a higher operating performance, albeit with associated importance of using human resources and highly complex structures. Specialized hospitals had a significantly lower rate of mortality than general hospitals, indicating the positive effect of the volume of procedures and technology used on clinical outcomes. The analysis related to the administrative level and legal status did not show any significant performance differences between the categories of public hospitals.
This comprehensive analysis of French teaching methodology reveals basic problems underlying the current philosophy of language learning, while presenting new ideas based on extensive research. Two books, "Active French; Dialogues" and "Active French: Foundations Course" (Books 1 and 2), which stress well specified learning objectives, were…
Baussano, Iacopo; Brzoska, Patrick; Fedeli, Ugo; Larouche, Claudia; Razum, Oliver; Fung, Isaac C-H
Epidemiology and public health are usually context-specific. Journals published in different languages and countries play a role both as sources of data and as channels through which evidence is incorporated into local public health practice. Databases in these languages facilitate access to relevant journals, and professional education in these languages facilitates the growth of native expertise in epidemiology and public health. However, as English has become the lingua franca of scientific communication in the era of globalisation, many journals published in non-English languages face the difficult dilemma of either switching to English and competing internationally, or sticking to the native tongue and having a restricted circulation among a local readership. This paper discusses the historical development of epidemiology and the current scene of epidemiological and public health journals, databases and professional education in three Western European languages: French, German and Italian, and examines the dynamics and struggles they have today.
Baussano, Iacopo; Brzoska, Patrick; Fedeli, Ugo; Larouche, Claudia; Razum, Oliver; Fung, Isaac C-H
Epidemiology and public health are usually context-specific. Journals published in different languages and countries play a role both as sources of data and as channels through which evidence is incorporated into local public health practice. Databases in these languages facilitate access to relevant journals, and professional education in these languages facilitates the growth of native expertise in epidemiology and public health. However, as English has become the lingua franca of scientific communication in the era of globalisation, many journals published in non-English languages face the difficult dilemma of either switching to English and competing internationally, or sticking to the native tongue and having a restricted circulation among a local readership. This paper discusses the historical development of epidemiology and the current scene of epidemiological and public health journals, databases and professional education in three Western European languages: French, German and Italian, and examines the dynamics and struggles they have today. PMID:18826570
Fuchs, V; Mostkoff, D; Salmeán, G Gutiérrez; Amancio, O
To determine the frequency of malnutrition among hospitalized patients and to relate nutrition status with body mass index, fasting time, adequacy intake of protein and energy during hospitalization and length of stay. METHODS (STUDY POPULATION, SUBJECTS, INTERVENTION): We evaluated weight loss in the last 6 months prior to admission, body mass index (BMI), ideal and usual body weight percentages, days of hospitalization, energy and protein intake adequacy, fasting days and cause in hospitalized patients at different wards at Hospital General de Mexico. Patients were divided into groups according to their nutritional status (at risk/with malnutrition or normal) and data was assessed descriptively and comparatively by t-tests to determine mean differences. We assessed 561 hospitalized patients. We found different frequencies of malnutrition according to various indicators: 21.17% according to BMI, 38.07% and 19.57% by percentages of habitual and ideal weights--respectively-- and a weight loss in 69.57% of the patients. Mean daily energy intake was found to be of 1,061+/-432.7 kcal, while mean protein intake was 42.1 + 22.7 g, representing only the 69.4% and 54.9% of the energy and protein requirements. We found statically significant differences among malnourished and normal patients in relation to BMI (p < 0.001), length of stay (p < 0.05), energy adequacy (p < 0.001) and protein intake (p < 0.05). Malnutrition is common in hospitalized patients. An important factor in hospital malnutrition is the lack of compliance in the patient's requirements, preventing a fast recovery and increasing their length of stay. Thus, it is important to make changes and improvements in the institutional health system so that there is trained personnel in order to provide and adequate nutrition care attention to the critically ill patient, improving their condition and general prognosis.
Like traders in the pits, public hospital systems have been yelling "Buy, buy" in recent months. The commodities in question: not-for-profit hospitals. With a Wall Street spirit, public hospitals claim the latest acquisitions are simply a response to market pressure. Economist Stephen Zuckerman, left, calls the trend "surprising." Major pros and cons, however, give this particular investment high stakes.
crisis . The language of French strategic doctrine is that of dissuasion (deterrence). The French talk publicly much less about warfighting (and employment...threaten vital lines of supply in a crisis situation. Nuclear forces would not *-"e necessarily be useful In deterring Soviet actions in this regard. Rather...34 in Pierre Lellouche, ed., Pacifisme et Dissuasion (Paris: Economica , 1983), pp. 253-266. C. % 6. See Pierre Lacoste, Strategie Navale (Paris: Fernand
Sánchez Gómez, C; Lázaro y de Mercado, P; Poza Sanz, M A; Estrada Lorenzo, J M
The continuous increase in scientific knowledge in the health field, the development of new technologies and the rising cost of publications means that libraries are essential for patient care, medical education and research. In Spain some deficiencies have been seen in hospital libraries, and their cost is unknown. To analyze the cost of public hospital libraries in Spain and to estimate the cost of adapting them to international standards. Cross-sectional survey of public hospitals larger than 100 beds, or smaller public hospitals with teaching accreditation. Information on the variables of interest was collected by questionnaire mailed to the libraries and followed up by telephone. Data collection was completed in 1996. The information on costs is for 1994. A sensitivity analysis was done to examine the effects of imprecise estimates and assumptions. Of the 314 hospitals identified, 211 (67.2%) had libraries. The 1994 cost of the of the 211 libraries was 3,060 million pesetas (mean cost: 14.5 million pesetas). Personnel costs were the most important item (38% of the total), followed by the cost of subscriptions (29%). The cost of hospital libraries represented 0.08% of national public expenditures on health. The cost of correcting inadequacies in accordance with international standards would increase spending by about 400 million pesetas the first year (0.01% of public spending on health). The cost of hospital libraries represents only a small fraction of public spending on health. Correction of the observed deficiencies and the importance of libraries in the health system would require increasing spending to about 0.1% of public spending on health.
Makori, L.; Gikera, M.; Wafula, J.; Chakaya, J.; Edginton, M. E.; Kumar, A. M. V.
Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital (KNH), Nairobi, Ken-ya, a large referral and teaching hospital. Objective: 1) To document tuberculosis (TB) case notification rates and trends; 2) to describe demographic, clinical and workplace characteristics and treatment outcomes; and 3) to examine associations between demographic and clinical characteristics, HIV/AIDS (human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome) treatment and anti-tuberculosis treatment outcomes among hospital workers with TB at KNH during the period 2006–2011. Design: A retrospective cohort study involving a review of medical records. Results: The TB case notification rate among hospital staff ranged between 413 and 901 per 100 000 staff members per year; 51% of all cases were extra-pulmonary TB; 74% of all cases were among medical, paramedical and support staff. The TB-HIV coinfection rate was 60%. Only 75% had a successful treatment outcome. Patients in the retreatment category, those with unknown HIV status and those who were support staff had a higher risk of poor treatment outcomes. Conclusion: The TB case rate among hospital workers was unacceptably high compared to that of the general population, and treatment outcomes were poor. Infection control in the hospital and management of staff with TB requires urgent attention. PMID:26393055
Ologeanu-Taddei, Roxana; Vitari, Claudio; Morquin, David
Previous research highlighted generation and age effects on the perceptions and uses of technology. The goal of this study was to examine the relationship between age and perceptions of a Clinical Information System (CIS) for the clinical staff (especially physicians, nurses, medical secretaries). A survey was conducted in September 2015 in a French Teaching Hospital, based on a questionnaire consisting of items on the Likert scale. As results, the impact of age has a strong impact on Perceived Ease of Use, anxiety and Self-Efficacy. The result related to Perceived Ease of Use is unexpected. Younger staff reported to be less comfortable with technology than older staff. This result is not consistent with literature. We propose an explanation consisting in the importance of clinical process and organization knowledge and skills while general technology skills of young generations may be less significant.
Background Overpopulation, poor hygiene and disease prevention conditions in prisons are major structural determinants of increased infectious risk within prison settings but evidence-based national and WHO guidelines provide clear indications on how to reduce this risk. We sought to estimate the level of infectious risk by measuring how French prisons adhere to national and WHO guidelines. Methods A nationwide survey targeting the heads of medical (all French prisons) and psychiatric (26 French prisons) units was conducted using a postal questionnaire and a phone interview mainly focusing on access to prevention interventions, i.e. bleach, opioid substitution treatment (OST), HBV vaccination and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for French prisoners. Two scores were built reflecting adherence to national and WHO international guidelines, ranging from 0 (no adherence) to 10 (maximum adherence) and 0 to 9 respectively. Results A majority (N = 113 (66%)) of the 171 prisons answered the questionnaires, representing 74% coverage (46,786 prisoners) of the French prison population: 108 were medical units and 12 were psychiatric units. Inmate access to prevention was poor. The median[IQR] score measuring adherence to national guidelines was quite low (4.5[2.5; 5.5]) but adherence to WHO guidelines was even lower 2.5[1.5; 3.5]; PEP was absent despite reported risky practices. Unsuitable OST delivery practices were frequently observed. Conclusions A wide gap exists between HIV prevention policies and their application in prisons. Similar assessments in other countries may be needed to guide a global policy reform in prison settings. Adequate funding together with innovative interventions able to remove structural and ideological barriers to HIV prevention are now needed to motivate those in charge of prison health, to improve their working environment and to relieve French prisoners from their currently debilitating conditions. PMID:21619573
Rahimi, Benny; Mizrahi, Ronit; Magnezi, Racheli
Outsourcing is a method that enables an organization to focus on its expertise by transferring its other services to professionals who can fulfill them. In recent years, research has repeatedly shown that health services use a variety of outsourcing companies. To describe the experience acquired using outsourcing in public and private hospitals in Israel, and to present the factors, budgetary parameters, opportunities and problems affecting outsourcing. The questionnaire was sent to 36 hospitals in Israel, constituting 88.2% of all hospitals in Israel--private, public, H.M.O ("Clalit") and governmental. The response to the questionnaire reached 97.2% and revealed the following: 94% of the hospitals use outsourcing services in the following fields: security, cleaning, Laundry service, cafeterias, and I.T.; 42% of the hospitals assign 0-5% of their annual budget for outsourcing contracts. Private hospitals use more outsourcing services than public hospitals. The factors driving outsourcing are: cost restrictions (82.8%), operational flexibility (77%), and focus on the core business (74.2%). The potential advantages of outsourcing are: improvement in services 180.5%), customer satisfaction (72.2%), and cost reduction (69.4%). Difficulties affecting outsourcing are: dependence on external resources (83.3%] and internal organizational resistance (69.4%). The results of the outsourcing are lower costs, reduced number of personnel by 1-10% and high level of satisfaction. It seems that in recent years outsourcing is being used in hospitals and is central to the areas of infrastructure and logistics, as well as legal and medical services. Using outsourcing in hospitals provides opportunities for improved customer satisfaction, better focus for the hospital on its core activities and cost reduction. HospitaLs that succeed in synergetically integrating the external and the internal service providers will flourish. INNOVATION/VALUE: This research exposes, for the first time
According to the Japan Pediatric Society, the mean extra work hours of hospital pediatricians in 2010 was approximately 80 h per month, which is the certification criterion for Karoshi (death from overwork), but there is no precise picture of personnel management at hospitals because the labor authorities do not disclose detailed statistics concerning labor law violations to the public. Most local governments have a disclosure system, and the local governments that operate public hospitals were requested to disclose warning documents issued by the labor authorities from March 2002 to March 2011. A total of 208/369 public hospitals (56.4%) with ≥200 beds in Japan were warned of labor law violations. Offenses included exceeding the limit of working hours (177 hospitals) and non-payment of increased wages for night and holiday work (98 hospitals). Many public hospitals in Japan did not always pay workers including physicians for increased workload because they do not regard night and holiday duties as work hours. © 2012 The Author. Pediatrics International © 2012 Japan Pediatric Society.
Sadeghi, Ahmad; Barati, Omid; Bastani, Peivand; Jafari, Davood Danesh; Etemadian, Masoud
To review the experiences of selected countries in the use of public-private partnership in the provision of hospital services. This comparative study was conducted in 2015 in Iran. To collect data, valid databases as well as articles, theses, reports and related books in the field of private-sector partnership in hospital services were employed. Using purposive sampling, countries such as the United Kingdom, Spain, Canada, Turkey, Australia and Lesotho, which had successful experiences in the field of application of the public-private partnership in hospital services, were included. Likewise, the only experience in Iran in this field was also reviewed. Studies done between 1980 and 2015 were examined. The results obtained from each country were compared. Implementing public-private partnership had great and valuable outcomes and achievements for governmental hospitals. Moreover, clinical and nonclinical service delivery, hospital utilisation and management along with building, repairing and supportive operations through public-private partnership contracts can be differently divided among the partners. Furthermore, duration of the projects ranged from 12 to 40 years in different countries, depending on the type of the model used. A successful experience in the use of the public-private partnership in the provision of hospital services was observed.
Adesanya, Tomilola; Gbolahan, Olayinka; Ghannam, Obadah; Miraldo, Marisa; Patel, Bhavesh; Verma, Rishi; Wong, Heather
According to the World Health Report 2000, health system responsiveness is proposed as one of the three key objectives of any health system. This multi-domain concept describes how well a health system responds to the expectations of their users concerning the non-health enhancing aspects of care. In this study we aim to compare the levels of responsiveness experienced by users of private and publicly managed hospitals in Nigeria, and through these insights, to propose recommendations on how to improve performance on this measure. This quantitative, cross-sectional study uses a questionnaire that is adapted from two responsiveness surveys designed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Researchers collected responses from 520 respondents from four hospitals in Lagos, Nigeria. Analysis of the data using statistical techniques found that significant differences exist between the performance of public and private hospitals on certain domains of responsiveness, with privately operated hospitals performing better where differences exist. Users of private hospitals also reported a higher level of overall satisfaction. Private hospitals were found to perform particularly better on the domains of dignity, waiting times, and travel times. These findings have implications for the management of public hospitals in focusing their efforts on improving their performance in low scoring domains. Performance in these hospitals can be improved by emphasis on staff training and demand management. PMID:25170439
Lovell, C A Knox; Rodríguez-Alvarez, Ana; Wall, Alan
The literature to date on the effect of demand uncertainty on public hospital costs and excess capacity has not taken into account the role of expense preference behaviour. Similarly, the research on expense preference behaviour has not taken demand uncertainty into account. In this paper, we argue that both demand uncertainty and expense preference behaviour may affect public hospital costs and excess capacity and that ignoring either of these effects may lead to biased parameter estimates and misleading inference. To show this, we extend the analysis of Rodríguez-Alvarez and Lovell (Health Econ. 2004; 13: 157-169) by incorporating demand uncertainty into the technology to account for the hospital activity of providing standby capacity or insurance against the unexpected demand. We find that demand uncertainty in Spanish public hospitals affects hospital production decisions and increases costs. Our results also show that overcapitalization in these hospitals can be explained by hospitals providing insurance demand when faced with demand uncertainty. We also find evidence of expense preference behaviour. We conclude that both stochastic demand and expense preference behaviour should be taken into account when analysing hospital costs and production. Copyright (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Kim, Sun Jung; Park, Eun-Cheol; Kim, Tae Hyun; Yoo, Ji Won; Lee, Sang Gyu
This study compared in-hospital mortality within 30 days of admission, lengths of stay, and inpatient charges among patients with heart failure admitted to public and private hospitals in South Korea. We obtained health insurance claims data for all heart failure inpatients nationwide between November 1, 2011 and May 31, 2012. These data were then matched with hospital-level data, and multi-level regression models were examined. A total of 8406 patients from 253 hospitals, including 31 public hospitals, were analyzed. The in-hospital mortality rate within 30 days of admission was 0.92% greater and the mean length of stay was 1.94 days longer at public hospitals than at private hospitals (mortality: 5.18% and 4.26%, respectively; LOS: 12.08 and 10.14 days, respectively). The inpatient charges were 11.4% lower per case and 24.5% lower per day at public hospitals than at private hospitals. After adjusting for patient- and hospital-level confounders, public hospitals had a 1.62-fold higher in-hospital mortality rate, a 16.5% longer length of stay, and an 11.7% higher inpatient charge per case than private hospitals, although the charges of private hospitals were greater in univariate analysis. We recommend that government agencies and policy makers continue to monitor quality of care, lengths of stay in the hospital, and expenditures according to type of hospital ownership to improve healthcare outcomes and reduce spending.
Quintard, Hervé; Severac, Mathilde; Martin, Claude; Ichai, Carole
The development of specialized units dedicated to life-threatening management has demonstrated to improve the prognosis of patients requiring such treatments. However, apart those focused on trauma and stroke, networks are still lacking in France. Despite, the implementation of standardisation of practices and guidelines, particularly in prehospital care, in-hospital clinical practices at admission remain heterogenous. This survey aimed to assess the structural and human organization of teaching hospitals in France concerning the primary in-hospital care for critically ill patients. A questionnaire of 45 items was sent by e-mail to 32 teaching hospitals between January and March 2013. It included information related to the description of the emergency department, of ICUs, and both structural and human organizations for primary in-hospital care of life-threatening patients. Seventy-five percent of teaching hospitals answered to the survey. Seven hundred to 1400 patients were admitted to emergency units per week and among them 10 to 20 were admitted for critically ill conditions. These latter were addressed in a specialized room of the emergency unit (Service d'admission des urgences vitales [SAUV]) in 40% of hospitals and in specialized room in ICU in 18% of cases. Intensivists were involved in 50% of hospitals, emergency physicians in 26% and it was mixed in 24% of hospitals. This survey is the first to assess the in-hospital organization of primary care for instable and life-threatening patients in France. Our results confirmed the extreme heterogeneity of structural and human organizations for primary in-hospital care of patients presenting at least one organ failure. Thus, a consensus is probably needed to homogenize and improve our practices. Copyright © 2015 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Fernandes, Adalberto Campos; Nunes, Alexandre Morais
The Portuguese health system has been characterized by the existence of a constant relationship between public and private sector, both in providing and financing health care. In recent decades, the private sector increased their responsiveness of care, extending the engagement in the relationship with the public sector. This relationship stems from the legal framework set out in the law, developing agreements, conventions and more recently through the model of public-private partnerships. In hospital network, this new dynamic relationship contributed, in the last two decades, to accentuate the mixed characteristics of the system, through a clear strengthening of the private component in the hospital network, particularly by investing in differentiated units.
Basu, Debashis; Croce, Davide; Porazzi, Emanuele; Restelli, Umberto; Naidoo, Shan
Information on hospital unit costs is valuable to health policy makers, managers, and researchers. Its importance is recognised internationally by the World Health Organization (WHO) and nationally by the South African Department of Health. Although some projects had attempted to introduce this concept in South Africa, none of them became sustainable. To identify the cost centres in a large public hospital (Johannesburg Hospital) and to determine factors influencing its implementation and lastly, to provide future directions for successful and sustainable operation through transfer of skills. Setting of the study was Johannesburg Hospital, a public sector hospital in South Africa. The study has used context analysis technique to analyze the operational environment of the hospital. The study identified three types of cost centres: Overhead, Intermediate, and Final. The context analysis showed remarkable differences in comparison with Italian public hospitals. Various important factors were identified during this study, which may be classified into three broad categories: external, internal, and process. Focus of hospital management should shift from cost minimisation. It should also consider other factors such as number of patients, levels of patients, clinical outcomes, clinical governance, organisational efficiency, and organisational culture, which might play a significant role. This requires expertise in clinical economics, which is not readily available in developing countries like South Africa. Training of hospital staff in the new way of thinking, internal communication, and regular feedback are probably other important factors to its success. A stepwise approach based on proper planning and a context analysis should be used for successful implementation of this type of activity in a public hospital setting.
Salarvand, Shahin; Samadbeik, Mahnaz; Tarrahi, Mohammad Javad; Salarvand, Hamed
Introduction: Nowadays, hospitals have turned increasingly towards the Internet and develop their own web presence. Hospital Websites could be operating as effective web resources of information and interactive communication mediums to enhance hospital services to the public. Aim: Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the quality of websites in Tehran’s public hospitals. Material and methods: This cross-sectional analysis involved all public hospitals in Iran’s capital city, Tehran, with a working website or subsites between April and June, 2014 (N=59). The websites were evaluated using three validated instruments: a localized checklist, Google page rank, and the Alexa traffic ranking. The mentioned checklist consisted of 112 items divided into five sections: technical characteristics, hospital information and facilities, medical services, interactive on-line services and external activities. Data were analyzed using descriptive and analytical statistics. Results: The mean website evaluation score was 45.7 out of 224 for selected public hospitals. All the studied websites were in the weak category based on the earned quality scores. There was no statistically significant association between the website evaluation score with Google page rank (P=0.092), Alexa global traffic rank and Alexa traffic rank in Iran (P>0.05). The hospital websites had a lower quality score in the interactive online services and external activities criteria in comparing to other criteria. Due to the low quality level of the studied websites and the importance of hospital portals in providing information and services on the Internet, the authorities should do precise planning for the appreciable improvement in the quality of hospital websites. PMID:27147806
Arasli, Huseyin; Ekiz, Erdogan Haktan; Katircioglu, Salih Turan
The purpose of this research is to develop and compare some determinants of service quality in both the public and private hospitals of Northern Cyprus. There is considerable lack of literature with respect to service quality in public and private hospitals. Randomly, 454 respondents, who have recently benefited from hospital services in Famagusta, were selected to answer a modified version of the SERVQUAL Instrument. The instrument contained both service expectations and perceptions questions. This study identifies six factors regarding the service quality as perceived in both public and private Northern Cyprus hospitals. These are: empathy, giving priority to the inpatients needs, relationships between staff and patients, professionalism of staff, food and the physical environment. Research results revealed that the various expectations of inpatients have not been met in either the public or the private hospitals At the micro level, the lack of management commitment to service quality in both hospital settings leads doctors and nurses to expend less effort increasing or improving inpatient satisfaction. Hospital managers should also satisfy their employees, since job satisfaction leads to customer satisfaction and loyalty. Additionally, hospital administrations need to gather systematic feedback from their inpatients, establish visible and transparent complaint procedures so that inpatients' complaints can be addressed effectively and efficiently. The hospitals need to organize training sessions based on the critical importance of service quality and the crucial role of inpatient satisfaction in the health care industry. Future studies should include the remaining regions in Cyprus in order to increase research findings' generalizability. Additionally, including other dimensions such as hospital processes and discharge management and co-ordination may provide further insights into understanding inpatients' perceptions and intentions.
Mugoyela, Veronica; Mwambete, Kennedy D
Contamination of pharmaceuticals with microorganisms irrespective whether they are harmful or nonpathogenic can bring about changes in physicochemical characteristics of the medicines. Although sterility is not a requirement in official compendia for nonsterile pharmaceuticals, bioburdens need to be within acceptable limits. Therefore, this study investigated microbial contamination of 10 nonsterile pharmaceuticals frequently delivered to outpatients by identifying and quantifying microbial contaminants and susceptibility pattern testing on the microbes isolated. The study was carried out at Amana Municipal Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The protocol for the study involved structured selection of representative tablets, syrups, and capsules from the hospital's outpatient pharmacy. Constitutive microorganisms were elaborated and enumerated using standard microbiologic procedures. Results showed that 50% of all tested products were heavily contaminated, and the predominant contaminants comprised Klebsiella, Bacillus, and Candida species. Furthermore, the results showed that the isolated Bacillus and Klebsiella species were resistant to Augmentin ® and cloxacillin. The differences in means for cfu/mL and zones of inhibition among the microorganisms isolated were considered significant at P < 0.05. The nonsterile pharmaceuticals were presumably microbiologically contaminated due to poor handling during dispensing, repackaging, and/or nonadherence to good manufacturing practice. Therefore, training and educating the dispensers, as well as patients, on the proper handling and use of medicines cannot be overemphasized, because these are key aspects in controlling cross-contamination of medicines.
Neuburger, R P
A general overview of liaison-psychoanalysis in a general hospital is presented. The team's trajectory is revisited, as generating a presence in the inpatient units: a demand which changes from a purely psychiatric, scarcely operative level to an acknowledgment of subjectivity. Generally, this appears disruptively in medical proceedings. Two case histories are presented: (i) 'the tenant' and (ii) 'the nail-polishing file'. With regard to the first case history, the transference in its double aspect, with the patient as well as with the unit's staff, is examined. The analyst's intervention seeks to untangle the impasse, which prevents the physicians from helping the patient. With regard to the second case history, in which the de-mystification aspects of liaison work are shown, the horror that the so-called 'mental illness' can produce in the medical institution is explored. The aim of narrating this experience is to preserve a psy-space in the hospital where the overwhelming technological developments menace with its disappearance.
Modern medicine deals with the combined quality of the profession and the medical service. The first rule of medicine is Primum non nocere" (first, do no harm). However, the essence of this unique profession cannot be confined by this basic message phrased by negation, but should be based on the principle of doing one's best to save the patient's life and to cure him. In this academic and dynamic profession, the physician keeps asking himself frequently whether the provided treatment is the best one possible. The internal need to answer this question and the concomitant curiosity, create the necessary critical integration between the physician and the researcher. Medical research is essential for the promotion of the profession, and it is a vital tool that leads to excellence in healthcare services. Throughout recent years the hospitals in Israel's Northern District, from Nazareth and Nahariya to Ziv, are in a continuous process of development and advancement with the aim to provide modern and available medical services of the highest quality to the residents of the area, tourists, IDF soldiers and even for those who arrive from across the border. This growth and development is reflected in the provision of new services, alongside the improvement of existing resources, and is based on collaboration between experienced and new staff transferred from various regions in Israel. The Medical Faculty of Bar Ilan University in Safed plays a significant and dominant part in this change. The affiliation of the hospitals to the faculty, the establishment of new research laboratories in hospitals, additional educational services for students, such as the pathology laboratory in Ziv, and, of course, the medical students studying in different departments - all of these constitute a thriving engine for the academy, combining teaching with promotion of research. Researchers and physicians from the hospitals are integrated in the medical school, in teaching, research and mentoring
De Pietro, Carlo
This study explores how Italian public hospitals can use private medical activities run by their employed physicians as a human resources management (HRM) tool. It is based on field research in two acute-care hospitals and a review of Italian literature and laws. The Italian National Health Service (NHS) allows employed physicians to run private, patient-funded activities ("private beds", surgical operations, hospital outpatient clinics, etc.). Basic regulation is set at the national level, but it can be greatly improved at the hospital level. Private activities, if poorly managed, can damage efficiency, equity, quality of care, and public trust in the NHS. On the other hand, hospitals can also use them as leverage to improve HRM, with special attention to three issues: (1) professional evaluation, development, and training; (2) compensation policies; (3) competition for, and retention of, professionals in short supply. The two case studies presented here show great differences between the two hospitals in terms of regulation and organizational solutions that have been adopted to deal with such activities. However, in both hospitals, private activities do not seem to benefit HRM. Private activities are not systematically considered in compensation policies. Moreover, private revenues are strongly concentrated in a few physicians. Hospitals use very little of the information provided by the private activities to improve knowledge management, career development, or training planning. Finally, hospitals do not use private activities management as a tool for competing in the labor market for health professionals who are in short supply.
Zhao, Lue-Ping; Yu, Guo-Pei; Liu, Hui; Ma, Xie-Min; Wang, Jing; Kong, Gui-Lan; Li, Yi; Ma, Wen; Cui, Yong; Xu, Beibei; Yu, Na; Bao, Xiao-Yuan; Guo, Yu; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Jun; Li, Yan; Xie, Xue-Qin; Jiang, Bao-Guo; Ke, Yang
Background With market-oriented economic and health-care reform, public hospitals in China have received unprecedented pressures from governmental regulations, public opinions, and financial demands. To adapt the changing environment and keep pace of modernizing healthcare delivery system, public hospitals in China are expanding clinical services and improving delivery efficiency, while controlling costs. Recent experiences are valuable lessons for guiding future healthcare reform. Here we carefully study three teaching hospitals, to exemplify their experiences during this period. Methods We performed a systematic analysis on hospitalization costs, health-care quality and delivery efficiencies from 2006 to 2010 in three teaching hospitals in Beijing, China. The analysis measured temporal changes of inpatient cost per stay (CPS), cost per day (CPD), inpatient mortality rate (IMR), and length of stay (LOS), using a generalized additive model. Findings There were 651,559 hospitalizations during the period analyzed. Averaged CPS was stable over time, while averaged CPD steadily increased by 41.7% (P<0.001), from CNY 1,531 in 2006 to CNY 2,169 in 2010. The increasing CPD seemed synchronous with the steady rising of the national annual income per capita. Surgical cost was the main contributor to the temporal change of CPD, while medicine and examination costs tended to be stable over time. From 2006 and 2010, IMR decreased by 36%, while LOS reduced by 25%. Increasing hospitalizations with higher costs, along with an overall stable CPS, reduced IMR, and shorter LOS, appear to be the major characteristics of these three hospitals at present. Interpretations These three teaching hospitals have gained some success in controlling costs, improving cares, adopting modern medical technologies, and increasing hospital revenues. Effective hospital governance and physicians' professional capacity plus government regulations and supervisions may have played a role. However, purely
Zhao, Lue-Ping; Yu, Guo-Pei; Liu, Hui; Ma, Xie-Min; Wang, Jing; Kong, Gui-Lan; Li, Yi; Ma, Wen; Cui, Yong; Xu, Beibei; Yu, Na; Bao, Xiao-Yuan; Guo, Yu; Wang, Fei; Zhang, Jun; Li, Yan; Xie, Xue-Qin; Jiang, Bao-Guo; Ke, Yang
With market-oriented economic and health-care reform, public hospitals in China have received unprecedented pressures from governmental regulations, public opinions, and financial demands. To adapt the changing environment and keep pace of modernizing healthcare delivery system, public hospitals in China are expanding clinical services and improving delivery efficiency, while controlling costs. Recent experiences are valuable lessons for guiding future healthcare reform. Here we carefully study three teaching hospitals, to exemplify their experiences during this period. We performed a systematic analysis on hospitalization costs, health-care quality and delivery efficiencies from 2006 to 2010 in three teaching hospitals in Beijing, China. The analysis measured temporal changes of inpatient cost per stay (CPS), cost per day (CPD), inpatient mortality rate (IMR), and length of stay (LOS), using a generalized additive model. There were 651,559 hospitalizations during the period analyzed. Averaged CPS was stable over time, while averaged CPD steadily increased by 41.7% (P<0.001), from CNY 1,531 in 2006 to CNY 2,169 in 2010. The increasing CPD seemed synchronous with the steady rising of the national annual income per capita. Surgical cost was the main contributor to the temporal change of CPD, while medicine and examination costs tended to be stable over time. From 2006 and 2010, IMR decreased by 36%, while LOS reduced by 25%. Increasing hospitalizations with higher costs, along with an overall stable CPS, reduced IMR, and shorter LOS, appear to be the major characteristics of these three hospitals at present. These three teaching hospitals have gained some success in controlling costs, improving cares, adopting modern medical technologies, and increasing hospital revenues. Effective hospital governance and physicians' professional capacity plus government regulations and supervisions may have played a role. However, purely market-oriented health-care reform could also
In France, there is no religious education in state schools. "Convictional education" appeared by drawing its perimeter around three educational subjects: philosophy, teaching about religions, and moral and civic education. Today, the French school is facing new challenges in a highly secularised society on which religion is laying new…
The French experience of the last few decades provides some lessons for policymakers seeking to meet the needs for facilities at various educational levels. Two conclusions stand out: the lasting nature and impact of educational infrastructure; and (2) policy formation stands to gain from foreseeing as fully and clearly as possible the probable…
In France, there is no religious education in state schools. "Convictional education" appeared by drawing its perimeter around three educational subjects: philosophy, teaching about religions, and moral and civic education. Today, the French school is facing new challenges in a highly secularised society on which religion is laying new…
Costa, Lindemberg Assunção; Valli, Cleidenete; Alvarenga, Angra Pimentel
assess the safety of medication dispensing processes through the dispensing error rate. Cross-sectional study carried out at a pharmaceutical service of a pediatric hospital in Espírito Santo, Brazil. Data collection was performed between August and September 2006, totaling 2620 prescribed medication doses. Any deviation from the medical prescription in dispensing medication was considered a dispensing error. THE CATEGORIES OF MEDICATION ERRORS WERE: content, labeling, and documentation errors. The dispensing error rate was computed by dividing the number of errors by the total of dispensed doses. From the 300 identified errors, 262 (87.3 %) were content errors. The rate of errors in the labeling and documentation categories was 33 (11%) and 5 (1.7%), respectively. The total dispensing error rate was higher than rates reported in international studies. The most frequent category was "content error".
Mitropoulos, Panagiotis; Mitropoulos, Ioannis; Sissouras, Aris
This paper evaluates the efficiency of public hospitals with two alternative conceptual models. One model targets resource usage directly to assess production efficiency, while the other model incorporates financial results to assess economic efficiency. Performance analysis of these models was conducted in two stages. In stage one, we utilized data envelopment analysis to obtain the efficiency score of each hospital, while in stage two we took into account the influence of the operational environment on efficiency by regressing those scores on explanatory variables that concern the performance of hospital services. We applied these methods to evaluate 96 general hospitals in the Greek national health system. The results indicate that, although the average efficiency scores in both models have remained relatively stable compared to past assessments, internal changes in hospital performances do exist. This study provides a clear framework for policy implications to increase the overall efficiency of general hospitals.
Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Moreira, Marizélia Leão
OBJECTIVE To describe the migration flows of demand for public and private hospital care among the health regions of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. METHODS Study based on a database of hospitalizations in the public and private systems of the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed data from 17 health regions of the state, considering people hospitalized in their own health region and those who migrated outwards (emigration) or came from other regions (immigration). The index of migration effectiveness of patients from both systems was estimated. The coverage (hospitalization coefficient) was analyzed in relation to the number of inpatient beds per population and the indexes of migration effectiveness. RESULTS The index of migration effectiveness applied to the hospital care demand flow allowed characterizing health regions with flow balance, with high emigration of public and private patients, and with high attraction of public and private patients. CONCLUSIONS There are differences in hospital care access and opportunities among health regions in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil. PMID:26465661
Rocha, Juan Stuardo Yazlle; Monteiro, Rosane Aparecida; Moreira, Marizélia Leão
OBJECTIVE To describe the migration flows of demand for public and private hospital care among the health regions of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.METHODS Study based on a database of hospitalizations in the public and private systems of the state of Sao Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in 2006. We analyzed data from 17 health regions of the state, considering people hospitalized in their own health region and those who migrated outwards (emigration) or came from other regions (immigration). The index of migration effectiveness of patients from both systems was estimated. The coverage (hospitalization coefficient) was analyzed in relation to the number of inpatient beds per population and the indexes of migration effectiveness.RESULTS The index of migration effectiveness applied to the hospital care demand flow allowed characterizing health regions with flow balance, with high emigration of public and private patients, and with high attraction of public and private patients.CONCLUSIONS There are differences in hospital care access and opportunities among health regions in the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil.
Lee, Young-Hoon; Lee, Kun Sei; Jeong, Hyo Seon; Ahn, Hye Mi; Oh, Gyung-Jae
Background This study investigates the perception of the general public regarding the concentration to metropolitan, hospitals of cardiac and cerebrovascular surgeries, and the perceived public need for government policies to resolve this issue. Methods A total of 800 participants were recruited for our telephone interview survey. Quota sampling was performed, adjusting for age and sex, to select by various geographic regions. Sampling with random digit dialing was performed; we called the randomly generated telephone numbers and made three attempts for non-responders before moving on to a different telephone number. Results Our sample population was 818 participants, 401 men (49.0%) and 417 women (51.0%). Our data showed that 85.5% of participants thought that cardiac surgery and neurosurgery patients are concentrated in large hospitals in Seoul. The principle reason for regional patients to want to receive surgery at major hospitals in Seoul was because of poor medical standards associated with regional hospitals (87.7%). We found that a vast majority of participants (97.5%) felt that government policies are needed to even out the clustering of cardiac surgery and neurosurgery patients, and that this clustering may be alleviated if policies that can specifically enhance the quality and the capacity of regional hospitals to carry out surgeries are adopted (98.3%). Conclusion Government policy making must reflect public desiderata, and we suggest that these public health needs may be partially resolved through government-designated cardiac and neurosurgery specialist hospitals in regional areas. PMID:28035297
Walker, Kara Odom; Calmes, Daphne; Hanna, Nancy; Baker, Richard
Background Challenges around safety-net hospital closure have impacted medical student and resident exposure to urban public healthcare sites that may influence their future practice choices. Objective To assess the impact of the closure of a public safety-net teaching hospital for the clinical medical education of Charles Drew University medical students and residents. Method Retrospective cohort study of medical students’ and residents’ and clinical placement into safety-net experiences after the closure of the primary teaching hospital. Results The hospital closure impacted both medical student and residency training experiences. Only 71% (17/24) of medical student rotations and 13% (23/180) of residents were maintained at public safety-net clinical sittings. The closure of the public safety-net hospital resulted in the loss of 36% of residency training spots sponsored by historically black medical schools in the United States and an even larger negative impact on the number of physicians training in underserved urban areas of Los Angeles County. Conclusion While the medical educational program changes undertaken in the wake of hospital closure have negatively affected the immediate clinical educational experiences of medical students and residents, it remains to be seen whether the training site location changes will alter their long-term preferences in specialty choice and practice location. PMID:19110905
Than, Thet Mon; Saw, Yu Mon; Khaing, Moe; Win, Ei Mon; Cho, Su Myat; Kariya, Tetsuyoshi; Yamamoto, Eiko; Hamajima, Nobuyuki
Cost information is important for efficient allocation of healthcare expenditure, estimating future budget allocation, and setting user fees to start new financing systems. Myanmar is in political transition, and trying to achieve universal health coverage by 2030. This study assessed the unit cost of healthcare services at two public hospitals in the country from the provider perspective. The study also analyzed the cost structure of the hospitals to allocate and manage the budgets appropriately. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted at 200-bed Magway Teaching Hospital (MTH) and Pyinmanar General Hospital (PMN GH), in Myanmar, for the financial year 2015-2016. The step-down costing method was applied to calculate unit cost per inpatient day and per outpatient visit. The costs were calculated by using Microsoft Excel 2010. The unit costs per inpatient day varied largely from unit to unit in both hospitals. At PMN GH, unit cost per inpatient day was 28,374 Kyats (27.60 USD) for pediatric unit and 1,961,806 Kyats (1908.37 USD) for ear, nose, and throat unit. At MTH, the unit costs per inpatient day were 19,704 Kyats (19.17 USD) for medicine unit and 168,835 Kyats (164.24 USD) for eye unit. The unit cost of outpatient visit was 14,882 Kyats (14.48 USD) at PMN GH, while 23,059 Kyats (22.43 USD) at MTH. Regarding cost structure, medicines and medical supplies was the largest component at MTH, and the equipment was the largest component at PMN GH. The surgery unit of MTH and the eye unit of PMN GH consumed most of the total cost of the hospitals. The unit costs were influenced by the utilization of hospital services by the patients, the efficiency of available resources, type of medical services provided, and medical practice of the physicians. The cost structures variation was also found between MTH and PMN GH. The findings provided the basic information regarding the healthcare cost of public hospitals which can apply the efficient utilization of the
Liu, Wenbin; Shi, Lizheng; Pong, Raymond W; Chen, Yingyao
Hospital social responsibility is receiving increasing attention, especially in China where major changes to the healthcare system have taken place. This study examines how patients viewed hospital social responsibility in China and explore the factors that influenced patients' perception of hospital social responsibility. A cross-sectional survey was conducted, using a structured questionnaire, on a sample of 5385 patients from 48 public hospitals in three regions of China: Shanghai, Hainan, and Shaanxi. A multilevel regression model was employed to examine factors influencing patients' assessments of hospital social responsibility. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated to estimate the proportion of variance in the dependent variables determined at the hospital level. The scores for service quality, appropriateness, accessibility and professional ethics were positively associated with patients' assessments of hospital social responsibility. Older outpatients tended to give lower assessments, while inpatients in larger hospitals scored higher. After adjusted for the independent variables, the ICC rose from 0.182 to 0.313 for inpatients and from 0.162 to 0.263 for outpatients. The variance at the patient level was reduced by 51.5 and 48.6 %, respectively, for inpatients and outpatients. And the variance at the hospital level was reduced by 16.7 % for both groups. Some hospital and patient characteristics and their perceptions of service quality, appropriateness, accessibility and professional ethics were associated with their assessments of public hospital social responsibility. The differences were mainly determined at the patient level. More attention to law-abiding behaviors, cost-effective health services, and charitable works could improve perceptions of hospitals' adherence to social responsibility.
Sheikh, Shiraz; Kumari, Bhavita; Obaid, Munazza; Khalid, Noman
To assess the environment of postgraduate fellowship training in teaching hospitals of an urban centre. The cross-sectional study was conducted at one public-sector and two private-sector teaching hospitals in Karachi from December 2014 to June 2015. Data was collected by using a modified version of Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure, a validated questionnaire, for which clinical residents were selected through convenience sampling. Data was analyzed using SPSS 16. Of the 302 participants, 168(55.6%) were males and 134(44.4%) were females. The overall mean age of the respondents was 28.46±3.03 years. The internal reliability of the questionnaire was good with a Cronbach's alpha of 0.92. The overall mean score of 93.96±20.79suggested more positive than negative perception with room for improvement. After adjusting for all important socio-demographic and residency co-variates, residency in a private hospital was positively associated with Postgraduate Hospital Educational Environment Measure score (p<0.01) compared to residency in public hospitals. There is an urging need to standardise postgraduate training in terms of teaching, autonomy and social support in public and private hospitals of Karachi.
Osorio Acosta, J; Paredes Alonso, E
The purpose of this paper is that of analyzing the hypothesis that, as originally stated by its creators, the reengineering methodology for the improvement of efficiency and productivity, cannot be successfully implemented in Spanish public hospitals, and in fact, the so called experiences do not keep with the basics of such an approach. The technique employed for this study consisted, on one hand, of reviewing and comparing the literature published on this subject and, on the other, on experimentation by means of a case study conducted at a public hospital for the purpose of testing out the outlined hypothesis. The review and comparison of works previously published on this subject revealed that the technique for improving on-the-job efficiency according to the theory-based concepts of the process reengineering approach is not adaptable to public hospitals in Spain. The case study supported this finding, additionally highlighting the fact that in order for any relatively major changes in the working processes at public hospitals to be recommended, a number of organizational and human factors must be taken into consideration as aspects involved regardless of the methodological approach taken. The indiscriminate implementation in public hospital administration of trends currently fashionable in the business administration field may defeat its own purpose if these trends are not previously evaluated prior to being implemented. An assessment must first be made as to their being suited to the intended purpose.
Søgaard, Rikke; Pedersen, Morten Saaby; Bech, Mickael
This study examines the extent to which employer-paid health insurance has led to substitution of public with private hospital use in Denmark. Individual-person-level data for the entire Danish privately employed, full-time working population is used in an observational design. The effect of having employer-paid health insurance on the utilisation of public hospitals is estimated using propensity score matching in order to control for risk selection, based on a number of individual- and company-level characteristics. The outcome is defined as the total consumption of health care services provided by public hospitals. The effect of employer-paid health insurance is estimated to correspond to a significant 10% reduction in the total use of public hospitals. The effect appears to be robust to alternative methodological specifications and is supported from the analysis of alternative outcome measures. The rise in the number of individuals with employer-paid health insurance seems to have alleviated the pressure on public hospitals in Denmark. Future studies should confirm the magnitude of this effect, preferably based on empirical data with repeated measurements of insurance status. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
O'Reilly, Jacqueline; Wiley, Miriam
To examine the impact of the unusual public/private mix on public and private in-patient bed utilization within Irish acute public hospitals. Data from the Department of Health and Children and the Hospital In-Patient Enquiry were used to estimate and compare potential and actual utilization of public and private designated in-patient beds in 54 acute public hospitals from 2000 to 2004. Private in-patients used more bed days than were potentially available to them in 14.1% of hospital-year observations. The equivalent figure for public in-patients was 12.6%. Although the prevalence of excess utilization of private beds was relatively small, it did increase over the study period. Hospitals with excess private utilization were characterized by a relatively low proportion of private- or non-designated beds despite their patient profile being broadly similar to that of hospitals where there was no excess private utilization. Despite policies designed to limit private practice in Irish acute public hospitals, some hospitals have apparently been able to overcome these restrictions. In a system where financial incentives to treat private patients exist both for consultants and hospitals, it is not clear whether this excess private practice in public hospitals reflects a more efficient utilization of resources (when demand from public patients is low) or the displacement of public patients in favour of private patients. However, that a smaller number on hospital waiting lists possess private health insurance provides some support for the displacement hypothesis. Thus, it appears that policy-makers may need to reconsider attempts to ensure an appropriate division of acute public hospital resources between public and private patients.
McPake, Barbara; Yepes, Francisco Jose; Lake, Sally; Sanchez, Luz Helena
Many countries are experimenting with public hospital reform - both increasing the managerial autonomy with which hospitals conduct their affairs, and separating 'purchaser' and 'provider' sides of the health system, thus increasing the degree of market pressure brought to bear on hospitals. Evidence suggesting that such reform will improve hospital performance is weak. From a theoretical perspective, it is not clear why public hospitals should be expected to behave like firms and seek to maximize profits as this model requires. Empirically, there is very slight evidence that such reforms may improve efficiency, and reason to be concerned about their equity implications. In Colombia, an ambitious reform programme includes among its measures the attempt to universalize a segmented health system, the creation of a purchaser-provider split and the transformation of public hospitals into 'autonomous state entities'. By design, the Colombian reform programme avoids the forces that produce equity losses in other developing countries. This paper reports the results of a study that has tried to track hospital performance in other dimensions in the post-reform period in Bogotá. Trends in hospital inputs, production and productivity, quality and patient satisfaction are presented, and qualitative data based on interviews with hospital workers are analyzed. The evidence we have been able to collect is capable of providing only a partial response to the study question. There is some evidence of increased activity and productivity and sustained quality despite declining staffing levels. Qualitative data suggest that hospital workers have noticed considerable changes, which include greater responsiveness to patients but also a heavier administrative burden. It is difficult to attribute specific causality to all of the changes measured and this reflects the inherent difficulty of judging the effects of large-scale reform programmes as well as weaknesses and gaps in the data
Cid P, Camilo; Bastías S, Gabriel
In 2011 the Chilean National Health Fund (FONASA) commissioned a study to assess the costs of the 120 most relevant hospital care services with an established fee, in a large sample of public hospitals. We herein report the cost evaluation results of such study, considering the financial condition of those hospitals in the year of the study. Based on the premise that the expenses derived from the provision of institutional and appraised hospital services should be identical to the billing of hospitals to FONASA, the prices are undervalued, since they cover only 56% of billing, generating a gap between expenses and invoicing. This gap shows an important limitation of tariffs, since their prices do not cover the real costs. However not all hospitals behave in the same way. While the provision of services of some hospitals is even higher than their billing, most hospitals do not completely justify their invoicing. These assumptions would imply that, generally speaking, hospital debts are justified by the costs incurred. However, hospitals have heterogeneous financial situations that need to be analyzed carefully. In particular, nothing can be said about their relative efficiency if cost estimations are not adjusted by the complexity of patients attended and comparison groups are not defined.
Mugoyela, Veronica; Mwambete, Kennedy D
Purpose Contamination of pharmaceuticals with microorganisms irrespective whether they are harmful or nonpathogenic can bring about changes in physicochemical characteristics of the medicines. Although sterility is not a requirement in official compendia for nonsterile pharmaceuticals, bioburdens need to be within acceptable limits. Therefore, this study investigated microbial contamination of 10 nonsterile pharmaceuticals frequently delivered to outpatients by identifying and quantifying microbial contaminants and susceptibility pattern testing on the microbes isolated. Methods The study was carried out at Amana Municipal Hospital in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The protocol for the study involved structured selection of representative tablets, syrups, and capsules from the hospital’s outpatient pharmacy. Constitutive microorganisms were elaborated and enumerated using standard microbiologic procedures. Results Results showed that 50% of all tested products were heavily contaminated, and the predominant contaminants comprised Klebsiella, Bacillus, and Candida species. Furthermore, the results showed that the isolated Bacillus and Klebsiella species were resistant to Augmentin ® and cloxacillin. The differences in means for cfu/mL and zones of inhibition among the microorganisms isolated were considered significant at P < 0.05. Conclusion The nonsterile pharmaceuticals were presumably microbiologically contaminated due to poor handling during dispensing, repackaging, and/or nonadherence to good manufacturing practice. Therefore, training and educating the dispensers, as well as patients, on the proper handling and use of medicines cannot be overemphasized, because these are key aspects in controlling cross-contamination of medicines. PMID:20957135
Griffin, Eve; Dillon, Christina B; O'Regan, Grace; Corcoran, Paul; Perry, Ivan J; Arensman, Ella
Recent research on the patterns of self-harm around public holidays is lacking. This study used national data to examine the patterns of hospital-treated self-harm during public holidays, and to examine associated factors. Data on self-harm presentations to all emergency departments were obtained from the National Self-Harm Registry Ireland. The association between self-harm presentations and public holidays was examined using univariate and multivariate Poisson regression analyses. A total of 104,371 presentations of self-harm were recorded between 2007 and 2015. The mean number of self-harm presentations was 32 on public holidays. St. Patrick's Day had the highest number of presentations compared to all other public holidays, with a daily mean of 44 presentations. Across all years, self-harm presentations during public holidays had a 24% increased risk of involving alcohol consumption compared to all other days and this effect was most pronounced during the Christmas period. The association with alcohol remained significant at a multivariate level. Presentations on public holidays were more likely to attend out of normal working hours. An increase in male presentations involving self-cutting was observed on public holidays and there was an over-representation of males presenting for the first time. It is likely that extent of alcohol involvement in self-harm presentations reported here is an underestimate, as it was dependent on the information being recorded by the attending clinician. Public holidays are associated with an elevated number of self-harm presentations to hospital, with presentations to hospital involving alcohol significantly increased on these days. Hospital resources should be targeted to address increases during public holidays, including during out-of-hours. Involvement of alcohol may delay delivery of care to these patients in emergency settings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Claude Louis Sommé was born in Paris in 1772. After surgical studies between 1790 and 1792, he successfully embraced a military career in the armies of Napoleon at different fronts and in several hospitals. In 1806 he submitted his doctoral thesis at the Special Medical School of Strasburg, Dissertation upon Pain. The same year he presented his dismissal from he imperial armies and became chief-surgeon at the St Elisabeth hospital of Antwerp where he stayed on duty until his death in 1855. Sommé wrote a lot of medical books: surgical, anatomical and physiological. After the battle of Waterloo one third of the injured soldiers were transferred to Antwerp and were attended in his department. He also played an important role as a professor at the Primary Medical School of Antwerp. Sommé also created the botanical garden of Antwerp, close to the hospital.
Cousineau, Michael R; Tranquada, Robert E
The Los Angeles County University of Southern California Medical Center will open soon, replacing the county's current 74-year-old facility with a modern, although smaller, facility. Los Angeles County has provided hospital care to the indigent since 1858, during which time, the operation of public hospitals has shifted from a state-mandated welfare responsibility to a preeminent part of the county's public health mission. As this shift occurred, the financing of Los Angeles County hospitals changed from primarily county support to state and federal government sources, particularly Medicaid. The success of the new hospital will depend on whether government leaders at all levels provide the reforms needed to help the county and its partners stabilize its funding base.
Cousineau, Michael R.; Tranquada, Robert E.
The Los Angeles County University of Southern California Medical Center will open soon, replacing the county’s current 74-year-old facility with a modern, although smaller, facility. Los Angeles County has provided hospital care to the indigent since 1858, during which time, the operation of public hospitals has shifted from a state-mandated welfare responsibility to a preeminent part of the county’s public health mission. As this shift occurred, the financing of Los Angeles County hospitals changed from primarily county support to state and federal government sources, particularly Medicaid. The success of the new hospital will depend on whether government leaders at all levels provide the reforms needed to help the county and its partners stabilize its funding base. PMID:17329642
Wang, Wenhua; Maitland, Elizabeth; Nicholas, Stephen; Loban, Ekaterina; Haggerty, Jeannie
In rural China, patients have free choice of health facilities for outpatient services. Comparison studies exploring the attributes of different health facilities can help identify optimal primary care service models. Using a representative sample of Chinese provinces, this study aimed to compare patients' rating of three primary care service models used by rural residents (public clinics, public hospitals and private clinics) on a range of health care attributes related to responsiveness. This was a secondary analysis using the household survey data from World Health Organization (WHO) Study on global AGEing and adult health (SAGE). Using a multistage cluster sampling strategy, eight provinces were selected and finally 3435 overall respondents reporting they had visited public clinics, public hospitals or private clinics during the last year, were included in our analysis. Five items were used to measure patient perceived quality in five domains including prompt attention, communication and autonomy, dignity and confidentiality. ANOVA and Turkey's post hoc tests were used to conduct comparative analysis of five domains. Separate multivariate linear regression models were estimated to examine the association of primary care service models with each domain after controlling for patient characteristics. The distribution of last health facilities visited was: 29.5% public clinics; 31.2% public hospitals and; 39.3% private clinics. Public clinics perform best in all five domains: prompt attention (4.15), dignity (4.17), communication (4.07), autonomy (4.05) and confidentiality (4.02). Public hospitals perform better than private clinics in dignity (4.03 vs 3.94), communication (3.97 vs 3.82), autonomy (3.92 vs 3.74) and confidentiality (3.94 vs 3.73), but equivalently in prompt attention (3.92 vs 3.93). Rural residents who are older, wealthier, and with higher self-rated health status have significantly higher patient perceived quality of care in all domains. Rural
In the French health system, social security is the same for both public and private hospitals regardless of their status. In terms of number of patients screened, diagnosed, or treated, independant medicine is the most important sector in the French oncology. The multitude of organizations representing private hospitals or independant oncologists, physicians, radiologists or pathologists have a common organization, the National Union for Private Hospital Oncology (UNHPC). It bases its action on two founding postulates to ensure the quality of the oncology practice : the medical and managerial cultures are complementary and should be articulated ; the quality of organizations is as important as professional competence.
Lyroudi, K; Glaveli, N; Koulakiotis, A; Angelidis, D
One of the most important and crucial issues for political and social reasons in Greece is the reorganization of the public sector health system--more precisely, the improvement of public hospital operations, both in terms of the resources they use and the quality and quantity of the services they provide. This study focuses on investigating the productivity performance of 10 clinics in a public hospital located in Thessaloniki. The methodology applied is the data envelopment analysis (DEA) to measure the Malmquist productivity index. The results indicated that the efficiency of the hospital clinics has improved. However, clinics' efficiency varies a lot from month to month. In a competitive environment, these differences need to be addressed, investigated and reduced in order to improve total efficiency.
Donnelly, J A
Marketing theory and practice has gained broad acceptance in the business world generally. Of recent years, particularly in the United States, there have been increasing moves to incorporate marketing activities into the management of hospitals. In Australia there appears little empirical evidence in the literature to suggest a similar progression. This paper seeks to examine some of the essential ideas contained within the marketing concept and to expose the applicability of marketing to the efficient management of public hospitals.
Birk, Hans O; Henriksen, Lars O
Parts of New Public Management-reforms of the public sector depend on introduction of market-like mechanisms to manage the sector, like free choice of hospital. However, patients may delegate the choice of hospital to agents like general practitioners (GPs). We have investigated which factors Danish GPs reported as decisive for their choice of hospital on behalf of patients, and their utilisation of formal and informal data sources when they chose a hospital on behalf of patients. Retrospective questionnaire study of all of the 474 GPs practising in three counties which constituted a single uptake area. Patients were free to choose a hospital in another county in the country. The GPs were asked about responsibility for choice of the latest three patients referred by the GP to hospital; which of 16 factors influenced the choice of hospital; which of 15 sources of information about clinical quality at various hospitals/departments were considered relevant, and how often were six sources of information about waiting time utilised. Fifty-one percent (240 GPs) filled in and returned the questionnaire. One hundred and eighty-three GPs (76%) reported that they perceived that they chose the hospital on behalf of the latest referred patient. Short distance to hospital was the most common reason for choice of hospital.The most frequently used source of information about quality at hospital departments was anecdotal reports from patients referred previously, and the most important source of information about waiting time was the hospitals' letters of confirmation of referrals. In an area with free choice of public hospital most GPs perceived that they chose the hospital on behalf of patients. Short distance to hospital was the factor which most often decided the GPs' choice of hospital on behalf of patients. GPs attached little weight to official information on quality and service (waiting time) at hospitals or departments, focusing instead on informal sources like feedback
Cortada, Aline Pinheiro dos Santos; da Silva, Telma Gomes; da Silva, André Campos; Golmia, Ricardo Prado; Guerra, Renata Leborato; Takemoto, Maíra Libertad Soligo; Monteiro, Roberta Dyonisio Canaveira; Scheinberg, Morton Aaron
Objective To compare therapy for prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism and costs related to hospitalization of patients undergoing total knee and hip replacement within the context of the Brazilian health system. Methods A retrospective study of patients undergoing arthroplasty in 2010 in a public hospital and two private hospitals in the state of São Paulo, conducted by means of medical record review. Costs were estimated based on the use of health care resources during hospitalization. A descriptive analysis was performed using frequency and mean (standard deviation) according to the type of care delivered (by public or private organization). Results A total of 215 patients were evaluated, and 56.3% were submitted to knee surgery and 43.7%, to hip replacement. Approximately 88% and 98% of patients from public and private health services, respectively, received some form of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis, and enoxaparin was the drug most widely used in both systems. The total cost of prophylaxis was R$ 1,873.01 (R$ 26.38 per patient) in the public service and R$ 21,559.73 (R$ 163.33 per patient) in the private service. For the individuals who presented with thromboembolism, the average cost of hospitalization was R$ 6,210.80 and R$ 43,792.59 per patient in public and private health services, respectively. Conclusion Thromboembolism prophylaxis in patients undergoing arthroplasty is most commonly used in the private health services than public organizations, despite its high costs in both services. The cost per patient with thrombosis during hospitalization was higher than the total cost of prophylaxis, suggesting that prevention is associated to better cost-benefit ratio. PMID:26313439
Cortada, Aline Pinheiro dos Santos; Silva, Telma Gomes da; Silva, André Campos da; Golmia, Ricardo Prado; Guerra, Renata Leborato; Takemoto, Maíra Libertad Soligo; Monteiro, Roberta Dyonisio Canaveira; Scheinberg, Morton Aaron
To compare therapy for prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism and costs related to hospitalization of patients undergoing total knee and hip replacement within the context of the Brazilian health system. A retrospective study of patients undergoing arthroplasty in 2010 in a public hospital and two private hospitals in the state of São Paulo, conducted by means of medical record review. Costs were estimated based on the use of health care resources during hospitalization. A descriptive analysis was performed using frequency and mean (standard deviation) according to the type of care delivered (by public or private organization). A total of 215 patients were evaluated, and 56.3% were submitted to knee surgery and 43.7%, to hip replacement. Approximately 88% and 98% of patients from public and private health services, respectively, received some form of venous thromboembolism prophylaxis, and enoxaparin was the drug most widely used in both systems. The total cost of prophylaxis was R$ 1,873.01 (R$ 26.38 per patient) in the public service and R$ 21,559.73 (R$ 163.33 per patient) in the private service. For the individuals who presented with thromboembolism, the average cost of hospitalization was R$ 6,210.80 and R$ 43,792.59 per patient in public and private health services, respectively. Thromboembolism prophylaxis in patients undergoing arthroplasty is most commonly used in the private health services than public organizations, despite its high costs in both services. The cost per patient with thrombosis during hospitalization was higher than the total cost of prophylaxis, suggesting that prevention is associated to better cost-benefit ratio.
Mays, Glen P.; Mamaril, Cezar B.
Objectives. We investigated changes in hospital participation in local public health systems and the delivery of public health activities over time and assessed the relationship between hospital participation and the scope of activities available in local public health systems. Methods. We used longitudinal observations from the National Longitudinal Survey of Public Health Systems to examine how hospital contributions to the delivery of core public health activities varied in 1998, 2006, and 2012. We then used multivariate regression to assess the relationship between the level of hospital contributions and the overall availability of public health activities in the system. Results. Hospital participation in public health activities increased from 37% in 1998 to 41% in 2006 and down to 39% in 2012. Regression results indicated a positive association between hospital participation in public health activities and the total availability of public health services in the systems. Conclusions. Hospital collaboration does play an important role in the overall availability of public health services in local public health systems. Efforts to increase hospital participation in public health may have a positive impact on the scope of services provided and population health in US communities. PMID:26066929
Hogg, Rachel A; Mays, Glen P; Mamaril, Cezar B
We investigated changes in hospital participation in local public health systems and the delivery of public health activities over time and assessed the relationship between hospital participation and the scope of activities available in local public health systems. We used longitudinal observations from the National Longitudinal Survey of Public Health Systems to examine how hospital contributions to the delivery of core public health activities varied in 1998, 2006, and 2012. We then used multivariate regression to assess the relationship between the level of hospital contributions and the overall availability of public health activities in the system. Hospital participation in public health activities increased from 37% in 1998 to 41% in 2006 and down to 39% in 2012. Regression results indicated a positive association between hospital participation in public health activities and the total availability of public health services in the systems. Hospital collaboration does play an important role in the overall availability of public health services in local public health systems. Efforts to increase hospital participation in public health may have a positive impact on the scope of services provided and population health in US communities.
Lewis, M A; Parker, C
User fees and other forms of copayment for health care are becoming of increasing interest to policymakers in developing countries. As indigenous populations continue to expand in response to current and historically high fertility, and government resources become constrained due to macroeconomic circumstances, publicly provided health care is being squeezed financially. Most developing countries have committed their governments to either providing for all health care or at least ensuring that all citizens have access to health care regardless of ability to pay. This has translated in most contexts into blanket coverage for the entire population financed and generally provided by the government. Recent periods of slow growth, high debt burdens and restricted spending on high recurrent cost sectors, such as health care under International Monetary Fund and other donor agreements have reduced many developing countries' budgets and often the real value of health expenditures. The costs of inputs (personnel, drugs and consumables), however, have not declined and quality or quantity have been necessarily reduced. At the same time, options for financial relief outside the tax system have become of increasing interest to financially constrained governments. User charges are straightforward, easily understood and can in theory be profitable in the short term. From a fairness perspective, they also charge those who actually use the health system. Their major drawback for policymakers is the potential for undermining equity in the health system.
Ward, Paul R; Rokkas, Philippa; Cenko, Clinton; Pulvirenti, Mariastella; Dean, Nicola; Carney, A Simon; Meyer, Samantha
Waiting times for hospital appointments, treatment and/or surgery have become a major political and health service problem, leading to national maximum waiting times and policies to reduce waiting times. Quantitative studies have documented waiting times for various types of surgery and longer waiting times in public vs private hospitals. However, very little qualitative research has explored patient experiences of waiting, how this compares between public and private hospitals, and the implications for trust in hospitals and healthcare professionals. The aim of this paper is to provide a deep understanding of the impact of waiting times on patient trust in public and private hospitals. A qualitative study in South Australia, including 36 in-depth interviews (18 from public and 18 from private hospitals). Data collection occurred in 2012-13, and data were analysed using pre-coding, followed by conceptual and theoretical categorisation. Participants differentiated between experiences of 'waiting for' (e.g. for specialist appointments and surgery) and 'waiting in' (e.g. in emergency departments and outpatient clinics) public and private hospitals. Whilst 'waiting for' public hospitals was longer than private hospitals, this was often justified and accepted by public patients (e.g. due to reduced government funding), therefore it did not lead to distrust of public hospitals. Private patients had shorter 'waiting for' hospital services, increasing their trust in private hospitals and distrust of public hospitals. Public patients also recounted many experiences of longer 'waiting in' public hospitals, leading to frustration and anxiety, although they rarely blamed or distrusted the doctors or nurses, instead blaming an underfunded system and over-worked staff. Doctors and nurses were seen to be doing their best, and therefore trustworthy. Although public patients experienced longer 'waiting for' and 'waiting in' public hospitals, it did not lead to widespread distrust
Riveros, Jorge; Berné, Carmen; Múgica, José M
Clients and providers of health care can have contrasting perceptions about the quality of service. Provider perceptions are mostly devoted to design and delivery of services while those of clients are focused in the attention received. To assess perceptions of health care providers and clients about client management and satisfaction with services provided. Two public hospitals were surveyed. A qualitative analysis was performed first, reviewing reports and patient data bases and through informal meetings with providers and clients. In a second phase, an enquiry with Likert type questions was devised and answered by a total of 377 providers and 400 clients from both hospitals. The median perception of clients about the quality of service was better than that of providers in both hospitals. The communication of hospitals with clients to offer timely information received a poor evaluation both from providers and clients. However the concern of hospitals about health care of the community was considered adequate. The degree of satisfaction with concrete issues such as information panels and physical infrastructure received similar evaluation both by providers and clients. This analysis can be useful for management decision making, identifying strengths and weaknesses of health care provided by these two public hospitals. This type of assessment can be replicated in other public and private health care facilities.
Koh, Thean Howe Bryan; Kong, Keng He; Low, Yin Peng
Background With increasing evidence to support its practice, acupuncture has been integrated within many hospitals around the world. The purpose of this study is to understand the factors affecting decision making of patients as they select acupuncture treatment for their medical conditions and symptoms within a public hospital. Methods A qualitative study consisting of in depth interviews with 14 patients was conducted. All patients attended an acupuncture clinic within a public hospital. Data collected was analysed via thematic analysis. Results Four main factor groups affecting decision making of patients were identified- factors affecting the level and value of patient-centric care, the confidence and trust patients place within the acupuncture service, the presence of collaborative efforts between acupuncturists and Western medicine practitioners, and the knowledge, culture and belief society has regarding the role of acupuncture and Western medicine. All participants interviewed had more than one factor group present as enablers toward their eventual selection of acupuncture for ailment management. It was also noted that although the majority of participants had sufficient knowledge regarding acupuncture, there were a select few who had misperceptions or no knowledge regarding certain aspects of acupuncture. Conclusions There may be certain patterns in the way patients choose to utilise acupuncture services in public hospitals. Further studies should also be carried out in other public hospitals to analyse the factor groups identified further. PMID:26697443
Goodrich, Kate; Krumholz, Harlan M; Conway, Patrick H; Lindenauer, Peter; Auerbach, Andrew D
The increase in hospitalist-provided inpatient care may be accompanied by an expectation of improvement on patient outcomes. To date, the association between utilization of hospitalists and the publicly reported patient outcomes is unknown. Assess the relationship between hospitalist utilization and performance on 6 publicly reported patient outcomes. Cross-sectional study. Representatives of 598 hospitals in the United States with direct knowledge of inpatient service models. Survey of hospital personnel with knowledge of hospitalist use and hospitalist programs. Six publicly reported quality outcome measures across 3 medical conditions: acute myocardial infarction (AMI), congestive heart failure (HF), and pneumonia. Using multivariable regression models, we assessed the relationship between presence of hospitalists and performance on each outcome measure; we further assessed the relationship between the percentage of patients admitted by hospitalists and each outcome measure. Of 598 respondents, 429 (72%) reported the use of hospitalist services. In the comparison of hospitals with and without hospitalists, there was no statistically significant difference on any of the mortality or readmissions measures with the exception of the risk-stratified readmission rate for heart failure. For hospitals that used hospitalists, there was no significant change in any of the outcome measures with increasing percentage of patients admitted by hospitalists. The presence of hospitalists is not an independent predictor of performance on publicly reported mortality and readmissions measures for AMI, HF, or pneumonia. It is likely that broader system or organizational interventions are required to improve performance on patient outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Society of Hospital Medicine.
Scutchfield, F Douglas; Prybil, Lawrence; Kelly, Ann V; Mays, Glen P
Recent changes in policymaking, such as the passage of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, have ushered in a new era in community health partnerships. To investigate characteristics of effective collaboration between hospitals, their parent systems, and the public health community, with the support of major hospital, medical, and public health associations, we compiled a list of 157 successful partnerships. This set was subsequently narrowed to 12 successful and diverse partnerships. After conducting site visits in each of the partnerships' communities and interviews with key partnership participants, we extracted lessons about their success. The lessons we have learned from our investigation have the potential to assist others as they develop partnerships.
Hughes, K K; Marcantonio, R J
Despite the proliferation of home health agencies and increased numbers of nurses working in these settings, little is known about home health nurses or how they might differ from their public health and hospital counterparts. The authors discuss differences in monetary compensation and skill usage, as well as the relationship between compensation and retention, among hospital, home health, and public health staff nurses. The results show that these nurses receive different intrinsic and extrinsic rewards and that their reasons for remaining with their employers are similar, yet unique. Implications for nurse administrators and educators are discussed, along with recommendations for further research.
Rotberg, J; Forness, S R; Lynch, E W; Gardner, T P; Urbano, R; Bender, M
Since public schools are now mandated to provide a large and varied range of clinical services to handicapped school children, a survey was conducted of 26 interdisciplinary UAF clinics and hospitals in regard to the types of services which they offer to public school children and the extent in which coordination of such services has been developed. Results suggest that diagnosis of evaluation is the primary reason for referral but that a wide variety of community outreach services are both requested by the schools and offered by interdisciplinary hospital and clinic staff. These services are described and the implications for future interagency cooperation are discussed.
Zhang, Ju-Yang; Long, Ru-Yin; Yan, Hai; Yang, Qing; Yang, Bo
Purpose: Since the beginning of the new health care reform in 2009, the state has illustrated the top design and health care improvement strategy of "encouraging social capital to participate in the reform of public hospitals", in accordance with the program's general objective. All areas have been explored on this matter and the results obtained are very interesting, not to mention the acquisition of significant experience. At present, the existing business models in China are mainly the following: Rebuild-Operate-Transfer (ROT), franchise business model, Build-Own-Operate-Transfer (BOOT) model, mixed ownership model and business insurance model. This paper introduces a variety of alternative models, and provides a simple analysis of the advantages and disadvantages. Moreover, for the reform of public hospitals, the government shares should go into franchise mode or mixed ownership, and all property rights should be transferred to the government to ensure the conservation and proliferation of state-owned assets.
Lelièvre, Joachim; Lebel, Denis; Prot-Labarthe, Sonia
Objective To describe publications by hospital pharmacists in France and Quebec and evaluate factors predictive of publication productivity. Method Variables related to scientific publication productivity were identified through a search of the literature and organized into 4 themes (ie, personal and professional characteristics, hospital activities, research and publishing activities, publication-related motivations and perceptions). A questionnaire was developed that included short-answer items and 58 multiple-choice questions to determine respondents' level of agreement with statements about their motivations and perceptions surrounding publishing. Results Four hundred twenty-two hospital pharmacists (218 respondents from France and 204 from Quebec) were recruited. Respondents from France were more prolific than those from Quebec, even when considering factors such as time worked and gender. Furthermore, the percentage of respondents working in a university health center was lower in France than Quebec (46% vs. 70%, p = 0.001), as was the percentage of respondents indicating a mastery of English (43% vs. 88%, p = 0.001). Conclusion Seven factors were predictive of the number of publications per respondent in France and Quebec: practicing hospital pharmacy in France, being male, having academic duties or a PhD, having participated in a clinical trial, having secured funding in one's own name for a research project, and allocating a greater number of hours per week to research. PMID:21451771
Proficiency Program for Real-Time PCR Diagnosis of Bordetella pertussis Infections in French Hospital Laboratories and at the French National Reference Center for Whooping Cough and other Bordetelloses▿ †
Caro, Valérie; Guiso, Nicole; Alberti, Corinne; Liguori, Sandrine; Burucoa, Christophe; Couetdic, Gérard; Doucet-Populaire, Florence; Ferroni, Agnès; Papin-Gibaud, Sophie; Grattard, Florence; Réglier-Poupet, Hélène; Raymond, Josette; Soler, Catherine; Bouchet, Sylvie; Charreau, Sandrine; Couzon, Brigitte; Leymarie, Isabelle; Tavares, Nicole; Choux, Mathilde; Bingen, Edouard; Bonacorsi, Stéphane
With the support of a ministerial program for innovative and expensive technologies, dedicated to the economic evaluation of laboratory diagnosis of pertussis by real-time PCR, external quality assessment for real-time IS481 PCR was carried out. Coordinated by the National Centre of Reference of Pertussis and other Bordetelloses (NCR), this study aimed to harmonize and to assess the performances of eight participating microbiology hospital laboratories throughout the French territory. Between January 2006 and February 2007, 10 proficiency panels were sent by the NCR (ascending proficiency program), representing a total of 49 samples and including eight panels to analyze and evaluate the global sensitivity and specificity of real-time PCR, one to assess the limit of detection, and one to evaluate nucleic acid extraction methods. As part of the descending proficiency program, extracted DNA from clinical samples was sent by the eight participating laboratories in different panels and analyzed by the NCR. In the ascending proficiency analysis, the sensitivity and specificity of the real-time PCR methods were 92.2% and 94.3%, respectively. The limit of detection of the different methods ranged between 0.1 and 1 fg/μl (0.2 to 2 CFU/μl). The nucleic acid extraction methods showed similar performances. During the descending proficiency analysis, performed with 126 samples, the result of the NCR for 15 samples (11.9%) was discordant with the result obtained by the source laboratory. Despite several initial differences, harmonization was easy and performances were homogeneous. However, the risk of false-positive results remains quite high, and we strongly recommend establishment of uniform quality control procedures performed regularly. PMID:19692562
Proficiency program for real-time PCR diagnosis of Bordetella pertussis infections in French hospital laboratories and at the French National Reference Center for Whooping Cough and other Bordetelloses.
Caro, Valérie; Guiso, Nicole; Alberti, Corinne; Liguori, Sandrine; Burucoa, Christophe; Couetdic, Gérard; Doucet-Populaire, Florence; Ferroni, Agnès; Papin-Gibaud, Sophie; Grattard, Florence; Réglier-Poupet, Hélène; Raymond, Josette; Soler, Catherine; Bouchet, Sylvie; Charreau, Sandrine; Couzon, Brigitte; Leymarie, Isabelle; Tavares, Nicole; Choux, Mathilde; Bingen, Edouard; Bonacorsi, Stéphane
With the support of a ministerial program for innovative and expensive technologies, dedicated to the economic evaluation of laboratory diagnosis of pertussis by real-time PCR, external quality assessment for real-time IS481 PCR was carried out. Coordinated by the National Centre of Reference of Pertussis and other Bordetelloses (NCR), this study aimed to harmonize and to assess the performances of eight participating microbiology hospital laboratories throughout the French territory. Between January 2006 and February 2007, 10 proficiency panels were sent by the NCR (ascending proficiency program), representing a total of 49 samples and including eight panels to analyze and evaluate the global sensitivity and specificity of real-time PCR, one to assess the limit of detection, and one to evaluate nucleic acid extraction methods. As part of the descending proficiency program, extracted DNA from clinical samples was sent by the eight participating laboratories in different panels and analyzed by the NCR. In the ascending proficiency analysis, the sensitivity and specificity of the real-time PCR methods were 92.2% and 94.3%, respectively. The limit of detection of the different methods ranged between 0.1 and 1 fg/microl (0.2 to 2 CFU/microl). The nucleic acid extraction methods showed similar performances. During the descending proficiency analysis, performed with 126 samples, the result of the NCR for 15 samples (11.9%) was discordant with the result obtained by the source laboratory. Despite several initial differences, harmonization was easy and performances were homogeneous. However, the risk of false-positive results remains quite high, and we strongly recommend establishment of uniform quality control procedures performed regularly.
The use of authentic materials for an advanced French course for students of journalism and communication has the drawback that authentic French sources assume a regular, informed readership sharing the same culture and history. A solution found at Ohio University is to use a publication that bridges the two cultures, such as the "Journal…
Goff, Sarah L.; Lagu, Tara; Pekow, Penelope S.; Hannon, Nicholas S.; Hinchey, Kristen L.; Jackowitz, Talia A.; Tolosky, Patrick J.; Lindenauer, Peter K.
Article-at-a-Glance Background Hospital leaders play an important role in the success of quality improvement (QI) initiatives, yet little is known about how leaders engaged in QI currently view quality performance measures. In a follow-up to a quantitative study conducted in 2012, a study employing qualitative content analysis was conducted to (1) describe leaders’ opinions about the quality measures reported on the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) Hospital Compare website, (2) to generate hypotheses about barriers/facilitators to improving hospitals’ performance, and (3) to elicit recommendations about how to improve publicly reported quality measures. Methods The opinions of leaders from a stratified sample of 630 hospitals across the United States regarding quality measures were assessed with an open-ended prompt that was part of a 21-item questionnaire about quality measures publicly reported by CMS. Their responses were qualitatively analyzed in an iterative process, resulting in the identification of the presence and frequency of major themes and subthemes. Results Participants from 131 (21%) of the 630 hospitals surveyed replied to the open-ended prompt; 15% were from hospitals with higher-than-average performance scores, and 52% were from hospitals with lower-than-average scores. Major themes included (1) concerns regarding quality measurement (measure validity, importance, and fairness) and/ or public reporting; 76%); (2) positive views of quality measurement (stimulate improvement, focus efforts; 13%); and (3) recommendations for improving quality measurement. Conclusions Among hospital leaders responding to an open-ended survey prompt, some supported the concept of measuring quality, but the majority criticized the validity and utility of current quality measures. Although quality measures are frequently being reevaluated and new measures developed, the ability of such measures to stimulate improvement may be limited without greater buy
Micallef, Christianne; Kildonaviciute, Kornelija; Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Scibor-Stepien, Aleksandra; Santos, Reem; Aliyu, Sani H; Cooke, Fiona J; Pacey, Sarah; Holmes, Alison H; Enoch, David A
The rising global tide of antimicrobial resistance is a well-described phenomenon. Employing effective and innovative antimicrobial stewardship strategies is an essential approach to combat this public health threat. Education of the public and patients is paramount to enable the success of such strategies. A panel of hospital multidisciplinary healthcare professionals was set up and a short quiz containing true/false statements around antimicrobial stewardship and resistance was designed and piloted. An educational leaflet with the correct replies and supporting information was also produced and disseminated. Participants were recruited on a single day (18 November 2015) from the hospital outpatient clinics and the hospital outpatient pharmacy waiting room. One hundred and forty-five completed quizzes were returned, providing a total of 1450 answers. Overall, 934 of 1450 (64%) statements were scored correctly whilst 481 (33%) were scored incorrectly; 35 (3%) statements were left unscored. We speculate that these results may demonstrate that respondents understood the statements, as only a small proportion of statements were left unanswered. The question dealing with the definition of antimicrobial resistance and the question dealing with the definition of antimicrobial stewardship obtained the most incorrect replies (85% and 72%, respectively). However, a specific factual recall question regarding only one microorganism (MRSA) received the most correct responses (99%). We describe a simple, innovative method of engagement with patients and the general public to help educate and disseminate important public health messages around antimicrobial resistance and stewardship. We also identified the need for public health campaigns to address the knowledge gaps found around this topic. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Ahmadi, Hossein; Nilashi, Mehrbakhsh; Ibrahim, Othman
This study mainly integrates the mature Technology-Organization-Environment (TOE) framework and recently developed Human-Organization-Technology (HOT) fit model to identify factors that affect the hospital decision in adopting Hospital Information System (HIS). Accordingly, a hybrid Multi-Criteria-Decision-Making (MCDM) model is used to address the dependence relationships of factors with the aid of Analytic Network Processes (ANP) and Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) approaches. The initial model of the study is designed by considering four main dimensions with 13 variables as organizational innovation adoption factors with respect to HIS. By using DEMATEL, the interdependencies strength among the dimensions and variables are tested. The ANP method is then adopted in order to determine the relative importance of the adoption factors, and is used to identify how these factors are weighted and prioritized by the public hospital professionals, who are wholly familiar with the HIS and have years of experience in decision making in hospitals' Information System (IS) department. The results of this study indicate that from the experts' viewpoint "Perceived Technical Competence" is the most important factor in the Human dimension. In the Technology dimension, the experts agree that the "Relative Advantage" is more important in relation to the other factors. In the Organization dimension, "Hospital Size" is considered more important rather than others. And, in the Environment dimension, according to the experts judgment, "Government Policy" is the most important factor. The results of ANP survey from experts also reveal that the experts in the HIS field believed that these factors should not be overlooked by managers of hospitals and the adoption of HIS is more related to more consideration of these factors. In addition, from the results, it is found that the experts are more concerned about Environment and Technology for the adoption HIS. The
Tsirona, Christina; Siskou, Olga; Galanis, Peter; Kaitelidou, Daphne; Tsavalias, Konstantinos; Ragkousi, Argyro; Semertziadi, Maria; Anagnostopoulou, Ioanna; Vafiadis, John; Liaropoulos, Lycourgos
This paper describes a study aiming to investigate the opinions of administrative personnel concerning the effectiveness of a cost sharing mechanism (of euro 5/visit) at public hospitals' outpatient departments. Data was derived through a structured questionnaire (developed by the researchers) which appealed to 112 administrative directors of public hospitals. Results highlighted a positive attitude concerning the function of the cost - sharing mechanism at public hospitals, a rather fair measure for the users (vulnerable groups are excluded) which probably is enhancing the monetary flow in public hospitals.
Charney, Rachel L; Rebmann, Terri; Dalawari, Preeti; Endrizal, Amy
Hospitals are perceived as stable sources of support and assistance for the community during disasters. Expectations may outstrip hospital plans or ability to provide for the public. The purpose of this project was to explore racial disparities found in prior research and general perceptions related to the public's expectations of hospitals during disasters. Qualitative interviews were conducted with members of the general public. Content analysis was used to analyze the data and identify themes that describe racial differences related to public expectations of hospitals. A total of 28 interviews were conducted. Half of the participants (n = 14) were black, 57% (n = 16) female, with a mean age of 49 years. No racial differences in terms of the general public's expectations of hospitals were identified. Participants believed that hospitals have a service role and responsibility during disaster response to provide both tangible and intangible supplies and resources to the uninjured public. Hospitals were perceived as able to provide these resources, in terms of having sufficient funds and supplies to share with the uninjured public. In addition, hospitals are perceived as being caring organizations that have compassion toward the public and thus as welcoming places to seek assistance following a disaster. Hospitals need to be prepared to manage the general public's expectations both before and during disasters.
Salge, Torsten Oliver; Vera, Antonio
Hospitals around the world dedicate increasing attention and resources to innovation. However, surprisingly little is known about the nature of hospital innovativeness and its relationship with organizational performance. Given both the specific characteristics of the hospital sector and the rather mixed evidence from other industries, a positive innovation-performance link should not be taken for granted but requires empirical examination. The purposes of this study were to introduce a perspective of hospitals as vital generators of innovation, to unpack the concept of innovativeness, to propose a measurement model for hospital innovativeness, and to empirically investigate the innovativeness-performance relationship. We conducted a large-scale empirical study among the entire population of public hospital organizations that are part of the English National Health Service (n = 173) and analyzed the data using exploratory factor and regression analyses. Our analyses suggest a significant positive relationship between science- and practice-based innovativeness and clinical performance but provide less unambiguous support for the existence of such a relationship between innovativeness and administrative performance. In particular, we find that higher levels of innovativeness are rather associated with superior quality of care than with measurable bottom-line financial benefits. Hospitals investing in innovation-generating activities might find their efforts well rewarded in terms of tangible clinical performance improvements. However, to achieve measurable financial benefits, numerous hospitals have yet to discover and capture the commercial value of some of their innovations-a challenging task that requires a holistic innovation management and an effective network of complementary partners.
Carneiro Junior, Nivaldo; Elias, Paulo Eduardo
To analyze social health organizations in the light of public control and the guarantee of equity of access to health services. Utilizing the case study technique, two social health organizations in the metropolitan region of São Paulo were selected. The analytical categories were equity of access and public control, and these were based on interviews with key informants and technical-administrative reports. It was observed that the overall funding and administrative control of the social health organizations are functions of the state administrator. The presence of a local administrator is important for ensuring equity of access. Public control is expressed through supervisory actions, by means of accounting and financial procedures. Equity of access and public control are not taken into consideration in the administration of these organizations. The central question lies in the capacity of the public authorities to have a presence in implementing this model at the local level, thereby ensuring equity of access and taking public control into consideration.
Gueret, Renaud M; Bailitz, John M; Sahni, Ashima S; Tulaimat, Aiman
Therapeutic hypothermia (TH) improves the outcome of comatose patients suffering an out-of-hospital sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) with shockable rhythm and return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). Evidence supporting its use in other circumstances is weak and the adoption of TH remains limited. Describe the development and implementation of a TH program at an urban public hospital and report outcomes of out-of-hospital and in-hospital SCA and important quality measures. The protocol was developed at 464-bed urban public hospital. We assembled historical and prospective samples of patients suffering an SCA. We measured the neurologic outcome of patients at the time of hospital discharge who underwent TH after SCA. We compared outcomes and important quality measures (duration of arrest, time to cooling, and time to target temperature) to existing literature. We determined reasons for not using TH in patients with in-hospital SCA. We described the development of our TH program and the challenges we faced implementing it. Of 45 patients treated with TH after SCA, 23 (51%) survived to discharge, 14 (31%) with good neurologic outcomes. In comparison to historical controls, TH did not improve outcome of in-hospital SCA. SCA from a shockable rhythm was associated with the best outcome. The time from return of spontaneous circulation to initiation of TH was consistently within 8 h. Despite logistical and financial constraints, we were able to rapidly implement a TH program with quality and outcomes similar to published data. TH did not improve outcomes for patients with an in-hospital SCA. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Zhou, Ping; Li, Minqi; Wei, Xuefeng; Zhu, Hongbo; Xue, Di
This study aimed to analyze the potential difference in patient safety climate by region (Shanghai vs Hubei Province vs Gansu Province) and general public hospital level (tertiary vs secondary) in China. Using a stratified sampling method, employees from 54 public general hospitals in Shanghai, Hubei Province, and Gansu Province in China were surveyed in 2015. The Patient Safety Climate in Health Care Organizations tool and the percentage of "problematic responses" (PPRs) were used to measure and analyze the patient safety climate. A χ test and hierarchical linear modeling were applied for the analysis. In the study, 4121 valid questionnaires were collected. The psychometric analysis supported the validity and reliability of our Chinese version of the Patient Safety Climate in Health Care Organizations. The overall patient safety climate was relatively good and exhibited no significant differences among the surveyed hospitals by various regions (Shanghai vs Hubei Province vs Gansu Province) and diverse hospital levels (tertiary vs secondary) using hierarchical linear models. "Fear of blame and punishment" and "fear of shame" had the highest PPRs and were prevalent in various types of hospitals. "Provision of safe care" and "organizational resources for safety" also had notably high PPRs. There were 4 dimensions varied by region and hospital level in this survey. Fear of shame and fear of blame are the most important barriers to the improvement of patient safety in the hospitals of China. Facility characteristics contributed somewhat to hospital patient safety climate in some dimensions. The initiatives to improve hospital patient safety climate are necessary and its implementation strategies needs to be shared.
Hider, Phil; Parker, Karl; von Randow, Martin; Milne, Barry; Lay-Yee, Roy; Davis, Peter
Increasing interest has focused on the safety of hospital care. The AusPSIs are a set of indicators developed from Australian administrative data to reliably identify inpatient adverse events in hospitals. The main aim of this study was to explore the application of the AHRQ/AusPSIs to New Zealand administrative hospital data related to medical and surgical care. Variation over time and across hospitals were also considered for a subset of the more common indicators. AHRQ/AusPSIs were adapted for use with New Zealand National Minimum Dataset administrative data for the period 2001-9. Crude positive event rates for each of the 16 indicators were assessed across New Zealand public hospitals. Variation over time for six more common indicators is presented using statistical control charts. Variation between hospitals was explored using rates adjusted for differences in patient variables including age, sex, ethnicity, rurality of residence, NZDep score and comorbidities. The AHRQ/AusPSIs were applied to New Zealand administrative hospital data and some 99,366 admissions were associated with a positive indicator event. However rates for some indicators were low (<1% of denominator admissions). Over the study period considerable variation in the rate of positive events was evident for the six most common indicators. Likewise there was substantial variation between hospitals in relation to risk adjusted positive event rates Patient safety indicators can be applied to New Zealand administrative hospital data. While infrequent rates hinder the use of some of the indicators, several could now be readily employed as warning flags to help monitor rates of adverse events at particular hospitals. In conjunction with other established or emerging tools, such as audit and trigger tools, the PSIs are now available to promote ongoing quality improvement activities in New Zealand hospitals.
Bindman, A B; Keane, D; Lurie, N
We studied the impact of the closing of a public hospital on patients' access to care and health status. We surveyed individuals who had been medical inpatients at Shasta General Hospital, Redding, Calif, in the year prior to its closing and compared them with those in a second county, San Luis Obispo, whose public hospital did not close. Surveys were administered after the closing of Shasta General Hospital and 1 year later. We assessed outcomes using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form and a series of transition questions that asked about changes in health over time. Data were available for 88% of patients at 1 year: 219 from Shasta County and 195 from San Luis Obispo County. At follow-up, the percentage of patients from Shasta County who reported no regular provider increased from 14.0 to 27.7 and the percentage who reported they were denied care rose from 10.8 to 16.9. Meanwhile, patients in San Luis Obispo County reported improved access to a regular provider and the level of denied care was unchanged. Patients in Shasta County had significant declines on the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form in health perception, social and role function, and increases in pain as compared with those patients in San Luis Obispo County. The closing of a public hospital had a significant effect on access to health care and was associated with a decline in health status.
Coutant, Isabelle; Eideliman, Jean-Sébastien
Working-class adolescents of French urban peripheries are key figures in a new social debate that reactivates the nineteenth century spectre of 'dangerous' classes to be controlled. Since the 1990s, French social counselling has privileged two modalities of response: taking account of suffering and government by listening and speech. We hypothesize that the contemporary moral economy allows for social interactions that go beyond social control and institutional domination. This is partly because professionals engaged in this moral undertaking may keep a critical distance, and partly because the concerned populations aren't necessarily devoid of resources to advance their interests or incapable of resistance. The concept of moral economy, coupled with the ethnographic method, is heuristic for fully comprehending the complexity of these issues and their stakes. Our fieldwork was centred on a French Adolescent Centre in an impoverished commune in Paris's periphery, from January 2010 through March 2011. These institutions were established in the early 2000s to respond to adolescent 'suffering' by crossing social work and psychiatry. Adolescents, parents, and other institutions (especially schools) solicit the professionally diverse staff for assistance, which in turn may take on cases and/or make referrals to other support institutions. By paying attention to all the scenes upon which the story of a counselled adolescent evolves, and bearing more general social evolutions in mind by applying the concept of moral economy, we can consider the multiplicity of seemingly contradictory processes as a whole. We see the destabilization of parents and their loss of symbolic capital, partly due to the norms of contemporary parenthood and partly due to the stigmatization of working-class adolescence. But we also discern possibilities for expressing sentiments of injustice and humiliation, for increasing symbolic capital, and in some cases a reappropriation of the system
Pomey, M-P; François, P; Contandriopoulos, A-P; Tosh, A; Bertrand, D
The accreditation system introduced into the French healthcare system in 1996 has five particular characteristics: (1) it is mandatory for all healthcare establishments; (2) it is performed by an independent government agency; (3) surveyors have to report all instances of non-compliance with safety regulations; (4) the accreditation report is delivered to regional administrative authorities and a summary is made available to the public; and (5) regional administrative authorities can use the information contained in the accreditation report to revise hospital budgets. These give rise to a number of paradoxes: (1) the fact that accreditation is mandatory lends itself to ambiguity and likens the process to an inspection; (2) the fact that decision makers can use the information contained in the accreditation report for resource allocation can incite establishments to adopt strategic behaviours aimed merely at complying with the accreditation manual; and (3) there is a tendency for establishments to reduce quality processes to nothing more than the completion of accreditation and to focus efforts on standardizing practices and resolving safety issues to the detriment of organizational development. All accreditation systems must be aware of these paradoxes and decide on the level of government involvement and the relationship between accreditation and resource allocation. With time, accreditation in France could benefit from both a professionally driven system and from the increased amount of freedom to focus on quality improvement which is necessary for organizational development.
Pomey, M; Francois, P; Contandriopoulos, A; Tosh, A; Bertrand, D
The accreditation system introduced into the French healthcare system in 1996 has five particular characteristics: (1) it is mandatory for all healthcare establishments; (2) it is performed by an independent government agency; (3) surveyors have to report all instances of non-compliance with safety regulations; (4) the accreditation report is delivered to regional administrative authorities and a summary is made available to the public; and (5) regional administrative authorities can use the information contained in the accreditation report to revise hospital budgets. These give rise to a number of paradoxes: (1) the fact that accreditation is mandatory lends itself to ambiguity and likens the process to an inspection; (2) the fact that decision makers can use the information contained in the accreditation report for resource allocation can incite establishments to adopt strategic behaviours aimed merely at complying with the accreditation manual; and (3) there is a tendency for establishments to reduce quality processes to nothing more than the completion of accreditation and to focus efforts on standardizing practices and resolving safety issues to the detriment of organizational development. All accreditation systems must be aware of these paradoxes and decide on the level of government involvement and the relationship between accreditation and resource allocation. With time, accreditation in France could benefit from both a professionally driven system and from the increased amount of freedom to focus on quality improvement which is necessary for organizational development. PMID:15692004
Contributions (in 2005) of marine and fresh water products (finfish and shellfish, seafood, wild and farmed) to the French dietary intakes of vitamins D and B12, selenium, iodine and docosahexaenoic acid: impact on public health.
Bourre, Jean-Marie Edouard; Paquotte, Philippe Marc
To assess the contributions of seafood (finfish and shellfish, wild and farmed, freshwater and marine) to the French recommended daily intakes of dietary elements that are particularly abundant in these foods. We first calculated the concentrations of each of these elements by critical analysis of a large body of published data. We then determined the consumption of seafood in France (in 2005) using a modified version of the method of measuring dietary intake defined by the FAO. The percentages of the French recommended daily intakes obtained from seafood species are: 44% for vitamin D, 65% for vitamin B12, 24% for selenium, 21% for iodine and 156% for an omega-3 fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (159% referring to the French AFSSA seafood data). French people must increase their seafood consumption to counteract disorders arising due to the demonstrated low concentrations of these nutrients in their usual diets; this could help overcome a potentially major public health problem.
Vergeire-Dalmacion, Godofreda Ruiz; Itable, Jill Rafols; Baja, Emmanuel Saporna
Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, especially in developing countries. However, limited information is available about the risk of HAIs in naturally ventilated wards (NVWs) and mechanically ventilated intensive care units (MVICUs) of public hospitals in the Philippines. We aimed to assess the association between HAIs and type of ventilation in an urban tertiary care hospital in the Philippines. A cross-sectional point-prevalence survey of infections was done in NVWs and MVICUs of a tertiary care hospital in December 2013. Multivariate analyses were done to examine the associations between HAIs and type of ventilation and other risk factors. Of the 224 patients surveyed, 63 (28%) patients had 69 HAIs. Pneumonia was the most common HAI (35%). Wards near areas with high vehicular activity had more respiratory HAI cases. Being immunocompromised is a risk factor for HAI for pediatric and adult patients. Among pediatric patients, staying in MVICUs had a lower risk for HAIs (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.33; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.10-1.08) compared to staying in NVWs. For adult patients, a higher risk for HAIs (AOR: 2.41; 95% CI: 0.29-18.20) was observed in MVICUs compared to NVWs. Type of ventilation is not a risk factor for HAIs. Patients who are immunocompromised may be at a higher risk for HAI. Indoor air pollution, proximity to congested main thoroughfare, and increased human foot traffic may contribute to the susceptibility of patients to HAIs. Hospital layout should be considered in infection control.
Monteiro, Inês; Chillida, Manuela de Santana Pi; Moreno, Luciana Contrera
Nursing personnel is essential in hospital, health centers and enterprises and is the large work force in health system. A cross-sectional study was conducted in a large city in two public hospitals and five health centre with the objective of to evaluate the work ability and health aspects of nursing staff. The sample was composed by 570 workers. The Work Ability Index - WAI and a questionnaire with socio-demographic, health and life style data was applied. The majority of workers was women (83%), married (50.4%), and was working in night shift work (65.6%); 61.4% was auxiliary nursing, 22.3% was registered nurses (RN). The average age was 38.9 years (SD 7.8) and the Body Mass Index mean was 25.8 (SD 5.3). Only 17.2% referred to practice at least 150 minutes of physical exercise five times per week or more. 26.8% had a second job. The work ability mean was 39.3 (SD 5.3) points. Age had a negative correlation with WAI (p=0.0052). Public hospital and health centre workers had poor work ability score when compared with workers from another branches. Public policies related to workplace health promotion need to be implemented in public hospital and health centre to improve the work ability.
Braithwaite, J; Westbrook, J; Coiera, E; Runciman, W B; Day, R; Hillman, K; Herkes, J
Many types of organisation are difficult to change, mainly due to structural, cultural and contextual barriers. Change in public hospitals is arguably even more problematic than in other types of hospitals, due to features such as structural dysfunctionalities and bureaucracy stemming from being publicly-run institutions. The main goals of this commentary are to bring into focus and highlight the "3 + 3 Decision Framework" proposed by Edwards and Saltman. This aims to help guide policymakers and managers implementing productive change in public hospitals. However, while change from the top is popular, there are powerful front-line clinicians, especially doctors, who can act to counterbalance top-down efforts. Front-line clinicians have cultural characteristics and power that allows them to influence or reject managerial decisions. Clinicians in various lower-level roles can also influence other clinicians to resist or ignore management requirements. The context is further complicated by multi-stakeholder agendas, differing goals, and accumulated inertia. The special status of clinicians, along with other system features of public hospitals, should be factored into efforts to realise major system improvements and progressive change.
Zhang, Yuting; Ma, Qianheng; Chen, Yingchun; Gao, Hongxia
Public hospital reform is one priority area in the healthcare system reform that China launched in 2009. The Chinese government invested over $10bn for pilot projects in public hospital reform in rural China. However, little evidence exists on their effects. Using a quasi-natural experiment design, we evaluated the effects of a public hospital pilot project in Hubei province on inpatient spending. We obtained inpatient claims data from 1/1/2011 through 6/30/2013 for enrollees in the New Cooperative Medical Scheme in two counties: Danjiangkou, one of the pilot counties selected for reform in September 2012, and Laohekou, a similar, adjacent county serving as the control group. Using a difference-in-differences approach with propensity score weighting, we found that total inpatient spending increased ¥1160 (95% CI 1155-1166), out-of-pocket spending increased ¥385 (95% CI 382-389), length of stay increased 0.51 days (95% CI 0.50-0.52), but inpatient medication spending decreased ¥147 (95% CI 145-150), post-policy in Danjiangkou, relative to the control group. The overall reimbursement rate increased by 5.7 percentage points. One of the goals of the recent public hospital reform is to make inpatient services affordable to patients. We found that although patients spent less on inpatient medications, total out-of-pocket spending increased considerably after reform. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Thompson, Ceri R; McKee, Martin
While much has been written about health care financing in Europe in recent years, discussion has almost entirely focused on revenue. In contrast, there has been remarkably little written on financing of capital investment in European health care systems. Yet major changes are underway in several countries, in particular involving new forms of public-private partnerships (PPP). At the same time, there is growing recognition of the way in which the inherited structure of the health care delivery system constrains the system's ability to adapt to changing circumstances. This paper reports the results of a survey undertaken among key informants in the member states of the European Union to begin to ascertain existing practices and future plans in relation to hospital planning and financing amongst public and private not-for-profit hospitals. The locus of hospital planning decisions reflect the constitutional framework of the country involved, and thus the emphasis on national or local plans. There has been an expansion of private sector involvement, with four basic models identified: private loans direct to the hospital; private loans to a regional health body; a PPP where the private sector's role is to build, design and operate the non-clinical functions of the hospital; and, finally, a PPP, where the private sector's involvement also includes management of the clinical functions of the hospital. It is too early to say whether these approaches will be more successful than the models they are replacing.
Juwaheer, Thanika Devi; Kassean, H
Patient care has become increasingly important in the health care environment of Mauritius. Patients' satisfaction and their expectations of health care are valid indicators of quality health care. The present paper reports the results of a survey of patient satisfaction with heath care, administered by face-to-face interview to 300 in-patient adults discharged from five main regional hospitals based in Mauritius. It examines the predictors and level of patients' satisfaction across the five regional hospitals of Mauritius. In this study, a modified version of HEALTHQUAL scale was used for determining patient satisfaction with health care in the regional public hospitals. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to understand the relationships among patients' perceptions of in-patient services and their overall perceptions of health care quality, and also satisfaction with their care and willingness to return or recommend the same hospital's services to others. The dimensions labelled as "Patients' perceptions of ward/hospital environment" and "Patients' perceptions of medical and nursing staff" served a significant impact on nearly all measures of patient satisfaction in the regional public hospitals of Mauritius.
Dearlove, J V; Bialous, S A; Glantz, S A
To describe how the tobacco industry used the "accommodation" message to mount an aggressive and effective worldwide campaign to recruit hospitality associations, such as restaurant associations, to serve as the tobacco industry's surrogate in fighting against smoke-free environments. We analysed tobacco industry documents publicly available on the internet as a result of litigation in the USA. Documents were accessed between January and November 2001. The tobacco industry, led by Philip Morris, made financial contributions to existing hospitality associations or, when it did not find an association willing to work for tobacco interests, created its own "association" in order to prevent the growth of smoke-free environments. The industry also used hospitality associations as a vehicle for programmes promoting "accommodation" of smokers and non-smokers, which ignore the health risks of second hand smoke for employees and patrons of hospitality venues. Through the myth of lost profits, the tobacco industry has fooled the hospitality industry into embracing expensive ventilation equipment, while in reality 100% smoke-free laws have been shown to have no effect on business revenues, or even to improve them. The tobacco industry has effectively turned the hospitality industry into its de facto lobbying arm on clean indoor air. Public health advocates need to understand that, with rare exceptions, when they talk to organised restaurant associations they are effectively talking to the tobacco industry and must act accordingly.
Davis, A; Kerr, C; Lloyd, P; Taylor, R; Waldby, C
Utilising intensive semi-structured interviews with health professionals working in public hospitals in Sydney, a comparison was made of the perceived similarities and differences in the medical and administrative management of patients who were covered by Medicare and those who were privately insured. Interviewees argued that there was evidence of preferential access to public hospital care for privately insured patients due to medical misrepresentation of the urgency of their cases. They reported that some medical and administrative practices existed which compromised the choice of admission as a Medicare patient for those with private insurance, and for those without private insurance who were referred to hospital by a specialist. It was suggested also by the interviewees that medical considerations encouraged continuity of specialist care for Medicare patients admitted to hospital when they were known to an attending specialist. Such an allegation places in some doubt the claim made by private insurers that choice of doctor is permitted only under their cover. Interviewees did not report knowledge of any form of compromise in the quality of hospital care on the basis of medical preference for private patients. However, it was reported that private patients may, in some instances, be denied a full range of hospital services due to doctors' attempts to monopolise their treatment.
Dearlove, J; Bialous, S; Glantz, S
Objective: To describe how the tobacco industry used the "accommodation" message to mount an aggressive and effective worldwide campaign to recruit hospitality associations, such as restaurant associations, to serve as the tobacco industry's surrogate in fighting against smoke-free environments. Methods: We analysed tobacco industry documents publicly available on the internet as a result of litigation in the USA. Documents were accessed between January and November 2001. Results: The tobacco industry, led by Philip Morris, made financial contributions to existing hospitality associations or, when it did not find an association willing to work for tobacco interests, created its own "association" in order to prevent the growth of smoke-free environments. The industry also used hospitality associations as a vehicle for programmes promoting "accommodation" of smokers and non-smokers, which ignore the health risks of second hand smoke for employees and patrons of hospitality venues. Conclusion: Through the myth of lost profits, the tobacco industry has fooled the hospitality industry into embracing expensive ventilation equipment, while in reality 100% smoke-free laws have been shown to have no effect on business revenues, or even to improve them. The tobacco industry has effectively turned the hospitality industry into its de facto lobbying arm on clean indoor air. Public health advocates need to understand that, with rare exceptions, when they talk to organised restaurant associations they are effectively talking to the tobacco industry and must act accordingly. PMID:12034999
Rannan-Eliya, Ravindra P; Wijemanne, Nilmini; Liyanage, Isurujith K; Dalpatadu, Shanti; de Alwis, Sanil; Amarasinghe, Sarasi; Shanthikumar, Shivanthan
To compare the quality of inpatient clinical care in public and private hospitals in Sri Lanka. A retrospective, cross-sectional comparison was done of inpatient quality, in a sample of 11 public and 10 private hospitals in three of 25 districts. Data were collected for 55 quality indicators from medical records of 2523 public and 1815 private inpatient admissions. These covered treatment of asthma, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), childbirth and five other conditions, along with outcome indicators, and medicine prescribing indicators. Overall quality scores were better in the public sector than the private sector (77 vs 69%). Performance was similar for management of AMI and childbirth and somewhat better in the private sector for management of asthma. The public sector performed better in those indicators that are not constrained by resources (94 vs 81%), but worse in indicators that are highly resource intensive (10 vs 31%). Quality was comparable in assessment and investigation, but the public sector performed better in treatment and management (70 vs 62%) and drug prescribing (68 vs 60%), and modestly worse in terms of outcomes (92 vs 97%). For a range of indicators where comparisons were possible, quality of inpatient clinical care in Sri Lanka was comparable to levels reported from upper-middle income Asian countries, and often approaches that in developed countries, although the findings cannot be generalized. Quality in the public sector is better than in the private sector in many areas, despite spending being substantially less. Quality in public hospitals is resource constrained, and needs greater government investment for improvement, but when resource limitations are not critical, the public sector appears able to deliver equal or better quality than the private sector. Overall similarities in quality between the two sectors suggest the importance of physician training and other factors. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The
Kauffmann-Lacroix, Catherine; Bousseau, Anne; Dalle, Frédéric; Brenier-Pinchart, Marie-Pierre; Delhaes, Laurence; Machouart, Marie; Gari-Toussaint, Martine; Datry, Annick; Lacroix, Claire; Hennequin, Christophe; Toubas, Dominique; Morin, Odile
The aims of this study were to assess the risk of fungal infections related to the water supply in several hospitals and to clarify the appropriate methodology in order to standardize the technical conditions of the controls and develop guidelines. It was conducted in 10 university hospital centers across the country from February 2004 through March 2005. A preliminary study allowed us to optimize the mycological analysis. The study was conducted under the same conditions as for bacteriological controls: water filtration through a cellulose acetate membrane cultured on agar. Departments with the highest patient risk were selected, including hematology, organ transplantation, and burn units. We selected 98 sites and sampled both water and water-related surfaces at each: three one-liter water samples (the first flow, cold and hot water) and two or three surface samples (inside the tap, pommel of the shower and siphon). At each site, a form was filled to specify its location in the unit, any water treatment (chlorine or other), filtering, and temperature. Water from taps equipped with sterilized filtration was sampled without the filter. There was a significant difference (p=0.039) in the number of positive cultures between the three types of water sampled: hot water (>50 degrees C) was colonized less often than first flow or cold water. Only 4% of the hot-water samples had positive cultures, compared to the 52% of the cold-water samples. Except in two hospitals with generalized contamination of the water pipes (one with Exophiala spp and the other with Fusarium spp), colonization was usually slight. Cold water was more colonized than hot water, but 79% of the samples yielded fewer than 5CFU/L. Dematiaceous hyphomycetes were isolated; Aspergillus spp were rare. The number of CFU in surface samples (that is, biofilms) was higher (mean=15 CFU per sample) but surfaces were positive less often than water (13% compared with 43% of all water samples). Sampling from siphons
Alonso, José M; Clifton, Judith; Díaz-Fuentes, Daniel
Madrid has recently become the site of one of the most controversial cases of public healthcare reform in the European Union. Despite the fact that the introduction of New Public Management (NPM) into Madrid hospitals has been vigorous, little scholarship has been done to test whether NPM actually led to technical efficiency. This paper is one of the first attempts to do so. We deploy a bootstrapped data envelopment analysis to compare efficiency scores in traditionally managed hospitals and those operating with new management formulas. We do not find evidence that NPM hospitals are more efficient than traditionally managed ones. Moreover, our results suggest that what actually matters may be the management itself, rather than the management model.
Crémieux, Pierre-Yves; Ouellette, Pierre; Rimbaud, François; Vigeant, Stéphane
This paper develops flexibility measures in the context of a multi-firm output based on a generalized average cost function. We then apply this methodology to assess and compare the relative flexibility of hospital services in Québec and California based on two very complete data sets. Results indicate that there is no clear distinction between private and public institutions and that there is no clear distinction between Québec and California hospitals. However, there are clear differences in flexibility among different outputs. This last result suggests that there are bottlenecks in the health care system and calls for a targeted approach on the part of hospital administrators, whether public or private, in Québec or California.
Bozaykut, Tuba; Gurbuz, F Gulruh
Given the salience of the interplay between trust and power relations in organizational settings, this paper examines the perceptions of social power and its effects on trust in supervisors within the context of public hospitals. Following the theoretical background from which the study model is developed, the recent situation of hospitals within Turkish healthcare system is discussed to further elucidate the working conditions of physicians. Sample data were collected employing a structured questionnaire that was distributed to physicians working at seven different public hospitals. The statistical analyses indicate that perceptions of supervisors' social power affect subordinates' trust in supervisors. Although coercive power is found to have the greatest impact on trust in supervisors, the influence of the power base is weak. In addition, the results show that perceptions of social power differ between genders. However, the results do not support any of the hypotheses regarding the relations between trust in supervisors and the examined demographic variables.
Onen, F; Abidi, H; Savoye, L; Elchardus, J M; Legrain, S; Courpron, P H
Emergency admissions of elderly patients constitute a major management issue due to the complexity of their problems. The aim of this retrospective observational study was to identify medical and social characteristics and crisis factors for emergency department (ED) hospitalization in elderly patients, and to evaluate the influence of these factors on the length of stay and outcome at discharge. During a 4-month period, 396 patients aged 70 years and older were referred to the ED of a University Hospital (Hĵpital Edouard Herriot) in Lyon, France. A questionnaire specifically designed for the study was completed for each patient using the information in the patients' files previously filled in by the "Rapid Geriatric Assessment Team" of the ED. We described civil and marital status, living conditions, reason for admission to ED and other associated pathologies according to the ICM-9, crisis factors, length of stay (LOS) and outcome at discharge. The mean age was 81.9 years (SD 6.5); two thirds (66.7%) of the study subjects were female, and 46.7% were widowed; the majority (68.7%) lived in their own homes. The main reasons for admission were cardiopulmonary diseases in 31.6% of cases, followed by neuropsychiatric disorders in 28.2%, and falls in 8.3%; a final category (31.8%) included subjects admitted for general, non-specific symptoms. Among the crisis factors observed, 49.4% presented an acute episode of a chronic illness, 33.6% lived alone, and 20.9% had been hospitalized during the 6-month period preceding the study. The average LOS was 3.15 days. The multivariate model showed that falls increase LOS by 74%, dementia by 65%, and depression by 21%. Upon discharge, 13% returned to their residence before hospitalization, 55% were transferred to a medical speciality ward, and 4% to other facilities, whereas only 19% were transferred to a geriatric ward, and 9% died during their stay in the ED. The multinomial model showed that outcome at discharge was influenced
Tadec, Laurent; Talarmin, Jean-Philippe; Gastinne, Thomas; Bretonnière, Cédric; Miegeville, Michel; Le Pape, Patrice; Morio, Florent
Candidemia remains a major cause of disease worldwide and is associated with a high mortality rate. We conducted a retrospective study of candidemia at Nantes Hospital, France, between 2004 and 2010. A total of 191 episodes (n = 188 patients) were reviewed. Incidence, demographics, risk factors, antifungal management, species identification, in vitro susceptibility and 12 weeks survival were analysed. Global incidence of candidemia was 0.37‰ admissions. Higher incidences were observed in haematology (6.65‰) and intensive care units (2‰). Central venous catheter and antibiotic exposure were the most frequent risk factors (77% and 76% respectively). Candida albicans was the predominant species (51.8%) followed by C. parapsilosis (14.5%), C. glabrata (9.8%), C. tropicalis (9.8%) and C. krusei (4.1%). However, species distribution differed significantly between medical units with frequency of C. tropicalis being higher in haematology compared to other medical units. Fluconazole and caspofungin were the main antifungals given as first-line therapy. Although not significant, 12 weeks mortality rate was 30.9%, being higher for C. tropicalis (44.4%) than for C. parapsilosis (16%). Acquired azole or echinocandin resistance was noted in some isolates, underlining the need for systematic antifungal susceptibility testing in patients with candidemia. These epidemiological findings will be of interest for antifungal stewardship at our hospital. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.
Bertrand, Xavier; Hocquet, D; Boisson, K; Siebor, E; Plésiat, P; Talon, D
We conducted a retrospective study to investigate the epidemiology of Enterobacteriaceae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBLE) in our hospital. We determined the occurrence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) in Enterobacteriaceae over a 2-year period. We also characterised ESBLs by isoelectric focusing (IEF) and investigated the epidemiological relatedness of EBLSE by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). During this period, 70 patients were colonised/infected with one or several strains of EBLSE, giving a crude incidence of 0.095 per 1000 patient-days. We found that ESBL-producing Enterobacter aerogenes were the main source of ESBLE dissemination. Indeed, 59.5% of ESBLE were E. aerogenes and 21.9% of the other ESBLE resulted from a plasmid transfer originating from E. aerogenes. IEF and PFGE analysis demonstrated that the dissemination of ESBL from E. aerogenes in our hospital was due to a single clone that always harbours TEM-24. This emphasises the importance of standard contact isolation precautions and the early detection of ESBLE-colonised patients in high risk departments like intensive care units.
Misek, Ryan K; Magda, Ashley D; Margaritis, Samantha; Long, Robert; Frost, Erik
Psychiatric patient boarding in the emergency department (ED) is a ubiquitous problem associated with increased morbidity and mortality. We evaluate the effect of closing a public psychiatric facility in a major metropolitan area on the ED length of stay (LOS) of psychiatric patients. This was a retrospective chart review at two metropolitan EDs of all patients assessed to require inpatient psychiatric hospitalization. The time of arrival, time of disposition, time of transfer, insurance status, and accepting facility type were collected prior to and following the closure of a local inpatient psychiatric facility. We analyzed a total of 1107 patients requiring inpatient psychiatric hospitalization, with 671 patients who presented prior to the closure of the closest public psychiatric facility and 436 patients that presented following the facility closure. Following hospital closure, patients with private insurance (620 min before, 771 min after) and Medicare/Medicaid (642 min before, 718 min after) had statistically significantly longer ED LOS, as well as patients transferred to a private psychiatric hospital (664 min prior, 745 min after). However, overall ED length of stay following hospital closure for transfer of all psychiatric patients requiring inpatient hospitalization was not found to be statistically significant (1017 min prior, 967 min after). There was a statistically significant increase in ED LOS for patients with private insurance, Medicare/Medicaid, and for those patients transferred to a private psychiatric facility following closure of a public mental health hospital; however, overall, ED LOS was not increased for patients transferred to an inpatient psychiatric facility. This study highlights the significant impact that the closure of a single inpatient psychiatric facility can have on nearby EDs. We hope to bring attention to the need for increased psychiatric services during a time when there is a nationwide trend toward the reduction
Rossi, T; Murillo Fort, C; Puente Karolys, J C
This paper deals with corruption and the lack of transparency in public sector purchases as well as with the main instruments to obtain adequate results in purchase negotiation.Firstly, we discuss how corruption causes concern to national governments, international organizations, academic centers, non-governmental organizations and society in general. The consequences of corruption in Argentina and other Latin American countries are highlighted, especially the effect of corruption on economic growth and the way it creates economic inefficiency and inequality.Secondly, the database created by the Subsecretary of Strategic Management of the Autonomous Government of the City of Buenos Aires is analyzed. The central purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of the Administrative Reform of 1998 on the prices of 24 products acquired by 13 general acute care hospitals from 1998-1999. The weighted prices, the number of units purchased and the total number of contracts given in this period, as well as the products with the greatest utilization rate, are analyzed. Multivariante analysis was used to identify hospitals with appropriate activity and efficient budget administration (activity and negotiation indicators). Price development was analyzed using the regression technique (ordinary least squares), which demonstrated an 8% reduction in prices for the year 1999. The contribution of each hospital to this variation is presented using dummy variables. Thus, six of the 13 hospitals significantly contributed to the decrease in prices. Of these six, three hospitals also contributed to reduction in price dispersion. The results obtained allow us to conclude that, if public hospitals have adequate purchase negotiation instruments and a uniform legal framework, they can achieve a good level of activity. Furthermore, public hospitals can contribute to reductions in price and price dispersion, at the same time as improving efficiency in the assignation and utilization of
Background In view of the current economic crisis and the resulting austerity measures being implemented by governments across Europe, public expenditure for substance abuse treatment has increasingly become a subject of discussion. An EU cross-country comparison would allow an estimation of the total amount of public resources spent on substance abuse treatment, compare various substance abuse treatment funding options, and evaluate the division of expenditures between alcohol and illegal drugs. The purpose of this study is to estimate the public spending of EU countries for alcohol and illegal drug abuse treatment in hospitals. Methods Our study uses a uniform methodology in order to enable valid cross-national comparisons. Our data are drawn from the Eurostat database, which provides anno 2010 data on government spending for the treatment of illegal drug and alcohol abuse in 21 EU member states. The cross-country comparison is restricted to hospitals, since data were unavailable for other types of treatment providers. The systematic registration of in- and outpatient data is essential to monitoring public expenditures on substance abuse treatment using international databases. Results Total public spending for hospital-based treatment of illegal drug and alcohol abuse in the 21 EU member states studied is estimated to be 7.6 billion euros. Per capita expenditures for treatment of illegal drug abuse vary, ranging from 0.1 euros in Romania to 13 euros in Sweden. For alcohol abuse, that figure varied from 0.9 euros in Bulgaria to 24 euros in Austria. These results confirm other studies indicating that public expenditures for alcohol treatment exceed that for illegal drug treatment. Conclusions Multiple factors may influence the number of hospital days for alcohol or illegal substance abuse treatment, and expenditures fluctuate accordingly. In this respect, we found a strong correlation between gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and public expenditures per
Lievens, Delfine; Vander Laenen, Freya; Christiaens, Johan
In view of the current economic crisis and the resulting austerity measures being implemented by governments across Europe, public expenditure for substance abuse treatment has increasingly become a subject of discussion. An EU cross-country comparison would allow an estimation of the total amount of public resources spent on substance abuse treatment, compare various substance abuse treatment funding options, and evaluate the division of expenditures between alcohol and illegal drugs. The purpose of this study is to estimate the public spending of EU countries for alcohol and illegal drug abuse treatment in hospitals. Our study uses a uniform methodology in order to enable valid cross-national comparisons. Our data are drawn from the Eurostat database, which provides anno 2010 data on government spending for the treatment of illegal drug and alcohol abuse in 21 EU member states. The cross-country comparison is restricted to hospitals, since data were unavailable for other types of treatment providers. The systematic registration of in- and outpatient data is essential to monitoring public expenditures on substance abuse treatment using international databases. Total public spending for hospital-based treatment of illegal drug and alcohol abuse in the 21 EU member states studied is estimated to be 7.6 billion euros. Per capita expenditures for treatment of illegal drug abuse vary, ranging from 0.1 euros in Romania to 13 euros in Sweden. For alcohol abuse, that figure varied from 0.9 euros in Bulgaria to 24 euros in Austria. These results confirm other studies indicating that public expenditures for alcohol treatment exceed that for illegal drug treatment. Multiple factors may influence the number of hospital days for alcohol or illegal substance abuse treatment, and expenditures fluctuate accordingly. In this respect, we found a strong correlation between gross domestic product (GDP) per capita and public expenditures per hospital day. The prevalence of problematic
Darney, Blair G; Simancas-Mendoza, Willis; Edelman, Alison B; Guerra-Palacio, Camilo; Tolosa, Jorge E; Rodriguez, Maria I
Until 2006, legal induced abortion was completely banned in Colombia. Few facilities are equipped or willing to offer abortion services; often adolescents experience even greater barriers of access in this context. We examined post abortion care (PAC) and legal induced abortion in two large public hospitals. We tested the association of hospital site, procedure type (manual vacuum aspiration vs. sharp curettage), and age (adolescents vs. women 20 years and over) with service type (PAC or legal induced abortion). Retrospective cohort study using 2010 billing data routinely collected for reimbursement (N=1353 procedures). We utilized descriptive statistics, multivariable logistic regression and predicted probabilities. Adolescents made up 22% of the overall sample (300/1353). Manual vacuum aspiration was used in one-third of cases (vs. sharp curettage). Adolescents had lower odds of documented PAC (vs. induced abortion) compared with women over age 20 (OR=0.42; 95% CI=0.21-0.86). The absolute difference of service type by age, however, is very small, controlling for hospital site and procedure type (.97 probability of PAC for adolescents compared with .99 for women 20 and over). Regardless of age, PAC via sharp curettage is the current standard in these two public hospitals. Both adolescents and women over 20 are in need of access to legal abortion services utilizing modern technologies in the public sector in Colombia. Documentation of abortion care is an essential first step to determining barriers to access and opportunities for quality improvement and better health outcomes for women. Following partial decriminalization of abortion in Colombia, in public hospitals nearly all abortion services are post-abortion care, not induced abortion. Sharp curettage is the dominant treatment for both adolescents and women over 20. Women seek care in the public sector for abortion, and must have access to safe, quality services. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Saturno-Hernández, Pedro Jesús; Martínez-Nicolás, Ismael; Poblano-Verástegui, Ofelia; Vértiz-Ramírez, José de Jesús; Suárez-Ortiz, Erasto Cosme; Magaña-Izquierdo, Manuel; Kawa-Karasik, Simón
To select, pilot test and implement a set of indicators for tertiary public hospitals. Quali-quantitative study in four stages: identification of indicators used internationally; selection and prioritization by utility, feasibility and reliability; exploration of the quality of sources of information in six hospitals; pilot feasibility and reliability, and follow-up measurement. From 143 indicators, 64 were selected and eight were prioritized. The scan revealed sources of information deficient. In the pilot, three indicators were feasible with reliability limited. Has conducted workshops to improve records and sources of information; nine hospitals reported measurements of a quarter. Eight priority indicators could not be measured immediately due to limitations in the data sources for its construction. It is necessary to improve mechanisms of registration and processing of data in this group of hospital.
Lavigne, Jean-Philippe; Bruyère, Franck; Bernard, Louis; Combescure, Christophe; Ronco, Esthel; Lanotte, Philippe; Coloby, Patrick; Thibault, Michel; Cariou, Gérard; Desplaces, Nicole; Costa, Pierre; Sotto, Albert
We characterized antibiotic resistance and virulence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains isolated from urinary tract infections (UTIs) in patients hospitalized in urology departments. A prospective multicentre study was initiated from March 2009 and lasted until February 2010 in French urology units. All patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU), acute cystitis, acute pyelonephritis or acute prostatitis in whom UPEC was detected were included. Antimicrobial resistance and virulence factors were compared among the different groups. To identify independent associations between virulence markers and the risk of UTI, we used a multivariate logistic regression. We included 210 patients (mean age: 65.8 years; 106 female). Episode of UTI was community acquired in 72.4 %. ABU was diagnosed in 67 cases (31.9 %), cystitis in 52 cases (24.7 %), pyelonephritis in 35 cases (16.7 %) and prostatitis in 56 cases (26.7 %). ABU was more frequent in patients with a urinary catheter (76.1 vs 23.9 %, P<0.001). The resistance rate was 7.6 and 24.8 % for cefotaxime and ciprofloxacin, respectively. UPEC isolated from infections belonged more frequently to phylotypes B2 and D (P =0.07). The papG allele II and papA, papC, papE, kpsMTII and iutA genes were significantly more frequent in infecting strains (P<0.05). In multivariate analysis, strains susceptible to ciprofloxacin were significantly associated with papG allele II (P=0.007), kpsMTK1 (P<0.001) and hlyA (P<0.001) compared with the ciprofloxacin-resistant strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study evaluating the antibiotic resistance and virulence features of UPEC isolated from patients hospitalized in urology departments. High resistance rates were observed, notably for ciprofloxacin, highlighting the importance of a reinforced surveillance in this setting.
Haider, Adil H.; David, Jean-Stephane; Zafar, Syed Nabeel; Gueugniaud, Pierre-Yves; Efron, David T.; Floccard, Bernard; MacKenzie, Ellen J.; Voiglio, Eric
Objective The objective of this paper is to compare mortality outcomes between patients treated at a trauma center in France and matched patients in the United States. Summary Background Data Although trauma systems in France and the U.S. differ significantly in pre-hospital and in-hospital management, previous comparisons have been challenged by lack of comparable data. Methods Coarsened exact matching identified matching patients between a single center trauma database from Lyon, France and the National Trauma Data Bank (NTDB) of the U.S. Moderate to severely injured (ISS >8) adult patients (age ≥16) presenting alive to level-1 trauma centers from 2002–2005 with blunt or penetrating injuries were included. After matching patients, multivariate regression analyses were performed to determine difference in mortality between patients in Lyon and the NTDB. Results A total of 1,043 significantly injured patients presented to the Lyon center. Matching eligible patients with complete records were sought from 219,985 patients in the NTDB. The unadjusted odds of mortality at the Lyon center was 2.5 times higher than that of the NTDB (95% CI =2.18, 2.98). However, the Lyon center received patients with higher ISS, lower GCS and lower SBP (all p<0.001). After 1:1 matching 858 patient pairs were produced, and the odds of mortality became equivalent (OR= 1.3, 95% CI =0.91, 1.73). Similar results were found on multiple subset analyses. Conclusions Trauma patients admitted to a single French trauma center had an equal chance of survival compared to similarly injured patients treated at U.S. trauma centers. PMID:23478519
Tengilimoglu, Dilaver; Kisa, Adnan
By nature, hospitals are extremely complex organizations, combining many different professional groups within an intricate administrative structure. Conflicts therefore expectedly arise between individuals, groups, and departments. It is in the interest of health care administrators to periodically assess the major factors giving rise to these conflicts. In this study, a questionnaire designed to measure sources of conflict in the workplace was completed by 204 staff members at Gazi University Hospital. Of the participants, 30.9% were physicians, and 12.5% were administrators at various levels; 61.5% were female, and 38.5% were male. In terms of work experience, 52.6% of participants had worked less than 5 years at the hospital. The results of the study show that educational differences among the hospital staff were a major barrier to good communication and information flow between groups. Professionals in the same specialties experienced fewer conflicts. Another source of conflict was that resource allocation was considered unfair across departments. Although the hospital management provided an ombudsman for staff concerns, staff rarely resorted to the ombudsman because of the stigma associated with complaining. A lack of opportunity for career advancement was mentioned by 52% of the participants as a source of conflict. At present, job performance and rewards are not closely related in public university hospitals in Turkey because promotions and pay raises are strictly limited by law. Bureaucracy was also perceived to be a source of conflict, with 48.4% of participants saying that their performance was less than optimal because of the presence of multiple supervisors. This pilot study suggests that in Turkey, legislative reform is needed to give public university hospitals more flexibility regarding work incentives, open-door policies at the administrative level, and social interactions to improve teamwork among hospital staff.
Ringa, Virginie; Varnoux, Noëlle; Piault, Stéphanie; Bréart, Gérard
Compliance with recent recommendations concerning hormone therapy (HT) requires that we understand the reasons why women receiving HT continue or stop their treatment. Our aim was to estimate the duration of HT use and analyze factors associated with its discontinuation during the period before the publication of articles challenging the safety of HT. With data from 3 mail questionnaires--at inclusion (in 1990), 3 years, and 6 years--we estimated the cumulative treatment continuation rate by the actuarial method and used the Cox model to analyze the factors associated with discontinuation. French women participating in the GAZEL cohort of employees of the French national power and electricity company (Electricité de France-Gaz de France). One thousand eighty-three postmenopausal women who were ever-HT users. None. Discontinuation of HT. A total of 91.6% of women consulted gynecologists, and 88% continued treatment 5 years after they had begun it. Those reporting hot flashes as a reason for taking HT and those younger than 45 years old at menopause were less likely to stop HT, as were women reporting alcohol use. Our results demonstrate the importance of providing information to physicians, primarily gynecologists, to ensure appropriate treatment of symptoms for menopausal women, especially those younger than 45 years old, while bearing their long-term health in mind.
Matis, Georgios K; Birbilis, Theodossios A; Chrysou, Olga I
The scope of this research has been to investigate the satisfaction of Greek patients hospitalized in a tertiary care university public hospital in Alexandroupolis, Greece, in order to improve medical, nursing and organizational/administrative services. It is a cross-sectional study involving 200 patients hospitalized for at least 24 h. We administered a satisfaction questionnaire previously approved by the Greek Health Ministry. Four aspects of satisfaction were employed (medical, hotel facilities/organizational, nursing, global). Using principal component analysis, summated scales were formed and tested for internal consistency with the aid of Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The non-parametric Spearman rank correlation coefficient was also used. The results reveal a relatively high degree of global satisfaction (75.125%), yet satisfaction is higher for the medical (89.721%) and nursing (86.432%) services. Moreover, satisfaction derived from the hotel facilities and the general organization was found to be more limited (76.536%). Statistically significant differences in participant satisfaction were observed (depending on age, gender, citizenship, education, number of previous admissions and self-assessment of health status at the first and last day of patients' stay) for the medical, nursing and hotel facilities/organizational dimension, but not for global satisfaction. The present study confirms the results of previously published Greek surveys.
Doshmangir, Leila; Rashidian, Arash; Jafari, Mehdi; Takian, Amirhossein; Ravaghi, Hamid
Policy formulation and adoption often happen in a black box. Implementation challenges affect and modify the nature of a policy. We analyzed hospitals' autonomy policy in Iran that was intended to reduce hospitals' financial burden on government and improve their efficiency. We followed a retrospective case-study methodology, involving inductive and deductive analyses of parliamentary proceedings, policy documents, gray literature, published papers and interview transcripts. We analyzed data to develop a policy map that included important dates and events leading to the policy process milestones. We identified four time-periods with distinctive features: 'moving toward the policy' (1989 - 1994), disorganized implementation' (1995 - 1997), 'continuing challenges and indecisiveness in hospitals financing' (1998 - 2003), and 'other structural and financial policies in public hospitals' (2004 to date). We found that stakeholders required different and conflicting objectives, which certainly resulted in an unsatisfactory implementation process. The policy led to long-lasting and often negative changes in the hospital sector and the entire Iranian health system. Hospital autonomy appeared to be an ill-advised policy to remedy the inefficiency problems in low socioeconomic areas of the country. The assumption that hospital autonomy reforms would necessarily result in a better health system, may be a false assumption as their success relies on many contextual, structural and policy implementation factors.
Kim, Sun Jung; Park, Eun-Cheol; Kim, Tae Hyun; Yoo, Ji Won
Purpose This study compared in-hospital mortality within 30 days of admission, lengths of stay, and inpatient charges among patients with heart failure admitted to public and private hospitals in South Korea. Materials and Methods We obtained health insurance claims data for all heart failure inpatients nationwide between November 1, 2011 and May 31, 2012. These data were then matched with hospital-level data, and multi-level regression models were examined. A total of 8406 patients from 253 hospitals, including 31 public hospitals, were analyzed. Results The in-hospital mortality rate within 30 days of admission was 0.92% greater and the mean length of stay was 1.94 days longer at public hospitals than at private hospitals (mortality: 5.18% and 4.26%, respectively; LOS: 12.08 and 10.14 days, respectively). The inpatient charges were 11.4% lower per case and 24.5% lower per day at public hospitals than at private hospitals. After adjusting for patient- and hospital-level confounders, public hospitals had a 1.62-fold higher in-hospital mortality rate, a 16.5% longer length of stay, and an 11.7% higher inpatient charge per case than private hospitals, although the charges of private hospitals were greater in univariate analysis. Conclusion We recommend that government agencies and policy makers continue to monitor quality of care, lengths of stay in the hospital, and expenditures according to type of hospital ownership to improve healthcare outcomes and reduce spending. PMID:25837196
Sendid, Boualem; Cotteau, Angélique; François, Nadine; D'Haveloose, Annie; Standaert, Annie; Camus, Daniel; Poulain, Daniel
Background Evidence for an increased prevalence of candidaemia and for high associated mortality in the 1990s led to a number of different recommendations concerning the management of at risk patients as well as an increase in the availability and prescription of new antifungal agents. The aim of this study was to parallel in our hospital candidemia incidence with the nature of prescribed antifungal drugs between 1993 and 2003. Methods During this 10-year period we reviewed all cases of candidemia, and collected all the data about annual consumption of prescribed antifungal drugs Results Our centralised clinical mycology laboratory isolates and identifies all yeasts grown from blood cultures obtained from a 3300 bed teaching hospital. Between 1993 and 2003, 430 blood yeast isolates were identified. Examination of the trends in isolation revealed a clear decrease in number of yeast isolates recovered between 1995–2000, whereas the number of positive blood cultures in 2003 rose to 1993 levels. The relative prevalence of Candida albicans and C. glabrata was similar in 1993 and 2003 in contrast to the period 1995–2000 where an increased prevalence of C. glabrata was observed. When these quantitative and qualitative data were compared to the amount and type of antifungal agents prescribed during the same period (annual mean defined daily dose: 2662741; annual mean cost: 615629 €) a single correlation was found between the decrease in number of yeast isolates, the increased prevalence of C. glabrata and the high level of prescription of fluconazole at prophylactic doses between 1995–2000. Conclusion Between 1993 and 2000, the number of cases of candidemia halved, with an increase of C. glabrata prevalence. These findings were probably linked to the use of Fluconazole prophylaxis. Although it is not possible to make any recommendations from this data the information is nevertheless interesting and may have considerable implications with the introduction of new
Guilley-Lerondeau, B; Bourigault, C; Guille des Buttes, A-C; Birgand, G; Lepelletier, D
Isolation precautions in patients with multi-drug resistant bacteria or other communicable infectious agents can be associated with adverse effects. The aim of this study was to assess satisfaction and psychological impact of patients hospitalized with isolation precautions in comparison with controls. An observational prospective cohort study was performed in five different medical and surgical departments in a 3,000-bed university hospital in Western France between March and July 2012. Different scales were used to assess patient satisfaction (qualitative scale) and anxiety (Spielberger scale), including 30 patients with isolation precautions and 60 matched patients without isolation precautions over 45-hour interviews. Cases were significantly less satisfied than controls for healthcare workers (HCW) assistance in activities of daily life (p < 0.001), availability and relationships (17 % vs 5 %, p = 0.05 and 10 % vs 0%, p = 0.02, respectively). Sixty-seven percent of patients with isolation precautions were not satisfied about the quality of the information related to their infectious status control measures. The median score [range] of anxiety significantly was higher in patients with isolation precautions (52 [20-56] vs 31 [23-73], p <0.001). Isolation precautions may have negative psychological effects, leading to anxiety, and may compromise patient satisfaction according to the availability and relationship with HCW. Professionals should be aware of adverse effects of isolation and inform patients more actively with regard to their infectious status and precautions.
Hedoux, S; Dode, X; Pivot, C; Couray-Targe, S; Aulagner, G
The best practice contract has given a new objective to the hospital pharmacists for the reimbursement in addition to Diagnosis Related Groups' (DRGs) tariffs. We built our pharmaceutical quality control for the administration traceability follow-up regarding the DRGs and the cost of care, for two reasons: the nominal drugs dispensation in link with the prescription made by pharmacist and the important expenditure of these drugs. Our organization depends on the development level of the informatized drugs circuit and minimizes the risk of financial shortfalls or wrong benefits, possible causes of economic penalties for our hospital. On the basis of this follow-up, we highlighted our activity and identified problems of management and drugs circuit organization. The quality of the administration traceability impacts directly on the quality of the medical records and the reimbursements of the expensive drugs. A better knowledge of prescription software is also required for a better quality and security of the medical data used in the medical informatic systems. The drugs management and the personal treatment in and between the care units need to be improved too. We have to continue and improve our organization with the future financial model for ATU drugs and the FIDES project. The health personnel awareness and the development of best informatic tools are also required. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Solborg Bjerrum, Søren; Mikkelsen, Kim Lyngby; la Cour, Morten
To study the epidemiology and mortality in patients who had cataract surgery in public hospitals and private hospitals/clinics in Denmark between 2004 and 2012 and to assess the validity of the Danish cataract registries. Register- and chart-based study. A total of 411 140 cataract operations were performed in 243 856 patients. Patients who had cataract surgery in public hospitals had an overall statistically significantly 62% higher mortality compared to patients who had cataract surgery in private hospitals/clinics. The decrease in mean age at first eye cataract surgery in private hospitals/clinics was statistically significantly greater compared to the decrease in mean age at first eye cataract surgery in public hospitals (p < 0.001). The median time interval between first and second eye cataract surgery decreased statistically significantly during the study period (p < 0.001) and was statistically significantly shorter in all calendar years for patients operated in private hospitals/clinics compared to patients operated in public hospitals (p < 0.001). In all, 46% of the cataract operations performed in private hospitals/clinics that led to cases of postoperative endophthalmitis were not registered in any registry. In general, patients who had cataract surgery in private hospitals/clinics were healthier, had first eye cataract surgery at an increasingly younger age and had a reduced time interval between cataract surgeries in the two eyes compared to patients who had cataract surgery in public hospitals. The lack of registration of cataract surgery by the private hospitals/clinics limits the quality of the registries. © 2014 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Tiong, M K; Levinson, M R; Oldroyd, J C; Staples, M P
Medical student numbers in Australian universities have more than doubled since 2000. There are concerns about the ability for existing clinical training sites to accommodate this increase in student numbers, and there have been calls to increase training in private hospitals. The receptiveness of patients in private hospitals will influence the success of such placements. We aimed to evaluate whether patients in a private hospital are as receptive to medical students as patients in a public hospital. Cross-sectional survey of patients conducted at a private and a public teaching hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Main outcome measures were willingness to allow a medical student to participate in an interview, physical examination and procedures (electrocardiogram, venepuncture and digital rectal examination), and patient attitudes towards medical students as assessed by a series of 20 attitude statements and a summative attitude score. Patients at the private hospital were more willing than patients at the public hospital to allow a medical student to take their history unsupervised (112/146, 76.7% vs 90/141, 63.8%; P = 0.02). The distribution of patient willingness did not otherwise differ between hospitals for physical examination or procedures. There was no difference in the mean attitude score between hospitals (15.3 ± 0.8 private vs 15.4 ± 1.2 public, P = 0.38), and responses differed between hospitals for only four of the 20 attitude statements. Our findings suggest that patients in a private hospital are at least as receptive to medical students as patients in a public hospital. © 2012 The Authors; Internal Medicine Journal © 2012 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Harrell, Ruth; Caley, Michael; Allwood, Dominique; Fowler, Tom
The UK government has proposed major changes to the Public Health system in England. This study aims quantify increasing anecdotal concern that the number of Public Health consultant posts advertised has plummeted since the publication of these plans. The archives of BMJ careers were interrogated for hospital and Public Health consultant posts advertised October 2008 and May 2011. Statistical process control charts were used to compare differences in recruitment over time and the ratio of Public Health:hospital consultant posts. We found a highly significant reduction in the mean number of advertisements for Public Health consultant posts from 27.9 posts per month in the period October 2008-Novermber 2009 to 6.3 posts per month between December 2009 and May 2010 (P< 0.005). The ratio of Public Health:hospital consultant posts fell from 3.3 to 0.9 Public Health consultant posts per 100 hospital consultant posts (P< 0.005). This study confirms the anecdotal concern that there has been a significant reduction in the advertisement, and by extrapolation, recruitment to Public Health consultants posts in England around the time of the publication of the government's reform plans. Public Health consultant posts have been disproportionately affected by this reduction compared to hospital consultant posts.
After World War, especially during the interwar years, new plastic surgical techniques were highly developed by I two French surgeons: Dr Raymond Passot, a pupil of Pr Hippolyte Morestin, Head of surgery department in Val-de-Grâce military hospital, Father of the Gueules cassées and Dr François Dubois, a pupil of Pr Sébileau, head of ear nose throat disorders department at Lariboisière Hospital in Paris. By the way of papers, publications and interviews to media, they described new French cosmetic techniques (rhitidectomy, sutures, liposuccion) and extensively developed this outpatient surgery. They used to renove famous actresse's and actors' face and nose and those of hundreds of patients. They participate to French societies of plastic surgery meetings and publications. Their enthusiastic dare largely participated to the current success of cosmetic surgery in France.
Eilstein, Daniel; Xerri, Bertrand; Viso, Anne-Catherine; Therre, Hélène; Gorza, Maud; Fuchs, Doriane; Pozuelos, Jérôme; Ioos, Sophie; Che, Didier; Bertrand, Edwige; El Yamani, Mounia; Empereur-Bissonnet, Pascal; Duport, Nicolas; Desenclos, Jean-Claude
Background: Health surveillance is a reactive process, with no real hindsight for dealing with signals and alerts. It may fail to detect more radical changes with a major medium-term or long-term impact on public health. To increase proactivity, the French Institute for Public Health Surveillance has opted for a prospective monitoring approach.Methods: Several steps were necessary: 1) Identification of public health determinants. 2) Identification of key variables based on a combination of determinants. Variables were classified into three groups (health event trigger factors, dissemination factors and response factors) and were submitted to future development assumptions. 3) Identification, in each of the three groups, of micro-scenarios derived from variable trends. 4) Identification of macro-scenarios, each built from the three micro-scenarios for each of the three groups. 5) Identification of issues for the future of public health.Results: The exercise identified 22 key variables, 17 micro-scenarios and 5 macro-scenarios. The topics retained relate to issues on social and territorial health inequalities, health burden, individual and collective responsibilities in terms of health, ethical aspects, emerging phenomena, ‘Big data’, data mining, new health technologies, interlocking of analysis scales.Conclusions: The approach presented here guides the programming of activities of a health safety agency, particularly for monitoring and surveillance. By describing possible future scenarios, health surveillance can help decision-makers to influence the context towards one or more favourable futures.
Islam, M Saiful; Luby, Stephen P; Sultana, Rebeca; Rimi, Nadia Ali; Zaman, Rashid Uz; Uddin, Main; Nahar, Nazmun; Rahman, Mahmudur; Hossain, M Jahangir; Gurley, Emily S
Family caregivers are integral to patient care in Bangladeshi public hospitals. This study explored family caregivers' activities and their perceptions and practices related to disease transmission and prevention in public hospitals. Trained qualitative researchers conducted a total of 48 hours of observation in 3 public tertiary care hospitals and 12 in-depth interviews with family caregivers. Family caregivers provided care 24 hours a day, including bedside nursing, cleaning care, and psychologic support. During observations, family members provided 2,065 episodes of care giving, 75% (1,544) of which involved close contact with patients. We observed family caregivers washing their hands with soap on only 4 occasions. The majority of respondents said diseases are transmitted through physical contact with surfaces and objects that have been contaminated with patient secretions and excretions, and avoiding contact with these contaminated objects would help prevent disease. Family caregivers are at risk for hospital-acquired infection from their repeated exposure to infectious agents combined with their inadequate hand hygiene and knowledge about disease transmission. Future research should explore potential strategies to improve family caregivers' knowledge about disease transmission and reduce family caregiver exposures, which may be accomplished by improving care provided by health care workers. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.
Bourgeault, Ivy Lynn; Sutherns, Rebecca; Macdonald, Margaret; Luce, Jacquelyne
as the boundaries between public and private spaces become increasingly fluid, interest is growing in exploring how those spaces are used as work environments, how professionals both construct and convey themselves in those spaces, and how the lines dividing spaces traditionally along public and private lines are blurred. This paper draws on literature from critical geography, organisational studies, and feminist sociology to interpret the work experiences of midwives in Ontario, Canada who provide maternity care both in hospitals and in clients' homes. qualitative design involving in-depth semi-structured interviews content coded thematically. Ontario, Canada. community midwives who practice at home and in hospital. the accounts of practicing midwives illustrate the ways in which hospital and home work spaces are sites of both compromise and resistance. With the intention of making birthing women feel more `at home', midwives describe how they attempt to recreate the woman's home in the hospital. Similarly, midwives also reorient women's homes to a certain degree into a more standardised work space for home birth attendance. Many midwives also described how they like `guests' in both settings. there seems to be a conscious or unconscious convergence of midwifery work spaces to accommodate Ontario midwives' unique model of practice. we link these findings of midwives' place of work on their experiences as workers to professional work experiences in both public and private spaces and offer suggestions for further exploration of the concept of professionals as guests in their places of work. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Arroyo Laguna, J
Between 1988 and 1992 public hospitals in Peru were affected by major changes: the operational collapse of the health services, a profound State budgetary crisis, and a series of adjustments aimed toward self-financing. These changes all came before the health sector reform laws of 1997. In recent years, the changes in financing policy have renewed the operational potential of hospital activity and of the entire health sector. On the other hand, there have been some signs that with hospitals generating their own resources through fee collection, there has been a shift in the proportion of hospital users from different socioeconomic strata, to the detriment of poorer persons, especially those who need free services. This study tried to determine if there had been such changes between 1988 and 1997 in the socioeconomic strata of persons using five large public hospitals in Lima, and the association that that could have with the current transition toward the new model of the autonomous hospital, particularly with the new policies on hospital financing. Changes in hospital usage were studied through in-depth interviews with key informants, collection of statistical data in the selected hospitals, and an extensive bibliographic and literature review. Changes in hospital usage were studied through 1,012 surveys done with hospital users from the years 1988, 1992, and 1997. In order to classify those persons by socioeconomic stratum, cluster analysis and discriminant analysis were used, based on six variables suitable for determining socioeconomic level. The resulting model, of three strata grouped according to the dichotomized variables, exceeded the 75-point minimum required for the discriminant analysis to confirm the classification test. The main results showed that among the users of the five Lima hospitals, those in the highest stratum increased their relative use of the hospitals from 35.4% in 1988 to 52.6% in 1997. Proportional usage by those in the lowest stratum
Villa, Stefano; Kane, Nancy
Many countries with universal health systems have relied primarily on publicly-owned hospitals to provide acute care services to covered populations; however, many policymakers have experimented with expansion of the private sector for what they hope will yield more cost-effective care. The study provides new insight into the effects of hospital privatization in three American states (California, Florida, and Massachusetts) in the period 1994 to 2003, focusing on three aspects: 1) profitability; 2) productivity and efficiency; and 3) benefits to the community (particularly, scope of services offered, price level, and impact on charity care). For each variable analyzed, we compared the 3-year mean values pre- and postconversion. Pre- and postconversion changes in hospitals' performance were then compared with a nonequivalent comparison group of American public hospitals. The results of our study indicate that following privatization, hospitals increased operating margins, reduced their length of stay, and enjoyed higher occupancy, but at some possible cost to access to care for their communities in terms of higher price markups and loss of beneficial but unprofitable services. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zailani, Suhaiza; Gilani, Mina Sayyah; Nikbin, Davoud; Iranmanesh, Mohammad
The purpose of this study is to explore the determinants of telemedicine acceptance in selected public hospitals in Malaysia and to investigate the effect of health culture on the relationship between these determinants and telemedicine acceptance. Data were gathered by means of a survey of physicians and nurses as the main group of users of telemedicine technology from hospitals that are currently using telemedicine technology. The results indicated that government policies, top management support, perception of usefulness and computer self-efficiency have a positive and significant impact on telemedicine acceptance by public hospitals in Malaysia. The results also confirmed the moderating role of health culture on the relationship between government policies as well as perceived usefulness on telemedicine acceptance by Malaysian hospitals. The results are useful for decision-makers as well as managers to recognize the potential role of telemedicine and assist in the process of implementation, adoption and utilization, and, therefore, spread the usage of telemedicine technology in more hospitals in the country.
California has 12 county-owned and operated hospital systems and 5 University of California hospitals designated as public hospitals. These organizations deliver the majority of inpatient care and a significant amount of outpatient care to Medicaid patients in the state. In 2010, California was the first state in the nation to implement a five-year Delivery System Reform Incentive Payment (DSRIP) program under the Section §1115 Medicaid "Bridge to Reform" waiver to improve the capacity of these hospitals to deliver high quality and more efficient care. The California DSRIP was the first program in a continuing national initiative to reform the Medicaid delivery system while remaining budget neutral. An extensive evaluation revealed major advances in infrastructure development, delivery of health care, and patient outcomes during the program. The results highlight the importance of joint federal and state investments in bolstering the capacity of safety net providers to deliver high-quality care, and they emphasize the need for continued investment in the safety net. The California DSRIP was followed by a program called Public Hospital Redesign and Incentives in Medi-Cal (PRIME), which incentivizes improvements in expanded and new areas of care not addressed by DSRIP
Contreras-Loya, David; Gómez-Dantés, Octavio; Puentes, Esteban; Garrido-Latorre, Francisco; Castro-Tinoco, Manuel; Fajardo-Dolci, Germán
A retrospective evaluation of waiting times for elective procedures was conducted in a sample of Mexican public hospitals from the following institutions: the Mexican Institute for Social Security (IMSS), the Institute for Social Security and Social Services for Civil Servants (ISSSTE) and the Ministry of Health (MoH). Our aim was to describe current waiting times and identify opportunities to redistribute service demand among public institutions. We examined current waiting times and productivity for seven elective surgical and four diagnostic imaging procedures, selected on the basis of their relative frequency and comparability with other national health systems. Mean waiting time for the seven surgical procedures in the three institutions was 14 weeks. IMSS and ISSSTE hospitals showed better performance (12 and 13 weeks) than the MoH hospitals (15 weeks). Mean waiting time for the four diagnostic procedures was 11 weeks. IMSS hospitals (10 weeks) showed better average waiting times than ISSSTE (12 weeks) and MoH hospitals (11 weeks). Substantial variations were revealed, not only among institutions but also within the same institution. These variations need to be addressed in order to improve patient satisfaction.
Diebold, G; Ducray, F; Henaine, A-M; Frappaz, D; Guyotat, J; Cartalat-Carel, S; Breant, V; Fouquet, A; Aulagner, G; Honnorat, J; Armoiry, X
Therapeutic options for the management of glioblastoma (GBM) have greatly evolved over the last decade with the emergence of new regimens combining radiotherapy plus temozolomide and the use of bevacizumab at recurrence. Our aim was to assess the clinical and economic impacts of those novel strategies in our center. A single-center retrospective chart review was conducted on patients newly diagnosed with a GBM over two periods (year 2004, group 1 or year 2008, group 2) with limitations to those eligible to radiotherapy after initial diagnosis. The type of medical management was described and compared, as well as overall survival and total costs from diagnosis to death or the last follow-up date. Cost analysis was performed under the French Sickness Fund perspective using tariffs from 2012. One hundred twenty-two patients were selected (49 in group 1 and 73 in group 2) with similar baseline characteristics within the two groups. Patients from group 2 received more frequently temozolomide radiochemotherapy (71% vs. 39%, P < 0·05) as first-line treatment as well as bevacizumab regimen at recurrence (48% vs. 6%, P < 0·05); the median overall survival was increased between the two periods (respectively 17 vs. 10 months, P < 0·05). The mean total cost per patient was 54,388 € in group 1 and 71,148 € in group 2 (P < 0·05). Hospital care represented the largest expenditure (76% and 58% in groups 1 and 2 respectively) followed by chemotherapy drugs costs (11% and 30% respectively). The total cost difference between the two groups was explained by the increasing use of temozolomide and bevacizumab. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was estimated at 54,355 € per life-year gained. As far as we know, this is the first study reporting the total cost of GBM management based on the French perspective, as well as the cost-effectiveness of clinical practices in term of cost per life-year gained. Those novel strategies have contributed to improve overall survival
Cox, Nicholas; Brennan, Angela; Dinh, Diem; Brien, Rita; Cowie, Kath; Stub, Dion; Reid, Christopher M; Lefkovits, Jeffrey
Clinical outcome registries are an increasingly vital component of ensuring quality and safety of patient care. However, Australian hospitals rarely have additional resources or the capacity to fund the additional staff time to complete the task of data collection and entry. At the same time, registry funding models do not support staff for the collection of data at the site but are directed towards the central registry tasks of data reporting, managing and quality monitoring. The sustainability of a registry is contingent on building efficiencies into data management and collection. We describe the methods used in a large Victorian public hospital to develop a sustainable data collection system for the Victorian Cardiac Outcomes Registry (VCOR), using existing staff and resources common to many public hospitals. We describe the features of the registry and the hospital specific strategies that allowed us to do this as part of our routine business of providing good quality cardiac care. All clinical staff involved in patient care were given some data collection task with the entry of these data embedded into the staff's daily workflow. A senior cardiology registrar was empowered to allocate data entry tasks to colleagues when data were found to be incomplete. The task of 30-day follow-up proved the most onerous part of data collection. Cath-lab nursing staff were allocated this role. With hospital accreditation and funding models moving towards performance based quality indicators, collection of accurate and reliable information is crucial. Our experience demonstrates the successful implementation of clinical outcome registry data collection in a financially constrained public hospital environment utilising existing resources. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Ologeanu-Taddei, R; Morquin, D; Bourret, R
The goal of this study was to examine the perceived usefulness and the perceived ease of use of a Hospital Information System (HIS) for the care staff. We administrated a questionnaire composed of open-end and closed questions. As results, the perceived usefulness and ease of use are correlated with medical occupations. Content analysis of open questions highlights three factors influencing these constructs: ergonomics, errors in the documenting process and insufficient compatibility with the medical department or the occupation. While the results are consistent with literature, they show medical occupations do not report the same low rate of perceived usefulness and of ease of use. The main explanation consists in the medical risk in the prescription process for anesthesiologists, surgeons and physicians.
Crandon, Ivor W; Harding, Hyacinth E; Cawich, Shamir O; Williams, Eric W; Williams-Johnson, Jean
Emergency Department (ED) medical officers are often the first medical responders to emergencies in Jamaica because pre-hospital emergency response services are not universally available. Over the past decade, several new ED training opportunities have been introduced locally. Their precise impact on the health care system in Jamaica has not yet been evaluated. We sought to determine the level of training, qualifications and experience of medical officers employed in public hospital EDs across the nation. A database of all medical officers employed in public hospital EDs was created from records maintained by the Ministry of Health in Jamaica. A specially designed questionnaire was administered to all medical officers in this database. Data was analyzed using SPSS Version 10.0. There were 160 ED medical officers across Jamaica, of which 47.5% were males and the mean age was 32.3 years (SD +/- 7.1; Range 23-57). These physicians were employed in the EDs for a mean of 2.2 years (SD +/- 2.5; Range 0-15; Median 2.5) and were recent graduates of medical schools (Mean 5.1; SD +/- 5.9; Median 3 years).Only 5.5% of the medical officers had specialist qualifications (grade III/IV), 12.8% were grade II medical officers and 80.5% were grade I house officers or interns. The majority of medical officers had no additional training qualifications: 20.9% were exposed to post-graduate training, 27.9% had current ACLS certification and 10.3% had current ATLS certification. The majority of medical officers in public hospital EDs across Jamaica are relatively inexperienced and inadequately trained. Consultant supervision is not available in most public hospital EDs. With the injury epidemic that exists in Jamaica, it is logical that increased training opportunities and resources are required to meet the needs of the population.
Crandon, Ivor W; Harding, Hyacinth E; Cawich, Shamir O; Williams, Eric W; Williams-Johnson, Jean
Background Emergency Department (ED) medical officers are often the first medical responders to emergencies in Jamaica because pre-hospital emergency response services are not universally available. Over the past decade, several new ED training opportunities have been introduced locally. Their precise impact on the health care system in Jamaica has not yet been evaluated. We sought to determine the level of training, qualifications and experience of medical officers employed in public hospital EDs across the nation. Methods A database of all medical officers employed in public hospital EDs was created from records maintained by the Ministry of Health in Jamaica. A specially designed questionnaire was administered to all medical officers in this database. Data was analyzed using SPSS Version 10.0. Results There were 160 ED medical officers across Jamaica, of which 47.5% were males and the mean age was 32.3 years (SD +/- 7.1; Range 23–57). These physicians were employed in the EDs for a mean of 2.2 years (SD +/- 2.5; Range 0–15; Median 2.5) and were recent graduates of medical schools (Mean 5.1; SD +/- 5.9; Median 3 years). Only 5.5% of the medical officers had specialist qualifications (grade III/IV), 12.8% were grade II medical officers and 80.5% were grade I house officers or interns. The majority of medical officers had no additional training qualifications: 20.9% were exposed to post-graduate training, 27.9% had current ACLS certification and 10.3% had current ATLS certification. Conclusion The majority of medical officers in public hospital EDs across Jamaica are relatively inexperienced and inadequately trained. Consultant supervision is not available in most public hospital EDs. With the injury epidemic that exists in Jamaica, it is logical that increased training opportunities and resources are required to meet the needs of the population. PMID:18847504
Background It is estimated that 18.5 million Caesarean Sections (CS) are conducted annually worldwide and about one-third of them are done without medical indications and described as “unnecessary”. Although developed countries account for most of the rise in the trend of unnecessary CS, more studies report a similar trend in developing countries, putting a strain on existing but limited healthcare resources, jeopardizing families' financial security and presenting a barrier to equitable universal coverage. We examined indications for CS in public hospitals of one district in Bangladesh and explored factors influencing decision to perform the procedure. Methods Retrospective review of case notes of 530 women who had CS in 5 public hospitals in Thakurgaon District of Bangladesh. Key Informant Interviews (KII) with 18 service providers to explore factors associated with the decision to perform a CS. Results The commonest recorded indications for CS were: previous CS (29.4%), fetal distress (15.7%), cephalo-pelvic disproportion (10.2%), prolonged obstructed labor (8.3%) and post-term dates (7.0%). The majority (68%) of CS were performed as emergency; mainly during daytime working hours. Previous CS and “post-term dates” were common indications for elective CS with “post dates” – the commonest indication for CS in primiparous women. 16.0% of all CS were conducted for cases where alternative forms of care might have been more appropriate. Providers reported not using protocols and evidence based guidelines even though these are available. Pressure from patients and relatives to deliver by CS strongly influenced decision making. External agents from private hospitals receive a financial reward for every CS performed and are present in public hospitals to “lobby” for CS. Conclusion Factors other than evidence based practice or the presence of a clear medical indication influence providers’ decision to perform both elective and emergency CS in public
Public health safety and environmental management are concerns that pose challenges worldwide. This paper briefly assesses a selected impact of the environment on public health. The study used an assessment of environmental mechanism to analyse the underlying different pathways in which the health sector is affected in inadequate hospital and health care settings. We reviewed the limited available evidence of the association between the health sector and the environment, and the likely pathways through which the environment influences health. The paper also models the use of private health care as a function of costs and benefits relative to public care and no care. The need to enhancing policies to improve the administration of health services, strengthening interventions on environment using international agreements, like Rio Conventions, including measures to control hospital-related infection, planning for human resources and infrastructure construction development have linkage to improve environment care and public health. The present study findings partly also demonstrate the influence of demand for health on the environment. The list of possible interventions includes enhancing policies to improve the administration of health services, strengthening Rio Conventions implementation on environmental concerns, control of environmental hazards and public health. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shaffer, Audrey; Jun, Cheng Li
Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital in Hangzhou, China spent five years preparing for a Joint Commission International accreditation survey. In March 2007 it became the first public hospital on the Chinese mainland to attain international accreditation. The Health Information Department, managed according to Western standards, played an integral role in preparing the hospital for the survey.
Moser, H Ronald; Freeman, Gordon L
This study investigates current opinions about hospital advertising and compares them to the attitudes expressed 25 years ago. It replicates a survey done in 1985, using the same questionnaire and population to compare responses longitudinally. The study indicates some changes in the public's opinions of hospital advertising. Although the image of hospitals remains positive, most of the 2010 respondents' opinions were rather mixed regarding whether it is proper for hospitals to advertise. The study also confirmed that the quality of service and reputation of hospitals remain more important to the public than price.
Chan, Angelina O M; Kee, Jass P C; Chan, Yiong Huak
To address the effects of acute, chronic and cumulative stress in the healthcare environment in Singapore, the Ministry of Health provided funding to develop a comprehensive crisis response management system (peer support programs/PSPs) that increases mental health awareness, provides emotional support to affected staff during work-related critical incidents and assists hospital management to better understand the emotional needs of the employees. This paper reports the awareness and utilization of PSPs in Singapore public general hospitals about one year after they were set up.
Aman, Bakhtiar; Abbas, Faisal
To determine patients' perception regarding service and quality of healthcare at public-sector institutions. The descriptive quantitative study was conducted in Kohat district, Pakistan, between July and December 2014, and focussed on 30 variables to assess the participants' perceptions of the actual healthcare service quality delivered. SERVQUAL instrument was used to measure the reliability and cronbach alpha was calculated to measure the reliability and validity of the instrument. A total of 200 questionnaires were distributed and 157(78.5%) were received back fully filled. Of them, 105(67%) were men and 52(33%) were women.The mean value of Assurance parameter was 3.05±0.88, indicating trust in public hospitals was high as they had experienced and capable doctors. On the other hand, the lowest mean value of 2.61±0.84 was for Empathy, highlighting the fact that public hospitals lacked the ability to handle patients' problem properly, services were not offered in time and they were short of staff. Public hospitals were largely seen as failing to deliver quality service.
Faisal-Cury, Alexandre; Menezes, Paulo Rossi; Quayle, Julieta; Santiago, Kely; Matijasevich, Alicia
To assess the relationship between indicators of socioeconomic status and cesarean section in public hospitals that adopt standardized protocols of obstetrical care. This was a prospective cohort study conducted between May 2005 and January 2006 with 831 pregnant women recruited from 10 public primary care clinics in São Paulo, Brazil. Demographic and clinical characteristics were collected during pregnancy. The three main exposures were schooling, monthly family income per capita, and residential crowding. The main outcome was cesarean section at three public hospitals located in the area. Crude and adjusted risk ratios (RR), with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using Poisson regression with robust variance. We examined the effects of each exposure variable on cesarean section accounting for potential confounders by