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Sample records for french-native speakers influence

  1. French native speakers in the making: from language-general to language-specific voicing boundaries.

    PubMed

    Hoonhorst, Ingrid; Colin, Cécile; Markessis, Emily; Radeau, Monique; Deltenre, Paul; Serniclaes, Willy

    2009-12-01

    By examining voice onset time (VOT) discrimination in 4- and 8-month-olds raised in a French-speaking environment, the current study addresses the question of the role played by linguistic experience in the reshaping of the initial perceptual abilities. Results showed that the language-general -30- and +30-ms VOT boundaries are better discriminated than the 0-ms boundary in 4-month-olds, whereas 8-month-olds better discriminate the 0-ms boundary. These data support explanations of speech development stressing the effects of both language-general boundaries and linguistic environment (attunement theory and coupling theory). Results also suggest that the acquisition of the adult voicing boundary (at 0 ms VOT in French vs. +30 ms VOT in English) is faster and more linear in French than in English. This latter aspect of the results might be related to differences in the consistency of VOT distributions of voiced and voiceless stops between languages.

  2. The Influence of Language Anxiety on English Reading and Writing Tasks among Native Hebrew Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argaman, Osnat; Abu-Rabia, Salim

    2002-01-01

    Examined the influence of language anxiety as measured by a questionnaire on achievements in English writing and reading comprehension tasks. Subjects were native speakers of Hebrew, aged 12-13 years, learning English as a second language.(Author/VWL)

  3. The Influence of Speaker Reliability on First versus Second Label Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krogh-Jespersen, Sheila; Echols, Catharine H.

    2012-01-01

    Children's confidence in their own knowledge may influence their willingness to learn novel information from others. Twenty-four-month-old children's ("N" = 160) willingness to learn novel labels for either familiar or novel objects from an adult speaker was tested in 1 of 5 conditions: accurate, inaccurate, knowledgeable, ignorant, or…

  4. Revisiting "The Influence of Literacy in Paraphasias of Aphasic Speakers"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colaco, Dora; Mineiro, Ana; Leal, Gabriela; Castro-Caldas, Alexandre

    2010-01-01

    Literature suggests that illiterate subjects are unaware of the phonological structure of language. This fact may influence the characteristics of aphasic speech, namely the structure of paraphasias. A battery of tests was developed for this study to be used with aphasic subjects (literate and illiterate), in order to explore this topic in more…

  5. Can you hear my age? Influences of speech rate and speech spontaneity on estimation of speaker age

    PubMed Central

    Skoog Waller, Sara; Eriksson, Mårten; Sörqvist, Patrik

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive hearing science is mainly about the study of how cognitive factors contribute to speech comprehension, but cognitive factors also partake in speech processing to infer non-linguistic information from speech signals, such as the intentions of the talker and the speaker’s age. Here, we report two experiments on age estimation by “naïve” listeners. The aim was to study how speech rate influences estimation of speaker age by comparing the speakers’ natural speech rate with increased or decreased speech rate. In Experiment 1, listeners were presented with audio samples of read speech from three different speaker age groups (young, middle aged, and old adults). They estimated the speakers as younger when speech rate was faster than normal and as older when speech rate was slower than normal. This speech rate effect was slightly greater in magnitude for older (60–65 years) speakers in comparison with younger (20–25 years) speakers, suggesting that speech rate may gain greater importance as a perceptual age cue with increased speaker age. This pattern was more pronounced in Experiment 2, in which listeners estimated age from spontaneous speech. Faster speech rate was associated with lower age estimates, but only for older and middle aged (40–45 years) speakers. Taken together, speakers of all age groups were estimated as older when speech rate decreased, except for the youngest speakers in Experiment 2. The absence of a linear speech rate effect in estimates of younger speakers, for spontaneous speech, implies that listeners use different age estimation strategies or cues (possibly vocabulary) depending on the age of the speaker and the spontaneity of the speech. Potential implications for forensic investigations and other applied domains are discussed. PMID:26236259

  6. Does Syntactic Alignment Effectively Influence How Speakers Are Perceived by Their Conversation Partner?

    PubMed

    Schoot, Lotte; Heyselaar, Evelien; Hagoort, Peter; Segaert, Katrien

    2016-01-01

    The way we talk can influence how we are perceived by others. Whereas previous studies have started to explore the influence of social goals on syntactic alignment, in the current study, we additionally investigated whether syntactic alignment effectively influences conversation partners' perception of the speaker. To this end, we developed a novel paradigm in which we can measure the effect of social goals on the strength of syntactic alignment for one participant (primed participant), while simultaneously obtaining usable social opinions about them from their conversation partner (the evaluator). In Study 1, participants' desire to be rated favorably by their partner was manipulated by assigning pairs to a Control (i.e., primed participants did not know they were being evaluated) or Evaluation context (i.e., primed participants knew they were being evaluated). Surprisingly, results showed no significant difference in the strength with which primed participants aligned their syntactic choices with their partners' choices. In a follow-up study, we used a Directed Evaluation context (i.e., primed participants knew they were being evaluated and were explicitly instructed to make a positive impression). However, again, there was no evidence supporting the hypothesis that participants' desire to impress their partner influences syntactic alignment. With respect to the influence of syntactic alignment on perceived likeability by the evaluator, a negative relationship was reported in Study 1: the more primed participants aligned their syntactic choices with their partner, the more that partner decreased their likeability rating after the experiment. However, this effect was not replicated in the Directed Evaluation context of Study 2. In other words, our results do not support the conclusion that speakers' desire to be liked affects how much they align their syntactic choices with their partner, nor is there convincing evidence that there is a reliable relationship

  7. Influence of L2 Proficiency on Speech Movement Variability: Production of Prosodic Contrasts by Bengali-English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakraborty, Rahul

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of age of immersion and proficiency in a second language on speech movement consistency in both a first and a second language. Ten monolingual speakers of English and 20 Bengali-English bilinguals (10 with low L2 proficiency and 10 with high L2 proficiency) participated. Lip movement variability was assessed based…

  8. Palatal Morphology Can Influence Speaker-Specific Realizations of Phonemic Contrasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weirich, Melanie; Fuchs, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to further explore the understanding of speaker-specific realizations of the /s/--/?/ contrast in German in relation to individual differences in palate shape. Method: Two articulatory experiments were carried out with German native speakers. In the first experiment, 4 monozygotic and 2 dizygotic twin pairs…

  9. Does Syntactic Alignment Effectively Influence How Speakers Are Perceived by Their Conversation Partner?

    PubMed Central

    Schoot, Lotte; Heyselaar, Evelien; Hagoort, Peter; Segaert, Katrien

    2016-01-01

    The way we talk can influence how we are perceived by others. Whereas previous studies have started to explore the influence of social goals on syntactic alignment, in the current study, we additionally investigated whether syntactic alignment effectively influences conversation partners’ perception of the speaker. To this end, we developed a novel paradigm in which we can measure the effect of social goals on the strength of syntactic alignment for one participant (primed participant), while simultaneously obtaining usable social opinions about them from their conversation partner (the evaluator). In Study 1, participants’ desire to be rated favorably by their partner was manipulated by assigning pairs to a Control (i.e., primed participants did not know they were being evaluated) or Evaluation context (i.e., primed participants knew they were being evaluated). Surprisingly, results showed no significant difference in the strength with which primed participants aligned their syntactic choices with their partners’ choices. In a follow-up study, we used a Directed Evaluation context (i.e., primed participants knew they were being evaluated and were explicitly instructed to make a positive impression). However, again, there was no evidence supporting the hypothesis that participants’ desire to impress their partner influences syntactic alignment. With respect to the influence of syntactic alignment on perceived likeability by the evaluator, a negative relationship was reported in Study 1: the more primed participants aligned their syntactic choices with their partner, the more that partner decreased their likeability rating after the experiment. However, this effect was not replicated in the Directed Evaluation context of Study 2. In other words, our results do not support the conclusion that speakers’ desire to be liked affects how much they align their syntactic choices with their partner, nor is there convincing evidence that there is a reliable

  10. Native English Speakers' Perception of Arabic Emphatic Consonants and the Influence of Vowel Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Durham, Kristie

    2016-01-01

    Native English speakers experience difficulty acquiring Arabic emphatic consonants. Arabic language textbooks have suggested that learners focus on adjacent vowels for cues to these consonants; however, the utility of such a strategy has not been empirically tested. This study investigated the perception of Arabic emphatic-plain contrasts by means…

  11. Influence of the intentional voice quality on the impression of female speaker.

    PubMed

    Lukkarila, Päivi; Laukkanen, Anne-Maria; Palo, Pertti

    2012-12-01

    This study examines the relationship of voice quality and speech-based personality assessment of Finnish-speaking female speakers. Five Finnish-speaking female subjects recorded a text passage with eight different vocal qualities. Samples that passed the preselection test for the voice qualities were played to 50 Finnish-speaking listeners, who reported speaker impressions on a scale of 18 opposite trait pairs. Voices produced with forward placement received assessments of femininity and friendliness. Readers speaking with backward placement were considered less feminine, while breathy voice evoked assessments of emotionality and implausibility. Tense phonation as well as creakiness, nasality, and denasality gave rise to numerous negative notions. The results suggest that voice stereotypes have both internationality and cultural dependency. PMID:22616785

  12. The Influence of the Pinyin and Zhuyin Writing Systems on the Acquisition of Mandarin Word Forms by Native English Speakers

    PubMed Central

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Cheng, Hui-Wen

    2016-01-01

    The role of written input in second language (L2) phonological and lexical acquisition has received increased attention in recent years. Here we investigated the influence of two factors that may moderate the influence of orthography on L2 word form learning: (i) whether the writing system is shared by the native language and the L2, and (ii) if the writing system is shared, whether the relevant grapheme-phoneme correspondences are also shared. The acquisition of Mandarin via the Pinyin and Zhuyin writing systems provides an ecologically valid opportunity to explore these factors. We first asked whether there is a difference in native English speakers' ability to learn Pinyin and Zhuyin grapheme-phoneme correspondences. In Experiment 1, native English speakers assigned to either Pinyin or Zhuyin groups were exposed to Mandarin words belonging to one of two conditions: in the “congruent” condition, the Pinyin forms are possible English spellings for the auditory words (e.g., < nai> for [nai]); in the “incongruent” condition, the Pinyin forms involve a familiar grapheme representing a novel phoneme (e.g., < xiu> for [ɕiou]). At test, participants were asked to indicate whether auditory and written forms matched; in the crucial trials, the written forms from training (e.g., < xiu>) were paired with possible English pronunciations of the Pinyin written forms (e.g., [ziou]). Experiment 2 was identical to Experiment 1 except that participants additionally saw pictures depicting word meanings during the exposure phase, and at test were asked to match auditory forms with the pictures. In both experiments the Zhuyin group outperformed the Pinyin group due to the Pinyin group's difficulty with “incongruent” items. A third experiment confirmed that the groups did not differ in their ability to perceptually distinguish the relevant Mandarin consonants (e.g., [ɕ]) from the foils (e.g., [z]), suggesting that the findings of Experiments 1 and 2 can be attributed to

  13. The Influence of the Pinyin and Zhuyin Writing Systems on the Acquisition of Mandarin Word Forms by Native English Speakers.

    PubMed

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Cheng, Hui-Wen

    2016-01-01

    The role of written input in second language (L2) phonological and lexical acquisition has received increased attention in recent years. Here we investigated the influence of two factors that may moderate the influence of orthography on L2 word form learning: (i) whether the writing system is shared by the native language and the L2, and (ii) if the writing system is shared, whether the relevant grapheme-phoneme correspondences are also shared. The acquisition of Mandarin via the Pinyin and Zhuyin writing systems provides an ecologically valid opportunity to explore these factors. We first asked whether there is a difference in native English speakers' ability to learn Pinyin and Zhuyin grapheme-phoneme correspondences. In Experiment 1, native English speakers assigned to either Pinyin or Zhuyin groups were exposed to Mandarin words belonging to one of two conditions: in the "congruent" condition, the Pinyin forms are possible English spellings for the auditory words (e.g., < nai> for [nai]); in the "incongruent" condition, the Pinyin forms involve a familiar grapheme representing a novel phoneme (e.g., < xiu> for [ɕiou]). At test, participants were asked to indicate whether auditory and written forms matched; in the crucial trials, the written forms from training (e.g., < xiu>) were paired with possible English pronunciations of the Pinyin written forms (e.g., [ziou]). Experiment 2 was identical to Experiment 1 except that participants additionally saw pictures depicting word meanings during the exposure phase, and at test were asked to match auditory forms with the pictures. In both experiments the Zhuyin group outperformed the Pinyin group due to the Pinyin group's difficulty with "incongruent" items. A third experiment confirmed that the groups did not differ in their ability to perceptually distinguish the relevant Mandarin consonants (e.g., [ɕ]) from the foils (e.g., [z]), suggesting that the findings of Experiments 1 and 2 can be attributed to the effects

  14. The Influence of the Pinyin and Zhuyin Writing Systems on the Acquisition of Mandarin Word Forms by Native English Speakers.

    PubMed

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Cheng, Hui-Wen

    2016-01-01

    The role of written input in second language (L2) phonological and lexical acquisition has received increased attention in recent years. Here we investigated the influence of two factors that may moderate the influence of orthography on L2 word form learning: (i) whether the writing system is shared by the native language and the L2, and (ii) if the writing system is shared, whether the relevant grapheme-phoneme correspondences are also shared. The acquisition of Mandarin via the Pinyin and Zhuyin writing systems provides an ecologically valid opportunity to explore these factors. We first asked whether there is a difference in native English speakers' ability to learn Pinyin and Zhuyin grapheme-phoneme correspondences. In Experiment 1, native English speakers assigned to either Pinyin or Zhuyin groups were exposed to Mandarin words belonging to one of two conditions: in the "congruent" condition, the Pinyin forms are possible English spellings for the auditory words (e.g., < nai> for [nai]); in the "incongruent" condition, the Pinyin forms involve a familiar grapheme representing a novel phoneme (e.g., < xiu> for [ɕiou]). At test, participants were asked to indicate whether auditory and written forms matched; in the crucial trials, the written forms from training (e.g., < xiu>) were paired with possible English pronunciations of the Pinyin written forms (e.g., [ziou]). Experiment 2 was identical to Experiment 1 except that participants additionally saw pictures depicting word meanings during the exposure phase, and at test were asked to match auditory forms with the pictures. In both experiments the Zhuyin group outperformed the Pinyin group due to the Pinyin group's difficulty with "incongruent" items. A third experiment confirmed that the groups did not differ in their ability to perceptually distinguish the relevant Mandarin consonants (e.g., [ɕ]) from the foils (e.g., [z]), suggesting that the findings of Experiments 1 and 2 can be attributed to the effects

  15. Imperfect Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulcahy, Betty

    1975-01-01

    Examines the art of professional verse speaking and suggests the creation of standards for the training of specialized speakers. Available from: Speech and Drama, Anthony Jackman, Editor, 205 Ashby Road, Loughborough, Leics LE11 3AD. Subscription Rates: non-members (USA) $6.00 p.a.; singles $2.50 surface post free. (MH)

  16. The Immediate and Chronic Influence of Spatio-Temporal Metaphors on the Mental Representations of Time in English, Mandarin, and Mandarin-English Speakers

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Vicky Tzuyin; Boroditsky, Lera

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examine whether experience with spatial metaphors for time has an influence on people’s representation of time. In particular we ask whether spatio-temporal metaphors can have both chronic and immediate effects on temporal thinking. In Study 1, we examine the prevalence of ego-moving representations for time in Mandarin speakers, English speakers, and Mandarin-English (ME) bilinguals. As predicted by observations in linguistic analyses, we find that Mandarin speakers are less likely to take an ego-moving perspective than are English speakers. Further, we find that ME bilinguals tested in English are less likely to take an ego-moving perspective than are English monolinguals (an effect of L1 on meaning-making in L2), and also that ME bilinguals tested in Mandarin are more likely to take an ego-moving perspective than are Mandarin monolinguals (an effect of L2 on meaning-making in L1). These findings demonstrate that habits of metaphor use in one language can influence temporal reasoning in another language, suggesting the metaphors can have a chronic effect on patterns in thought. In Study 2 we test Mandarin speakers using either horizontal or vertical metaphors in the immediate context of the task. We find that Mandarin speakers are more likely to construct front-back representations of time when understanding front-back metaphors, and more likely to construct up-down representations of time when understanding up-down metaphors. These findings demonstrate that spatio-temporal metaphors can also have an immediate influence on temporal reasoning. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the metaphors we use to talk about time have both immediate and long-term consequences for how we conceptualize and reason about this fundamental domain of experience. PMID:23630505

  17. The influence of visual speech information on the intelligibility of English consonants produced by non-native speakers.

    PubMed

    Kawase, Saya; Hannah, Beverly; Wang, Yue

    2014-09-01

    This study examines how visual speech information affects native judgments of the intelligibility of speech sounds produced by non-native (L2) speakers. Native Canadian English perceivers as judges perceived three English phonemic contrasts (/b-v, θ-s, l-ɹ/) produced by native Japanese speakers as well as native Canadian English speakers as controls. These stimuli were presented under audio-visual (AV, with speaker voice and face), audio-only (AO), and visual-only (VO) conditions. The results showed that, across conditions, the overall intelligibility of Japanese productions of the native (Japanese)-like phonemes (/b, s, l/) was significantly higher than the non-Japanese phonemes (/v, θ, ɹ/). In terms of visual effects, the more visually salient non-Japanese phonemes /v, θ/ were perceived as significantly more intelligible when presented in the AV compared to the AO condition, indicating enhanced intelligibility when visual speech information is available. However, the non-Japanese phoneme /ɹ/ was perceived as less intelligible in the AV compared to the AO condition. Further analysis revealed that, unlike the native English productions, the Japanese speakers produced /ɹ/ without visible lip-rounding, indicating that non-native speakers' incorrect articulatory configurations may decrease the degree of intelligibility. These results suggest that visual speech information may either positively or negatively affect L2 speech intelligibility. PMID:25190408

  18. Quality of "Glottal" Stops in Tracheoesophageal Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Rossum, M. A.; van As-Brooks, C. J.; Hilgers, F. J. M.; Roozen, M.

    2009-01-01

    Glottal stops are conveyed by an abrupt constriction at the level of the glottis. Tracheoesophageal (TE) speakers are known to have poor control over the new voice source (neoglottis), and this might influence the production of "glottal" stops. This study investigated how TE speakers realized "glottal" stops in abutting words that end and begin…

  19. Partially supervised speaker clustering.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hao; Chu, Stephen Mingyu; Hasegawa-Johnson, Mark; Huang, Thomas S

    2012-05-01

    Content-based multimedia indexing, retrieval, and processing as well as multimedia databases demand the structuring of the media content (image, audio, video, text, etc.), one significant goal being to associate the identity of the content to the individual segments of the signals. In this paper, we specifically address the problem of speaker clustering, the task of assigning every speech utterance in an audio stream to its speaker. We offer a complete treatment to the idea of partially supervised speaker clustering, which refers to the use of our prior knowledge of speakers in general to assist the unsupervised speaker clustering process. By means of an independent training data set, we encode the prior knowledge at the various stages of the speaker clustering pipeline via 1) learning a speaker-discriminative acoustic feature transformation, 2) learning a universal speaker prior model, and 3) learning a discriminative speaker subspace, or equivalently, a speaker-discriminative distance metric. We study the directional scattering property of the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) mean supervector representation of utterances in the high-dimensional space, and advocate exploiting this property by using the cosine distance metric instead of the euclidean distance metric for speaker clustering in the GMM mean supervector space. We propose to perform discriminant analysis based on the cosine distance metric, which leads to a novel distance metric learning algorithm—linear spherical discriminant analysis (LSDA). We show that the proposed LSDA formulation can be systematically solved within the elegant graph embedding general dimensionality reduction framework. Our speaker clustering experiments on the GALE database clearly indicate that 1) our speaker clustering methods based on the GMM mean supervector representation and vector-based distance metrics outperform traditional speaker clustering methods based on the “bag of acoustic features” representation and statistical

  20. English Speakers Attend More Strongly than Spanish Speakers to Manner of Motion when Classifying Novel Objects and Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kersten, Alan W.; Meissner, Christian A.; Lechuga, Julia; Schwartz, Bennett L.; Albrechtsen, Justin S.; Iglesias, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Three experiments provide evidence that the conceptualization of moving objects and events is influenced by one's native language, consistent with linguistic relativity theory. Monolingual English speakers and bilingual Spanish/English speakers tested in an English-speaking context performed better than monolingual Spanish speakers and bilingual…

  1. All giraffes have female-specific properties: influence of grammatical gender on deductive reasoning about sex-specific properties in German speakers.

    PubMed

    Imai, Mutsumi; Schalk, Lennart; Saalbach, Henrik; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2014-04-01

    Grammatical gender is independent of biological sex for the majority of animal names (e.g., any giraffe, be it male or female, is grammatically treated as feminine). However, there is apparent semantic motivation for grammatical gender classes, especially in mapping human terms to gender. This research investigated whether this motivation affects deductive inference in native German speakers. We compared German with Japanese speakers (a language without grammatical gender) when making inferences about sex-specific biological properties. We found that German speakers tended to erroneously draw inferences when the sex in the premise and grammatical gender of the target animal agreed. An over-generalization of the grammar-semantics mapping was found even when the sex of the target was explicitly indicated. However, these effects occurred only when gender-marking articles accompanied the nouns. These results suggest that German speakers project sex-specific biological properties onto gender-marking articles but not onto conceptual representations of animals per se.

  2. Standards for Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, William D.

    1981-01-01

    Enumerates criteria for the selection of audio system speaker equipment for archivists interested in achieving sound reproduction fidelity, noting frequency response, flat response, intermodulation distortion, arrival time, and placement of equipment. Illustrative materials and three references are provided. (EJS)

  3. Reflecting on Native Speaker Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    The issues surrounding native speakers (NSs) and nonnative speakers (NNSs) as teachers (NESTs and NNESTs, respectively) in the field of teaching English to speakers of other languages (TESOL) are a current topic of interest. In many contexts, the native speaker of English is viewed as the model teacher, thus putting the NEST into a position of…

  4. Native and Nonnative Interpretation of Pronominal Forms: Evidence from French and Turkish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schimke, Sarah; Colonna, Saveria

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the influence of grammatical role and discourse-level cues on the interpretation of different pronominal forms in native speakers of French, native speakers of Turkish, and Turkish learners of French. In written questionnaires, we found that native speakers of French were influenced by discourse-level cues when interpreting…

  5. All giraffes have female-specific properties: influence of grammatical gender on deductive reasoning about sex-specific properties in German speakers.

    PubMed

    Imai, Mutsumi; Schalk, Lennart; Saalbach, Henrik; Okada, Hiroyuki

    2014-04-01

    Grammatical gender is independent of biological sex for the majority of animal names (e.g., any giraffe, be it male or female, is grammatically treated as feminine). However, there is apparent semantic motivation for grammatical gender classes, especially in mapping human terms to gender. This research investigated whether this motivation affects deductive inference in native German speakers. We compared German with Japanese speakers (a language without grammatical gender) when making inferences about sex-specific biological properties. We found that German speakers tended to erroneously draw inferences when the sex in the premise and grammatical gender of the target animal agreed. An over-generalization of the grammar-semantics mapping was found even when the sex of the target was explicitly indicated. However, these effects occurred only when gender-marking articles accompanied the nouns. These results suggest that German speakers project sex-specific biological properties onto gender-marking articles but not onto conceptual representations of animals per se. PMID:23957504

  6. Videotaped Presentations by Blind Speakers as Attitudinal Change Agents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safran, Stephen P.; Safran, Joan S.

    1986-01-01

    Determined whether a videotaped presentation by a speaker who is blind would more positively influence attitude change and information retention than would a presentation by a sighted speaker. Findings suggested that there were no significant main effects for either presenter or pretest conditions on the measures. (Author/BL)

  7. Co-verbal gestures among speakers with aphasia: Influence of aphasia severity, linguistic and semantic skills, and hemiplegia on gesture employment in oral discourse

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Law, Sam-Po; Wat, Watson Ka-Chun; Lai, Christy

    2015-01-01

    The use of co-verbal gestures is common in human communication and has been reported to assist word retrieval and to facilitate verbal interactions. This study systematically investigated the impact of aphasia severity, integrity of semantic processing, and hemiplegia on the use of co-verbal gestures, with reference to gesture forms and functions, by 131 normal speakers, 48 individuals with aphasia and their controls. All participants were native Cantonese speakers. It was found that the severity of aphasia and verbal-semantic impairment was associated with significantly more co-verbal gestures. However, there was no relationship between right-sided hemiplegia and gesture employment. Moreover, significantly more gestures were employed by the speakers with aphasia, but about 10% of them did not gesture. Among those who used gestures, content-carrying gestures, including iconic, metaphoric, deictic gestures, and emblems, served the function of enhancing language content and providing information additional to the language content. As for the non-content carrying gestures, beats were used primarily for reinforcing speech prosody or guiding speech flow, while non-identifiable gestures were associated with assisting lexical retrieval or with no specific functions. The above findings would enhance our understanding of the use of various forms of co-verbal gestures in aphasic discourse production and their functions. Speech-language pathologists may also refer to the current annotation system and the results to guide clinical evaluation and remediation of gestures in aphasia. PMID:26186256

  8. The Perception and Representation of Segmental and Prosodic Mandarin Contrasts in Native Speakers of Cantonese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G.; Liu, Siyun

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has found that a speaker's native phonological system has a great influence on perception of another language. In three experiments, we tested the perception and representation of Mandarin phonological contrasts by Guangzhou Cantonese speakers, and compared their performance to that of native Mandarin speakers. Despite their rich…

  9. Optimization of multilayer neural network parameters for speaker recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tovarek, Jaromir; Partila, Pavol; Rozhon, Jan; Voznak, Miroslav; Skapa, Jan; Uhrin, Dominik; Chmelikova, Zdenka

    2016-05-01

    This article discusses the impact of multilayer neural network parameters for speaker identification. The main task of speaker identification is to find a specific person in the known set of speakers. It means that the voice of an unknown speaker (wanted person) belongs to a group of reference speakers from the voice database. One of the requests was to develop the text-independent system, which means to classify wanted person regardless of content and language. Multilayer neural network has been used for speaker identification in this research. Artificial neural network (ANN) needs to set parameters like activation function of neurons, steepness of activation functions, learning rate, the maximum number of iterations and a number of neurons in the hidden and output layers. ANN accuracy and validation time are directly influenced by the parameter settings. Different roles require different settings. Identification accuracy and ANN validation time were evaluated with the same input data but different parameter settings. The goal was to find parameters for the neural network with the highest precision and shortest validation time. Input data of neural networks are a Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC). These parameters describe the properties of the vocal tract. Audio samples were recorded for all speakers in a laboratory environment. Training, testing and validation data set were split into 70, 15 and 15 %. The result of the research described in this article is different parameter setting for the multilayer neural network for four speakers.

  10. Native Speaker-Nonnative Speaker Interaction among Academic Peers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaies, Stephen J.

    The study investigates whether input and interaction features which previous research has identified as characteristic of native speaker (NS) - nonnative speaker (NNS) speech (features which occur more frequently in NS-NNS speech than in speech between NSs) will occur with equal frequency in NS-NNS speech settings in which the NNSs have…

  11. Spelling and dialect: comparisons between speakers of African American vernacular English and White speakers.

    PubMed

    Treiman, Rebecca

    2004-04-01

    One characteristic of African American vernacular English (AAVE) is final obstruent devoicing, where the final consonant of a word like rigid is pronounced more like /t/ than /d/. To determine whether this dialect characteristic influences adults' spelling, African American and White college students spelled words such as rigid and ballot, pronounced by either a speaker of their own dialect or a speaker of the other dialect. African Americans, especially those who often devoiced final /d/, were more likely than Whites to confuse d and t. Both African American and White spellers made more d/t confusions when the words were spoken by an African American experimenter than by a White experimenter. Thus, the different phonological systems of AAVE and White speakers can cause them to make different types of spelling errors. Discussions of AAVE and literacy have focused on its syntax, but its phonology must also be considered.

  12. The speaker as listener.

    PubMed

    Lodhi, S; Greer, R D

    1989-05-01

    This study reports the results of an experiment with 4 female 5-year-old children, in which the verbal behavior of the children (talking to themselves) was studied under two conditions-an anthropomorphic toy condition and a nonanthropomorphic toy condition. The anthropomorphic condition consisted of three-dimensional toys such as dolls, stuffed animals, and figurines. The nonanthropomorphic toy condition consisted of two-dimensional materials such as puzzles, coloring books, and story books. The independent variables were the toy conditions. The dependent variables were verbal-behavior units; these included mands, tacts, intraverbals, autoclitics, and conversational units. The conditions were compared using a multiple schedule design. The results showed that more total units occurred in the anthropomorphic toy condition than in the nonanthropomorphic toy condition and that conversational units occurred in the anthropomorphic condition only. Consistent with Skinner's (1957) hypothesis, the children acted as both speaker and listener when emitting verbal behavior to themselves in the anthropomorphic condition. PMID:16812582

  13. Additive attacks on speaker recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrokh Baroughi, Alireza; Craver, Scott

    2014-02-01

    Speaker recognition is used to identify a speaker's voice from among a group of known speakers. A common method of speaker recognition is a classification based on cepstral coefficients of the speaker's voice, using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM) to model each speaker. In this paper we try to fool a speaker recognition system using additive noise such that an intruder is recognized as a target user. Our attack uses a mixture selected from a target user's GMM model, inverting the cepstral transformation to produce noise samples. In our 5 speaker data base, we achieve an attack success rate of 50% with a noise signal at 10dB SNR, and 95% by increasing noise power to 0dB SNR. The importance of this attack is its simplicity and flexibility: it can be employed in real time with no processing of an attacker's voice, and little computation is needed at the moment of detection, allowing the attack to be performed by a small portable device. For any target user, knowing that user's model or voice sample is sufficient to compute the attack signal, and it is enough that the intruder plays it while he/she is uttering to be classiffed as the victim.

  14. The High Fidelity Plasma Speaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGall, James

    2014-10-01

    A plasma speaker is a device that uses ionized gas as the driving source of sound production, rather than the traditional magnetic coil and membrane setup found on a standard speaker. Similar to how lightning produces sound, or even a small static shock, a plasma speaker uses a modulating electric arc between two electrodes to produce sound. An electric circuit is built that allows the variance of the high voltage electric potential to be controlled by a 3.5 mm standard audio headphone jack, allowing sound energy to be transferred from the plasma to the air by means of pulse width modulation. For my summer project I have built two different models of plasma speakers and am working on a third. The speaker benefits from having a nearly massless driver, and I hypothesize that it should show a response rate faster than that of a traditional speaker and a decreased impulse response while having the drawbacks of inefficiency and a low maximum decibel output. The speakers are currently being optimized with magnetic stabilization of the plasma and will be tested soon for impulse response, frequency generation, efficiency, and audio coloration. Bridges for SUCCESS Grant at Salisbury University under Ph.D. Matthew Bailey.

  15. Perception of speaker size and sex of vowel sounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David R. R.; Patterson, Roy D.

    2005-04-01

    Glottal-pulse rate (GPR) and vocal-tract length (VTL) are both related to speaker size and sex-however, it is unclear how they interact to determine our perception of speaker size and sex. Experiments were designed to measure the relative contribution of GPR and VTL to judgements of speaker size and sex. Vowels were scaled to represent people with different GPRs and VTLs, including many well beyond the normal population values. In a single interval, two response rating paradigm, listeners judged the size (using a 7-point scale) and sex/age of the speaker (man, woman, boy, or girl) of these scaled vowels. Results from the size-rating experiments show that VTL has a much greater influence upon judgements of speaker size than GPR. Results from the sex-categorization experiments show that judgements of speaker sex are influenced about equally by GPR and VTL for vowels with normal GPR and VTL values. For abnormal combinations of GPR and VTL, where low GPRs are combined with short VTLs, VTL has more influence than GPR in sex judgements. [Work supported by the UK MRC (G9901257) and the German Volkswagen Foundation (VWF 1/79 783).

  16. A language-familiarity effect for speaker discrimination without comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, David; Giordano, Bruno L.; Caldara, Roberto; Belin, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    The influence of language familiarity upon speaker identification is well established, to such an extent that it has been argued that “Human voice recognition depends on language ability” [Perrachione TK, Del Tufo SN, Gabrieli JDE (2011) Science 333(6042):595]. However, 7-mo-old infants discriminate speakers of their mother tongue better than they do foreign speakers [Johnson EK, Westrek E, Nazzi T, Cutler A (2011) Dev Sci 14(5):1002–1011] despite their limited speech comprehension abilities, suggesting that speaker discrimination may rely on familiarity with the sound structure of one’s native language rather than the ability to comprehend speech. To test this hypothesis, we asked Chinese and English adult participants to rate speaker dissimilarity in pairs of sentences in English or Mandarin that were first time-reversed to render them unintelligible. Even in these conditions a language-familiarity effect was observed: Both Chinese and English listeners rated pairs of native-language speakers as more dissimilar than foreign-language speakers, despite their inability to understand the material. Our data indicate that the language familiarity effect is not based on comprehension but rather on familiarity with the phonology of one’s native language. This effect may stem from a mechanism analogous to the “other-race” effect in face recognition. PMID:25201950

  17. Factors Influencing Oral Corrective Feedback Provision in the Spanish Foreign Language Classroom: Investigating Instructor Native/Nonnative Speaker Status, SLA Education, & Teaching Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurzynski-Weiss, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The role of interactional feedback has been a critical area of second language acquisition (SLA) research for decades and while findings suggest interactional feedback can facilitate SLA, the extent of its influence can vary depending on a number of factors, including the native language of those involved in communication. Although studies have…

  18. Intonation and gender perception: applications for transgender speakers.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Adrienne; Colton, Lindsey; Douglas, Fiacre

    2014-03-01

    Intonation is commonly addressed in voice and communication feminization therapy, yet empirical evidence of gender differences for intonation is scarce and rarely do studies examine how it relates to gender perception of transgender speakers. This study examined intonation of 12 males, 12 females, six female-to-male, and 14 male-to-female transgender speakers describing a Norman Rockwell image. Several intonation measures were compared between biological gender groups, between perceived gender groups, and between male-to-female (MTF) speakers who were perceived as male, female, or ambiguous gender. Speakers with a larger percentage of utterances with upward intonation and a larger utterance semitone range were perceived as female by listeners, despite no significant differences between the actual intonation of the four gender groups. MTF speakers who do not pass as female appear to use less upward and more downward intonations than female and passing MTF speakers. Intonation has potential for use in transgender communication therapy because it can influence perception to some degree.

  19. Speaker identification utilizing noncontemporary speech.

    PubMed

    Hollien, H; Schwartz, R

    2001-01-01

    The noncontemporariness of speech is important to both of the two general approaches to speaker identification. Ear-witness identification is one of them; in that instance, the time at which the identification is made is noncontemporary. A substantial amount of research has been carried out on this relationship and it now is well established that an auditor's memory for a voice decays sharply over time. It is the second approach to speaker identification which is of present interest. In this case, samples of a speaker's utterances are obtained at different points in time. For example, a threat call will be recorded and then sometime later (often very much later), a suspect' s exemplar recording will be obtained. In this instance, it is the speech samples that are noncontemporary and they are the materials that are subjected to some form of speaker identification. Prevailing opinion is that noncontemporary speech itself poses just as difficult a challenge to the identification process as does the listener's memory decay in earwitness identification. Accordingly, series of aural-perceptual speaker identification projects were carried out on noncontemporary speech: first, two with latencies of 4 and 8 weeks followed by 4 and 32 weeks plus two more with the pairs separated by 6 and 20 years. Mean correct noncontemporary identification initially dropped to 75-80% at week 4 and this general level was sustained for up to six years. It was only after 20 years had elapsed that a significant drop (to 33%) was noted. It can be concluded that a listener's competency in identifying noncontemporary speech samples will show only modest decay over rather substantial periods of time and, hence, this factor should have only a minimal negative effect on the speaker identification process.

  20. Racializing the Nonnative English Speaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuck, Gail

    2006-01-01

    This article identifies some discursive processes by which White, middle-class, native-English-speaking, U.S.-born college students draw on a monolingualist ideology and position themselves and others within a language-race-nationality matrix. These processes construct the speakers' Whiteness and nativeness in English as unmarked and normal; mark…

  1. The Arctic Visiting Speakers Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiggins, H. V.; Fahnestock, J.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic Visiting Speakers Program (AVS) is a program of the Arctic Research Consortium of the U.S. (ARCUS) and funded by the National Science Foundation. AVS provides small grants to researchers and other Arctic experts to travel and share their knowledge in communities where they might not otherwise connect. The program aims to: initiate and encourage arctic science education in communities with little exposure to arctic research; increase collaboration among the arctic research community; nurture communication between arctic researchers and community residents; and foster arctic science education at the local level. Individuals, community organizations, and academic organizations can apply to host a speaker. Speakers cover a wide range of arctic topics and can address a variety of audiences including K-12 students, graduate and undergraduate students, and the general public. Preference is given to tours that reach broad and varied audiences, especially those targeted to underserved populations. Between October 2000 and July 2013, AVS supported 114 tours spanning 9 different countries, including tours in 23 U.S. states. Tours over the past three and a half years have connected Arctic experts with over 6,600 audience members. Post-tour evaluations show that AVS consistently rates high for broadening interest and understanding of arctic issues. AVS provides a case study for how face-to-face interactions between arctic scientists and general audiences can produce high-impact results. Further information can be found at: http://www.arcus.org/arctic-visiting-speakers.

  2. Video classification using speaker identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Nilesh V.; Sethi, Ishwar K.

    1997-01-01

    Video content characterization is a challenging problem in video databases. The aim of such characterization is to generate indices that can describe a video clip in terms of objects and their actions in the clip. Generally, such indices are extracted by performing image analysis on the video clips. Many such indices can also be generated by analyzing the embedded audio information of video clips. Indices pertaining to context, scene emotion, and actors or characters present in a video clip appear especially suitable for generation via audio analysis techniques of keyword spotting, and speech and speaker recognition. In this paper, we examine the potential of speaker identification techniques for characterizing video clips in terms of actors present in them. We describe a three-stage processing system consisting of a shot boundary detection stage, an audio classification stage, and a speaker identification stage to determine the presence of different actors in isolated shots. Experimental results using the movie A Few Good Men are presented to show the efficacy of speaker identification for labeling video clips in terms of persons present in them.

  3. Physiological Indices of Bilingualism: Oral-Motor Coordination and Speech Rate in Bengali-English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakraborty, Rahul; Goffman, Lisa; Smith, Anne

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To examine how age of immersion and proficiency in a 2nd language influence speech movement variability and speaking rate in both a 1st language and a 2nd language. Method: A group of 21 Bengali-English bilingual speakers participated. Lip and jaw movements were recorded. For all 21 speakers, lip movement variability was assessed based on…

  4. Sociolinguistic Implications of the Phonological Variations of Black and White Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Joyce F.

    The major objectives of this investigation were to measure (1) the effects of phonological variations of representative speakers on the social perceptions of college student listeners from socially diverse backgrounds; (2) the influence of the race and class of the listeners upon their attitudes toward dialect differences and toward the speakers;…

  5. Bridging Gaps in Common Ground: Speakers Design Their Gestures for Their Listeners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilliard, Caitlin; Cook, Susan Wagner

    2016-01-01

    Communication is shaped both by what we are trying to say and by whom we are saying it to. We examined whether and how shared information influences the gestures speakers produce along with their speech. Unlike prior work examining effects of common ground on speech and gesture, we examined a situation in which some speakers have the same amount…

  6. Speaker Input Variability Does Not Explain Why Larger Populations Have Simpler Languages

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Mark; Kirby, Simon; Smith, Kenny

    2015-01-01

    A learner’s linguistic input is more variable if it comes from a greater number of speakers. Higher speaker input variability has been shown to facilitate the acquisition of phonemic boundaries, since data drawn from multiple speakers provides more information about the distribution of phonemes in a speech community. It has also been proposed that speaker input variability may have a systematic influence on individual-level learning of morphology, which can in turn influence the group-level characteristics of a language. Languages spoken by larger groups of people have less complex morphology than those spoken in smaller communities. While a mechanism by which the number of speakers could have such an effect is yet to be convincingly identified, differences in speaker input variability, which is thought to be larger in larger groups, may provide an explanation. By hindering the acquisition, and hence faithful cross-generational transfer, of complex morphology, higher speaker input variability may result in structural simplification. We assess this claim in two experiments which investigate the effect of such variability on language learning, considering its influence on a learner’s ability to segment a continuous speech stream and acquire a morphologically complex miniature language. We ultimately find no evidence to support the proposal that speaker input variability influences language learning and so cannot support the hypothesis that it explains how population size determines the structural properties of language. PMID:26057624

  7. Acquisition of English Verb Transitivity by Native Speakers of Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagano, Tomonori

    2012-01-01

    This study is concerned with the acquisition of English verb transitivity by native speakers of Japanese. Both a verb's semantic class (Levin, 1993; Pinker, 1989) and its frequency (Ambridge et al., 2008) have been proposed to influence the acquisition of verbs in L1. For example, verbs whose meaning entails change-of-location or…

  8. How Do Speakers Avoid Ambiguous Linguistic Expressions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, V.S.; Slevc, L.R.; Rogers, E.S.

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments assessed how speakers avoid linguistically and nonlinguistically ambiguous expressions. Speakers described target objects (a flying mammal, bat) in contexts including foil objects that caused linguistic (a baseball bat) and nonlinguistic (a larger flying mammal) ambiguity. Speakers sometimes avoided linguistic-ambiguity, and they…

  9. Speaker Identity Supports Phonetic Category Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mani, Nivedita; Schneider, Signe

    2013-01-01

    Visual cues from the speaker's face, such as the discriminable mouth movements used to produce speech sounds, improve discrimination of these sounds by adults. The speaker's face, however, provides more information than just the mouth movements used to produce speech--it also provides a visual indexical cue of the identity of the speaker. The…

  10. Embodied Communication: Speakers' Gestures Affect Listeners' Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Susan Wagner; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2009-01-01

    We explored how speakers and listeners use hand gestures as a source of perceptual-motor information during naturalistic communication. After solving the Tower of Hanoi task either with real objects or on a computer, speakers explained the task to listeners. Speakers' hand gestures, but not their speech, reflected properties of the particular…

  11. Native Speakers' Perceptions of Nonnative Speakers: Related to Phonetic Errors and Spoken Grammatical Errors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ruth; Jenks, Frederick L.

    A study investigated the perceptions of native English-speakers concerning the spoken grammatical and phonetic (accent) errors of non-native speakers. Speech samples were collected from three non-native speakers of English of varied linguistic backgrounds (German, Spanish, and Arabic) and one speaker of North American English. Each of the four…

  12. Perceptual prothesis in native Spanish speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodore, Rachel M.; Schmidt, Anna M.

    2003-04-01

    Previous research suggests a perceptual bias exists for native phonotactics [D. Massaro and M. Cohen, Percept. Psychophys. 34, 338-348 (1983)] such that listeners report nonexistent segments when listening to stimuli that violate native phonotactics [E. Dupoux, K. Kakehi, Y. Hirose, C. Pallier, and J. Mehler, J. Exp. Psychol.: Human Percept. Perform. 25, 1568-1578 (1999)]. This study investigated how native-language experience affects second language processing, focusing on how native Spanish speakers perceive the English clusters /st/, /sp/, and /sk/, which represent phonotactically illegal forms in Spanish. To preserve native phonotactics, Spanish speakers often produce prothetic vowels before English words beginning with /s/ clusters. Is the influence of native phonotactics also present in the perception of illegal clusters? A stimuli continuum ranging from no vowel (e.g., ``sku'') to a full vowel (e.g., ``esku'') before the cluster was used. Four final vowel contexts were used for each cluster, resulting in 12 sCV and 12 VsCV nonword endpoints. English and Spanish listeners were asked to discriminate between pairs differing in vowel duration and to identify the presence or absence of a vowel before the cluster. Results will be discussed in terms of implications for theories of second language speech perception.

  13. Speaker independent acoustic-to-articulatory inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, An

    Acoustic-to-articulatory inversion, the determination of articulatory parameters from acoustic signals, is a difficult but important problem for many speech processing applications, such as automatic speech recognition (ASR) and computer aided pronunciation training (CAPT). In recent years, several approaches have been successfully implemented for speaker dependent models with parallel acoustic and kinematic training data. However, in many practical applications inversion is needed for new speakers for whom no articulatory data is available. In order to address this problem, this dissertation introduces a novel speaker adaptation approach called Parallel Reference Speaker Weighting (PRSW), based on parallel acoustic and articulatory Hidden Markov Models (HMM). This approach uses a robust normalized articulatory space and palate referenced articulatory features combined with speaker-weighted adaptation to form an inversion mapping for new speakers that can accurately estimate articulatory trajectories. The proposed PRSW method is evaluated on the newly collected Marquette electromagnetic articulography -- Mandarin Accented English (EMA-MAE) corpus using 20 native English speakers. Cross-speaker inversion results show that given a good selection of reference speakers with consistent acoustic and articulatory patterns, the PRSW approach gives good speaker independent inversion performance even without kinematic training data.

  14. Bridging gaps in common ground: Speakers design their gestures for their listeners.

    PubMed

    Hilliard, Caitlin; Cook, Susan Wagner

    2016-01-01

    Communication is shaped both by what we are trying to say and by whom we are saying it to. We examined whether and how shared information influences the gestures speakers produce along with their speech. Unlike prior work examining effects of common ground on speech and gesture, we examined a situation in which some speakers have the same amount of mutually shared experience with their listener but the relevance of the information from shared experience is different for listeners in different conditions. Additionally, speakers and listeners in all conditions shared a visual perspective. Speakers and listeners solved a version of the Tower of Hanoi task together. Speakers then solved a second version of the task without the listener present with the manner of disk movement manipulated; the manner was either the same as or different from the version that had been solved with the listener present. Thus, speakers' knowledge of the relevance of shared knowledge was manipulated. We measured the content of speech along with the physical form and content of the accompanying hand gesture. Although speakers did not modulate their spoken language, speakers who knew their listeners had not previously experienced the appropriate manner of completion gestured higher in space, highlighting manner information, but without altering the physical gesture trajectory. Thus, gesture can be sensitive to the knowledge of listeners even when speech is not. Speakers' gestures can play an independent role in reflecting common ground between speakers and listeners, perhaps by simultaneously incorporating both speaker and listener perspectives. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26120773

  15. A Survey on Automatic Speaker Recognition Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saquib, Zia; Salam, Nirmala; Nair, Rekha P.; Pandey, Nipun; Joshi, Akanksha

    Human listeners are capable of identifying a speaker, over the telephone or an entryway out of sight, by listening to the voice of the speaker. Achieving this intrinsic human specific capability is a major challenge for Voice Biometrics. Like human listeners, voice biometrics uses the features of a person's voice to ascertain the speaker's identity. The best-known commercialized forms of voice Biometrics is Speaker Recognition System (SRS). Speaker recognition is the computing task of validating a user's claimed identity using characteristics extracted from their voices. This literature survey paper gives brief introduction on SRS, and then discusses general architecture of SRS, biometric standards relevant to voice/speech, typical applications of SRS, and current research in Speaker Recognition Systems. We have also surveyed various approaches for SRS.

  16. Magnetic Fluids Deliver Better Speaker Sound Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    In the 1960s, Glenn Research Center developed a magnetized fluid to draw rocket fuel into spacecraft engines while in space. Sony has incorporated the technology into its line of slim speakers by using the fluid as a liquid stand-in for the speaker's dampers, which prevent the speaker from blowing out while adding stability. The fluid helps to deliver more volume and hi-fidelity sound while reducing distortion.

  17. Target Speaker Detection with Concealed EEG Around the Ear.

    PubMed

    Mirkovic, Bojana; Bleichner, Martin G; De Vos, Maarten; Debener, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Target speaker identification is essential for speech enhancement algorithms in assistive devices aimed toward helping the hearing impaired. Several recent studies have reported that target speaker identification is possible through electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. If the EEG system could be reduced to acceptable size while retaining the signal quality, hearing aids could benefit from the integration with concealed EEG. To compare the performance of a multichannel around-the-ear EEG system with high-density cap EEG recordings an envelope tracking algorithm was applied in a competitive speaker paradigm. The data from 20 normal hearing listeners were concurrently collected from the traditional state-of-the-art laboratory wired EEG system and a wireless mobile EEG system with two bilaterally-placed around-the-ear electrode arrays (cEEGrids). The results show that the cEEGrid ear-EEG technology captured neural signals that allowed the identification of the attended speaker above chance-level, with 69.3% accuracy, while cap-EEG signals resulted in the accuracy of 84.8%. Further analyses investigated the influence of ear-EEG signal quality and revealed that the envelope tracking procedure was unaffected by variability in channel impedances. We conclude that the quality of concealed ear-EEG recordings as acquired with the cEEGrid array has potential to be used in the brain-computer interface steering of hearing aids. PMID:27512364

  18. Target Speaker Detection with Concealed EEG Around the Ear

    PubMed Central

    Mirkovic, Bojana; Bleichner, Martin G.; De Vos, Maarten; Debener, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Target speaker identification is essential for speech enhancement algorithms in assistive devices aimed toward helping the hearing impaired. Several recent studies have reported that target speaker identification is possible through electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. If the EEG system could be reduced to acceptable size while retaining the signal quality, hearing aids could benefit from the integration with concealed EEG. To compare the performance of a multichannel around-the-ear EEG system with high-density cap EEG recordings an envelope tracking algorithm was applied in a competitive speaker paradigm. The data from 20 normal hearing listeners were concurrently collected from the traditional state-of-the-art laboratory wired EEG system and a wireless mobile EEG system with two bilaterally-placed around-the-ear electrode arrays (cEEGrids). The results show that the cEEGrid ear-EEG technology captured neural signals that allowed the identification of the attended speaker above chance-level, with 69.3% accuracy, while cap-EEG signals resulted in the accuracy of 84.8%. Further analyses investigated the influence of ear-EEG signal quality and revealed that the envelope tracking procedure was unaffected by variability in channel impedances. We conclude that the quality of concealed ear-EEG recordings as acquired with the cEEGrid array has potential to be used in the brain-computer interface steering of hearing aids. PMID:27512364

  19. Effects of Speaker Immersion on Independent Speaker Behavior of Preschool Children with Verbal Delays

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Denise E.; Nuzzolo, Robin; Stolfi, Lauren; Natarelli, Sarah

    2006-01-01

    Speaker immersion is a tactic that uses multiple establishing operations to increase speaker behavior for individuals with limited mand and tact repertoires. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the effects of speaker immersion on the number of independent mands, tacts, and autoclitics emitted by young children with verbal delays. In the…

  20. The Nonnative Speaker and Literary Studies: Instruction, Scholarship, and Translation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesser, Carmen Chaves

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the terms "native speaker" and "near native speaker" in the foreign language teaching profession, and asks whether a heritage speaker is considered a native speaker of the language. Highlights results of a survey advertising a literature position for a near-native speaker of Spanish. The survey is appended. (Author/VWL)

  1. An Approach to Speaker Identification.

    PubMed

    Hollien, Harry

    2016-03-01

    This presentation will provide standards upon which any attempts to meet the challenge of identifying speakers by voice should be based. It is organized into a model based on (i) application of a rigorous research program validating the system, (ii) an upgrading of the organization of the SI area, and (iii) exploitation of new technology. The second part of the presentation will describe an illustrative speech/voice approach to SI development. This effort is also based on an extensive corpus of research. It is suggested that application of the cited standards, plus the illustrative model, will permit reasonable progress to be made. Finally, a number of procedural recommendations are made; they should enhance the efficacy of the proposed approach. PMID:27404606

  2. The "Native Speaker" Issue: Problem or Pretext?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederer, Herbert

    Problems posed by varying interpretations of the terms "native speaker" and "native language" in relation to discrimination in hiring foreign language teachers are discussed. The central question is whether there is an educational basis for giving hiring preference to a native speaker. One argument stresses that it is preferable for students to be…

  3. Native Speakers' Judgments of Second Language Danish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, J. N.; Quist, P.

    2001-01-01

    Examines native speakers' reactions to the second language Danish of young Bilingual Turkish-Danish school students. Respondents were asked to evaluate the quality of the Danish of these students on the basis of tape recorded excerpts. Overall, respondents evaluated all speakers more negatively when they considered them to be nonnative Danes, but…

  4. A Jesuit Approach to Campus Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herbeck, Dale A.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author examines the newly revised speakers policy in Boston College. The revised policy, defended by administrators as being consistent with past practice, differs in two important respects from the speakers policy it replaced. Lest the scope of this unfortunate policy be exaggerated, it is important to note that the policy…

  5. The “Virtual” Panel: A Computerized Model for LGBT Speaker Panels

    PubMed Central

    Beasley, Christopher; Torres-Harding, Susan; Pedersen, Paula J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent societal trends indicate more tolerance for homosexuality, but prejudice remains on college campuses. Speaker panels are commonly used in classrooms as a way to educate students about sexual diversity and decrease negative attitudes toward sexual diversity. The advent of computer delivered instruction presents a unique opportunity to broaden the impact of traditional speaker panels. The current investigation examined the influence of an interactive “virtual” gay and lesbian speaker panel on cognitive, affective, and behavioral homonegativity. Findings suggest the computer-administered panel is lowers homonegativity, particularly for affective experiential homonegativity. The implications of these findings for research and practice are discussed. PMID:23646036

  6. Embodied communication: speakers' gestures affect listeners' actions.

    PubMed

    Cook, Susan Wagner; Tanenhaus, Michael K

    2009-10-01

    We explored how speakers and listeners use hand gestures as a source of perceptual-motor information during naturalistic communication. After solving the Tower of Hanoi task either with real objects or on a computer, speakers explained the task to listeners. Speakers' hand gestures, but not their speech, reflected properties of the particular objects and the actions that they had previously used to solve the task. Speakers who solved the problem with real objects used more grasping handshapes and produced more curved trajectories during the explanation. Listeners who observed explanations from speakers who had previously solved the problem with real objects subsequently treated computer objects more like real objects; their mouse trajectories revealed that they lifted the objects in conjunction with moving them sideways, and this behavior was related to the particular gestures that were observed. These findings demonstrate that hand gestures are a reliable source of perceptual-motor information during human communication. PMID:19682672

  7. How do speakers avoid ambiguous linguistic expressions?

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Victor S; Slevc, L Robert; Rogers, Erin S

    2005-07-01

    Three experiments assessed how speakers avoid linguistically and nonlinguistically ambiguous expressions. Speakers described target objects (a flying mammal, bat) in contexts including foil objects that caused linguistic (a baseball bat) and nonlinguistic (a larger flying mammal) ambiguity. Speakers sometimes avoided linguistic-ambiguity, and they did so equally regardless of whether they also were about to describe foils. This suggests that comprehension processes can sometimes detect linguistic-ambiguity before producing it. However, once produced, speakers consistently avoided using the same linguistically ambiguous expression again for a different meaning. This suggests that production processes can successfully detect linguistic-ambiguity after-the-fact. Speakers almost always avoided nonlinguistic-ambiguity. Thus, production processes are especially sensitive to nonlinguistic- but not linguistic-ambiguity, with the latter avoided consistently only once it is already articulated.

  8. Quantity language speakers show enhanced subcortical processing.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Caitlin; Aalto, Daniel; Šimko, Juraj; Putkinen, Vesa; Tervaniemi, Mari; Vainio, Martti

    2016-07-01

    The complex auditory brainstem response (cABR) can reflect language-based plasticity in subcortical stages of auditory processing. It is sensitive to differences between language groups as well as stimulus properties, e.g. intensity or frequency. It is also sensitive to the synchronicity of the neural population stimulated by sound, which results in increased amplitude of wave V. Finnish is a full-fledged quantity language, in which word meaning is dependent upon duration of the vowels and consonants. Previous studies have shown that Finnish speakers have enhanced behavioural sound duration discrimination ability and larger cortical mismatch negativity (MMN) to duration change compared to German and French speakers. The next step is to find out whether these enhanced duration discrimination abilities of quantity language speakers originate at the brainstem level. Since German has a complementary quantity contrast which restricts the possible patterns of short and long vowels and consonants, the current experiment compared cABR between nonmusician Finnish and German native speakers using seven short complex stimuli. Finnish speakers had a larger cABR peak amplitude than German speakers, while the peak onset latency was only affected by stimulus intensity and spectral band. The results suggest that early cABR responses are better synchronised for Finns, which could underpin the enhanced duration sensitivity of quantity language speakers. PMID:27297179

  9. Quantity language speakers show enhanced subcortical processing.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Caitlin; Aalto, Daniel; Šimko, Juraj; Putkinen, Vesa; Tervaniemi, Mari; Vainio, Martti

    2016-07-01

    The complex auditory brainstem response (cABR) can reflect language-based plasticity in subcortical stages of auditory processing. It is sensitive to differences between language groups as well as stimulus properties, e.g. intensity or frequency. It is also sensitive to the synchronicity of the neural population stimulated by sound, which results in increased amplitude of wave V. Finnish is a full-fledged quantity language, in which word meaning is dependent upon duration of the vowels and consonants. Previous studies have shown that Finnish speakers have enhanced behavioural sound duration discrimination ability and larger cortical mismatch negativity (MMN) to duration change compared to German and French speakers. The next step is to find out whether these enhanced duration discrimination abilities of quantity language speakers originate at the brainstem level. Since German has a complementary quantity contrast which restricts the possible patterns of short and long vowels and consonants, the current experiment compared cABR between nonmusician Finnish and German native speakers using seven short complex stimuli. Finnish speakers had a larger cABR peak amplitude than German speakers, while the peak onset latency was only affected by stimulus intensity and spectral band. The results suggest that early cABR responses are better synchronised for Finns, which could underpin the enhanced duration sensitivity of quantity language speakers.

  10. Infants’ Selectively Pay Attention to the Information They Receive from a Native Speaker of Their Language

    PubMed Central

    Marno, Hanna; Guellai, Bahia; Vidal, Yamil; Franzoi, Julia; Nespor, Marina; Mehler, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    From the first moments of their life, infants show a preference for their native language, as well as toward speakers with whom they share the same language. This preference appears to have broad consequences in various domains later on, supporting group affiliations and collaborative actions in children. Here, we propose that infants’ preference for native speakers of their language also serves a further purpose, specifically allowing them to efficiently acquire culture specific knowledge via social learning. By selectively attending to informants who are native speakers of their language and who probably also share the same cultural background with the infant, young learners can maximize the possibility to acquire cultural knowledge. To test whether infants would preferably attend the information they receive from a speaker of their native language, we familiarized 12-month-old infants with a native and a foreign speaker, and then presented them with movies where each of the speakers silently gazed toward unfamiliar objects. At test, infants’ looking behavior to the two objects alone was measured. Results revealed that infants preferred to look longer at the object presented by the native speaker. Strikingly, the effect was replicated also with 5-month-old infants, indicating an early development of such preference. These findings provide evidence that young infants pay more attention to the information presented by a person with whom they share the same language. This selectivity can serve as a basis for efficient social learning by influencing how infants’ allocate attention between potential sources of information in their environment. PMID:27536263

  11. Infants' Selectively Pay Attention to the Information They Receive from a Native Speaker of Their Language.

    PubMed

    Marno, Hanna; Guellai, Bahia; Vidal, Yamil; Franzoi, Julia; Nespor, Marina; Mehler, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    From the first moments of their life, infants show a preference for their native language, as well as toward speakers with whom they share the same language. This preference appears to have broad consequences in various domains later on, supporting group affiliations and collaborative actions in children. Here, we propose that infants' preference for native speakers of their language also serves a further purpose, specifically allowing them to efficiently acquire culture specific knowledge via social learning. By selectively attending to informants who are native speakers of their language and who probably also share the same cultural background with the infant, young learners can maximize the possibility to acquire cultural knowledge. To test whether infants would preferably attend the information they receive from a speaker of their native language, we familiarized 12-month-old infants with a native and a foreign speaker, and then presented them with movies where each of the speakers silently gazed toward unfamiliar objects. At test, infants' looking behavior to the two objects alone was measured. Results revealed that infants preferred to look longer at the object presented by the native speaker. Strikingly, the effect was replicated also with 5-month-old infants, indicating an early development of such preference. These findings provide evidence that young infants pay more attention to the information presented by a person with whom they share the same language. This selectivity can serve as a basis for efficient social learning by influencing how infants' allocate attention between potential sources of information in their environment. PMID:27536263

  12. Infants' Selectively Pay Attention to the Information They Receive from a Native Speaker of Their Language.

    PubMed

    Marno, Hanna; Guellai, Bahia; Vidal, Yamil; Franzoi, Julia; Nespor, Marina; Mehler, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    From the first moments of their life, infants show a preference for their native language, as well as toward speakers with whom they share the same language. This preference appears to have broad consequences in various domains later on, supporting group affiliations and collaborative actions in children. Here, we propose that infants' preference for native speakers of their language also serves a further purpose, specifically allowing them to efficiently acquire culture specific knowledge via social learning. By selectively attending to informants who are native speakers of their language and who probably also share the same cultural background with the infant, young learners can maximize the possibility to acquire cultural knowledge. To test whether infants would preferably attend the information they receive from a speaker of their native language, we familiarized 12-month-old infants with a native and a foreign speaker, and then presented them with movies where each of the speakers silently gazed toward unfamiliar objects. At test, infants' looking behavior to the two objects alone was measured. Results revealed that infants preferred to look longer at the object presented by the native speaker. Strikingly, the effect was replicated also with 5-month-old infants, indicating an early development of such preference. These findings provide evidence that young infants pay more attention to the information presented by a person with whom they share the same language. This selectivity can serve as a basis for efficient social learning by influencing how infants' allocate attention between potential sources of information in their environment.

  13. Entraining with another person's speech rhythm: Evidence from healthy speakers and individuals with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Späth, Mona; Aichert, Ingrid; Ceballos-Baumann, Andrés O; Wagner-Sonntag, Edith; Miller, Nick; Ziegler, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    This study examines entrainment of speech timing and rhythm with a model speaker in healthy persons and individuals with Parkinson's. We asked whether participants coordinate their speech initiation and rhythm with the model speaker, and whether the regularity of metrical structure of sentences influences this behaviour. Ten native German speakers with hypokinetic dysarthria following Parkinson's and 10 healthy controls heard a sentence ('prime') and subsequently read aloud another sentence ('target'). Speech material comprised 32 metrically regular and irregular sentences, respectively. Turn-taking delays and alignment of speech rhythm were measured using speech wave analyses. Results showed that healthy participants initiated speech more closely in rhythm with the model speaker than patients. Metrically regular prime sentences induced anticipatory responses relative to metrically irregular primes. Entrainment of speech rhythm was greater in metrically regular targets, especially in individuals with Parkinson's. We conclude that individuals with Parkinson's may exploit metrically regular cues in speech. PMID:26786186

  14. Infants Prefer Tunes Previously Introduced by Speakers of Their Native Language.

    PubMed

    Soley, Gaye; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria

    2015-01-01

    Infants show attentional biases for certain individuals over others based on various cues. However, the role of these biases in shaping infants' preferences and learning is not clear. This study asked whether infants' preference for native speakers (Kinzler, Dupoux, & Spelke, 2007) would modulate their preferences for tunes. After getting equal exposure to two different tunes introduced by two speakers, 7-month-olds (N = 32) listened longer to the tune that was introduced by a native speaker compared to the tune that was introduced by a foreign speaker. This suggests that the social-emotional context in which exposure to stimuli occurs influences auditory preferences, and that the early emerging attentional biases might have important ramifications regarding social learning in early infancy. PMID:26300428

  15. What the speaker means: the recognition of speakers plans in discourse

    SciTech Connect

    Sidner, C.L.

    1983-01-01

    Human conversational participants depend upon the ability of their partners to recognize their intentions, so that those partners may respond appropriately. In such interactions, the speaker encodes his intentions about the hearer's response in a variety of sentence types. Instead of telling the hearer what to do, the speaker may just state his goals, and expect a response that meets these goals at least part way. This paper presents a new model for recognizing the speaker's intended meaning in determining a response. It shows that this recognition makes use of the speaker's plan, his beliefs about the domain and about the hearer's relevant capacities. 12 references.

  16. Multilingual Speakers' Problems in Decoding in a Second Language.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaldor, Susan; Shell, Ruth

    Through an experiment investigating the processes used by several speakers of Asian languages to decode passages by speakers of Australian English, this paper seeks to establish and categorize the types of problems encountered by multilingual speakers when decoding the speech of monolingual speakers in one of their (the multilinguals') second…

  17. Compliment Responses: Comparing American Learners of Japanese, Native Japanese Speakers, and American Native English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatsumi, Naofumi

    2012-01-01

    Previous research shows that American learners of Japanese (AJs) tend to differ from native Japanese speakers in their compliment responses (CRs). Yokota (1986) and Shimizu (2009) have reported that AJs tend to respond more negatively than native Japanese speakers. It has also been reported that AJs' CRs tend to lack the use of avoidance or…

  18. Native Speaker and Nonnative Speaker Identities in Repair Practices of English Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Eun Young; Oh, Sun-Young

    2013-01-01

    Within the theoretical and methodological framework of Conversation Analysis, the present study explores the nature of the native speaker (NS) and nonnative speaker (NNS) identities in repair practices of English conversation. It has identified and analyzed in detail repair sequences in the data and has also conducted quantitative analyses in…

  19. The interaction of glottal-pulse rate and vocal-tract length in judgements of speaker size, sex, and age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David R. R.; Patterson, Roy D.

    2005-11-01

    Glottal-pulse rate (GPR) and vocal-tract length (VTL) are related to the size, sex, and age of the speaker but it is not clear how the two factors combine to influence our perception of speaker size, sex, and age. This paper describes experiments designed to measure the effect of the interaction of GPR and VTL upon judgements of speaker size, sex, and age. Vowels were scaled to represent people with a wide range of GPRs and VTLs, including many well beyond the normal range of the population, and listeners were asked to judge the size and sex/age of the speaker. The judgements of speaker size show that VTL has a strong influence upon perceived speaker size. The results for the sex and age categorization (man, woman, boy, or girl) show that, for vowels with GPR and VTL values in the normal range, judgements of speaker sex and age are influenced about equally by GPR and VTL. For vowels with abnormal combinations of low GPRs and short VTLs, the VTL information appears to decide the sex/age judgement.

  20. Yes, you can? A speaker's potency to act upon his words orchestrates early neural responses to message-level meaning.

    PubMed

    Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Krauspenhaar, Sylvia; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Evidence is accruing that, in comprehending language, the human brain rapidly integrates a wealth of information sources-including the reader or hearer's knowledge about the world and even his/her current mood. However, little is known to date about how language processing in the brain is affected by the hearer's knowledge about the speaker. Here, we investigated the impact of social attributions to the speaker by measuring event-related brain potentials while participants watched videos of three speakers uttering true or false statements pertaining to politics or general knowledge: a top political decision maker (the German Federal Minister of Finance at the time of the experiment), a well-known media personality and an unidentifiable control speaker. False versus true statements engendered an N400 - late positivity response, with the N400 (150-450 ms) constituting the earliest observable response to message-level meaning. Crucially, however, the N400 was modulated by the combination of speaker and message: for false versus true political statements, an N400 effect was only observable for the politician, but not for either of the other two speakers; for false versus true general knowledge statements, an N400 was engendered by all three speakers. We interpret this result as demonstrating that the neurophysiological response to message-level meaning is immediately influenced by the social status of the speaker and whether he/she has the power to bring about the state of affairs described.

  1. Yes, you can? A speaker's potency to act upon his words orchestrates early neural responses to message-level meaning.

    PubMed

    Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, Ina; Krauspenhaar, Sylvia; Schlesewsky, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Evidence is accruing that, in comprehending language, the human brain rapidly integrates a wealth of information sources-including the reader or hearer's knowledge about the world and even his/her current mood. However, little is known to date about how language processing in the brain is affected by the hearer's knowledge about the speaker. Here, we investigated the impact of social attributions to the speaker by measuring event-related brain potentials while participants watched videos of three speakers uttering true or false statements pertaining to politics or general knowledge: a top political decision maker (the German Federal Minister of Finance at the time of the experiment), a well-known media personality and an unidentifiable control speaker. False versus true statements engendered an N400 - late positivity response, with the N400 (150-450 ms) constituting the earliest observable response to message-level meaning. Crucially, however, the N400 was modulated by the combination of speaker and message: for false versus true political statements, an N400 effect was only observable for the politician, but not for either of the other two speakers; for false versus true general knowledge statements, an N400 was engendered by all three speakers. We interpret this result as demonstrating that the neurophysiological response to message-level meaning is immediately influenced by the social status of the speaker and whether he/she has the power to bring about the state of affairs described. PMID:23894425

  2. The natural order of events: How speakers of different languages represent events nonverbally

    PubMed Central

    Goldin-Meadow, Susan; So, Wing Chee; Özyürek, Aslı; Mylander, Carolyn

    2008-01-01

    To test whether the language we speak influences our behavior even when we are not speaking, we asked speakers of four languages differing in their predominant word orders (English, Turkish, Spanish, and Chinese) to perform two nonverbal tasks: a communicative task (describing an event by using gesture without speech) and a noncommunicative task (reconstructing an event with pictures). We found that the word orders speakers used in their everyday speech did not influence their nonverbal behavior. Surprisingly, speakers of all four languages used the same order and on both nonverbal tasks. This order, actor–patient–act, is analogous to the subject–object–verb pattern found in many languages of the world and, importantly, in newly developing gestural languages. The findings provide evidence for a natural order that we impose on events when describing and reconstructing them nonverbally and exploit when constructing language anew. PMID:18599445

  3. Ban Outside Speakers? Not on Our Watch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurland, Jordan E.

    2007-01-01

    Since its founding, the American Association of University Professors has been concerned with infringements of academic freedom when colleges interfere with invited speakers. The first time the AAUP seems to have addressed the problem categorically, however, was through a resolution adopted fifty years ago by the annual meeting. The Association…

  4. Emblematic Gestures among Hebrew Speakers in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Safadi, Michaela; Valentine, Carol Ann

    A field study conducted in Israel sought to identify emblematic gestures (body movements that convey specific messages) that are recognized and used by Hebrew speakers. Twenty-six gestures commonly used in classroom interaction were selected for testing, using Schneller's form, "Investigations of Interpersonal Communication in Israel." The 26…

  5. Speech-Song Interface of Chinese Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mang, Esther

    2007-01-01

    Pitch is a psychoacoustic construct crucial in the production and perception of speech and songs. This article is an exploration of the interface of speech and song performance of Chinese speakers. Although parallels might be drawn from the prosodic and sound structures of the linguistic and musical systems, perceiving and producing speech and…

  6. Pronunciation Features of Thai Speakers of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jack

    1969-01-01

    This paper describes some of the pronunciation features of Thai speakers of English in New Zealand, based on the observation of Thai students during their language laboratory sessions in a pre-university English course. Regular pronunciation features and consistent patterns of sound replacement were observed, which seemed to be characteristic of,…

  7. The Nonstandard Speaker and "Standard" Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, William H.

    Before teachers can decide how to teach writing to nonstandard dialect speakers, they should determine whether college students can in fact learn to command a second dialect (in this case, Standard English), as well as the most effective way to provide access to command of Standard English while educating the public about the values of nonstandard…

  8. The IRS and Your Politically Controversial Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heen, Mary L.

    2007-01-01

    In the past, administrators have sometimes cited the lack of balance represented by the invitation of a college or university group or the danger that a group's invitation might violate section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code as reasons for canceling or modifying otherwise legitimate invitations. In "Academic Freedom and Outside Speakers,"…

  9. Language Transference by Mentally Retarded Spanish Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaherty, Carol

    In an investigation of language transference vs. language interference, 12 trainable mentally retarded Spanish speakers (5 to 9 years old) were trained to name in English objects previously identified receptively and objects not previously identified receptively in Spanish. Results indicated no significant difference in the number of words learned…

  10. Speaker normalization for chinese vowel recognition in cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xin; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2005-07-01

    Because of the limited spectra-temporal resolution associated with cochlear implants, implant patients often have greater difficulty with multitalker speech recognition. The present study investigated whether multitalker speech recognition can be improved by applying speaker normalization techniques to cochlear implant speech processing. Multitalker Chinese vowel recognition was tested with normal-hearing Chinese-speaking subjects listening to a 4-channel cochlear implant simulation, with and without speaker normalization. For each subject, speaker normalization was referenced to the speaker that produced the best recognition performance under conditions without speaker normalization. To match the remaining speakers to this "optimal" output pattern, the overall frequency range of the analysis filter bank was adjusted for each speaker according to the ratio of the mean third formant frequency values between the specific speaker and the reference speaker. Results showed that speaker normalization provided a small but significant improvement in subjects' overall recognition performance. After speaker normalization, subjects' patterns of recognition performance across speakers changed, demonstrating the potential for speaker-dependent effects with the proposed normalization technique. PMID:16042003

  11. Speaker Recognition Through NLP and CWT Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.; Kercel, S.W.; Tucker, R.W.

    1999-06-16

    The objective of this research is to develop a system capable of identifying speakers on wiretaps from a large database (>500 speakers) with a short search time duration (<30 seconds), and with better than 90% accuracy. Much previous research in speaker recognition has led to algorithms that produced encouraging preliminary results, but were overwhelmed when applied to populations of more than a dozen or so different speakers. The authors are investigating a solution to the "large population" problem by seeking two completely different kinds of characterizing features. These features are he techniques of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) and the continuous wavelet transform (CWT). NLP extracts precise neurological, verbal and non-verbal information, and assimilates the information into useful patterns. These patterns are based on specific cues demonstrated by each individual, and provide ways of determining congruency between verbal and non-verbal cues. The primary NLP modalities are characterized through word spotting (or verbal predicates cues, e.g., see, sound, feel, etc.) while the secondary modalities would be characterized through the speech transcription used by the individual. This has the practical effect of reducing the size of the search space, and greatly speeding up the process of identifying an unknown speaker. The wavelet-based line of investigation concentrates on using vowel phonemes and non-verbal cues, such as tempo. The rationale for concentrating on vowels is there are a limited number of vowels phonemes, and at least one of them usually appears in even the shortest of speech segments. Using the fast, CWT algorithm, the details of both the formant frequency and the glottal excitation characteristics can be easily extracted from voice waveforms. The differences in the glottal excitation waveforms as well as the formant frequency are evident in the CWT output. More significantly, the CWT reveals significant detail of the glottal excitation

  12. Speaker recognition through NLP and CWT modeling.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown-VanHoozer, A.; Kercel, S. W.; Tucker, R. W.

    1999-06-23

    The objective of this research is to develop a system capable of identifying speakers on wiretaps from a large database (>500 speakers) with a short search time duration (<30 seconds), and with better than 90% accuracy. Much previous research in speaker recognition has led to algorithms that produced encouraging preliminary results, but were overwhelmed when applied to populations of more than a dozen or so different speakers. The authors are investigating a solution to the ''huge population'' problem by seeking two completely different kinds of characterizing features. These features are extracted using the techniques of Neuro-Linguistic Programming (NLP) and the continuous wavelet transform (CWT). NLP extracts precise neurological, verbal and non-verbal information, and assimilates the information into useful patterns. These patterns are based on specific cues demonstrated by each individual, and provide ways of determining congruency between verbal and non-verbal cues. The primary NLP modalities are characterized through word spotting (or verbal predicates cues, e.g., see, sound, feel, etc.) while the secondary modalities would be characterized through the speech transcription used by the individual. This has the practical effect of reducing the size of the search space, and greatly speeding up the process of identifying an unknown speaker. The wavelet-based line of investigation concentrates on using vowel phonemes and non-verbal cues, such as tempo. The rationale for concentrating on vowels is there are a limited number of vowels phonemes, and at least one of them usually appears in even the shortest of speech segments. Using the fast, CWT algorithm, the details of both the formant frequency and the glottal excitation characteristics can be easily extracted from voice waveforms. The differences in the glottal excitation waveforms as well as the formant frequency are evident in the CWT output. More significantly, the CWT reveals significant detail of the

  13. Differences in Mental Rotation Strategies for Native Speakers of Chinese and English and How They Vary as a Function of Sex and College Major

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yingli; O'Boyle, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we examine how native language, sex, and college major interact to influence accuracy and preferred strategy when performing mental rotation (MR). Native monolingual Chinese and English speakers rotated 3-D shapes while maintaining a concurrent verbal or spatial memory load. For English speakers, male physical science majors were…

  14. Aspects of Spatio-Temporal Variability during Consonant Production by Greek Speakers with Hearing Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolaidis, Katerina

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates spatio-temporal variability during the production of the lingual consonants /t, k, s, x, n, l, "r"/ by four Greek speakers with profound hearing impairment and with differences in the intelligibility of their speech. It examines important factors that have been documented to influence intelligibility, i.e. durational…

  15. The Use of Voice Cues for Speaker Gender Recognition in Cochlear Implant Recipients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meister, Hartmut; Fürsen, Katrin; Streicher, Barbara; Lang-Roth, Ruth; Walger, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The focus of this study was to examine the influence of fundamental frequency (F0) and vocal tract length (VTL) modifications on speaker gender recognition in cochlear implant (CI) recipients for different stimulus types. Method: Single words and sentences were manipulated using isolated or combined F0 and VTL cues. Using an 11-point…

  16. Accent Attribution in Speakers with Foreign Accent Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoeven, Jo; De Pauw, Guy; Pettinato, Michele; Hirson, Allen; Van Borsel, John; Marien, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The main aim of this experiment was to investigate the perception of Foreign Accent Syndrome in comparison to speakers with an authentic foreign accent. Method: Three groups of listeners attributed accents to conversational speech samples of 5 FAS speakers which were embedded amongst those of 5 speakers with a real foreign accent and 5…

  17. Processing Speaker Variability in Repetition and Semantic/Associative Priming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chao-Yang; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The effect of speaker variability on accessing the form and meaning of spoken words was evaluated in two short-term priming experiments. In the repetition priming experiment, participants listened to repeated or unrelated prime-target pairs, in which the prime and target were produced by the same speaker or different speakers. The results showed…

  18. Speech Breathing in Speakers Who Use an Electrolarynx

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohnenkamp, Todd A.; Stowell, Talena; Hesse, Joy; Wright, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Speakers who use an electrolarynx following a total laryngectomy no longer require pulmonary support for speech. Subsequently, chest wall movements may be affected; however, chest wall movements in these speakers are not well defined. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate speech breathing in speakers who use an electrolarynx during…

  19. Speaker Reliability Guides Children's Inductive Inferences about Novel Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Sunae; Kalish, Charles W.; Harris, Paul L.

    2012-01-01

    Prior work shows that children can make inductive inferences about objects based on their labels rather than their appearance (Gelman, 2003). A separate line of research shows that children's trust in a speaker's label is selective. Children accept labels from a reliable speaker over an unreliable speaker (e.g., Koenig & Harris, 2005). In the…

  20. Young Children's Sensitivity to Speaker Gender When Learning from Others

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Lili; Woolley, Jacqueline D.

    2013-01-01

    This research explores whether young children are sensitive to speaker gender when learning novel information from others. Four- and 6-year-olds ("N" = 144) chose between conflicting statements from a male versus a female speaker (Studies 1 and 3) or decided which speaker (male or female) they would ask (Study 2) when learning about the functions…

  1. Physiological responses at short distances from a parametric speaker

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, parametric speakers have been used in various circumstances. In our previous studies, we verified that the physiological burden of the sound of parametric speaker set at 2.6 m from the subjects was lower than that of the general speaker. However, nothing has yet been demonstrated about the effects of the sound of a parametric speaker at the shorter distance between parametric speakers the human body. Therefore, we studied this effect on physiological functions and task performance. Nine male subjects participated in this study. They completed three consecutive sessions: a 20-minute quiet period as a baseline, a 30-minute mental task period with general speakers or parametric speakers, and a 20-minute recovery period. We measured electrocardiogram (ECG) photoplethysmogram (PTG), electroencephalogram (EEG), systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Four experiments, one with a speaker condition (general speaker and parametric speaker), the other with a distance condition (0.3 m and 1.0 m), were conducted respectively at the same time of day on separate days. To examine the effects of the speaker and distance, three-way repeated measures ANOVA (speaker factor x distance factor x time factor) were conducted. In conclusion, we found that the physiological responses were not significantly different between the speaker condition and the distance condition. Meanwhile, it was shown that the physiological burdens increased with progress in time independently of speaker condition and distance condition. In summary, the effects of the parametric speaker at the 2.6 m distance were not obtained at the distance of 1 m or less. PMID:22737994

  2. Grammatical Planning Units during Real-Time Sentence Production in Speakers with Agrammatic Aphasia and Healthy Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jiyeon; Yoshida, Masaya; Thompson, Cynthia K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Grammatical encoding (GE) is impaired in agrammatic aphasia; however, the nature of such deficits remains unclear. We examined grammatical planning units during real-time sentence production in speakers with agrammatic aphasia and control speakers, testing two competing models of GE. We queried whether speakers with agrammatic aphasia…

  3. [Determinants of requesting expressions: referring to a speaker's state].

    PubMed

    Okamoto, S

    1991-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine situational determinants of one type of expressions used in situations of requests: expressions in which a speaker refers to his surroundings or his own condition without using conventional forms of requests (expressions of a speaker's state: ESSs). In four experiments subjects read scenarios in each of which the protagonist needed to make a request, and then the subjects made a note of how they would say in that situation. The findings were as follows: (Experiment 1) Subjects used ESSs more when it was obligatory for the addressee to obey the request than when it was not. (Experiment 2) Intimacy between the protagonist and the addressee did not uniformly influence subjects' use of ESSs. (Experiment 3) When the addressee made a previous statement which indicated his knowledge of the protagonist's goal, ESSs decreased. (Experiment 4) Subjects used indecisive ending expressions (-kedo,-ga) in ESSs more when the addressee's behavior brought benefits to the protagonist than when it did not.

  4. Interpreter-Mediated Neuropsychological Testing of Monolingual Spanish Speakers

    PubMed Central

    Casas, Rachel; Guzmán-Vélez, Edmarie; Cardona-Rodriguez, Javier; Rodriguez, Nayra; Quiñones, Gabriela; Juan, San; Izaguirre, Borja; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to investigate empirically whether using an interpreter to conduct neuropsychological testing of monolingual Spanish speakers affects test scores. Participants included 40 neurologically normal Spanish-speakers with limited English proficiency, ages 18–65 years (M= 39.7, SD =13.9), who completed the Vocabulary, Similarities, Block Design, and Matrix Reasoning subtests of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-III in two counterbalanced conditions: with and without an interpreter. Results indicated that interpreter use significantly increased scores on Vocabulary and Similarities. However, scores on Block Design and Matrix Reasoning did not differ depending upon whether or not an interpreter was used. In addition, the findings suggested a trend toward higher variability in scores when an interpreter was used to administer Vocabulary and Similarities; this trend did not show up for Block Design or Matrix Reasoning. Together, the results indicate that interpreter use may significantly affect scores for some tests commonly used in neuropsychological practice, with this influence being greater for verbally mediated tests. Additional research is needed to identify the types of tests that may be most affected as well as the factors that contribute to the effects. In the meantime, neuropsychologists are encouraged to avoid interpreter use whenever practically possible, particularly for tests with high demands on interpreter abilities and skills, with tests that have not been appropriately adapted and translated into the patient’s target language, and with interpreters who are not trained professionals. PMID:22185676

  5. Assessment of laryngeal dysfunctions of dysarthric speakers.

    PubMed

    Surabhi, V; Vijayalakshmi, P; Steffina, Lily; Jayanthan, Ra V

    2009-01-01

    Dysarthria is a neuromotor impairment of speech that affects one or more of the speech sub-systems. It is reflected in the acoustic characteristics of the phonemes as deviations from their healthy counterparts. In the current work, the deviations associated with laryngeal dysfunctions are analysed in order to assess and quantify parameters that will help evaluate dysarthria. Perturbation measures, pitch period statistics and Pitch Variation Index (PVI) are computed for the assessment of laryngeal dysfunctions of dysarthric speakers. The assessments were performed on the Nemours database of dysarthric speech and compared with normal speakers available in the TIMIT speech corpus. The results were correlated with Frenchay Dysarthria Assessment (FDA) scores. The analysis resulted in a technique to predict the degree of severity of dysarthria and illustrate the multi-causal nature of the disorder. PMID:19965223

  6. Vocal caricatures reveal signatures of speaker identity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Sabrina; Riera, Pablo; Assaneo, María Florencia; Eguía, Manuel; Sigman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos A.

    2013-12-01

    What are the features that impersonators select to elicit a speaker's identity? We built a voice database of public figures (targets) and imitations produced by professional impersonators. They produced one imitation based on their memory of the target (caricature) and another one after listening to the target audio (replica). A set of naive participants then judged identity and similarity of pairs of voices. Identity was better evoked by the caricatures and replicas were perceived to be closer to the targets in terms of voice similarity. We used this data to map relevant acoustic dimensions for each task. Our results indicate that speaker identity is mainly associated with vocal tract features, while perception of voice similarity is related to vocal folds parameters. We therefore show the way in which acoustic caricatures emphasize identity features at the cost of loosing similarity, which allows drawing an analogy with caricatures in the visual space.

  7. Assessment of variation between and within speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahr, Ruth Huntley

    2003-10-01

    While few individuals would argue that vocal cues can signal a person's identity, it is difficult to specify exactly which parameter(s) provide the most salient information for speaker identification. Previous literature has suggested that speaking fundamental frequency, long-term spectra, vowel formant frequencies, and speech tempo can provide speaker-specific information. However, investigations focused on automatic speaker identification have provided less than satisfactory results. These findings could be related to how each acoustic parameter is measured or, more probably, to the idea that these acoustic parameters interact in specific ways that may be more obvious in the perceptual realm and may vary across speaking situations. To further complicate matters, individuals may speak more than one language or use multiple dialects. Little is known about the effect of code switching on voice production and identification. The purpose of this presentation is to present some of the relevant literature on voice recognition and factors related to misidentification. The role of intraspeaker variability will be discussed with a special emphasis on bilingualism and bidialectalism. Implications for voice production in augmentative and alternative communication devices will be described.

  8. Speaker Verification in Realistic Noisy Environment in Forensic Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamada, Toshiaki; Minematsu, Nobuaki; Osanai, Takashi; Makinae, Hisanori; Tanimoto, Masumi

    In forensic voice telephony speaker verification, we may be requested to identify a speaker in a very noisy environment, unlike the conditions in general research. In a noisy environment, we process speech first by clarifying it. However, the previous study of speaker verification from clarified speech did not yield satisfactory results. In this study, we experimented on speaker verification with clarification of speech in a noisy environment, and we examined the relationship between improving acoustic quality and speaker verification results. Moreover, experiments with realistic noise such as a crime prevention alarm and power supply noise was conducted, and speaker verification accuracy in a realistic environment was examined. We confirmed the validity of speaker verification with clarification of speech in a realistic noisy environment.

  9. Speaker-Adaptive Speech Recognition Based on Surface Electromyography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wand, Michael; Schultz, Tanja

    We present our recent advances in silent speech interfaces using electromyographic signals that capture the movements of the human articulatory muscles at the skin surface for recognizing continuously spoken speech. Previous systems were limited to speaker- and session-dependent recognition tasks on small amounts of training and test data. In this article we present speaker-independent and speaker-adaptive training methods which allow us to use a large corpus of data from many speakers to train acoustic models more reliably. We use the speaker-dependent system as baseline, carefully tuning the data preprocessing and acoustic modeling. Then on our corpus we compare the performance of speaker-dependent and speaker-independent acoustic models and carry out model adaptation experiments.

  10. Bilingual children weigh speaker's referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts when interpreting a speaker's intent.

    PubMed

    Hung, Wan-Yu; Patrycia, Ferninda; Yow, W Q

    2015-01-01

    Past research has investigated how children use different sources of information such as social cues and word-learning heuristics to infer referential intents. The present research explored how children weigh and use some of these cues to make referential inferences. Specifically, we examined how switching between languages known (familiar) or unknown (unfamiliar) to a child would influence his or her choice of cue to interpret a novel label in a challenging disambiguation task, where a pointing cue was pitted against the mutual exclusivity (ME) principle. Forty-eight 3-and 4-years-old English-Mandarin bilingual children listened to a story told either in English only (No-Switch), English and Mandarin (Familiar-Switch), English and Japanese (Unfamiliar-Switch), or English and English-sounding nonsense sentences (Nonsense-Switch). They were then asked to select an object (from a pair of familiar and novel objects) after hearing a novel label paired with the speaker's point at the familiar object, e.g., "Can you give me the blicket?" Results showed that children in the Familiar-Switch condition were more willing to relax ME to follow the speaker's point to pick the familiar object than those in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition, who were more likely to pick the novel object. No significant differences were found between the other conditions. Further analyses revealed that children in the Unfamiliar-Switch condition looked at the speaker longer than children in the other conditions when the switch happened. Our findings suggest that children weigh speakers' referential cues and word-learning heuristics differently in different language contexts while taking into account their communicative history with the speaker. There are important implications for general education and other learning efforts, such as designing learning games so that the history of credibility with the user is maintained and how learning may be best scaffolded in a helpful and trusting environment

  11. Coffee Can Speakers: Amazing Energy Transformers--Fifth-Grade Students Learn the Science behind Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wise, Kevin; Haake, Monica

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe steps on how to develop a high-impact activity in which students build, test, and improve their own "coffee can" speakers to observe firsthand how loudspeakers work to convert electrical energy to sound. The activity is appropriate for students in grades three to six and lends itself best to students…

  12. Nonnative Speakers Do Not Take Competing Alternative Expressions into Account the Way Native Speakers Do

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robenalt, Clarice; Goldberg, Adele E.

    2016-01-01

    When native speakers judge the acceptability of novel sentences, they appear to implicitly take competing formulations into account, judging novel sentences with a readily available alternative formulation to be less acceptable than novel sentences with no competing alternative. Moreover, novel sentences with a competing alternative are more…

  13. Bringing Speakers Back in? Epistemological Reflections on Speaker-Oriented Explanations of Language Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deumert, Ana

    2003-01-01

    Evaluates ways speaker agency has been discussed by linguists over the last two decades and reviews the explanatory status of traditional "belief-desire" models of action in light of evolutionary, neuropsychological, and sociological contributions to the question of human agency. Considering the definition of language as a collective structure,…

  14. Speaker recognition: Example of execution of a phonic test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desario, N.; Ibba, G.; Paoloni, A.; Saverione, B.; Federico, A.

    1982-12-01

    A phonic test carried out in realistic conditions was used to verify a speaker recognition method integrated by a semiautomatic recognition system validated by subjective hearing tests. A set of six telephone phonic samples were analyzed using standardized voice sample recordings of three speakers. Statistical computerized analysis reduced the samples from six to three, and permitted the identification of the corresponding speakers. A subjective test carried out by four specially trained analysts confirms the results.

  15. NASA Ambassadors: A Speaker Outreach Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Malcolm W.

    1998-01-01

    The work done on this project this summer has been geared toward setting up the necessary infrastructure and planning to support the operation of an effective speaker outreach program. The program has been given the name, NASA AMBASSADORS. Also, individuals who become participants in the program will be known as "NASA AMBASSADORS". This summer project has been conducted by the joint efforts of this author and those of Professor George Lebo who will be issuing a separate report. The description in this report will indicate that the NASA AMBASSADOR program operates largely on the contributions of volunteers, with the assistance of persons at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The volunteers include participants in the various summer programs hosted by MSFC as well as members of the NASA Alumni League. The MSFC summer participation programs include: the Summer Faculty Fellowship Program for college and university professors, the Science Teacher Enrichment Program for middle- and high-school teachers, and the NASA ACADEMY program for college and university students. The NASA Alumni League members are retired NASA employees, scientists, and engineers. The MSFC offices which will have roles in the operation of the NASA AMBASSADORS include the Educational Programs Office and the Public Affairs Office. It is possible that still other MSFC offices may become integrated into the operation of the program. The remainder of this report will establish the operational procedures which will be necessary to sustain the NASA AMBASSADOR speaker outreach program.

  16. Listeners' impressions of speakers with lateral lisps.

    PubMed

    Silverman, E M

    1976-11-01

    This paper reports research conducted to determine whether the lateral lisp is a speech defect. The specific purpose of this research was to determine whether the lateral lisp calls adverse attention to the speaker. Two groups of broadcast communication students rates the concept "The Person Speaking" on a 49-scale semantic differential. One group performed the task after listening to a tape recording of a young woman reading contextual material with a simulated lateral lisp. The other group performed the task after listening to a recording of the same woman reading the material in a normal manner. Analyses of the scale values computed for the two conditions indicated that the lateral lisp called adverse attention to the speaker. A systematic replication was undertaken to assess the generality of this finding. The procedures of the original investigation were followed except that business administration students served as judges. The results replicated those of the original investigation. These data indicate that the lateral lisp is probably a speech defect and suggest that the practice of eliminating school speech services for children whose only speech difference is a lateral lisp should be reconsidered. PMID:994486

  17. Representational deficit or processing effect? An electrophysiological study of noun-noun compound processing by very advanced L2 speakers of English.

    PubMed

    De Cat, Cecile; Klepousniotou, Ekaterini; Baayen, R Harald

    2015-01-01

    The processing of English noun-noun compounds (NNCs) was investigated to identify the extent and nature of differences between the performance of native speakers of English and advanced Spanish and German non-native speakers of English. The study sought to establish whether the word order of the equivalent structure in the non-native speakers' mothertongue (L1) had an influence on their processing of NNCs in their second language (L2), and whether this influence was due to differences in grammatical representation (i.e., incomplete acquisition of the relevant structure) or processing effects. Two mask-primed lexical decision experiments were conducted in which compounds were presented with their constituent nouns in licit vs. reversed order. The first experiment used a speeded lexical decision task with reaction time registration, and the second a delayed lexical decision task with EEG registration. There were no significant group differences in accuracy in the licit word order condition, suggesting that the grammatical representation had been fully acquired by the non-native speakers. However, the Spanish speakers made slightly more errors with the reversed order and had longer response times, suggesting an L1 interference effect (as the reverse order matches the licit word order in Spanish). The EEG data, analyzed with generalized additive mixed models, further supported this hypothesis. The EEG waveform of the non-native speakers was characterized by a slightly later onset N400 in the violation condition (reversed constituent order). Compound frequency predicted the amplitude of the EEG signal for the licit word order for native speakers, but for the reversed constituent order for Spanish speakers-the licit order in their L1-supporting the hypothesis that Spanish speakers are affected by interferences from their L1. The pattern of results for the German speakers in the violation condition suggested a strong conflict arising due to licit constituents being

  18. The effects of feedback filtering on speaker intelligibility.

    PubMed

    Garber, S R; Siegel, G M; Pick, H L

    1980-07-01

    Subjects read intelligibility tests while hearing their voices low- or high-pass filtered. The tests were presented to listeners to assess speaker intelligibility. Feedback filtering had a variable effect on intelligibility. When speakers were permitted to increase their intensities in low-pass filtering conditions, their intelligibility also increased. Intelligibility did not increase when intensity was controlled. These results do not support the hypothesis that speakers modulate their voices in order to maintain intelligible communication with a presumed listener. IT is suggested instead that speakers alter their intensities in order to regulate the loudness of their voices in their own ears. PMID:7391264

  19. Objectively measured descriptors for perceptual characterization of speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Necioglu, Burhan Fazil

    Speaker recognizability has long been identified as one component in the evaluation process of communications systems. Although the intelligibility and voice quality aspects of evaluation have taken relative precedence, with more widespread use of lower bit rate speech coders, speaker recognizability emerges as an additional major issue. Still, subjective testing of speaker recognizability is intricate, time consuming and very expensive; so potentially, using objectively measurable descriptors to augment the subjective speaker recognizability tests could result in increased efficiency and reliability. This thesis presents a variety of descriptors objectively extracted from the speech waveform that might be useful in characterizing and interpreting perceptual speaker differences. These descriptors belong to the three broad classes of prosodic, vocal tract and glottal properties of speech production, and include various measurements on pitch and energy contours, formant related statistics, average vocal tract length estimates, and glottal pulse parameters. To assess the potential for this large set of speech waveform descriptors, reliability, RMS measurement noise and strength of speaker clustering were estimated using sets of 86 male and 78 female TIMIT speakers. The actual speaker discrimination abilities of the descriptors were determined by maximum-likelihood same/different classification of speaker pairs using their utterance pair measurement distances, without the need to model individual speakers. Using pairs of utterances approximately 12 seconds in length, and combining the likelihood scores of ten descriptors from all three broad classes, it was possible to make zero same-speaker classification errors, while achieving a different-speaker classification error rate of less than 1%, on separate testing/training speaker sets. When utterance lengths were reduced by half, the average error rate stayed below 4%. The perceptual relevance of this set of descriptors

  20. Learning speaker-specific characteristics with a deep neural architecture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; Salman, Ahmad

    2011-11-01

    Speech signals convey various yet mixed information ranging from linguistic to speaker-specific information. However, most of acoustic representations characterize all different kinds of information as whole, which could hinder either a speech or a speaker recognition (SR) system from producing a better performance. In this paper, we propose a novel deep neural architecture (DNA) especially for learning speaker-specific characteristics from mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, an acoustic representation commonly used in both speech recognition and SR, which results in a speaker-specific overcomplete representation. In order to learn intrinsic speaker-specific characteristics, we come up with an objective function consisting of contrastive losses in terms of speaker similarity/dissimilarity and data reconstruction losses used as regularization to normalize the interference of non-speaker-related information. Moreover, we employ a hybrid learning strategy for learning parameters of the deep neural networks: i.e., local yet greedy layerwise unsupervised pretraining for initialization and global supervised learning for the ultimate discriminative goal. With four Linguistic Data Consortium (LDC) benchmarks and two non-English corpora, we demonstrate that our overcomplete representation is robust in characterizing various speakers, no matter whether their utterances have been used in training our DNA, and highly insensitive to text and languages spoken. Extensive comparative studies suggest that our approach yields favorite results in speaker verification and segmentation. Finally, we discuss several issues concerning our proposed approach. PMID:21954206

  1. Learning speaker-specific characteristics with a deep neural architecture.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; Salman, Ahmad

    2011-11-01

    Speech signals convey various yet mixed information ranging from linguistic to speaker-specific information. However, most of acoustic representations characterize all different kinds of information as whole, which could hinder either a speech or a speaker recognition (SR) system from producing a better performance. In this paper, we propose a novel deep neural architecture (DNA) especially for learning speaker-specific characteristics from mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, an acoustic representation commonly used in both speech recognition and SR, which results in a speaker-specific overcomplete representation. In order to learn intrinsic speaker-specific characteristics, we come up with an objective function consisting of contrastive losses in terms of speaker similarity/dissimilarity and data reconstruction losses used as regularization to normalize the interference of non-speaker-related information. Moreover, we employ a hybrid learning strategy for learning parameters of the deep neural networks: i.e., local yet greedy layerwise unsupervised pretraining for initialization and global supervised learning for the ultimate discriminative goal. With four Linguistic Data Consortium (LDC) benchmarks and two non-English corpora, we demonstrate that our overcomplete representation is robust in characterizing various speakers, no matter whether their utterances have been used in training our DNA, and highly insensitive to text and languages spoken. Extensive comparative studies suggest that our approach yields favorite results in speaker verification and segmentation. Finally, we discuss several issues concerning our proposed approach.

  2. Speaker-independent factors affecting the perception of foreign accent in a second language.

    PubMed

    Levi, Susannah V; Winters, Stephen J; Pisoni, David B

    2007-04-01

    Previous research on foreign accent perception has largely focused on speaker-dependent factors such as age of learning and length of residence. Factors that are independent of a speaker's language learning history have also been shown to affect perception of second language speech. The present study examined the effects of two such factors--listening context and lexical frequency--on the perception of foreign-accented speech. Listeners rated foreign accent in two listening contexts: auditory-only, where listeners only heard the target stimuli, and auditory + orthography, where listeners were presented with both an auditory signal and an orthographic display of the target word. Results revealed that higher frequency words were consistently rated as less accented than lower frequency words. The effect of the listening context emerged in two interactions: the auditory + orthography context reduced the effects of lexical frequency, but increased the perceived differences between native and non-native speakers. Acoustic measurements revealed some production differences for words of different levels of lexical frequency, though these differences could not account for all of the observed interactions from the perceptual experiment. These results suggest that factors independent of the speakers' actual speech articulations can influence the perception of degree of foreign accent.

  3. An Investigation of Syntactic Priming among German Speakers at Varying Proficiency Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruf, Helena T.

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigates syntactic priming in second language (L2) development among three speaker populations: (1) less proficient L2 speakers; (2) advanced L2 speakers; and (3) LI speakers. Using confederate scripting this study examines how German speakers choose certain word orders in locative constructions (e.g., "Auf dem Tisch steht…

  4. Contrasting speakers focus on key issues.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    Around 100 IHEEM Company Affiliate Members, their guests, and senior representatives from organisations including the Royal Academy of Engineering, IPEM, and CIBSE, as well as from the NHS and its associated construction and supply chains, attended a high-level IHEEM seminar titled Healthcare Estates 2020 in Westminster on 19 November Topics discussed ranged from how the healthcare estates sector is increasingly being asked to 'do more with less', to Lord Carter's team's initial findings on the 'productivity and efficiency' of NHS Trusts in England. The seminar was followed by a celebratory lunch at the House of Lords, where the keynote speaker was Royal Academy of Engineering CEO, Philip Greenish (see HEJ--January 2016). PMID:27017657

  5. Prosody in the hands of the speaker

    PubMed Central

    Guellaï, Bahia; Langus, Alan; Nespor, Marina

    2014-01-01

    In everyday life, speech is accompanied by gestures. In the present study, two experiments tested the possibility that spontaneous gestures accompanying speech carry prosodic information. Experiment 1 showed that gestures provide prosodic information, as adults are able to perceive the congruency between low-pass filtered—thus unintelligible—speech and the gestures of the speaker. Experiment 2 shows that in the case of ambiguous sentences (i.e., sentences with two alternative meanings depending on their prosody) mismatched prosody and gestures lead participants to choose more often the meaning signaled by gestures. Our results demonstrate that the prosody that characterizes speech is not a modality specific phenomenon: it is also perceived in the spontaneous gestures that accompany speech. We draw the conclusion that spontaneous gestures and speech form a single communication system where the suprasegmental aspects of spoken language are mapped to the motor-programs responsible for the production of both speech sounds and hand gestures. PMID:25071666

  6. Contrasting speakers focus on key issues.

    PubMed

    2016-02-01

    Around 100 IHEEM Company Affiliate Members, their guests, and senior representatives from organisations including the Royal Academy of Engineering, IPEM, and CIBSE, as well as from the NHS and its associated construction and supply chains, attended a high-level IHEEM seminar titled Healthcare Estates 2020 in Westminster on 19 November Topics discussed ranged from how the healthcare estates sector is increasingly being asked to 'do more with less', to Lord Carter's team's initial findings on the 'productivity and efficiency' of NHS Trusts in England. The seminar was followed by a celebratory lunch at the House of Lords, where the keynote speaker was Royal Academy of Engineering CEO, Philip Greenish (see HEJ--January 2016).

  7. Affective processing in bilingual speakers: disembodied cognition?

    PubMed

    Pavlenko, Aneta

    2012-01-01

    A recent study by Keysar, Hayakawa, and An (2012) suggests that "thinking in a foreign language" may reduce decision biases because a foreign language provides a greater emotional distance than a native tongue. The possibility of such "disembodied" cognition is of great interest for theories of affect and cognition and for many other areas of psychological theory and practice, from clinical and forensic psychology to marketing, but first this claim needs to be properly evaluated. The purpose of this review is to examine the findings of clinical, introspective, cognitive, psychophysiological, and neuroimaging studies of affective processing in bilingual speakers in order to identify converging patterns of results, to evaluate the claim about "disembodied cognition," and to outline directions for future inquiry. The findings to date reveal two interrelated processing effects. First-language (L1) advantage refers to increased automaticity of affective processing in the L1 and heightened electrodermal reactivity to L1 emotion-laden words. Second-language (L2) advantage refers to decreased automaticity of affective processing in the L2, which reduces interference effects and lowers electrodermal reactivity to negative emotional stimuli. The differences in L1 and L2 affective processing suggest that in some bilingual speakers, in particular late bilinguals and foreign language users, respective languages may be differentially embodied, with the later learned language processed semantically but not affectively. This difference accounts for the reduction of framing biases in L2 processing in the study by Keysar et al. (2012). The follow-up discussion identifies the limits of the findings to date in terms of participant populations, levels of processing, and types of stimuli, puts forth alternative explanations of the documented effects, and articulates predictions to be tested in future research. PMID:23163422

  8. Density pervades: an analysis of phonological neighbourhood density effects in aphasic speakers with different types of naming impairment.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Erica L; Schwartz, Myrna F

    2010-07-01

    We investigated the influence of phonological neighbourhood density (PND) on the performance of aphasic speakers whose naming impairments differentially implicate phonological or semantic stages of lexical access. A word comes from a dense phonological neighbourhood if many words sound like it. Limited evidence suggests that higher density facilitates naming in aphasic speakers, as it does in healthy speakers. Using well-controlled stimuli, Experiment 1 confirmed the influence of PND on accuracy and phonological error rates in two aphasic speakers with phonological processing deficits. In Experiments 2 and 3, we extended the investigation to an aphasic speaker who is prone to semantic errors, indicating a semantic deficit and/or a deficit in the mapping from semantics to words. This individual had higher accuracy, and fewer semantic errors, in naming targets from high- than from low-density neighbourhoods. It is argued that the Results provide strong support for interactive approaches to lexical access, where reverberatory feedback between word- and phoneme-level lexical representations not only facilitates phonological level processes but also privileges the selection of a target word over its semantic competitors. PMID:21718214

  9. Density Pervades: An Analysis of Phonological Neighborhood Density Effects in Aphasic Speakers with Different Types of Naming Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Middleton, Erica L.; Schwartz, Myrna F.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the influence of phonological neighborhood density (PND) on the performance of aphasic speakers whose naming impairments differentially implicate phonological or semantic stages of lexical access. A word comes from a dense phonological neighborhood if many words sound like it. Limited evidence suggests that higher density facilitates naming in aphasic speakers, as it does in healthy speakers. Using well controlled stimuli, Experiment 1 confirmed the influence of PND on accuracy and phonological error rates in two aphasic speakers with phonological processing deficits. In Experiments 2 and 3, we extended the investigation to an aphasic speaker who is prone to semantic errors, indicating a semantic deficit and/or a deficit in the mapping from semantics to words. This individual had higher accuracy, and fewer semantic errors, in naming targets from high versus low density neighborhoods. It is argued that the results provide strong support for interactive approaches to lexical access, where reverberatory feedback between word- and phoneme-level lexical representations not only facilitates phonological level processes but also privileges the selection of a target word over its semantic competitors. PMID:21718214

  10. English and Thai Speakers' Perception of Mandarin Tones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Language learners' language experience is predicted to display a significant effect on their accurate perception of foreign language sounds (Flege, 1995). At the superasegmental level, there is still a debate regarding whether tone language speakers are better able to perceive foreign lexical tones than non-tone language speakers (i.e Lee et al.,…

  11. Pulitzer Prize Speakers Enhance Credibility of San Antonio Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aradillas, Elaine

    1994-01-01

    Describes a mass communications program at Texas's San Antonio College that invites Pulitzer Prize recipients to give guest lectures. Includes a list of the speakers who have lectured since the program's inception in 1978, a description of the speakers' accomplishments, and a description of program activities. (MAB)

  12. Initial Teacher Training Courses and Non-Native Speaker Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Jason

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on a study contrasting 41 native speakers (NSs) and 38 non-native speakers (NNSs) of English from two short initial teacher training courses, the Cambridge Certificate in English Language Teaching to Adults and the Trinity College London CertTESOL. After a brief history and literature review, I present findings on teachers'…

  13. Prosodic Marking of Information Structure by Malaysian Speakers of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gut, Ulrike; Pillai, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    Various researchers have shown that second language (L2) speakers have difficulties with marking information structure in English prosodically: They deviate from native speakers not only in terms of pitch accent placement (Grosser, 1997; Gut, 2009; Ramírez Verdugo, 2002) and the type of pitch accent they produce (Wennerstrom, 1994, 1998) but also…

  14. Single-Word Intelligibility in Speakers with Repaired Cleft Palate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehill, Tara L.; Chau, Cynthia H.-F.

    2004-01-01

    Many speakers with repaired cleft palate have reduced intelligibility, but there are limitations with current procedures for assessing intelligibility. The aim of this study was to construct a single-word intelligibility test for speakers with cleft palate. The test used a multiple-choice identification format, and was based on phonetic contrasts…

  15. Dysprosody and Stimulus Effects in Cantonese Speakers with Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Joan K.-Y.; Whitehill, Tara; Cheung, Katherine S.-K.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Dysprosody is a common feature in speakers with hypokinetic dysarthria. However, speech prosody varies across different types of speech materials. This raises the question of what is the most appropriate speech material for the evaluation of dysprosody. Aims: To characterize the prosodic impairment in Cantonese speakers with…

  16. Rationales for Indirect Speech: The Theory of the Strategic Speaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, James J.; Pinker, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Speakers often do not state requests directly but employ innuendos such as "Would you like to see my etchings?" Though such indirectness seems puzzlingly inefficient, it can be explained by a theory of the "strategic speaker", who seeks plausible deniability when he or she is uncertain of whether the hearer is cooperative or antagonistic. A…

  17. Toddlers Use Speech Disfluencies to Predict Speakers' Referential Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Celeste; White, Katherine S.; Aslin, Richard N.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to infer the referential intentions of speakers is a crucial part of learning a language. Previous research has uncovered various contextual and social cues that children may use to do this. Here we provide the first evidence that children also use speech disfluencies to infer speaker intention. Disfluencies (e.g. filled pauses "uh"…

  18. Acoustic Markers of Syllabic Stress in Spanish Excellent Oesophageal Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuenca, Maria Heliodora; Barrio, Marina M.; Anaya, Pablo; Establier, Carmelo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to explore the use by Spanish excellent oesophageal speakers of acoustic cues to mark syllabic stress. The speech material has consisted of five pairs of disyllabic words which only differed in stress position. Total 44 oesophageal and 9 laryngeal speakers were recorded and a computerised designed "ad hoc"…

  19. Experimental study on GMM-based speaker recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Wenxing; Wu, Dapeng; Nucci, Antonio

    2010-04-01

    Speaker recognition plays a very important role in the field of biometric security. In order to improve the recognition performance, many pattern recognition techniques have be explored in the literature. Among these techniques, the Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) is proved to be an effective statistic model for speaker recognition and is used in most state-of-the-art speaker recognition systems. The GMM is used to represent the 'voice print' of a speaker through modeling the spectral characteristic of speech signals of the speaker. In this paper, we implement a speaker recognition system, which consists of preprocessing, Mel-Frequency Cepstrum Coefficients (MFCCs) based feature extraction, and GMM based classification. We test our system with TIDIGITS data set (325 speakers) and our own recordings of more than 200 speakers; our system achieves 100% correct recognition rate. Moreover, we also test our system under the scenario that training samples are from one language but test samples are from a different language; our system also achieves 100% correct recognition rate, which indicates that our system is language independent.

  20. Statistical Evaluation of Biometric Evidence in Forensic Automatic Speaker Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drygajlo, Andrzej

    Forensic speaker recognition is the process of determining if a specific individual (suspected speaker) is the source of a questioned voice recording (trace). This paper aims at presenting forensic automatic speaker recognition (FASR) methods that provide a coherent way of quantifying and presenting recorded voice as biometric evidence. In such methods, the biometric evidence consists of the quantified degree of similarity between speaker-dependent features extracted from the trace and speaker-dependent features extracted from recorded speech of a suspect. The interpretation of recorded voice as evidence in the forensic context presents particular challenges, including within-speaker (within-source) variability and between-speakers (between-sources) variability. Consequently, FASR methods must provide a statistical evaluation which gives the court an indication of the strength of the evidence given the estimated within-source and between-sources variabilities. This paper reports on the first ENFSI evaluation campaign through a fake case, organized by the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI), as an example, where an automatic method using the Gaussian mixture models (GMMs) and the Bayesian interpretation (BI) framework were implemented for the forensic speaker recognition task.

  1. Revisiting Speech Rate and Utterance Length Manipulations in Stuttering Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blomgren, Michael; Goberman, Alexander M.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of this study was to evaluate stuttering frequency across a multidimensional (2 x 2) hierarchy of speech performance tasks. Specifically, this study examined the interaction between changes in length of utterance and levels of speech rate stability. Forty-four adult male speakers participated in the study (22 stuttering speakers and 22…

  2. Phase Asymmetries in Normophonic Speakers: Visual Judgments and Objective Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonilha, Heather Shaw; Deliyski, Dimitar D.; Gerlach, Terri Treman

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To ascertain the amount of phase asymmetry of the vocal fold vibration in normophonic speakers via visualization techniques and compare findings for habitual and pressed phonations. Method: Fifty-two normophonic speakers underwent stroboscopy and high-speed videoendoscopy (HSV). The HSV images were further processed into 4 visual…

  3. Guest Speakers in School-Based Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McRee, Annie-Laurie; Madsen, Nikki; Eisenberg, Marla E.

    2014-01-01

    This study, using data from a statewide survey (n = 332), examined teachers' practices regarding the inclusion of guest speakers to cover sexuality content. More than half of teachers (58%) included guest speakers. In multivariate analyses, teachers who taught high school, had professional preparation in health education, or who received…

  4. Modeling the Control of Phonological Encoding in Bilingual Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roelofs, Ardi; Verhoef, Kim

    2006-01-01

    Phonological encoding is the process by which speakers retrieve phonemic segments for morphemes from memory and use the segments to assemble phonological representations of words to be spoken. When conversing in one language, bilingual speakers have to resist the temptation of encoding word forms using the phonological rules and representations of…

  5. Mismatch: Globalization and Native Speaker Models of Linguistic Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Kevin Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although the paradigm shift towards English as an International Language (EIL) has been generally accepted within the academic community, a valorization of native speaker norms continues to be prevalent among many non-native speakers (NNSs). Through data drawn from a qualitative questionnaire and proficiency assessment results (TOEIC), this mixed…

  6. Speakers' Sensitivity to Rules of Frozen Word Order.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinker, Steven; Birdsong, David

    1979-01-01

    Two studies elicited native speaker and nonnative speaker judgments regarding preferred word order of the idioms known as "freezes." The results support the notion that rules of frozen word order are psychologically real and reflect universal language rules. (Author/AM)

  7. Speaker recognition with temporal cues in acoustic and electric hearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vongphoe, Michael; Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2005-08-01

    Natural spoken language processing includes not only speech recognition but also identification of the speaker's gender, age, emotional, and social status. Our purpose in this study is to evaluate whether temporal cues are sufficient to support both speech and speaker recognition. Ten cochlear-implant and six normal-hearing subjects were presented with vowel tokens spoken by three men, three women, two boys, and two girls. In one condition, the subject was asked to recognize the vowel. In the other condition, the subject was asked to identify the speaker. Extensive training was provided for the speaker recognition task. Normal-hearing subjects achieved nearly perfect performance in both tasks. Cochlear-implant subjects achieved good performance in vowel recognition but poor performance in speaker recognition. The level of the cochlear implant performance was functionally equivalent to normal performance with eight spectral bands for vowel recognition but only to one band for speaker recognition. These results show a disassociation between speech and speaker recognition with primarily temporal cues, highlighting the limitation of current speech processing strategies in cochlear implants. Several methods, including explicit encoding of fundamental frequency and frequency modulation, are proposed to improve speaker recognition for current cochlear implant users.

  8. The Denial of Ideology in Perceptions of "Nonnative Speaker" Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliday, Adrian; Aboshiha, Pamela

    2009-01-01

    There is now general acceptance that the traditional "nonnative speaker" label for teachers of English is problematic on sociolinguistic grounds and can be the source of employment discrimination. However, there continues to be disagreement regarding how far there is a prejudice against "nonnative speaker" teachers which is deep and sustained and…

  9. Some thoughts on the Native Speaker of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    No, Keum Sook; Park, Kyung-Ja

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to reconsider the concept of the native speaker of English in light of the heightened status of English as a global language. The broadening and acceptance of criteria regarding who is a native speaker is historically discussed and placed in a modern context. In particular, perceptions towards the English native…

  10. Speaking Japanese in Japan: Issues for English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Meredith

    2010-01-01

    Due to the global momentum of English as a Lingua Franca (ELF), Anglophones may perceive that there is less urgency for them to learn other languages than for speakers of other languages to learn English. The monolingual expectations of English speakers are evidenced not only in Anglophone countries but also abroad. This study reports on the…

  11. Teaching Portuguese to Spanish Speakers: A Case for Trilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Ana M.; Freire, Juliana Luna; da Silva, Antonio J. B.

    2010-01-01

    Portuguese is the sixth-most-spoken native language in the world, with approximately 240,000,000 speakers. Within the United States, there is a growing demand for K-12 language programs to engage the community of Portuguese heritage speakers. According to the 2000 U.S. census, 85,000 school-age children speak Portuguese at home. As a result, more…

  12. Nonnative Speaker Teachers of Spanish: Insights from Novice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Amy S.; Fioramonte, Amy

    2012-01-01

    A sizable body of literature has been established surrounding native speaker teachers versus nonnative speaker teachers of English. Presently, a paucity of research exists related to teachers working with languages other than English. In an attempt to fill this research gap, this qualitative research study presents the experiences of novice…

  13. An Audio Stream Redirector for the Ethernet Speaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mandrekar, Ishan; Prevelakis, Vassilis; Turner, David Michael

    2004-01-01

    The authors have developed the "Ethernet Speaker" (ES), a network-enabled single board computer embedded into a conventional audio speaker. Audio streams are transmitted in the local area network using multicast packets, and the ES can select any one of them and play it back. A key requirement for the ES is that it must be capable of playing any…

  14. Preschoolers' credulity toward misinformation from ingroup versus outgroup speakers.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Kyla P; Ma, Lili

    2016-08-01

    The current research examined preschoolers' credulity toward misinformation from ingroup versus outgroup speakers. Experiment 1 showed that when searching for a hidden toy, Caucasian English monolingual 4-year-olds were credulous toward the false testimony of a race-and-accent ingroup speaker, despite their firsthand observations of the hiding event, but were skeptical when the false testimony was provided by a race-and-accent outgroup speaker. In the same experiment, 3-year-olds were credulous toward the false testimony of both speakers. Experiment 2 showed that when the false testimony was provided by a same-race-only or same-accent-only speaker, 4-year-olds were not particularly credulous or skeptical. The findings are discussed in relation to how intergroup bias might contribute to the selective credulity in the 4-year-olds as well as the factors that might explain the indiscriminate credulity in the 3-year-olds. PMID:27135169

  15. Speakers of Different Languages Process the Visual World Differently

    PubMed Central

    Chabal, Sarah; Marian, Viorica

    2015-01-01

    Language and vision are highly interactive. Here we show that people activate language when they perceive the visual world, and that this language information impacts how speakers of different languages focus their attention. For example, when searching for an item (e.g., clock) in the same visual display, English and Spanish speakers look at different objects. Whereas English speakers searching for the clock also look at a cloud, Spanish speakers searching for the clock also look at a gift, because the Spanish names for gift (regalo) and clock (reloj) overlap phonologically. These different looking patterns emerge despite an absence of direct linguistic input, showing that language is automatically activated by visual scene processing. We conclude that the varying linguistic information available to speakers of different languages affects visual perception, leading to differences in how the visual world is processed. PMID:26030171

  16. Design of speaker recognition system based on artificial neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanhong; Wang, Li; Lin, Han; Li, Jinlong

    2012-10-01

    Speaker recognition is to recognize speaker's identity from its voice which contains physiological and behavioral characteristics unique to each individual. In this paper, the artificial neural network model, which has very good capacity of non-linear division in characteristic space, is used for pattern matching. The speaker's sample characteristic domain is built for his mixed voice characteristic signals based on Kmeanlbg algorithm. Then the dimension of the inputting eigenvector is reduced, and the redundant information is got rid of. On this basis, BP neural network is used to divide capacity area for characteristic space nonlinearly, and the BP neural network acts as a classifier for the speaker. Finally, a speaker recognition system based on the neural network is realized and the experiment results validate the recognition performance and robustness of the system.

  17. Sentence comprehension in Swahili-English bilingual agrammatic speakers.

    PubMed

    Abuom, Tom O; Shah, Emmah; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2013-05-01

    For this study, sentence comprehension was tested in Swahili-English bilingual agrammatic speakers. The sentences were controlled for four factors: (1) order of the arguments (base vs. derived); (2) embedding (declarative vs. relative sentences); (3) overt use of the relative pronoun "who"; (4) language (English and Swahili). Two theories were tested: the Trace Deletion Hypothesis (TDH; [Grodzinsky, Y. (1995). A restrictive theory of agrammatic comprehension. Brain and Language, 50, 27-51]) that assumes a representational deficit in agrammatic aphasia and the Derived Order Problem Hypothesis (DOP-H; Bastiaanse & Van Zonneveld, 2005), which is a processing account. Both theories have the same predictions for sentences in derived order. The difference is that the TDH predicts chance level performance for sentences in which the arguments are not in base order, whereas the DOP-H predicts poorer performance when processing demands increase. The results show that word order influences performance, in that sentences in which the arguments are in derived order are harder to comprehend than sentences in which the arguments are in base order. However, there is a significant interaction with the factor "embedding": sentences with an embedding are harder to comprehend than simple declaratives and this influence is larger in derived order sentences. There is no effect of language nor of the use of a relative pronoun. These results are correctly accounted for by the DOP-H.

  18. Evaluation of Speakers with Foreign-Accented Speech in Japan: The Effect of Accent Produced by English Native Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsurutani, Chiharu

    2012-01-01

    Foreign-accented speakers are generally regarded as less educated, less reliable and less interesting than native speakers and tend to be associated with cultural stereotypes of their country of origin. This discrimination against foreign accents has, however, been discussed mainly using accented English in English-speaking countries. This study…

  19. Inconsistencies in Error Production by Non-Native English Speakers and in Error Gravity Judgment by Native Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arani, Mhmoud T.

    The purpose of this study was to: (1) describe differences in performance by non-native learners of English, when writing in different genres; (2) determine communicative value of grammatical errors as judged by a panel of native speakers; and (3) demonstrate inconsistencies in native speaker judgment of error gravity. Subjects were 20…

  20. Accounting for the listener: comparing the production of contrastive intonation in typically-developing speakers and speakers with autism.

    PubMed

    Kaland, Constantijn; Swerts, Marc; Krahmer, Emiel

    2013-09-01

    The present research investigates what drives the prosodic marking of contrastive information. For example, a typically developing speaker of a Germanic language like Dutch generally refers to a pink car as a "PINK car" (accented words in capitals) when a previously mentioned car was red. The main question addressed in this paper is whether contrastive intonation is produced with respect to the speaker's or (also) the listener's perspective on the preceding discourse. Furthermore, this research investigates the production of contrastive intonation by typically developing speakers and speakers with autism. The latter group is investigated because people with autism are argued to have difficulties accounting for another person's mental state and exhibit difficulties in the production and perception of accentuation and pitch range. To this end, utterances with contrastive intonation are elicited from both groups and analyzed in terms of function and form of prosody using production and perception measures. Contrary to expectations, typically developing speakers and speakers with autism produce functionally similar contrastive intonation as both groups account for both their own and their listener's perspective. However, typically developing speakers use a larger pitch range and are perceived as speaking more dynamically than speakers with autism, suggesting differences in their use of prosodic form.

  1. Accounting for the listener: comparing the production of contrastive intonation in typically-developing speakers and speakers with autism.

    PubMed

    Kaland, Constantijn; Swerts, Marc; Krahmer, Emiel

    2013-09-01

    The present research investigates what drives the prosodic marking of contrastive information. For example, a typically developing speaker of a Germanic language like Dutch generally refers to a pink car as a "PINK car" (accented words in capitals) when a previously mentioned car was red. The main question addressed in this paper is whether contrastive intonation is produced with respect to the speaker's or (also) the listener's perspective on the preceding discourse. Furthermore, this research investigates the production of contrastive intonation by typically developing speakers and speakers with autism. The latter group is investigated because people with autism are argued to have difficulties accounting for another person's mental state and exhibit difficulties in the production and perception of accentuation and pitch range. To this end, utterances with contrastive intonation are elicited from both groups and analyzed in terms of function and form of prosody using production and perception measures. Contrary to expectations, typically developing speakers and speakers with autism produce functionally similar contrastive intonation as both groups account for both their own and their listener's perspective. However, typically developing speakers use a larger pitch range and are perceived as speaking more dynamically than speakers with autism, suggesting differences in their use of prosodic form. PMID:23967948

  2. Revisiting the Issue of Native Speakerism: "I Don't Want to Speak Like a Native Speaker of English"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Lee Jin

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study of English Korean bilinguals explores the ways in which they legitimize themselves as "good" bilinguals in relation to the discourse of native-speakerism. I first survey the essentialist discourse of native speakerism still prevalent in the field of English language teaching and learning despite the growing…

  3. Influence of Visual Information on the Intelligibility of Dysarthric Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keintz, Connie K.; Bunton, Kate; Hoit, Jeannette D.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the influence of visual information on speech intelligibility for a group of speakers with dysarthria associated with Parkinson's disease. Method: Eight speakers with Parkinson's disease and dysarthria were recorded while they read sentences. Speakers performed a concurrent manual task to facilitate typical speech production.…

  4. Promoting a Minority Language to Majority Language Speakers: Television Advertising about the Maori Language Targeting Non-Maori New Zealanders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bres, Julia

    2010-01-01

    It has been claimed that the success of minority language policy initiatives may only be achievable if at least some degree of 'tolerability' of these initiatives is secured among majority language speakers. There has, however, been little consideration in the language planning literature of what practical approaches might be used to influence the…

  5. Heritage Speakers of Spanish in the US Midwest: Reported Interlocutors as a Measure of Family Language Relevance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Velázquez, Isabel; Garrido, Marisol; Millán, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of an analysis of reported interlocutors in Spanish in a group of heritage speakers (HS), in three communities of the US Midwest. Participants were college-aged bilinguals developing their own personal and professional networks outside the direct influence of their parents. Responses are compared with those from…

  6. NES++: number system for encryption based privacy preserving speaker verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lei; Feng, Tao; Zhao, Xi; Shi, Weidong

    2014-05-01

    As speech based operation becomes a main hand-free interaction solution between human and mobile devices (i.e., smartphones, Google Glass), privacy preserving speaker verification receives much attention nowadays. Privacy preserving speaker verification can be achieved through many different ways, such as fuzzy vault and encryption. Encryption based solutions are promising as cryptography is based on solid mathematic foundations and the security properties can be easily analyzed in a well established framework. Most current asymmetric encryption schemes work on finite algebraic structures, such as finite group and finite fields. However, the encryption scheme for privacy preserving speaker verification must handle floating point numbers. This gap must be filled to make the overall scheme practical. In this paper, we propose a number system that meets the requirements of both speaker verification and the encryption scheme used in the process. It also supports addition homomorphic property of Pailliers encryption, which is crucial for privacy preserving speaker verification. As asymmetric encryption is expensive, we propose a method of packing several numbers into one plain-text and the computation overhead is greatly reduced. To evaluate the performance of this method, we implement Pailliers encryption scheme over proposed number system and the packing technique. Our findings show that the proposed solution can fulfill the gap between speaker verification and encryption scheme very well, and the packing technique improves the overall performance. Furthermore, our solution is a building block of encryption based privacy preserving speaker verification, the privacy protection and accuracy rate are not affected.

  7. When pitch Accents Encode Speaker Commitment: Evidence from French Intonation.

    PubMed

    Michelas, Amandine; Portes, Cristel; Champagne-Lavau, Maud

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies on a variety of languages have shown that a speaker's commitment to the propositional content of his or her utterance can be encoded, among other strategies, by pitch accent types. Since prior research mainly relied on lexical-stress languages, our understanding of how speakers of a non-lexical-stress language encode speaker commitment is limited. This paper explores the contribution of the last pitch accent of an intonation phrase to convey speaker commitment in French, a language that has stress at the phrasal level as well as a restricted set of pitch accents. In a production experiment, participants had to produce sentences in two pragmatic contexts: unbiased questions (the speaker had no particular belief with respect to the expected answer) and negatively biased questions (the speaker believed the proposition to be false). Results revealed that negatively biased questions consistently exhibited an additional unaccented F0 peak in the preaccentual syllable (an H+!H* pitch accent) while unbiased questions were often realized with a rising pattern across the accented syllable (an H* pitch accent). These results provide evidence that pitch accent types in French can signal the speaker's belief about the certainty of the proposition expressed in French. It also has implications for the phonological model of French intonation. PMID:27363256

  8. Multidimensional analyses of voicing offsets and onsets in female speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Laura L.; Mencl, W. Einar; Lucero, Jorge C.

    2005-10-01

    This study investigates cross-speaker differences in the factors that predict voicing thresholds during abduction-adduction gestures in six normal women. Measures of baseline airflow, pulse amplitude, subglottal pressure, and fundamental frequency were made at voicing offset and onset during intervocalic /h/, produced in varying vowel environments and at different loudness levels, and subjected to relational analyses to determine which factors were most strongly related to the timing of voicing cessation or initiation. The data indicate that (a) all speakers showed differences between voicing offsets and onsets, but the degree of this effect varied across speakers; (b) loudness and vowel environment have speaker-specific effects on the likelihood of devoicing during /h/; and (c) baseline flow measures significantly predicted times of voicing offset and onset in all participants, but other variables contributing to voice timing differed across speakers. Overall, the results suggest that individual speakers have unique methods of achieving phonatory goals during running speech. These data contribute to the literature on individual differences in laryngeal function, and serve as a means of evaluating how well laryngeal models can reproduce the range of voicing behavior used by speakers during running speech tasks.

  9. On how the brain decodes vocal cues about speaker confidence.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaoming; Pell, Marc D

    2015-05-01

    In speech communication, listeners must accurately decode vocal cues that refer to the speaker's mental state, such as their confidence or 'feeling of knowing'. However, the time course and neural mechanisms associated with online inferences about speaker confidence are unclear. Here, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to examine the temporal neural dynamics underlying a listener's ability to infer speaker confidence from vocal cues during speech processing. We recorded listeners' real-time brain responses while they evaluated statements wherein the speaker's tone of voice conveyed one of three levels of confidence (confident, close-to-confident, unconfident) or were spoken in a neutral manner. Neural responses time-locked to event onset show that the perceived level of speaker confidence could be differentiated at distinct time points during speech processing: unconfident expressions elicited a weaker P2 than all other expressions of confidence (or neutral-intending utterances), whereas close-to-confident expressions elicited a reduced negative response in the 330-500 msec and 550-740 msec time window. Neutral-intending expressions, which were also perceived as relatively confident, elicited a more delayed, larger sustained positivity than all other expressions in the 980-1270 msec window for this task. These findings provide the first piece of evidence of how quickly the brain responds to vocal cues signifying the extent of a speaker's confidence during online speech comprehension; first, a rough dissociation between unconfident and confident voices occurs as early as 200 msec after speech onset. At a later stage, further differentiation of the exact level of speaker confidence (i.e., close-to-confident, very confident) is evaluated via an inferential system to determine the speaker's meaning under current task settings. These findings extend three-stage models of how vocal emotion cues are processed in speech comprehension (e.g., Schirmer & Kotz, 2006) by

  10. Improving Speaker Recognition by Biometric Voice Deconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Mazaira-Fernandez, Luis Miguel; Álvarez-Marquina, Agustín; Gómez-Vilda, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Person identification, especially in critical environments, has always been a subject of great interest. However, it has gained a new dimension in a world threatened by a new kind of terrorism that uses social networks (e.g., YouTube) to broadcast its message. In this new scenario, classical identification methods (such as fingerprints or face recognition) have been forcedly replaced by alternative biometric characteristics such as voice, as sometimes this is the only feature available. The present study benefits from the advances achieved during last years in understanding and modeling voice production. The paper hypothesizes that a gender-dependent characterization of speakers combined with the use of a set of features derived from the components, resulting from the deconstruction of the voice into its glottal source and vocal tract estimates, will enhance recognition rates when compared to classical approaches. A general description about the main hypothesis and the methodology followed to extract the gender-dependent extended biometric parameters is given. Experimental validation is carried out both on a highly controlled acoustic condition database, and on a mobile phone network recorded under non-controlled acoustic conditions. PMID:26442245

  11. Improving Speaker Recognition by Biometric Voice Deconstruction.

    PubMed

    Mazaira-Fernandez, Luis Miguel; Álvarez-Marquina, Agustín; Gómez-Vilda, Pedro

    2015-01-01

    Person identification, especially in critical environments, has always been a subject of great interest. However, it has gained a new dimension in a world threatened by a new kind of terrorism that uses social networks (e.g., YouTube) to broadcast its message. In this new scenario, classical identification methods (such as fingerprints or face recognition) have been forcedly replaced by alternative biometric characteristics such as voice, as sometimes this is the only feature available. The present study benefits from the advances achieved during last years in understanding and modeling voice production. The paper hypothesizes that a gender-dependent characterization of speakers combined with the use of a set of features derived from the components, resulting from the deconstruction of the voice into its glottal source and vocal tract estimates, will enhance recognition rates when compared to classical approaches. A general description about the main hypothesis and the methodology followed to extract the gender-dependent extended biometric parameters is given. Experimental validation is carried out both on a highly controlled acoustic condition database, and on a mobile phone network recorded under non-controlled acoustic conditions. PMID:26442245

  12. English vowel learning by speakers of Mandarin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, Ron I.

    2005-04-01

    One of the most influential models of second language (L2) speech perception and production [Flege, Speech Perception and Linguistic Experience (York, Baltimore, 1995) pp. 233-277] argues that during initial stages of L2 acquisition, perceptual categories sharing the same or nearly the same acoustic space as first language (L1) categories will be processed as members of that L1 category. Previous research has generally been limited to testing these claims on binary L2 contrasts, rather than larger portions of the perceptual space. This study examines the development of 10 English vowel categories by 20 Mandarin L1 learners of English. Imitation of English vowel stimuli by these learners, at 6 data collection points over the course of one year, were recorded. Using a statistical pattern recognition model, these productions were then assessed against native speaker norms. The degree to which the learners' perception/production shifted toward the target English vowels and the degree to which they matched L1 categories in ways predicted by theoretical models are discussed. The results of this experiment suggest that previous claims about perceptual assimilation of L2 categories to L1 categories may be too strong.

  13. Cost-sensitive learning for emotion robust speaker recognition.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongdong; Yang, Yingchun; Dai, Weihui

    2014-01-01

    In the field of information security, voice is one of the most important parts in biometrics. Especially, with the development of voice communication through the Internet or telephone system, huge voice data resources are accessed. In speaker recognition, voiceprint can be applied as the unique password for the user to prove his/her identity. However, speech with various emotions can cause an unacceptably high error rate and aggravate the performance of speaker recognition system. This paper deals with this problem by introducing a cost-sensitive learning technology to reweight the probability of test affective utterances in the pitch envelop level, which can enhance the robustness in emotion-dependent speaker recognition effectively. Based on that technology, a new architecture of recognition system as well as its components is proposed in this paper. The experiment conducted on the Mandarin Affective Speech Corpus shows that an improvement of 8% identification rate over the traditional speaker recognition is achieved. PMID:24999492

  14. Acoustic markers of syllabic stress in Spanish excellent oesophageal speakers.

    PubMed

    Cuenca, María Heliodora; Barrio, Marina M; Anaya, Pablo; Establier, Carmelo

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to explore the use by Spanish excellent oesophageal speakers of acoustic cues to mark syllabic stress. The speech material has consisted of five pairs of disyllabic words which only differed in stress position. Total 44 oesophageal and 9 laryngeal speakers were recorded and a computerised designed ad hoc perceptual test was run in order to assess the accurate realisation of stress. The items produced by eight excellent oesophageal speakers with highest accuracy levels in the perception experiment were analysed acoustically with Praat, to be compared with the laryngeal control group. Measures of duration, fundamental frequency, spectral balance and overall intensity were taken for each target vowel and syllable. Results revealed that Spanish excellent oesophageal speakers were able to retain appropriate acoustic relations between stressed and unstressed syllables. Although spectral balance revealed as a strong cue for syllabic stress in the two voicing modes, a different hierarchy of acoustic cues in each voicing mode was found.

  15. Adult Basic Education for Non-English Speakers: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stupp, Emma Gonzalez, Comp.; Gage, Jennifer, Comp.

    This bibliography is a collection of 51 entries concerning adult basic education for non-English speakers. Each entry contains an abstract describing the contents of the material. Information is also provided regarding availability, as well as indexing terms. (AMH)

  16. Cost-Sensitive Learning for Emotion Robust Speaker Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dongdong; Yang, Yingchun

    2014-01-01

    In the field of information security, voice is one of the most important parts in biometrics. Especially, with the development of voice communication through the Internet or telephone system, huge voice data resources are accessed. In speaker recognition, voiceprint can be applied as the unique password for the user to prove his/her identity. However, speech with various emotions can cause an unacceptably high error rate and aggravate the performance of speaker recognition system. This paper deals with this problem by introducing a cost-sensitive learning technology to reweight the probability of test affective utterances in the pitch envelop level, which can enhance the robustness in emotion-dependent speaker recognition effectively. Based on that technology, a new architecture of recognition system as well as its components is proposed in this paper. The experiment conducted on the Mandarin Affective Speech Corpus shows that an improvement of 8% identification rate over the traditional speaker recognition is achieved. PMID:24999492

  17. Oral language skills of adult cleft palate speakers.

    PubMed

    Pannbacker, M

    1975-01-01

    This study investigated selected oral language skills and their relationship to speech intelligibility in forty cleft palate and normal adult speakers. Connected speech samples were analyzed to determine spoken language status which included response length, grammar or syntax, and vocabulary size. The subjects were judged for intelligibility by two groups of listeners: sophisticated and unsophisticated. It was concluded: (a) cleft palate speakers used shorter responses and were more consistent in their language usage; (b) there were no significant differnences in syntax and vocabulary; (c) for cleft palate speakers there was a relationship between intelligibility and language measures; (d) unsophisticated listiners were more consisitent in intelligibility judgements, and (e) sophisticated listeners rated cleft palate speakers poorer than unsophisticated listeners.

  18. Detail, south end of control console with speakers; looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, south end of control console with speakers; looking southeast towards the TV control panel room - March Air Force Base, Strategic Air Command, Combat Operations Center, 5220 Riverside Drive, Moreno Valley, Riverside County, CA

  19. Electrophysiology of subject-verb agreement mediated by speakers' gender.

    PubMed

    Hanulíková, Adriana; Carreiras, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    An important property of speech is that it explicitly conveys features of a speaker's identity such as age or gender. This event-related potential (ERP) study examined the effects of social information provided by a speaker's gender, i.e., the conceptual representation of gender, on subject-verb agreement. Despite numerous studies on agreement, little is known about syntactic computations generated by speaker characteristics extracted from the acoustic signal. Slovak is well suited to investigate this issue because it is a morphologically rich language in which agreement involves features for number, case, and gender. Grammaticality of a sentence can be evaluated by checking a speaker's gender as conveyed by his/her voice. We examined how conceptual information about speaker gender, which is not syntactic but rather social and pragmatic in nature, is interpreted for the computation of agreement patterns. ERP responses to verbs disagreeing with the speaker's gender (e.g., a sentence including a masculine verbal inflection spoken by a female person 'the neighbors were upset because I (∗)stoleMASC plums') elicited a larger early posterior negativity compared to correct sentences. When the agreement was purely syntactic and did not depend on the speaker's gender, a disagreement between a formally marked subject and the verb inflection (e.g., the womanFEM (∗)stoleMASC plums) resulted in a larger P600 preceded by a larger anterior negativity compared to the control sentences. This result is in line with proposals according to which the recruitment of non-syntactic information such as the gender of the speaker results in N400-like effects, while formally marked syntactic features lead to structural integration as reflected in a LAN/P600 complex. PMID:26441771

  20. Understanding speaker attitudes from prosody by adults with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Monetta, Laura; Cheang, Henry S; Pell, Marc D

    2008-09-01

    The ability to interpret vocal (prosodic) cues during social interactions can be disrupted by Parkinson's disease, with notable effects on how emotions are understood from speech. This study investigated whether PD patients who have emotional prosody deficits exhibit further difficulties decoding the attitude of a speaker from prosody. Vocally inflected but semantically nonsensical 'pseudo-utterances' were presented to listener groups with and without PD in two separate rating tasks. Task I required participants to rate how confident a speaker sounded from their voice and Task 2 required listeners to rate how polite the speaker sounded for a comparable set of pseudo-utterances. The results showed that PD patients were significantly less able than HC participants to use prosodic cues to differentiate intended levels of speaker confidence in speech, although the patients could accurately detect the politelimpolite attitude of the speaker from prosody in most cases. Our data suggest that many PD patients fail to use vocal cues to effectively infer a speaker's emotions as well as certain attitudes in speech such as confidence, consistent with the idea that the basal ganglia play a role in the meaningful processing of prosodic sequences in spoken language (Pell & Leonard, 2003).

  1. Relationship between tongue positions and formant frequencies in female speakers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jimin; Shaiman, Susan; Weismer, Gary

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship (1) between acoustic vowel space and the corresponding tongue kinematic vowel space and (2) between formant frequencies (F1 and F2) and tongue x-y coordinates for the same time sampling point. Thirteen healthy female adults participated in this study. Electromagnetic articulography and synchronized acoustic recordings were utilized to obtain vowel acoustic and tongue kinematic data across ten speech tasks. Intra-speaker analyses showed that for 10 of the 13 speakers the acoustic vowel space was moderately to highly correlated with tongue kinematic vowel space; much weaker correlations were obtained for inter-speaker analyses. Correlations of individual formants with tongue positions showed that F1 varied strongly with tongue position variations in the y dimension, whereas F2 was correlated in equal magnitude with variations in the x and y positions. For within-speaker analyses, the size of the acoustic vowel space is likely to provide a reasonable inference of size of the tongue working space for most speakers; unfortunately there is no a priori, obvious way to identify the speakers for whom the covariation is not significant. A second conclusion is that F1 variations reflect tongue height, but F2 is a much more complex reflection of tongue variation in both dimensions.

  2. Spectral moments analysis of stops in tracheoesophageal speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbauer, Kimberly; Obert, Kerrie; Fox, Robert Allen

    2002-05-01

    Optimal speech intelligibility is naturally of primary concern for individuals who have had their larynxes removed due to cancer and are now using tracheoesophageal (TE) speech as their primary mode of communication. The current study examines the acoustic characteristics associated with the oral stops /pbtdkg/ produced by TE speakers as compared to normal speakers. Of particular interest are the acoustic differences between these two sets of speakers in oral stop bursts and in the aspiration frication for the voiceless stops. A set of utterances in which these six stops occur in both initial position (CV) and intervocalic position (VCV) before a wide range of English vowels were recorded for each set of speakers. Appropriate acoustic measurements were then made for each stop. These measurements included the spectral moments of the burst and aspiration, VOT, closure duration (for intervocalic stops), and the relative and normalized amplitude levels of the burst and aspiration. Acoustic differences obtained will be discussed as a function of speaker type, phonetic context and, in the case of the TE speaker, experience with the device.

  3. A fundamental residue pitch perception bias for tone language speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitti, Elizabeth

    A complex tone composed of only higher-order harmonics typically elicits a pitch percept equivalent to the tone's missing fundamental frequency (f0). When judging the direction of residue pitch change between two such tones, however, listeners may have completely opposite perceptual experiences depending on whether they are biased to perceive changes based on the overall spectrum or the missing f0 (harmonic spacing). Individual differences in residue pitch change judgments are reliable and have been associated with musical experience and functional neuroanatomy. Tone languages put greater pitch processing demands on their speakers than non-tone languages, and we investigated whether these lifelong differences in linguistic pitch processing affect listeners' bias for residue pitch. We asked native tone language speakers and native English speakers to perform a pitch judgment task for two tones with missing fundamental frequencies. Given tone pairs with ambiguous pitch changes, listeners were asked to judge the direction of pitch change, where the direction of their response indicated whether they attended to the overall spectrum (exhibiting a spectral bias) or the missing f0 (exhibiting a fundamental bias). We found that tone language speakers are significantly more likely to perceive pitch changes based on the missing f0 than English speakers. These results suggest that tone-language speakers' privileged experience with linguistic pitch fundamentally tunes their basic auditory processing.

  4. Variation in vowel duration among southern African American English speakers

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Yolanda Feimster; Jacewicz, Ewa; Fox, Robert Allen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Atypical duration of speech segments can signal a speech disorder. This study examined variation in vowel duration in African American English (AAE) relative to White American English (WAE) speakers living in the same dialect region in the South in order to characterize the nature of systematic variation between the two groups. The goal was to establish whether segmental durations in minority populations differ from the well-established patterns in mainstream populations. Method Participants were 32 AAE and 32 WAE speakers differing in age who, in their childhood, attended either segregated (older speakers) or integrated (younger speakers) public schools. Speech materials consisted of 14 vowels produced in hVd-frame. Results AAE vowels were significantly longer than WAE vowels. Vowel duration did not differ as a function of age. The temporal tense-lax contrast was minimized for AAE relative to WAE. Female vowels were significantly longer than male vowels for both AAE and WAE. Conclusions African Americans should be expected to produce longer vowels relative to White speakers in a common geographic area. These longer durations are not deviant but represent a typical feature of AAE. This finding has clinical importance in guiding assessments of speech disorders in AAE speakers. PMID:25951511

  5. Pharmaceutical speakers' bureaus, academic freedom, and the management of promotional speaking at academic medical centers.

    PubMed

    Boumil, Marcia M; Cutrell, Emily S; Lowney, Kathleen E; Berman, Harris A

    2012-01-01

    Pharmaceutical companies routinely engage physicians, particularly those with prestigious academic credentials, to deliver "educational" talks to groups of physicians in the community to help market the company's brand-name drugs. Although presented as educational, and even though they provide educational content, these events are intended to influence decisions about drug selection in ways that are not based on the suitability and effectiveness of the product, but on the prestige and persuasiveness of the speaker. A number of state legislatures and most academic medical centers have attempted to restrict physician participation in pharmaceutical marketing activities, though most restrictions are not absolute and have proven difficult to enforce. This article reviews the literature on why Speakers' Bureaus have become a lightning rod for academic/industry conflicts of interest and examines the arguments of those who defend physician participation. It considers whether the restrictions on Speakers' Bureaus are consistent with principles of academic freedom and concludes with the legal and institutional efforts to manage industry speaking. PMID:22789048

  6. Orthographic processing of polysyllabic words by native and nonnative English speakers.

    PubMed

    Taft, Marcus

    2002-01-01

    How polysyllabic English words are analyzed in silent reading was examined in three experiments by comparing lexical decision responses to words physically split on the screen. The gap was compatible either with the Maximal Onset Principle or the Maximal Coda Principle. The former corresponds to the spoken syllable (e.g., ca det), except when the word has a stressed short first vowel (e.g., ra dish), while the reverse is true for the latter (giving cad et and rad ish). Native English speakers demonstrated a general preference for the Max Coda analysis and a correlation with reading ability when such an analysis did not correspond with the spoken syllable. Native Japanese speakers, on the other hand, showed a Max Onset preference regardless of the type of word, while native Mandarin Chinese speakers showed no preference at all. It is concluded that a maximization of the coda is the optimal representation of polysyllabic words in English and that poorer native readers are more influenced by phonology than are better readers. The way that nonnative readers mentally represent polysyllabic English words is affected by the way such words are structured in their native language, which may not lead to optimal English processing.

  7. Nominal Compounding in Native and Non-Native Speakers of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Donna L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the differences between the English native and nonnative speaker's creation and use of nominal compounds. A comparison between English speakers and Japanese native speakers indicates that not only must nonnative speakers acquire rules in order to effectively compound words in English, but that rules must indeed exist, indicating that…

  8. Literacy Skill Differences between Adult Native English and Native Spanish Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Julia; Cote, Nicole Gilbert; Reilly, Lenore; Binder, Katherine S.

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the literacy skills of adult native English and native Spanish ABE speakers. Participants were 169 native English speakers and 124 native Spanish speakers recruited from five prior research projects. The results showed that the native Spanish speakers were less skilled on morphology and passage comprehension…

  9. Effects of Speaker Variability on Learning Foreign-Accented English for EFL Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yuan; Low, Renae; Jin, Putai; Sweller, John

    2013-01-01

    Using a cognitive load theory approach, we investigated the effects of speaker variability when individuals are learning to understand English as a foreign language (EFL) spoken by foreign-accented speakers. The use of multiple, Indian-accented speakers was compared to that of a single speaker for Chinese EFL learners with a higher or lower…

  10. Hemispheric lateralization of linguistic prosody recognition in comparison to speech and speaker recognition.

    PubMed

    Kreitewolf, Jens; Friederici, Angela D; von Kriegstein, Katharina

    2014-11-15

    Hemispheric specialization for linguistic prosody is a controversial issue. While it is commonly assumed that linguistic prosody and emotional prosody are preferentially processed in the right hemisphere, neuropsychological work directly comparing processes of linguistic prosody and emotional prosody suggests a predominant role of the left hemisphere for linguistic prosody processing. Here, we used two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments to clarify the role of left and right hemispheres in the neural processing of linguistic prosody. In the first experiment, we sought to confirm previous findings showing that linguistic prosody processing compared to other speech-related processes predominantly involves the right hemisphere. Unlike previous studies, we controlled for stimulus influences by employing a prosody and speech task using the same speech material. The second experiment was designed to investigate whether a left-hemispheric involvement in linguistic prosody processing is specific to contrasts between linguistic prosody and emotional prosody or whether it also occurs when linguistic prosody is contrasted against other non-linguistic processes (i.e., speaker recognition). Prosody and speaker tasks were performed on the same stimulus material. In both experiments, linguistic prosody processing was associated with activity in temporal, frontal, parietal and cerebellar regions. Activation in temporo-frontal regions showed differential lateralization depending on whether the control task required recognition of speech or speaker: recognition of linguistic prosody predominantly involved right temporo-frontal areas when it was contrasted against speech recognition; when contrasted against speaker recognition, recognition of linguistic prosody predominantly involved left temporo-frontal areas. The results show that linguistic prosody processing involves functions of both hemispheres and suggest that recognition of linguistic prosody is based on

  11. Decoding Speech Perception by Native and Non-Native Speakers Using Single-Trial Electrophysiological Data

    PubMed Central

    Brandmeyer, Alex; Farquhar, Jason D. R.; McQueen, James M.; Desain, Peter W. M.

    2013-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are systems that use real-time analysis of neuroimaging data to determine the mental state of their user for purposes such as providing neurofeedback. Here, we investigate the feasibility of a BCI based on speech perception. Multivariate pattern classification methods were applied to single-trial EEG data collected during speech perception by native and non-native speakers. Two principal questions were asked: 1) Can differences in the perceived categories of pairs of phonemes be decoded at the single-trial level? 2) Can these same categorical differences be decoded across participants, within or between native-language groups? Results indicated that classification performance progressively increased with respect to the categorical status (within, boundary or across) of the stimulus contrast, and was also influenced by the native language of individual participants. Classifier performance showed strong relationships with traditional event-related potential measures and behavioral responses. The results of the cross-participant analysis indicated an overall increase in average classifier performance when trained on data from all participants (native and non-native). A second cross-participant classifier trained only on data from native speakers led to an overall improvement in performance for native speakers, but a reduction in performance for non-native speakers. We also found that the native language of a given participant could be decoded on the basis of EEG data with accuracy above 80%. These results indicate that electrophysiological responses underlying speech perception can be decoded at the single-trial level, and that decoding performance systematically reflects graded changes in the responses related to the phonological status of the stimuli. This approach could be used in extensions of the BCI paradigm to support perceptual learning during second language acquisition. PMID:23874567

  12. Decoding speech perception by native and non-native speakers using single-trial electrophysiological data.

    PubMed

    Brandmeyer, Alex; Farquhar, Jason D R; McQueen, James M; Desain, Peter W M

    2013-01-01

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are systems that use real-time analysis of neuroimaging data to determine the mental state of their user for purposes such as providing neurofeedback. Here, we investigate the feasibility of a BCI based on speech perception. Multivariate pattern classification methods were applied to single-trial EEG data collected during speech perception by native and non-native speakers. Two principal questions were asked: 1) Can differences in the perceived categories of pairs of phonemes be decoded at the single-trial level? 2) Can these same categorical differences be decoded across participants, within or between native-language groups? Results indicated that classification performance progressively increased with respect to the categorical status (within, boundary or across) of the stimulus contrast, and was also influenced by the native language of individual participants. Classifier performance showed strong relationships with traditional event-related potential measures and behavioral responses. The results of the cross-participant analysis indicated an overall increase in average classifier performance when trained on data from all participants (native and non-native). A second cross-participant classifier trained only on data from native speakers led to an overall improvement in performance for native speakers, but a reduction in performance for non-native speakers. We also found that the native language of a given participant could be decoded on the basis of EEG data with accuracy above 80%. These results indicate that electrophysiological responses underlying speech perception can be decoded at the single-trial level, and that decoding performance systematically reflects graded changes in the responses related to the phonological status of the stimuli. This approach could be used in extensions of the BCI paradigm to support perceptual learning during second language acquisition.

  13. Planning an Effective Speakers Outreach Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Malcolm W.

    1996-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and, in particular, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) have played pivotal roles in the advancement of space exploration and space-related science and discovery since the early 1960's. Many of the extraordinary accomplishments and advancements of NASA and MSFC have gone largely unheralded to the general public, though they often border on the miraculous. This lack of suitable and deserved announcement of these "miracles" seems to have occurred because NASA engineers and scientists are inclined to regard extraordinary accomplishment as a normal course of events. The goal in this project has been to determine an effective structure and mechanism for communicating to the general public the extent to which our investment in our US civilian space program, NASA, is, in fact, a very wise investment. The project has involved discerning important messages of truth which beg to be conveyed to the public. It also sought to identify MSFC personnel who are particularly effective as messengers or communicators. A third aspect of the project was to identify particular target audiences who would appreciate knowing the facts about their NASA investment. The intent is to incorporate the results into the formation of an effective, proactive MSFC speakers bureau. A corollary accomplishment for the summer was participation in the formation of an educational outreach program known as Nasa Ambassadors. Nasa Ambassadors are chosen from the participants in the various MSFC summer programs including: Summer Faculty Fellowship Program (SFFP), Science Teacher Enrichment Program (STEP), Community College Enrichment Program (CCEP), Joint Venture (JOVE) program, and the NASA Academy program. NASA Ambassadors agree to make pre-packaged NASA-related presentations to non-academic audiences in their home communities. The packaged presentations were created by a small cadre of participants from the 1996 MSFC summer programs, volunteering

  14. Neural responses towards a speaker's feeling of (un)knowing.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaoming; Pell, Marc D

    2016-01-29

    During interpersonal communication, listeners must rapidly evaluate verbal and vocal cues to arrive at an integrated meaning about the utterance and about the speaker, including a representation of the speaker's 'feeling of knowing' (i.e., how confident they are in relation to the utterance). In this study, we investigated the time course and neural responses underlying a listener's ability to evaluate speaker confidence from combined verbal and vocal cues. We recorded real-time brain responses as listeners judged statements conveying three levels of confidence with the speaker's voice (confident, close-to-confident, unconfident), which were preceded by meaning-congruent lexical phrases (e.g. I am positive, Most likely, Perhaps). Event-related potentials to utterances with combined lexical and vocal cues about speaker confidence were compared to responses elicited by utterances without the verbal phrase in a previous study (Jiang and Pell, 2015). Utterances with combined cues about speaker confidence elicited reduced, N1, P2 and N400 responses when compared to corresponding utterances without the phrase. When compared to confident statements, close-to-confident and unconfident expressions elicited reduced N1 and P2 responses and a late positivity from 900 to 1250 ms; unconfident and close-to-confident expressions were differentiated later in the 1250-1600 ms time window. The effect of lexical phrases on confidence processing differed for male and female participants, with evidence that female listeners incorporated information from the verbal and vocal channels in a distinct manner. Individual differences in trait empathy and trait anxiety also moderated neural responses during confidence processing. Our findings showcase the cognitive processing mechanisms and individual factors governing how we infer a speaker's mental (knowledge) state from the speech signal.

  15. Neural responses towards a speaker's feeling of (un)knowing.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaoming; Pell, Marc D

    2016-01-29

    During interpersonal communication, listeners must rapidly evaluate verbal and vocal cues to arrive at an integrated meaning about the utterance and about the speaker, including a representation of the speaker's 'feeling of knowing' (i.e., how confident they are in relation to the utterance). In this study, we investigated the time course and neural responses underlying a listener's ability to evaluate speaker confidence from combined verbal and vocal cues. We recorded real-time brain responses as listeners judged statements conveying three levels of confidence with the speaker's voice (confident, close-to-confident, unconfident), which were preceded by meaning-congruent lexical phrases (e.g. I am positive, Most likely, Perhaps). Event-related potentials to utterances with combined lexical and vocal cues about speaker confidence were compared to responses elicited by utterances without the verbal phrase in a previous study (Jiang and Pell, 2015). Utterances with combined cues about speaker confidence elicited reduced, N1, P2 and N400 responses when compared to corresponding utterances without the phrase. When compared to confident statements, close-to-confident and unconfident expressions elicited reduced N1 and P2 responses and a late positivity from 900 to 1250 ms; unconfident and close-to-confident expressions were differentiated later in the 1250-1600 ms time window. The effect of lexical phrases on confidence processing differed for male and female participants, with evidence that female listeners incorporated information from the verbal and vocal channels in a distinct manner. Individual differences in trait empathy and trait anxiety also moderated neural responses during confidence processing. Our findings showcase the cognitive processing mechanisms and individual factors governing how we infer a speaker's mental (knowledge) state from the speech signal. PMID:26700458

  16. When do speakers use gesture to specify who does what to whom? The role of language proficiency and type of gesture in narratives

    PubMed Central

    So, Wing Chee; Kita, Sotaro; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has found that iconic gestures (i.e., gestures that depict the actions, motions or shapes of entities) identify referents that are also lexically specified in the co-occurring speech produced by proficient speakers. This study examines whether concrete deictic gestures (i.e., gestures that point to physical entities) bear a different kind of relation to speech, and whether this relation is influenced by the language proficiency of the speakers. Two groups of speakers who had different levels of English proficiency were asked to retell a story in English. Their speech and gestures were transcribed and coded. Our findings showed that proficient speakers produced concrete deictic gestures for referents that were not specified in speech, and iconic gestures for referents that were specified in speech, suggesting that these two types of gestures bear different kinds of semantic relations with speech. In contrast, less proficient speakers produced concrete deictic gestures and iconic gestures whether or not referents were lexically specified in speech. Thus, both type of gesture and proficiency of speaker need to be considered when accounting for how gesture and speech are used in a narrative context. PMID:23337950

  17. Direct Speaker Gaze Promotes Trust in Truth-Ambiguous Statements.

    PubMed

    Kreysa, Helene; Kessler, Luise; Schweinberger, Stefan R

    2016-01-01

    A speaker's gaze behaviour can provide perceivers with a multitude of cues which are relevant for communication, thus constituting an important non-verbal interaction channel. The present study investigated whether direct eye gaze of a speaker affects the likelihood of listeners believing truth-ambiguous statements. Participants were presented with videos in which a speaker produced such statements with either direct or averted gaze. The statements were selected through a rating study to ensure that participants were unlikely to know a-priori whether they were true or not (e.g., "sniffer dogs cannot smell the difference between identical twins"). Participants indicated in a forced-choice task whether or not they believed each statement. We found that participants were more likely to believe statements by a speaker looking at them directly, compared to a speaker with averted gaze. Moreover, when participants disagreed with a statement, they were slower to do so when the statement was uttered with direct (compared to averted) gaze, suggesting that the process of rejecting a statement as untrue may be inhibited when that statement is accompanied by direct gaze. PMID:27643789

  18. Neural Systems Involved When Attending to a Speaker.

    PubMed

    Kamourieh, Salwa; Braga, Rodrigo M; Leech, Robert; Newbould, Rexford D; Malhotra, Paresh; Wise, Richard J S

    2015-11-01

    Remembering what a speaker said depends on attention. During conversational speech, the emphasis is on working memory, but listening to a lecture encourages episodic memory encoding. With simultaneous interference from background speech, the need for auditory vigilance increases. We recreated these context-dependent demands on auditory attention in 2 ways. The first was to require participants to attend to one speaker in either the absence or presence of a distracting background speaker. The second was to alter the task demand, requiring either an immediate or delayed recall of the content of the attended speech. Across 2 fMRI studies, common activated regions associated with segregating attended from unattended speech were the right anterior insula and adjacent frontal operculum (aI/FOp), the left planum temporale, and the precuneus. In contrast, activity in a ventral right frontoparietal system was dependent on both the task demand and the presence of a competing speaker. Additional multivariate analyses identified other domain-general frontoparietal systems, where activity increased during attentive listening but was modulated little by the need for speech stream segregation in the presence of 2 speakers. These results make predictions about impairments in attentive listening in different communicative contexts following focal or diffuse brain pathology. PMID:25596592

  19. Noise Reduction with Microphone Arrays for Speaker Identification

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, Z

    2011-12-22

    Reducing acoustic noise in audio recordings is an ongoing problem that plagues many applications. This noise is hard to reduce because of interfering sources and non-stationary behavior of the overall background noise. Many single channel noise reduction algorithms exist but are limited in that the more the noise is reduced; the more the signal of interest is distorted due to the fact that the signal and noise overlap in frequency. Specifically acoustic background noise causes problems in the area of speaker identification. Recording a speaker in the presence of acoustic noise ultimately limits the performance and confidence of speaker identification algorithms. In situations where it is impossible to control the environment where the speech sample is taken, noise reduction filtering algorithms need to be developed to clean the recorded speech of background noise. Because single channel noise reduction algorithms would distort the speech signal, the overall challenge of this project was to see if spatial information provided by microphone arrays could be exploited to aid in speaker identification. The goals are: (1) Test the feasibility of using microphone arrays to reduce background noise in speech recordings; (2) Characterize and compare different multichannel noise reduction algorithms; (3) Provide recommendations for using these multichannel algorithms; and (4) Ultimately answer the question - Can the use of microphone arrays aid in speaker identification?

  20. Vowel reduction across tasks for male speakers of American English.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Christina; Weismer, Gary

    2016-07-01

    This study examined acoustic variation of vowels within speakers across speech tasks. The overarching goal of the study was to understand within-speaker variation as one index of the range of normal speech motor behavior for American English vowels. Ten male speakers of American English performed four speech tasks including citation form sentence reading with a clear-speech style (clear-speech), citation form sentence reading (citation), passage reading (reading), and conversational speech (conversation). Eight monophthong vowels in a variety of consonant contexts were studied. Clear-speech was operationally defined as the reference point for describing variation. Acoustic measures associated with the conventions of vowel targets were obtained and examined. These included temporal midpoint formant frequencies for the first three formants (F1, F2, and F3) and the derived Euclidean distances in the F1-F2 and F2-F3 planes. Results indicated that reduction toward the center of the F1-F2 and F2-F3 planes increased in magnitude across the tasks in the order of clear-speech, citation, reading, and conversation. The cross-task variation was comparable for all speakers despite fine-grained individual differences. The characteristics of systematic within-speaker acoustic variation across tasks have potential implications for the understanding of the mechanisms of speech motor control and motor speech disorders. PMID:27475161

  1. Increase in voice level and speaker comfort in lecture rooms.

    PubMed

    Brunskog, Jonas; Gade, Anders Christian; Bellester, Gaspar Payá; Calbo, Lilian Reig

    2009-04-01

    Teachers often suffer from health problems related to their voice. These problems are related to their working environment, including the acoustics of the lecture rooms. However, there is a lack of studies linking the room acoustic parameters to the voice produced by the speaker. In this pilot study, the main goals are to investigate whether objectively measurable parameters of the rooms can be related to an increase in the voice sound power produced by speakers and to the speakers' subjective judgments about the rooms. In six different rooms with different sizes, reverberation times, and other physical attributes, the sound power level produced by six speakers was measured. Objective room acoustic parameters were measured in the same rooms, including reverberation time and room gain, and questionnaires were handed out to people who had experience talking in the rooms. It is found that in different rooms significant changes in the sound power produced by the speaker can be found. It is also found that these changes mainly have to do with the size of the room and to the gain produced by the room. To describe this quality, a new room acoustic quantity called "room gain" is proposed.

  2. Fluency profile: comparison between Brazilian and European Portuguese speakers.

    PubMed

    Castro, Blenda Stephanie Alves e; Martins-Reis, Vanessa de Oliveira; Baptista, Ana Catarina; Celeste, Letícia Correa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the speech fluency of Brazilian Portuguese speakers with that of European Portuguese speakers. The study participants were 76 individuals of any ethnicity or skin color aged 18-29 years. Of the participants, 38 lived in Brazil and 38 in Portugal. Speech samples from all participants were obtained and analyzed according to the variables of typology and frequency of speech disruptions and speech rate. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed to assess the association between the fluency profile and linguistic variant variables. We found that the speech rate of European Portuguese speakers was higher than the speech rate of Brazilian Portuguese speakers in words per minute (p=0.004). The qualitative distribution of the typology of common dysfluencies (p<0.001) also discriminated between the linguistic variants. While a speech fluency profile of European Portuguese speakers is not available, speech therapists in Portugal can use the same speech fluency assessment as has been used in Brazil to establish a diagnosis of stuttering, especially in regard to typical and stuttering dysfluencies, with care taken when evaluating the speech rate.

  3. A modular and hybrid connectionist system for speaker identification.

    PubMed

    Bennani, Y

    1995-07-01

    This paper presents and evaluates a modular/hybrid connectionist system for speaker identification. Modularity has emerged as a powerful technique for reducing the complexity of connectionist systems, and allowing a priori knowledge to be incorporated into their design. Text-independent speaker identification is an inherently complex task where the amount of training data is often limited. It thus provides an ideal domain to test the validity of the modular/hybrid connectionist approach. To achieve such identification, we develop, in this paper, an architecture based upon the cooperation of several connectionist modules, and a Hidden Markov Model module. When tested on a population of 102 speakers extracted from the DARPA-TIMIT database, perfect identification was obtained.

  4. Collaborative study of speaker identiication by the voiceprint method.

    PubMed

    Smrkovski, L L

    1975-05-01

    In the voiceprint method known and unknown voices are compared to determine if they are the same speaker. An unknown voice is recorded over the telephone onto a quality recorder. The known voice is similarly recorded, repeating the questioned message verbatim. An examiner determines, by means of acoustic spectrography and aural analysis, the similarities or differences existing between the known and unknown speakers. A positive conclusion is based on at least 10 pairs of like sounds. Five decisions are available for the examiner to make: positive identification, positive elimination, probable identification, probable elimination, and unable to make a decision with the sample submitted. Seven collaborators, chosen from various parts of the United States, were given recordings of 4 unknown speakers, 2 male and 2 female, to compare with similar recordings of 6 known speakers, 3 male and 3 female. A total of 21 positive identifications and 63 positive eliminations was possible. Twenty correct identifications and 47 correct positive eliminations were made. In 16 tasks, all involving the same unknown sample, collaborators reported they could not make a determination due to the poor quality of the sample. No false identifications were made; however, a trainee examiner, with less than 2 years experience, eliminated a known speaker when in fact a match did exist, thereby falsely eliminating the speaker. Examiners with more than 2 years of experience correctly identified all existing matches. This study indicates that a trained examiner can make very reliable decisions, using the aural and visual methods of comparing known and unknown voices. The voiceprint method has been adopted as official first action.

  5. Language, context, and speaker effects in the identification and discrimination of English /r/ and /l/ by Japanese and Korean listeners.

    PubMed

    Ingram, J C; Park, S G

    1998-02-01

    Japanese and Korean listeners' identification and discrimination of English /r/ and /l/ were compared using a common set of minimal pair stimuli. The effects of speakers (two native speakers of Australian English), position of the contrast within the word (word initial, initial consonant cluster. and medial positions), and listening task (forced choice identification versus oddball discrimination) were examined, with a view to assessing the relative importance of language-specific and language-independent factors operating at the acoustic-phonetic and phonological levels of signal processing in "foreign sound" speech perception. Both prior phonological learning and the relative acoustic discriminability of the items affected subjects' performance on the identification test. Where both factors were engaged, phonological learning effects predominated over the effects of acoustic discriminability. The extent to which a speaker encoded critical acoustic cues for the /r-l/ distinction was found to affect /r-l/ identification. Dynamic spectral features known to be relevant for the /r-l/ contrast were effective in predicting (in a linear regression analysis) speaker-dependent differences in identification scores. Although the discrimination test may have been influenced by ceiling effects, the performance profiles on the identification and discrimination tests were quite different, indicating that the identification and discrimination tests imposed quite different task demands upon listeners and that phonological processing of the signal was more engaged by the former task. PMID:9479769

  6. Inferring word meanings by assuming that speakers are informative.

    PubMed

    Frank, Michael C; Goodman, Noah D

    2014-12-01

    Language comprehension is more than a process of decoding the literal meaning of a speaker's utterance. Instead, by making the assumption that speakers choose their words to be informative in context, listeners routinely make pragmatic inferences that go beyond the linguistic data. If language learners make these same assumptions, they should be able to infer word meanings in otherwise ambiguous situations. We use probabilistic tools to formalize these kinds of informativeness inferences-extending a model of pragmatic language comprehension to the acquisition setting-and present four experiments whose data suggest that preschool children can use informativeness to infer word meanings and that adult judgments track quantitatively with informativeness. PMID:25238461

  7. Representational deficit or processing effect? An electrophysiological study of noun-noun compound processing by very advanced L2 speakers of English.

    PubMed

    De Cat, Cecile; Klepousniotou, Ekaterini; Baayen, R Harald

    2015-01-01

    The processing of English noun-noun compounds (NNCs) was investigated to identify the extent and nature of differences between the performance of native speakers of English and advanced Spanish and German non-native speakers of English. The study sought to establish whether the word order of the equivalent structure in the non-native speakers' mothertongue (L1) had an influence on their processing of NNCs in their second language (L2), and whether this influence was due to differences in grammatical representation (i.e., incomplete acquisition of the relevant structure) or processing effects. Two mask-primed lexical decision experiments were conducted in which compounds were presented with their constituent nouns in licit vs. reversed order. The first experiment used a speeded lexical decision task with reaction time registration, and the second a delayed lexical decision task with EEG registration. There were no significant group differences in accuracy in the licit word order condition, suggesting that the grammatical representation had been fully acquired by the non-native speakers. However, the Spanish speakers made slightly more errors with the reversed order and had longer response times, suggesting an L1 interference effect (as the reverse order matches the licit word order in Spanish). The EEG data, analyzed with generalized additive mixed models, further supported this hypothesis. The EEG waveform of the non-native speakers was characterized by a slightly later onset N400 in the violation condition (reversed constituent order). Compound frequency predicted the amplitude of the EEG signal for the licit word order for native speakers, but for the reversed constituent order for Spanish speakers-the licit order in their L1-supporting the hypothesis that Spanish speakers are affected by interferences from their L1. The pattern of results for the German speakers in the violation condition suggested a strong conflict arising due to licit constituents being

  8. Perception of correlations between acoustic cues in category tuning and speaker adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Lori; Wade, Travis

    2001-05-01

    In English and many other languages, fundamental frequency (f0) varies with voicing such that voiced consonants are produced with lower f0's than their voiceless counterparts. This regularity robustly influences perception, such that sounds synthesized or spoken with a low f0 are more often perceived as voiced than are sounds with a higher f0. This series of studies exploited these observations to investigate category tuning as a function of incidental exposure to correlations among speech cues and adaptation to speaker idiosyncrasies or accent. Manipulation of f0 across sets of natural speech utterances produced stimulus sets varying in their inherent f0/voicing relationship. Listeners were exposed to these different f0/voicing patterns via spoken word and nonword items in a lexical decision task, and their resulting categorization of ambiguous consonants varying in f0 and voice onset time (VOT) was measured. The results suggest listeners adapt quickly to speaker-specific cues but also remain influenced by more global, naturally occurring covariance patterns of f0 and voicing in English. This pattern contrasts somewhat with studies where idiosyncrasy is represented instead by manipulation of primary, first-order cues to speech sounds, in which listeners are seen to adapt more straightforwardly to the cues they are presented.

  9. Cantonese Speakers' Memory for English Sentences with Prosodic Cues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennington, Martha C.; Ellis, Nick C.

    2000-01-01

    Reviews the nature and functions of prosody, and contrasts English and Cantonese for this feature of language as background for two experimental studies. Thirty Cantonese advanced speakers of English were tested for their recognition memory of English sentences in which prosody-cued meaning contrasts in otherwise identical sentence pairs. Results…

  10. Children's Understanding of Speaker Reliability between Lexical and Syntactic Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobel, David M.; Macris, Deanna M.

    2013-01-01

    Many studies suggest that preschoolers rely on individuals' histories of generating accurate lexical information when learning novel lexical information from them. The present study examined whether children used a speaker's accuracy about one kind of linguistic knowledge to make inferences about another kind of linguistic knowledge, focusing…

  11. Perception of English palatal codas by Korean speakers of English

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeon, Sang-Hee

    2003-04-01

    This study aimed at looking at perception of English palatal codas by Korean speakers of English to determine if perception problems are the source of production problems. In particular, first, this study looked at the possible first language effect on the perception of English palatal codas. Second, a possible perceptual source of vowel epenthesis after English palatal codas was investigated. In addition, individual factors, such as length of residence, TOEFL score, gender and academic status, were compared to determine if those affected the varying degree of the perception accuracy. Eleven adult Korean speakers of English as well as three native speakers of English participated in the study. Three sets of a perception test including identification of minimally different English pseudo- or real words were carried out. The results showed that, first, the Korean speakers perceived the English codas significantly worse than the Americans. Second, the study supported the idea that Koreans perceived an extra /i/ after the final affricates due to final release. Finally, none of the individual factors explained the varying degree of the perceptional accuracy. In particular, TOEFL scores and the perception test scores did not have any statistically significant association.

  12. Keeping Track of Speaker's Perspective: The Role of Social Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senay, Ibrahim; Keysar, Boaz

    2009-01-01

    A long and narrow piece of wood is "a bat," "a stick," "a club," or "firewood." In fact, anything can be described from multiple perspectives, each suggesting a different conceptualization. People keep track of how speakers conceptualize things and expect them to describe them similarly in the future. This article demonstrates that these…

  13. Irish Speakers in Northern Ireland, and the Good Friday Agreement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craith, M. Nic

    1999-01-01

    Examines the Irish language community in Northern Ireland, and questions the validity of the census results of 1991. Particular focus is on the concept of a mother tongue and its relevance for speakers of Irish in the United Kingdom. Discusses measures to improve the status of Irish as a result of the Good Friday Agreement. (Author/VWL)

  14. High fidelity microelectromechanical system electrodynamic micro-speaker characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturtzer, E.; Shahosseini, I.; Pillonnet, G.; Lefeuvre, E.; Lemarquand, G.

    2013-06-01

    This paper deals with the heterogeneous characterization of a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) electrodynamic micro-speaker. This MEMS micro-speaker consists of an optimized silicon structure based on a very light but very stiff membrane. The mobile part is suspended using soft suspension beams, also made of silicon, which enable large out-of-plane displacement. The electromagnetic motor is composed of a micro-assembly permanent ring magnet and of a deposit mobile planar coil fixed on the top of the silicon membrane. Previous publications have presented the MEMS as theoretically able to produce high fidelity and high efficiency over a wide bandwidth. The present study intends to validate the electrical, the mechanical, and the acoustic performance improvements. The characterization of the microfabricated micro-speaker showed that the electric impedance is flat over the entire audio bandwidth. Some results validates the performance improvements in terms of audio quality as compared to state of the art of the MEMS micro-speakers, such as the high out-of-plane membrane displacement over ±400 μm, the 80 dBSPL sound pressure level at 10 cm, the 2% maximal distortion level, and the useful bandwidth from 335 Hz to cutoff frequency.

  15. Multicompetence and Native Speaker Variation in Clausal Packaging in Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Amanda; Gullberg, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Native speakers show systematic variation in a range of linguistic domains as a function of a variety of sociolinguistic variables. This article addresses native language variation in the context of multicompetence, i.e. knowledge of two languages in one mind (Cook, 1991). Descriptions of motion were elicited from functionally monolingual and…

  16. A Study of Cleft Palate Speakers with Marginal Velopharyngeal Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, M. A.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    The study examined a previously hypothesized model for a subgroup of cleft palate speakers with marginal velopharyngeal competence during speech. Evaluation of 52 5- and 6-year-olds with appropriate lateral X-ray results indicated that most met fewer than three of the other five criteria required by the model. (Author/DB)

  17. Implicit Attitudes towards Native and Non-Native Speaker Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todd, R. Watson; Pojanapunya, Punjaporn

    2009-01-01

    The academic literature and educational principle suggest that native and non-native English speaking teachers should be treated equally, yet in many countries there is a broad social and commercial preference for native speaker teachers which may also involve racial issues. Attitudes towards native and non-native English speaking teachers have…

  18. Why Reference to the Past Is Difficult for Agrammatic Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have shown that verb inflections are difficult to produce for agrammatic aphasic speakers: they are frequently omitted and substituted. The present article gives an overview of our search to understanding why this is the case. The hypothesis is that grammatical morphology referring to the past is selectively impaired in agrammatic…

  19. Voice Recognition Software Accuracy with Second Language Speakers of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coniam, D.

    1999-01-01

    Explores the potential of the use of voice-recognition technology with second-language speakers of English. Involves the analysis of the output produced by a small group of very competent second-language subjects reading a text into the voice recognition software Dragon Systems "Dragon NaturallySpeaking." (Author/VWL)

  20. 24. AIRCONDITIONING DUCT, WINCH CONTROL BOX, AND SPEAKER AT STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. AIR-CONDITIONING DUCT, WINCH CONTROL BOX, AND SPEAKER AT STATION 85.5 OF MST. FOLDED-UP PLATFORM ON RIGHT OF PHOTO. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  1. Direct Speaker Gaze Promotes Trust in Truth-Ambiguous Statements

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Luise; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2016-01-01

    A speaker’s gaze behaviour can provide perceivers with a multitude of cues which are relevant for communication, thus constituting an important non-verbal interaction channel. The present study investigated whether direct eye gaze of a speaker affects the likelihood of listeners believing truth-ambiguous statements. Participants were presented with videos in which a speaker produced such statements with either direct or averted gaze. The statements were selected through a rating study to ensure that participants were unlikely to know a-priori whether they were true or not (e.g., “sniffer dogs cannot smell the difference between identical twins”). Participants indicated in a forced-choice task whether or not they believed each statement. We found that participants were more likely to believe statements by a speaker looking at them directly, compared to a speaker with averted gaze. Moreover, when participants disagreed with a statement, they were slower to do so when the statement was uttered with direct (compared to averted) gaze, suggesting that the process of rejecting a statement as untrue may be inhibited when that statement is accompanied by direct gaze. PMID:27643789

  2. Acquired Dyslexia in a Turkish-English Speaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, Ilhan; Weekes, Brendan S.

    2005-01-01

    The Turkish script is characterised by completely transparent bidirectional mappings between orthography and phonology. To date, there has been no reported evidence of acquired dyslexia in Turkish speakers leading to the naive view that reading and writing problems in Turkish are probably rare. We examined the extent to which phonological…

  3. The Elicited Production of Korean Relative Clauses by Heritage Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee-Ellis, Sunyoung

    2011-01-01

    In response to new theoretical claims and inconclusive empirical findings regarding relative clauses in East Asian languages, this study examined the factors relevant to relative clause production by Korean heritage speakers. Gap position (subject vs. object), animacy (plus or minus animate), and the topicality of head nouns (plus or minus…

  4. Segmentation of the Speaker's Face Region with Audiovisual Correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuyu; Sato, Yoichi

    The ability to find the speaker's face region in a video is useful for various applications. In this work, we develop a novel technique to find this region within different time windows, which is robust against the changes of view, scale, and background. The main thrust of our technique is to integrate audiovisual correlation analysis into a video segmentation framework. We analyze the audiovisual correlation locally by computing quadratic mutual information between our audiovisual features. The computation of quadratic mutual information is based on the probability density functions estimated by kernel density estimation with adaptive kernel bandwidth. The results of this audiovisual correlation analysis are incorporated into graph cut-based video segmentation to resolve a globally optimum extraction of the speaker's face region. The setting of any heuristic threshold in this segmentation is avoided by learning the correlation distributions of speaker and background by expectation maximization. Experimental results demonstrate that our method can detect the speaker's face region accurately and robustly for different views, scales, and backgrounds.

  5. Agreement Reflexes of Emerging Optionality in Heritage Speaker Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pascual Cabo, Diego

    2013-01-01

    This study contributes to current trends of heritage speaker (HS) acquisition research by examining the syntax of psych-predicates in HS Spanish. Broadly defined, psych-predicates communicate states of emotions (e.g., to love) and have traditionally been categorized as belonging to one of three classes: class I--"temere" "to…

  6. Do Speakers and Listeners Observe the Gricean Maxim of Quantity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Paul E.; Bailey, Karl G. D.; Ferreira, Fernanda

    2006-01-01

    The Gricean Maxim of Quantity is believed to govern linguistic performance. Speakers are assumed to provide as much information as required for referent identification and no more, and listeners are believed to expect unambiguous but concise descriptions. In three experiments we examined the extent to which naive participants are sensitive to the…

  7. Gesturing by Speakers with Aphasia: How Does It Compare?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mol, Lisette; Krahmer, Emiel; van de Sandt-Koenderman, Mieke

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To study the independence of gesture and verbal language production. The authors assessed whether gesture can be semantically compensatory in cases of verbal language impairment and whether speakers with aphasia and control participants use similar depiction techniques in gesture. Method: The informativeness of gesture was assessed in 3…

  8. Non-Native Speakers: Problems of Language Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narain, Mona

    Writing teachers need to recognize the special circumstances of culturally displaced students. A specific category of such students are those from the Asian subcontinent, who are not exactly non-native speakers of English, but who do speak non-standard American English. These students occupy a subaltern (marginal) position: they can neither be…

  9. Do English and Mandarin Speakers Think about Time Differently?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boroditsky, Lera; Fuhrman, Orly; McCormick, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    Time is a fundamental domain of experience. In this paper we ask whether aspects of language and culture affect how people think about this domain. Specifically, we consider whether English and Mandarin speakers think about time differently. We review all of the available evidence both for and against this hypothesis, and report new data that…

  10. Perception and Production of English Lexical Stress by Thai Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jangjamras, Jirapat

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of first language prosodic transfer on the perception and production of English lexical stress and the relation between stress perception and production by second language learners. To test the effect of Thai tonal distribution rules and stress patterns on native Thai speakers' perception and production of…

  11. Psycholinguistic Approaches to Language Processing in Heritage Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bolger, Patrick A.; Zapata, Gabriela C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the dearth of language-processing research addressing Spanish heritage speakers in assimilationist communities. First, we review key offline work on this population, and we then summarize the few psycholinguistic (online) studies that have already been carried out. In an attempt to encourage more such research, in the next…

  12. The "Virtual" Panel: A Computerized Model for LGBT Speaker Panels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Christopher; Torres-Harding, Susan; Pedersen, Paula J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent societal trends indicate more tolerance for homosexuality, but prejudice remains on college campuses. Speaker panels are commonly used in classrooms as a way to educate students about sexual diversity and decrease negative attitudes toward sexual diversity. The advent of computer-delivered instruction presents a unique opportunity to…

  13. Espanol para el hispanolhablante (Spanish for the Spanish Speaker).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blanco, George M.

    This guide provides Texas teachers and administrators with guidelines, goals, instructional strategies, and activities for teaching Spanish to secondary level native speakers. It is based on the principle that the Spanish speaking student is the strongest linguistic and cultural resource to Texas teachers of languages other than English, and one…

  14. Articulatory settings of French-English bilingual speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Ian

    2005-04-01

    The idea of a language-specific articulatory setting (AS), an underlying posture of the articulators during speech, has existed for centuries [Laver, Historiogr. Ling. 5 (1978)], but until recently it had eluded direct measurement. In an analysis of x-ray movies of French and English monolingual speakers, Gick et al. [Phonetica (in press)] link AS to inter-speech posture, allowing measurement of AS without interference from segmental targets during speech, and they give quantitative evidence showing AS to be language-specific. In the present study, ultrasound and Optotrak are used to investigate whether bilingual English-French speakers have two ASs, and whether this varies depending on the mode (monolingual or bilingual) these speakers are in. Specifically, for inter-speech posture of the lips, lip aperture and protrusion are measured using Optotrak. For inter-speech posture of the tongue, tongue root retraction, tongue body and tongue tip height are measured using optically-corrected ultrasound. Segmental context is balanced across the two languages ensuring that the sets of sounds before and after an inter-speech posture are consistent across languages. By testing bilingual speakers, vocal tract morphology across languages is controlled for. Results have implications for L2 acquisition, specifically the teaching and acquisition of pronunciation.

  15. Investigating Chinese Speakers' Acquisition of Telicity in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yin, Bin

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is concerned with Chinese speakers' acquisition of telicity in L2 English. Telicity is a semantic notion having to do with whether an event has an inherent endpoint or not. Most existing work on L2 telicity is conceptualized within an L1-transfer framework and examines learning situations where L1 and L2 differ on whether…

  16. Teaching the Native English Speaker How to Teach English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odhuu, Kelli

    2014-01-01

    This article speaks to teachers who have been paired with native speakers (NSs) who have never taught before, and the feelings of frustration, discouragement, and nervousness on the teacher's behalf that can occur as a result. In order to effectively tackle this situation, teachers need to work together with the NSs. Teachers in this scenario…

  17. Making Orators Interesting to Students: The Speaker Resume.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Kaylene A.; Stroup, Karen Bruner

    1983-01-01

    Describes a device, the speaker resume, which provides students with biographical information on an orator's education, achievements, historical impact, rhetorical skills, and personal data. Includes a sample resume of Daniel O'Connell, Irish orator. Useful to teachers and students for class discussion and further investigation. (PD)

  18. Social Cues in Multimedia Learning: Role of Speaker's Voice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Richard E.; Sobko, Kristina; Mautone, Patricia D.

    2003-01-01

    In 2 experiments, learners who were seated at a computer workstation received a narrated animation about lightning formation. Then, they took a retention test, a transfer test, and rated the speaker. The results are consistent with social agency theory, which posits that social cues in multimedia messages can encourage learners to interpret…

  19. Analysis of VOT in Turkish Speakers with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopkalli-Yavuz, Handan; Mavis, Ilknur; Akyildiz, Didem

    2011-01-01

    Studies investigating voicing onset time (VOT) production by speakers with aphasia have shown that nonfluent aphasics show a deficit in the articulatory programming of speech sounds based on the range of VOT values produced by aphasic individuals. If the VOT value lies between the normal range of VOT for the voiced and voiceless categories, then…

  20. A Guide for Teaching Standard English to Black Dialect Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Theresa A.

    Strategies are suggested that can be used by teachers who are trying to get Black Dialect speaking students to speak and write the General Dialect. The approach takes into account the fact that all speakers are not on the same level. The need for careful pre-testing and determination of class rank is suggested, as are various ways of evaluating…

  1. Production of Syllable Stress in Speakers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Rhea; Bianchi, Nancy; Augustyn, Amy; Klin, Ami; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports a study of the ability to reproduce stress in a nonsense syllable imitation task by adolescent speakers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), as compared to typically developing (TD) age-mates. Results are reported for both raters' judgments of the subjects' stress production, as well as acoustic measures of pitch range and…

  2. Spanish Native-Speaker Perception of Accentedness in Learner Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moranski, Kara

    2012-01-01

    Building upon current research in native-speaker (NS) perception of L2 learner phonology (Zielinski, 2008; Derwing & Munro, 2009), the present investigation analyzed multiple dimensions of NS speech perception in order to achieve a more complete understanding of the specific linguistic elements and attitudinal variables that contribute to…

  3. Sentence Comprehension in Swahili-English Bilingual Agrammatic Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abuom, Tom O.; Shah, Emmah; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2013-01-01

    For this study, sentence comprehension was tested in Swahili-English bilingual agrammatic speakers. The sentences were controlled for four factors: (1) order of the arguments (base vs. derived); (2) embedding (declarative vs. relative sentences); (3) overt use of the relative pronoun "who"; (4) language (English and Swahili). Two theories were…

  4. Native Speakers' Perception of Non-Native English Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaber, Maysa; Hussein, Riyad F.

    2011-01-01

    This study is aimed at investigating the rating and intelligibility of different non-native varieties of English, namely French English, Japanese English and Jordanian English by native English speakers and their attitudes towards these foreign accents. To achieve the goals of this study, the researchers used a web-based questionnaire which…

  5. The effect of LPC (Linear Predictive Coding) processing on the recognition of unfamiliar speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt-Nielsen, A.; Stern, K. R.

    1985-09-01

    The effect of narrowband digital processing, using a linear predictive coding (LPC) algorithm at 2400 bits/s, on the recognition of previously unfamiliar speakers was investigated. Three sets of five speakers each (two sets of males differing in rated voice distinctiveness and one set of females) were tested for speaker recognition in two separate experiments using a familiarization-test procedure. In the first experiment three groups of listeners each heard a single set of speakers in both voice processing conditions, and in the second two groups of listeners each heard all three sets of speakers in a single voice processing condition. There were significant differences among speaker sets both with and without LPC processing, with the low distinctive males generally more poorly recognized than the other groups. There was also an interaction of speaker set and voice processing condition; the low distinctive males were no less recognizable over LPC than they were unprocessed, and one speaker in particular was actually better recognized over LPC. Although it seems that on the whole LPC processing reduces speaker recognition, the reverse may be the case for some speakers in some contexts. This suggests that one should be cautious about comparing speaker recognition for different voi ce systems of the basis of a single set of speakers. It also presents a serious obstacle to the development of a reliable standardized test of speaker recognizability.

  6. What makes speakers omit pitch accents? An experiment.

    PubMed

    Nooteboom, S G; Terken, J M

    1982-01-01

    The present paper reports on an experiment which was set up to examine whether we can make a speaker either accent or de-accent particular words by systematically varying the objective probability that a particular referent will be mentioned (and therewith the referent's predictability for speaker and listener). In the experiment each of 24 speakers was asked to watch a visual display, showing a very simple configuration of letter symbols, and to describe orally each change in the current configuration to a listener. By manipulating the letter configurations shown on the display, the objective probability that the speaker would mention a particular letter could be controlled. Letters could either move around on the screen (moving letters) or remain fixed and serve as spatial reference points (fixed letters). Objective probabilities were 0.5 and 1 for both moving letters and fixed letters. The main findings were the following: (1) When a referent is fully predictable to speaker and listener there is a high proportion of ellipsis, particularly for the moving letter, which was always referred to from subject position. (2) The probability that a word referring to a letter will be accented appears not to be immediately controlled by the predictability of the referent. The controlling factor is rather the preceding linguistic context. More specifically, the probability of accenting, being close to 1 the first time a specific referent is mentioned, sharply decreases when the same referent is mentioned for the second time in a row, and decreases again when this same referent is mentioned three or more times in a row. However, as soon as the competing referent is mentioned once, in the same role (moving or fixed letter), the probability of accenting jumps up again. (3) The probability of accenting is systematically lower for the moving letters in subject position (average 0.32) than for the fixed letters in predicate position (average 0.52). In view of these findings, de

  7. Morphological or Syntactic Deficits in Near-Native Speakers? An Assessment of Some Current Proposals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franceschina, Florencia

    2001-01-01

    Summarizes claims made in three studies that adopt a morphological approach to nonnative speaker-native speaker divergence. Examines these claims in terms of the morphological and syntactic theories presupposed and points to a number of problems. (Author/VWL)

  8. The Discrimination, Perception, and Production of German /r/ Allophones by German Speakers and Two Groups of American English Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tepeli, Dilara

    2011-01-01

    The German /r/ sound is one of the most difficult sounds for American English (AE) speakers who are learning German as a foreign language to produce. The standard German /r/ variant [/R/] and dialectal variant [R] are achieved by varying the tongue constriction degree, while keeping the place of articulation constant [Schiller and Mooshammer…

  9. The Performance of Native Speakers of English and ESL Speakers on the Computer-based TOEFL and GRE General Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stricker, L. J.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate previous research on the construct validity of the paper-based version of the TOEFL and extend it to the computer-based TOEFL. Two samples of Graduate Record Examination (GRE) General Test-takers were used: native speakers of English specially recruited to take the computer-based TOEFL, and ESL…

  10. New and Not so New Horizons: Brief Encounters between UK Undergraduate Native-Speaker and Non-Native-Speaker Englishes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Juliet

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the apparent contradiction between the valuing and promoting of diverse literacies in most UK HEIs, and the discursive construction of spoken native-speaker English as the medium of good grades and prestige academic knowledge. During group interviews on their experiences of university internationalisation, 38 undergraduate…

  11. Effects of age of learning on voice onset time: categorical perception of Swedish stops by near-native L2 speakers.

    PubMed

    Stölten, Katrin; Abrahamsson, Niclas; Hyltenstam, Kenneth

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the effects of age of onset (AO) of L2 acquisition on the categorical perception of the voicing contrast in Swedish word-initial stops varying in voice onset time (VOT). Three voicing continua created on the basis of natural Swedish word pairs with /p-b/, /t-d/, /k-/ in initial position were presented to 41 Spanish early (AO < 12) and late (AO > 12) near-native speakers of L2 Swedish. Fifteen native speakers of Swedish served as controls. Categorizations were influenced by AO and listener status as L1/L2 speaker, in that the late learners deviated the most from native-speaker perception. In addition, only a small minority of the late learners perceived the voicing contrast in a way comparable to native-speaker categorization, while most early L2 learners demonstrated nativelike categorization patterns. However, when the results were combined with the L2 learners' production of Swedish voiceless stops (Stölten, 2005; Stölten, Abrahamsson & Hyltenstam, in press), nativelike production and perception was never found among the late learners, while a majority of the early learners still exhibited nativelike production and perception. It is concluded that, despite their being perceived as mother-tongue speakers of Swedish by native listeners, the late learners do not, after detailed phonetic scrutiny, exhibit a fully nativelike command of Swedish VOT. Consequently, being near-native rather than nativelike speakers of their second language, these individuals do not constitute the evidence necessary to reject the hypothesis of one or several critical (or sensitive) periods for language acquisition.

  12. Effects of age of learning on voice onset time: categorical perception of Swedish stops by near-native L2 speakers.

    PubMed

    Stölten, Katrin; Abrahamsson, Niclas; Hyltenstam, Kenneth

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the effects of age of onset (AO) of L2 acquisition on the categorical perception of the voicing contrast in Swedish word-initial stops varying in voice onset time (VOT). Three voicing continua created on the basis of natural Swedish word pairs with /p-b/, /t-d/, /k-/ in initial position were presented to 41 Spanish early (AO < 12) and late (AO > 12) near-native speakers of L2 Swedish. Fifteen native speakers of Swedish served as controls. Categorizations were influenced by AO and listener status as L1/L2 speaker, in that the late learners deviated the most from native-speaker perception. In addition, only a small minority of the late learners perceived the voicing contrast in a way comparable to native-speaker categorization, while most early L2 learners demonstrated nativelike categorization patterns. However, when the results were combined with the L2 learners' production of Swedish voiceless stops (Stölten, 2005; Stölten, Abrahamsson & Hyltenstam, in press), nativelike production and perception was never found among the late learners, while a majority of the early learners still exhibited nativelike production and perception. It is concluded that, despite their being perceived as mother-tongue speakers of Swedish by native listeners, the late learners do not, after detailed phonetic scrutiny, exhibit a fully nativelike command of Swedish VOT. Consequently, being near-native rather than nativelike speakers of their second language, these individuals do not constitute the evidence necessary to reject the hypothesis of one or several critical (or sensitive) periods for language acquisition. PMID:25536842

  13. Native and Non-Native English Speakers' Current Usage of "Can" and "May" in Requesting Permission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Susan M.

    A study investigated patterns of usage of "can" and "may" (e.g., "May/Can I go to the bathroom?") among native speakers and non-native speakers of English. A questionnaire was administered to 25 native English-speakers, most aged 19-26 and the remainder over age 45, and 56 non-native speakers taking advanced English-as-a-Second-Language classes.…

  14. Representational deficit or processing effect? An electrophysiological study of noun-noun compound processing by very advanced L2 speakers of English

    PubMed Central

    De Cat, Cecile; Klepousniotou, Ekaterini; Baayen, R. Harald

    2015-01-01

    The processing of English noun-noun compounds (NNCs) was investigated to identify the extent and nature of differences between the performance of native speakers of English and advanced Spanish and German non-native speakers of English. The study sought to establish whether the word order of the equivalent structure in the non-native speakers' mothertongue (L1) had an influence on their processing of NNCs in their second language (L2), and whether this influence was due to differences in grammatical representation (i.e., incomplete acquisition of the relevant structure) or processing effects. Two mask-primed lexical decision experiments were conducted in which compounds were presented with their constituent nouns in licit vs. reversed order. The first experiment used a speeded lexical decision task with reaction time registration, and the second a delayed lexical decision task with EEG registration. There were no significant group differences in accuracy in the licit word order condition, suggesting that the grammatical representation had been fully acquired by the non-native speakers. However, the Spanish speakers made slightly more errors with the reversed order and had longer response times, suggesting an L1 interference effect (as the reverse order matches the licit word order in Spanish). The EEG data, analyzed with generalized additive mixed models, further supported this hypothesis. The EEG waveform of the non-native speakers was characterized by a slightly later onset N400 in the violation condition (reversed constituent order). Compound frequency predicted the amplitude of the EEG signal for the licit word order for native speakers, but for the reversed constituent order for Spanish speakers—the licit order in their L1—supporting the hypothesis that Spanish speakers are affected by interferences from their L1. The pattern of results for the German speakers in the violation condition suggested a strong conflict arising due to licit constituents being

  15. Early Language Experience Facilitates the Processing of Gender Agreement in Spanish Heritage Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina; Davidson, Justin; De La Fuente, Israel; Foote, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    We examined how age of acquisition in Spanish heritage speakers and L2 learners interacts with implicitness vs. explicitness of tasks in gender processing of canonical and non-canonical ending nouns. Twenty-three Spanish native speakers, 29 heritage speakers, and 33 proficiency-matched L2 learners completed three on-line spoken word recognition…

  16. Race in Conflict with Heritage: "Black" Heritage Language Speaker of Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doerr, Neriko Musha; Kumagai, Yuri

    2014-01-01

    "Heritage language speaker" is a relatively new term to denote minority language speakers who grew up in a household where the language was used or those who have a family, ancestral, or racial connection to the minority language. In research on heritage language speakers, overlap between these 2 definitions is often assumed--that is,…

  17. Fundamental Frequency and Gender Identification in Standard Esophageal and Tracheoesophageal Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellandese, Mary H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if there was a relationship between fundamental frequency (Fo) and gender identification in standard esophageal (ES) or tracheoesophageal (TE) speakers. Twenty-three male and 20 female ES and TE speakers participated in this study. Recordings of these speakers reading the Rainbow Passage were played to 48…

  18. Modern Greek Language: Acquisition of Morphology and Syntax by Non-Native Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andreou, Georgia; Karapetsas, Anargyros; Galantomos, Ioannis

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the performance of native and non native speakers of Modern Greek language on morphology and syntax tasks. Non-native speakers of Greek whose native language was English, which is a language with strict word order and simple morphology, made more errors and answered more slowly than native speakers on morphology but not…

  19. A Respirometric Technique to Evaluate Velopharyngeal Function in Speakers with Cleft Palate, with and without Prostheses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Harvey R.; Ferrand, Carole T.

    1987-01-01

    Respirometric quotients (RQ), the ratio of oral air volume expended to total volume expended, were obtained from the productions of oral and nasal airflow of 10 speakers with cleft palate, with and without their prosthetic appliances, and 10 normal speakers. Cleft palate speakers without their appliances exhibited the lowest RQ values. (Author/DB)

  20. What's Learned Together Stays Together: Speakers' Choice of Referring Expression Reflects Shared Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gorman, Kristen S.; Gegg-Harrison, Whitney; Marsh, Chelsea R.; Tanenhaus, Michael K.

    2013-01-01

    When referring to named objects, speakers can choose either a name ("mbira") or a description ("that gourd-like instrument with metal strips"); whether the name provides useful information depends on whether the speaker's knowledge of the name is shared with the addressee. But, how do speakers determine what is shared? In 2…

  1. Facial Expression Generation from Speaker's Emotional States in Daily Conversation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Hiroki; Ohshima, Koh

    A framework for generating facial expressions from emotional states in daily conversation is described. It provides a mapping between emotional states and facial expressions, where the former is represented by vectors with psychologically-defined abstract dimensions, and the latter is coded by the Facial Action Coding System. In order to obtain the mapping, parallel data with rated emotional states and facial expressions were collected for utterances of a female speaker, and a neural network was trained with the data. The effectiveness of proposed method is verified by a subjective evaluation test. As the result, the Mean Opinion Score with respect to the suitability of generated facial expression was 3.86 for the speaker, which was close to that of hand-made facial expressions.

  2. VEHICLE ASSEMBLY BUILDING [VAB] & TOPPING OFF CEREMONIES SPEAKER DR. DEBUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Dr. Kurt H. Debus, KSC's first director, was a major speaker at the ceremonies ''topping off'' the Vehicle Assembly Building on April 14, 1965. A crawler-transporter is at the right. At the time of its completion, the 129 million cubic foot structure was the largest building in the world. Originally designed and built to accommodate the Saturn V/Apollo used in Project Apollo, the VAB was later modified for its role in the Space Shuttle program.

  3. On Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages. Series II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreidler, Carol J., Ed.

    The papers in this volume, read at the second national TESOL (Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) conference, are grouped by general subject as follows: (1) TESOL as a Professional Field--C.H. Prator, J.M. Cowan, T.W. Russell, J.E. Alatis; (2) Reports on Special Programs--H. Thompson, A.D. Nance, D. Pantell, P. Rojas, R.F. Robinett,…

  4. On Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages. Series I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Virginia French, Ed.

    The contents of this volume, a compilation of papers read at the first conference of TESOL (Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages), are grouped according to general subject and authors: (1) TESOL as a Professional Field--A.H. Marckwardt, F.J. Colligan, W.F. Marquardt; (2) Reports on Special Programs--J.E. Officer, R.B. Long, M.C.…

  5. Identifying the Attended Speaker Using Electrocorticographic (ECoG) Signals

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, K.; Brunner, P.; Gunduz, A.; Coon, W.; Ritaccio, A.L.; Farquhar, J.; Schalk, G.

    2015-01-01

    People affected by severe neuro-degenerative diseases (e.g., late-stage amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or locked-in syndrome) eventually lose all muscular control. Thus, they cannot use traditional assistive communication devices that depend on muscle control, or brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) that depend on the ability to control gaze. While auditory and tactile BCIs can provide communication to such individuals, their use typically entails an artificial mapping between the stimulus and the communication intent. This makes these BCIs difficult to learn and use. In this study, we investigated the use of selective auditory attention to natural speech as an avenue for BCI communication. In this approach, the user communicates by directing his/her attention to one of two simultaneously presented speakers. We used electrocorticographic (ECoG) signals in the gamma band (70–170 Hz) to infer the identity of attended speaker, thereby removing the need to learn such an artificial mapping. Our results from twelve human subjects show that a single cortical location over superior temporal gyrus or pre-motor cortex is typically sufficient to identify the attended speaker within 10 s and with 77% accuracy (50% accuracy due to chance). These results lay the groundwork for future studies that may determine the real-time performance of BCIs based on selective auditory attention to speech. PMID:26949710

  6. Parallel deterioration to language processing in a bilingual speaker.

    PubMed

    Druks, Judit; Weekes, Brendan Stuart

    2013-01-01

    The convergence hypothesis [Green, D. W. (2003). The neural basis of the lexicon and the grammar in L2 acquisition: The convergence hypothesis. In R. van Hout, A. Hulk, F. Kuiken, & R. Towell (Eds.), The interface between syntax and the lexicon in second language acquisition (pp. 197-218). Amsterdam: John Benjamins] assumes that the neural substrates of language representations are shared between the languages of a bilingual speaker. One prediction of this hypothesis is that neurodegenerative disease should produce parallel deterioration to lexical and grammatical processing in bilingual aphasia. We tested this prediction with a late bilingual Hungarian (first language, L1)-English (second language, L2) speaker J.B. who had nonfluent progressive aphasia (NFPA). J.B. had acquired L2 in adolescence but was premorbidly proficient and used English as his dominant language throughout adult life. Our investigations showed comparable deterioration to lexical and grammatical knowledge in both languages during a one-year period. Parallel deterioration to language processing in a bilingual speaker with NFPA challenges the assumption that L1 and L2 rely on different brain mechanisms as assumed in some theories of bilingual language processing [Ullman, M. T. (2001). The neural basis of lexicon and grammar in first and second language: The declarative/procedural model. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 4(1), 105-122]. PMID:24527801

  7. Rationales for indirect speech: the theory of the strategic speaker.

    PubMed

    Lee, James J; Pinker, Steven

    2010-07-01

    Speakers often do not state requests directly but employ innuendos such as Would you like to see my etchings? Though such indirectness seems puzzlingly inefficient, it can be explained by a theory of the strategic speaker, who seeks plausible deniability when he or she is uncertain of whether the hearer is cooperative or antagonistic. A paradigm case is bribing a policeman who may be corrupt or honest: A veiled bribe may be accepted by the former and ignored by the latter. Everyday social interactions can have a similar payoff structure (with emotional rather than legal penalties) whenever a request is implicitly forbidden by the relational model holding between speaker and hearer (e.g., bribing an honest maitre d', where the reciprocity of the bribe clashes with his authority). Even when a hearer's willingness is known, indirect speech offers higher-order plausible deniability by preempting certainty, gossip, and common knowledge of the request. In supporting experiments, participants judged the intentions and reactions of characters in scenarios that involved fraught requests varying in politeness and directness. PMID:20658853

  8. Processing advantage for emotional words in bilingual speakers.

    PubMed

    Ponari, Marta; Rodríguez-Cuadrado, Sara; Vinson, David; Fox, Neil; Costa, Albert; Vigliocco, Gabriella

    2015-10-01

    Effects of emotion on word processing are well established in monolingual speakers. However, studies that have assessed whether affective features of words undergo the same processing in a native and nonnative language have provided mixed results: Studies that have found differences between native language (L1) and second language (L2) processing attributed the difference to the fact that L2 learned late in life would not be processed affectively, because affective associations are established during childhood. Other studies suggest that adult learners show similar effects of emotional features in L1 and L2. Differences in affective processing of L2 words can be linked to age and context of learning, proficiency, language dominance, and degree of similarity between L2 and L1. Here, in a lexical decision task on tightly matched negative, positive, and neutral words, highly proficient English speakers from typologically different L1s showed the same facilitation in processing emotionally valenced words as native English speakers, regardless of their L1, the age of English acquisition, or the frequency and context of English use.

  9. Parallel deterioration to language processing in a bilingual speaker.

    PubMed

    Druks, Judit; Weekes, Brendan Stuart

    2013-01-01

    The convergence hypothesis [Green, D. W. (2003). The neural basis of the lexicon and the grammar in L2 acquisition: The convergence hypothesis. In R. van Hout, A. Hulk, F. Kuiken, & R. Towell (Eds.), The interface between syntax and the lexicon in second language acquisition (pp. 197-218). Amsterdam: John Benjamins] assumes that the neural substrates of language representations are shared between the languages of a bilingual speaker. One prediction of this hypothesis is that neurodegenerative disease should produce parallel deterioration to lexical and grammatical processing in bilingual aphasia. We tested this prediction with a late bilingual Hungarian (first language, L1)-English (second language, L2) speaker J.B. who had nonfluent progressive aphasia (NFPA). J.B. had acquired L2 in adolescence but was premorbidly proficient and used English as his dominant language throughout adult life. Our investigations showed comparable deterioration to lexical and grammatical knowledge in both languages during a one-year period. Parallel deterioration to language processing in a bilingual speaker with NFPA challenges the assumption that L1 and L2 rely on different brain mechanisms as assumed in some theories of bilingual language processing [Ullman, M. T. (2001). The neural basis of lexicon and grammar in first and second language: The declarative/procedural model. Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, 4(1), 105-122].

  10. Speakers urge a unified approach to mitigating natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, M. Catherine

    On November 3, while wildfires consumed acres of coastal land in California, the U.S. Natural Hazards Symposium in Washington, D.C., addressed the threat of natural hazards in the United States, disaster mitigation and recovery, and the need to consider natural hazards in land development plans. Several of the scheduled speakers were unable to participate because they were called to California to investigate the fires, including keynote speaker James Witt, the new director of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA).Substitute keynote speaker Harvey Ryland, Witt's senior adviser at FEMA, emphasized that “we must sell mitigation as an effective means of protecting people and property.” He discussed FEMA's new “National Mitigation Strategy,” which will serve as the basis for its emergency management program. The strategy is expected to be in place by January 1995. As part of the approach, FEMA will establish a mitigation directorate to organize various disaster mitigation efforts in one office. Ryland also discussed the idea of creating risk reduction enterprise zones, designated high risk areas that would offer incentives to property owners who take proper mitigation measures. “Such incentives would be offset by reduced disaster assistance costs,” Ryland added.

  11. Revisiting vocal perception in non-human animals: a review of vowel discrimination, speaker voice recognition, and speaker normalization.

    PubMed

    Kriengwatana, Buddhamas; Escudero, Paola; Ten Cate, Carel

    2014-01-01

    The extent to which human speech perception evolved by taking advantage of predispositions and pre-existing features of vertebrate auditory and cognitive systems remains a central question in the evolution of speech. This paper reviews asymmetries in vowel perception, speaker voice recognition, and speaker normalization in non-human animals - topics that have not been thoroughly discussed in relation to the abilities of non-human animals, but are nonetheless important aspects of vocal perception. Throughout this paper we demonstrate that addressing these issues in non-human animals is relevant and worthwhile because many non-human animals must deal with similar issues in their natural environment. That is, they must also discriminate between similar-sounding vocalizations, determine signaler identity from vocalizations, and resolve signaler-dependent variation in vocalizations from conspecifics. Overall, we find that, although plausible, the current evidence is insufficiently strong to conclude that directional asymmetries in vowel perception are specific to humans, or that non-human animals can use voice characteristics to recognize human individuals. However, we do find some indication that non-human animals can normalize speaker differences. Accordingly, we identify avenues for future research that would greatly improve and advance our understanding of these topics.

  12. Revisiting vocal perception in non-human animals: a review of vowel discrimination, speaker voice recognition, and speaker normalization

    PubMed Central

    Kriengwatana, Buddhamas; Escudero, Paola; ten Cate, Carel

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which human speech perception evolved by taking advantage of predispositions and pre-existing features of vertebrate auditory and cognitive systems remains a central question in the evolution of speech. This paper reviews asymmetries in vowel perception, speaker voice recognition, and speaker normalization in non-human animals – topics that have not been thoroughly discussed in relation to the abilities of non-human animals, but are nonetheless important aspects of vocal perception. Throughout this paper we demonstrate that addressing these issues in non-human animals is relevant and worthwhile because many non-human animals must deal with similar issues in their natural environment. That is, they must also discriminate between similar-sounding vocalizations, determine signaler identity from vocalizations, and resolve signaler-dependent variation in vocalizations from conspecifics. Overall, we find that, although plausible, the current evidence is insufficiently strong to conclude that directional asymmetries in vowel perception are specific to humans, or that non-human animals can use voice characteristics to recognize human individuals. However, we do find some indication that non-human animals can normalize speaker differences. Accordingly, we identify avenues for future research that would greatly improve and advance our understanding of these topics. PMID:25628583

  13. Who's Marking My Essay? The Assessment of Non-Native-Speaker and Native-Speaker Undergraduate Essays in an Australian Higher Education Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hagan, Sally Roisin; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    Assessment is a crucial factor in higher education where marks gained can determine future study and career options. Increasing student numbers, and an increasing proportion of international students, raises concerns regarding marking practices, and whether the same criteria are used to mark both native-speaker (NS) and non-native-speaker (NNS)…

  14. Making Math Real: Effective Qualities of Guest Speaker Presentations and the Impact of Speakers on Student Attitude and Achievement in the Algebra Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKain, Danielle R.

    2012-01-01

    The term real world is often used in mathematics education, yet the definition of real-world problems and how to incorporate them in the classroom remains ambiguous. One way real-world connections can be made is through guest speakers. Guest speakers can offer different perspectives and share knowledge about various subject areas, yet the impact…

  15. Coronal View Ultrasound Imaging of Movement in Different Segments of the Tongue during Paced Recital: Findings from Four Normal Speakers and a Speaker with Partial Glossectomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bressmann, Tim; Flowers, Heather; Wong, Willy; Irish, Jonathan C.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to quantitatively describe aspects of coronal tongue movement in different anatomical regions of the tongue. Four normal speakers and a speaker with partial glossectomy read four repetitions of a metronome-paced poem. Their tongue movement was recorded in four coronal planes using two-dimensional B-mode ultrasound…

  16. Studies in English to Speakers of Other Languages and Standard English to Speakers of Non-Standard Dialect. Monograph No. 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Rodolfo, Ed.

    1971-01-01

    Suggesting that America should strive for linguistic and cultural pluralism, this special issue gathers in one place the latest thoughts of scholars on topics related to the concept of cultural pluralism, i.e., English to speakers of other languages (ESOL) and standard English to speakers of a nonstandard dialect (SESOD). Kenneth Croft, James Ney,…

  17. Do We Perceive Others Better than Ourselves? A Perceptual Benefit for Noise-Vocoded Speech Produced by an Average Speaker

    PubMed Central

    Schuerman, William L.; Meyer, Antje; McQueen, James M.

    2015-01-01

    In different tasks involving action perception, performance has been found to be facilitated when the presented stimuli were produced by the participants themselves rather than by another participant. These results suggest that the same mental representations are accessed during both production and perception. However, with regard to spoken word perception, evidence also suggests that listeners’ representations for speech reflect the input from their surrounding linguistic community rather than their own idiosyncratic productions. Furthermore, speech perception is heavily influenced by indexical cues that may lead listeners to frame their interpretations of incoming speech signals with regard to speaker identity. In order to determine whether word recognition evinces similar self-advantages as found in action perception, it was necessary to eliminate indexical cues from the speech signal. We therefore asked participants to identify noise-vocoded versions of Dutch words that were based on either their own recordings or those of a statistically average speaker. The majority of participants were more accurate for the average speaker than for themselves, even after taking into account differences in intelligibility. These results suggest that the speech representations accessed during perception of noise-vocoded speech are more reflective of the input of the speech community, and hence that speech perception is not necessarily based on representations of one’s own speech. PMID:26134279

  18. Effect of Speaker Gaze on Word Learning in Fragile X Syndrome: A Comparison With Nonsyndromic Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    McDuffie, Andrea S.; Thurman, Angela J.; Kover, Sara T.; Mastergeorge, Ann M.; Hagerman, Randi J.; Abbeduto, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study examined use of a speaker's direction of gaze during word learning by boys with fragile X syndrome (FXS), boys with nonsyndromic autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and typically developing (TD) boys. Method A fast-mapping task with follow-in and discrepant labeling conditions was administered. We expected that the use of speaker gaze would lead to participants selecting as the referent of the novel label the object to which they attended in follow-in trials and the object to which the examiner attended in the discrepant labeling trials. Participants were school-aged boys with FXS (n = 18) or ASD (n = 18) matched on age, intelligence quotient, and nonverbal cognition and younger TD boys (n = 18) matched on nonverbal cognition. Results All groups performed above chance in both conditions, although the TD boys performed closest to the expected pattern. Boys with FXS performed better during follow-in than in discrepant label trials, whereas TD boys and boys with ASD did equally well in both trial types. The type of trial administered first influenced subsequent responding. Error patterns also distinguished the groups. Conclusion The ability to utilize a speaker's gaze during word learning is not as well developed in boys with FXS or nonsyndromic ASD as in TD boys of the same developmental level. PMID:25629603

  19. Variation in language networks in monolingual and bilingual English speakers: consequences for language mapping for surgical preplanning.

    PubMed

    Schafer, Robin J; Constable, R Todd

    2009-11-01

    Proficient, nonnative English-speaking neurosurgery candidates are assessed for language function in English. In order to understand whether it is necessary to also assess native-language function, we examined the influence of native language on the bilingual language network of early, proficient bilinguals using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We compared the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response to a language task in well-matched groups of monolingual native English speakers (MLEs), bilingual native English speakers (BLE1s), and bilingual nonnative English speakers (BLE2s). Random effects analysis revealed a significant main effect of group in temporal-parietal regions highly germane to the planning of temporal lobe surgical procedures. To explore how the three groups differed, we examined the average time course in each area of main effect for each group. We found significant differences between the monolinguals and the two bilingual groups. We interpret our results as evidence for a difference between the language network of early bilinguals and that of monolinguals.

  20. "I May Be a Native Speaker but I'm Not Monolingual": Reimagining "All" Teachers' Linguistic Identities in TESOL

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Elizabeth M.

    2016-01-01

    Teacher linguistic identity has so far mainly been researched in terms of whether a teacher identifies (or is identified by others) as a native speaker (NEST) or nonnative speaker (NNEST) (Moussu & Llurda, 2008; Reis, 2011). Native speakers are presumed to be monolingual, and nonnative speakers, although by definition bilingual, tend to be…

  1. Perception and production of English stops by tonal and non-tonal Korean dialect speakers.

    PubMed

    Choi, Tae-Hwan; Kim, Gyung-Ho; Han, Jeong-Im

    2013-12-01

    This study examines whether relative weightings of voice onset time and onset F0 in Korean tonal vs non-tonal dialects affect the production and perception of English voiced and voiceless stops. Following Shultz et al. [(2012). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 132, EL95-EL101], discriminant function analysis and logistic regression were conducted to calculate each speaker's relative weightings of these two cues in the production of target words and the labeling of the synthesized tokens according to these cues, respectively. The results demonstrated that the acquisition of second language (L2) contrasts is influenced by native language dialects, and production and perception are not developed in parallel in L2 acquisition.

  2. Characterizing opto-electret based paper speakers by using a real-time projection Moiré metrology system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Ya-Ling; Hsu, Kuan-Yu; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2016-03-01

    Advancement of distributed piezo-electret sensors and actuators facilitates various smart systems development, which include paper speakers, opto-piezo/electret bio-chips, etc. The array-based loudspeaker system possess several advantages over conventional coil speakers, such as light-weightness, flexibility, low power consumption, directivity, etc. With the understanding that the performance of the large-area piezo-electret loudspeakers or even the microfluidic biochip transport behavior could be tailored by changing their dynamic behaviors, a full-field real-time high-resolution non-contact metrology system was developed. In this paper, influence of the resonance modes and the transient vibrations of an arraybased loudspeaker system on the acoustic effect were measured by using a real-time projection moiré metrology system and microphones. To make the paper speaker even more versatile, we combine the photosensitive material TiOPc into the original electret loudspeaker. The vibration of this newly developed opto-electret loudspeaker could be manipulated by illuminating different light-intensity patterns. Trying to facilitate the tailoring process of the opto-electret loudspeaker, projection moiré was adopted to measure its vibration. By recording the projected fringes which are modulated by the contours of the testing sample, the phase unwrapping algorithm can give us a continuous phase distribution which is proportional to the object height variations. With the aid of the projection moiré metrology system, the vibrations associated with each distinctive light pattern could be characterized. Therefore, we expect that the overall acoustic performance could be improved by finding the suitable illuminating patterns. In this manuscript, the system performance of the projection moiré and the optoelectret paper speakers were cross-examined and verified by the experimental results obtained.

  3. Real-time production of arguments and adjuncts in normal and agrammatic speakers.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiyeon; Thompson, Cynthia K

    2011-10-01

    Two eyetracking experiments examined the real-time production of verb arguments and adjuncts in healthy and agrammatic aphasic speakers. Verb argument structure has been suggested to play an important role during grammatical encoding (Bock & Levelt, 1994) and in speech deficits of agrammatic aphasic speakers (Thompson, 2003). However, little is known about how adjuncts are processed during sentence production. The present experiments measured eye movements while speakers were producing sentences with a goal argument (e.g., the mother is applying lotion to the baby) and a beneficiary adjunct phrase (e.g., the mother is choosing lotion for the baby) using a set of computer-displayed written words. Results showed that the sentence production system experiences greater processing cost for producing adjuncts than verb arguments and this distinction is preserved even after brain-damage. In Experiment 1, healthy young speakers showed greater gaze durations and gaze shifts for adjuncts as compared to arguments. The same patterns were found in agrammatic and older speakers in Experiment 2. Interestingly, the three groups of speakers showed different time courses for encoding adjuncts: young speakers showed greater processing cost for adjuncts during speech, consistent with incremental production (Kempen & Hoenkamp, 1987). Older speakers showed this difference both before speech onset and during speech, while aphasic speakers appeared to preplan adjuncts before speech onset. These findings suggest that the degree of incrementality may be affected by speakers' linguistic capacity.

  4. CNN: a speaker recognition system using a cascaded neural network.

    PubMed

    Zaki, M; Ghalwash, A; Elkouny, A A

    1996-05-01

    The main emphasis of this paper is to present an approach for combining supervised and unsupervised neural network models to the issue of speaker recognition. To enhance the overall operation and performance of recognition, the proposed strategy integrates the two techniques, forming one global model called the cascaded model. We first present a simple conventional technique based on the distance measured between a test vector and a reference vector for different speakers in the population. This particular distance metric has the property of weighting down the components in those directions along which the intraspeaker variance is large. The reason for presenting this method is to clarify the discrepancy in performance between the conventional and neural network approach. We then introduce the idea of using unsupervised learning technique, presented by the winner-take-all model, as a means of recognition. Due to several tests that have been conducted and in order to enhance the performance of this model, dealing with noisy patterns, we have preceded it with a supervised learning model--the pattern association model--which acts as a filtration stage. This work includes both the design and implementation of both conventional and neural network approaches to recognize the speakers templates--which are introduced to the system via a voice master card and preprocessed before extracting the features used in the recognition. The conclusion indicates that the system performance in case of neural network is better than that of the conventional one, achieving a smooth degradation in respect of noisy patterns, and higher performance in respect of noise-free patterns.

  5. Join the NASA Science Mission Directorate Scientist Speaker's Bureau!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalton, H.; Shupla, C. B.; Buxner, S.; Shipp, S. S.

    2013-12-01

    Join the new NASA SMD Scientist Speaker's Bureau, an online portal to connect scientists interested in getting involved in E/PO projects (e.g., giving public talks, classroom visits, and virtual connections) with audiences! The Scientist Speaker's Bureau helps educators and institutions connect with NASA scientists who are interested in giving presentations, based upon the topic, logistics, and audience. Aside from name, organization, location, bio, and (optional) photo and website, the information that scientists enter into this database will not be made public; instead, it will be used to help match scientists with the requests being placed. One of the most common ways for scientists to interact with students, adults, and general public audiences is to give presentations about or related to their science. However, most educators do not have a simple way to connect with those planetary scientists, Earth scientists, heliophysicists, and astronomers who are interested and available to speak with their audiences. This system is designed to help meet the need for connecting potential audiences to interested scientists. The information input into the database (availability to travel, willingness to present online or in person, interest in presenting to different age groups and sizes of audience, topics, and more) will be used to help match scientists (you!) with the requests being placed by educators. All NASA-funded Earth and space scientists engaged in active research are invited to fill out the short registration form, including those who are involved in missions, institutes, grants, and those who are using NASA science data in their research, and more. There is particular need for young scientists, such as graduate students and post-doctoral researchers, and women and people of diverse backgrounds. Submit your information at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/education/speaker.

  6. Speaker verification using combined acoustic and EM sensor signal processing

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, L C; Gable, T J; Holzrichter, J F

    2000-11-10

    Low Power EM radar-like sensors have made it possible to measure properties of the human speech production system in real-time, without acoustic interference. This greatly enhances the quality and quantity of information for many speech related applications. See Holzrichter, Burnett, Ng, and Lea, J. Acoustic. SOC. Am . 103 ( 1) 622 (1998). By combining the Glottal-EM-Sensor (GEMS) with the Acoustic-signals, we've demonstrated an almost 10 fold reduction in error rates from a speaker verification system experiment under a moderate noisy environment (-10dB).

  7. Automatic Classification of Marine Mammals with Speaker Classification Methods.

    PubMed

    Kreimeyer, Roman; Ludwig, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We present an automatic acoustic classifier for marine mammals based on human speaker classification methods as an element of a passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) tool. This work is part of the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project under the framework of the European Defense Agency (EDA) and joined by the Research Department for Underwater Acoustics and Geophysics (FWG), Bundeswehr Technical Centre (WTD 71) and Kiel University. The automatic classification should support sonar operators in the risk mitigation process before and during sonar exercises with a reliable automatic classification result. PMID:26611006

  8. Patterns of articulation abilities in speakers with cleft palate.

    PubMed

    Van Demark, D R; Morris, H L; Vandehaar, C

    1979-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to report the articulation scores of 351 subjects with cleft palate from the ages of 2-6 to 18-0. Analysis of the data indicate that, as a group, subjects with cleft palate are retarded in articulation skills. However, they continue to improve in this regard past the age at which normal speakers have achieved articulation maturation. This information should be compared with that acquired from other centers in order to determine how typical these findings are.

  9. Modeling listener perception of speaker similarity in dysarthria.

    PubMed

    Lansford, Kaitlin L; Berisha, Visar; Utianski, Rene L

    2016-06-01

    The current investigation contributes to a perceptual similarity-based approach to dysarthria characterization by utilizing an innovative statistical approach, multinomial logistic regression with sparsity constraints, to identify acoustic features underlying each listener's impressions of speaker similarity. The data-driven approach also permitted an examination of the effect of clinical experience on listeners' impressions of similarity. Listeners, irrespective of level of clinical experience, were found to rely on similar acoustic features during the perceptual sorting task, known as free classification. Overall, the results support the continued advancement of a similarity-based approach to characterizing the communication disorders associated with dysarthria. PMID:27369174

  10. Automatic Classification of Marine Mammals with Speaker Classification Methods.

    PubMed

    Kreimeyer, Roman; Ludwig, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We present an automatic acoustic classifier for marine mammals based on human speaker classification methods as an element of a passive acoustic monitoring (PAM) tool. This work is part of the Protection of Marine Mammals (PoMM) project under the framework of the European Defense Agency (EDA) and joined by the Research Department for Underwater Acoustics and Geophysics (FWG), Bundeswehr Technical Centre (WTD 71) and Kiel University. The automatic classification should support sonar operators in the risk mitigation process before and during sonar exercises with a reliable automatic classification result.

  11. English vowel spaces produced by Japanese speakers: the smaller point vowels' and the greater schwas'.

    PubMed

    Tomita, Kaoru; Yamada, Jun; Takatsuka, Shigenobu

    2010-10-01

    This study investigated how Japanese-speaking learners of English pronounce the three point vowels /i/, /u/, and /a/ appearing in the first and second monosyllabic words of English noun phrases, and the schwa /ə/ appearing in English disyllabic words. First and second formant (F1 and F2) values were measured for four Japanese speakers and two American English speakers. The hypothesis that the area encompassed by the point vowels in the F1-F2 vowel space tends to be smaller for the Japanese speakers than for the English speakers was verified. The hypothesis that the area formed by the three schwas in chicke_n, spoonfu_l, and Tarza_n is greater for the Japanese speakers than for the English speakers and its related hypothesis were largely upheld. Implications for further research are briefly discussed.

  12. Does verbatim sentence recall underestimate the language competence of near-native speakers?

    PubMed Central

    Schweppe, Judith; Barth, Sandra; Ketzer-Nöltge, Almut; Rummer, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Verbatim sentence recall is widely used to test the language competence of native and non-native speakers since it involves comprehension and production of connected speech. However, we assume that, to maintain surface information, sentence recall relies particularly on attentional resources, which differentially affects native and non-native speakers. Since even in near-natives language processing is less automatized than in native speakers, processing a sentence in a foreign language plus retaining its surface may result in a cognitive overload. We contrasted sentence recall performance of German native speakers with that of highly proficient non-natives. Non-natives recalled the sentences significantly poorer than the natives, but performed equally well on a cloze test. This implies that sentence recall underestimates the language competence of good non-native speakers in mixed groups with native speakers. The findings also suggest that theories of sentence recall need to consider both its linguistic and its attentional aspects. PMID:25698996

  13. Do listeners store in memory a speaker's habitual utterance--final phonation type?

    PubMed

    Bohm, Tamás; Shattuck-Hufnagel, Stefanie

    2009-01-01

    Earlier studies report systematic differences across speakers in the occurrence of utterance-final irregular phonation; the work reported here investigated whether human listeners remember this speaker-specific information and can access it when necessary (a prerequisite for using this cue in speaker recognition). Listeners personally familiar with the voices of the speakers were presented with pairs of speech samples: one with the original and the other with transformed final phonation type. Asked to select the member of the pair that was closer to the talker's voice, most listeners tended to choose the unmanipulated token (even though they judged them to sound essentially equally natural). This suggests that utterance-final pitch period irregularity is part of the mental representation of individual speaker voices, although this may depend on the individual speaker and listener to some extent.

  14. Correlational study of speakers' heights, weights, body surface areas, and speaking fundamental frequencies.

    PubMed

    Lass, N J

    1978-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relationship among speakers' heights, weights, body surface areas, and speaking fundamental frequencies. The recordings of 30 speakers' readings of a standard prose passage were analyzed by means of the Fundamental Frequency Indicator (FFI) to obtain their speaking fundamental frequency characteristics. The speakers' heights and weights were obtained by means of standard measurement procuedures, and their body surface areas were calculated. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients, computed separately for men and women, indicated that speakers' heights, weights, and body surface areas were not significantly correlated with their speaking fundamental frequencies; female speakers showed a slight negative correlation while male speakers showed a low, positive trend. Implications of these findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  15. A general auditory bias for handling speaker variability in speech? Evidence in humans and songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Kriengwatana, Buddhamas; Escudero, Paola; Kerkhoven, Anne H.; Cate, Carel ten

    2015-01-01

    Different speakers produce the same speech sound differently, yet listeners are still able to reliably identify the speech sound. How listeners can adjust their perception to compensate for speaker differences in speech, and whether these compensatory processes are unique only to humans, is still not fully understood. In this study we compare the ability of humans and zebra finches to categorize vowels despite speaker variation in speech in order to test the hypothesis that accommodating speaker and gender differences in isolated vowels can be achieved without prior experience with speaker-related variability. Using a behavioral Go/No-go task and identical stimuli, we compared Australian English adults’ (naïve to Dutch) and zebra finches’ (naïve to human speech) ability to categorize / I/ and /ε/ vowels of an novel Dutch speaker after learning to discriminate those vowels from only one other speaker. Experiments 1 and 2 presented vowels of two speakers interspersed or blocked, respectively. Results demonstrate that categorization of vowels is possible without prior exposure to speaker-related variability in speech for zebra finches, and in non-native vowel categories for humans. Therefore, this study is the first to provide evidence for what might be a species-shared auditory bias that may supersede speaker-related information during vowel categorization. It additionally provides behavioral evidence contradicting a prior hypothesis that accommodation of speaker differences is achieved via the use of formant ratios. Therefore, investigations of alternative accounts of vowel normalization that incorporate the possibility of an auditory bias for disregarding inter-speaker variability are warranted. PMID:26379579

  16. Turkish Students' Perspectives on Speaking Anxiety in Native and Non-Native English Speaker Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bozavli, Ebubekir; Gulmez, Recep

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to reveal the effect of FLA (foreign language anxiety) in native/non-native speaker of English classrooms. In this study, two groups of students (90 in total) of whom 38 were in NS (native speaker) class and 52 in NNS (non-native speaker) class taking English as a second language course for 22 hours a week at Erzincan…

  17. Native Italian speakers' perception and production of English vowels.

    PubMed

    Flege, J E; MacKay, I R; Meador, D

    1999-11-01

    This study examined the production and perception of English vowels by highly experienced native Italian speakers of English. The subjects were selected on the basis of the age at which they arrived in Canada and began to learn English, and how much they continued to use Italian. Vowel production accuracy was assessed through an intelligibility test in which native English-speaking listeners attempted to identify vowels spoken by the native Italian subjects. Vowel perception was assessed using a categorial discrimination test. The later in life the native Italian subjects began to learn English, the less accurately they produced and perceived English vowels. Neither of two groups of early Italian/English bilinguals differed significantly from native speakers of English either for production or perception. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis of the speech learning model [Flege, in Speech Perception and Linguistic Experience: Theoretical and Methodological Issues (York, Timonium, MD, 1995)] that early bilinguals establish new categories for vowels found in the second language (L2). The significant correlation observed to exist between the measures of L2 vowel production and perception is consistent with another hypothesis of the speech learning model, viz., that the accuracy with which L2 vowels are produced is limited by how accurately they are perceived. PMID:10573909

  18. Dietary restrictions in healing among speakers of Iquito, an endangered language of the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ethnobotanical research was carried out with speakers of Iquito, a critically endangered Amazonian language of the Zaparoan family. The study focused on the concept of "dieting" (siyan++ni in Iquito), a practice involving prohibitions considered necessary to the healing process. These restrictions include: 1) foods and activities that can exacerbate illness, 2) environmental influences that conflict with some methods of healing (e.g. steam baths or enemas) and 3) foods and activities forbidden by the spirits of certain powerful medicinal plants. The study tested the following hypotheses: H1 - Each restriction will correlate with specific elements in illness explanatory models and H2 - Illnesses whose explanatory models have personalistic elements will show a greater number and variety of restrictions than those based on naturalistic reasoning. Methods The work was carried out in 2009 and 2010 in the Alto Nanay region of Peru. In structured interviews, informants gave explanatory models for illness categories, including etiologies, pathophysiologies, treatments and dietary restrictions necessary for 49 illnesses. Seventeen botanical vouchers for species said to have powerful spirits that require diets were also collected. Results All restrictions found correspond to some aspect of illness explanatory models. Thirty-five percent match up with specific illness etiologies, 53% correspond to particular pathophysiologies, 18% correspond with overall seriousness of the illness and 18% are only found with particular forms of treatment. Diets based on personalistic reasoning have a significantly higher average number of restrictions than those based on naturalistic reasoning. Conclusions Dieting plays a central role in healing among Iquito speakers. Specific prohibitions can be explained in terms of specific aspects of illness etiologies, pathophysiologies and treatments. Although the Amazonian literature contains few studies focusing on dietary proscriptions

  19. Why reference to the past is difficult for agrammatic speakers.

    PubMed

    Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2013-04-01

    Many studies have shown that verb inflections are difficult to produce for agrammatic aphasic speakers: they are frequently omitted and substituted. The present article gives an overview of our search to understanding why this is the case. The hypothesis is that grammatical morphology referring to the past is selectively impaired in agrammatic aphasia. That is, verb inflections for past tense and perfect aspect are hard to produce. Furthermore, verb clusters that refer to the past will be affected as well, even if the auxiliary is in present tense, as in he has been writing a letter. It will be argued that all these verb forms referring to the past require discourse linking [Zagona, K. (2003). Tense and anaphora: Is there a tense-specific theory of coreference. In A. Barrs (Ed.), Anaphora: A reference guide (pp. 140-171). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing] and discourse linking is affected in agrammatic aphasia [Avrutin, S. (2006). Weak syntax. In K. Amunts, & Y. Grodzinsky (Eds.), Broca's region (pp. 49-62). New York: Oxford Press]. This hypothesis has been coined the PAst DIscourse LInking Hypothesis (PADILIH) [Bastiaanse, R., Bamyaci, E., Hsu, C.-J., Lee, J., Yarbay Duman, T., & Thompson, C.K. (2011). Time reference in agrammatic aphasia: A cross-linguistic study. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 24, 652-673]. The PADILIH has been tested in several languages and populations that have hardly been studied before in aphasiology: languages such as Turkish, Swahili and Indonesian were included, as well as monolingual and bilingual populations. In all these populations, the same test has been used: the Test for Assessing Reference of Time [Bastiaanse, R., Jonkers, R., & Thompson, C.K. (2008). Test for assessing reference of time (TART). Groningen: University of Groningen] to enable reliable comparisons between the languages. The results show that the PADILIH predicts the performance of agrammatic speakers very well: discourse-linked grammatical morphemes expressing time

  20. Why reference to the past is difficult for agrammatic speakers.

    PubMed

    Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2013-04-01

    Many studies have shown that verb inflections are difficult to produce for agrammatic aphasic speakers: they are frequently omitted and substituted. The present article gives an overview of our search to understanding why this is the case. The hypothesis is that grammatical morphology referring to the past is selectively impaired in agrammatic aphasia. That is, verb inflections for past tense and perfect aspect are hard to produce. Furthermore, verb clusters that refer to the past will be affected as well, even if the auxiliary is in present tense, as in he has been writing a letter. It will be argued that all these verb forms referring to the past require discourse linking [Zagona, K. (2003). Tense and anaphora: Is there a tense-specific theory of coreference. In A. Barrs (Ed.), Anaphora: A reference guide (pp. 140-171). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing] and discourse linking is affected in agrammatic aphasia [Avrutin, S. (2006). Weak syntax. In K. Amunts, & Y. Grodzinsky (Eds.), Broca's region (pp. 49-62). New York: Oxford Press]. This hypothesis has been coined the PAst DIscourse LInking Hypothesis (PADILIH) [Bastiaanse, R., Bamyaci, E., Hsu, C.-J., Lee, J., Yarbay Duman, T., & Thompson, C.K. (2011). Time reference in agrammatic aphasia: A cross-linguistic study. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 24, 652-673]. The PADILIH has been tested in several languages and populations that have hardly been studied before in aphasiology: languages such as Turkish, Swahili and Indonesian were included, as well as monolingual and bilingual populations. In all these populations, the same test has been used: the Test for Assessing Reference of Time [Bastiaanse, R., Jonkers, R., & Thompson, C.K. (2008). Test for assessing reference of time (TART). Groningen: University of Groningen] to enable reliable comparisons between the languages. The results show that the PADILIH predicts the performance of agrammatic speakers very well: discourse-linked grammatical morphemes expressing time

  1. Sentence interpretation in normal and aphasic Hindi speakers.

    PubMed

    Vaid, J; Pandit, R

    1991-08-01

    In interpreting a sentence, listeners rely on a variety of linguistic cues to assign grammatical roles such as agent and patient. The present study considered the relative ranking of three cues to agenthood (word order, noun animacy, and subject-verb agreement) in normal and aphasic speakers of Hindi. Because animacy plays a grammatical role in Hindi (determining the nature and acceptability of sentences without accusative marking), this language is relevant to the claim that Broca's aphasia involves a dissociation between grammar and semantics. Results of Study 1 with normal Hindi-dominant speakers showed that animacy is the strongest cue in this language, while agreement is the weakest cue. In Study 2, Hindi-English bilinguals were tested in both their languages. Most showed the normal animacy-dominant monolingual pattern in Hindi, with a mixture of strategies from both languages in their interpretation of English. A substantial minority showed mixed strategies in both languages. Only 5 of 48 subjects displayed a complete separation between languages, with animacy dominance in Hindi and word order dominance in English. In Study 3, two Hindi-English bilinguals with Broca's aphasia were tested in both languages. Results indicate (a) greater use of animacy in Hindi than in English and (b) greater use of word order in English than in Hindi. The strategies displayed by these patients fall well within the range observed among bilingual normals. We conclude that the use of animacy in sentence interpretation by these aphasic patients reflects preservation of normal, language-specific processing strategies; it cannot be interpreted as a nonlinguistic strategy developed to compensate for receptive agrammatism. Results are discussed in light of other cross-linguistic evidence on sentence comprehension in monolingual and bilingual aphasics.

  2. Comprehending non-native speakers: theory and evidence for adjustment in manner of processing

    PubMed Central

    Lev-Ari, Shiri

    2014-01-01

    Non-native speakers have lower linguistic competence than native speakers, which renders their language less reliable in conveying their intentions. We suggest that expectations of lower competence lead listeners to adapt their manner of processing when they listen to non-native speakers. We propose that listeners use cognitive resources to adjust by increasing their reliance on top-down processes and extracting less information from the language of the non-native speaker. An eye-tracking study supports our proposal by showing that when following instructions by a non-native speaker, listeners make more contextually-induced interpretations. Those with relatively high working memory also increase their reliance on context to anticipate the speaker's upcoming reference, and are less likely to notice lexical errors in the non-native speech, indicating that they take less information from the speaker's language. These results contribute to our understanding of the flexibility in language processing and have implications for interactions between native and non-native speakers. PMID:25653627

  3. Attitudes and Training of Public School Clinicians Providing Services to Speakers of Black English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bountress, Nicholas G.

    1980-01-01

    To investigate speech-language clinicians' attitudes regarding treatment goal setting for children who were speakers of Black English, questionnaires based on W. Wolfram and R. Fasold's conceivable goals in teaching standard English to speakers of nonstandard dialects were distributed to 103 clinicians. (Author/CL)

  4. Effect of Intensive Voice Treatment on Tone-Language Speakers with Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehill, Tara L.; Wong, Lina L. -N.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intensive voice therapy on Cantonese speakers with Parkinson's disease. The effect of the treatment on lexical tone was of particular interest. Four Cantonese speakers with idiopathic Parkinson's disease received treatment based on the principles of Lee Silverman Voice Treatment (LSVT).…

  5. The Assignment of Primary Stress to Words by Some Arab Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghaith, Sulaiman

    1993-01-01

    The assignment of primary stress to English words by a group of Arab speakers was studied by having the speakers pronounce both different types of words and validated nonsense words. Results indicate that newly concocted words may not be correctly pronounced by a significant number of subjects selected from the same populations. (18 references)…

  6. Use of the BAT with a Cantonese-Putonghua Speaker with Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Weekes, Brendan Stuart

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to illustrate the use of the Bilingual Aphasia Test (BAT) with a Cantonese-Putonghua speaker. We describe G, who is a relatively young Chinese bilingual speaker with aphasia. G's communication abilities in his L2, Putonghua, were impaired following brain damage. This impairment caused specific difficulties in…

  7. Request Strategies: Cross-Sectional Study of Iranian EFL Learners and Australian Native Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jalilifar, Alireza

    2009-01-01

    This study was a cross-sectional investigation into the request strategies used by Iranian learners of English as a Foreign Language and Australian native speakers of English. The sample involved 96 BA and MA Persian students and 10 native speakers of English. A Discourse Completion Test (DCT) was used to generate data related to the request…

  8. Action Naming in Anomic Aphasic Speakers: Effects of Instrumentality and Name Relation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonkers, Roel; Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2007-01-01

    Many studies reveal effects of verb type on verb retrieval, mainly in agrammatic aphasic speakers. In the current study, two factors that might play a role in action naming in anomic aphasic speakers were considered: the conceptual factor instrumentality and the lexical factor name relation to a noun. Instrumental verbs were shown to be better…

  9. Learners' Perspectives on Networked Collaborative Interaction with Native Speakers of Spanish in the US

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lina

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, I discuss a network-based collaborative project that focused on the learning conditions non-native speakers (NNSs) of Spanish perceived to be necessary to satisfactoraly communicate with native speakers (NSs). Data from online discussions, end-of-semester surveys, and final oral interviews are presented and discussed. The results of…

  10. Speakers Gaze at Objects while Preparing Intentionally Inaccurate Labels for Them

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Zenzi M.; Oppenheimer, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01

    When describing scenes, speakers gaze at objects while preparing their names (Z. M. Griffin & K. Bock, 2000). In this study, the authors investigated whether gazes to referents occurred in the absence of a correspondence between visual features and word meaning. Speakers gazed significantly longer at objects before intentionally labeling them…

  11. The Effectiveness of External Bus Speaker Systems for Persons Who Are Visually Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, William R.; Ponchillia, Paul; Joffee, Elga; Rutberg-Kuskin, Judith; Brown, John

    2000-01-01

    Two studies examined the effectiveness of external-speaker announcements in identifying incoming buses to 21 adults with visual impairments, including the placement of external speakers, the ability to understand simultaneous bus announcements, and the speech enhancement of announcements. Announcements could be heard above ambient traffic sounds…

  12. Contribution of Two Sources of Listener Knowledge to Intelligibility of Speakers with Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hustad, Katherine C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the independent and combined effects of two sources of linguistic knowledge (alphabet cues and semantic predictability) on the intelligibility of speakers with dysarthria. The study also examined the extent to which each source of knowledge accounted for variability in intelligibility gains. Method: Eight speakers with…

  13. Speaker Reliability in Preschoolers' Inferences about the Meanings of Novel Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sobel, David M.; Sedivy, Julie; Buchanan, David W.; Hennessy, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Preschoolers participated in a modified version of the disambiguation task, designed to test whether the pragmatic environment generated by a reliable or unreliable speaker affected how children interpreted novel labels. Two objects were visible to children, while a third was only visible to the speaker (a fact known by the child). Manipulating…

  14. 7 CFR 247.13 - Provisions for non-English or limited-English speakers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Provisions for non-English or limited-English speakers... § 247.13 Provisions for non-English or limited-English speakers. (a) What must State and local agencies do to ensure that non-English or limited-English speaking persons are aware of their rights...

  15. Concatenative and Nonconcatenative Plural Formation in L1, L2, and Heritage Speakers of Arabic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albirini, Abdulkafi; Benmamoun, Elabbas

    2014-01-01

    This study compares Arabic L1, L2, and heritage speakers' (HS) knowledge of plural formation, which involves concatenative and nonconcatenative modes of derivation. Ninety participants (divided equally among L1, L2, and heritage speakers) completed two oral tasks: a picture naming task (to measure proficiency) and a plural formation task. The…

  16. The Native Speaker, the Student, and Woody Allen: Examining Traditional Roles in the Foreign Language Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finger, Anke

    This paper uses a language classroom role-playing scene from a Woody Allen movie to examine the language student who has traditionally been asked to emulate and copy the native speaker and to discuss roles that teachers ask students to play. It also presents the changing paradigm of the native speaker and his or her role inside and outside the…

  17. Congenital Amusia in Speakers of a Tone Language: Association with Lexical Tone Agnosia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nan, Yun; Sun, Yanan; Peretz, Isabelle

    2010-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a neurogenetic disorder that affects the processing of musical pitch in speakers of non-tonal languages like English and French. We assessed whether this musical disorder exists among speakers of Mandarin Chinese who use pitch to alter the meaning of words. Using the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia, we tested 117…

  18. A Systemic Functional Approach to Teaching Spanish for Heritage Speakers in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colombi, M. Cecilia

    2009-01-01

    Heritage language speakers constitute a unique cultural and linguistic resource in the United States while also presenting particular challenges for language educators and language programs. This paper examines the potential of systemic functional linguistics (SFL) in a curriculum for Spanish second language learners/heritage speakers, with…

  19. The relationship between listener comprehension and intelligibility scores for speakers with dysarthria

    PubMed Central

    Hustad, Katherine C.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the relationship between listener comprehension and intelligibility scores for speakers with mild, moderate, severe, and profound dysarthria. Relationships were examined across all speakers and their listeners when severity effects were statistically controlled, within severity groups, and within individual speakers with dysarthria. Method Speech samples were collected from 12 speakers with dysarthria secondary to cerebral palsy. For each speaker, 12 different listeners completed two tasks (for a total of 144 listeners), one task involved making orthographic transcriptions and one task involved answering comprehension questions. Transcriptions were scored for the number of words transcribed correctly; comprehension questions were scored on a 3-point scale according to their accuracy. Results Across all speakers, the correlation between comprehension and intelligibility scores was non-significant when the effects of severity were factored out and residual scores were examined. Within severity groups, the relationship was significant only for the mild group. Within individual speaker groups, the relationship was non-significant for all but two speakers with dysarthria. Conclusions Findings suggest that transcription intelligibility scores do not accurately reflect listener comprehension scores. Measures of both intelligibility and listener comprehension may provide a more complete description of the information-bearing capability of dysarthric speech than either measure alone. PMID:18506035

  20. The Use of Native Speaker Norms in Critical Period Hypothesis Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andringa, Sible

    2014-01-01

    In critical period hypothesis (CPH) research, native speaker (NS) norm groups have often been used to determine whether nonnative speakers (NNSs) were able to score within the NS range of scores. One goal of this article is to investigate what NS samples were used in previous CPH research. The literature review shows that NS control groups tend to…

  1. How Speakers Interrupt Themselves in Managing Problems in Speaking: Evidence from Self-Repairs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seyfeddinipur, Mandana; Kita, Sotaro; Indefrey, Peter

    2008-01-01

    When speakers detect a problem in what they are saying, they must decide whether or not to interrupt themselves and repair the problem, and if so, when. Speakers will maximize accuracy if they interrupt themselves as soon as they detect a problem, but they will maximize fluency if they go on speaking until they are ready to produce the repair.…

  2. Articulatory Movements during Vowels in Speakers with Dysarthria and Healthy Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunusova, Yana; Weismer, Gary; Westbury, John R.; Lindstrom, Mary J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study compared movement characteristics of markers attached to the jaw, lower lip, tongue blade, and dorsum during production of selected English vowels by normal speakers and speakers with dysarthria due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or Parkinson disease (PD). The study asked the following questions: (a) Are movement…

  3. 7 CFR 247.13 - Provisions for non-English or limited-English speakers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Provisions for non-English or limited-English speakers... § 247.13 Provisions for non-English or limited-English speakers. (a) What must State and local agencies do to ensure that non-English or limited-English speaking persons are aware of their rights...

  4. 7 CFR 247.13 - Provisions for non-English or limited-English speakers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Provisions for non-English or limited-English speakers... § 247.13 Provisions for non-English or limited-English speakers. (a) What must State and local agencies do to ensure that non-English or limited-English speaking persons are aware of their rights...

  5. 7 CFR 247.13 - Provisions for non-English or limited-English speakers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Provisions for non-English or limited-English speakers... § 247.13 Provisions for non-English or limited-English speakers. (a) What must State and local agencies do to ensure that non-English or limited-English speaking persons are aware of their rights...

  6. 7 CFR 247.13 - Provisions for non-English or limited-English speakers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Provisions for non-English or limited-English speakers... § 247.13 Provisions for non-English or limited-English speakers. (a) What must State and local agencies do to ensure that non-English or limited-English speaking persons are aware of their rights...

  7. The Integration of Speaker and Listener Responses: A Theory of Verbal Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greer, R. Douglas; Speckman, JeanneMarie

    2009-01-01

    We provide an empirically updated Skinnerian-based account of verbal behavior development, describing how the speaker-as-own-listener capability in children (the capability of children to behave as speaker and listener within their own skin) accrues and how it is pivotal to becoming verbal. The theory grew from (a) findings in experiments with…

  8. How Similar Are Adult Second Language Learners and Spanish Heritage Speakers? Spanish Clitics and Word Order

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies of heritage speakers, many of whom possess incomplete knowledge of their family language, suggest that these speakers may be linguistically superior to second language (L2) learners only in phonology but not in morphosyntax. This study reexamines this claim by focusing on knowledge of clitic pronouns and word order in 24 L2 learners…

  9. A Statistical Method of Evaluating the Pronunciation Proficiency/Intelligibility of English Presentations by Japanese Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kibishi, Hiroshi; Hirabayashi, Kuniaki; Nakagawa, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a statistical evaluation method of pronunciation proficiency and intelligibility for presentations made in English by native Japanese speakers. We statistically analyzed the actual utterances of speakers to find combinations of acoustic and linguistic features with high correlation between the scores estimated by the…

  10. 77 FR 63811 - Notice of Commissioners and Staff Attendance at FERC Author Speaker Series Event

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commissioners and Staff Attendance at FERC Author Speaker Series... the Commission and/or Commission staff may attend the following event: Author Speaker Series featuring... event will feature Pulitzer Prize winning author, Daniel Yergin, presenting on his most recent book,...

  11. Promoting Communities of Practice among Non-Native Speakers of English in Online Discussions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hoe Kyeung

    2011-01-01

    An online discussion involving text-based computer-mediated communication has great potential for promoting equal participation among non-native speakers of English. Several studies claimed that online discussions could enhance the academic participation of non-native speakers of English. However, there is little research around participation…

  12. Self- and Other-Disparaging Wit/Humor and Speaker Ethos: Three Experiments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gruner, Charles R.

    Listeners generally rate speakers of high initial ethos (such as university professors) using mildly self-deprecating humor highly on traits like "wittiness" and "funniness." A three-part study investigated whether a speaker of lower initial ethos (such as a student) can "get away" with such self-deprecation. In Experiment 1, college students read…

  13. During Threaded Discussions Are Non-Native English Speakers Always at a Disadvantage?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafer Willner, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    When participating in threaded discussions, under what conditions might non¬native speakers of English (NNSE) be at a comparative disadvantage to their classmates who are native speakers of English (NSE)? This study compares the threaded discussion perspectives of closely-matched NNSE and NSE adult students having different levels of threaded…

  14. The Attitudes of University Students towards Non-Native Speakers English Teachers in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, Cheung Yin; Braine, George

    2007-01-01

    Although non-native speakers (NNS) English teachers have taught alongside native speaker (NS) teachers for centuries, studies on the effectiveness of NNS teachers, their self-perceptions, or the attitudes of students towards these teachers, have only been conducted recently. Most of these studies have been conducted in the USA in ESL contexts.…

  15. A Study on Interactions between Nonnative Speakers with Different L1s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Kyung-Ja; Nakano, Michiko; Kim, Sunghye

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on learners' language in interactions between nonnative speakers (NNSs). Investigated features of nonnative speakers' interaction with NNSs from different cultural backgrounds in a second language learning context. Explores what types of misleading expressions and questions are generated in NNS/NNS interactions. (Author/VWL)

  16. Co-Construction of Nonnative Speaker Identity in Cross-Cultural Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Jae-Eun

    2007-01-01

    Informed by Conversation Analysis, this paper examines discursive practices through which nonnative speaker (NNS) identity is constituted in relation to native speaker (NS) identity in naturally occurring English conversations. Drawing on studies of social interaction that view identity as intrinsically a social, dialogic, negotiable entity, I…

  17. Children Increase Their Sensitivity to a Speaker's Nonlinguistic Cues Following a Communicative Breakdown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yow, W. Quin; Markman, Ellen M.

    2016-01-01

    Bilingual children regularly face communicative challenges when speakers switch languages. To cope with such challenges, children may attempt to discern a speaker's communicative intent, thereby heightening their sensitivity to nonverbal communicative cues. Two studies examined whether such communication breakdowns increase sensitivity to…

  18. Looking into Bilingualism through the Heritage Speaker's Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee-Ellis, Sunyoung

    2012-01-01

    Due to their unique profile as childhood bilinguals whose first language (L1) became weaker than their second language (L2), heritage speakers can shed light on three key issues in bilingualism--timing, input, and cross-linguistic interaction. The heritage speakers of focus in this dissertation are Korean second generation immigrants mainly…

  19. White Native English Speakers Needed: The Rhetorical Construction of Privilege in Online Teacher Recruitment Spaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruecker, Todd; Ives, Lindsey

    2015-01-01

    Over the past few decades, scholars have paid increasing attention to the role of native speakerism in the field of TESOL. Several recent studies have exposed instances of native speakerism in TESOL recruitment discourses published through a variety of media, but none have focused specifically on professional websites advertising programs in…

  20. English Variety for the Public Domain in Kenya: Speakers' Attitudes and Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kioko, Angelina Nduku; Muthwii, Margaret Jepkirui

    2003-01-01

    The study sought to establish the attitudes of Kenyan speakers (n = 210) towards three varieties of English: (1) ethnically marked Kenyan English, (2) standard Kenyan English and (3) native speaker English (British, American, Australian, etc). Of the three varieties, the most preferred by both rural and urban respondents for use in the media and…

  1. Managing Counterinformings: An Interactional Practice for Soliciting Information that Facilitates Reconciliation of Speakers' Incompatible Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Jeffrey D.

    2009-01-01

    This article is a conversation-analytic examination of situations where one speaker responds to another in a way that publicly exposes that the two speakers hold an incompatible position on a same matter, and in a way that claims that the respondent holds epistemic authority over the matter. These types of responsive actions (i.e.,…

  2. Privilege of the Nonnative Speaker Meets the Practical Needs of the Language Teacher.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koike, Dale A.; Liskin-Gasparro, Judith E.

    This chapter responds to an article by Claire Kramsch on the privilege of nonnative speakers. It agrees with Kramsch that in second language teaching, there is no single standard of native speaker language to target, since the cultural and linguistic reality of a given language is too complex and multifaceted to allow identification of…

  3. Classifications of Vocalic Segments from Articulatory Kinematics: Healthy Controls and Speakers with Dysarthria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunusova, Yana; Weismer, Gary G.; Lindstrom, Mary J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors classified vocalic segments produced by control speakers (C) and speakers with dysarthria due to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or Parkinson's disease (PD); classification was based on movement measures. The researchers asked the following questions: (a) Can vowels be classified on the basis of selected…

  4. Auditory Training for Experienced and Inexperienced Second-Language Learners: Native French Speakers Learning English Vowels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iverson, Paul; Pinet, Melanie; Evans, Bronwen G.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether high-variability auditory training on natural speech can benefit experienced second-language English speakers who already are exposed to natural variability in their daily use of English. The subjects were native French speakers who had learned English in school; experienced listeners were tested in England and the less…

  5. A Study of Non-Native English Speakers' Academic Performance at Santa Ana College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slark, Julie; Bateman, Harold

    A study was conducted in 1980-81 at Santa Ana College (SAC) to collect data on the English communication skills of non-native English speakers and to determine if a relationship existed between these skills and student's educational success. A sample of 22 classes, with an enrollment of at least 50% non-native English speakers and representing a…

  6. Tone Language Speakers and Musicians Share Enhanced Perceptual and Cognitive Abilities for Musical Pitch: Evidence for Bidirectionality between the Domains of Language and Music

    PubMed Central

    Bidelman, Gavin M.; Hutka, Stefanie; Moreno, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Psychophysiological evidence suggests that music and language are intimately coupled such that experience/training in one domain can influence processing required in the other domain. While the influence of music on language processing is now well-documented, evidence of language-to-music effects have yet to be firmly established. Here, using a cross-sectional design, we compared the performance of musicians to that of tone-language (Cantonese) speakers on tasks of auditory pitch acuity, music perception, and general cognitive ability (e.g., fluid intelligence, working memory). While musicians demonstrated superior performance on all auditory measures, comparable perceptual enhancements were observed for Cantonese participants, relative to English-speaking nonmusicians. These results provide evidence that tone-language background is associated with higher auditory perceptual performance for music listening. Musicians and Cantonese speakers also showed superior working memory capacity relative to nonmusician controls, suggesting that in addition to basic perceptual enhancements, tone-language background and music training might also be associated with enhanced general cognitive abilities. Our findings support the notion that tone language speakers and musically trained individuals have higher performance than English-speaking listeners for the perceptual-cognitive processing necessary for basic auditory as well as complex music perception. These results illustrate bidirectional influences between the domains of music and language. PMID:23565267

  7. Tone language speakers and musicians share enhanced perceptual and cognitive abilities for musical pitch: evidence for bidirectionality between the domains of language and music.

    PubMed

    Bidelman, Gavin M; Hutka, Stefanie; Moreno, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Psychophysiological evidence suggests that music and language are intimately coupled such that experience/training in one domain can influence processing required in the other domain. While the influence of music on language processing is now well-documented, evidence of language-to-music effects have yet to be firmly established. Here, using a cross-sectional design, we compared the performance of musicians to that of tone-language (Cantonese) speakers on tasks of auditory pitch acuity, music perception, and general cognitive ability (e.g., fluid intelligence, working memory). While musicians demonstrated superior performance on all auditory measures, comparable perceptual enhancements were observed for Cantonese participants, relative to English-speaking nonmusicians. These results provide evidence that tone-language background is associated with higher auditory perceptual performance for music listening. Musicians and Cantonese speakers also showed superior working memory capacity relative to nonmusician controls, suggesting that in addition to basic perceptual enhancements, tone-language background and music training might also be associated with enhanced general cognitive abilities. Our findings support the notion that tone language speakers and musically trained individuals have higher performance than English-speaking listeners for the perceptual-cognitive processing necessary for basic auditory as well as complex music perception. These results illustrate bidirectional influences between the domains of music and language.

  8. Learning foreign labels from a foreign speaker: the role of (limited) exposure to a second language.

    PubMed

    Akhtar, Nameera; Menjivar, Jennifer; Hoicka, Elena; Sabbagh, Mark A

    2012-11-01

    Three- and four-year-olds (N = 144) were introduced to novel labels by an English speaker and a foreign speaker (of Nordish, a made-up language), and were asked to endorse one of the speaker's labels. Monolingual English-speaking children were compared to bilingual children and English-speaking children who were regularly exposed to a language other than English. All children tended to endorse the English speaker's labels when asked 'What do you call this?', but when asked 'What do you call this in Nordish?', children with exposure to a second language were more likely to endorse the foreign label than monolingual and bilingual children. The findings suggest that, at this age, exposure to, but not necessarily immersion in, more than one language may promote the ability to learn foreign words from a foreign speaker.

  9. First impressions and last resorts: how listeners adjust to speaker variability.

    PubMed

    Kraljic, Tanya; Samuel, Arthur G; Brennan, Susan E

    2008-04-01

    Perceptual theories must explain how perceivers extract meaningful information from a continuously variable physical signal. In the case of speech, the puzzle is that little reliable acoustic invariance seems to exist. We tested the hypothesis that speech-perception processes recover invariants not about the signal, but rather about the source that produced the signal. Findings from two manipulations suggest that the system learns those properties of speech that result from idiosyncratic characteristics of the speaker; the same properties are not learned when they can be attributed to incidental factors. We also found evidence for how the system determines what is characteristic: In the absence of other information about the speaker, the system relies on episodic order, representing those properties present during early experience as characteristic of the speaker. This "first-impressions" bias can be overridden, however, when variation is an incidental consequence of a temporary state (a pen in the speaker's mouth), rather than characteristic of the speaker.

  10. A speaker's gesture style can affect language comprehension: ERP evidence from gesture-speech integration.

    PubMed

    Obermeier, Christian; Kelly, Spencer D; Gunter, Thomas C

    2015-09-01

    In face-to-face communication, speech is typically enriched by gestures. Clearly, not all people gesture in the same way, and the present study explores whether such individual differences in gesture style are taken into account during the perception of gestures that accompany speech. Participants were presented with one speaker that gestured in a straightforward way and another that also produced self-touch movements. Adding trials with such grooming movements makes the gesture information a much weaker cue compared with the gestures of the non-grooming speaker. The Electroencephalogram was recorded as participants watched videos of the individual speakers. Event-related potentials elicited by the speech signal revealed that adding grooming movements attenuated the impact of gesture for this particular speaker. Thus, these data suggest that there is sensitivity to the personal communication style of a speaker and that affects the extent to which gesture and speech are integrated during language comprehension. PMID:25688095

  11. Speaker and Accent Variation Are Handled Differently: Evidence in Native and Non-Native Listeners

    PubMed Central

    Kriengwatana, Buddhamas; Terry, Josephine; Chládková, Kateřina; Escudero, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Listeners are able to cope with between-speaker variability in speech that stems from anatomical sources (i.e. individual and sex differences in vocal tract size) and sociolinguistic sources (i.e. accents). We hypothesized that listeners adapt to these two types of variation differently because prior work indicates that adapting to speaker/sex variability may occur pre-lexically while adapting to accent variability may require learning from attention to explicit cues (i.e. feedback). In Experiment 1, we tested our hypothesis by training native Dutch listeners and Australian-English (AusE) listeners without any experience with Dutch or Flemish to discriminate between the Dutch vowels /I/ and /ε/ from a single speaker. We then tested their ability to classify /I/ and /ε/ vowels of a novel Dutch speaker (i.e. speaker or sex change only), or vowels of a novel Flemish speaker (i.e. speaker or sex change plus accent change). We found that both Dutch and AusE listeners could successfully categorize vowels if the change involved a speaker/sex change, but not if the change involved an accent change. When AusE listeners were given feedback on their categorization responses to the novel speaker in Experiment 2, they were able to successfully categorize vowels involving an accent change. These results suggest that adapting to accents may be a two-step process, whereby the first step involves adapting to speaker differences at a pre-lexical level, and the second step involves adapting to accent differences at a contextual level, where listeners have access to word meaning or are given feedback that allows them to appropriately adjust their perceptual category boundaries. PMID:27309889

  12. Can Speaker Gaze Modulate Syntactic Structuring and Thematic Role Assignment during Spoken Sentence Comprehension?

    PubMed

    Knoeferle, Pia; Kreysa, Helene

    2012-01-01

    During comprehension, a listener can rapidly follow a frontally seated speaker's gaze to an object before its mention, a behavior which can shorten latencies in speeded sentence verification. However, the robustness of gaze-following, its interaction with core comprehension processes such as syntactic structuring, and the persistence of its effects are unclear. In two "visual-world" eye-tracking experiments participants watched a video of a speaker, seated at an angle, describing transitive (non-depicted) actions between two of three Second Life characters on a computer screen. Sentences were in German and had either subject(NP1)-verb-object(NP2) or object(NP1)-verb-subject(NP2) structure; the speaker either shifted gaze to the NP2 character or was obscured. Several seconds later, participants verified either the sentence referents or their role relations. When participants had seen the speaker's gaze shift, they anticipated the NP2 character before its mention and earlier than when the speaker was obscured. This effect was more pronounced for SVO than OVS sentences in both tasks. Interactions of speaker gaze and sentence structure were more pervasive in role-relations verification: participants verified the role relations faster for SVO than OVS sentences, and faster when they had seen the speaker shift gaze than when the speaker was obscured. When sentence and template role-relations matched, gaze-following even eliminated the SVO-OVS response-time differences. Thus, gaze-following is robust even when the speaker is seated at an angle to the listener; it varies depending on the syntactic structure and thematic role relations conveyed by a sentence; and its effects can extend to delayed post-sentence comprehension processes. These results suggest that speaker gaze effects contribute pervasively to visual attention and comprehension processes and should thus be accommodated by accounts of situated language comprehension. PMID:23227018

  13. Speaker and Accent Variation Are Handled Differently: Evidence in Native and Non-Native Listeners.

    PubMed

    Kriengwatana, Buddhamas; Terry, Josephine; Chládková, Kateřina; Escudero, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Listeners are able to cope with between-speaker variability in speech that stems from anatomical sources (i.e. individual and sex differences in vocal tract size) and sociolinguistic sources (i.e. accents). We hypothesized that listeners adapt to these two types of variation differently because prior work indicates that adapting to speaker/sex variability may occur pre-lexically while adapting to accent variability may require learning from attention to explicit cues (i.e. feedback). In Experiment 1, we tested our hypothesis by training native Dutch listeners and Australian-English (AusE) listeners without any experience with Dutch or Flemish to discriminate between the Dutch vowels /I/ and /ε/ from a single speaker. We then tested their ability to classify /I/ and /ε/ vowels of a novel Dutch speaker (i.e. speaker or sex change only), or vowels of a novel Flemish speaker (i.e. speaker or sex change plus accent change). We found that both Dutch and AusE listeners could successfully categorize vowels if the change involved a speaker/sex change, but not if the change involved an accent change. When AusE listeners were given feedback on their categorization responses to the novel speaker in Experiment 2, they were able to successfully categorize vowels involving an accent change. These results suggest that adapting to accents may be a two-step process, whereby the first step involves adapting to speaker differences at a pre-lexical level, and the second step involves adapting to accent differences at a contextual level, where listeners have access to word meaning or are given feedback that allows them to appropriately adjust their perceptual category boundaries. PMID:27309889

  14. Time delays and capability of elderly to activate speaker function for continuous telephone CPR

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Telephone-CPR (T-CPR) can increase rate of bystander CPR as well as CPR quality. Instructions for T-CPR were developed when most callers used a land line. Telephones today are often wireless and can be brought to the patient. They often have speaker function which further allows the rescuer to receive instructions while performing CPR. We wanted to measure adult lay people’s ability to activate the speaker function on their own mobile phone. Methods Elderly lay people, previously trained in CPR, were contacted by telephone. Participants with speaker function experience were asked to activate this without further instructions, while participants with no experience were given instructions on how to activate it. Participants were divided in three groups; Group 1: Can activate the speaker function without instruction, Group 2: Can activate the speaker function with instruction, and Group 3: Unable to activate the speaker function. Time to activation for group 1 and 2 was compared using Mann-Whitney U-test. Results Seventy-two elderly lay people, mean age 68 ± 6 years participated in the study. Thirty-five (35)% of the participants were able to activate the speaker function without instructions, 29% with instructions and 36% were unable to activate the speaker function. The median time to activate the speaker function was 8s and 93s, with and without instructions, respectively (p < 0.01). Conclusion One-third of the elderly could activate speaker function quickly, and two-third either used a long time or could not activate the function. PMID:23676015

  15. Factor analysis of auto-associative neural networks with application in speaker verification.

    PubMed

    Garimella, Sri; Hermansky, Hynek

    2013-04-01

    Auto-associative neural network (AANN) is a fully connected feed-forward neural network, trained to reconstruct its input at its output through a hidden compression layer, which has fewer numbers of nodes than the dimensionality of input. AANNs are used to model speakers in speaker verification, where a speaker-specific AANN model is obtained by adapting (or retraining) the universal background model (UBM) AANN, an AANN trained on multiple held out speakers, using corresponding speaker data. When the amount of speaker data is limited, this adaptation procedure may lead to overfitting as all the parameters of UBM-AANN are adapted. In this paper, we introduce and develop the factor analysis theory of AANNs to alleviate this problem. We hypothesize that only the weight matrix connecting the last nonlinear hidden layer and the output layer is speaker-specific, and further restrict it to a common low-dimensional subspace during adaptation. The subspace is learned using large amounts of development data, and is held fixed during adaptation. Thus, only the coordinates in a subspace, also known as i-vector, need to be estimated using speaker-specific data. The update equations are derived for learning both the common low-dimensional subspace and the i-vectors corresponding to speakers in the subspace. The resultant i-vector representation is used as a feature for the probabilistic linear discriminant analysis model. The proposed system shows promising results on the NIST-08 speaker recognition evaluation (SRE), and yields a 23% relative improvement in equal error rate over the previously proposed weighted least squares-based subspace AANNs system. The experiments on NIST-10 SRE confirm that these improvements are consistent and generalize across datasets. PMID:24808374

  16. Cross-linguistic gestures reflect typological universals: a subject-initial, verb-final bias in speakers of diverse languages.

    PubMed

    Futrell, Richard; Hickey, Tina; Lee, Aldrin; Lim, Eunice; Luchkina, Elena; Gibson, Edward

    2015-03-01

    In communicating events by gesture, participants create codes that recapitulate the patterns of word order in the world's vocal languages (Gibson et al., 2013; Goldin-Meadow, So, Ozyurek, & Mylander, 2008; Hall, Mayberry, & Ferreria, 2013; Hall, Ferreira, & Mayberry, 2014; Langus & Nespor, 2010; and others). Participants most often convey simple transitive events using gestures in the order Subject-Object-Verb (SOV), the most common word order in human languages. When there is a possibility of confusion between subject and object, participants use the order Subject-Verb-Object (SVO). This overall pattern has been explained by positing an underlying cognitive preference for subject-initial, verb-final orders, with the verb-medial order SVO order emerging to facilitate robust communication in a noisy channel (Gibson et al., 2013). However, whether the subject-initial and verb-final biases are innate or the result of languages that the participants already know has been unclear, because participants in previous studies all spoke either SVO or SOV languages, which could induce a subject-initial, verb-late bias. Furthermore, the exact manner in which known languages influence gestural orders has been unclear. In this paper we demonstrate that there is a subject-initial and verb-final gesturing bias cross-linguistically by comparing gestures of speakers of SVO languages English and Russian to those of speakers of VSO languages Irish and Tagalog. The findings show that subject-initial and verb-final order emerges even in speakers of verb-initial languages, and that interference from these languages takes the form of occasionally gesturing in VSO order, without an additional bias toward other orders. The results provides further support for the idea that improvised gesture is a window into the pressures shaping language formation, independently of the languages that participants already know. PMID:25498747

  17. Cross-linguistic gestures reflect typological universals: a subject-initial, verb-final bias in speakers of diverse languages.

    PubMed

    Futrell, Richard; Hickey, Tina; Lee, Aldrin; Lim, Eunice; Luchkina, Elena; Gibson, Edward

    2015-03-01

    In communicating events by gesture, participants create codes that recapitulate the patterns of word order in the world's vocal languages (Gibson et al., 2013; Goldin-Meadow, So, Ozyurek, & Mylander, 2008; Hall, Mayberry, & Ferreria, 2013; Hall, Ferreira, & Mayberry, 2014; Langus & Nespor, 2010; and others). Participants most often convey simple transitive events using gestures in the order Subject-Object-Verb (SOV), the most common word order in human languages. When there is a possibility of confusion between subject and object, participants use the order Subject-Verb-Object (SVO). This overall pattern has been explained by positing an underlying cognitive preference for subject-initial, verb-final orders, with the verb-medial order SVO order emerging to facilitate robust communication in a noisy channel (Gibson et al., 2013). However, whether the subject-initial and verb-final biases are innate or the result of languages that the participants already know has been unclear, because participants in previous studies all spoke either SVO or SOV languages, which could induce a subject-initial, verb-late bias. Furthermore, the exact manner in which known languages influence gestural orders has been unclear. In this paper we demonstrate that there is a subject-initial and verb-final gesturing bias cross-linguistically by comparing gestures of speakers of SVO languages English and Russian to those of speakers of VSO languages Irish and Tagalog. The findings show that subject-initial and verb-final order emerges even in speakers of verb-initial languages, and that interference from these languages takes the form of occasionally gesturing in VSO order, without an additional bias toward other orders. The results provides further support for the idea that improvised gesture is a window into the pressures shaping language formation, independently of the languages that participants already know.

  18. Effects of context and word class on lexical retrieval in Chinese speakers with anomic aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Law, Sam-Po; Kong, Anthony Pak-Hin; Lai, Loretta Wing-Shan; Lai, Christy

    2014-01-01

    Background Differences in processing nouns and verbs have been investigated intensely in psycholinguistics and neuropsychology in past decades. However, the majority of studies examining retrieval of these word classes have involved tasks of single word stimuli or responses. While the results have provided rich information for addressing issues about grammatical class distinctions, it is unclear whether they have adequate ecological validity for understanding lexical retrieval in connected speech which characterizes daily verbal communication. Previous investigations comparing retrieval of nouns and verbs in single word production and connected speech have reported either discrepant performance between the two contexts with presence of word class dissociation in picture naming but absence in connected speech, or null effects of word class. In addition, word finding difficulties have been found to be less severe in connected speech than picture naming. However, these studies have failed to match target stimuli of the two word classes and between tasks on psycholinguistic variables known to affect performance in response latency and/or accuracy. Aims The present study compared lexical retrieval of nouns and verbs in picture naming and connected speech from picture description, procedural description, and story-telling among 19 Chinese speakers with anomic aphasia and their age, gender, and education matched healthy controls, to understand the influence of grammatical class on word production across speech contexts when target items were balanced for confounding variables between word classes and tasks. Methods & Procedures Elicitation of responses followed the protocol of the AphasiaBank consortium (http://talkbank.org/AphasiaBank/). Target words for confrontation naming were based on well-established naming tests, while those for narrative were drawn from a large database of normal speakers. Selected nouns and verbs in the two contexts were matched for age

  19. Une verification de l'efficacite de la methode verbo-tonale: apprentissage du /y/ francais par des americanophones (Testing of the Efficiency of the Verbo-Tonal Method: The learning of the French /y/ by Speakers of American English)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fort, Paul; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This article describes a study designed to test the basic notions of the verbo-tonal method of error correction in second language learning, a method based on an awareness of the phonological system of the speaker's native language and its influence on the phonological system of the target language. (Text is in French.) (CLK)

  20. Efficient speaker verification using Gaussian mixture model component clustering.

    SciTech Connect

    De Leon, Phillip L.; McClanahan, Richard D.

    2012-04-01

    In speaker verification (SV) systems that employ a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to make decisions on a supervector derived from Gaussian mixture model (GMM) component mean vectors, a significant portion of the computational load is involved in the calculation of the a posteriori probability of the feature vectors of the speaker under test with respect to the individual component densities of the universal background model (UBM). Further, the calculation of the sufficient statistics for the weight, mean, and covariance parameters derived from these same feature vectors also contribute a substantial amount of processing load to the SV system. In this paper, we propose a method that utilizes clusters of GMM-UBM mixture component densities in order to reduce the computational load required. In the adaptation step we score the feature vectors against the clusters and calculate the a posteriori probabilities and update the statistics exclusively for mixture components belonging to appropriate clusters. Each cluster is a grouping of multivariate normal distributions and is modeled by a single multivariate distribution. As such, the set of multivariate normal distributions representing the different clusters also form a GMM. This GMM is referred to as a hash GMM which can be considered to a lower resolution representation of the GMM-UBM. The mapping that associates the components of the hash GMM with components of the original GMM-UBM is referred to as a shortlist. This research investigates various methods of clustering the components of the GMM-UBM and forming hash GMMs. Of five different methods that are presented one method, Gaussian mixture reduction as proposed by Runnall's, easily outperformed the other methods. This method of Gaussian reduction iteratively reduces the size of a GMM by successively merging pairs of component densities. Pairs are selected for merger by using a Kullback-Leibler based metric. Using Runnal's method of reduction, we were able

  1. Switches to English during French Service Encounters: Relationships with L2 French Speakers' Willingness to Communicate and Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNaughton, Stephanie; McDonough, Kim

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated second language (L2) French speakers' service encounters in the multilingual setting of Montreal, specifically whether switches to English during French service encounters were related to L2 speakers' willingness to communicate or motivation. Over a two-week period, 17 French L2 speakers in Montreal submitted…

  2. INVITED SPEAKERS Invited Speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2011-01-01

    Alain AspectPalaiseau Markus AspelmeyerVienna Vanderlei BagnatoSão Paulo Victor BalykinMoscow Kristian BaumannZürich Jim BergquistNIST, Boulder Frédéric ChevyENS, Paris John CloseCanberra Claude Cohen-TannoudjiENS, Paris Jean DalibardENS, Paris Eugene DemlerHarvard Michael DoserCERN Markus DrescherHamburg Francesca FerlainoInnsbruck Victor FlambaumSydney Chiara FortFlorence Elisabeth GiacobinoENS, Paris Philippe GrangierPalaiseau Chris GreeneJILA, Boulder Markus GreinerHarvard Eric HesselsToronto Hidetoshi KatoriTokyo Wolfgang KetterleMIT Michael KohlCambridge Wu-Ming LiuBeijing Francesco MinardiFlorence Holger MüllerBerkeley Karim MurrGarching Hanns-Christoph NägerlInnsbruck Jeremy O'BrienBristol Silke OspelkausJILA, Boulder Krzysztof PachuckiWarsaw Bill PhillipsGaithersburg Randolf PohlGarching Eugene PolzikCopenhagen Cindy RegalJILA, Boulder Jakob ReichelENS, Paris Helmut RitschInnsbruck Christian RoosInnsbruck Mark SaffmanWisconsin Christophe SalomonENS, Paris Gora ShlyapnikovOrsay Richard TaiebParis Masahito UedaTokyo Chris ValeMelbourne Andreas WallraffZürich Matthias WeidemüllerHeidelberg Martin WeitzBonn Artur WideraBonn David WinelandNIST, Boulder

  3. Comparison of native and non-native phone imitation by English and Spanish speakers

    PubMed Central

    Olmstead, Anne J.; Viswanathan, Navin; Aivar, M. Pilar; Manuel, Sarath

    2013-01-01

    Experiments investigating phonetic convergence in conversation often focus on interlocutors with similar phonetic inventories. Extending these experiments to those with dissimilar inventories requires understanding the capacity of speakers to imitate native and non-native phones. In the present study, we tested native Spanish and native English speakers to determine whether imitation of non-native tokens differs qualitatively from imitation of native tokens. Participants imitated a [ba]–[pa] continuum that varied in VOT from −60 ms (prevoiced, Spanish [b]) to +60 ms (long lag, English [p]) such that the continuum consisted of some tokens that were native to Spanish speakers and some that were native to English speakers. Analysis of the imitations showed two critical results. First, both groups of speakers demonstrated sensitivity to VOT differences in tokens that fell within their native regions of the VOT continuum (prevoiced region for Spanish and long lag region for English). Secondly, neither group of speakers demonstrated such sensitivity to VOT differences among tokens that fell in their non-native regions of the continuum. These results show that, even in an intentional imitation task, speakers cannot accurately imitate non-native tokens, but are clearly flexible in producing native tokens. Implications of these findings are discussed with reference to the constraints on convergence in interlocutors from different linguistic backgrounds. PMID:23898316

  4. Acoustic properties of vowels in clear and conversational speech by female non-native English speakers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chi-Nin; So, Connie K.

    2005-04-01

    Studies have shown that talkers can improve the intelligibility of their speech when instructed to speak as if talking to a hearing-impaired person. The improvement of speech intelligibility is associated with specific acoustic-phonetic changes: increases in vowel duration and fundamental frequency (F0), a wider pitch range, and a shift in formant frequencies for F1 and F2. Most previous studies of clear speech production have been conducted with native speakers; research with second language speakers is much less common. The present study examined the acoustic properties of non-native English vowels produced in a clear speaking style. Five female Cantonese speakers and a comparison group of English speakers were recorded producing four vowels (/i u ae a/) in /bVt/ context in conversational and clear speech. Vowel durations, F0, pitch range, and the first two formants for each of the four vowels were measured. Analyses revealed that for both groups of speakers, vowel durations, F0, pitch range, and F1 spoken clearly were greater than those produced conversationally. However, F2 was higher in conversational speech than in clear speech. The findings suggest that female non-native English speakers exhibit acoustic-phonetic patterns similar to those of native speakers when asked to produce English vowels clearly.

  5. Laryngeal adjustments for devoicing of /h/: A within-speaker study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Laura

    2005-09-01

    Past work has investigated cross-speaker and cross-gender differences in voicing of /h/ in English speakers. The purpose of this study was to see whether a phonetically sophisticated speaker could intentionally alter his /h/ voicing patterns, and, if so, how he would effect any changes. One adult male speaker of American English, a trained phonetician and dialectologist, produced approximately 500 repetitions of intervocalic /h/ in short carrier phrases, with differing vowel contexts and loudness levels. In the first block, the speaker produced the utterances normally (i.e., without specific instructions on /h/ production); in the second, he was explicitly asked to devoice his /h/'s. Results indicated that the incidence of devoiced /h/ increased from 2% in the first block to 69% in the second block. On average, the /h/'s in the second block were produced with higher baseline airflows, indicating more extreme laryngeal abduction. This alone did not account for the speaker's devoicing behavior, however, since the soft condition, which had the lowest peak airflows in the second block, had the most devoicing. Voice source measures will be compared between the two blocks to clarify how the speaker altered his laryngeal setting to achieve more devoicing. [Work supported by NIH.

  6. [Twelve-month-old infants show social preferences for native-dialect speakers].

    PubMed

    Okumura, Yuko; Kanakogi, Yasuhiro; Takeuchi, Sachie; Itakura, Shoji

    2014-08-01

    Recent research demonstrates that social preferences for native language speakers emerge early in development, indicating that infants prefer speakers from their own society. Dialect may also be a reliable cue to group membership because it provides information about an individual's social and ethnic identity. We investigated whether infants showed social preferences toward native-dialect speakers over those with unfamiliar dialects. Infants at 9 and 12 months of age were shown videos in which two adults (a native-dialect speaker and an unfamiliar-dialect speaker) each spoke to and then offered an identical toy to the participating infants. Next, two real versions of the toys were presented to the infants in person. The 12-month-old infants preferentially reached for the toy offered by the native-dialect speaker. The 9-month-old infants also showed a preference for native-dialect speakers but this finding was not statistically significant. Our results suggest that dialects may be a reliable cue to group membership, and that infants' orientation toward members of their native community may guide their social and cultural learning.

  7. Designing, Modeling, Constructing, and Testing a Flat Panel Speaker and Sound Diffuser for a Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillon, Christina

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this project was to design, model, build, and test a flat panel speaker and frame for a spherical dome structure being made into a simulator. The simulator will be a test bed for evaluating an immersive environment for human interfaces. This project focused on the loud speakers and a sound diffuser for the dome. The rest of the team worked on an Ambisonics 3D sound system, video projection system, and multi-direction treadmill to create the most realistic scene possible. The main programs utilized in this project, were Pro-E and COMSOL. Pro-E was used for creating detailed figures for the fabrication of a frame that held a flat panel loud speaker. The loud speaker was made from a thin sheet of Plexiglas and 4 acoustic exciters. COMSOL, a multiphysics finite analysis simulator, was used to model and evaluate all stages of the loud speaker, frame, and sound diffuser. Acoustical testing measurements were utilized to create polar plots from the working prototype which were then compared to the COMSOL simulations to select the optimal design for the dome. The final goal of the project was to install the flat panel loud speaker design in addition to a sound diffuser on to the wall of the dome. After running tests in COMSOL on various speaker configurations, including a warped Plexiglas version, the optimal speaker design included a flat piece of Plexiglas with a rounded frame to match the curvature of the dome. Eight of these loud speakers will be mounted into an inch and a half of high performance acoustic insulation, or Thinsulate, that will cover the inside of the dome. The following technical paper discusses these projects and explains the engineering processes used, knowledge gained, and the projected future goals of this project

  8. Thresholds for color discrimination in English and Korean speakers.

    PubMed

    Roberson, Debi; Hanley, J Richard; Pak, Hyensou

    2009-09-01

    Categorical perception (CP) is said to occur when a continuum of equally spaced physical changes is perceived as unequally spaced as a function of category membership (Harnad, S. (Ed.) (1987). Psychophysical and cognitive aspects of categorical perception: A critical overview. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press). A common suggestion is that CP for color arises because perception is qualitatively distorted when we learn to categorize a dimension. Contrary to this view, we here report that English speakers show no evidence of lowered discrimination thresholds at the boundaries between blue and green categories even though CP is found at these boundaries in a supra-threshold task. Furthermore, there is no evidence of different discrimination thresholds between individuals from two language groups (English and Korean) who use different color terminology in the blue-green region and have different supra-threshold boundaries. Our participants' just noticeable difference (JND) thresholds suggest that they retain a smooth continuum of perceptual space that is not warped by stretching at category boundaries or by within-category compression. At least for the domain of color, categorical perception appears to be a categorical, but not a perceptual phenomenon.

  9. Acquired dyslexia in Serbian speakers with Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia.

    PubMed

    Vuković, Mile; Vuković, Irena; Miller, Nick

    2016-01-01

    This study examined patterns of acquired dyslexia in Serbian aphasic speakers, comparing profiles of groups with Broca's versus Wernicke's aphasia. The study also looked at the relationship of reading and auditory comprehension and between reading comprehension and reading aloud in these groups. Participants were 20 people with Broca's and 20 with Wernicke's aphasia. They were asked to read aloud and to understand written material from the Serbian adaptation of the Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination. A Serbian Word Reading Aloud Test was also used. The people with Broca's aphasia achieved better results in reading aloud and in reading comprehension than those with Wernicke's aphasia. Those with Wernicke's aphasia showed significantly more semantic errors than those with Broca's aphasia who had significantly more morphological and phonological errors. From the data we inferred that lesion sites accorded with previous work on networks associated with Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia and with a posterior-anterior axis for reading processes centred on (left) parietal-temporal-frontal lobes. PMID:27135368

  10. Phonological processing in Mandarin speakers with congenital amusia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Peng, Gang

    2014-12-01

    Although there is an emerging consensus that both musical and linguistic pitch processing can be problematic for individuals with a developmental disorder termed congenital amusia, the nature of such a pitch-processing deficit, especially that demonstrated in a speech setting, remains unclear. Therefore, this study tested the performance of native Mandarin speakers, both with and without amusia, on discrimination and imitation tasks for Cantonese level tones, aiming to shed light on this issue. Results suggest that the impact of the phonological deficit, coupled with that of the domain-general pitch deficit, could provide a more comprehensive interpretation of Mandarin amusics' speech impairment. Specifically, when there was a high demand for pitch sensitivity, as in fine-grained pitch discriminations, the operation of the pitch-processing deficit played the more predominant role in modulating amusics' speech performance. But when the demand was low, as in discriminating naturally produced Cantonese level tones, the impact of the phonological deficit was more pronounced compared to that of the pitch-processing deficit. However, despite their perceptual deficits, Mandarin amusics' imitation abilities were comparable to controls'. Such selective impairment in tonal perception suggests that the phonological deficit more severely implicates amusics' input pathways. PMID:25480080

  11. Listening through voices: Infant statistical word segmentation across multiple speakers.

    PubMed

    Estes, Katharine Graf; Lew-Williams, Casey

    2015-11-01

    To learn from their environments, infants must detect structure behind pervasive variation. This presents substantial and largely untested learning challenges in early language acquisition. The current experiments address whether infants can use statistical learning mechanisms to segment words when the speech signal contains acoustic variation produced by changes in speakers' voices. In Experiment 1, 8- and 10-month-old infants listened to a continuous stream of novel words produced by 8 different female voices. The voices alternated frequently, potentially interrupting infants' detection of transitional probability patterns that mark word boundaries. Infants at both ages successfully segmented words in the speech stream. In Experiment 2, 8-month-olds demonstrated the ability to generalize their learning about the speech stream when presented with a new, acoustically distinct voice during testing. However, in Experiments 3 and 4, when the same speech stream was produced by only 2 female voices, infants failed to segment the words. The results of these experiments indicate that low acoustic variation may interfere with infants' efficiency in segmenting words from continuous speech, but that infants successfully use statistical cues to segment words in conditions of high acoustic variation. These findings contribute to our understanding of whether statistical learning mechanisms can scale up to meet the demands of natural learning environments.

  12. Effect of tones on vocal attack time in Cantonese speakers.

    PubMed

    Ma, Estella P-M; Baken, R J; Roark, Rick M; Li, P-M

    2012-09-01

    Vocal attack time (VAT) is the time lag between the growth of the sound pressure signal and the development of physical contact of vocal folds at vocal initiation. It can be derived by a cross-correlation of short-time amplitude changes occurring in the sound pressure and electroglottographic (EGG) signals. Cantonese is a tone language in which tone determines the lexical meaning of the syllable. Such linguistic function of tone has implications for the physiology of tone production. The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible effects of Cantonese tones on VAT. Sound pressure and EGG signals were simultaneously recorded from 59 native Cantonese speakers (31 females and 28 males). The subjects were asked to read aloud 12 disyllabic words comprising homophone pairs of the six Cantonese lexical tones. Results revealed a gender difference in VAT values, with the mean VAT significantly smaller in females than in males. There was also a significant difference in VAT values between the two tone categories, with the mean VAT values of the three level tones (tone 1, 3, and 6) significantly smaller than those of the three contour tones (tone 2, 4, and 5). The findings support the notion that norms and interpretations based on nontone European languages may not be directly applied to tone languages.

  13. Tone-language speakers show hemispheric specialization and differential cortical processing of contour and interval cues for pitch.

    PubMed

    Bidelman, G M; Chung, W-L

    2015-10-01

    Electrophysiological studies demonstrate that the neural coding of pitch is modulated by language experience and the linguistic relevance of the auditory input; both rightward and leftward asymmetries have been observed in the hemispheric specialization for pitch. In music, pitch is encoded using two primary features: contour (patterns of rises and falls) and interval (frequency separation between tones) cues. Recent evoked potential studies demonstrate that these "global" (contour) and "local" (interval) aspects of pitch are processed automatically (but bilaterally) in trained musicians. Here, we examined whether alternate forms of pitch expertise, namely, tone-language experience (i.e., Chinese), influence the early detection of contour and intervallic deviations within ongoing pitch sequences. Neuroelectric mismatch negativity (MMN) potentials were recorded in Chinese speakers and English-speaking nonmusicians in response to continuous pitch sequences with occasional global or local deviations in the ongoing melodic stream. This paradigm allowed us to explore potential cross-language differences in the hemispheric weighting for contour and interval processing of pitch. Chinese speakers showed differential pitch encoding between hemispheres not observed in English listeners; Chinese MMNs revealed a rightward bias for contour processing but a leftward hemispheric laterality for interval processing. In contrast, no asymmetries were observed in the English group. Collectively, our findings suggest tone-language experience sensitizes auditory brain mechanisms for the detection of subtle global/local pitch changes in the ongoing auditory stream and exaggerates functional asymmetries in pitch processing between cerebral hemispheres.

  14. Perception and production of English vowels by Mandarin speakers: age-related differences vary with amount of L2 exposure.

    PubMed

    Jia, Gisela; Strange, Winifred; Collado, Julissa; Guan, Qi

    2006-02-01

    In this study we assessed age-related differences in the perception and production of American English (AE) vowels by native Mandarin speakers as a function of the amount of exposure to the target language. Participants included three groups of native Mandarin speakers: 87 children, adolescents and young adults living in China, 77 recent arrivals who had lived in the U.S. for two years or less, and 54 past arrivals who had lived in the U.S. between three and five years. The latter two groups arrived in the U.S. between the ages of 7 and 44 years. Discrimination of six AE vowel pairs /i-i/, /i-e(I)/, /e-ae/, /ae-a/, /a-(symbol see text)/, and /u-a/ was assessed with a categorial AXB task. Production of the eight vowels /i, i, e(I), e, ae, (symbol see text), a, u/ was assessed with an immediate imitation task. Age-related differences in performance accuracy changed from an older-learner advantage among participants in China, to no age differences among recent arrivals, and to a younger-learner advantage among past arrivals. Performance on individual vowels and vowel contrasts indicated the influence of the Mandarin phonetic/phonological system. These findings support a combined environmental and L1 interference/transfer theory as an explanation of the long-term younger-learner advantage in mastering L2 phonology.

  15. Speaker's hand gestures modulate speech perception through phase resetting of ongoing neural oscillations.

    PubMed

    Biau, Emmanuel; Torralba, Mireia; Fuentemilla, Lluis; de Diego Balaguer, Ruth; Soto-Faraco, Salvador

    2015-07-01

    Speakers often accompany speech with spontaneous beat gestures in natural spoken communication. These gestures are usually aligned with lexical stress and can modulate the saliency of their affiliate words. Here we addressed the consequences of beat gestures on the neural correlates of speech perception. Previous studies have highlighted the role played by theta oscillations in temporal prediction of speech. We hypothesized that the sight of beat gestures may influence ongoing low-frequency neural oscillations around the onset of the corresponding words. Electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings were acquired while participants watched a continuous, naturally recorded discourse. The phase-locking value (PLV) at word onset was calculated from the EEG from pairs of identical words that had been pronounced with and without a concurrent beat gesture in the discourse. We observed an increase in PLV in the 5-6 Hz theta range as well as a desynchronization in the 8-10 Hz alpha band around the onset of words preceded by a beat gesture. These findings suggest that beats help tune low-frequency oscillatory activity at relevant moments during natural speech perception, providing a new insight of how speech and paralinguistic information are integrated. PMID:25595613

  16. Interlingual Influence in Bilingual Speech: Cognate Status Effect in a Continuum of Bilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amengual, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates voice onset times (VOTs) to determine if cognates enhance the cross-language phonetic influences in the speech production of a range of Spanish-English bilinguals: Spanish heritage speakers, English heritage speakers, advanced L2 Spanish learners, and advanced L2 English learners. To answer this question, lexical…

  17. Collocational Links in the L2 Mental Lexicon and the Influence of L1 Intralexical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolter, Brent; Gyllstad, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This article assesses the influence of L1 intralexical knowledge on the formation of L2 intralexical collocations. Two tests, a primed lexical decision task (LDT) and a test of receptive collocational knowledge, were administered to a group of non-native speakers (NNSs) (L1 Swedish), with native speakers (NSs) of English serving as controls on the…

  18. Embodied language in first- and second-language speakers: neural correlates of processing motor verbs.

    PubMed

    De Grauwe, Sophie; Willems, Roel M; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Lemhöfer, Kristin; Schriefers, Herbert

    2014-04-01

    The involvement of neural motor and sensory systems in the processing of language has so far mainly been studied in native (L1) speakers. In an fMRI experiment, we investigated whether non-native (L2) semantic representations are rich enough to allow for activation in motor and somatosensory brain areas. German learners of Dutch and a control group of Dutch native speakers made lexical decisions about visually presented Dutch motor and non-motor verbs. Region-of-interest (ROI) and whole-brain analyses indicated that L2 speakers, like L1 speakers, showed significantly increased activation for simple motor compared to non-motor verbs in motor and somatosensory regions. This effect was not restricted to Dutch-German cognate verbs, but was also present for non-cognate verbs. These results indicate that L2 semantic representations are rich enough for motor-related activations to develop in motor and somatosensory areas.

  19. "De Dog and De Cat": Assisting Speakers of Black English as They Begin to Write.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markham, Lynda R.

    1984-01-01

    Indicates features of Black dialect, or Black English vernacular, and discusses relationships between speaking Black English and learning to read and write. Suggestions for teaching speakers of Black English to write are offered. (RH)

  20. Automated Classification of Vowel Category and Speaker Type in the High-Frequency Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Donai, Jeremy J; Motiian, Saeid; Doretto, Gianfranco

    2016-04-20

    The high-frequency region of vowel signals (above the third formant or F3) has received little research attention. Recent evidence, however, has documented the perceptual utility of high-frequency information in the speech signal above the traditional frequency bandwidth known to contain important cues for speech and speaker recognition. The purpose of this study was to determine if high-pass filtered vowels could be separated by vowel category and speaker type in a supervised learning framework. Mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) were extracted from productions of six vowel categories produced by two male, two female, and two child speakers. Results revealed that the filtered vowels were well separated by vowel category and speaker type using MFCCs from the high-frequency spectrum. This demonstrates the presence of useful information for automated classification from the high-frequency region and is the first study to report findings of this nature in a supervised learning framework. PMID:27588160

  1. Effect of delayed auditory feedback on normal speakers at two speech rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, Andrew; Kalinowski, Joseph; Rastatter, Michael P.; Lynch, Kerry

    2002-05-01

    This study investigated the effect of short and long auditory feedback delays at two speech rates with normal speakers. Seventeen participants spoke under delayed auditory feedback (DAF) at 0, 25, 50, and 200 ms at normal and fast rates of speech. Significantly two to three times more dysfluencies were displayed at 200 ms (p<0.05) relative to no delay or the shorter delays. There were significantly more dysfluencies observed at the fast rate of speech (p=0.028). These findings implicate the peripheral feedback system(s) of fluent speakers for the disruptive effects of DAF on normal speech production at long auditory feedback delays. Considering the contrast in fluency/dysfluency exhibited between normal speakers and those who stutter at short and long delays, it appears that speech disruption of normal speakers under DAF is a poor analog of stuttering.

  2. Automated Classification of Vowel Category and Speaker Type in the High-Frequency Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Donai, Jeremy J; Motiian, Saeid; Doretto, Gianfranco

    2016-04-20

    The high-frequency region of vowel signals (above the third formant or F3) has received little research attention. Recent evidence, however, has documented the perceptual utility of high-frequency information in the speech signal above the traditional frequency bandwidth known to contain important cues for speech and speaker recognition. The purpose of this study was to determine if high-pass filtered vowels could be separated by vowel category and speaker type in a supervised learning framework. Mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) were extracted from productions of six vowel categories produced by two male, two female, and two child speakers. Results revealed that the filtered vowels were well separated by vowel category and speaker type using MFCCs from the high-frequency spectrum. This demonstrates the presence of useful information for automated classification from the high-frequency region and is the first study to report findings of this nature in a supervised learning framework.

  3. Automated Classification of Vowel Category and Speaker Type in the High-Frequency Spectrum

    PubMed Central

    Donai, Jeremy J.; Motiian, Saeid; Doretto, Gianfranco

    2016-01-01

    The high-frequency region of vowel signals (above the third formant or F3) has received little research attention. Recent evidence, however, has documented the perceptual utility of high-frequency information in the speech signal above the traditional frequency bandwidth known to contain important cues for speech and speaker recognition. The purpose of this study was to determine if high-pass filtered vowels could be separated by vowel category and speaker type in a supervised learning framework. Mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) were extracted from productions of six vowel categories produced by two male, two female, and two child speakers. Results revealed that the filtered vowels were well separated by vowel category and speaker type using MFCCs from the high-frequency spectrum. This demonstrates the presence of useful information for automated classification from the high-frequency region and is the first study to report findings of this nature in a supervised learning framework. PMID:27588160

  4. Can Speaker Gaze Modulate Syntactic Structuring and Thematic Role Assignment during Spoken Sentence Comprehension?

    PubMed Central

    Knoeferle, Pia; Kreysa, Helene

    2012-01-01

    During comprehension, a listener can rapidly follow a frontally seated speaker’s gaze to an object before its mention, a behavior which can shorten latencies in speeded sentence verification. However, the robustness of gaze-following, its interaction with core comprehension processes such as syntactic structuring, and the persistence of its effects are unclear. In two “visual-world” eye-tracking experiments participants watched a video of a speaker, seated at an angle, describing transitive (non-depicted) actions between two of three Second Life characters on a computer screen. Sentences were in German and had either subjectNP1-verb-objectNP2 or objectNP1-verb-subjectNP2 structure; the speaker either shifted gaze to the NP2 character or was obscured. Several seconds later, participants verified either the sentence referents or their role relations. When participants had seen the speaker’s gaze shift, they anticipated the NP2 character before its mention and earlier than when the speaker was obscured. This effect was more pronounced for SVO than OVS sentences in both tasks. Interactions of speaker gaze and sentence structure were more pervasive in role-relations verification: participants verified the role relations faster for SVO than OVS sentences, and faster when they had seen the speaker shift gaze than when the speaker was obscured. When sentence and template role-relations matched, gaze-following even eliminated the SVO-OVS response-time differences. Thus, gaze-following is robust even when the speaker is seated at an angle to the listener; it varies depending on the syntactic structure and thematic role relations conveyed by a sentence; and its effects can extend to delayed post-sentence comprehension processes. These results suggest that speaker gaze effects contribute pervasively to visual attention and comprehension processes and should thus be accommodated by accounts of situated language comprehension. PMID:23227018

  5. Congenital amusia in speakers of a tone language: association with lexical tone agnosia.

    PubMed

    Nan, Yun; Sun, Yanan; Peretz, Isabelle

    2010-09-01

    Congenital amusia is a neurogenetic disorder that affects the processing of musical pitch in speakers of non-tonal languages like English and French. We assessed whether this musical disorder exists among speakers of Mandarin Chinese who use pitch to alter the meaning of words. Using the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia, we tested 117 healthy young Mandarin speakers with no self-declared musical problems and 22 individuals who reported musical difficulties and scored two standard deviations below the mean obtained by the Mandarin speakers without amusia. These 22 amusic individuals showed a similar pattern of musical impairment as did amusic speakers of non-tonal languages, by exhibiting a more pronounced deficit in melody than in rhythm processing. Furthermore, nearly half the tested amusics had impairments in the discrimination and identification of Mandarin lexical tones. Six showed marked impairments, displaying what could be called lexical tone agnosia, but had normal tone production. Our results show that speakers of tone languages such as Mandarin may experience musical pitch disorder despite early exposure to speech-relevant pitch contrasts. The observed association between the musical disorder and lexical tone difficulty indicates that the pitch disorder as defining congenital amusia is not specific to music or culture but is rather general in nature. PMID:20685803

  6. Congenital amusia in speakers of a tone language: association with lexical tone agnosia.

    PubMed

    Nan, Yun; Sun, Yanan; Peretz, Isabelle

    2010-09-01

    Congenital amusia is a neurogenetic disorder that affects the processing of musical pitch in speakers of non-tonal languages like English and French. We assessed whether this musical disorder exists among speakers of Mandarin Chinese who use pitch to alter the meaning of words. Using the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia, we tested 117 healthy young Mandarin speakers with no self-declared musical problems and 22 individuals who reported musical difficulties and scored two standard deviations below the mean obtained by the Mandarin speakers without amusia. These 22 amusic individuals showed a similar pattern of musical impairment as did amusic speakers of non-tonal languages, by exhibiting a more pronounced deficit in melody than in rhythm processing. Furthermore, nearly half the tested amusics had impairments in the discrimination and identification of Mandarin lexical tones. Six showed marked impairments, displaying what could be called lexical tone agnosia, but had normal tone production. Our results show that speakers of tone languages such as Mandarin may experience musical pitch disorder despite early exposure to speech-relevant pitch contrasts. The observed association between the musical disorder and lexical tone difficulty indicates that the pitch disorder as defining congenital amusia is not specific to music or culture but is rather general in nature.

  7. Evaluating the spectral distinction between sibilant fricatives through a speaker-centered approach

    PubMed Central

    Haley, Katarina L.; Seelinger, Elizabeth; Mandulak, Kerry Callahan; Zajac, David J.

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the feasibility of using the spectral mean and/or spectral skewness to distinguish between alveolar and palato-alveolar fricatives produced by individual adult speakers of English. Five male and five female speaker participants produced 100 CVC words with an initial consonant /s/ or /ʃ/. The spectral mean and skewness were derived every 10 milliseconds throughout the fricative segments and plotted for all productions. Distinctions were examined for each speaker through visual inspection of these time history plots and statistical comparisons were completed for analysis windows centered 50 ms after the onset of the fricative segment. The results showed significant differences between the alveolar and palato-alveolar fricatives for both the mean and skewness values. However, there was considerable inter-speaker overlap, limiting the utility of the measures to evaluate the adequacy of the phonetic distinction. When the focus shifted to individual speakers rather than average group performance, only the spectral mean distinguished consistently between the two phonetic categories. The robustness of the distinction suggests that intra-speaker overlap in spectral mean between prevocalic /s/ and /ʃ/ targets may be indicative of abnormal fricative production and a useful measure for clinical applications. PMID:21278849

  8. Influence of human factors on performance of Chinese speech recognition systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, S; Jiang, Q; Yu, T

    1996-08-01

    Human factors affecting the performance of the speaker dependent isolated Chinese speech recognition system (SRS) were studied. The results showed that the training mode and dialect factors had significant influence upon recognition accuracy; speaker's psychological factor, cooperativeness and educational background had certain influence, while factors such as sex, age, and profession of the speaker had less influence on recognition performance. With the results taken into consideration, ways for improving performance of the speech recognition systems were explored from the point of view of man-machine integration.

  9. Linguistically Directed Attention to the Temporal Aspect of Action Events in Monolingual English Speakers and Chinese-English Bilingual Speakers with Varying English Proficiency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Su, Jui-Ju; Lee, Chao-Yang; O'Seaghdha, Padraig G.

    2012-01-01

    Chinese and English speakers seem to hold different conceptions of time which may be related to the different codings of time in the two languages. Employing a sentence-picture matching task, we have investigated this linguistic relativity in Chinese-English bilinguals varying in English proficiency and found that those with high proficiency…

  10. Non-Native Speakers Speak in Phonemes: A Phono-Acoustic Analysis of Fricatives and Affricates by Native and Chinese Speakers of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Wei

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation measured the acoustic properties of the English fricatives and affricates produced by native and Chinese L2 speakers of English to identify the phonetic basis and sources of a foreign accent and to explore the mechanism involved in L2 speech production and L2 phonological acquisition at the segmental level. Based on a Network…

  11. Multi-expert and hybrid connectionist approach for pattern recognition: speaker identification task.

    PubMed

    Bennani, Y

    1994-09-01

    This paper presents and evaluates a modular/hybrid connectionist system for speaker identification. Modularity has emerged as a powerful technique for reducing the complexity of connectionist systems, allowing a priori knowledge to be incorporated into their design. In problems where training data are scarce, such modular systems are likely to generalize significantly better than a monolithic connectionist system. In addition, modules are not restricted to be connectionist: hybrid systems, with e.g. Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), can be designed, combining the advantages of connectionist and non-connectionist approaches. Text independent speaker identification is an inherently complex task where the amount of training data is often limited. It thus provides an ideal domain to test the validity of the modular/hybrid connectionist approach. An architecture is developed in this paper which achieves this identification, based upon the cooperation of several connectionist modules, together with an HMM module. When tested on a population of 102 speakers extracted from the DARPA-TIMIT database, perfect identification was obtained. Overall, our recognition results are among the best for any text-independent speaker identification system handling this population size. In a specific comparison with a system based on multivariate auto-regressive models, the modular/hybrid connectionist approach was found to be significantly better in terms of both accuracy and speed. Our design also allows for easy incorporation of new speakers.

  12. Analysis of Acoustic Features in Speakers with Cognitive Disorders and Speech Impairments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saz, Oscar; Simón, Javier; Rodríguez, W. Ricardo; Lleida, Eduardo; Vaquero, Carlos

    2009-12-01

    This work presents the results in the analysis of the acoustic features (formants and the three suprasegmental features: tone, intensity and duration) of the vowel production in a group of 14 young speakers suffering different kinds of speech impairments due to physical and cognitive disorders. A corpus with unimpaired children's speech is used to determine the reference values for these features in speakers without any kind of speech impairment within the same domain of the impaired speakers; this is 57 isolated words. The signal processing to extract the formant and pitch values is based on a Linear Prediction Coefficients (LPCs) analysis of the segments considered as vowels in a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) based Viterbi forced alignment. Intensity and duration are also based in the outcome of the automated segmentation. As main conclusion of the work, it is shown that intelligibility of the vowel production is lowered in impaired speakers even when the vowel is perceived as correct by human labelers. The decrease in intelligibility is due to a 30% of increase in confusability in the formants map, a reduction of 50% in the discriminative power in energy between stressed and unstressed vowels and to a 50% increase of the standard deviation in the length of the vowels. On the other hand, impaired speakers keep good control of tone in the production of stressed and unstressed vowels.

  13. Affricate gemination in the English of Polish speakers: A study in second language variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thurgood, Ela

    2003-04-01

    This study investigates the nature of the acoustic variation in sequences of identical affricates produced by Polish learners of English. In both English and Polish sequences of identical affricates occur across word boundaries, but only in Polish do such sequences also occur root internally and across morpheme boundaries. In Polish sequences of identical affricates are manifested variably both by rearticulation of both affricates and by articulation of a single affricate but with lengthened duration of either the stop or the fricative. To investigate their English, the subjects performed two tasks: repetition of 12 English sentences and orally responding to 17 multiple choice questions. The task produced significant cross-speaker differences in the phonetics of the geminates, differences correlated with differences in their proficiency levels in English. The more Polish-like singly articulated long affricates were produced by 22% of the intermediate speakers but by 48% of the advanced speakers, the opposite of what one might expect. The intermediate speakers appear to have paid more attention to the phonetics of the English cues, thus producing more fully rearticulated affricates; the more advanced speakers appear to have paid less attention to the phonetics of the cues, thus reverting more to the norms of Polish pronunciation.

  14. Interactive voice technology: Variations in the vocal utterances of speakers performing a stress-inducing task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosko, J. D.; Stevens, K. N.; Griffin, G. R.

    1983-08-01

    Acoustical analyses were conducted of words produced by four speakers in a motion stress-inducing situation. The aim of the analyses was to document the kinds of changes that occur in the vocal utterances of speakers who are exposed to motion stress and to comment on the implications of these results for the design and development of voice interactive systems. The speakers differed markedly in the types and magnitudes of the changes that occurred in their speech. For some speakers, the stress-inducing experimental condition caused an increase in fundamental frequency, changes in the pattern of vocal fold vibration, shifts in vowel production and changes in the relative amplitudes of sounds containing turbulence noise. All speakers showed greater variability in the experimental condition than in more relaxed control situation. The variability was manifested in the acoustical characteristics of individual phonetic elements, particularly in speech sound variability observed serve to unstressed syllables. The kinds of changes and variability observed serve to emphasize the limitations of speech recognition systems based on template matching of patterns that are stored in the system during a training phase. There is need for a better understanding of these phonetic modifications and for developing ways of incorporating knowledge about these changes within a speech recognition system.

  15. A Robust Speaker Identification System Using the Responses from a Model of the Auditory Periphery.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Atiqul; Jassim, Wissam A; Cheok, Ng Siew; Zilany, Muhammad Shamsul Arefeen

    2016-01-01

    Speaker identification under noisy conditions is one of the challenging topics in the field of speech processing applications. Motivated by the fact that the neural responses are robust against noise, this paper proposes a new speaker identification system using 2-D neurograms constructed from the responses of a physiologically-based computational model of the auditory periphery. The responses of auditory-nerve fibers for a wide range of characteristic frequency were simulated to speech signals to construct neurograms. The neurogram coefficients were trained using the well-known Gaussian mixture model-universal background model classification technique to generate an identity model for each speaker. In this study, three text-independent and one text-dependent speaker databases were employed to test the identification performance of the proposed method. Also, the robustness of the proposed method was investigated using speech signals distorted by three types of noise such as the white Gaussian, pink, and street noises with different signal-to-noise ratios. The identification results of the proposed neural-response-based method were compared to the performances of the traditional speaker identification methods using features such as the Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, Gamma-tone frequency cepstral coefficients and frequency domain linear prediction. Although the classification accuracy achieved by the proposed method was comparable to the performance of those traditional techniques in quiet, the new feature was found to provide lower error rates of classification under noisy environments. PMID:27392046

  16. A Robust Speaker Identification System Using the Responses from a Model of the Auditory Periphery

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Md. Atiqul; Jassim, Wissam A.; Cheok, Ng Siew; Zilany, Muhammad Shamsul Arefeen

    2016-01-01

    Speaker identification under noisy conditions is one of the challenging topics in the field of speech processing applications. Motivated by the fact that the neural responses are robust against noise, this paper proposes a new speaker identification system using 2-D neurograms constructed from the responses of a physiologically-based computational model of the auditory periphery. The responses of auditory-nerve fibers for a wide range of characteristic frequency were simulated to speech signals to construct neurograms. The neurogram coefficients were trained using the well-known Gaussian mixture model-universal background model classification technique to generate an identity model for each speaker. In this study, three text-independent and one text-dependent speaker databases were employed to test the identification performance of the proposed method. Also, the robustness of the proposed method was investigated using speech signals distorted by three types of noise such as the white Gaussian, pink, and street noises with different signal-to-noise ratios. The identification results of the proposed neural-response-based method were compared to the performances of the traditional speaker identification methods using features such as the Mel-frequency cepstral coefficients, Gamma-tone frequency cepstral coefficients and frequency domain linear prediction. Although the classification accuracy achieved by the proposed method was comparable to the performance of those traditional techniques in quiet, the new feature was found to provide lower error rates of classification under noisy environments. PMID:27392046

  17. Research on Intersession Variability Compensation for MLLR-SVM Speaker Recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Shan; Shan, Yuxiang; He, Liang; Liu, Jia

    One of the most important challenges in speaker recognition is intersession variability (ISV), primarily cross-channel effects. Recent NIST speaker recognition evaluations (SRE) include a multilingual scenario with training conversations involving multilingual speakers collected in a number of other languages, leading to further performance decline. One important reason for this is that more and more researchers are using phonetic clustering to introduce high level information to improve speaker recognition. But such language dependent methods do not work well in multilingual conditions. In this paper, we study both language and channel mismatch using a support vector machine (SVM) speaker recognition system. Maximum likelihood linear regression (MLLR) transforms adapting a universal background model (UBM) are adopted as features. We first introduce a novel language independent statistical binary-decision tree to reduce multi-language effects, and compare this data-driven approach with a traditional knowledge based one. We also construct a framework for channel compensation using feature-domain latent factor analysis (LFA) and MLLR supervector kernel-based nuisance attribute projection (NAP) in the model-domain. Results on the NIST SRE 2006 1conv4w-1conv4w/mic corpus show significant improvement. We also compare our compensated MLLR-SVM system with state-of-the-art cepstral Gaussian mixture and SVM systems, and combine them for a further improvement.

  18. Orthographically Influenced Abstract Phonological Representation: Evidence from Non-Rhotic Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taft, Marcus

    2006-01-01

    It is typically assumed that when orthography is translated silently into phonology (i.e., when reading silently), the phonological representation is equivalent to the spoken form or, at least, the surface phonemic form. The research presented here demonstrates that the phonological representation is likely to be more abstract than this, and is…

  19. Mapudungun According to Its Speakers: Mapuche Intellectuals and the Influence of Standard Language Ideology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagos, Cristián; Espinoza, Marco; Rojas, Darío

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyse the cultural models (or folk theory of language) that the Mapuche intellectual elite have about Mapudungun, the native language of the Mapuche people still spoken today in Chile as the major minority language. Our theoretical frame is folk linguistics and studies of language ideology, but we have also taken an applied…

  20. How the demographic makeup of our community influences speech perception.

    PubMed

    Lev-Ari, Shiri; Peperkamp, Sharon

    2016-06-01

    Speech perception is known to be influenced by listeners' expectations of the speaker. This paper tests whether the demographic makeup of individuals' communities can influence their perception of foreign sounds by influencing their expectations of the language. Using online experiments with participants from all across the U.S. and matched census data on the proportion of Spanish and other foreign language speakers in participants' communities, this paper shows that the demographic makeup of individuals' communities influences their expectations of foreign languages to have an alveolar trill versus a tap (Experiment 1), as well as their consequent perception of these sounds (Experiment 2). Thus, the paper shows that while individuals' expectations of foreign language to have a trill occasionally lead them to misperceive a tap in a foreign language as a trill, a higher proportion of non-trill language speakers in one's community decreases this likelihood. These results show that individuals' environment can influence their perception by shaping their linguistic expectations.

  1. A study on (K, Na) NbO3 based multilayer piezoelectric ceramics micro speaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Renlong; Chu, Xiangcheng; Huan, Yu; Sun, Yiming; Liu, Jiayi; Wang, Xiaohui; Li, Longtu

    2014-10-01

    A flat panel micro speaker was fabricated from (K, Na) NbO3 (KNN)-based multilayer piezoelectric ceramics by a tape casting and cofiring process using Ag-Pd alloys as an inner electrode. The interface between ceramic and electrode was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The acoustic response was characterized by a standard audio test system. We found that the micro speaker with dimensions of 23 × 27 × 0.6 mm3, using three layers of 30 μm thickness KNN-based ceramic, has a high average sound pressure level (SPL) of 87 dB, between 100 Hz-20 kHz under five voltage. This result was even better than that of lead zirconate titanate (PZT)-based ceramics under the same conditions. The experimental results show that the KNN-based multilayer ceramics could be used as lead free piezoelectric micro speakers.

  2. Anticipatory lip gestures: a validation of the Movement Expansion Model in congenitally blind speakers.

    PubMed

    Ménard, Lucie; Cathiard, Marie-Agnès; Dupont, Sophie; Tiede, Mark

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, anticipatory co-articulation of the lip protrusion and constriction gestures is investigated in speakers with visual deprivation. Audio-visual recordings of 11 congenitally blind French speakers producing [V-roundC-roundV+round] sequences were measured with a lip shape tracking system. Lip protrusion and constriction values and their relative timings were analyzed. Results show that despite the reduced magnitude of lip protrusion and constriction area in blind speakers, the timing of the anticipatory gestures can be appropriately modeled by the Movement Expansion Model [from Abry and Lallouache (1995a). Bul. de la Comm. Parlée 3, 85-99; (1995b). Proceedings of ICPHS, pp. 152-155; Noiray et al. (2011). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 129, 340-349], which predicts lawful anticipatory behavior expanding linearly as the intervocalic consonant interval increases. PMID:23556687

  3. Open-set speaker identification with diverse-duration speech data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karadaghi, Rawande; Hertlein, Heinz; Ariyaeeinia, Aladdin

    2015-05-01

    The concern in this paper is an important category of applications of open-set speaker identification in criminal investigation, which involves operating with short and varied duration speech. The study presents investigations into the adverse effects of such an operating condition on the accuracy of open-set speaker identification, based on both GMMUBM and i-vector approaches. The experiments are conducted using a protocol developed for the identification task, based on the NIST speaker recognition evaluation corpus of 2008. In order to closely cover the real-world operating conditions in the considered application area, the study includes experiments with various combinations of training and testing data duration. The paper details the characteristics of the experimental investigations conducted and provides a thorough analysis of the results obtained.

  4. Infant sensitivity to speaker and language in learning a second label.

    PubMed

    Bhagwat, Jui; Casasola, Marianella

    2014-02-01

    Two experiments examined when monolingual, English-learning 19-month-old infants learn a second object label. Two experimenters sat together. One labeled a novel object with one novel label, whereas the other labeled the same object with a different label in either the same or a different language. Infants were tested on their comprehension of each label immediately following its presentation. Infants mapped the first label at above chance levels, but they did so with the second label only when requested by the speaker who provided it (Experiment 1) or when the second experimenter labeled the object in a different language (Experiment 2). These results show that 19-month-olds learn second object labels but do not readily generalize them across speakers of the same language. The results highlight how speaker and language spoken guide infants' acceptance of second labels, supporting sociopragmatic views of word learning.

  5. Speaker verification system using acoustic data and non-acoustic data

    DOEpatents

    Gable, Todd J.; Ng, Lawrence C.; Holzrichter, John F.; Burnett, Greg C.

    2006-03-21

    A method and system for speech characterization. One embodiment includes a method for speaker verification which includes collecting data from a speaker, wherein the data comprises acoustic data and non-acoustic data. The data is used to generate a template that includes a first set of "template" parameters. The method further includes receiving a real-time identity claim from a claimant, and using acoustic data and non-acoustic data from the identity claim to generate a second set of parameters. The method further includes comparing the first set of parameters to the set of parameters to determine whether the claimant is the speaker. The first set of parameters and the second set of parameters include at least one purely non-acoustic parameter, including a non-acoustic glottal shape parameter derived from averaging multiple glottal cycle waveforms.

  6. Listeners use speaker identity to access representations of spatial perspective during online language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Ryskin, Rachel A; Wang, Ranxiao Frances; Brown-Schmidt, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Little is known about how listeners represent another person's spatial perspective during language processing (e.g., two people looking at a map from different angles). Can listeners use contextual cues such as speaker identity to access a representation of the interlocutor's spatial perspective? In two eye-tracking experiments, participants received auditory instructions to move objects around a screen from two randomly alternating spatial perspectives (45° vs. 315° or 135° vs. 225° rotations from the participant's viewpoint). Instructions were spoken either by one voice, where the speaker's perspective switched at random, or by two voices, where each speaker maintained one perspective. Analysis of participant eye-gaze showed that interpretation of the instructions improved when each viewpoint was associated with a different voice. These findings demonstrate that listeners can learn mappings between individual talkers and viewpoints, and use these mappings to guide online language processing.

  7. Binding Interpretations of Anaphors by Korean Heritage Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ji-Hye; Montrul, Silvina; Yoon, James

    2009-01-01

    This study investigates the potential incomplete acquisition of binding interpretations in Korean-English bilinguals by asking whether and how the majority language of these bilinguals (English) influences their family or heritage language (Korean), especially when exposure to and use of English starts very early. The experiment tested the…

  8. Activation of syntax in lexical production in healthy speakers and in aphasia.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Ruth; Anderson, Elizabeth; Best, Wendy; Gregory, Emma

    2014-08-01

    Theories of spoken word production agree that semantic and phonological representations are activated in spoken word production. There is less agreement concerning the role of syntax. In this study we investigated noun syntax activation in English bare noun naming, using mass and count nouns. Fourteen healthy controls and 13 speakers with aphasia took part. Participants named mass and count nouns, and completed a related noun syntax judgement task. We analysed speakers' noun syntax knowledge when naming accurately, and when making errors in production. Healthy speakers' noun syntax judgement was accurate for words they named correctly, but this did not correlate with naming accuracy. Speakers with aphasia varied in their noun syntax judgement, and this also did not correlate with naming accuracy. Healthy speakers' syntax for semantic errors was less accurate, as was that for speakers with aphasia. For phonological errors half the participants with aphasia could access syntax, half could not, indicating two types of phonological error. Individual differences were found in no responses. Finally, we found no effect of frequency for any of the above. The lack of a relationship between syntax and naming accuracy suggests that syntax is available, but access is not obligatory. This finding supports theories incorporating non-obligatory syntactic processing, which is independent of phonological access. The semantic error data are best explained within such a theory where there is damage to phonological access and hence to independent syntax. For the aphasia group we identify two types of phonological error, one implicating syntax and phonology, and one implicating phonology only, again supporting independent access to these systems. Overall the data support a model within which syntax is independent of phonology, and activation of syntax operates flexibly dependent on task demands and integrity of other processing routines.

  9. Robust speaker's location detection in a vehicle environment using GMM models.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jwu-Sheng; Cheng, Chieh-Cheng; Liu, Wei-Han

    2006-04-01

    Abstract-Human-computer interaction (HCI) using speech communication is becoming increasingly important, especially in driving where safety is the primary concern. Knowing the speaker's location (i.e., speaker localization) not only improves the enhancement results of a corrupted signal, but also provides assistance to speaker identification. Since conventional speech localization algorithms suffer from the uncertainties of environmental complexity and noise, as well as from the microphone mismatch problem, they are frequently not robust in practice. Without a high reliability, the acceptance of speech-based HCI would never be realized. This work presents a novel speaker's location detection method and demonstrates high accuracy within a vehicle cabinet using a single linear microphone array. The proposed approach utilize Gaussian mixture models (GMM) to model the distributions of the phase differences among the microphones caused by the complex characteristic of room acoustic and microphone mismatch. The model can be applied both in near-field and far-field situations in a noisy environment. The individual Gaussian component of a GMM represents some general location-dependent but content and speaker-independent phase difference distributions. Moreover, the scheme performs well not only in nonline-of-sight cases, but also when the speakers are aligned toward the microphone array but at difference distances from it. This strong performance can be achieved by exploiting the fact that the phase difference distributions at different locations are distinguishable in the environment of a car. The experimental results also show that the proposed method outperforms the conventional multiple signal classification method (MUSIC) technique at various SNRs.

  10. Are Cantonese-speakers really descriptivists? Revisiting cross-cultural semantics.

    PubMed

    Lam, Barry

    2010-05-01

    In an article in Cognition [Machery, E., Mallon, R., Nichols, S., & Stich, S. (2004). Semantics cross-cultural style. Cognition, 92, B1-B12] present data which purports to show that East Asian Cantonese-speakers tend to have descriptivist intuitions about the referents of proper names, while Western English-speakers tend to have causal-historical intuitions about proper names. Machery et al. take this finding to support the view that some intuitions, the universality of which they claim is central to philosophical theories, vary according to cultural background. Machery et al. conclude from their findings that the philosophical methodology of consulting intuitions about hypothetical cases is flawed vis a vis the goal of determining truths about some philosophical domains like philosophical semantics. In the following study, three new vignettes in English were given to Western native English-speakers, and Cantonese translations were given to native Cantonese-speaking immigrants from a Cantonese community in Southern California. For all three vignettes, questions were given to elicit intuitions about the referent of a proper name and the truth-value of an uttered sentence containing a proper name. The results from this study reveal that East Asian Cantonese-speakers do not differ from Western English-speakers in ways that support Machery et al.'s conclusions. This new data concerning the intuitions of Cantonese-speakers raises questions about whether cross-cultural variation in answers to questions on certain vignettes reveal genuine differences in intuitions, or whether such differences stem from non-intuitional differences, such as differences in linguistic competence. PMID:20116052

  11. Does the speaker matter? Online processing of semantic and pragmatic information in L2 speech comprehension.

    PubMed

    Foucart, Alice; Garcia, Xavier; Ayguasanosa, Meritxell; Thierry, Guillaume; Martin, Clara; Costa, Albert

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated how pragmatic information is integrated during L2 sentence comprehension. We put forward that the differences often observed between L1 and L2 sentence processing may reflect differences on how various types of information are used to process a sentence, and not necessarily differences between native and non-native linguistic systems. Based on the idea that when a cue is missing or distorted, one relies more on other cues available, we hypothesised that late bilinguals favour the cues that they master during sentence processing. To verify this hypothesis we investigated whether late bilinguals take the speaker's identity (inferred by the voice) into account when incrementally processing speech and whether this affects their online interpretation of the sentence. To do so, we adapted Van Berkum, J.J.A., Van den Brink, D., Tesink, C.M.J.Y., Kos, M., Hagoort, P., 2008. J. Cogn. Neurosci. 20(4), 580-591, study in which sentences with either semantic violations or pragmatic inconsistencies were presented. While both the native and the non-native groups showed a similar response to semantic violations (N400), their response to speakers' inconsistencies slightly diverged; late bilinguals showed a positivity much earlier than native speakers (LPP). These results suggest that, like native speakers, late bilinguals process semantic and pragmatic information incrementally; however, what seems to differ between L1 and L2 processing is the time-course of the different processes. We propose that this difference may originate from late bilinguals' sensitivity to pragmatic information and/or their ability to efficiently make use of the information provided by the sentence context to generate expectations in relation to pragmatic information during L2 sentence comprehension. In other words, late bilinguals may rely more on speaker identity than native speakers when they face semantic integration difficulties.

  12. Gender difference in the affricate productions of young Seoul Korean speakers.

    PubMed

    Kong, Eun Jong; Kang, Soyoung; Seo, Misun

    2014-10-01

    This study explored gender-related differences in affricates' place of articulation of young Seoul Korean speakers. Word-initial and medial affricates before /a/ and /i/ collected from 42 adult Seoul speakers were compared with alveolar and palatalized fricatives in the same vowel conditions by examining spectral peak frequencies of the frication part of the consonants. Results showed evidence of gender differences in the acoustic realization of word-medial affricates, which implies a more anterior articulation in females' productions before /a/. Possibilities for sound change in affricates led by females or the use of anterior affricates as a socially indexed gender marker are discussed. PMID:25324118

  13. Spanish Courses for Spanish Speakers: Partial Listing of Programs. [and] Spanish Materials Being Used in Courses for Native Spanish Speakers at the Secondary Level. CLEAR Materials Resource Series, Numbers 3 and 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfus, Dan; Willetts, Karen

    Two numbers of the CLEAR Materials Resource Series that both deal with teaching Spanish to native Spanish speakers have been combined. Number three provides a brief description of the courses and curricula developed by various school districts for the teaching of Spanish language arts to native speakers of Spanish at the elementary and secondary…

  14. Phraseology and Frequency of Occurrence on the Web: Native Speakers' Perceptions of Google-Informed Second Language Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geluso, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Usage-based theories of language learning suggest that native speakers of a language are acutely aware of formulaic language due in large part to frequency effects. Corpora and data-driven learning can offer useful insights into frequent patterns of naturally occurring language to second/foreign language learners who, unlike native speakers, are…

  15. Do Children with Autism Use the Speaker's Direction of Gaze Strategy to Crack the Code of Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baron-Cohen, Simon; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Two studies of toddlers and children with autism, mentally handicapped children, and normal toddlers examined whether autistic toddlers used Speaker's Direction of Gaze (SDG) strategy or less powerful Listener's Direction of Gaze (LDG) strategy to learn a word for a novel object. Results suggest autistic toddlers are insensitive to speaker's gaze…

  16. Looking to Understand: The Coupling between Speakers' and Listeners' Eye Movements and Its Relationship to Discourse Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Daniel C.; Dale, Rick

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the coupling between a speaker's and a listener's eye movements. Some participants talked extemporaneously about a television show whose cast members they were viewing on a screen in front of them. Later, other participants listened to these monologues while viewing the same screen. Eye movements were recorded for all speakers and…

  17. The Role of the Colloquial Varieties in the Acquisition of the Standard Variety: The Case of Arabic Heritage Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albirini, Abdulkafi

    2014-01-01

    The study investigated the acquisition of Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) by second language (L2) learners and by heritage speakers of the colloquial varieties of Arabic. The study focused on three questions: (1) whether heritage speakers who enroll in college-level elementary MSA classes have an advantage over their L2 counterparts, (2) whether any…

  18. A Personal Statement about a Four-Year Curriculum for Heritage and Native Speakers of Spanish Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stering, Edward

    This document shares a vision for a 4-year curriculum for Heritage Speakers of Spanish (HSS)/Spanish for Native Speakers (SNS), describing a course developed for SNS students within Mercy High School in San Francisco, California. The vision foresees an ever-increasing number of HSS and SNS students completing college level degree programs then…

  19. The Locus Equation as an Index of Coarticulation in Syllables Produced by Speakers with Profound Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaffrey Morrison, Helen

    2008-01-01

    Locus equations (LEs) were derived from consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) syllables produced by four speakers with profound hearing loss. Group data indicated that LE functions obtained for the separate CVC productions initiated by /b/, /d/, and /g/ were less well-separated in acoustic space than those obtained from speakers with normal hearing. A…

  20. Vocabulary Use by Low, Moderate, and High ASL-Proficient Writers Compared to Hearing ESL and Monolingual Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Jenny L.; Morgan, Dianne; DiGello, Elizabeth; Wiles, Jill; Rivers, Rachel

    2004-01-01

    The written English vocabulary of 72 deaf elementary school students of various proficiency levels in American Sign Language (ASL) was compared with the performance of 60 hearing English-as-a-second-language (ESL) speakers and 61 hearing monolingual speakers of English, all of similar age. Students were asked to retell "The Tortoise and the Hare"…

  1. Sensitivity to Speaker Control in the Online Comprehension of Conditional Tips and Promises: An Eye-Tracking Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Andrew J.; Haigh, Matthew; Ferguson, Heather J.

    2013-01-01

    Statements of the form if… then… can be used to communicate conditional speech acts such as tips and promises. Conditional promises require the speaker to have perceived control over the outcome event, whereas conditional tips do not. In an eye-tracking study, we examined whether readers are sensitive to information about perceived speaker control…

  2. Accent, Intelligibility, and the Role of the Listener: Perceptions of English-Accented German by Native German Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Watzinger-Tharp, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    We explore the relationship between accentedness and intelligibility, and investigate how listeners' beliefs about nonnative speech interact with their accentedness and intelligibility judgments. Native German speakers and native English learners of German produced German sentences, which were presented to 12 native German speakers in accentedness…

  3. Durations of American English vowels by native and non-native speakers: acoustic analyses and perceptual effects.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang; Jin, Su-Hyun; Chen, Chia-Tsen

    2014-06-01

    The goal of this study was to examine durations of American English vowels produced by English-, Chinese-, and Korean-native speakers and the effects of vowel duration on vowel intelligibility. Twelve American English vowels were recorded in the /hVd/ phonetic context by native speakers and non-native speakers. The English vowel duration patterns as a function of vowel produced by non-native speakers were generally similar to those produced by native speakers. These results imply that using duration differences across vowels may be an important strategy for non-native speakers' production before they are able to employ spectral cues to produce and perceive English speech sounds. In the intelligibility experiment, vowels were selected from 10 native and non-native speakers and vowel durations were equalized at 170 ms. Intelligibility of vowels with original and equalized durations was evaluated by American English native listeners. Results suggested that vowel intelligibility of native and non-native speakers degraded slightly by 3-8% when durations were equalized, indicating that vowel duration plays a minor role in vowel intelligibility.

  4. Negotiating Identity in English-Medium Settings: Agency, Resistance and Appropriation among Speakers of Other Languages in an International School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sears, Coreen

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a qualitative investigation into the ways that speakers of other languages negotiate their identities in an English-medium international school. As elective-bilinguals, it is generally assumed that such individuals are exempt from unfavourable positioning. As beginning speakers of English, however, older participants in…

  5. Sociolinguistic Competence in the Complimenting Act of Native Chinese and American English Speakers: A Mirror of Cultural Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Ming-chung

    2005-01-01

    The present study examines sociolinguistic features of a particular speech act, paying compliments, by comparing and contrasting native Chinese and native American speakers' performances. By focusing on a relatively understudied speaker group such as the Chinese, typically regarded as having rules of speaking and social norms very different from…

  6. Exchange of Disfluency with Age from Function to Content Words in Brazilian Portuguese Speakers Who Do and Do Not Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juste, Fabiola Staroble; Sassi, Fernanda Chiarion; de Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the exchange of disfluencies from function words to content words with age in Brazilian Portuguese speakers who do and do not stutter. Ninety stuttering individuals and 90 controls, native speakers of Brazilian Portuguese, were divided into three age groups (children, adolescents and adults). The study…

  7. A Concise Examination of the Artificial Battle between Native and Non-Native Speaker Teachers of English in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celik, Servet

    2006-01-01

    This paper serves as a theoretical commentary on the debate regarding native and non-native speaker teachers of English as it draws from the discussions in the literature, as well as from personal experience. The author, a nonnative English teacher himself, points out the possible pros and cons of being a native and non-native speaker teacher of…

  8. The influence of dialect upon the perception of dysarthic speech.

    PubMed

    Dagenais, Paul A; Stallworth, Jamequa A

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of dialect upon the perception of dysarthric speech. Speakers and listeners were self-identifying as either Caucasian American or African American. Three speakers were Caucasian American, three were African American. Four speakers had experienced a CVA and were dysarthric. Listeners were age matched and were equally divided for gender. Readers recorded 14 word sentences from the Assessment of Intelligibility of Dysarthric Speech. Listeners provided ratings of intelligibility, comprehensibility, and acceptability. Own-race biases were found for all measures; however, significant findings were found for intelligibility and comprehensibility in that the Caucasian Americans provided significantly higher scores for Caucasian American speakers. Clinical implications are discussed.

  9. Effects of Speech Practice on Fast Mapping in Monolingual and Bilingual Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kan, Pui Fong; Sadagopan, Neeraja; Janich, Lauren; Andrade, Marixa

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the effects of the levels of speech practice on fast mapping in monolingual and bilingual speakers. Method: Participants were 30 English-speaking monolingual and 30 Spanish-English bilingual young adults. Each participant was randomly assigned to 1 of 3 practice conditions prior to the fast-mapping task: (a) intensive…

  10. Learner, Student, Speaker: Why It Matters How We Call Those We Teach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biesta, Gert

    2010-01-01

    In this paper I discuss three different ways in which we can refer to those we teach: as learner, as student or as speaker. My interest is not in any aspect of teaching but in the question whether there can be such a thing as emancipatory education. Working with ideas from Jacques Ranciere I offer the suggestion that emancipatory education can be…

  11. Romanization to Facilitate the Teaching of Modern Hebrew to Adult Native Speakers of English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellogg, E. P., Jr.

    Five research projects concerning the Romanization of the Hebrew alphabet and its effect on the progress of adult English speakers learning Hebrew as a second language are reviewed. The hypotheses, subjects, procedures, results, conclusions, and validity of each study are summarized. The studies dealt with the Hebrew alphabet, spelling, plural…

  12. The Impact of Teleconferencing with Native English Speakers on English Learning by Taiwanese Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Wen-Chi; Marek, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Because there are few native speakers of English in Taiwan, students of English in Taiwan are often poorly motivated, having few opportunities to develop their skills and learn about American culture outside of class. Recent advancements in distance education allow live audio and video teleconferences via the Internet, a technology that has the…

  13. Non-Native Speaker Interaction Management Strategies in a Network-Based Virtual Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Mark

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the dyad-based communication of two groups of non-native speakers (NNSs) of English involved in real time interaction in a type of text-based computer-mediated communication (CMC) tool known as a MOO. The object of this semester long study was to examine the ways in which the subjects managed their L2 interaction during…

  14. Perception and Production of Prosody by Speakers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Rhea; Augustyn, Amy; Klin, Ami; Volkmar, Fred R.

    2005-01-01

    Speakers with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) show difficulties in suprasegmental aspects of speech production, or "prosody," those aspects of speech that accompany words and sentences and create what is commonly called "tone of voice." However, little is known about the perception of prosody, or about the specific aspects of prosodic production…

  15. Exploring Oral Proficiency Profiles of Heritage Speakers of Russian and Spanish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swender, Elvira; Martin, Cynthia L.; Rivera-Martinez, Mildred; Kagan, Olga E.

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the linguistic profiles of heritage speakers of Russian and Spanish. Data from the 2009-2013 ACTFL-UCLA NHLRC Heritage Language Project included biographical information as well as speech samples that were elicited using the ACTFL Oral Proficiency Interview-computer and were rated according to the ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines…

  16. Clinician Percent Syllables Stuttered, Clinician Severity Ratings and Speaker Severity Ratings: Are They Interchangeable?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karimi, Hamid; Jones, Mark; O'Brian, Sue; Onslow, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Background: At present, percent syllables stuttered (%SS) is the gold standard outcome measure for behavioural stuttering treatment research. However, ordinal severity rating (SR) procedures have some inherent advantages over that method. Aims: To establish the relationship between Clinician %SS, Clinician SR and self-reported Speaker SR. To…

  17. HotTips for Speakers: 25 Surefire Ways To Engage and Captivate Any Group or Audience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abernathy, Rob; Reardon, Mark

    From managing stage fright to keeping the audience hanging on their every word, experienced public speakers have the techniques to make every presentation memorable. This book contains a collection of 25 strategies for public speaking that have already worked for many people. Each "HotTip" (strategy) has been tested and used with audiences of all…

  18. Harmony in Diversity: Recommendations for Effective Library Service to Asian Language Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Patty, Comp.

    This document, to provide for effective library service to Asian language speakers, includes information on the culture of Chinese Americans, Filipino Americans, Japanese Americans, and Vietnamese Americans. For each group, the following are described: generations, immigration and length of United States residency; family and children; language;…

  19. The Acquisition of Null and Overt Pronominals in Japanese by English Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanno, Kazue

    1997-01-01

    Examines the role of Universal Grammar in the second-language acquisition of Japanese by English speakers. The study focuses on the acquisition of the principle that prevents overt pronouns from having quantified noun phrases as antecedents in languages (such as Japanese) that have null pronouns. (16 references) (Author/CK)

  20. Native Speaker Norms and China English: From the Perspective of Learners and Teachers in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Deyuan; Zhang, Qunying

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the question of whether the norms based on native speakers of English should be kept in English teaching in an era when English has become World Englishes. This is an issue that has been keenly debated in recent years, not least in the pages of "TESOL Quarterly." However, "China English" in such debates has been given lesser…

  1. Examining the Native Speakers' Understanding of Communicative Purposes of a Written Genre in Modern Standard Chinese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yunxia, Zhu

    1997-01-01

    Examines the different attitudes of native speakers in understanding a written genre of Modern Standard Chinese--sales letters. The study focuses on the use of formulaic components appearing in real Chinese sales letters and compares these components with the advice given in textbooks. Findings reveal a gap between business teaching and business…

  2. Participation of Second Language and Second Dialect Speakers in the Legal System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eades, Diana

    2003-01-01

    Overviews current theory and practice and research on second language and second dialect speakers and the language of the law. Suggests most of the studies on the topic have analyzed language in courtrooms, where access to data is much easier than in other legal settings, such as police interviews, mediation sessions, or lawyer-client interviews.…

  3. On compensation of mismatched recording conditions in the Bayesian approach for forensic automatic speaker recognition.

    PubMed

    Botti, F; Alexander, A; Drygajlo, A

    2004-12-01

    This paper deals with a procedure to compensate for mismatched recording conditions in forensic speaker recognition, using a statistical score normalization. Bayesian interpretation of the evidence in forensic automatic speaker recognition depends on three sets of recordings in order to perform forensic casework: reference (R) and control (C) recordings of the suspect, and a potential population database (P), as well as a questioned recording (QR) . The requirement of similar recording conditions between suspect control database (C) and the questioned recording (QR) is often not satisfied in real forensic cases. The aim of this paper is to investigate a procedure of normalization of scores, which is based on an adaptation of the Test-normalization (T-norm) [2] technique used in the speaker verification domain, to compensate for the mismatch. Polyphone IPSC-02 database and ASPIC (an automatic speaker recognition system developed by EPFL and IPS-UNIL in Lausanne, Switzerland) were used in order to test the normalization procedure. Experimental results for three different recording condition scenarios are presented using Tippett plots and the effect of the compensation on the evaluation of the strength of the evidence is discussed.

  4. Cross-Language Perception of Cantonese Vowels Spoken by Native and Non-Native Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    So, Connie K.; Attina, Virginie

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of native language background on listeners' perception of native and non-native vowels spoken by native (Hong Kong Cantonese) and non-native (Mandarin and Australian English) speakers. They completed discrimination and an identification task with and without visual cues in clear and noisy conditions. Results…

  5. White Mountain Apache Language: Issues in Language Shift, Textbook Development, and Native Speaker-University Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adley-SantaMaria, Bernadette

    This paper is an overview of topics covered at two sessions of the Fourth Annual Stabilizing Indigenous Languages Symposium, from the perspective of a native speaker of an indigenous language and member of a university academic community. The first section describes a Master's thesis on White Mountain Apache (WMA) language shift. Interviews with…

  6. Systematic Learning of the English Negation System by a Native Speaker of Polish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, William

    The English speech of an adult native Polish speaker learning English as a second language was analyzed for the acquisition of the English negation system. The types of errors made appeared to be developmental rather than language transfer errors. There was little trouble with single negation in English which contrasts with multiple negation in…

  7. Speaker-Specific Kinematic Properties of Alveolar Reductions in English and German

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhnert, Barbara; Hoole, Phil

    2004-01-01

    A simultaneous EPG/EMA study of tongue gestures of five speakers was conducted to investigate the kinematic events accompanying alveolar stop reductions in the context of a velar plosive /k/ and in the context of a laryngeal fricative /h/ in two languages, English and German. No systematic language differences could be detected. Alveolar…

  8. Structure of the Second Language Mental Lexicon: How Does It Compare to Native Speakers' Lexical Organization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zareva, Alla

    2007-01-01

    One of the questions frequently asked in second language (L2) lexical research is how L2 learners' patterns of lexical organization compare to those of native speakers (NSs). A growing body of research addresses this question by using word association (WA) tests. However, little research has been done on the role of language proficiency in the…

  9. Compliment Responses of Thai and Punjabi Speakers of English in Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sachathep, Sukchai

    2014-01-01

    This variational pragmatics (VP) study investigates the similarities and differences of compliment responses (CR) between Thai and Punjabi speakers of English in Thailand, focusing on the strategies used in CR when the microsociolinguistic variables are integrated into the Discourse Completion Task (DCT). The participants were 20 Thai and 20…

  10. Identifying Core Vocabulary for Urdu Language Speakers Using Augmentative Alternative Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukati, Abdul Samad

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to identify a core set of vocabulary used by native Urdu language (UL) speakers during dyadic conversation for social interaction and relationship building. This study was conducted in Karachi, Pakistan at an institution of higher education. This research seeks to distinguish between general (nonspecific…

  11. Exploring the Potential Relationship between Eye Gaze and English L2 Speakers' Responses to Recasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonough, Kim; Crowther, Dustin; Kielstra, Paula; Trofimovich, Pavel

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated whether joint attention through eye gaze was predictive of second language (L2) speakers' responses to recasts. L2 English learners (N = 20) carried out communicative tasks with research assistants who provided feedback in response to non-targetlike (non-TL) forms. Their interaction was audio-recorded and their…

  12. Brush Talk at the Conversation Table: Interaction between L1 and L2 Speakers of Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Menq-Ju

    2009-01-01

    Chinese characters are used in both Chinese and Japanese writing systems. When literate speakers of either language experience problems in finding or understanding words, they often resort to using Chinese characters or "kanji" (i.e., Chinese characters used in Japanese writing) in their talk, a practice known as "brush talk" ("bitan" in Chinese,…

  13. Minority Language Speakers as Migrants: Some Preliminary Observations on the Sudanese Community in Melbourne

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musgrave, Simon; Hajek, John

    2013-01-01

    The language problems faced by migrants may be more complex when they come from a minority language group in their homeland. The new arrivals may find that there are few, or even no, speakers of their language in the community to which they have moved. Then decisions have to be made as to whether to attempt to maintain the native language and also…

  14. The Second Language Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese Tones by English, Japanese and Korean Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Hang

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation explores the second language acquisition of Mandarin Chinese tones by speakers of non-tonal languages within the framework of Optimality Theory. The effects of three L1s are analyzed: American English, a stress-accent language; Tokyo Japanese, a lexical pitch accent language; and Seoul Korean, a non-stress and non-pitch accent…

  15. Articulatory Variability during Consonant Production by Greek Speakers with Hearing Impairment: An Electropalatographic Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicolaidis, Katerina

    2004-01-01

    This study uses the technique of electropalatography to investigate lingualpalatal contact patterns during the production of the consonants /t, k, s, x, n, l, / by four Greek speakers with profound hearing impairment and with differences in the intelligibility of their speech. The study provides a detailed description of their tongue-palate…

  16. Relationships between L2 Speakers' Development and Raters' Perception on Fluency in Group Oral Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negishi, Junko

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the characteristics and developmental phenomena apparent in Japanese learners of English with their raters' perspectives in terms of fluency which has been recognized as a major factor in judging non-native speakers' proficiency. The following temporal indices demonstrated strong relationships with the raters'…

  17. Long-Term Speech Results of Cleft Palate Speakers with Marginal Velopharyngeal Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Mary A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This study of the longitudinal speech performance of 48 cleft palate speakers with marginal velopharyngeal competence, from age 6 to adolescence, found that the adolescent subjects' velopharyngeal status could be predicted based on 2 variables at age 6: the severity ratings of articulation defectiveness and nasality. (Author/JDD)

  18. Impact of Industry Guest Speakers on Business Students' Perceptions of Employability Skills Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riebe, L.; Sibson, R.; Roepen, D.; Meakins, K.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides insights into the perceptions and expectations of Australian undergraduate business students (n=150) regarding the incorporation of guest speakers into the curriculum of a leadership unit focused on employability skills development. The authors adopted a mixed methods approach. A survey was conducted, with quantitative results…

  19. Aspects of Verbal Behavior Cited by Listeners in Judging Speakers as Retarded or Not Retarded.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan, Keith T.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Results of asking 30 nonprofessionals for reasons speakers were judged to be retarded or not indicated that quality of speech (articulation, prosody, etc.) and the structure, content, and coherence of discourse are more important than sentence-level grammatical features in forming impressions of cognitive competence. (Author/DB)

  20. Self-Disclosure in Initial Interactions amongst Speakers of American and Australian English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugh, Michael; Carbaugh, Donal

    2015-01-01

    Getting acquainted with others is one of the most basic interpersonal communication events. Yet there has only been a limited number of studies that have examined variation in the interactional practices through which unacquainted persons become acquainted and establish relationships across speakers of the same language. The current study focuses…

  1. Virtual Immersion: Native Speaker Chats as a Bridge to Conversational Italian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tudini, Vincenza

    2004-01-01

    Most studies in the field of synchronous Computer Mediated Communication (CMC) deal with interactions between language learners, while interactions between native speakers (NS) and learners have not been explored to the same extent, particularly to ascertain whether chatting with NS can provide a pedagogically sound bridge to conversation. Through…

  2. The Functional Unit in Phonological Encoding: Evidence for Moraic Representation in Native Japanese Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kureta, Yoichi; Fushimi, Takao; Tatsumi, Itaru F.

    2006-01-01

    Speech production studies have shown that the phonological form of a word is made up of phonemic segments in stress-timed languages (e.g., Dutch) and of syllables in syllable timed languages (e.g., Chinese). To clarify the functional unit of mora-timed languages, the authors asked native Japanese speakers to perform an implicit priming task (A. S.…

  3. Syllable Splitting in Literate and Preliterate Hebrew Speakers: Onsets and Rimes or Bodies and Codas?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Share, David L.; Blum, Peri

    2005-01-01

    This study examined consonant-vowel-consonant (CVC) syllable splitting among literate (Grade 2) and preliterate (kindergarten) Hebrew speakers. Consideration of both the architecture of Hebrew orthography and phonology led to the prediction that a body-coda rather than an onset-rime subdivision would predominate. Structured and unstructured tasks…

  4. Direct Measurement of the Speed of Sound Using a Microphone and a Speaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gómez-Tejedor, José A.; Castro-Palacio, Juan C.; Monsoriu, Juan A.

    2014-01-01

    We present a simple and accurate experiment to obtain the speed of sound in air using a conventional speaker and a microphone connected to a computer. A free open source digital audio editor and recording computer software application allows determination of the time-of-flight of the wave for different distances, from which the speed of sound is…

  5. Development of a Self-Report Tool to Evaluate Hearing Aid Outcomes among Chinese Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Lena L. N.; Hang, Na

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This article reports on the development of a self-report tool--the Chinese Hearing Aid Outcomes Questionnaire (CHAOQ)--to evaluate hearing aid outcomes among Chinese speakers. Method: There were 4 phases to construct the CHAOQ and evaluate its psychometric properties. First, items were selected to evaluate a range of culturally relevant…

  6. Encouraging Advanced Second Language Speakers to Recognise Their Language Difficulties: A Personalised Computer-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Jing; Bull, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Despite holding advanced language qualifications, many overseas students studying at English-speaking universities still have difficulties in formulating grammatically correct sentences. This article introduces an "independent open learner model" for advanced second language speakers of English, which confronts students with the state of their…

  7. "The English Is Not the Same": Challenges in Thesis Writing for Second Language Speakers of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Pat

    2012-01-01

    In this article I describe my interaction as an English for academic purposes (EAP) practitioner with a supervisor and her two postgraduate international students, both of whom were second language speakers of English (L2). Because of linguistic and relationship issues the supervisory experience for the parties was challenging and frustrating. I…

  8. Acoustic Cues to Perception of Word Stress by English, Mandarin, and Russian Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrabaszcz, Anna; Winn, Matthew; Lin, Candise Y.; Idsardi, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated how listeners' native language affects their weighting of acoustic cues (such as vowel quality, pitch, duration, and intensity) in the perception of contrastive word stress. Method: Native speakers (N = 45) of typologically diverse languages (English, Russian, and Mandarin) performed a stress identification…

  9. Transfer Effects in the Interpretation of Definite Articles by Spanish Heritage Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montrul, Silvina; Ionin, Tania

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the role of transfer from the stronger language by focusing on the interpretation of definite articles in Spanish and English by Spanish heritage speakers (i.e., minority language-speaking bilinguals) residing in the U.S., where English is the majority language. Spanish plural NPs with definite articles can express generic…

  10. Producing Pronouns and Definite Noun Phrases: Do Speakers Use the Addressee's Discourse Model?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukumura, Kumiko; van Gompel, Roger P. G.

    2012-01-01

    We report two experiments that investigated the widely held assumption that speakers use the addressee's discourse model when choosing referring expressions (e.g., Ariel, 1990; Chafe, 1994; Givon, 1983; Prince, 1985), by manipulating whether the addressee could hear the immediately preceding linguistic context. Experiment 1 showed that speakers…

  11. Infants Prefer Tunes Previously Introduced by Speakers of Their Native Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soley, Gaye; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria

    2015-01-01

    Infants show attentional biases for certain individuals over others based on various cues. However, the role of these biases in shaping infants' preferences and learning is not clear. This study asked whether infants' preference for native speakers (Kinzler, Dupoux, & Spelke, 2007) would modulate their preferences for tunes. After getting…

  12. Aspectual Knowledge of High Proficiency L2 and Heritage Speakers of Russian

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mikhaylova, Anna

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the results of an interpretation task that captures whether high proficiency heritage language (HL) learners of Russian converge with monolingual (L1) speakers or proficiency-matched foreign language (L2) learners in their interpretation of aspectual pairs and whether the absence of convergence arises in the lexical component of…

  13. Stuttered and Fluent Speakers' Heart Rate and Skin Conductance in Response to Fluent and Stuttered Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jianliang; Kalinowski, Joseph; Saltuklaroglu, Tim; Hudock, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have found simultaneous increases in skin conductance response and decreases in heart rate when normally fluent speakers watched and listened to stuttered speech compared with fluent speech, suggesting that stuttering induces arousal and emotional unpleasantness in listeners. However, physiological responses of persons…

  14. Pausing Preceding and Following "Que" in the Production of Native Speakers of French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genc, Bilal; Mavasoglu, Mustafa; Bada, Erdogan

    2011-01-01

    Pausing strategies in read and spontaneous speech have been of significant interest for researchers since in literature it was observed that read speech and spontaneous speech pausing patterns do display some considerable differences. This, at least, is the case in the English language as it was produced by native speakers. As to what may be the…

  15. Bilingual Language Development and Disorders in Spanish-English Speakers. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Brian A., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Because dual language learners are the fastest--growing segment of the U.S. student population--and the majority speak Spanish as a first language--the new generation of SLPs must have comprehensive knowledge of how to work effectively with bilingual speakers. That's what they'll get in the second edition of this book, an ideal graduate-level text…

  16. Usage and Experiential Factors as Predictors of Spanish Morphosyntactic Competence in US Heritage Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obregon, Patrick Anthony

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates the degree to which social, experiential and usage-related factors correlate with Spanish linguistic competence among adult Hispanic Heritage Language (HL) speakers in the United States. Two online survey instruments were developed in furtherance of this research aim: a Likert-scale survey measuring five areas of…

  17. Selectivity in L1 Attrition: Differential Object Marking in Spanish Near-Native Speakers of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamorro, Gloria; Sturt, Patrick; Sorace, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown L1 attrition to be restricted to structures at the interfaces between syntax and pragmatics, but not to occur with syntactic properties that do not involve such interfaces ("Interface Hypothesis", Sorace and Filiaci in "Anaphora resolution in near-native speakers of Italian." "Second Lang…

  18. The Acquisition of English by a Five-Year Old French Speaker.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerbault, Jeannine

    This paper summarizes the results of a longitudinal study of a child native speaker of French acquiring English. The observation period covered the child's progress from age 4 years, 9 months to age 5 years, 8 months. An analysis was made of the acquisition of the interrogative and negative structures and of nine grammatical morphemes. In…

  19. Investigation of Native Speaker and Second Language Learner Intuition of Collocation Frequency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna; Spina, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Research into frequency intuition has focused primarily on native (L1) and, to a lesser degree, nonnative (L2) speaker intuitions about single word frequency. What remains a largely unexplored area is L1 and L2 intuitions about collocation (i.e., phrasal) frequency. To bridge this gap, the present study aimed to answer the following question: How…

  20. What Makes for Successful Speaker-Listener Technique? Two Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Mary R.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews some of the controversy surrounding the use and effectiveness of active listening or the Speaker-Listener Technique (SL) in relational counseling. The purpose and function of SL is described and two case studies are presented to illustrate how SL operates in a therapeutic setting and how the outcomes can vary. These case…

  1. Interviews with the 2000 CLA Breakfast Speakers: Mary Pope Osborne, Rosemary Wells, and Patricia Reilly Giff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darigan, Dan

    2000-01-01

    Presents three interviews with the 2000 CLA (Children's Literature Assembly) Breakfast Speakers. Discusses how Osborne has written for virtually every genre for all ages and discusses the new Magic Treehouse book. Talks about Wells' two Mother Goose books, McDuff books and books to come. Considers where Giff gets her ideas for books and discusses…

  2. Linguistic Support for Non-Native English Speakers: Higher Education Practices in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snow Andrade, Maureen; Evans, Norman W.; Hartshorn, K. James

    2014-01-01

    Higher education institutions in English-speaking nations host significant populations of non-native English speakers (NNES), both international and resident. English language proficiency is a critical factor to their success. This study reviews higher education practices in the United States related to this population. Findings indicate…

  3. Intonation Contrast in Cantonese Speakers with Hypokinetic Dysarthria Associated with Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Joan K.-Y.; Whitehill, Tara L.; So, Susanne Y.-S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Speech produced by individuals with hypokinetic dysarthria associated with Parkinson's disease (PD) is characterized by a number of features including impaired speech prosody. The purpose of this study was to investigate intonation contrasts produced by this group of speakers. Method: Speech materials with a question-statement contrast…

  4. Using Sociolinguistic Methods to Uncover Speaker Meaning in Teacher Interview Transcripts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Brad

    2006-01-01

    Given the current popularity of ethnographic methods of researching teaching and teachers, many investigators commonly confront the task of analyzing interview transcripts in order to uncover speakers' meaning systems and the embedded perspectives on knowledge and practice upon which those meaning systems rely. Others have written about conducting…

  5. Early-Stage Chunking of Finger Tapping Sequences by Persons Who Stutter and Fluent Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits-Bandstra, Sarah; De Nil, Luc F.

    2013-01-01

    This research note explored the hypothesis that chunking differences underlie the slow finger-tap sequencing performance reported in the literature for persons who stutter (PWS) relative to fluent speakers (PNS). Early-stage chunking was defined as an immediate and spontaneous tendency to organize a long sequence into pauses, for motor planning,…

  6. Perceptual Processing of Mandarin Nasals by L1 and L2 Mandarin Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Yi-hsiu

    2012-01-01

    Nasals are cross-linguistically susceptible to change, especially in the syllable final position. Acoustic reports on Mandarin nasal production have recently shown that the syllable-final distinction is frequently dropped. Few studies, however, have addressed the issue of perceptual processing in Mandarin nasals for L1 and L2 speakers of Mandarin…

  7. Applied Field Linguistics: Delivering Linguistic Training to Speakers of Endangered Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Sally

    2011-01-01

    As an offshoot of the Canadian Indigenous Languages and Literacy Development Institute (CILLDI), the Department of Linguistics at the University of Alberta offers a Community Linguist Certificate (CLC) program to speakers of First Peoples' languages of (mainly) Western Canada. The CLC program provides linguistic analysis and language documentation…

  8. Production and Perception of the English /ae/-/?/ Contrast in Switched-Dominance Speakers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casillas, Joseph V.; Simonet, Miquel

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how fluent second-language (L2) learners of English produce and perceive the /ae/-/?/ vowel contrast of Southwestern American English. Two learner groups are examined: (1) early, proficient English speakers who were raised by Spanish-speaking families but who became dominant in English during childhood and, as adults, lack…

  9. The Rhetoric of Bishop Henry McNeal Turner, Renowned Speaker and Journalist.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cummings, Melbourne S.

    Bishop Henry McNeal Turner, a journalist and speaker, headed a back-to-Africa movement in the second half of the nineteenth century that was one of the first black rhetorical movements to meet the challenges of institutionalized racism in the United States. Turner was a preacher in the African Methodist Episcopal Church, becoming first an elder…

  10. Lifting the Curtain on the Wizard of Oz: Biased Voice-Based Impressions of Speaker Size

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rendall, Drew; Vokey, John R.; Nemeth, Christie

    2007-01-01

    The consistent, but often wrong, impressions people form of the size of unseen speakers are not random but rather point to a consistent misattribution bias, one that the advertising, broadcasting, and entertainment industries also routinely exploit. The authors report 3 experiments examining the perceptual basis of this bias. The results indicate…

  11. Developing Communication in the Workplace for Non-Native English Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Pat; Watkins, Lisa

    This curriculum module contains materials for conducting a course designed to build oral and written English skills for nonnative speakers. The course focuses on increasing vocabulary, improving listening/speaking skills, extracting information from various written texts (such as memos, notes, business forms, manuals, letters), and developing…

  12. INTERPOL survey of the use of speaker identification by law enforcement agencies.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Geoffrey Stewart; Sahito, Farhan Hyder; Jardine, Gaëlle; Djokic, Djordje; Clavet, Sophie; Berghs, Sabine; Goemans Dorny, Caroline

    2016-06-01

    A survey was conducted of the use of speaker identification by law enforcement agencies around the world. A questionnaire was circulated to law enforcement agencies in the 190 member countries of INTERPOL. 91 responses were received from 69 countries. 44 respondents reported that they had speaker identification capabilities in house or via external laboratories. Half of these came from Europe. 28 respondents reported that they had databases of audio recordings of speakers. The clearest pattern in the responses was that of diversity. A variety of different approaches to speaker identification were used: The human-supervised-automatic approach was the most popular in North America, the auditory-acoustic-phonetic approach was the most popular in Europe, and the spectrographic/auditory-spectrographic approach was the most popular in Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and South and Central America. Globally, and in Europe, the most popular framework for reporting conclusions was identification/exclusion/inconclusive. In Europe, the second most popular framework was the use of verbal likelihood ratio scales. PMID:27100858

  13. Spanish Is Foreign: Heritage Speakers' Interpretations of the Introductory Spanish Language Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeFeo, Dayna Jean

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a case study of the perceptions of Spanish heritage speakers enrolled in introductory-level Spanish foreign language courses. Despite their own identities that were linked to the United States and Spanish of the Borderlands, the participants felt that the curriculum acknowledged the Spanish of Spain and foreign countries but…

  14. Speech Skill Learning of Persons Who Stutter and Fluent Speakers under Single and Dual Task Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smits-Bandstra, Sarah; De Nil, Luc

    2009-01-01

    Two studies compared the accuracy and efficiency of initiating oral reading of nonsense syllables by persons who stutter (PWS) and fluent speakers (PNS) over practise. Findings of Study One, comparing 12 PWS and 12 PNS, replicated previous findings of slow speech sequence initiation over practise by PWS relative to PNS. In Study Two, nine PWS and…

  15. The (Il)logical Problem of Heritage Speaker Bilingualism and Incomplete Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabo, Diego Pascual Y.; Rothman, Jason

    2012-01-01

    This Forum challenges and problematizes the term "incomplete acquisition," which has been widely used to describe the state of competence of heritage speaker (HS) bilinguals for well over a decade (see, e.g., Montrul, 2008). It is suggested and defended that HS competence, while often different from monolingual peers, is in fact not incomplete…

  16. Effects of Speaker Emotional Facial Expression and Listener Age on Incremental Sentence Processing

    PubMed Central

    Carminati, Maria Nella; Knoeferle, Pia

    2013-01-01

    We report two visual-world eye-tracking experiments that investigated how and with which time course emotional information from a speaker's face affects younger (N = 32, Mean age  = 23) and older (N = 32, Mean age  = 64) listeners’ visual attention and language comprehension as they processed emotional sentences in a visual context. The age manipulation tested predictions by socio-emotional selectivity theory of a positivity effect in older adults. After viewing the emotional face of a speaker (happy or sad) on a computer display, participants were presented simultaneously with two pictures depicting opposite-valence events (positive and negative; IAPS database) while they listened to a sentence referring to one of the events. Participants' eye fixations on the pictures while processing the sentence were increased when the speaker's face was (vs. wasn't) emotionally congruent with the sentence. The enhancement occurred from the early stages of referential disambiguation and was modulated by age. For the older adults it was more pronounced with positive faces, and for the younger ones with negative faces. These findings demonstrate for the first time that emotional facial expressions, similarly to previously-studied speaker cues such as eye gaze and gestures, are rapidly integrated into sentence processing. They also provide new evidence for positivity effects in older adults during situated sentence processing. PMID:24039781

  17. Student Writing from NYC Programs in English for Speakers of Other Languages: September 11, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Winston, Comp.

    This publication contains a collection of writings by New York City adult learners enrolled in English for Speakers of Other Languages programs. The writings focus on their feelings about and experiences with the World Trade Center attacks of September 11, 2001. Some of the titles include: "Why?"; "Sad Feeling"; "A Day of Remembrance"; "I Want to…

  18. Grammatical Features of Egyptian and Palestinian Arabic Heritage Speakers' Oral Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albirini, Abdulkafi; Benmamoun, Elabbas; Saadah, Eman

    2011-01-01

    This study presents an investigation of oral narratives collected from heritage Egyptian and Palestinian Arabic speakers living in the United States. The focus is on a number of syntactic and morphological features in their production, such as word order, use of null subjects, selection of prepositions, agreement, and possession. The degree of…

  19. Working the Hybridization: A Case of Bi- and Multilingual Speakers in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon-Maeda, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    This report is part of a larger, 2-year ethnography of bi- and multilingual speakers in Japan. On the basis of audio and videotape recordings of discussions among international students in a Japanese university, this study examines participants' deployment of different conversational resources to understand and talk about marginalizing…

  20. Luce Pathways Project: A Pilot Project for Heritage Language Speakers of Mandarin Chinese, Spanish, and Japanese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagano, Tomonori; Fernandez, Hector

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development process of a project for heritage language speakers of Mandarin Chinese, Spanish, and Japanese at a high-enrollment community college in the northeast United States. This pilot project, funded by the Henry Luce Foundation, aimed to empower minority group students through active reinforcement of students'…