Science.gov

Sample records for frequency analyzers

  1. Frequency spectrum analyzer with phase-lock

    DOEpatents

    Boland, Thomas J.

    1984-01-01

    A frequency-spectrum analyzer with phase-lock for analyzing the frequency and amplitude of an input signal is comprised of a voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) which is driven by a ramp generator, and a phase error detector circuit. The phase error detector circuit measures the difference in phase between the VCO and the input signal, and drives the VCO locking it in phase momentarily with the input signal. The input signal and the output of the VCO are fed into a correlator which transfers the input signal to a frequency domain, while providing an accurate absolute amplitude measurement of each frequency component of the input signal.

  2. 40 CFR 89.311 - Analyzer calibration frequency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Analyzer calibration frequency. 89.311 Section 89.311 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Equipment Provisions § 89.311 Analyzer calibration frequency. (a) Prior to initial use and after major...

  3. 40 CFR 89.311 - Analyzer calibration frequency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Analyzer calibration frequency. 89.311 Section 89.311 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Equipment Provisions § 89.311 Analyzer calibration frequency. (a) Prior to initial use and after major...

  4. 40 CFR 89.311 - Analyzer calibration frequency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Analyzer calibration frequency. 89.311 Section 89.311 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Equipment Provisions § 89.311 Analyzer calibration frequency. (a) Prior to initial use and after major...

  5. 40 CFR 89.311 - Analyzer calibration frequency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analyzer calibration frequency. 89.311 Section 89.311 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... Equipment Provisions § 89.311 Analyzer calibration frequency. (a) Prior to initial use and after major...

  6. Techniques for analyzing frequency selective surfaces - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittra, Raj; Chan, Chi H.; Cwik, Tom

    1988-01-01

    A number of representative techniques for analyzing frequency-selective surfaces (FSSs), which comprise periodic arrays of patches or apertures in a conducting screen and find important applications as filters in microwaves and optics, are discussed. The basic properties of the FSSs are reviewed and several different approaches to predicting their frequency-response characteristics are described. Some recent developments in the treatment of truncated, curved, and doubly periodic screens are mentioned and representative experimental results are included.

  7. 40 CFR 89.311 - Analyzer calibration frequency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 89.311 Analyzer calibration frequency. (a) Prior to initial use and after major... rejection ratio and the CO2 rejection ratio as specified in § 89.318. (e) Verify that the dynamometer test...

  8. Biasing vector network analyzers using variable frequency and amplitude signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobles, J. E.; Zagorodnii, V.; Hutchison, A.; Celinski, Z.

    2016-08-01

    We report the development of a test setup designed to provide a variable frequency biasing signal to a vector network analyzer (VNA). The test setup is currently used for the testing of liquid crystal (LC) based devices in the microwave region. The use of an AC bias for LC based devices minimizes the negative effects associated with ionic impurities in the media encountered with DC biasing. The test setup utilizes bias tees on the VNA test station to inject the bias signal. The square wave biasing signal is variable from 0.5 to 36.0 V peak-to-peak (VPP) with a frequency range of DC to 10 kHz. The test setup protects the VNA from transient processes, voltage spikes, and high-frequency leakage. Additionally, the signals to the VNA are fused to ½ amp and clipped to a maximum of 36 VPP based on bias tee limitations. This setup allows us to measure S-parameters as a function of both the voltage and the frequency of the applied bias signal.

  9. Probing a Spray Using Frequency-Analyzed Light Scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eskridge, Richard; Lee, Michael H.; Rhys, Noah O.

    2008-01-01

    Frequency-analyzed laser-light scattering (FALLS) is a relatively simple technique that can be used to measure principal characteristics of a sheet of sprayed liquid as it breaks up into ligaments and then the ligaments break up into droplets. In particular, through frequency analysis of laser light scattered from a spray, it is possible to determine whether the laser-illuminated portion of the spray is in the intact-sheet region, the ligament region, or the droplet region. By logical extension, it is possible to determine the intact length from the location of the laser beam at the transition between the intact-sheet and ligament regions and to determine a breakup frequency from the results of the frequency analysis. Hence, FALLS could likely be useful both as a means of performing research on sprays in general and as a means of diagnostic sensing in diverse applications in which liquid fuels are sprayed. Sprays are also used for drying and to deposit paints and other coating materials.

  10. Real-time broadband radio frequency spectrum analyzer based on parametric spectro-temporal analyzer (PASTA).

    PubMed

    Chen, Liao; Duan, Yuhua; Zhou, Haidong; Zhou, Xi; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Xinliang

    2017-04-17

    A real-time broadband radio frequency (RF) spectrum analyzer is proposed and experimentally demonstrated to rapidly measure the RF spectrum of broadband optical signal. Cross phase modulation in the highly-nonlinear fiber is used to convert the RF spectrum carried by the pump to the optical spectrum of the probe signal, then the optical spectrum is real-time analyzed with the parametric spectro-temporal analyzer (PASTA) technology. The system performances are investigated in detail, including bandwidth, resolution, frame rate, and dynamic range. It achieves large RF bandwidth of over 800 GHz, as well as 91-MHz frame rate without sacrificing the resolution. It is noted that 91-MHz frame rate is several orders of magnitude improvement over those previous reported all-optical RF spectrum analyzers. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, this real-time broadband RF spectrum analyzer successfully characterizes the ultra-short pulse trains with repetition rate of 160GHz, which is far beyond capability of the conventional electrical spectrum analyzer. It presents a new way to implement rapid and broadband RF spectrum measurement, and would be of great interests for some ultrafast scenarios, where the real-time RF spectrum analysis can be applied.

  11. Rectennas at optical frequencies: How to analyze the response

    SciTech Connect

    Joshi, Saumil; Moddel, Garret

    2015-08-28

    Optical rectennas, antenna-coupled diode rectifiers that receive optical-frequency electromagnetic radiation and convert it to DC output, have been proposed for use in harvesting electromagnetic radiation from a blackbody source. The operation of these devices is qualitatively different from that of lower-frequency rectennas, and their design requires a new approach. To that end, we present a method to determine the rectenna response to high frequency illumination. It combines classical circuit analysis with classical and quantum-based photon-assisted tunneling response of a high-speed diode. We demonstrate the method by calculating the rectenna response for low and high frequency monochromatic illumination, and for radiation from a blackbody source. Such a blackbody source can be a hot body generating waste heat, or radiation from the sun.

  12. Rectennas at optical frequencies: How to analyze the response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Saumil; Moddel, Garret

    2015-08-01

    Optical rectennas, antenna-coupled diode rectifiers that receive optical-frequency electromagnetic radiation and convert it to DC output, have been proposed for use in harvesting electromagnetic radiation from a blackbody source. The operation of these devices is qualitatively different from that of lower-frequency rectennas, and their design requires a new approach. To that end, we present a method to determine the rectenna response to high frequency illumination. It combines classical circuit analysis with classical and quantum-based photon-assisted tunneling response of a high-speed diode. We demonstrate the method by calculating the rectenna response for low and high frequency monochromatic illumination, and for radiation from a blackbody source. Such a blackbody source can be a hot body generating waste heat, or radiation from the sun.

  13. Analyzing and imitating calculation of photoelectricity-inspect of sound frequency by phase modulating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jie

    2011-12-01

    The paper analyzes and researches the possibility and measure of photoelectric-inspect of sound frequency by phase modulating. Analyzing the 4-Frame Phase Shifting analyzing method used in sound frequency photoelectric-inspect. It is verified that vibrator film and the position of exploring instrument determines inspecting precision. This step directly influences sound frequency spectrum and dynamic range. A kind of vibrator film choosing reference gist has been brought up. This inspecting method can be used in sound information analyzing.

  14. 40 CFR 86.319-79 - Analyzer checks and calibrations; frequency and overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...; frequency and overview. 86.319-79 Section 86.319-79 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ENGINES Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.319-79 Analyzer checks and calibrations; frequency and overview. (a) Prior...

  15. 40 CFR 86.319-79 - Analyzer checks and calibrations; frequency and overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...; frequency and overview. 86.319-79 Section 86.319-79 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ENGINES Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.319-79 Analyzer checks and calibrations; frequency and overview. (a) Prior...

  16. 40 CFR 86.319-79 - Analyzer checks and calibrations; frequency and overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...; frequency and overview. 86.319-79 Section 86.319-79 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... ENGINES Emission Regulations for New Gasoline-Fueled and Diesel-Fueled Heavy-Duty Engines; Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.319-79 Analyzer checks and calibrations; frequency and overview. (a) Prior...

  17. High-frequency field-deployable isotope analyzer for hydrological applications

    Treesearch

    Elena S.F. Berman; Manish Gupta; Chris Gabrielli; Tina Garland; Jeffrey J. McDonnell

    2009-01-01

    A high-frequency, field-deployable liquid water isotope analyzer was developed. The instrument was deployed for 4 contiguous weeks in the H. J. Andrews Experimental Forest Long-term Ecological Research site in western Oregon, where it was used for real-time measurement of the isotope ratios of precipitation and stream water during three large storm events. We were able...

  18. On-wafer vector network analyzer measurements in the 220-325 Ghz frequency band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, King Man Andy; Dawson, D.; Samoska, L.; Lee, K.; Oleson, C.; Boll, G.

    2006-01-01

    We report on a full two-port on-wafer vector network analyzer test set for the 220-325 GHz (WR3) frequency band. The test set utilizes Oleson Microwave Labs frequency extenders with the Agilent 8510C network analyzer. Two port on-wafer measurements are made with GGB Industries coplanar waveguide (CPW) probes. With this test set we have measured the WR3 band S-parameters of amplifiers on-wafer, and the characteristics of the CPW wafer probes. Results for a three stage InP HEMT amplifier show 10 dB gain at 235 GHz [1], and that of a single stage amplifier, 2.9 dB gain at 231 GHz. The approximate upper limit of loss per CPW probe range from 3.0 to 4.8 dB across the WR3 frequency band.

  19. Frequency-domain light intensity spectrum analyzer based on temporal convolution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liao; Duan, Yuhua; Zhang, Chi; Zhang, Xinliang

    2017-07-15

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a new type of all-optical radio frequency (RF) spectrum analyzer based on temporal convolution and cross-phase modulation (XPM) that can be regarded as the frequency-domain counterpart of a conventional light intensity spectrum analyzer (LISA). The XPM effect converts the intensity envelope of an optical signal to the phase of the probe signal, while the temporal convolution helps to enable the RF spectrum to be temporally resolved with a high frame rate. This frequency-domain LISA (f-LISA) has experimentally demonstrated an 800-GHz observation bandwidth with 1.25-GHz resolution (1 GHz for a single frequency) and a 94-MHz frame rate. To showcase its potential applications, this analyzer has successfully characterized the dynamic RF spectrum of an ultrafast wavelength-switching signal with a 10-ns switching interval. We believe that it is promising for some ultrafast dynamic RF spectrum acquisition applications, e.g., fast tuning lasers and real-time channel monitoring.

  20. Ground penetrating radar data analyzed in frequency and time domain for engineering issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capozzoli, Luigi; Giampaolo, Valeria; Votta, Mario; Rizzo, Enzo

    2014-05-01

    Non-destructive testing (NDT) allows to analyze reinforced concrete and masonry structures, in order to identify gaps, defects, delaminations, and fracture. In the field of engineering, non-invasive diagnostic is used to test the processes of construction and maintenance of buildings and artifacts of the individual components, to reduce analysis time and costs of intervention (Proto et al., 2010). Ground penetrating radar (GPR) allows to evaluate with a good effectiveness the state of conservation of engineering construction (Mellet 1995)). But there are some uncertainties in GPR data due to the complexity of artificial objects. In this work we try to evaluate the capability of GPR for the characterization of building structures in the laboratory and in-situ. In particular the focus of this research consists in integrate spectral analysis to time domain data to enhance information obtained in a classical GPR processing approach. For this reason we have applied spectral analysis to localize and characterize the presence of extraneous bodies located in a test site rebuilt in laboratory to simulate a part of a typical concrete road. The test site is a segment of a road superimposed on two different layers of sand and gravel of varying thickness inside which were introduced steel rebar, PVC and aluminium pipes. This structure has also been cracked in a predetermined area and hidden internal fractures were investigated. The GPR has allowed to characterize the panel in a non-invasive mode and radargrams were acquired using two-dimensional and three-dimensional models from data obtained with the use of 400, 900, 1500 and 2000 Mhz antennas. We have also studied with 2 GHz antenna a beam of 'to years precast bridge characterized by a high state of decay. The last case study consisted in the characterization of a radiant floor analyzed with an integrated use of GPR and infrared thermography. In the frequency domain analysis has been possible to determine variations in the

  1. High-frequency asymptotic methods for analyzing the EM scattering by open-ended waveguide cavities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burkholder, R. J.; Pathak, P. H.

    1989-01-01

    Four high-frequency methods are described for analyzing the electromagnetic (EM) scattering by electrically large open-ended cavities. They are: (1) a hybrid combination of waveguide modal analysis and high-frequency asymptotics, (2) geometrical optics (GO) ray shooting, (3) Gaussian beam (GB) shooting, and (4) the generalized ray expansion (GRE) method. The hybrid modal method gives very accurate results but is limited to cavities which are made up of sections of uniform waveguides for which the modal fields are known. The GO ray shooting method can be applied to much more arbitrary cavity geometries and can handle absorber treated interior walls, but it generally only predicts the major trends of the RCS pattern and not the details. Also, a very large number of rays need to be tracked for each new incidence angle. Like the GO ray shooting method, the GB shooting method can handle more arbitrary cavities, but it is much more efficient and generally more accurate than the GO method because it includes the fields diffracted by the rim at the open end which enter the cavity. However, due to beam divergence effects the GB method is limited to cavities which are not very long compared to their width. The GRE method overcomes the length-to-width limitation of the GB method by replacing the GB's with GO ray tubes which are launched in the same manner as the GB's to include the interior rim diffracted field. This method gives good accuracy and is generally more efficient than the GO method, but a large number of ray tubes needs to be tracked.

  2. An expert system to analyze high frequency dependent data for the space shuttle main engine turbopumps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Raul C., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The prototype expert system ADDAMX identifies selected sinusoid frequencies from spectral data graphs as speed frequencies and harmonics from each turbopump, frequency feed through from one turbopump to another, frequencies generated by turbopump bearings, pseudo 3N for the phase 2 high pressure fuel turbopump, and electrical noise. ADDAMX does the analysis in an interactive or batch mode and the results can be displayed on the screen or hardcopy.

  3. Non-Seismology Seismology: Using QuakeCatchers to Analyze the Frequency of Bridge Vibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtier, A. M.; Constantin, C.; Wilson, C. F.

    2013-12-01

    We conducted an experiment to test the feasibility of measuring seismic waves generated by traffic near James Madison University. We used QuakeCatcher seismometers (originally designed for passive seismic measurement) to measure vibrations associated with traffic on a wooden bridge as well as a nearby concrete bridge. This experiment was a signal processing exercise for a student research project and did not draw any conclusions regarding bridge safety or security. The experiment consisted of two temporary measurement stations comprised of a laptop computer and a QuakeCatcher - a small seismometer that plugs directly into the laptop via a USB cable. The QuakeCatcher was taped to the ground at the edge of the bridge to achieve good coupling, and vibrational events were triggered repeatedly with a control vehicle to accumulate a consistent dataset of the bridge response. For the wooden bridge, the resulting 'seismograms' were converted to Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) format and analyzed in MATLAB. The concrete bridge did not generate vibrations significant enough to trigger the recording mechanism on the QuakeCatchers. We will present an overview of the experimental design and frequency content of the traffic patterns, as well as a discussion of the instructional benefits of using the QuakeCatcher sensors in this non-traditional setting.

  4. Analyzing mobile WiMAX base station deployment under different frequency planning strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salman, M. K.; Ahmad, R. B.; Ali, Ziad G.; Aldhaibani, Jaafar A.; Fayadh, Rashid A.

    2015-05-01

    The frequency spectrum is a precious resource and scarce in the communication markets. Therefore, different techniques are adopted to utilize the available spectrum in deploying WiMAX base stations (BS) in cellular networks. In this paper several types of frequency planning techniques are illustrated, and a comprehensive comparative study between conventional frequency reuse of 1 (FR of 1) and fractional frequency reuse (FFR) is presented. These techniques are widely used in network deployment, because they employ universal frequency (using all the available bandwidth) in their base station installation/configuration within network system. This paper presents a network model of 19 base stations in order to be employed in the comparison of the aforesaid frequency planning techniques. Users are randomly distributed within base stations, users' resource mapping and their burst profile selection are based on the measured signal to interference plus-noise ratio (SINR). Simulation results reveal that the FFR has advantages over the conventional FR of 1 in various metrics. 98 % of downlink resources (slots) are exploited when FFR is applied, whilst it is 81 % at FR of 1. Data rate of FFR has been increased to 10.6 Mbps, while it is 7.98 Mbps at FR of 1. The spectral efficiency is better enhanced (1.072 bps/Hz) at FR of 1 than FFR (0.808 bps/Hz), since FR of 1 exploits all the Bandwidth. The subcarrier efficiency shows how many data bits that can be carried by subcarriers under different frequency planning techniques, the system can carry more data bits under FFR (2.40 bit/subcarrier) than FR of 1 (1.998 bit/subcarrier). This study confirms that FFR can perform better than conventional frequency planning (FR of 1) which made it a strong candidate for WiMAX BS deployment in cellular networks.

  5. Analyzing the frequency shift of physi-adsorbed CO2 in metal organic framework materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yanpeng; Nijem, Nour; Li, Jing; Chabal, Yves; Langreth, David; Thonhauser, Timo

    2012-02-01

    Combining first-principles density functional theory simulations with IR and Raman experiments, we determine the frequency shift of vibrational modes of CO2 when physi-adsorbed in the iso-structural metal organic framework materials Mg-MOF74 and Zn-MOF74. Surprisingly, we find that the resulting change in shift is rather different for these two systems and we elucidate possible reasons. We explicitly consider three factors responsible for the frequency shift through physi-absorption, namely (i) the change in the molecule length, (ii) the asymmetric distortion of the CO2 molecule, and (iii) the direct influence of the metal center. The influence of each factor is evaluated separately through different geometry considerations, providing a fundamental understanding of the frequency shifts observed experimentally.

  6. A self-analyzing double-loop digital controller in laser frequency stabilization for inter-satellite laser ranging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yingxin; Li, Hongyin; Yeh, Hsien-Chi; Luo, Jun

    2015-04-01

    We present a digital controller specially designed for laser frequency stabilization in the application of inter-satellite laser ranging. The prototype of controller is developed using field programmable gate arrays programmed with National Instruments LabVIEW software. The controller is flexible, self-analyzing, and easily optimized with build-in system analysis. Application and performance of the controller to a laser frequency stabilization system designed for spaceborne scientific missions are demonstrated.

  7. Wide bandwidth instantaneous radio frequency spectrum analyzer based on nitrogen vacancy centers in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipaux, M.; Toraille, L.; Larat, C.; Morvan, L.; Pezzagna, S.; Meijer, J.; Debuisschert, T.

    2015-12-01

    We propose an original analog method to perform instantaneous and quantitative spectral analysis of microwave signals. An ensemble of nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centers held in a diamond plate is pumped by a 532 nm laser. Its photoluminescence is imaged through an optical microscope and monitored by a digital camera. An incoming microwave signal is converted into a microwave field in the area of the NV centers by a loop shaped antenna. The resonances induced by the magnetic component of that field are detected through a decrease of the NV centers photoluminescence. A magnetic field gradient induces a Zeeman shift of the resonances and transforms the frequency information into spatial information, which allows for the simultaneous analysis of the microwave signal in the entire frequency bandwidth of the device. The time dependent spectral analysis of an amplitude modulated microwave signal is demonstrated over a bandwidth of 600 MHz , associated to a frequency resolution of 7 MHz , and a refresh rate of 4 ms . With such integration time, a field of a few hundreds of μ W can be detected. Since the optical properties of NV centers can be maintained even in high magnetic field, we estimate that an optimized device could allow frequency analysis in a range of 30 GHz , only limited by the amplitude of the magnetic field gradient. In addition, an increase of the NV centers quantity could lead both to an increase of the microwave sensitivity and to a decrease of the minimum refresh rate down to a few μ s .

  8. Analyzing Idioms and Their Frequency in Three Advanced ILI Textbooks: A Corpus-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alavi, Sepideh; Rajabpoor, Aboozar

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed at identifying and quantifying the idioms used in three ILI "Advanced" level textbooks based on three different English corpora; MICASE, BNC and the Brown Corpus, and comparing the frequencies of the idioms across the three corpora. The first step of the study involved searching the books to find multi-word…

  9. Grey eosinophils in sighthounds: frequency in 3 breeds and comparison of eosinophil counts determined manually and with 2 hematology analyzers.

    PubMed

    Giori, Luca; Gironi, Sara; Scarpa, Paola; Anselmi, Angelo; Gualtieri, Massimo; Paltrinieri, Saverio

    2011-12-01

    Grey eosinophils (GE) reported to occur in Greyhounds, and occasionally in other breeds, have clear granules, probably due to abnormal staining properties. The aims of this study were to investigate the frequency of GE in Greyhounds and 2 other sighthound breeds, and to assess the capacity of the ADVIA 120 and Sysmex XT-2000iV hematology analyzers to correctly identify GE. Blood samples from 20 Greyhounds, 29 Italian Greyhounds, and 24 Whippets were analyzed using the ADVIA and Sysmex hematology analyzers, and blood smears stained with May-Grünwald Giemsa were evaluated microscopically. The frequency of samples with GE detected on smears was recorded for each breed. Manual and automated eosinophil counts were compared using a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Agreement between methods was assessed using Passing-Bablok and Bland-Altman plots. GE were detected in all 3 breeds: 9/20 Greyhounds (45.0%), 10/29 Italian Greyhounds (34.5%), and 5/24 Whippets (62.5%) with no significant differences in the frequency of GE among the breeds. In samples containing GE, both analyzers underestimated the percentage of eosinophils and occasionally eosinophils were not detected at all. When a novel "GE gate" was used, the percentage of eosinophils reported by the Sysmex was similar to that obtained by manual counting. GE are found in the blood of sighthounds other than Greyhounds. Hematology analyzers may underestimate the percentage of GE, probably due to their abnormal physical or chemical features. Underestimation is slight and usually clinically insignificant, but occasionally eosinophils are completely misclassified. Using the Sysmex analyzer, a GE gate can be designed to normalize the eosinophil count. © 2011 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  10. Quantitatively analyzing dielectrical properties of resins and mapping permittivity variations in CFRP with high-frequency eddy current device technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gäbler, Simone; Heuer, Henning; Heinrich, Gert; Kupke, Richard

    2015-03-01

    Eddy current testing is well-established for non-destructive characterization of electrical conductive materials. The development of high-frequency eddy current technology (with frequency ranges up to 100 MHz) made it even possible to extend the classical fields of application towards less conductive materials like CFRP. Maxwell's equations and recent research show that the use of high-frequency eddy current technology is also suitable for non-conductive materials. In that case the change of complex impedance of the probing coil contains information on sample permittivity. This paper shows that even a quantitative measurement of complex permittivity with high-frequency eddy current device technology is possible using an appropriate calibration. Measurement accuracy is comparable to commercial capacitive dielectric analyzers. If the sample material is electrically conductive, both, permittivity and conductivity influence the complex impedance measured with high-frequency eddy current devices. Depending on the measurement setup and the sheet resistance of the sample a parallel characterization of both parameters is possible on isotropic multi-layer materials. On CFRP the permittivity measurement is much more complex due to the capacitive effects between the carbon rovings. However, first results show that at least the local permittivity variations (like those caused by thermal damages) are detectable.

  11. Beam-path gas analyzer based on a tunable CO/sub 2/ laser with frequency doubling

    SciTech Connect

    Andreev, Yu.M.; Voevodin, V.G.; Gribenyukov, A.I.; Davydov, V.N.; Zhuravlev, V.I.; Kapitanov, V.A.; Lezina, T.D.; Struchebrov, G.A.; Khmel'nitskii, G.S.

    1988-01-01

    In an attempt to bring the high power and versatility of carbon dioxide lasers to bear on atmospheric measurements for pollutants such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxide, the authors propose parametric frequency converters for carbon dioxide laser radiation in the spectral range required. Field measurements are discussed of the densities of a number of atmospheric gas components, including CO, and of the transparency of the atmosphere to beam paths using a beam-path gas analyzer containing a frequency doubler for a carbon dioxide laser based on the zinc phosphide-germanium phosphide monocrystal. The KAMAK MERA-60 computer system 23 does programmed tuning of the carbon dioxide laser radiation wavelength by rotation of a diffraction grating.

  12. Frequency-domain flow cytometry: fluorescence-lifetime-based sensing technology for analyzing cells and chromosomes labeled with fluorescent probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkamp, John A.; Crissman, Harry A.; Lehnert, Bruce E.; Lehnert, Nancy M.; Deka, Chiranjit

    1997-05-01

    A flow cytometer has been developed that combines flow cytometry (FCM) and fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy measurement principles to provide unique capabilities for making frequency-domain, excited-state lifetime measurements on cells/chromosomes labeled with fluorescent probes, while preserving conventional FCM capabilities. Cells are analyzed as they intersect a high-frequency, intensity-modulated (sine-wave) laser excitation beam. Fluorescence signals are processed by (1) low-pass filtering to obtain conventional FCM dc-excited signals and (2) phase-sensitive detection electronics to resolve heterogeneous fluorescence based on differences in lifetimes expressed as phase-shifts and to quantify fluorescence lifetimes in real time. Processed signals are displayed as frequency distribution histograms and bivariate contour diagrams. Recent examples of biological applications include: (1) lifetime histograms recorded on autofluorescent human lung fibroblasts, murine thymus cells labeled with antibodies conjugated to fluorophores for studying fluorescence quenching as a function of antibody dilution and F/P ratio, and on cultured cells, nuclei, and chromosomes stained with DNA-binding fluorochromes and (2) phase-resolved, fluorescence signal- intensity histograms recorded on autofluorescent HLFs labeled with immunofluorescence markers and on murine thymus cells labeled with Red 613-antiThy 1.2 and propidium iodide (PI positive `dead' cells) to demonstrate the resolution of signals from highly overlapping emission spectra. This technology will increase the number of fluorescent markers usable in multilabeling studies and lifetimes can be used as spectroscopic probes to study the interaction of markers with their targets, each other, and the surrounding microenvironment.

  13. The Kuroshio Extension low-frequency variability analyzed with altimeter data through an ad hoc composite index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierini, Stefano; Gentile, Vittorio; de Ruggiero, Paola; Pietranera, Luca

    2017-04-01

    The Kuroshio Extension (KE) low-frequency variability (LFV) is analyzed with the satellite altimeter data distributed by AVISO from January 1993 to November 2015 through a new ad hoc composite index [1] that links the mean latitudinal position L of the KE jet and an integrated wavelet amplitude A measuring the high-frequency variability (HFV) of the KE path. This approach allows one to follow the KE evolution as an orbit in the (L,A) plane, as typically done in dynamical systems theory. Three intervals, I1 (1993-1998), I2 (1998-2006) and I3 (2006-November 2015) are separately analyzed also with sea surface height (SSH) maps. In I1 and I3, L and A are mostly anti-correlated and a recharging phase (characterized by a weak convoluted jet experiencing a rapid increase of the HFV) begins when negative SSH anomalies, remotely generated by the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, reach the KE region. On the other hand, in I2 the KE evolution is described by a hysteresis loop: this starts with a weak jet state followed by a recharging phase leading, in turn, to a persistent two-meander state, to its progressive and rapid erosion and, eventually, to the reestablishment of a weak jet state. This loop is found to correspond quite closely to the highly nonlinear intrinsic relaxation oscillation obtained in numerical process studies [1,2]. This supports the hypothesis that the KE LFV may have been controlled, during I2, by an intrinsic oceanic mode of variability. [1] Pierini S., 2015. J. Climate, 28, 5873-5881. [2] Pierini S., 2006. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 36, 1605-1625.

  14. Photoplethysmography sampling frequency: pilot assessment of how low can we go to analyze pulse rate variability with reliability?

    PubMed

    Choi, A; Shin, H

    2017-03-01

    Pulse rate variability (PRV) analysis appears as the first alternative to heart rate variability analysis for wearable devices; however, there is a constraint on computational load and energy consumption for the limited system resources available to the devices. Considering that adjustment of the sampling frequency is one of the strategies for reducing computational load and power consumption, this study aimed to investigate the influence of sampling frequency (f s) on PRV analysis and to find the minimum sampling frequency while maintaining reliability. We generated 5000, 2500, 1000, 500, 250, 100, 50, 25, 20, 15, 10, 5 Hz down-sampled photoplethysmograms from 10 kHz-sampled PPGs and derived time- and frequency-domain variables of the PRV. These included AVNN, SDNN, SDSD, RMSSD, NN50, pNN50, total power, VLF, LF, HF, LF/HF, nLF and nHF for each down-sampled signal. Derived variables were compared with heart rate variability of the 10 kHz-sampled electrocardiograms, and then statistically investigated using one-way ANOVA test and Bland-Altman analysis. As a result, significant differences (P  <  0.05) were found for SDNN, SDSD, RMSSD, NN50, pNN50, TP, HF, LF/HF, nLF and nHF, but not for AVNN, VLF and LF. Based on the post hoc tests, it was found that the NN50 and pNN50, SDSD and RMSSD, LF/HF and nHF, SDNN, TP and nLF analysis had significant differences at f s  ⩽  20 Hz, f s  ⩽  15 Hz, f s  ⩽10 Hz; f s  =  5 Hz, respectively. In other words, a significant difference was not seen for any variable if the f s was greater than 25 Hz. Consequently, our pilot study suggests that analysis of variability in the time and frequency domain from pulse rate obtained through PPG may be potentially as reliable as that derived from the analysis of the electrocardiogram, provided that f s  ⩾25 Hz sampling frequency is used.

  15. Comment on 'Photoplethysmography sampling frequency: pilot assessment of how low can we go to analyze pulse rate variability with reliability?'

    PubMed

    Hejjel, László

    2017-10-12

    Accurate pulse rate detection is essential for reliable pulse rate variability analysis. On the other hand, minimizing the sampling frequency is essential to reduce the amounts of data and computational needs, and consequently power consumption of mobile/wearable devices extending their operating hours. Determining variability of physiological parameters needs a new paradigm since there is a limited possibility of calculating an average eliminating random error of measurement. Finding the optimal sampling rate depends on the actual investigation, the expected variability and variability-changes of the study-population. © 2017 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.

  16. Potential dependent structure of electric double layer faced to solid electrode surfaces analyzed by electrochemical frequency modulation atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukui, Ken-ichi; Utsunomiya, Toru; Yokota, Yasuyuki

    2017-08-01

    This progress review summarizes recent achievements on the analyses of electric double layer (EDL) formed at electrolyte/electrode interfaces by using electrochemical frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (EC-FM-AFM), which enables to obtain the liquid side information on the liquid molecules’ structuring as well as the atomic scale resolution of the solid side at low loading forces. Potential and electrolyte dependent EDL structures at aqueous solution/graphite interfaces and strong substrate dependency on the structuring of interfacial ionic liquid are mainly discussed.

  17. Polymorphic transformation of anhydrous caffeine upon grinding and hydrostatic pressurizing analyzed by low-frequency raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hédoux, Alain; Guinet, Yannick; Paccou, Laurent; Danède, Florence; Derollez, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Low-frequency Raman investigations were carried out upon pressurizing and grinding both crystalline forms of anhydrous caffeine at room temperature. These investigations have led to the detection of metastable states under stress. Upon moderated hydrostatic compression, only form I transform into a metastable state characterized by a Raman band-shape resembling that of form II. Above 2 GPa, both pressurized forms convert into an identical disordered state, suggesting a pressure-induced amorphization. In contrast to hydrostatic compression, grinding induces transformation of each phase into the other, leading to an intermediate state only stabilized under long enough grinding. The origin of these metastable states induced by stress was related to the disordered nature of both crystalline forms of caffeine and the stability conditions at room temperature of form I.

  18. Frequency-domain analysis of dynamically applied strain using sweep-free Brillouin time-domain analyzer and sloped-assisted FBG sensing.

    PubMed

    Voskoboinik, Asher; Rogawski, Dvora; Huang, Hao; Peled, Yair; Willner, Alan E; Tur, Moshe

    2012-12-10

    Fast reconstruction of the whole Brillouin gain spectrum is experimentally demonstrated using sweep-free Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (SF-BOTDA). Strain variations with the frequencies up to 400 Hz are spectrally analyzed, achieving strain sensitivity of 1 microstrain per root Hz at a sampling rate of 5.5 kHz and a spatial resolution of 4m. The results favorably compare with fiber Bragg grating sensing.

  19. Analyzing Relationships Between Stream pH and Watershed Attributes: A Multi-Site Study Using Concentration-Duration-Frequency Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauney, L.; Schwartz, J. S.; Neff, K. J.

    2009-12-01

    Acidic deposition, comprised of sulfuric and nitric acids from emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, continues to impact stream and forest systems in North America and Europe despite reductions in deposition. The Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GRSM) receives some of the highest rates of atmospheric deposition of acid pollutants in the United States. Continuous (15-minute intervals) pH stream data from 21 sites in the GRSM was collected for a minimum of one year at each site using water quality sondes. Historically, descriptive statistics of chemical parameters have demonstrated important relationships in stream acidification, but have not adequately characterized time-series responses, including those of episodic stream acidification. Concentration frequency histograms have been shown to illuminate less obvious trends in the data, but are limited in that they do not reflect the frequency and intensity of the time-connected durations. To parameterize the episodic nature of stream acidification at each site, continuous stream pH measurements were used to develop concentration-duration-frequency (CDF) curves, which enabled time-connected durations and frequencies of episodic events to be defined. Basin characteristics including area, slope, elevation, geology, and vegetation were determined for 21 subwatersheds corresponding to each study site using ArcGIS 9.3. CDF curve parameters were analyzed with respect to basin GIS characteristics to develop relationships between stream pH and physical watershed attributes. These quantitative relationships may facilitate monitoring strategies, guide future research, and assist resource managers to make informed decisions.

  20. [Analyzing moiré pattern spectra based on the mutual transform between signals' waveform in time domain and their spectra in frequency space].

    PubMed

    Sun, Tao; Song, Yi-Zhong

    2013-11-01

    The mutual evolving processes of signals' waveforms and their spectra were numerically analyzed in time and frequency domains. The purpose was to research the essential relation between the signals' waveforms and their spectra. Then, the mutual transform principle was applied to analyze moiré pattern spectra, acquiring phase distribution information of the pattern. The rectangular window function was used to simulate the mutual transform between the impulse signal and direct-current waveform. Many rectangular window signals with deferent widths were obtained by changing the window width The unit impulse signal was obtained by changing the width down to zero, and the direct-current waveform obtained by changing the width up to +infinity. For smart, quick, and easy implementation of discrete Fourier transforms to rectangular pulses and obtain signals' spectra, a simple FFT system was worked out. With its calculating, the mutual evolving processes of signals' waveforms and their spectra were tracked deeply. All signals here were transformed with it. As the result, first, the spectra of rectangular window signals were in the form of sampling function [Sa(x) = sin(x)/x]. Second, with the change in the window's width, the waveform of Sa(x) changed. Third, when the width decreased, the waveform of Sa(x) extended, and vibrated more slowly. It changed into direct-current waveform when the width decreased to zero. Last, when the width increased, the waveform of Sa(x) shranked, and vibrated faster. It changed into impulse waveform when the width increased to +infinity. Signals' waveforms were in mutual transforms between the time and frequency domain. The transforming essence was considered as that the frequency component principle in Fourier series theory is reflected in the frequency domain. According to the principle of mutual transforms between signals' waveforms and their spectra, the first order spectrum of the moiré pattern was extracted out and normalized to a

  1. Speech analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lokerson, D. C. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A speech signal is analyzed by applying the signal to formant filters which derive first, second and third signals respectively representing the frequency of the speech waveform in the first, second and third formants. A first pulse train having approximately a pulse rate representing the average frequency of the first formant is derived; second and third pulse trains having pulse rates respectively representing zero crossings of the second and third formants are derived. The first formant pulse train is derived by establishing N signal level bands, where N is an integer at least equal to two. Adjacent ones of the signal bands have common boundaries, each of which is a predetermined percentage of the peak level of a complete cycle of the speech waveform.

  2. Analyzing the properties of acceptor mode in two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals based on a modified finite-difference frequency-domain method

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hai-Feng; Ding, Guo-Wen; Lin, Yi-Bing; Chen, Yu-Qing

    2015-05-15

    In this paper, the properties of acceptor mode in two-dimensional plasma photonic crystals (2D PPCs) composed of the homogeneous and isotropic dielectric cylinders inserted into nonmagnetized plasma background with square lattices under transverse-magnetic wave are theoretically investigated by a modified finite-difference frequency-domain (FDFD) method with supercell technique, whose symmetry of every supercell is broken by removing a central rod. A new FDFD method is developed to calculate the band structures of such PPCs. The novel FDFD method adopts a general function to describe the distribution of dielectric in the present PPCs, which can easily transform the complicated nonlinear eigenvalue equation to the simple linear equation. The details of convergence and effectiveness of proposed FDFD method are analyzed using a numerical example. The simulated results demonstrate that the enough accuracy of the proposed FDFD method can be observed compared to the plane wave expansion method, and the good convergence can also be obtained if the number of meshed grids is large enough. As a comparison, two different configurations of photonic crystals (PCs) but with similar defect are theoretically investigated. Compared to the conventional dielectric-air PCs, not only the acceptor mode has a higher frequency but also an additional photonic bandgap (PBG) can be found in the low frequency region. The calculated results also show that PBGs of proposed PPCs can be enlarged as the point defect is introduced. The influences of the parameters for present PPCs on the properties of acceptor mode are also discussed in detail. Numerical simulations reveal that the acceptor mode in the present PPCs can be easily tuned by changing those parameters. Those results can hold promise for designing the tunable applications in the signal process or time delay devices based on the present PPCs.

  3. The application of low frequency dielectric spectroscopy to analyze the electrorheological behavior of monodisperse yolk-shell SiO2/TiO2 nanospheres.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiaosong; Chen, Yulu; Li, Dong; Li, Guicun; Xin, Meng; Zhao, Mei; Yang, Chen; Hao, Chuncheng; Lei, Qingquan

    2016-01-14

    Monodisperse SiO2/TiO2 yolk-shell nanospheres (YSNSs) with different SiO2 core sizes were fabricated and adopted as dispersing materials for electrorheological (ER) fluids to investigate the influence of the gradual structural change of disperse particles on ER properties. The results showed that the ER performance of the YSNS-based ER fluid prominently enhanced with the decrease of SiO2 core size, which was attributed to the enhancement of electric field force between YSNSs. Combined with the analysis of dielectric spectroscopy, it was found that the increase of permittivity at low frequency (10(-2)-10(0) Hz) was due to the increase of polarized charges caused by secondary polarization (Psp). Moreover, the number of Psp closely related to the distributing change of polarized particles in ER fluid was a critical factor to assess the ER performance. Additionally, a parameter K (the absolute value of the slope of permittivity curves at 0.01 Hz) could be utilized to characterize the efficiency of structural evolution of polarized particles in ER fluid. Compared with the ER performance, it could be concluded that the value of Δε(100Hz-100kHz)' just demonstrated the initial intensity of the interface polarization in the ER fluid as the electric field was applied, which ignored the distributing evolution of polarized disperse particles in ER fluid. The polarizability Δε(0.01Hz-100kHz)' obtained in the frequency range of 10(-2)-10(5) Hz should be more suitable for analyzing the system of ER fluid. The relationships between polarizability of disperse particles, parameter K and ER properties were discussed in detail.

  4. An initial measurement of a fast neutral spectrum for ion cyclotron range of frequency heated plasma using two-channel compact neutral particle analyzers in KSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S. H.; Wang, S. J.; Park, M.; Kim, S. K.

    2013-11-01

    The accurate measurement of fast neutral particles from high energy ion tails is very important since it is a measure of ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) or neutral beam (NB) ion heating. In KSTAR, fast neutral measurements have been carried out using a compact neutral particle analyzer based on the silicon photo diode since 2010. As a result, the fast neutral spectrum was observed consistent with the ion temperature, diamagnetic energy, and neutron flux in 2011. However, there was fast neutral count beyond the injected neutral beam energy in NB-only heating. Since it is difficult to expect the count unless the temperature is high enough to diffuse the fast ions beyond the beam energy it was required to identify what it is. During the 2012 campaign, the two-channel diode detectors with and without a particle stopper were used to distinguish fast neutral counts and other counts by a hard X-ray or neutrons. As a result, it was confirmed that the high energy component beyond the beam energy originated from a hard X-ray or neutrons. Finally, it was observed that faster neutrals are generated by ICRF heating and enhanced by electron cyclotron heating compared to NB-only heating.

  5. An initial measurement of a fast neutral spectrum for ion cyclotron range of frequency heated plasma using two-channel compact neutral particle analyzers in KSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, S. H.; Park, M.; Kim, S. K.; Wang, S. J.

    2013-11-15

    The accurate measurement of fast neutral particles from high energy ion tails is very important since it is a measure of ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) or neutral beam (NB) ion heating. In KSTAR, fast neutral measurements have been carried out using a compact neutral particle analyzer based on the silicon photo diode since 2010. As a result, the fast neutral spectrum was observed consistent with the ion temperature, diamagnetic energy, and neutron flux in 2011. However, there was fast neutral count beyond the injected neutral beam energy in NB-only heating. Since it is difficult to expect the count unless the temperature is high enough to diffuse the fast ions beyond the beam energy it was required to identify what it is. During the 2012 campaign, the two-channel diode detectors with and without a particle stopper were used to distinguish fast neutral counts and other counts by a hard X-ray or neutrons. As a result, it was confirmed that the high energy component beyond the beam energy originated from a hard X-ray or neutrons. Finally, it was observed that faster neutrals are generated by ICRF heating and enhanced by electron cyclotron heating compared to NB-only heating.

  6. Miniature radio-frequency mobility analyzer as a gas chromatographic detector for oxygen-containing volatile organic compounds, pheromones and other insect attractants.

    PubMed

    Eiceman, G A; Tadjikov, B; Krylov, E; Nazarov, E G; Miller, R A; Westbrook, J; Funk, P

    2001-05-11

    A high electric field, radio-frequency ion mobility spectrometry (RF-IMS) analyzer was used as a small detector in gas chromatographic separations of mixtures of volatile organic compounds including alcohols, aldehydes, esters, ethers, pheromones, and other chemical attractants for insects. The detector was equipped with a 2 mCi 63Ni ion source and the drift region for ion characterization was 5 mm wide, 15 mm long and 0.5 mm high. The rate of scanning for the compensation voltages was 60 V s(-1) and permitted four to six scans to be obtained across a capillary chromatographic elution profile for each component. The RF-IMS scans were characteristic of a compound and provided a second dimension of chemical identity to chromatographic retention adding specificity in instances of co-elution. Limits of detection were 1.6-55 x 10(-11) g with an average detection limit for all chemicals of 9.4 x 10(-11) g. Response to mass was linear from 2-50 x 10(-10) g with an average sensitivity of 4 pA ng(-1). Separations of pheromones and chemical attractants for insects illustrated the distinct patterns obtained from gas chromatography with RF-IMS scans in real time and suggest an analytical utility of the RF-IMS as a small, advanced detector for on-site gas chromatographs.

  7. Interpreting δD and δ18O isotopic signals of ambient water vapor in PNW coniferous forest using a high frequency CRDS analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, S. T.; Bond, B. J.; McDonnell, J. J.; Brooks, J. R.; Thomas, C. K.

    2010-12-01

    Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy provides real-time simultaneous measurement of stable isotopologues of water vapor in natural environments. Continuous, high-frequency sampling provides a new and exciting look at water cycle processes and creates many new possibilities for studying the vapor phase of the hydrologic cycle. However, as with any new tool, the first challenge is to understand the sources of variability in the signal. This includes disentangling potential instrument variability from environmental variability as well as the identification and quantification of environmental end members. We deployed a Picarro L-1102 Liquid / Vapor analyzer at the mouth of a small watershed in the H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest located in the West-Central Oregon Cascades range in November, 2009. The steeply-sloped watershed is covered by a closed-canopied, young-mature Douglas fir forest; it has been used for many previous ecological, hydrological, and meteorological studies. The data reveal very high diel variability in δD in and δ18O as well as δD to δ18O ratios and a strong deviation from the global meteoric water line. A hysteresis effect differs dramatically from one day to the next and confounds apparent trends. To interpret these results, we are conducting controlled tests of instrument performance and we propose a plan to partition individual vapor source contributions. Application of this vapor signature to ecological or hydrological studies requires knowledge of individual end-member contributions to the isotope measurements. We hypothesize that by determining end-member fluxes and in-situ fractionation factors paired with micrometeorological data, we can better understand processes driving these patterns. Combined with meteorological tower data, high frequency data allows the possibility of scaling up from continuous point measurements to ecosystem-scale processes. Previous studies in this watershed have demonstrated the ability to estimate

  8. Quantitative Understanding of van der Waals Interactions by Analyzing the Adsorption Structure and Low-Frequency Vibrational Modes of Single Benzene Molecules on Silver.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Dingwang; Han, Zhumin; Czap, Gregory; Chiang, Chi-Lun; Xu, Chen; Ho, W; Wu, Ruqian

    2016-06-16

    The combination of a sub-Kelvin scanning tunneling microscope and density functional calculations incorporating van der Waals (vdW) corrections has been used successfully to probe the adsorption structure and low-frequency vibrational modes of single benzene molecules on Ag(110). The inclusion of optimized vdW functionals and improved C6-based vdW dispersion schemes in density functional theory is crucial for obtaining the correct adsorption structure and low-energy vibrational modes. These results demonstrate the emerging capability to quantitatively probe the van der Waals interactions between a physisorbed molecule and an inert substrate.

  9. Review of detection frequency and type of synthetic cannabinoids in herbal compounds analyzed by Istanbul Narcotic Department of the Council of Forensic Medicine, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Gurdal, Fatma; Asirdizer, Mahmut; Aker, Rezzan Gulhan; Korkut, Senol; Gocer, Yasemin; Kucukibrahimoglu, E Esra; Ince, C Haluk

    2013-08-01

    In recent years, synthetic cannabinoids have been frequently observed in seized materials all over the world. This new generation of designer drugs, mixed with herbal substances, is also known as "Herbal Highs" or "Legal Highs". There are many articles about the history, type and pharmaco-chemical properties of synthetic cannabinoids in the literature; however the number of articles about the frequency of their detection is limited. In this study, we evaluated the type and detection frequency of synthetic cannabinoids in Istanbul and its surrounding area. The reports of the Council of Forensic Medicine-Istanbul Narcotic Department were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of synthetic cannabinoids in herbal compounds sent by the judicial authorities between August 01, 2010 and March 31, 2012. Among 1200 herbal compounds, 1179 of them (98.3%) contained synthetic cannabinoids. Twenty-one samples (1.7%) had other psychoactive substances. The analysis of 1179 samples showed that JWH-018 was present in 1172 (99.4%) of the samples. JWH-081 was found in 777 samples (65.9%) together with JWH-018. Samples had different package names. "Bonzai Aromatic Potpourri" (n = 755; 64.0%) and "Bonzai Plant Growth Regulator" (n = 316; 26.8%) were the most common product names amongst the herbal products in this study. It is clear from the present study and previous studies that brand name of synthetic cannabinoids that dominate the market exhibit regional differences as to the type and detection frequency of synthetic cannabinoids and the content of herbal highs packages. The number and diversity of synthetic cannabinoid compounds have increased dramatically in the drug market in recent years. New, different, potent derivatives appear on the market almost every day and this presents important problems that need to be solved by scientists and judicial authorities working to prevent their harm. These problems include the limited knowledge about their frequency, the lack of

  10. Welder analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, L. L.

    1968-01-01

    Welder analyzer circuit evaluates and certifies resistance welding machines. The analyzer measures peak current, peak voltage, peak power, total energy, and first-pulse energy. It is used as an energy monitor while welding is being performed, or a precision shunt load for a pure electrical evaluation of the weld machine.

  11. DIFFERENTIAL ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Sorensen, E.G.; Gordon, C.M.

    1959-02-10

    Improvements in analog eomputing machines of the class capable of evaluating differential equations, commonly termed differential analyzers, are described. In general form, the analyzer embodies a plurality of basic computer mechanisms for performing integration, multiplication, and addition, and means for directing the result of any one operation to another computer mechanism performing a further operation. In the device, numerical quantities are represented by the rotation of shafts, or the electrical equivalent of shafts.

  12. Process Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The ChemScan UV-6100 is a spectrometry system originally developed by Biotronics Technologies, Inc. under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. It is marketed to the water and wastewater treatment industries, replacing "grab sampling" with on-line data collection. It analyzes the light absorbance characteristics of a water sample, simultaneously detects hundreds of individual wavelengths absorbed by chemical substances in a process solution, and quantifies the information. Spectral data is then processed by ChemScan analyzer and compared with calibration files in the system's memory in order to calculate concentrations of chemical substances that cause UV light absorbance in specific patterns. Monitored substances can be analyzed for quality and quantity. Applications include detection of a variety of substances, and the information provided enables an operator to control a process more efficiently.

  13. Blood Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In the 1970's, NASA provided funding for development of an automatic blood analyzer for Skylab at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). ORNL devised "dynamic loading," which employed a spinning rotor to load, transfer, and analyze blood samples by centrifugal processing. A refined, commercial version of the system was produced by ABAXIS and is marketed as portable ABAXIS MiniLab MCA. Used in a doctor's office, the equipment can perform 80 to 100 chemical blood tests on a single drop of blood and report results in five minutes. Further development is anticipated.

  14. An Ultrahigh Precision, High-Frequency Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Analyzer Based on Dual Isotope Dilution and Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuan; Cassar, Nicolas; Jonsson, Bror; Cai, Wei-jun; Bender, Michael L

    2015-07-21

    We present a novel method for continuous and automated shipboard measurements of dissolved inorganic carbon concentration ([DIC]) in surface water. The method is based on dual isotope dilution and cavity ring-down spectroscopy (DID-CRDS). In this method, seawater is continuously sampled and mixed with a flow of NaH(13)CO3 solution that is also enriched in deuterated water (the spike). The isotopic composition of CO2 (δ(13)C(spiked_sample)) derived from the DIC in the mixture, and the D/H ratio of the mixed water (δD(spiked_sample)), are measured by CRDS analyzers. The D/H of the water in the mixture allows accurate estimates of the mixing ratio of the sample and the spike. [DIC] of the sample is then calculated from the mixing ratio, [DI(13)C] of the spike, and δ(13)C(spiked_sample). In the laboratory, the precision of the method is <0.02% (±0.4 μmol kg(-1) when [DIC] = 2000 μmol kg(-1)). A shipboard test was conducted in the Delaware Bay and Estuary. For 2 min average [DIC], a precision of <0.03% was achieved. Measurements from the DID-CRDS showed good agreement with independent measurements of discrete samples using the well-established coulometric method (mean difference = -1.14 ± 1.68 μmol kg(-1)), and the nondispersive infrared(NDIR)-based methods (mean difference = -0.9 ± 4.73 μmol kg(-1)).

  15. Defibrillator analyzers.

    PubMed

    1999-12-01

    Defibrillator analyzers automate the inspection and preventive maintenance (IPM) testing of defibrillators. They need to be able to test at least four basic defibrillator performance characteristics: discharge energy, synchronized-mode operation, automated external defibrillation, and ECG monitoring. We prefer that they also be able to test a defibrillator's external noninvasive pacing function--but this is not essential if a facility already has a pacemaker analyzer that can perform this testing. In this Evaluation, we tested seven defibrillator analyzers from six suppliers. All seven units accurately measure the energies of a variety of discharge wave-forms over a wide range of energy levels--from 1 J for use in a neonatal intensive care unit to 360 J for use on adult patients requiring maximum discharge energy. Most of the analyzers are easy to use. However, only three of the evaluated units could perform the full range of defibrillator tests that we prefer. We rated these units Acceptable--Preferred. Three more units could perform four of the five tests, they could not test the pacing feature of a defibrillator. These units were rated Acceptable. The seventh unit could perform only discharge energy testing and synchronized-mode testing and was difficult to use. We rate that unit Acceptable--Not Recommended.

  16. Process Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Under a NASA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract, Axiomatics Corporation developed a shunting Dielectric Sensor to determine the nutrient level and analyze plant nutrient solutions in the CELSS, NASA's space life support program. (CELSS is an experimental facility investigating closed-cycle plant growth and food processing for long duration manned missions.) The DiComp system incorporates a shunt electrode and is especially sensitive to changes in dielectric property changes in materials at measurements much lower than conventional sensors. The analyzer has exceptional capabilities for predicting composition of liquid streams or reactions. It measures concentrations and solids content up to 100 percent in applications like agricultural products, petrochemicals, food and beverages. The sensor is easily installed; maintenance is low, and it can be calibrated on line. The software automates data collection and analysis.

  17. Oxygen analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Benner, William H.

    1986-01-01

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N.sub.2), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable oxygen obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135.degree. C., or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135.degree. C. as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N.sub.2, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  18. Oxygen analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Benner, W.H.

    1984-05-08

    An oxygen analyzer which identifies and classifies microgram quantities of oxygen in ambient particulate matter and for quantitating organic oxygen in solvent extracts of ambient particulate matter. A sample is pyrolyzed in oxygen-free nitrogen gas (N/sub 2/), and the resulting oxygen quantitatively converted to carbon monoxide (CO) by contact with hot granular carbon (C). Two analysis modes are made possible: (1) rapid determination of total pyrolyzable obtained by decomposing the sample at 1135/sup 0/C, or (2) temperature-programmed oxygen thermal analysis obtained by heating the sample from room temperature to 1135/sup 0/C as a function of time. The analyzer basically comprises a pyrolysis tube containing a bed of granular carbon under N/sub 2/, ovens used to heat the carbon and/or decompose the sample, and a non-dispersive infrared CO detector coupled to a mini-computer to quantitate oxygen in the decomposition products and control oven heating.

  19. Atmosphere Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    California Measurements, Inc.'s model PC-2 Aerosol Particle Analyzer is produced in both airborne and ground-use versions. Originating from NASA technology, it is a quick and accurate method of detecting minute amounts of mass loadings on a quartz crystal -- offers utility as highly sensitive detector of fine particles suspended in air. When combined with suitable air delivery system, it provides immediate information on the size distribution and mass concentrations of aerosols. William Chiang, obtained a NASA license for multiple crystal oscillator technology, and initially developed a particle analyzer for NASA use with Langley Research Center assistance. Later his company produced the modified PC-2 for commercial applications Brunswick Corporation uses the device for atmospheric research and in studies of smoke particles in Fires. PC-2 is used by pharmaceutical and chemical companies in research on inhalation toxicology and environmental health. Also useful in testing various filters for safety masks and nuclear installations.

  20. MULTICHANNEL ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Kelley, G.G.

    1959-11-10

    A multichannel pulse analyzer having several window amplifiers, each amplifier serving one group of channels, with a single fast pulse-lengthener and a single novel interrogation circuit serving all channels is described. A pulse followed too closely timewise by another pulse is disregarded by the interrogation circuit to prevent errors due to pulse pileup. The window amplifiers are connected to the pulse lengthener output, rather than the linear amplifier output, so need not have the fast response characteristic formerly required.

  1. Contamination Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Measurement of the total organic carbon content in water is important in assessing contamination levels in high purity water for power generation, pharmaceutical production and electronics manufacture. Even trace levels of organic compounds can cause defects in manufactured products. The Sievers Model 800 Total Organic Carbon (TOC) Analyzer, based on technology developed for the Space Station, uses a strong chemical oxidizing agent and ultraviolet light to convert organic compounds in water to carbon dioxide. After ionizing the carbon dioxide, the amount of ions is determined by measuring the conductivity of the deionized water. The new technique is highly sensitive, does not require compressed gas, and maintenance is minimal.

  2. CCFP Analyzer

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-05-06

    ISS047e106715 (05/06/2016) --- ESA (European Space Agency astronaut Tim Peake unpacks a cerebral and cochlear fluid pressure (CCFP) analyzer. The device is being tested to measure the pressure of the fluid in the skull, also known as intracranial pressure, which may increase due to fluid shifts in the body while in microgravity. It is hypothesized that the headward fluid shift that occurs during space flight leads to increased pressure in the brain, which may push on the back of the eye, causing it to change shape.

  3. Gas Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    A miniature gas chromatograph, a system which separates a gaseous mixture into its components and measures the concentration of the individual gases, was designed for the Viking Lander. The technology was further developed under National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and funded by Ames Research Center/Stanford as a toxic gas leak detection device. Three researchers on the project later formed Microsensor Technology, Inc. to commercialize the product. It is a battery-powered system consisting of a sensing wand connected to a computerized analyzer. Marketed as the Michromonitor 500, it has a wide range of applications.

  4. Analyzing Orientations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    Archaeoastronomical field survey typically involves the measurement of structural orientations (i.e., orientations along and between built structures) in relation to the visible landscape and particularly the surrounding horizon. This chapter focuses on the process of analyzing the astronomical potential of oriented structures, whether in the field or as a desktop appraisal, with the aim of establishing the archaeoastronomical "facts". It does not address questions of data selection (see instead Chap. 25, "Best Practice for Evaluating the Astronomical Significance of Archaeological Sites", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_25) or interpretation (see Chap. 24, "Nature and Analysis of Material Evidence Relevant to Archaeoastronomy", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_22). The main necessity is to determine the azimuth, horizon altitude, and declination in the direction "indicated" by any structural orientation. Normally, there are a range of possibilities, reflecting the various errors and uncertainties in estimating the intended (or, at least, the constructed) orientation, and in more formal approaches an attempt is made to assign a probability distribution extending over a spread of declinations. These probability distributions can then be cumulated in order to visualize and analyze the combined data from several orientations, so as to identify any consistent astronomical associations that can then be correlated with the declinations of particular astronomical objects or phenomena at any era in the past. The whole process raises various procedural and methodological issues and does not proceed in isolation from the consideration of corroborative data, which is essential in order to develop viable cultural interpretations.

  5. Micro acoustic spectrum analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Schubert, W. Kent; Butler, Michael A.; Adkins, Douglas R.; Anderson, Larry F.

    2004-11-23

    A micro acoustic spectrum analyzer for determining the frequency components of a fluctuating sound signal comprises a microphone to pick up the fluctuating sound signal and produce an alternating current electrical signal; at least one microfabricated resonator, each resonator having a different resonant frequency, that vibrate in response to the alternating current electrical signal; and at least one detector to detect the vibration of the microfabricated resonators. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer can further comprise a mixer to mix a reference signal with the alternating current electrical signal from the microphone to shift the frequency spectrum to a frequency range that is a better matched to the resonant frequencies of the microfabricated resonators. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer can be designed specifically for portability, size, cost, accuracy, speed, power requirements, and use in a harsh environment. The micro acoustic spectrum analyzer is particularly suited for applications where size, accessibility, and power requirements are limited, such as the monitoring of industrial equipment and processes, detection of security intrusions, or evaluation of military threats.

  6. Optical analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, A.D.

    1987-09-28

    An optical analyzer wherein a sample of particulate matter, and particularly of organic matter, which has been collected on a quartz fiber filter is placed in a combustion tube, and light from a light source is passed through the sample. The temperature of the sample is raised at a controlled rate and in a controlled atmosphere. The magnitude of the transmission of light through the sample is detected as the temperature is raised. A data processor, differentiator and a two pen recorder provide a chart of the optical transmission versus temperature and the rate of change of optical transmission versus temperature signatures (T and D) of the sample. These signatures provide information as to physical and chemical processes and a variety of quantitative and qualitative information about the sample. Additional information is obtained by repeating the run in different atmospheres and/or different rates or heating with other samples of the same particulate material collected on other filters. 7 figs.

  7. Optical analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, Anthony D.

    1989-01-01

    An optical analyzer (10) wherein a sample (19) of particulate matter, and particularly of organic matter, which has been collected on a quartz fiber filter (20) is placed in a combustion tube (11), and light from a light source (14) is passed through the sample (19). The temperature of the sample (19) is raised at a controlled rate and in a controlled atmosphere. The magnitude of the transmission of light through the sample (19) is detected (18) as the temperature is raised. A data processor (23), differentiator (28) and a two pen recorder (24) provide a chart of the optical transmission versus temperature and the rate of change of optical transmission versus temperature signatures (T and D) of the sample (19). These signatures provide information as to physical and chemical processes and a variety of quantitative and qualitative information about the sample (19). Additional information is obtained by repeating the run in different atmospheres and/or different rates of heating with other samples of the same particulate material collected on other filters.

  8. Optical analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, Anthony D.

    1989-02-07

    An optical analyzer (10) wherein a sample (19) of particulate matter, and particularly of organic matter, which has been collected on a quartz fiber filter (20) is placed in a combustion tube (11), and light from a light source (14) is passed through the sample (19). The temperature of the sample (19) is raised at a controlled rate and in a controlled atmosphere. The magnitude of the transmission of light through the sample (19) is detected (18) as the temperature is raised. A data processor (23), differentiator (28) and a two pen recorder (24) provide a chart of the optical transmission versus temperature and the rate of change of optical transmission versus temperature signatures (T and D) of the sample (19). These signatures provide information as to physical and chemical processes and a variety of quantitative and qualitative information about the sample (19). Additional information is obtained by repeating the run in different atmospheres and/or different rates of heating with other samples of the same particulate material collected on other filters.

  9. ABSORPTION ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Brooksbank, W.A. Jr.; Leddicotte, G.W.; Strain, J.E.; Hendon, H.H. Jr.

    1961-11-14

    A means was developed for continuously computing and indicating the isotopic assay of a process solution and for automatically controlling the process output of isotope separation equipment to provide a continuous output of the desired isotopic ratio. A counter tube is surrounded with a sample to be analyzed so that the tube is exactly in the center of the sample. A source of fast neutrons is provided and is spaced from the sample. The neutrons from the source are thermalized by causing them to pass through a neutron moderator, and the neutrons are allowed to diffuse radially through the sample to actuate the counter. A reference counter in a known sample of pure solvent is also actuated by the thermal neutrons from the neutron source. The number of neutrons which actuate the detectors is a function of a concentration of the elements in solution and their neutron absorption cross sections. The pulses produced by the detectors responsive to each neu tron passing therethrough are amplified and counted. The respective times required to accumulate a selected number of counts are measured by associated timing devices. The concentration of a particular element in solution may be determined by utilizing the following relation: T2/Ti = BCR, where B is a constant proportional to the absorption cross sections, T2 is the time of count collection for the unknown solution, Ti is the time of count collection for the pure solvent, R is the isotopic ratlo, and C is the molar concentration of the element to be determined. Knowing the slope constant B for any element and when the chemical concentration is known, the isotopic concentration may be readily determined, and conversely when the isotopic ratio is known, the chemical concentrations may be determined. (AEC)

  10. Interpolation Errors in Spectrum Analyzers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, J. L.

    1996-01-01

    To obtain the proper measurement amplitude with a spectrum analyzer, the correct frequency-dependent transducer factor must be added to the voltage measured by the transducer. This report examines how entering transducer factors into a spectrum analyzer can cause significant errors in field amplitude due to the misunderstanding of the analyzer's interpolation methods. It also discusses how to reduce these errors to obtain a more accurate field amplitude reading.

  11. Motion detector and analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Unruh, W.P.

    1987-03-23

    Method and apparatus are provided for deriving positive and negative Doppler spectrum to enable analysis of objects in motion, and particularly, objects having rotary motion. First and second returned radar signals are mixed with internal signals to obtain an in-phase process signal and a quadrature process signal. A broad-band phase shifter shifts the quadrature signal through 90/degree/ relative to the in-phase signal over a predetermined frequency range. A pair of signals is output from the broad-band phase shifter which are then combined to provide a first side band signal which is functionally related to a negative Doppler shift spectrum. The distinct positive and negative Doppler spectra may then be analyzed for the motion characteristics of the object being examined.

  12. MULTICHANNEL PULSE-HEIGHT ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Russell, J.T.; Lefevre, H.W.

    1958-01-21

    This patent deals with electronic computing circuits and more particularly to pulse-height analyzers used for classifying variable amplitude pulses into groups of different amplitudes. The device accomplishes this pulse allocation by by converting the pulses into frequencies corresponding to the amplitudes of the pulses, which frequencies are filtered in channels individually pretuned to a particular frequency and then detected and recorded in the responsive channel. This circuit substantially overcomes the disadvantages of prior annlyzers incorporating discriminators pre-set to respond to certain voltage levels, since small variation in component values is not as critical to satisfactory circuit operation.

  13. Analyzing Aeroelasticity in Turbomachines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reddy, T. S. R.; Srivastava, R.

    2003-01-01

    ASTROP2-LE is a computer program that predicts flutter and forced responses of blades, vanes, and other components of such turbomachines as fans, compressors, and turbines. ASTROP2-LE is based on the ASTROP2 program, developed previously for analysis of stability of turbomachinery components. In developing ASTROP2- LE, ASTROP2 was modified to include a capability for modeling forced responses. The program was also modified to add a capability for analysis of aeroelasticity with mistuning and unsteady aerodynamic solutions from another program, LINFLX2D, that solves the linearized Euler equations of unsteady two-dimensional flow. Using LINFLX2D to calculate unsteady aerodynamic loads, it is possible to analyze effects of transonic flow on flutter and forced response. ASTROP2-LE can be used to analyze subsonic, transonic, and supersonic aerodynamics and structural mistuning for rotors with blades of differing structural properties. It calculates the aerodynamic damping of a blade system operating in airflow so that stability can be assessed. The code also predicts the magnitudes and frequencies of the unsteady aerodynamic forces on the airfoils of a blade row from incoming wakes. This information can be used in high-cycle fatigue analysis to predict the fatigue lives of the blades.

  14. Analyzing seismic imagery in the time-amplitude and time-frequency domains to determine fluid nature and migration pathways: A case study from the Queen Charlotte Basin, offshore British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duchesne, Mathieu J.; Halliday, E. Julie; Barrie, J. Vaughn

    2011-02-01

    Combining time-amplitude and time-frequency information from seismic reflection data sets of different resolutions allows the analysis of anomalous reflections from very-shallow to great subsurface depths. Thus, it can enhance the imaging of subsurface features which have a frequency-dependent reflectivity such as gas. Analysing seismic data of different resolution in the time-amplitude and time-frequency domains is a powerful method to determine hydrocarbon migration pathways from deep reservoirs to the seafloor. This interpretation method has been applied to the formerly-glaciated offshore Queen Charlotte Basin hosting several seafloor pockmarks and mounds associated with the leakage of underlying hydrocarbon reservoirs. Low-frequency shadows observed in the time-frequency domain provide evidence of different resolutions that several anomalous reflection amplitudes may be attributed to the occurrence of gas. The seismic imagery shows that gas uses a fault to migrate from deep reservoirs included in Upper Mesozoic strata towards secondary reservoirs located along the fault plane into Neogene layers. Once gas reaches a porous cut-and-fill succession, migration changes from structurally- to stratigraphically-controlled before gas leaks through unconsolidated Quaternary sediments forming the shallow subsurface to eventually seep at the seafloor where pockmarks and carbonate mounds are formed.

  15. The Mid-Canada Radar Line and First Nations' people of the James Bay region, Canada: an evaluation using log-linear contingency modelling to analyze organochlorine frequency data.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Leonard J S; Wainman, Bruce C; Martin, Ian D; Weber, Jean-Philippe; Sutherland, Celine; Elliott, J Richard; Nieboer, Evert

    2005-09-01

    Abandoned radar line stations in the North American arctic and sub-arctic regions are point sources of contamination, especially for PCBs. Few data exist with respect to human body burden of organochlorines (OCs) in residents of communities located in close proximity to these radar line sites. We compared plasma OC concentration (unadjusted for total lipids) frequency distribution data using log-linear contingency modelling for Fort Albany First Nation, the site of an abandoned Mid-Canada Radar Line station, and two comparison populations (the neighbouring community of Kashechewan First Nation without such a radar installation, and Hamilton, a city in southern Ontario, Canada). This type of analysis is important as it allows for an initial investigation of contaminant data without imputing any values. The two-state log-linear model (employing both non-detectable and detectable concentration frequencies and applicable to PCB congeners 28 and 105 and cis-nonachlor) and the four-state log-linear model (using quartile concentration frequencies for Aroclor 1260, PCB congeners [99,118,138,153,156,170,180,183,187], beta-HCH, p,p'-DDT +p,p'-DDE, HCB, mirex, oxychlordane, and trans-nonachlor) revealed that the effects of subject gender were inconsequential. Significant differences (p < 0.05) between the groups examined were attributable to the effect of location on the frequency of detection of OCs or on their differential distribution among the concentration quartiles. In general, people from Hamilton had higher frequencies of non-detections and of concentrations in the first quartile (p < 0.05) for most OCs compared to people from Fort Albany and Kashechewan (who consume a traditional diet of wild meats that does not include marine mammals). An unexpected finding was that, for Kashechewan males, the frequency of many OCs was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the 4th concentration quartile than that predicted by the four-state log-linear model, but significantly lower

  16. [Assessment of Hepatitis C Virus Diversity in Addition to the Frequency of Genotypes in Samples Analyzed Between 2009 and 2014 at the Reference Laboratory of National Health Institute Dr. Ricardo Jorge].

    PubMed

    Pádua, Elizabeth; Avó, Ana Patricia; Almeida, Catarina; Água Doce, Ivone; Cortes Martins, Helena

    2015-01-01

    The identification of genotypes was essential for the prognosis and treatment of hepatitis C virus chronic patients in recent years. The aims of the study were to know the frequency of genotypes diagnosed in the last six years at the laboratory, and reveal the contribution of an in-house assay for molecular characterization of viruses. The genotyping of hepatitis C virus by LiPA was performed in 923 samples, mostly from male individuals. The subtyping of hepatitis C virus by an in-house assay to target regions in the Core/E1 and/or NS5B was performed in 112 samples. We observed a high prevalence of genotype 1 (56.6%), with a frequency of subtype 1a four times higher compared to 1b. All cases of genotype 3 (27.5%) were subtype 3a. For the cases of genotype 4 (12.9%), it were identified subtypes 4a (65.5%), 4d (31%), 4b (1.7%) and 4c (1.7%). Recombinants intragenotype 2, the RF1_2k/1b, and mixed infections, were also identified. The most prevalent subtypes (1a and 3a) obtained are usually described in injecting drug users. Although most of the samples analysed match to inmates (78.4%), we cannot exclude any possible risk behaviors associated with illicit drug use. The high prevalence of subtype 1a, the frequency and diversity of genotype 4, and the identification of recombined virus suggest modification of the molecular pattern of hepatitis C virus infection described in the past. The in-house assay proved to be useful for the correct classification of hepatitis C virus and improving knowledge about the diversity of virus circulating in the country.

  17. The Statistical Loop Analyzer (SLA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, W. C.

    1985-01-01

    The statistical loop analyzer (SLA) is designed to automatically measure the acquisition, tracking and frequency stability performance characteristics of symbol synchronizers, code synchronizers, carrier tracking loops, and coherent transponders. Automated phase lock and system level tests can also be made using the SLA. Standard baseband, carrier and spread spectrum modulation techniques can be accomodated. Through the SLA's phase error jitter and cycle slip measurements the acquisition and tracking thresholds of the unit under test are determined; any false phase and frequency lock events are statistically analyzed and reported in the SLA output in probabilistic terms. Automated signal drop out tests can be performed in order to trouble shoot algorithms and evaluate the reacquisition statistics of the unit under test. Cycle slip rates and cycle slip probabilities can be measured using the SLA. These measurements, combined with bit error probability measurements, are all that are needed to fully characterize the acquisition and tracking performance of a digital communication system.

  18. Blood Gas Analyzers.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Anthony L; Waddell, Lori S

    2016-03-01

    Acid-base and respiratory disturbances are common in sick and hospitalized veterinary patients; therefore, blood gas analyzers have become integral diagnostic and monitoring tools. This article will discuss uses of blood gas analyzers, types of samples that can be used, sample collection methods, potential sources of error, and potential alternatives to blood gas analyzers and their limitations. It will also discuss the types of analyzers that are available, logistical considerations that should be taken into account when purchasing an analyzer, and the basic principles of how these analyzers work. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Analyzing Peace Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haavelsrud, Magnus; Stenberg, Oddbjorn

    2012-01-01

    Eleven articles on peace education published in the first volume of the Journal of Peace Education are analyzed. This selection comprises peace education programs that have been planned or carried out in different contexts. In analyzing peace pedagogies as proposed in the 11 contributions, we have chosen network analysis as our method--enabling…

  20. Portable automatic blood analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    Analyzer employs chemical-sensing electrodes for determination of blood, gas, and ion concentrations. It is rugged, easily serviced, and comparatively simple to operate. System can analyze up to eight parameters and can be modified to measure other blood constituents including nonionic species, such as urea, glucose, and oxygen.

  1. Analyzing Peace Pedagogies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haavelsrud, Magnus; Stenberg, Oddbjorn

    2012-01-01

    Eleven articles on peace education published in the first volume of the Journal of Peace Education are analyzed. This selection comprises peace education programs that have been planned or carried out in different contexts. In analyzing peace pedagogies as proposed in the 11 contributions, we have chosen network analysis as our method--enabling…

  2. Truck acoustic data analyzer system

    SciTech Connect

    Haynes, Howard D.; Akerman, Alfred; Ayers, Curtis W.

    2006-07-04

    A passive vehicle acoustic data analyzer system having at least one microphone disposed in the acoustic field of a moving vehicle and a computer in electronic communication the microphone(s). The computer detects and measures the frequency shift in the acoustic signature emitted by the vehicle as it approaches and passes the microphone(s). The acoustic signature of a truck driving by a microphone can provide enough information to estimate the truck speed in miles-per-hour (mph), engine speed in rotations-per-minute (RPM), turbocharger speed in RPM, and vehicle weight.

  3. Software Design Analyzer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1985-01-01

    CRISP80 software design analyzer system a set of programs that supports top-down, hierarchic, modular structured design, and programing methodologies. CRISP80 allows for expression of design as picture of program.

  4. Generating and Analyzing Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Jill

    1993-01-01

    Presents activities in which students develop and analyze scatterplots on graphing calculators to model corn growth, decay, a box of maximum volume, and weather prediction. Provides reproducible worksheets. (MDH)

  5. Generating and Analyzing Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Jill

    1993-01-01

    Presents activities in which students develop and analyze scatterplots on graphing calculators to model corn growth, decay, a box of maximum volume, and weather prediction. Provides reproducible worksheets. (MDH)

  6. Automatic amino acid analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, B. J.; Carle, G. C.; Oyama, V. I.

    1971-01-01

    Analyzer operates unattended or up to 15 hours. It has an automatic sample injection system and can be programmed. All fluid-flow valve switching is accomplished pneumatically from miniature three-way solenoid pilot valves.

  7. Analyzing Microarray Data.

    PubMed

    Hung, Jui-Hung; Weng, Zhiping

    2017-03-01

    Because there is no widely used software for analyzing RNA-seq data that has a graphical user interface, this protocol provides an example of analyzing microarray data using Babelomics. This analysis entails performing quantile normalization and then detecting differentially expressed genes associated with the transgenesis of a human oncogene c-Myc in mice. Finally, hierarchical clustering is performed on the differentially expressed genes using the Cluster program, and the results are visualized using TreeView.

  8. Soil Rock Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    A redesigned version of a soil/rock analyzer developed by Martin Marietta under a Langley Research Center contract is being marketed by Aurora Tech, Inc. Known as the Aurora ATX-100, it has self-contained power, an oscilloscope, a liquid crystal readout, and a multichannel spectrum analyzer. It measures energy emissions to determine what elements in what percentages a sample contains. It is lightweight and may be used for mineral exploration, pollution monitoring, etc.

  9. A resource-efficient adaptive Fourier analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajdu, C. F.; Zamantzas, C.; Dabóczi, T.

    2016-10-01

    We present a resource-efficient frequency adaptation method to complement the Fourier analyzer proposed by Péceli. The novel frequency adaptation scheme is based on the adaptive Fourier analyzer suggested by Nagy. The frequency adaptation method was elaborated with a view to realizing a detector connectivity check on an FPGA in a new beam loss monitoring (BLM) system, currently being developed for beam setup and machine protection of the particle accelerators at the European Organisation for Nuclear Research (CERN). The paper summarizes the Fourier analyzer to the extent relevant to this work and the basic principle of the related frequency adaptation methods. It then outlines the suggested new scheme, presents practical considerations for implementing it and underpins it with an example and the corresponding operational experience.

  10. Microwave transient analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Gallegos, Cenobio H.; Ogle, James W.; Stokes, John L.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for capturing and recording indications of frequency content of electromagnetic signals and radiation is disclosed including a laser light source (12) and a Bragg cell (14) for deflecting a light beam (22) at a plurality of deflection angles (36) dependent upon frequency content of the signal. A streak camera (26) and a microchannel plate intensifier (28) are used to project Bragg cell (14) output onto either a photographic film (32) or a charge coupled device (CCD) imager (366). Timing markers are provided by a comb generator (50) and a one shot generator (52), the outputs of which are also routed through the streak camera (26) onto the film (32) or the CCD imager (366). Using the inventive method, the full range of the output of the Bragg cell (14) can be recorded as a function of time.

  11. Charge Analyzer Responsive Local Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, Linda Habash; Thornton, Gary

    2015-01-01

    The first transatlantic radio transmission, demonstrated by Marconi in December of 1901, revealed the essential role of the ionosphere for radio communications. This ionized layer of the upper atmosphere controls the amount of radio power transmitted through, reflected off of, and absorbed by the atmospheric medium. Low-frequency radio signals can propagate long distances around the globe via repeated reflections off of the ionosphere and the Earth's surface. Higher frequency radio signals can punch through the ionosphere to be received at orbiting satellites. However, any turbulence in the ionosphere can distort these signals, compromising the performance or even availability of space-based communication and navigations systems. The physics associated with this distortion effect is analogous to the situation when underwater images are distorted by convecting air bubbles. In fact, these ionospheric features are often called 'plasma bubbles' since they exhibit some of the similar behavior as underwater air bubbles. These events, instigated by solar and geomagnetic storms, can cause communication and navigation outages that last for hours. To help understand and predict these outages, a world-wide community of space scientists and technologists are devoted to researching this topic. One aspect of this research is to develop instruments capable of measuring the ionospheric plasma bubbles. Figure 1 shows a photo of the Charge Analyzer Responsive to Local Oscillations (CARLO), a new instrument under development at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). It is a frequency-domain ion spectrum analyzer designed to measure the distributions of ionospheric turbulence from 1 Hz to 10 kHz (i.e., spatial scales from a few kilometers down to a few centimeters). This frequency range is important since it focuses on turbulence scales that affect VHF/UHF satellite communications, GPS systems, and over-the-horizon radar systems. CARLO is based on the flight-proven Plasma Local

  12. Total organic carbon analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godec, Richard G.; Kosenka, Paul P.; Smith, Brian D.; Hutte, Richard S.; Webb, Johanna V.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    The development and testing of a breadboard version of a highly sensitive total-organic-carbon (TOC) analyzer are reported. Attention is given to the system components including the CO2 sensor, oxidation reactor, acidification module, and the sample-inlet system. Research is reported for an experimental reagentless oxidation reactor, and good results are reported for linearity, sensitivity, and selectivity in the CO2 sensor. The TOC analyzer is developed with gravity-independent components and is designed for minimal additions of chemical reagents. The reagentless oxidation reactor is based on electrolysis and UV photolysis and is shown to be potentially useful. The stability of the breadboard instrument is shown to be good on a day-to-day basis, and the analyzer is capable of 5 sample analyses per day for a period of about 80 days. The instrument can provide accurate TOC and TIC measurements over a concentration range of 20 ppb to 50 ppm C.

  13. Electrosurgical unit analyzers.

    PubMed

    1998-07-01

    Electrosurgical unit (ESU) analyzers automate the testing and inspection of the output circuits and safety features of ESUs. They perform testing that would otherwise require several other pieces of equipment, as well as considerably more time and greater technician expertise. They are used largely by clinical engineering departments for routine inspection and preventive maintenance (IPM) procedures and, less often, for accident investigations and troubleshooting. In this Evaluation, we tested three ESU analyzers from three suppliers. We rated all three analyzers Acceptable and ranked them in two groupings. In ranking the units, we placed the greatest weight on ease of use for routine ESU inspections, and gave additional consideration to versatility for advanced applications such as ESU research. The unit in Group 1 was the easiest to use, especially for infrequent users. The units in Group 2 were satisfactory but require more frequent use to maintain proficiency and to avoid user errors.

  14. Total organic carbon analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Godec, Richard G.; Kosenka, Paul P.; Smith, Brian D.; Hutte, Richard S.; Webb, Johanna V.; Sauer, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    The development and testing of a breadboard version of a highly sensitive total-organic-carbon (TOC) analyzer are reported. Attention is given to the system components including the CO2 sensor, oxidation reactor, acidification module, and the sample-inlet system. Research is reported for an experimental reagentless oxidation reactor, and good results are reported for linearity, sensitivity, and selectivity in the CO2 sensor. The TOC analyzer is developed with gravity-independent components and is designed for minimal additions of chemical reagents. The reagentless oxidation reactor is based on electrolysis and UV photolysis and is shown to be potentially useful. The stability of the breadboard instrument is shown to be good on a day-to-day basis, and the analyzer is capable of 5 sample analyses per day for a period of about 80 days. The instrument can provide accurate TOC and TIC measurements over a concentration range of 20 ppb to 50 ppm C.

  15. Total organic carbon analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godec, Richard G.; Kosenka, Paul P.; Smith, Brian D.; Hutte, Richard S.; Webb, Johanna V.; Sauer, Richard L.

    The development and testing of a breadboard version of a highly sensitive total-organic-carbon (TOC) analyzer are reported. Attention is given to the system components including the CO2 sensor, oxidation reactor, acidification module, and the sample-inlet system. Research is reported for an experimental reagentless oxidation reactor, and good results are reported for linearity, sensitivity, and selectivity in the CO2 sensor. The TOC analyzer is developed with gravity-independent components and is designed for minimal additions of chemical reagents. The reagentless oxidation reactor is based on electrolysis and UV photolysis and is shown to be potentially useful. The stability of the breadboard instrument is shown to be good on a day-to-day basis, and the analyzer is capable of 5 sample analyses per day for a period of about 80 days. The instrument can provide accurate TOC and TIC measurements over a concentration range of 20 ppb to 50 ppm C.

  16. Advances in hematology analyzers.

    PubMed

    DeNicola, Dennis B

    2011-05-01

    The complete blood count is one of the basic building blocks of the minimum database in veterinary medicine. Over the past 20 years, there has been a tremendous advancement in the technology of hematology analyzers and their availability to the general practitioner. There are 4 basic methodologies that can be used to generate data for a complete blood count: manual methods, quantitative buffy coat analysis, automated impedance analysis, and flow cytometric analysis. This article will review the principles of these methodologies, discuss some of their advantages and disadvantages, and describe some of the hematology analyzers that are available for the in-house veterinary laboratory. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Analyzing Feedback Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Downing, John P.

    1987-01-01

    Interactive controls analysis (INCA) program developed to provide user-friendly environment for design and analysis of linear control systems, primarily feedback control. Designed for use with both small- and large-order systems. Using interactive-graphics capability, INCA user quickly plots root locus, frequency response, or time response of either continuous-time system or sampled-data system. Configuration and parameters easily changed, allowing user to design compensation networks and perform sensitivity analyses in very convenient manner. Written in Pascal and FORTRAN.

  18. Analyzing Feedback Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Frank H.; Downing, John P.

    1987-01-01

    Interactive controls analysis (INCA) program developed to provide user-friendly environment for design and analysis of linear control systems, primarily feedback control. Designed for use with both small- and large-order systems. Using interactive-graphics capability, INCA user quickly plots root locus, frequency response, or time response of either continuous-time system or sampled-data system. Configuration and parameters easily changed, allowing user to design compensation networks and perform sensitivity analyses in very convenient manner. Written in Pascal and FORTRAN.

  19. Analyzing Political Television Advertisements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burson, George

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan to help students understand that political advertisements often mislead, lie, or appeal to emotion. Suggests that the lesson will enable students to examine political advertisements analytically. Includes a worksheet to be used by students to analyze individual political advertisements. (DK)

  20. Electronic sleep analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    Electronic instrument automatically monitors the stages of sleep of a human subject. The analyzer provides a series of discrete voltage steps with each step corresponding to a clinical assessment of level of consciousness. It is based on the operation of an EEG and requires very little telemetry bandwidth or time.

  1. List mode multichannel analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Archer, Daniel E.; Luke, S. John; Mauger, G. Joseph; Riot, Vincent J.; Knapp, David A.

    2007-08-07

    A digital list mode multichannel analyzer (MCA) built around a programmable FPGA device for onboard data analysis and on-the-fly modification of system detection/operating parameters, and capable of collecting and processing data in very small time bins (<1 millisecond) when used in histogramming mode, or in list mode as a list mode MCA.

  2. Analyzing Bilingual Education Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Joe J.

    This paper examines the particular problems involved in analyzing the costs of bilingual education and suggests that cost analysis of bilingual education requires a fundamentally different approach than that followed in other recent school finance studies. Focus of the discussion is the Intercultural Development Research Association's (IDRA)…

  3. Analyzing Workforce Education. Monograph.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Community & Technical Coll. Workforce Education Consortium.

    This monograph examines the issue of task analysis as used in workplace literacy programs, debating the need for it and how to perform it in a rapidly changing environment. Based on experiences of community colleges in Texas, the report analyzes ways that task analysis can be done and how to implement work force education programs more quickly.…

  4. Analyzing Faculty Workload

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holliman, Juanita M.

    1977-01-01

    Describes a step-by-step method for analyzing faculty workload which the author notes can determine exactly how a faculty member's time is spent and whether the hours available for teaching equal the hours required for teaching. Suggested uses for the method are noted, e.g., organizing the total work force based on desired curriculum changes. (SH)

  5. Analyzing Stereotypes in Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Jackie

    1996-01-01

    A high school film teacher studied how students recognized messages in film, examining how film education could help students identify and analyze racial and gender stereotypes. Comparison of students' attitudes before and after the film course found that the course was successful in raising students' consciousness. (SM)

  6. Analyzing HVAC piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.W. )

    1993-10-01

    This article describes requirements and considerations for a software tool for analyzing both the hydraulic and heat transfer characteristics of a HVAC system to help in selecting systems components and predicting their performance. The topics of the article include analysis of installed system evolution, selection and analysis of pumps and valves, heat transfer in heating and cooling coils, and capacity to handle large systems.

  7. PULSE AMPLITUDE ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Greenblatt, M.H.

    1958-03-25

    This patent pertains to pulse amplitude analyzers for sorting and counting a serles of pulses, and specifically discloses an analyzer which ls simple in construction and presents the puise height distribution visually on an oscilloscope screen. According to the invention, the pulses are applied to the vertical deflection plates of an oscilloscope and trigger the horizontal sweep. Each pulse starts at the same point on the screen and has a maximum amplitude substantially along the same vertical line. A mask is placed over the screen except for a slot running along the line where the maximum amplitudes of the pulses appear. After the slot has been scanned by a photocell in combination with a slotted rotating disk, the photocell signal is displayed on an auxiliary oscilloscope as vertical deflection along a horizontal time base to portray the pulse amplitude distribution.

  8. Soft Decision Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin; Steele, Glen; Zucha, Joan; Schlesinger, Adam

    2013-01-01

    We describe the benefit of using closed-loop measurements for a radio receiver paired with a counterpart transmitter. We show that real-time analysis of the soft decision output of a receiver can provide rich and relevant insight far beyond the traditional hard-decision bit error rate (BER) test statistic. We describe a Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) implementation for closed-loop measurements on single- or dual- (orthogonal) channel serial data communication links. The analyzer has been used to identify, quantify, and prioritize contributors to implementation loss in live-time during the development of software defined radios. This test technique gains importance as modern receivers are providing soft decision symbol synchronization as radio links are challenged to push more data and more protocol overhead through noisier channels, and software-defined radios (SDRs) use error-correction codes that approach Shannon's theoretical limit of performance.

  9. Dissolved Hydrogen Analyzer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOC) at Bangor Naval Submarine Base in Kitsap County , Washington (SUBASE Bangor) • Chlorinated VOCs at...the DH analyzer was evaluated based on the following criteria: • Accuracy as demonstrated by a one-to-one correlation between the standard bubble...accurately measure gaseous hydrogen was negatively impacted by the presence of other gases that partitioned from groundwater during gas-liquid

  10. Magnetoresistive Emulsion Analyzer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Gungun; Baraban, Larysa; Han, Luyang; Karnaushenko, Daniil; Makarov, Denys; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2013-01-01

    We realize a magnetoresistive emulsion analyzer capable of detection, multiparametric analysis and sorting of ferrofluid-containing nanoliter-droplets. The operation of the device in a cytometric mode provides high throughput and quantitative information about the dimensions and magnetic content of the emulsion. Our method offers important complementarity to conventional optical approaches involving ferrofluids, and paves the way to the development of novel compact tools for diagnostics and nanomedicine including drug design and screening. PMID:23989504

  11. PULSE AMPLITUDE ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Gray, G.W.; Jensen, A.S.

    1957-10-22

    A pulse-height analyzer system of improved design for sorting and counting a series of pulses, such as provided by a scintillation detector in nuclear radiation measurements, is described. The analyzer comprises a main transmission line, a cathode-ray tube for each section of the line with its deflection plates acting as the line capacitance; means to bias the respective cathode ray tubes so that the beam strikes a target only when a prearranged pulse amplitude is applied, with each tube progressively biased to respond to smaller amplitudes; pulse generating and counting means associated with each tube to respond when the beam is deflected; a control transmission line having the same time constant as the first line per section with pulse generating means for each tube for initiating a pulse on the second transmission line when a pulse triggers the tube of corresponding amplitude response, the former pulse acting to prevent successive tubes from responding to the pulse under test. This arrangement permits greater deflection sensitivity in the cathode ray tube and overcomes many of the disadvantages of prior art pulse-height analyzer circuits.

  12. Nonlinear Single Spin Spectrum Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Glickman, Yinnon; Ozeri, Roee

    2014-03-01

    Qubits have been used as linear spectrum analyzers of their environments, through the use of decoherence spectroscopy. Here we solve the problem of nonlinear spectral analysis, required for discrete noise induced by a strongly coupled environment. Our nonperturbative analytical model shows a nonlinear signal dependence on noise power, resulting in a spectral resolution beyond the Fourier limit as well as frequency mixing. We develop a noise characterization scheme adapted to this nonlinearity. We then apply it using a single trapped ion as a sensitive probe of strong, non-Gaussian, discrete magnetic field noise. Finally, we experimentally compared the performance of equidistant vs Uhrig modulation schemes for spectral analysis. Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 110503 (2013). Synopsis at http://physics.aps.org/synopsis-for/10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.110503 Current position: NIST, Boulder, CO.

  13. RELAPS desktop analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Beelman, R.J.; Grush, W.H.; Mortensen, G.A.; Snider, D.M.; Wagner, K.L.

    1989-01-01

    The previously mainframe bound RELAP5 reactor safety computer code has been installed on a microcomputer. A simple color-graphic display driver has been developed to enable the user to view the code results as the calculation advances. In order to facilitate future interactive desktop applications, the Nuclear Plant Analyzer (NPA), also previously mainframe bound, is being redesigned to encompass workstation applications. The marriage of RELAP5 simulation capabilities with NPA interactive graphics on a desktop workstation promises to revolutionize reactor safety analysis methodology. 8 refs.

  14. Inductive dielectric analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agranovich, Daniel; Polygalov, Eugene; Popov, Ivan; Ben Ishai, Paul; Feldman, Yuri

    2017-03-01

    One of the approaches to bypass the problem of electrode polarization in dielectric measurements is the free electrode method. The advantage of this technique is that, the probing electric field in the material is not supplied by contact electrodes, but rather by electromagnetic induction. We have designed an inductive dielectric analyzer based on a sensor comprising two concentric toroidal coils. In this work, we present an analytic derivation of the relationship between the impedance measured by the sensor and the complex dielectric permittivity of the sample. The obtained relationship was successfully employed to measure the dielectric permittivity and conductivity of various alcohols and aqueous salt solutions.

  15. Mineral/Water Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    An x-ray fluorescence spectrometer developed for the Viking Landers by Martin Marietta was modified for geological exploration, water quality monitoring, and aircraft engine maintenance. The aerospace system was highly miniaturized and used very little power. It irradiates the sample causing it to emit x-rays at various energies, then measures the energy levels for sample composition analysis. It was used in oceanographic applications and modified to identify element concentrations in ore samples, on site. The instrument can also analyze the chemical content of water, and detect the sudden development of excessive engine wear.

  16. Analyzing the "correct" endpoint.

    PubMed

    Atherton, Pamela J; Novotny, Paul J; Tan, Angelina D

    2006-01-01

    The choice of QOL endpoints for a study should be based on which score will most likely change if the treatment is favorable. How the QOL change is calculated should be based on the expected amount of missing data, how many time points data will be collected, and whether extreme outliers in the scores impact results. The study should have sufficient power to detect a meaningful difference between arms (typically 10 points on a 0-100 point scale) in the chosen QOL endpoint. At the conclusion of a study, several secondary endpoints can be analyzed which can provide additional information and confirm primary endpoint results.

  17. Fractional channel multichannel analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbush, Larry W.; Anderson, Gordon A.

    1994-01-01

    A multichannel analyzer incorporating the features of the present invention obtains the effect of fractional channels thus greatly reducing the number of actual channels necessary to record complex line spectra. This is accomplished by using an analog-to-digital converter in the asynscronous mode, i.e., the gate pulse from the pulse height-to-pulse width converter is not synchronized with the signal from a clock oscillator. This saves power and reduces the number of components required on the board to achieve the effect of radically expanding the number of channels without changing the circuit board.

  18. Fractional channel multichannel analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Brackenbush, L.W.; Anderson, G.A.

    1994-08-23

    A multichannel analyzer incorporating the features of the present invention obtains the effect of fractional channels thus greatly reducing the number of actual channels necessary to record complex line spectra. This is accomplished by using an analog-to-digital converter in the asynchronous mode, i.e., the gate pulse from the pulse height-to-pulse width converter is not synchronized with the signal from a clock oscillator. This saves power and reduces the number of components required on the board to achieve the effect of radically expanding the number of channels without changing the circuit board. 9 figs.

  19. Electrodynamic thermogravimetric analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spjut, R. Erik; Bar-Ziv, Ezra; Sarofim, Adel F.; Longwell, John P.

    1986-08-01

    The design and operation of a new device for studying single-aerosol-particle kinetics at elevated temperatures, the electrodynamic thermogravimetric analyzer (EDTGA), was examined theoretically and experimentally. The completed device consists of an electrodynamic balance modified to permit particle heating by a CO2 laser, temperature measurement by a three-color infrared-pyrometry system, and continuous weighing by a position-control system. In this paper, the position-control, particle-weight-measurement, heating, and temperature-measurement systems are described and their limitations examined.

  20. Portable Gas Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The Michromonitor M500 universal gas analyzer contains a series of miniature modules, each of which is a complete gas chromatograph, an instrument which separates a gaseous mixture into its components and measures the concentrations of each gas in the mixture. The system is manufactured by Microsensor Technology, and is used for environmental analysis, monitoring for gas leaks and chemical spills, compliance with pollution laws, etc. The technology is based on a Viking attempt to detect life on Mars. Ames/Stanford miniaturized the system and NIOSH funded further development. Three Stanford researchers commercialized the technology, which can be operated by unskilled personnel.

  1. Fluorescence analyzer for lignin

    DOEpatents

    Berthold, John W.; Malito, Michael L.; Jeffers, Larry

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring lignin concentration in a sample of wood pulp or black liquor comprises a light emitting arrangement for emitting an excitation light through optical fiber bundles into a probe which has an undiluted sensing end facing the sample. The excitation light causes the lignin concentration to produce fluorescent emission light which is then conveyed through the probe to analyzing equipment which measures the intensity of the emission light. Measures a This invention was made with Government support under Contract Number DOE: DE-FC05-90CE40905 awarded by the Department of Energy (DOE). The Government has certain rights in this invention.

  2. Method for network analyzation and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bracht, Roger B.; Pasquale, Regina V.

    2001-01-01

    A portable network analyzer and method having multiple channel transmit and receive capability for real-time monitoring of processes which maintains phase integrity, requires low power, is adapted to provide full vector analysis, provides output frequencies of up to 62.5 MHz and provides fine sensitivity frequency resolution. The present invention includes a multi-channel means for transmitting and a multi-channel means for receiving, both in electrical communication with a software means for controlling. The means for controlling is programmed to provide a signal to a system under investigation which steps consecutively over a range of predetermined frequencies. The resulting received signal from the system provides complete time domain response information by executing a frequency transform of the magnitude and phase information acquired at each frequency step.

  3. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Dovichi, N.J.; Zhang, J.Z.

    1995-08-08

    A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are wedged into the chamber. One sideways dimension of the chamber is equal to the diameter of the capillaries and one end to end dimension varies from, at the top of the chamber, slightly greater than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries to, at the bottom of the chamber, slightly smaller than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries. The optical system utilizes optic fibers to deliver light to individual photodetectors, one for each capillary tube. A filter or wavelength division demultiplexer may be used for isolating fluorescence at particular bands. 21 figs.

  4. Field Deployable DNA analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, E; Christian, A; Marion, J; Sorensen, K; Arroyo, E; Vrankovich, G; Hara, C; Nguyen, C

    2005-02-09

    This report details the feasibility of a field deployable DNA analyzer. Steps for swabbing cells from surfaces and extracting DNA in an automatable way are presented. Since enzymatic amplification reactions are highly sensitive to environmental contamination, sample preparation is a crucial step to make an autonomous deployable instrument. We perform sample clean up and concentration in a flow through packed bed. For small initial samples, whole genome amplification is performed in the packed bed resulting in enough product for subsequent PCR amplification. In addition to DNA, which can be used to identify a subject, protein is also left behind, the analysis of which can be used to determine exposure to certain substances, such as radionuclides. Our preparative step for DNA analysis left behind the protein complement as a waste stream; we determined to learn if the proteins themselves could be analyzed in a fieldable device. We successfully developed a two-step lateral flow assay for protein analysis and demonstrate a proof of principle assay.

  5. Plutonium solution analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, D.A.

    1994-09-01

    A fully automated analyzer has been developed for plutonium solutions. It was assembled from several commercially available modules, is based upon segmented flow analysis, and exhibits precision about an order of magnitude better than commercial units (0.5%-O.05% RSD). The system was designed to accept unmeasured, untreated liquid samples in the concentration range 40-240 g/L and produce a report with sample identification, sample concentrations, and an abundance of statistics. Optional hydraulics can accommodate samples in the concentration range 0.4-4.0 g/L. Operating at a typical rate of 30 to 40 samples per hour, it consumes only 0.074 mL of each sample and standard, and generates waste at the rate of about 1.5 mL per minute. No radioactive material passes through its multichannel peristaltic pump (which remains outside the glovebox, uncontaminated) but rather is handled by a 6-port, 2-position chromatography-type loop valve. An accompanying computer is programmed in QuickBASIC 4.5 to provide both instrument control and data reduction. The program is truly user-friendly and communication between operator and instrument is via computer screen displays and keyboard. Two important issues which have been addressed are waste minimization and operator safety (the analyzer can run in the absence of an operator, once its autosampler has been loaded).

  6. Multiple capillary biochemical analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Dovichi, Norman J.; Zhang, Jian Z.

    1995-01-01

    A multiple capillary analyzer allows detection of light from multiple capillaries with a reduced number of interfaces through which light must pass in detecting light emitted from a sample being analyzed, using a modified sheath flow cuvette. A linear or rectangular array of capillaries is introduced into a rectangular flow chamber. Sheath fluid draws individual sample streams through the cuvette. The capillaries are closely and evenly spaced and held by a transparent retainer in a fixed position in relation to an optical detection system. Collimated sample excitation radiation is applied simultaneously across the ends of the capillaries in the retainer. Light emitted from the excited sample is detected by the optical detection system. The retainer is provided by a transparent chamber having inward slanting end walls. The capillaries are wedged into the chamber. One sideways dimension of the chamber is equal to the diameter of the capillaries and one end to end dimension varies from, at the top of the chamber, slightly greater than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries to, at the bottom of the chamber, slightly smaller than the sum of the diameters of the capillaries. The optical system utilizes optic fibres to deliver light to individual photodetectors, one for each capillary tube. A filter or wavelength division demultiplexer may be used for isolating fluorescence at particular bands.

  7. Analyzing the platelet proteome.

    PubMed

    García, Angel; Zitzmann, Nicole; Watson, Steve P

    2004-08-01

    During the last 10 years, mass spectrometry (MS) has become a key tool for protein analysis and has underpinned the emerging field of proteomics. Using high-throughput tandem MS/MS following protein separation, it is potentially possible to analyze hundreds to thousands of proteins in a sample at a time. This technology can be used to analyze the protein content (i.e., the proteome) of any cell or tissue and complements the powerful field of genomics. The technology is particularly suitable for platelets because of the absence of a nucleus. Cellular proteins can be separated by either gel-based methods such as two-dimensional gel electrophoresis or one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography (LC) -MS/MS or by multidimensional LC-MS/MS. Prefractionation techniques, such as subcellular fractionations or immunoprecipitations, can be used to improve the analysis. Each method has particular advantages and disadvantages. Proteomics can be used to compare the proteome of basal and diseased platelets, helping to reveal information on the molecular basis of the disease.

  8. Ring Image Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strekalov, Dmitry V.

    2012-01-01

    Ring Image Analyzer software analyzes images to recognize elliptical patterns. It determines the ellipse parameters (axes ratio, centroid coordinate, tilt angle). The program attempts to recognize elliptical fringes (e.g., Newton Rings) on a photograph and determine their centroid position, the short-to-long-axis ratio, and the angle of rotation of the long axis relative to the horizontal direction on the photograph. These capabilities are important in interferometric imaging and control of surfaces. In particular, this program has been developed and applied for determining the rim shape of precision-machined optical whispering gallery mode resonators. The program relies on a unique image recognition algorithm aimed at recognizing elliptical shapes, but can be easily adapted to other geometric shapes. It is robust against non-elliptical details of the image and against noise. Interferometric analysis of precision-machined surfaces remains an important technological instrument in hardware development and quality analysis. This software automates and increases the accuracy of this technique. The software has been developed for the needs of an R&TD-funded project and has become an important asset for the future research proposal to NASA as well as other agencies.

  9. Nano-Dust Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruen, E.; Horanyi, M.; Moebius, E.; Sternovsky, Z.; Auer, S.; Srama, R.; Juhasz, A.

    2010-12-01

    Recently, the STEREO WAVES instruments recorded a large number of intense electric field signals, which were interpreted as impacts from nanometer sized particles striking the spacecraft with velocities of about the solar wind speed [1]. This high flux and strong spatial and/or temporal variations of nanometer sized dust grains at low latitude appears to be uncorrelated with the solar wind properties. Early dust instruments onboard Pioneer 8 and 9 and Helios spacecraft detected a flow of submicron sized dust particles coming from the direction of the Sun. These particles originate in the inner solar system from mutual collisions among meteoroids and move on hyperbolic orbits that leave the Solar System under the prevailing radiation pressure force [2]. The observed fluxes of inner-source pickup ions also point to the existence of a much enhanced dust population in the nanometer size range [3]. A new highly sensitive instrument is being developed within NASA's Heliophysics Program to confirm the existence of the so-called nano-dust particles, characterize their impact parameters, and measure their chemical composition. The instrument is based on the Cassini Dust Analyzer (CDA) that has analyzed the composition of nanometer sized dust particles emanating from the Jovian and Saturnian systems but could not be pointed towards the Sun. By applying technologies implemented in solar wind instruments and coronagraphs a highly sensitive dust analyzer will be developed and tested in the laboratory. The measurements will enable us to identify the source of the dust by comparing their elemental composition with that of larger micrometeoroid particles of cometary and asteroid origin and will reveal interaction of nano-dust with the interplanetary medium by investigating the relation of the dust flux with solar wind and IMF properties. [1] Meyer-Vernet, N. et al., Solar Physics, 256, 463, 2009 [2] Zook, H.A. and Berg, O.E.: A source for hyperbolic cosmic dust particles

  10. UCNB_Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Broussard, Leah J

    2016-01-17

    The purpose of this software is to interpret and analyze data taken using the NI PXIe-5171R digitizer based data acquisition system for the UCNB and Nab experiments. The detection and data acquisition systems are identical for the 2 experiments, with some differences in analysis requirements. The software converts raw binary files produced by the NI DAQ into ROOT TTree format, performs waveform analysis using trapezoidal filter algorithms, pulse fitting, and noise analysis routines, and applies variable criteria to identify valid events in the data stream. The software will be used to perform analysis of the events for multi-channel coincidences, timing and energy studies, and event rates under different experimental conditions.

  11. Analyzing Water's Optical Absorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A cooperative agreement between World Precision Instruments (WPI), Inc., and Stennis Space Center has led the UltraPath(TM) device, which provides a more efficient method for analyzing the optical absorption of water samples at sea. UltraPath is a unique, high-performance absorbance spectrophotometer with user-selectable light path lengths. It is an ideal tool for any study requiring precise and highly sensitive spectroscopic determination of analytes, either in the laboratory or the field. As a low-cost, rugged, and portable system capable of high- sensitivity measurements in widely divergent waters, UltraPath will help scientists examine the role that coastal ocean environments play in the global carbon cycle. UltraPath(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc. LWCC(TM) is a trademark of World Precision Instruments, Inc.

  12. Analyzing Next to Nothing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.

    2000-04-01

    Analytical techniques have advanced so far that it is possible to slice up a sample only 10 micrometers across (with a mass of only a billionth of a gram) so that a dozen microanalytical techniques can be used to extract fascinating, crucial information about the sample's history. This astonishing ability is useful in analyzing interplanetary dust collected in the stratosphere, tiny interstellar grains in meteorites, sparse and wispy weathering products in Martian meteorites, and samples to be collected and returned to Earth by current and future sample return missions from comets, asteroids, Martian moons, and Mars. The importance of the array of techniques available to cosmochemists has been documented by Michael Zolensky (Johnson Space Center), Carle Pieters (Brown University), Benton Clark (Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver), and James Papike (University of New Mexico), with special attention to sample-return missions.

  13. Analyzing cosmic bubble collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Gobbetti, Roberto; Kleban, Matthew E-mail: mk161@nyu.edu

    2012-05-01

    We develop a set of controlled, analytic approximations to study the effects of bubble collisions on cosmology. We expand the initial perturbation to the inflaton field caused by the collision in a general power series, and determine its time evolution during inflation in terms of the coefficients in the expansion. In models where the observer's bubble undergoes sufficient slow-roll inflation to solve the flatness problem, in the thin wall limit only one coefficient in the expansion is relevant to observational cosmology, allowing nearly model-independent predictions. We discuss two approaches to determining the initial perturbation to the inflaton and the implications for the sign of the effect (a hot or cold spot on the Cosmic Microwave Background temperature map). Lastly, we analyze the effects of collisions with thick-wall bubbles, i.e. away from the thin-wall limit.

  14. Analyzing a Cometary 'Sneeze'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Analyzing a Cometary 'Sneeze'

    This display shows highly processed images of the outburst of comet Tempel 1 between June 22 and 23, 2005. The pictures were taken by Deep Impact's medium-resolution camera. An average image of the comet has been subtracted from each picture to provide an enhanced view of the outburst. The intensity has also been stretched to show the faintest parts. This processing enables measurement of the outflow speed and the details of the dissipation of the outburst. The left image was taken when the comet was very close to its normal, non-bursting state, so almost nothing is visible.

  15. Analyzing geographic clustered response

    SciTech Connect

    Merrill, D.W.; Selvin, S.; Mohr, M.S.

    1991-08-01

    In the study of geographic disease clusters, an alternative to traditional methods based on rates is to analyze case locations on a transformed map in which population density is everywhere equal. Although the analyst's task is thereby simplified, the specification of the density equalizing map projection (DEMP) itself is not simple and continues to be the subject of considerable research. Here a new DEMP algorithm is described, which avoids some of the difficulties of earlier approaches. The new algorithm (a) avoids illegal overlapping of transformed polygons; (b) finds the unique solution that minimizes map distortion; (c) provides constant magnification over each map polygon; (d) defines a continuous transformation over the entire map domain; (e) defines an inverse transformation; (f) can accept optional constraints such as fixed boundaries; and (g) can use commercially supported minimization software. Work is continuing to improve computing efficiency and improve the algorithm. 21 refs., 15 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Residual gas analyzer calibration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilienkamp, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    A technique which employs known gas mixtures to calibrate the residual gas analyzer (RGA) is described. The mass spectra from the RGA are recorded for each gas mixture. This mass spectra data and the mixture composition data each form a matrix. From the two matrices the calibration matrix may be computed. The matrix mathematics requires the number of calibration gas mixtures be equal to or greater than the number of gases included in the calibration. This technique was evaluated using a mathematical model of an RGA to generate the mass spectra. This model included shot noise errors in the mass spectra. Errors in the gas concentrations were also included in the valuation. The effects of these errors was studied by varying their magnitudes and comparing the resulting calibrations. Several methods of evaluating an actual calibration are presented. The effects of the number of gases in then, the composition of the calibration mixture, and the number of mixtures used are discussed.

  17. Moving particle composition analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, S. O. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A mass spectrometry apparatus for analyzing the composition of moving microscopic particles is introduced. The apparatus includes a capacitor with a front electrode upon which the particles impinge, a back electrode, and a solid dielectric sandwiched between the front and back electrodes. In one embodiment, the electrodes and dielectric are arcuately shaped as concentric peripheral segments of different spheres having a common center and different radii. The front electrode and dielectric together have a thickness such that an impinging particle can penetrate them. In a second embodiment, the capacitor has planar, parallel electrodes, in which case the ejected positive ions are deflected downstream of a planar grid by a pair of spaced, arcuate capacitor plates having a region between them through which the ejected ions travel.

  18. Probability and Relative Frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drieschner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The concept of probability seems to have been inexplicable since its invention in the seventeenth century. In its use in science, probability is closely related with relative frequency. So the task seems to be interpreting that relation. In this paper, we start with predicted relative frequency and show that its structure is the same as that of probability. I propose to call that the `prediction interpretation' of probability. The consequences of that definition are discussed. The "ladder"-structure of the probability calculus is analyzed. The expectation of the relative frequency is shown to be equal to the predicted relative frequency. Probability is shown to be the most general empirically testable prediction.

  19. Analyzing Atmospheric Neutrino Oscillations

    SciTech Connect

    Escamilla, J.; Ernst, D. J.; Latimer, D. C.

    2007-10-26

    We provide a pedagogic derivation of the formula needed to analyze atmospheric data and then derive, for the subset of the data that are fully-contained events, an analysis tool that is quantitative and numerically efficient. Results for the full set of neutrino oscillation data are then presented. We find the following preliminary results: 1.) the sub-dominant approximation provides reasonable values for the best fit parameters for {delta}{sub 32}, {theta}{sub 23}, and {theta}{sub 13} but does not quantitatively provide the errors for these three parameters; 2.) the size of the MSW effect is suppressed in the sub-dominant approximation; 3.) the MSW effect reduces somewhat the extracted error for {delta}{sub 32}, more so for {theta}{sub 23} and {theta}{sub 13}; 4.) atmospheric data alone constrains the allowed values of {theta}{sub 13} only in the sub-dominant approximation, the full three neutrino calculations requires CHOOZ to get a clean constraint; 5.) the linear in {theta}{sub 13} terms are not negligible; and 6.) the minimum value of {theta}{sub 13} is found to be negative, but at a statistically insignificant level.

  20. Analyzing Spacecraft Telecommunication Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kordon, Mark; Hanks, David; Gladden, Roy; Wood, Eric

    2004-01-01

    Multi-Mission Telecom Analysis Tool (MMTAT) is a C-language computer program for analyzing proposed spacecraft telecommunication systems. MMTAT utilizes parameterized input and computational models that can be run on standard desktop computers to perform fast and accurate analyses of telecommunication links. MMTAT is easy to use and can easily be integrated with other software applications and run as part of almost any computational simulation. It is distributed as either a stand-alone application program with a graphical user interface or a linkable library with a well-defined set of application programming interface (API) calls. As a stand-alone program, MMTAT provides both textual and graphical output. The graphs make it possible to understand, quickly and easily, how telecommunication performance varies with variations in input parameters. A delimited text file that can be read by any spreadsheet program is generated at the end of each run. The API in the linkable-library form of MMTAT enables the user to control simulation software and to change parameters during a simulation run. Results can be retrieved either at the end of a run or by use of a function call at any time step.

  1. Analyzing nocturnal noise stratification.

    PubMed

    Rey Gozalo, Guillermo; Barrigón Morillas, Juan Miguel; Gómez Escobar, Valentín

    2014-05-01

    Pollution associated to traffic can be considered as one of the most relevant pollution sources in our cities; noise is one of the major components of traffic pollution; thus, efforts are necessary to search adequate noise assessment methods and low pollution city designs. Different methods have been proposed for the evaluation of noise in cities, including the categorization method, which is based on the functionality concept. Until now, this method has only been studied (with encouraging results) for short-term, diurnal measurements, but nocturnal noise presents a behavior clearly different on respect to the diurnal one. In this work 45 continuous measurements of approximately one week each in duration are statistically analyzed to identify differences between the proposed categories. The results show that the five proposed categories highlight the noise stratification of the studied city in each period of the day (day, evening, and night). A comparison of the continuous measurements with previous short-term measurements indicates that the latter can be a good approximation of the former in diurnal period, reducing the resource expenditure for noise evaluation. Annoyance estimated from the measured noise levels was compared with the response of population obtained from a questionnaire with good agreement. The categorization method can yield good information about the distribution of a pollutant associated to traffic in our cities in each period of the day and, therefore, is a powerful tool for town planning and the design of pollution prevention policies.

  2. PULSE HEIGHT ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Johnstone, C.W.

    1958-01-21

    An anticoincidence device is described for a pair of adjacent channels of a multi-channel pulse height analyzer for preventing the lower channel from generating a count pulse in response to an input pulse when the input pulse has sufficient magnitude to reach the upper level channel. The anticoincidence circuit comprises a window amplifier, upper and lower level discriminators, and a biased-off amplifier. The output of the window amplifier is coupled to the inputs of the discriminators, the output of the upper level discriminator is connected to the resistance end of a series R-C network, the output of the lower level discriminator is coupled to the capacitance end of the R-C network, and the grid of the biased-off amplifier is coupled to the junction of the R-C network. In operation each discriminator produces a negative pulse output when the input pulse traverses its voltage setting. As a result of the connections to the R-C network, a trigger pulse will be sent to the biased-off amplifier when the incoming pulse level is sufficient to trigger only the lower level discriminator.

  3. Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Seungwon; Pan, Lei; Zhai, Chengxing; Tang, Benyang; Kubar, Terry; Zhang, Zia; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The comprehensive and innovative evaluation of climate models with newly available global observations is critically needed for the improvement of climate model current-state representation and future-state predictability. A climate model diagnostic evaluation process requires physics-based multi-variable analyses that typically involve large-volume and heterogeneous datasets, making them both computation- and data-intensive. With an exploratory nature of climate data analyses and an explosive growth of datasets and service tools, scientists are struggling to keep track of their datasets, tools, and execution/study history, let alone sharing them with others. In response, we have developed a cloud-enabled, provenance-supported, web-service system called Climate Model Diagnostic Analyzer (CMDA). CMDA enables the physics-based, multivariable model performance evaluations and diagnoses through the comprehensive and synergistic use of multiple observational data, reanalysis data, and model outputs. At the same time, CMDA provides a crowd-sourcing space where scientists can organize their work efficiently and share their work with others. CMDA is empowered by many current state-of-the-art software packages in web service, provenance, and semantic search.

  4. PULSE HEIGHT ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Goldsworthy, W.W.

    1958-06-01

    A differential pulse-height discriminator circuit is described which is readily adaptable for operation in a single-channel pulse-height analyzer. The novel aspect of the circuit lies in the specific arrangement of differential pulse-height discriminator which includes two pulse-height discriminators having a comnnon input and an anticoincidence circuit having two interconnected vacuum tubes with a common cathode resistor. Pulses from the output of one discriminator circuit are delayed and coupled to the grid of one of the anticoincidence tubes by a resistor. The output pulses from the other discriminator circuit are coupled through a cathode follower circuit, which has a cathode resistor of such value as to provide a long time constant with the interelectrode capacitance of the tube, to lenthen the output pulses. The pulses are then fed to the grid of the other anticoincidence tube. With such connections of the circuits, only when the incoming pulse has a pesk value between the operating levels of the two discriminators does an output pulse occur from the anticoincidence circuit.

  5. Lorentz force particle analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Thess, André; Moreau, René; Tan, Yanqing; Dai, Shangjun; Tao, Zhen; Yang, Wenzhi; Wang, Bo

    2016-07-01

    A new contactless technique is presented for the detection of micron-sized insulating particles in the flow of an electrically conducting fluid. A transverse magnetic field brakes this flow and tends to become entrained in the flow direction by a Lorentz force, whose reaction force on the magnetic-field-generating system can be measured. The presence of insulating particles suspended in the fluid produce changes in this Lorentz force, generating pulses in it; these pulses enable the particles to be counted and sized. A two-dimensional numerical model that employs a moving mesh method demonstrates the measurement principle when such a particle is present. Two prototypes and a three-dimensional numerical model are used to demonstrate the feasibility of a Lorentz force particle analyzer (LFPA). The findings of this study conclude that such an LFPA, which offers contactless and on-line quantitative measurements, can be applied to an extensive range of applications. These applications include measurements of the cleanliness of high-temperature and aggressive molten metal, such as aluminum and steel alloys, and the clean manufacturing of semiconductors.

  6. Downhole Fluid Analyzer Development

    SciTech Connect

    Bill Turner

    2006-11-28

    A novel fiber optic downhole fluid analyzer has been developed for operation in production wells. This device will allow real-time determination of the oil, gas and water fractions of fluids from different zones in a multizone or multilateral completion environment. The device uses near infrared spectroscopy and induced fluorescence measurement to unambiguously determine the oil, water and gas concentrations at all but the highest water cuts. The only downhole components of the system are the fiber optic cable and windows. All of the active components--light sources, sensors, detection electronics and software--will be located at the surface, and will be able to operate multiple downhole probes. Laboratory testing has demonstrated that the sensor can accurately determine oil, water and gas fractions with a less than 5 percent standard error. Once installed in an intelligent completion, this sensor will give the operating company timely information about the fluids arising from various zones or multilaterals in a complex completion pattern, allowing informed decisions to be made on controlling production. The research and development tasks are discussed along with a market analysis.

  7. TEAMS Model Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tijidjian, Raffi P.

    2010-01-01

    The TEAMS model analyzer is a supporting tool developed to work with models created with TEAMS (Testability, Engineering, and Maintenance System), which was developed by QSI. In an effort to reduce the time spent in the manual process that each TEAMS modeler must perform in the preparation of reporting for model reviews, a new tool has been developed as an aid to models developed in TEAMS. The software allows for the viewing, reporting, and checking of TEAMS models that are checked into the TEAMS model database. The software allows the user to selectively model in a hierarchical tree outline view that displays the components, failure modes, and ports. The reporting features allow the user to quickly gather statistics about the model, and generate an input/output report pertaining to all of the components. Rules can be automatically validated against the model, with a report generated containing resulting inconsistencies. In addition to reducing manual effort, this software also provides an automated process framework for the Verification and Validation (V&V) effort that will follow development of these models. The aid of such an automated tool would have a significant impact on the V&V process.

  8. Digital Microfluidics Sample Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, Michael G.; Srinivasan, Vijay; Eckhardt, Allen; Paik, Philip Y.; Sudarsan, Arjun; Shenderov, Alex; Hua, Zhishan; Pamula, Vamsee K.

    2010-01-01

    Three innovations address the needs of the medical world with regard to microfluidic manipulation and testing of physiological samples in ways that can benefit point-of-care needs for patients such as premature infants, for which drawing of blood for continuous tests can be life-threatening in their own right, and for expedited results. A chip with sample injection elements, reservoirs (and waste), droplet formation structures, fluidic pathways, mixing areas, and optical detection sites, was fabricated to test the various components of the microfluidic platform, both individually and in integrated fashion. The droplet control system permits a user to control droplet microactuator system functions, such as droplet operations and detector operations. Also, the programming system allows a user to develop software routines for controlling droplet microactuator system functions, such as droplet operations and detector operations. A chip is incorporated into the system with a controller, a detector, input and output devices, and software. A novel filler fluid formulation is used for the transport of droplets with high protein concentrations. Novel assemblies for detection of photons from an on-chip droplet are present, as well as novel systems for conducting various assays, such as immunoassays and PCR (polymerase chain reaction). The lab-on-a-chip (a.k.a., lab-on-a-printed-circuit board) processes physiological samples and comprises a system for automated, multi-analyte measurements using sub-microliter samples of human serum. The invention also relates to a diagnostic chip and system including the chip that performs many of the routine operations of a central labbased chemistry analyzer, integrating, for example, colorimetric assays (e.g., for proteins), chemiluminescence/fluorescence assays (e.g., for enzymes, electrolytes, and gases), and/or conductometric assays (e.g., for hematocrit on plasma and whole blood) on a single chip platform.

  9. Analyzing the Acoustic Beat with Mobile Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Jochen; Vogt, Patrik; Hirth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In this column, we have previously presented various examples of how physical relationships can be examined by analyzing acoustic signals using smartphones or tablet PCs. In this example, we will be exploring the acoustic phenomenon of small beats, which is produced by the overlapping of two tones with a low difference in frequency ?f. The…

  10. Analyzing the Acoustic Beat with Mobile Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Jochen; Vogt, Patrik; Hirth, Michael

    2014-01-01

    In this column, we have previously presented various examples of how physical relationships can be examined by analyzing acoustic signals using smartphones or tablet PCs. In this example, we will be exploring the acoustic phenomenon of small beats, which is produced by the overlapping of two tones with a low difference in frequency ?f. The…

  11. Lightweight, broad-band spectrum analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crook, G. M.

    1972-01-01

    Spectrum analyzer, utilizing techniques similar to those used to classify energy levels of nuclear particles, is incorporated into electric field detector. Primary advantage is ability to perform qualitative broad-band frequency analysis over a large dynamic amplitude range with minimum weight and electrical power requirements.

  12. Whole blood coagulation analyzers.

    PubMed

    1997-08-01

    Whole blood Coagulation analyzers (WBCAs) are widely used point-of-care (POC) testing devices found primarily in cardiothoracic surgical suites and cardia catheterization laboratories. Most of these devices can perform a number of coagulation tests that provide information about a patient's blood clotting status. Clinicians use the results of the WBCA tests, which are available minutes after applying a blood sample, primarily to monitor the effectiveness of heparin therapy--an anticoagulation therapy used during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) surgery, angioplasty, hemodialysis, and other clinical procedures. In this study we evaluated five WBCAs from four suppliers. Our testing focused on the applications for which WBCAs are primarily used: Monitoring moderate to high heparin levels, as would be required, for example, during CPB are angioplasty. For this function, WCBAs are typically used to perform an activated clotting time (ACT) test or, as one supplier refers to its test, a heparin management test (HMT). All models included in this study offered an ACT test or an HMT. Monitoring low heparin levels, as would be required, for example,during hemodialysis. For this function, WBCAs would normally be used to perform either a low-range ACT (LACT) test or a whole blood activated partial thromboplastin time (WBAPTT) test. Most of the evaluated units could perform at least one of these tests; one unit did not offer either test and was therefore not rated for this application. We rated and ranked each evaluated model separately for each of these two applications. In addition, we provided a combined rating and ranking that considers the units' appropriateness for performing both application. We based our conclusions on a unit's performance and humans factor design, as determined by our testing, and on its five-year life-cycle cost, as determined by our net present value (NPV) analysis. While we rated all evaluated units acceptable for each appropriate category, we did

  13. Crew Activity Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, James; Kirillov, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The crew activity analyzer (CAA) is a system of electronic hardware and software for automatically identifying patterns of group activity among crew members working together in an office, cockpit, workshop, laboratory, or other enclosed space. The CAA synchronously records multiple streams of data from digital video cameras, wireless microphones, and position sensors, then plays back and processes the data to identify activity patterns specified by human analysts. The processing greatly reduces the amount of time that the analysts must spend in examining large amounts of data, enabling the analysts to concentrate on subsets of data that represent activities of interest. The CAA has potential for use in a variety of governmental and commercial applications, including planning for crews for future long space flights, designing facilities wherein humans must work in proximity for long times, improving crew training and measuring crew performance in military settings, human-factors and safety assessment, development of team procedures, and behavioral and ethnographic research. The data-acquisition hardware of the CAA (see figure) includes two video cameras: an overhead one aimed upward at a paraboloidal mirror on the ceiling and one mounted on a wall aimed in a downward slant toward the crew area. As many as four wireless microphones can be worn by crew members. The audio signals received from the microphones are digitized, then compressed in preparation for storage. Approximate locations of as many as four crew members are measured by use of a Cricket indoor location system. [The Cricket indoor location system includes ultrasonic/radio beacon and listener units. A Cricket beacon (in this case, worn by a crew member) simultaneously transmits a pulse of ultrasound and a radio signal that contains identifying information. Each Cricket listener unit measures the difference between the times of reception of the ultrasound and radio signals from an identified beacon

  14. Soft Decision Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Glen; Lansdowne, Chatwin; Zucha, Joan; Schlensinger, Adam

    2013-01-01

    The Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) is an instrument that combines hardware, firmware, and software to perform realtime closed-loop end-to-end statistical analysis of single- or dual- channel serial digital RF communications systems operating in very low signal-to-noise conditions. As an innovation, the unique SDA capabilities allow it to perform analysis of situations where the receiving communication system slips bits due to low signal-to-noise conditions or experiences constellation rotations resulting in channel polarity in versions or channel assignment swaps. SDA s closed-loop detection allows it to instrument a live system and correlate observations with frame, codeword, and packet losses, as well as Quality of Service (QoS) and Quality of Experience (QoE) events. The SDA s abilities are not confined to performing analysis in low signal-to-noise conditions. Its analysis provides in-depth insight of a communication system s receiver performance in a variety of operating conditions. The SDA incorporates two techniques for identifying slips. The first is an examination of content of the received data stream s relation to the transmitted data content and the second is a direct examination of the receiver s recovered clock signals relative to a reference. Both techniques provide benefits in different ways and allow the communication engineer evaluating test results increased confidence and understanding of receiver performance. Direct examination of data contents is performed by two different data techniques, power correlation or a modified Massey correlation, and can be applied to soft decision data widths 1 to 12 bits wide over a correlation depth ranging from 16 to 512 samples. The SDA detects receiver bit slips within a 4 bits window and can handle systems with up to four quadrants (QPSK, SQPSK, and BPSK systems). The SDA continuously monitors correlation results to characterize slips and quadrant change and is capable of performing analysis even when the

  15. Regolith Evolved Gas Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, John H.; Hedgecock, Jud; Nienaber, Terry; Cooper, Bonnie; Allen, Carlton; Ming, Doug

    2000-01-01

    The Regolith Evolved Gas Analyzer (REGA) is a high-temperature furnace and mass spectrometer instrument for determining the mineralogical composition and reactivity of soil samples. REGA provides key mineralogical and reactivity data that is needed to understand the soil chemistry of an asteroid, which then aids in determining in-situ which materials should be selected for return to earth. REGA is capable of conducting a number of direct soil measurements that are unique to this instrument. These experimental measurements include: (1) Mass spectrum analysis of evolved gases from soil samples as they are heated from ambient temperature to 900 C; and (2) Identification of liberated chemicals, e.g., water, oxygen, sulfur, chlorine, and fluorine. REGA would be placed on the surface of a near earth asteroid. It is an autonomous instrument that is controlled from earth but does the analysis of regolith materials automatically. The REGA instrument consists of four primary components: (1) a flight-proven mass spectrometer, (2) a high-temperature furnace, (3) a soil handling system, and (4) a microcontroller. An external arm containing a scoop or drill gathers regolith samples. A sample is placed in the inlet orifice where the finest-grained particles are sifted into a metering volume and subsequently moved into a crucible. A movable arm then places the crucible in the furnace. The furnace is closed, thereby sealing the inner volume to collect the evolved gases for analysis. Owing to the very low g forces on an asteroid compared to Mars or the moon, the sample must be moved from inlet to crucible by mechanical means rather than by gravity. As the soil sample is heated through a programmed pattern, the gases evolved at each temperature are passed through a transfer tube to the mass spectrometer for analysis and identification. Return data from the instrument will lead to new insights and discoveries including: (1) Identification of the molecular masses of all of the gases

  16. Real time speech formant analyzer and display

    DOEpatents

    Holland, George E.; Struve, Walter S.; Homer, John F.

    1987-01-01

    A speech analyzer for interpretation of sound includes a sound input which converts the sound into a signal representing the sound. The signal is passed through a plurality of frequency pass filters to derive a plurality of frequency formants. These formants are converted to voltage signals by frequency-to-voltage converters and then are prepared for visual display in continuous real time. Parameters from the inputted sound are also derived and displayed. The display may then be interpreted by the user. The preferred embodiment includes a microprocessor which is interfaced with a television set for displaying of the sound formants. The microprocessor software enables the sound analyzer to present a variety of display modes for interpretive and therapeutic used by the user.

  17. Real time speech formant analyzer and display

    DOEpatents

    Holland, G.E.; Struve, W.S.; Homer, J.F.

    1987-02-03

    A speech analyzer for interpretation of sound includes a sound input which converts the sound into a signal representing the sound. The signal is passed through a plurality of frequency pass filters to derive a plurality of frequency formants. These formants are converted to voltage signals by frequency-to-voltage converters and then are prepared for visual display in continuous real time. Parameters from the inputted sound are also derived and displayed. The display may then be interpreted by the user. The preferred embodiment includes a microprocessor which is interfaced with a television set for displaying of the sound formants. The microprocessor software enables the sound analyzer to present a variety of display modes for interpretive and therapeutic used by the user. 19 figs.

  18. Frequency Combs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hänsch, Theodor W.; Picqué, Nathalie

    Much of modern research in the field of atomic, molecular, and optical science relies on lasers, which were invented some 50 years ago and perfected in five decades of intense research and development. Today, lasers and photonic technologies impact most fields of science and they have become indispensible in our daily lives. Laser frequency combs were conceived a decade ago as tools for the precision spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen. Through the development of optical frequency comb techniques, technique a setup of the size 1 ×1 m2, good for precision measurements of any frequency, and even commercially available, has replaced the elaborate previous frequency-chain schemes for optical frequency measurements, which only worked for selected frequencies. A true revolution in optical frequency measurements has occurred, paving the way for the creation of all-optical clocks clock with a precision that might approach 10-18. A decade later, frequency combs are now common equipment in all frequency metrology-oriented laboratories. They are also becoming enabling tools for an increasing number of applications, from the calibration of astronomical spectrographs to molecular spectroscopy. This chapter first describes the principle of an optical frequency comb synthesizer. Some of the key technologies to generate such a frequency comb are then presented. Finally, a non-exhaustive overview of the growing applications is given.

  19. Automatic network analyzer procedures for 5045 klystron cavities

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, J.G.

    1991-07-01

    This Note describes the results of using Automatic Network Analyzers in measuring SLAC 5045 klystron cavities. Two different analyzers were compared; the HP8753 and HP8510. Both analyzers have frequency synthesizer accuracy and stability to perform the measurement without the need for a frequency counter. The klystron has six cavities which can be put into three categories; input, gain and output. The input and output cavities require an external Q measurement (Qe) to determine coupling ({beta}) and center frequency (f{sub o}). The gain cavities require a resonant frequency measurement only.

  20. Analyzing the acoustic beat with mobile devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, Jochen; Vogt, Patrik; Hirth, Michael

    2014-04-01

    In this column, we have previously presented various examples of how physical relationships can be examined by analyzing acoustic signals using smartphones or tablet PCs. In this example, we will be exploring the acoustic phenomenon of small beats, which is produced by the overlapping of two tones with a low difference in frequency Δf. The resulting auditory sensation is a tone with a volume that varies periodically. Acoustic beats can be perceived repeatedly in day-to-day life and have some interesting applications. For example, string instruments are still tuned with the help of an acoustic beat, even with modern technology. If a reference tone (e.g., 440 Hz) and, for example, a slightly out-of-tune violin string produce a tone simultaneously, a beat can be perceived. The more similar the frequencies, the longer the duration of the beat. In the extreme case, when the frequencies are identical, a beat no longer arises. The string is therefore correctly tuned. Using the Oscilloscope app,4 it is possible to capture and save acoustic signals of this kind and determine the beat frequency fS of the signal, which represents the difference in frequency Δf of the two overlapping tones (for Android smartphones, the app OsciPrime Oscilloscope can be used).

  1. Droplet actuator analyzer with cartridge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Gregory F. (Inventor); Sturmer, Ryan A. (Inventor); Paik, Philip Y. (Inventor); Srinivasan, Vijay (Inventor); Pollack, Michael G. (Inventor); Pamula, Vamsee K. (Inventor); Brafford, Keith R. (Inventor); West, Richard M. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A droplet actuator with cartridge is provided. According to one embodiment, a sample analyzer is provided and includes an analyzer unit comprising electronic or optical receiving means, a cartridge comprising self-contained droplet handling capabilities, and a wherein the cartridge is coupled to the analyzer unit by a means which aligns electronic and/or optical outputs from the cartridge with electronic or optical receiving means on the analyzer unit. According to another embodiment, a sample analyzer is provided and includes a sample analyzer comprising a cartridge coupled thereto and a means of electrical interface and/or optical interface between the cartridge and the analyzer, whereby electrical signals and/or optical signals may be transmitted from the cartridge to the analyzer.

  2. Soft Decision Analyzer and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Glen F. (Inventor); Lansdowne, Chatwin (Inventor); Zucha, Joan P. (Inventor); Schlesinger, Adam M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A soft decision analyzer system is operable to interconnect soft decision communication equipment and analyze the operation thereof to detect symbol wise alignment between a test data stream and a reference data stream in a variety of operating conditions.

  3. Soft Decision Analyzer and Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, Glen F. (Inventor); Lansdowne, Chatwin (Inventor); Zucha, Joan P. (Inventor); Schlesinger, Adam M. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A soft decision analyzer system is operable to interconnect soft decision communication equipment and analyze the operation thereof to detect symbol wise alignment between a test data stream and a reference data stream in a variety of operating conditions.

  4. Frequency spirals

    SciTech Connect

    Ottino-Löffler, Bertrand; Strogatz, Steven H.

    2016-09-15

    We study the dynamics of coupled phase oscillators on a two-dimensional Kuramoto lattice with periodic boundary conditions. For coupling strengths just below the transition to global phase-locking, we find localized spatiotemporal patterns that we call “frequency spirals.” These patterns cannot be seen under time averaging; they become visible only when we examine the spatial variation of the oscillators' instantaneous frequencies, where they manifest themselves as two-armed rotating spirals. In the more familiar phase representation, they appear as wobbly periodic patterns surrounding a phase vortex. Unlike the stationary phase vortices seen in magnetic spin systems, or the rotating spiral waves seen in reaction-diffusion systems, frequency spirals librate: the phases of the oscillators surrounding the central vortex move forward and then backward, executing a periodic motion with zero winding number. We construct the simplest frequency spiral and characterize its properties using analytical and numerical methods. Simulations show that frequency spirals in large lattices behave much like this simple prototype.

  5. The Deep Space Network stability analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breidenthal, Julian C.; Greenhall, Charles A.; Hamell, Robert L.; Kuhnle, Paul F.

    1995-01-01

    A stability analyzer for testing NASA Deep Space Network installations during flight radio science experiments is described. The stability analyzer provides realtime measurements of signal properties of general experimental interest: power, phase, and amplitude spectra; Allan deviation; and time series of amplitude, phase shift, and differential phase shift. Input ports are provided for up to four 100 MHz frequency standards and eight baseband analog (greater than 100 kHz bandwidth) signals. Test results indicate the following upper bounds to noise floors when operating on 100 MHz signals: -145 dBc/Hz for phase noise spectrum further than 200 Hz from carrier, 2.5 x 10(exp -15) (tau =1 second) and 1.5 x 10(exp -17) (tau =1000 seconds) for Allan deviation, and 1 x 10(exp -4) degrees for 1-second averages of phase deviation. Four copies of the stability analyzer have been produced, plus one transportable unit for use at non-NASA observatories.

  6. Josephson Junction spectrum analyzer for millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larkin, S. Y.; Anischenko, S. E.; Khabayev, P. V.

    1995-01-01

    A prototype of the Josephson-effect spectrum analyzer developed for the millimeter wave band is described. The measurement results for spectra obtained in the frequency band from 50 to 250 GHz are presented.

  7. Josephson junction spectrum analyzer for millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths

    SciTech Connect

    Larkin, S.Y.; Anischenko, S.E.; Khabayev, P.V.

    1994-12-31

    A prototype of the Josephson-effect spectrum analyzer developed for the millimeter-wave band is described. The measurement results for spectra obtained in the frequency band from 50 to 250 GHz are presented.

  8. Electro-optic network analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Todd A.

    1990-01-01

    The bandwidth of frequency domain measurement methods of electrical signals has usually been far greater than the bandwidth of time domain methods. The primary limits of the time domain approach have been the 20 to 30 GHz bandwidth limit for electronic waveform acquisition instrumentation, and the lack of usable electrical pulse generators for excitation of a test device. The bandwidth of frequency domain network analysis appears to have reached a plateau of between 100 to 200 GHz, while time domain measurement have improved markedly in both bandwidth and sensitivity with the introduction of the pulsed laser based electro-optic sampling approach. Network analysis or the measurement of device scattering parameters provides information necessary to the design of electronic network such as high frequency amplifiers, mixers, and phase shifter. The bandwidth of frequency domain network analysis is currently being exceeded by the next generations of high frequency transistors and devices. Thus the electro-optic approach is a natural means of extending network analysis into the range above 100 GHz by employing time domain methods. In this approach, a suitable electrical excitation pulse is generated and propagated along a transmission line toward a test device. In the picosecond domain, laser driven photoconductive switches provide a unique method of generating electrical transients. Several materials were studied for generating short electrical pulses using photoconductive switches. The various semiconductive materials tested for photoconductive switching, and the electro-optic measurement technique used to characterize the material performance are described.

  9. Comparison of fiber length analyzers

    Treesearch

    Don Guay; Nancy Ross Sutherland; Walter Rantanen; Nicole Malandri; Aimee Stephens; Kathleen Mattingly; Matt Schneider

    2005-01-01

    In recent years, several fiber new fiber length analyzers have been developed and brought to market. The new instruments provide faster measurements and the capability of both laboratory and on-line analysis. Do the various fiber analyzers provide the same length, coarseness, width, and fines measurements for a given fiber sample? This paper provides a comparison of...

  10. C2Analyzer: Co-target–Co-function Analyzer

    PubMed Central

    Aftabuddin, Md.; Mal, Chittabrata; Deb, Arindam; Kundu, Sudip

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) interact with their target mRNAs and regulate biological processes at post-transcriptional level. While one miRNA can target many mRNAs, a single mRNA can also be targeted by a set of miRNAs. The targeted mRNAs may be involved in different biological processes that are described by gene ontology (GO) terms. The major challenges involved in analyzing these multitude regulations include identification of the combinatorial regulation of miRNAs as well as determination of the co-functionally-enriched miRNA pairs. The C2Analyzer: Co-target–Co-function Analyzer, is a Perl-based, versatile and user-friendly web tool with online instructions. Based on the hypergeometric analysis, this novel tool can determine whether given pairs of miRNAs are co-functionally enriched. For a given set of GO term(s), it can also identify the set of miRNAs whose targets are enriched in the given GO term(s). Moreover, C2Analyzer can also identify the co-targeting miRNA pairs, their targets and GO processes, which they are involved in. The miRNA–miRNA co-functional relationship can also be saved as a .txt file, which can be used to further visualize the co-functional network by using other software like Cytoscape. C2Analyzer is freely available at www.bioinformatics.org/c2analyzer. PMID:24862384

  11. Using computers to analyze continuous data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catherines, J. J.; Clevenson, S. A.; Scholl, H. F.

    1973-01-01

    Dynamic field measurements often involve large quantities of continuous data, which must be analyzed and interpreted to obtain meaningful information. The processing can often be accomplished by tape-recording the data in analog form, performing off-line digitalization, and using the result as an input to statistical programs on a digital computer. A time series analysis was used to obtain power spectral density (PSD) curves to identify dominant frequencies. Representative PSD plots were obtained for STOL aircraft during cruise. Vibrational energy was clearly concentrated below 0.1 Hz, and was much higher in the vertical than in the lateral direction.

  12. Nonlinear Single-Spin Spectrum Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Glickman, Yinnon; Ozeri, Roee

    2013-03-01

    Qubits have been used as linear spectrum analyzers of their environments. Here we solve the problem of nonlinear spectral analysis, required for discrete noise induced by a strongly coupled environment. Our nonperturbative analytical model shows a nonlinear signal dependence on noise power, resulting in a spectral resolution beyond the Fourier limit as well as frequency mixing. We develop a noise characterization scheme adapted to this nonlinearity. We then apply it using a single trapped ion as a sensitive probe of strong, non-Gaussian, discrete magnetic field noise. Finally, we experimentally compared the performance of equidistant vs Uhrig modulation schemes for spectral analysis.

  13. Nonlinear single-spin spectrum analyzer.

    PubMed

    Kotler, Shlomi; Akerman, Nitzan; Glickman, Yinnon; Ozeri, Roee

    2013-03-15

    Qubits have been used as linear spectrum analyzers of their environments. Here we solve the problem of nonlinear spectral analysis, required for discrete noise induced by a strongly coupled environment. Our nonperturbative analytical model shows a nonlinear signal dependence on noise power, resulting in a spectral resolution beyond the Fourier limit as well as frequency mixing. We develop a noise characterization scheme adapted to this nonlinearity. We then apply it using a single trapped ion as a sensitive probe of strong, non-Gaussian, discrete magnetic field noise. Finally, we experimentally compared the performance of equidistant vs Uhrig modulation schemes for spectral analysis.

  14. Calibration of optical particle-size analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Pechin, William H.; Thacker, Louis H.; Turner, Lloyd J.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to a system for the calibration of an optical particle-size analyzer of the light-intercepting type for spherical particles, wherein a rotary wheel or disc is provided with radially-extending wires of differing diameters, each wire corresponding to a particular equivalent spherical particle diameter. These wires are passed at an appropriate frequency between the light source and the light detector of the analyzer. The reduction of light as received at the detector is a measure of the size of the wire, and the electronic signal may then be adjusted to provide the desired signal for corresponding spherical particles. This calibrator may be operated at any time without interrupting other processing.

  15. Note: The intermodulation lockin analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Tholen, Erik A.; Hutter, Carsten; Platz, Daniel; Forchheimer, Daniel; Haviland, David B.; Schuler, Vivien; Tholen, Mats O.

    2011-02-15

    Nonlinear systems can be probed by driving them with two or more pure tones while measuring the intermodulation products of the drive tones in the response. We describe a digital lockin analyzer which is designed explicitly for this purpose. The analyzer is implemented on a field-programmable gate array, providing speed in analysis, real-time feedback, and stability in operation. The use of the analyzer is demonstrated for intermodulation atomic force microscopy. A generalization of the intermodulation spectral technique to arbitrary drive waveforms is discussed.

  16. Note: The intermodulation lockin analyzer.

    PubMed

    Tholén, Erik A; Platz, Daniel; Forchheimer, Daniel; Schuler, Vivien; Tholén, Mats O; Hutter, Carsten; Haviland, David B

    2011-02-01

    Nonlinear systems can be probed by driving them with two or more pure tones while measuring the intermodulation products of the drive tones in the response. We describe a digital lockin analyzer which is designed explicitly for this purpose. The analyzer is implemented on a field-programmable gate array, providing speed in analysis, real-time feedback, and stability in operation. The use of the analyzer is demonstrated for intermodulation atomic force microscopy. A generalization of the intermodulation spectral technique to arbitrary drive waveforms is discussed.

  17. Nuclear fuel microsphere gamma analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Valentine, Kenneth H.; Long, Jr., Ernest L.; Willey, Melvin G.

    1977-01-01

    A gamma analyzer system is provided for the analysis of nuclear fuel microspheres and other radioactive particles. The system consists of an analysis turntable with means for loading, in sequence, a plurality of stations within the turntable; a gamma ray detector for determining the spectrum of a sample in one section; means for analyzing the spectrum; and a receiver turntable to collect the analyzed material in stations according to the spectrum analysis. Accordingly, particles may be sorted according to their quality; e.g., fuel particles with fractured coatings may be separated from those that are not fractured, or according to other properties.

  18. Improved cylindrical mirror energy analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranova, L. A.

    2017-03-01

    A study has been carried out of the electron-optical properties of improved design of the cylindrical mirror energy analyzer. Both external and internal electrodes of the analyzer are divided into three isolated parts, whereby the potentials on the individual parts can be regulated independently from each other. In symmetric operating mode at identical potentials on the side parts of the electrodes, a significant increase has been obtained in resolving power and light-gathering power of the analyzer compared to the standard design of the cylindrical mirror. In asymmetric operating mode, which is implemented in a linear potential distribution on the external electrode, the conditions have been found under which the linear dispersion of the analyzer increases several times.

  19. Molecular wake shield gas analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. H.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques for measuring and characterizing the ultrahigh vacuum in the wake of an orbiting spacecraft are studied. A high sensitivity mass spectrometer that contains a double mass analyzer consisting of an open source miniature magnetic sector field neutral gas analyzer and an identical ion analyzer is proposed. These are configured to detect and identify gas and ion species of hydrogen, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, nitric oxide, and carbon dioxide and any other gas or ion species in the 1 to 46 amu mass range. This range covers the normal atmospheric constituents. The sensitivity of the instrument is sufficient to measure ambient gases and ion with a particle density of the order of one per cc. A chemical pump, or getter, is mounted near the entrance aperture of the neutral gas analyzer which integrates the absorption of ambient gases for a selectable period of time for subsequent release and analysis. The sensitivity is realizable for all but rare gases using this technique.

  20. Market study: Whole blood analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A market survey was conducted to develop findings relative to the commercialization potential and key market factors of the whole blood analyzer which is being developed in conjunction with NASA's Space Shuttle Medical System.

  1. A Categorization of Dynamic Analyzers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lujan, Michelle R.

    1997-01-01

    Program analysis techniques and tools are essential to the development process because of the support they provide in detecting errors and deficiencies at different phases of development. The types of information rendered through analysis includes the following: statistical measurements of code, type checks, dataflow analysis, consistency checks, test data,verification of code, and debugging information. Analyzers can be broken into two major categories: dynamic and static. Static analyzers examine programs with respect to syntax errors and structural properties., This includes gathering statistical information on program content, such as the number of lines of executable code, source lines. and cyclomatic complexity. In addition, static analyzers provide the ability to check for the consistency of programs with respect to variables. Dynamic analyzers in contrast are dependent on input and the execution of a program providing the ability to find errors that cannot be detected through the use of static analysis alone. Dynamic analysis provides information on the behavior of a program rather than on the syntax. Both types of analysis detect errors in a program, but dynamic analyzers accomplish this through run-time behavior. This paper focuses on the following broad classification of dynamic analyzers: 1) Metrics; 2) Models; and 3) Monitors. Metrics are those analyzers that provide measurement. The next category, models, captures those analyzers that present the state of the program to the user at specified points in time. The last category, monitors, checks specified code based on some criteria. The paper discusses each classification and the techniques that are included under them. In addition, the role of each technique in the software life cycle is discussed. Familiarization with the tools that measure, model and monitor programs provides a framework for understanding the program's dynamic behavior from different, perspectives through analysis of the input

  2. 21 CFR 882.1420 - Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum....1420 Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer. (a) Identification. An electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer is a device used to display the frequency content or power...

  3. 21 CFR 882.1420 - Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum....1420 Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer. (a) Identification. An electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer is a device used to display the frequency content or power...

  4. 21 CFR 882.1420 - Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum....1420 Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer. (a) Identification. An electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer is a device used to display the frequency content or power...

  5. 21 CFR 882.1420 - Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum....1420 Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer. (a) Identification. An electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer is a device used to display the frequency content or power...

  6. 21 CFR 882.1420 - Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum....1420 Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer. (a) Identification. An electroencephalogram (EEG) signal spectrum analyzer is a device used to display the frequency content or power...

  7. Frequency tracked gated pulse technique for ultrasonic frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantrell, Jr., John H. (Inventor); Heyman, Joseph S. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A tracking generator 21 is slaved to a spectrum analyzer 23 to produce an input signal having a frequency that follows the frequency of the spectrum analyzer sweeping local oscillator 22. The input signal is gated to a transducer 26 by a transmitter gate 25 to produce ultrasonic waves in the sample 28. The resulting ultrasonic echoes are converted into electrical signals by the transducer and then gated into the spectrum analyzer by receiver gate 29. This arrangement produces spectra that are equivalent to shock-exciting the transducer with a true delta function shock-excitation.

  8. Numerical methods for analyzing electromagnetic scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. W.; Lo, Y. T.; Chuang, S. L.; Lee, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    Numerical methods to analyze electromagnetic scattering are presented. The dispersions and attenuations of the normal modes in a circular waveguide coated with lossy material were completely analyzed. The radar cross section (RCS) from a circular waveguide coated with lossy material was calculated. The following is observed: (1) the interior irradiation contributes to the RCS much more than does the rim diffraction; (2) at low frequency, the RCS from the circular waveguide terminated by a perfect electric conductor (PEC) can be reduced more than 13 dB down with a coating thickness less than 1% of the radius using the best lossy material available in a 6 radius-long cylinder; (3) at high frequency, a modal separation between the highly attenuated and the lowly attenuated modes is evident if the coating material is too lossy, however, a large RCS reduction can be achieved for a small incident angle with a thin layer of coating. It is found that the waveguide coated with a lossy magnetic material can be used as a substitute for a corrugated waveguide to produce a circularly polarized radiation yield.

  9. On-Demand Urine Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farquharson, Stuart; Inscore, Frank; Shende, Chetan

    2010-01-01

    A lab-on-a-chip was developed that is capable of extracting biochemical indicators from urine samples and generating their surface-enhanced Raman spectra (SERS) so that the indicators can be quantified and identified. The development was motivated by the need to monitor and assess the effects of extended weightlessness, which include space motion sickness and loss of bone and muscle mass. The results may lead to developments of effective exercise programs and drug regimes that would maintain astronaut health. The analyzer containing the lab-on-a- chip includes materials to extract 3- methylhistidine (a muscle-loss indicator) and Risedronate (a bone-loss indicator) from the urine sample and detect them at the required concentrations using a Raman analyzer. The lab-on- a-chip has both an extractive material and a SERS-active material. The analyzer could be used to monitor the onset of diseases, such as osteoporosis.

  10. Rotor for centrifugal fast analyzers

    DOEpatents

    Lee, N.E.

    1984-01-01

    The invention is an improved photometric analyzer of the rotary cuvette type, the analyzer incorporating a multicuvette rotor of novel design. The rotor (a) is leaktight, (b) permits operation in the 90/sup 0/ and 180/sup 0/ excitation modes, (c) is compatible with extensively used Centrifugal Fast Analyzers, and (d) can be used thousands of times. The rotor includes an assembly comprising a top plate, a bottom plate, and a central plate, the rim of the central plate being formed with circumferentially spaced indentations. A uv-transmitting ring is sealably affixed to the indented rim to define with the indentations an array of cuvettes. The ring serves both as a sealing means and an end window for the cuvettes.

  11. Rotor for centrifugal fast analyzers

    DOEpatents

    Lee, Norman E.

    1985-01-01

    The invention is an improved photometric analyzer of the rotary cuvette type, the analyzer incorporating a multicuvette rotor of novel design. The rotor (a) is leaktight, (b) permits operation in the 90.degree. and 180.degree. excitation modes, (c) is compatible with extensively used Centrifugal Fast Analyzers, and (d) can be used thousands of times. The rotor includes an assembly comprising a top plate, a bottom plate, and a central plate, the rim of the central plate being formed with circumferentially spaced indentations. A UV-transmitting ring is sealably affixed to the indented rim to define with the indentations an array of cuvettes. The ring serves both as a sealing means and an end window for the cuvettes.

  12. Cosmic dust analyzer for Cassini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, James G.; Gruen, Eberhard; Srama, Ralf

    1996-10-01

    The cosmic dust analyzer (CDA) is designed to characterize the dust environment in interplanetary space, in the Jovian and in the Saturnian systems. The instrument consists of two major components, the dust analyzer (DA) and the high rate detector (HRD). The DA has a large aperture to provide a large cross section for detection in low flux environments. The DA has the capability of determining dust particle mass, velocity, flight direction, charge, and chemical composition. The chemical composition is determined by the chemical analyzer system based on a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The DA is capable of making full measurements up to one impact/second. The HRD contains two smaller PVDF detectors and electronics designed to characterize dust particle masses at impact rates up to 10(superscript 4) impacts/second. These high impact rates are expected during Saturn ring plane crossings.

  13. Digital signal processing in the radio science stability analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, C. A.

    1995-01-01

    The Telecommunications Division has built a stability analyzer for testing Deep Space Network installations during flight radio science experiments. The low-frequency part of the analyzer operates by digitizing wave signals with bandwidths between 80 Hz and 45 kHz. Processed outputs include spectra of signal, phase, amplitude, and differential phase; time series of the same quantities; and Allan deviation of phase and differential phase. This article documents the digital signal-processing methods programmed into the analyzer.

  14. Real time infrared aerosol analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Stanley A.; Reedy, Gerald T.; Kumar, Romesh

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for analyzing aerosols in essentially real time includes a virtual impactor which separates coarse particles from fine and ultrafine particles in an aerosol sample. The coarse and ultrafine particles are captured in PTFE filters, and the fine particles impact onto an internal light reflection element. The composition and quantity of the particles on the PTFE filter and on the internal reflection element are measured by alternately passing infrared light through the filter and the internal light reflection element, and analyzing the light through infrared spectrophotometry to identify the particles in the sample.

  15. An update on chemistry analyzers.

    PubMed

    Vap, L M; Mitzner, B

    1996-09-01

    This update of six chemistry analyzers available to the clinician discusses several points that should be considered prior to the purchase of equipment. General topics include how to best match an instrument to clinic needs and the indirect costs associated with instrument operation. Quality assurance recommendations are discussed and common terms are defined. Specific instrument features, principles of operation, performance, and costs are presented. The information provided offers potential purchasers an objective approach to the evaluation of a chemistry analyzer for the veterinary clinic.

  16. Pollution Analyzing and Monitoring Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1972

    Compiled in this book is basic, technical information useful in a systems approach to pollution control. Descriptions and specifications are given of what is available in ready made, on-the-line commercial equipment for sampling, monitoring, measuring and continuously analyzing the multitudinous types of pollutants found in the air, water, soil,…

  17. Strategies for Analyzing Tone Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coupe, Alexander R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines a method of auditory and acoustic analysis for determining the tonemes of a language starting from scratch, drawing on the author's experience of recording and analyzing tone languages of north-east India. The methodology is applied to a preliminary analysis of tone in the Thang dialect of Khiamniungan, a virtually undocumented…

  18. Strategies for Analyzing Tone Languages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coupe, Alexander R.

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines a method of auditory and acoustic analysis for determining the tonemes of a language starting from scratch, drawing on the author's experience of recording and analyzing tone languages of north-east India. The methodology is applied to a preliminary analysis of tone in the Thang dialect of Khiamniungan, a virtually undocumented…

  19. Therapy Talk: Analyzing Therapeutic Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Margaret M.

    2004-01-01

    Therapeutic discourse is the talk-in-interaction that represents the social practice between clinician and client. This article invites speech-language pathologists to apply their knowledge of language to analyzing therapy talk and to learn how talking practices shape clinical roles and identities. A range of qualitative research approaches,…

  20. Helping Students Analyze Business Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devet, Bonnie

    2001-01-01

    Notes that student writers gain greater insight into the importance of audience by analyzing business documents. Discusses how business writing teachers can help students understand the rhetorical refinements of writing to an audience. Presents an assignment designed to lead writers systematically through an analysis of two advertisements. (SG)

  1. Therapy Talk: Analyzing Therapeutic Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Margaret M.

    2004-01-01

    Therapeutic discourse is the talk-in-interaction that represents the social practice between clinician and client. This article invites speech-language pathologists to apply their knowledge of language to analyzing therapy talk and to learn how talking practices shape clinical roles and identities. A range of qualitative research approaches,…

  2. Methods of analyzing crude oil

    DOEpatents

    Cooks, Robert Graham; Jjunju, Fred Paul Mark; Li, Anyin; Rogan, Iman S.

    2017-08-15

    The invention generally relates to methods of analyzing crude oil. In certain embodiments, methods of the invention involve obtaining a crude oil sample, and subjecting the crude oil sample to mass spectrometry analysis. In certain embodiments, the method is performed without any sample pre-purification steps.

  3. Analyzing Software Piracy in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesisko, Lee James

    This study analyzes the controversy of software piracy in education. It begins with a real world scenario that presents the setting and context of the problem. The legalities and background of software piracy are explained and true court cases are briefly examined. Discussion then focuses on explaining why individuals and organizations pirate…

  4. Analyzing Classroom Instruction in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, William L.

    A method for analyzing instructional techniques employed during reading group instruction is reported, and the characteristics of the effective reading teacher are discussed. Teaching effectiveness is divided into two categories: (1) how the teacher acts and interacts with children on a personal level and (2) how the teacher performs his…

  5. Improvement of a respiratory ozone analyzer.

    PubMed

    Ultman, J S; Ben-Jebria, A; Mac Dougall, C S; Rigas, M L

    1997-10-01

    The breath-to-breath measurement of total respiratory ozone (O3) uptake requires monitoring O3 concentration at the airway opening with an instrument that responds rapidly relative to the breathing frequency. Our original chemiluminescent analyzer, using 2-methyl-2-butene as the reactant gas, had a 10% to 90% step-response time of 110 msec and a minimal detectable concentration of 0.018 parts per million (ppm) O3 (Ben-Jebria et al. 1990). This instrument was suitable for respiratory O3 monitoring during quiet breathing and light exercise. For this study, we constructed a more self-contained analyzer with a faster response time using ethylene as the reactant gas. When the analyzer was operated at a reaction chamber pressure of 350 torr, an ethylene-to-sample flow ratio of 4:1, and a sampling flow of 0.6 liters per minute (Lpm), it had a 10% to 90% step-response time of 70 msec and a minimal detectable concentration of 0.006 ppm. These specifications make respiratory O3 monitoring possible during moderate-to-heavy exercise. In addition, the nonlinear calibration and the carbon dioxide (CO2) interference exhibited by the original analyzer were eliminated. In breath-to-breath measurements in two healthy men, the fractional uptake of O3 during one minute of quiet breathing was comparable to the results obtained by using a slowly responding commercial analyzer with a quasi-steady material balance method (Wiester et al. 1996). In fact, fractional uptake was about 0.8 regardless of O3 exposure concentration (0.11 to 0.43 ppm) or ventilation rate (4 to 41 Lpm/m2).

  6. Introduction: why analyze single cells?

    PubMed

    Di Carlo, Dino; Tse, Henry Tat Kwong; Gossett, Daniel R

    2012-01-01

    Powerful methods in molecular biology are abundant; however, in many fields including hematology, stem cell biology, tissue engineering, and cancer biology, data from tools and assays that analyze the average signals from many cells may not yield the desired result because the cells of interest may be in the minority-their behavior masked by the majority-or because the dynamics of the populations of interest are offset in time. Accurate characterization of samples with high cellular heterogeneity may only be achieved by analyzing single cells. In this chapter, we discuss the rationale for performing analyses on individual cells in more depth, cover the fields of study in which single-cell behavior is yielding new insights into biological and clinical questions, and speculate on how single-cell analysis will be critical in the future.

  7. Development of BWR plant analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Lekach, S.V.; Stritar, A.; Mallen, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    The BWR Plant Analyzer has been developed for realistic and accurate simulations of normal and severe abnormal transients in BWR power plants at high simulation speeds, low capital and operating costs and with outstanding user conveniences. The simulation encompasses neutron kinetics, heat conduction in fuel structures, nonequilibrium, nonhomogeneous coolant dynamics, steam line acoustics, and the dynamics of turbines, condensers, feedwater pumps and heaters, of the suppression pool, the control systems and the plant protection systems. These objectives have been achieved. Advanced modeling, using extensively analytical integration and dynamic evaluation of analytical solutions, has been combined with modern minicomputer technology for high-speed simulation of complex systems. The High-Speed Interactive Plant Analyzer code HIPA-BWR has been implemented on the AD10 peripheral parallel processor.

  8. High reliability FBG interrogation analyzers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, William; Zhang, Charlie; Bergles, Eric

    2009-05-01

    The invention of optical fiber and semiconductor lasers in the 1960s opened up a cornucopia of applications, notably as a medium of carrying light signals for communications and sensing applications. Optical fibers provide a fundamental improvement over traditional methods offering lower loss, higher bandwidth, immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI), lighter weight, lower cost, and lower maintenance. By applying a UV laser to "burn" or write a diffraction grating (A Fiber Bragg Grating-FBG) in the fiber it became possible to reflect certain wavelengths of light, which used together with an interrogation analyzer (spectral analyzer) precise sensing measurements could be taken. The recent developments of optoelectronics components in the optical telecommunications field have dramatically enhanced the capabilities of many components, such as: light sources, fibers, detectors, optical amplifiers, mux/demuxes, switches, etc. As a result, numerous applications are now available for monitoring strain, stress and pressure in harsh environments. Examples of current and planned deployments will be presented.

  9. DEEP WATER ISOTOPIC CURRENT ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Johnston, W.H.

    1964-04-21

    A deepwater isotopic current analyzer, which employs radioactive isotopes for measurement of ocean currents at various levels beneath the sea, is described. The apparatus, which can determine the direction and velocity of liquid currents, comprises a shaft having a plurality of radiation detectors extending equidistant radially therefrom, means for releasing radioactive isotopes from the shaft, and means for determining the time required for the isotope to reach a particular detector. (AEC)

  10. Frequency of orthodontic extraction

    PubMed Central

    Dardengo, Camila de S.; Fernandes, Luciana Q. P.; Capelli, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The option of dental extraction for orthodontic purposes has been debated for more than 100 years, including periods when it was widely used in treatment, including the present, during which other methods are used to avoid dental extractions. The objective was to analyze the frequency of tooth extraction treatment performed between 1980 and 2011 at the Orthodontic Clinic of Universidade Estadual do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ). Material and Methods: The clinical records of 1484 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment were evaluated. The frequency of extractions was evaluated with regard to sex, Angle's classification, the different combinations of extractions and the period when orthodontic treatment began. Chi-square test was used to determine correlations between variables, while the chi-square test for trends was used to assess the frequency of extractions over the years. Results: There was a reduction of approximately 20% in the frequency of cases treated with tooth extraction over the last 32 years. The most frequently extracted teeth were first premolars. Patients with Class I malocclusion showed fewer extractions, while Class II patients underwent a higher number of extraction treatment. There were no statistically significant differences with regard to sex. Conclusion: New features introduced into the orthodontic clinic and new esthetic concepts contributed to reducing the number of cases treated with dental extractions. However, dental extractions for orthodontic purposes are still well indicated in certain cases. PMID:27007762

  11. Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer Instrument Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Springston, Stephen R

    2016-05-01

    The Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer measures sulfur dioxide based on absorbance of UV light at one wavelength by SO2 molecules which then decay to a lower energy state by emitting UV light at a longer wavelength. Specifically, SO2 + hυ1 →SO2 *→SO2 + hυ2 The emitted light is proportional to the concentration of SO2 in the optical cell. External communication with the analyzer is available through an Ethernet port configured through the instrument network of the AOS systems. The Model 43i-TLE is part of the i-series of Thermo Scientific instruments. The i-series instruments are designed to interface with external computers through the proprietary Thermo Scientific iPort Software. However, this software is somewhat cumbersome and inflexible. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has written an interface program in National Instruments LabView that both controls the Model 43i-TLE Analyzer AND queries the unit for all measurement and housekeeping data. The LabView vi (the software program written by BNL) ingests all raw data from the instrument and outputs raw data files in a uniform data format similar to other instruments in the AOS and described more fully in Section 6.0 below.

  12. Analyzing Big Data in Psychology: A Split/Analyze/Meta-Analyze Approach.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Mike W-L; Jak, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Big data is a field that has traditionally been dominated by disciplines such as computer science and business, where mainly data-driven analyses have been performed. Psychology, a discipline in which a strong emphasis is placed on behavioral theories and empirical research, has the potential to contribute greatly to the big data movement. However, one challenge to psychologists-and probably the most crucial one-is that most researchers may not have the necessary programming and computational skills to analyze big data. In this study we argue that psychologists can also conduct big data research and that, rather than trying to acquire new programming and computational skills, they should focus on their strengths, such as performing psychometric analyses and testing theories using multivariate analyses to explain phenomena. We propose a split/analyze/meta-analyze approach that allows psychologists to easily analyze big data. Two real datasets are used to demonstrate the proposed procedures in R. A new research agenda related to the analysis of big data in psychology is outlined at the end of the study.

  13. Analyzing Big Data in Psychology: A Split/Analyze/Meta-Analyze Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Mike W.-L.; Jak, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Big data is a field that has traditionally been dominated by disciplines such as computer science and business, where mainly data-driven analyses have been performed. Psychology, a discipline in which a strong emphasis is placed on behavioral theories and empirical research, has the potential to contribute greatly to the big data movement. However, one challenge to psychologists—and probably the most crucial one—is that most researchers may not have the necessary programming and computational skills to analyze big data. In this study we argue that psychologists can also conduct big data research and that, rather than trying to acquire new programming and computational skills, they should focus on their strengths, such as performing psychometric analyses and testing theories using multivariate analyses to explain phenomena. We propose a split/analyze/meta-analyze approach that allows psychologists to easily analyze big data. Two real datasets are used to demonstrate the proposed procedures in R. A new research agenda related to the analysis of big data in psychology is outlined at the end of the study. PMID:27242639

  14. Digital frequency control of satellite frequency standards. [Defense Navigation Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, S. A.

    1973-01-01

    In the Frequency and Time Standard Development Program of the TIMATION System, a new miniaturized rubidium vapor frequency standard has been tested and analyzed for possible use on the TIMATION 3A launch, as part of the Defense Navigation Satellite Development Program. The design and construction of a digital frequency control was required to remotely control this rubidium vapor frequency standard as well as the quartz oscillator in current use. This control must be capable of accepting commands from a satellite telemetry system, verify that the correct commands have been sent and control the frequency to the requirements of the system. Several modifications must be performed to the rubidium vapor frequency standard to allow it to be compatible with the digital frequency control. These include the addition of a varactor to voltage tune the coarse range of the flywheel oscillator, and a modification to supply the C field current externally. The digital frequency control for the rubidium vapor frequency standard has been successfully tested in prototype form.

  15. Rotating field mass and velocity analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Steven Joel (Inventor); Chutjian, Ara (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A rotating field mass and velocity analyzer having a cell with four walls, time dependent RF potentials that are applied to each wall, and a detector. The time dependent RF potentials create an RF field in the cell which effectively rotates within the cell. An ion beam is accelerated into the cell and the rotating RF field disperses the incident ion beam according to the mass-to-charge (m/e) ratio and velocity distribution present in the ion beam. The ions of the beam either collide with the ion detector or deflect away from the ion detector, depending on the m/e, RF amplitude, and RF frequency. The detector counts the incident ions to determine the m/e and velocity distribution in the ion beam.

  16. The Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iceland, Charles

    2015-04-01

    As population growth and economic growth take place, and as climate change accelerates, many regions across the globe are finding themselves increasingly vulnerable to flooding. A recent OECD study of the exposure of the world's large port cities to coastal flooding found that 40 million people were exposed to a 1 in 100 year coastal flood event in 2005, and the total value of exposed assets was about US 3,000 billion, or 5% of global GDP. By the 2070s, those numbers were estimated to increase to 150 million people and US 35,000 billion, or roughly 9% of projected global GDP. Impoverished people in developing countries are particularly at risk because they often live in flood-prone areas and lack the resources to respond. WRI and its Dutch partners - Deltares, IVM-VU University Amsterdam, Utrecht University, and PBL Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency - are in the initial stages of developing a robust set of river flood and coastal storm surge risk measures that show the extent of flooding under a variety of scenarios (both current and future), together with the projected human and economic impacts of these flood scenarios. These flood risk data and information will be accessible via an online, easy-to-use Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer. We will also investigate the viability, benefits, and costs of a wide array of flood risk reduction measures that could be implemented in a variety of geographic and socio-economic settings. Together, the activities we propose have the potential for saving hundreds of thousands of lives and strengthening the resiliency and security of many millions more, especially those who are most vulnerable. Mr. Iceland will present Version 1.0 of the Aqueduct Global Flood Analyzer and provide a preview of additional elements of the Analyzer to be released in the coming years.

  17. The OpenSHMEM Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, Oscar

    2014-07-30

    The OpenSHMEM Analyzer is a compiler-based tool that can help users detect errors and provide useful analyses about their OpenSHMEM applications. The tool is built on top of the OpenUH compiler (a branch of Open64 compiler) and presents OpenSHMEM information as feedback to the user. Some of the analyses it provides include checks for correct usage of symmetric variables in OpenSHMEM calls, out-of-bounds checks for symmetric data, checks for the correct initialization of pointers to symmetric data, and symmetric data alias information.

  18. Ballistic Mass And Velocity Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chutjian, Ara; Smith, Steven J.; Hecht, Michael

    1996-01-01

    Proposed device for measuring distribution of masses and velocities of ions in plasma or ion beam of general type denoted variously as mass, velocity, and energy analyzers. Yields indications of charge-to-mass ratios and velocities; from these quantities, one computes masses and energies if one also either measures charges of ions by other means or else makes realistic assumption that each ion carries small number (usually 1) of fundamental units of electric charge. In comparison with older devices of this type, device smaller, and operates faster, yielding simultaneous indications of both charge-to-mass ratios and velocities.

  19. Trace Gas Analyzer (TGA) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and test of a breadboard trace gas analyzer (TGA) is documented. The TGA is a gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer system. The gas chromatograph subsystem employs a recirculating hydrogen carrier gas. The recirculation feature minimizes the requirement for transport and storage of large volumes of carrier gas during a mission. The silver-palladium hydrogen separator which permits the removal of the carrier gas and its reuse also decreases vacuum requirements for the mass spectrometer since the mass spectrometer vacuum system need handle only the very low sample pressure, not sample plus carrier. System performance was evaluated with a representative group of compounds.

  20. Metabolic analyzer. [for Skylab mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, C. L.

    1973-01-01

    An apparatus is described for the measurement of metabolic rate and breathing dynamics in which inhaled and exhaled breath are sensed by sealed, piston-displacement type spirometers. These spirometers electrically measure the volume of inhaled and exhaled breath. A mass spectrometer analyzes simultaneously for oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and water vapor. Circuits responsive to the outputs of the spirometers, mass spectrometer, temperature, pressure, and timing signals compute oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, minute volume, and respiratory exchange ratio. A selective indicator provides for readout of these data at predetermined cyclic intervals.

  1. Charged particle mobility refrigerant analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Allman, S.L.; Chunghsuan Chen; Chen, F.C.

    1993-02-02

    A method for analyzing a gaseous electronegative species comprises the steps of providing an analysis chamber; providing an electric field of known potential within the analysis chamber; admitting into the analysis chamber a gaseous sample containing the gaseous electronegative species; providing a pulse of free electrons within the electric field so that the pulse of free electrons interacts with the gaseous electronegative species so that a swarm of electrically charged particles is produced within the electric field; and, measuring the mobility of the electrically charged particles within the electric field.

  2. Method for analyzing microbial communities

    DOEpatents

    Zhou, Jizhong [Oak Ridge, TN; Wu, Liyou [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-07-20

    The present invention provides a method for quantitatively analyzing microbial genes, species, or strains in a sample that contains at least two species or strains of microorganisms. The method involves using an isothermal DNA polymerase to randomly and representatively amplify genomic DNA of the microorganisms in the sample, hybridizing the resultant polynucleotide amplification product to a polynucleotide microarray that can differentiate different genes, species, or strains of microorganisms of interest, and measuring hybridization signals on the microarray to quantify the genes, species, or strains of interest.

  3. VOSA: A VO SED Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigo, C.; Bayo, A.; Solano, E.

    2017-03-01

    VOSA (VO Sed Analyzer, http://svo2.cab.inta-csic.es/theory/vosa) is a public web-tool developed by the Spanish Virtual Observatory (http://svo.cab.inta-csic.es/) and designed to help users to (1) build Spectral Energy Distributions (SEDs) combining private photometric measurements with data available in VO services, (2) obtain relevant properties of these objects (distance, extinction, etc) from VO catalogs, (3) analyze them comparing observed photometry with synthetic photometry from different collections of theoretical models or observational templates, using different techniques (chi-square minimization, Bayesian analysis) to estimate physical parameters of the observed objects (teff, logg, metallicity, stellar radius/distance ratio, infrared excess, etc), and use these results to (4) estimate masses and ages via interpolation of collections of isochrones and evolutionary tracks from the VO. In particular, VOSA offers the advantage of deriving physical parameters using all the available photometric information instead of a restricted subset of colors. The results can be downloaded in different formats or sent to other VO tools using SAMP. We have upgraded VOSA to provide access to Gaia photometry and give a homogeneous estimation of the physical parameters of thousands of objects at a time. This upgrade has required the implementation of a new computation paradigm, including a distributed environment, the capability of submitting and processing jobs in an asynchronous way, the use of parallelized computing to speed up processes (˜ ten times faster) and a new design of the web interface.

  4. Thermal and evolved gas analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, M. S.; Boynton, W. V.; James, R. L.; Verts, W. T.; Bailey, S. H.; Hamara, D. K.

    1998-01-01

    The Thermal and Evolved Gas Analyzer (TEGA) instrument will perform calorimetry and evolved gas analysis on soil samples collected from the Martian surface. TEGA is one of three instruments, along with a robotic arm, that form the Mars Volatile and Climate Survey (MVACS) payload. The other instruments are a stereo surface imager, built by Peter Smith of the University of Arizona and a meteorological station, built by JPL. The MVACS lander will investigate a Martian landing site at approximately 70 deg south latitude. Launch will take place from Kennedy Space Center in January, 1999. The TEGA project started in February, 1996. In the intervening 24 months, a flight instrument concept has been designed, prototyped, built as an engineering model and flight model, and tested. The instrument performs laboratory-quality differential-scanning calorimetry (DSC) over the temperature range of Mars ambient to 1400K. Low-temperature volatiles (water and carbon dioxide ices) and the carbonates will be analyzed in this temperature range. Carbonates melt and evolve carbon dioxide at temperatures above 600 C. Evolved oxygen (down to a concentration of 1 ppm) is detected, and C02 and water vapor and the isotopic variations of C02 and water vapor are detected and their concentrations measured. The isotopic composition provides important tests of the theory of solar system formation.

  5. COBSTRAN - COMPOSITE BLADE STRUCTURAL ANALYZER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aiello, R. A.

    1994-01-01

    The COBSTRAN (COmposite Blade STRuctural ANalyzer) program is a pre- and post-processor that facilitates the design and analysis of composite turbofan and turboprop blades, as well as composite wind turbine blades. COBSTRAN combines composite mechanics and laminate theory with a data base of fiber and matrix properties. As a preprocessor for NASTRAN or another Finite Element Method (FEM) program, COBSTRAN generates an FEM model with anisotropic homogeneous material properties. Stress output from the FEM program is provided as input to the COBSTRAN postprocessor. The postprocessor then uses the composite mechanics and laminate theory routines to calculate individual ply stresses, strains, interply stresses, thru-the-thickness stresses and failure margins. COBSTRAN is designed to carry out the many linear analyses required to efficiently model and analyze blade-like structural components made of multilayered angle-plied fiber composites. Components made from isotropic or anisotropic homogeneous materials can also be modeled as a special case of COBSTRAN. NASTRAN MAT1 or MAT2 material cards are generated according to user supplied properties. COBSTRAN is written in FORTRAN 77 and was implemented on a CRAY X-MP with a UNICOS 5.0.12 operating system. The program requires either COSMIC NASTRAN or MSC NASTRAN as a structural analysis package. COBSTRAN was developed in 1989, and has a memory requirement of 262,066 64 bit words.

  6. Identification of site frequencies from building records

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Celebi, M.

    2003-01-01

    A simple procedure to identify site frequencies using earthquake response records from roofs and basements of buildings is presented. For this purpose, data from five different buildings are analyzed using only spectral analyses techniques. Additional data such as free-field records in close proximity to the buildings and site characterization data are also used to estimate site frequencies and thereby to provide convincing evidence and confirmation of the site frequencies inferred from the building records. Furthermore, simple code-formula is used to calculate site frequencies and compare them with the identified site frequencies from records. Results show that the simple procedure is effective in identification of site frequencies and provides relatively reliable estimates of site frequencies when compared with other methods. Therefore the simple procedure for estimating site frequencies using earthquake records can be useful in adding to the database of site frequencies. Such databases can be used to better estimate site frequencies of those sites with similar geological structures.

  7. Space Shuttle Trace Gas Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dencker, W.

    1975-01-01

    A Trace Gas Analyzer (TGA) with the ability to detect the presence of toxic contaminants in the Space Shuttle atmosphere within the subparts-per-million range is under development. The design is a modification of the miniaturized Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) developed for the Viking Mars Lander. An ambient air sample is injected onto the GC column from a constant volume sample loop and separated into individual compounds for identification by the MS. The GC-MS interface consists of an effluent divider and a silver-paladium separator, an electrochemical cell which removes more than 99.99% of the hydrogen carrier gas. The hydrogen is reclaimed and repressurized without affecting the separator efficiency, a feature which enables a considerable weight reduction in the carrier gas supply system.

  8. Coaxial charged particle energy analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelly, Michael A. (Inventor); Bryson, III, Charles E. (Inventor); Wu, Warren (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A non-dispersive electrostatic energy analyzer for electrons and other charged particles having a generally coaxial structure of a sequentially arranged sections of an electrostatic lens to focus the beam through an iris and preferably including an ellipsoidally shaped input grid for collimating a wide acceptance beam from a charged-particle source, an electrostatic high-pass filter including a planar exit grid, and an electrostatic low-pass filter. The low-pass filter is configured to reflect low-energy particles back towards a charged particle detector located within the low-pass filter. Each section comprises multiple tubular or conical electrodes arranged about the central axis. The voltages on the lens are scanned to place a selected energy band of the accepted beam at a selected energy at the iris. Voltages on the high-pass and low-pass filters remain substantially fixed during the scan.

  9. Space Shuttle Trace Gas Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dencker, W.

    1975-01-01

    A Trace Gas Analyzer (TGA) with the ability to detect the presence of toxic contaminants in the Space Shuttle atmosphere within the subparts-per-million range is under development. The design is a modification of the miniaturized Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) developed for the Viking Mars Lander. An ambient air sample is injected onto the GC column from a constant volume sample loop and separated into individual compounds for identification by the MS. The GC-MS interface consists of an effluent divider and a silver-paladium separator, an electrochemical cell which removes more than 99.99% of the hydrogen carrier gas. The hydrogen is reclaimed and repressurized without affecting the separator efficiency, a feature which enables a considerable weight reduction in the carrier gas supply system.

  10. Compact Microwave Fourier Spectrum Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry

    2009-01-01

    A compact photonic microwave Fourier spectrum analyzer [a Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer, (FTMWS)] with no moving parts has been proposed for use in remote sensing of weak, natural microwave emissions from the surfaces and atmospheres of planets to enable remote analysis and determination of chemical composition and abundances of critical molecular constituents in space. The instrument is based on a Bessel beam (light modes with non-zero angular momenta) fiber-optic elements. It features low power consumption, low mass, and high resolution, without a need for any cryogenics, beyond what is achievable by the current state-of-the-art in space instruments. The instrument can also be used in a wide-band scatterometer mode in active radar systems.

  11. Analyzing delay causes in Egyptian construction projects.

    PubMed

    Marzouk, Mohamed M; El-Rasas, Tarek I

    2014-01-01

    Construction delays are common problems in civil engineering projects in Egypt. These problems occur frequently during project life-time leading to disputes and litigation. Therefore, it is essential to study and analyze causes of construction delays. This research presents a list of construction delay causes retrieved from literature. The feedback of construction experts was obtained through interviews. Subsequently, a questionnaire survey was prepared. The questionnaire survey was distributed to thirty-three construction experts who represent owners, consultants, and contractor's organizations. Frequency Index, Severity Index, and Importance Index are calculated and according to the highest values of them the top ten delay causes of construction projects in Egypt are determined. A case study is analyzed and compared to the most important delay causes in the research. Statistical analysis is carried out using analysis of variance ANOVA method to test delay causes, obtained from the survey. The test results reveal good correlation between groups while there is significant difference between them for some delay causes and finally roadmap for prioritizing delay causes groups is presented.

  12. Analyzing delay causes in Egyptian construction projects

    PubMed Central

    Marzouk, Mohamed M.; El-Rasas, Tarek I.

    2013-01-01

    Construction delays are common problems in civil engineering projects in Egypt. These problems occur frequently during project life-time leading to disputes and litigation. Therefore, it is essential to study and analyze causes of construction delays. This research presents a list of construction delay causes retrieved from literature. The feedback of construction experts was obtained through interviews. Subsequently, a questionnaire survey was prepared. The questionnaire survey was distributed to thirty-three construction experts who represent owners, consultants, and contractor’s organizations. Frequency Index, Severity Index, and Importance Index are calculated and according to the highest values of them the top ten delay causes of construction projects in Egypt are determined. A case study is analyzed and compared to the most important delay causes in the research. Statistical analysis is carried out using analysis of variance ANOVA method to test delay causes, obtained from the survey. The test results reveal good correlation between groups while there is significant difference between them for some delay causes and finally roadmap for prioritizing delay causes groups is presented. PMID:25685471

  13. Multi-frequency communication system and method

    DOEpatents

    Carrender, Curtis Lee; Gilbert, Ronald W.

    2004-06-01

    A multi-frequency RFID remote communication system is provided that includes a plurality of RFID tags configured to receive a first signal and to return a second signal, the second signal having a first frequency component and a second frequency component, the second frequency component including data unique to each remote RFID tag. The system further includes a reader configured to transmit an interrogation signal and to receive remote signals from the tags. A first signal processor, preferably a mixer, removes an intermediate frequency component from the received signal, and a second processor, preferably a second mixer, analyzes the IF frequency component to output data that is unique to each remote tag.

  14. A wide-band high-resolution spectrum analyzer.

    PubMed

    Quirk, M P; Garyantes, M F; Wilck, H C; Grimm, M J

    1988-12-01

    This paper describes a two-million-channel 40-MHz-bandwidth, digital spectrum analyzer under development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The analyzer system will serve as a prototype processor for the sky survey portion of NASA's Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence program and for other applications in the Deep Space Network. The analyzer digitizes an analog input, performs a 2(21)-point, Discrete Fourier Transform, accumulates the output power, normalizes the output to remove frequency-dependent gain, and automates simple signal detection algorithms. Due to its built-in frequency-domain processing functions and configuration flexibility, the analyzer is a very powerful tool for real-time signal analysis and detection.

  15. Real-Time, Polyphase-FFT, 640-MHz Spectrum Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmerman, George A.; Garyantes, Michael F.; Grimm, Michael J.; Charny, Bentsian; Brown, Randy D.; Wilck, Helmut C.

    1994-01-01

    Real-time polyphase-fast-Fourier-transform, polyphase-FFT, spectrum analyzer designed to aid in detection of multigigahertz radio signals in two 320-MHz-wide polarization channels. Spectrum analyzer divides total spectrum of 640 MHz into 33,554,432 frequency channels of about 20 Hz each. Size and cost of polyphase-coefficient memory substantially reduced and much of processing loss of windowed FFTs eliminated.

  16. Preparing and Analyzing Iced Airfoils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickerman, Mary B.; Baez, Marivell; Braun, Donald C.; Cotton, Barbara J.; Choo, Yung K.; Coroneos, Rula M.; Pennline, James A.; Hackenberg, Anthony W.; Schilling, Herbert W.; Slater, John W.; hide

    2004-01-01

    SmaggIce version 1.2 is a computer program for preparing and analyzing iced airfoils. It includes interactive tools for (1) measuring ice-shape characteristics, (2) controlled smoothing of ice shapes, (3) curve discretization, (4) generation of artificial ice shapes, and (5) detection and correction of input errors. Measurements of ice shapes are essential for establishing relationships between characteristics of ice and effects of ice on airfoil performance. The shape-smoothing tool helps prepare ice shapes for use with already available grid-generation and computational-fluid-dynamics software for studying the aerodynamic effects of smoothed ice on airfoils. The artificial ice-shape generation tool supports parametric studies since ice-shape parameters can easily be controlled with the artificial ice. In such studies, artificial shapes generated by this program can supplement simulated ice obtained from icing research tunnels and real ice obtained from flight test under icing weather condition. SmaggIce also automatically detects geometry errors such as tangles or duplicate points in the boundary which may be introduced by digitization and provides tools to correct these. By use of interactive tools included in SmaggIce version 1.2, one can easily characterize ice shapes and prepare iced airfoils for grid generation and flow simulations.

  17. The Argonne fragment mass analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Davids, C.N.; Larson, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    The Fragment Mass Analyzer (FMA) is currently under construction at the ATLAS facility. The FMA is an eight-meter long recoil mass spectrometer which will be used to separate nuclear reaction products from the primary heavy-ion beam and disperse them by A/q (mass/charge) at the focal plane. The FMA will be used in many different types of experiments. Gamma rays originating from very weak fusion-evaporation channels can be observed in coincidence with the recoil nucleus identified at the FMA focal plane. Production and decay of nuclei far from stability will be studied at the focal plane by implanting exotic recoils directly into detectors or by using a fast tape transport system. The FMA will also be used for reaction mechanism studies. A radioactive beam facility behind the focal plane is planned, which will allow beta-NMR and nuclear moment measurements to be made. The FMA will utilize the wide range of beam and intensities to be provided by the new ECR-positive ion injector also under construction at ATLAS. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Analyzing and modeling heterogeneous behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhiting; Wu, Xiaoqing; He, Dongyue; Zhu, Qiang; Ni, Jixiang

    2016-05-01

    Recently, it was pointed out that the non-Poisson statistics with heavy tail existed in many scenarios of human behaviors. But most of these studies claimed that power-law characterized diverse aspects of human mobility patterns. In this paper, we suggest that human behavior may not be driven by identical mechanisms and can be modeled as a Semi-Markov Modulated Process. To verify our suggestion and model, we analyzed a total of 1,619,934 records of library visitations (including undergraduate and graduate students). It is found that the distribution of visitation intervals is well fitted with three sections of lines instead of the traditional power law distribution in log-log scale. The results confirm that some human behaviors cannot be simply expressed as power law or any other simple functions. At the same time, we divided the data into groups and extracted period bursty events. Through careful analysis in different groups, we drew a conclusion that aggregate behavior might be composed of heterogeneous behaviors, and even the behaviors of the same type tended to be different in different period. The aggregate behavior is supposed to be formed by "heterogeneous groups". We performed a series of experiments. Simulation results showed that we just needed to set up two states Semi-Markov Modulated Process to construct proper representation of heterogeneous behavior.

  19. Analyzes Data from Semiconductor Wafers

    SciTech Connect

    Breiland, William G.

    2002-07-23

    This program analyzes reflectance data from semiconductor wafers taken during the deposition or evolution of a thin film, typically via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). It is used to determine the growth rate and optical constants of the deposited thin films using a virtual interface concept. Growth rates and optical constants of multiple-layer structures is possible by selecting appropriate sections in the reflectance vs time waveform. No prior information or estimates of growth rates and materials properties is required if an absolute reflectance waveform is used. If the optical constants of a thin film are known, then the growth rate may be extracted from a relative reflectance data set. The analysis is valid for either s or p polarized light at any incidence angle and wavelength. The analysis package is contained within an easy-to-use graphical user interface. The program is based on the algorighm described in the following two publications: W.G. Breiland and K.P. Killen, J. Appl. Phys. 78 (1995) 6726, and W. G. Breiland, H.Q. Hou, B.E. Hammons, and J.F. Klem, Proc. XXVIII SOTAPOCS Symp. Electrochem. Soc. San Diego, May 3-8, 1998. It relies on the fact that any multiple-layer system has a reflectance spectrum that is mathematically equivalent to a single-layer thin film on a virtual substrate. The program fits the thin film reflectance with five adjustable parameters: 1) growth rate, 2) real part of complex refractive index, 3) imaginary part of refractive index, 4) amplitude of virtual interface reflectance, 5) phase of virtual interface reflectance.

  20. The diffraction limit of an optical spectrum analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolobrodov, V. G.; Tymchik, G. S.; Kolobrodov, M. S.

    2015-11-01

    This article examines a systematic error that occurs in optical spectrum analyzers and is caused by Fresnel approximation. The aim of the article is to determine acceptable errors of spatial frequency measurement in signal spectrum. The systematic error of spatial frequency measurement has been investigated on the basis of a physical and mathematical model of a coherent spectrum analyzer. It occurs as a result of the transition from light propagation in free space to Fresnel diffraction. Equations used to calculate absolute and relative measurement errors depending on a diffraction angle have been obtained. It allows us to determine the limits of the spectral range according to the given relative error of the spatial frequency measurement.

  1. The instantaneous frequency rate spectrogram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czarnecki, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    An accelerogram of the instantaneous phase of signal components referred to as an instantaneous frequency rate spectrogram (IFRS) is presented as a joint time-frequency distribution. The distribution is directly obtained by processing the short-time Fourier transform (STFT) locally. A novel approach to amplitude demodulation based upon the reassignment method is introduced as a useful by-product. Additionally, an estimator of energy density versus the instantaneous frequency rate (IFR) is proposed and referred to as the IFR profile. The energy density is estimated based upon both the classical energy spectrogram and the IFRS smoothened by the median filter. Moreover, the impact of an analyzing window width, additive white Gaussian noise and observation time is tested. Finally, the introduced method is used for the analysis of the acoustic emission of an automotive engine. The recording of the engine of a Lamborghini Gallardo is analyzed as an example.

  2. Cumulative frequency fit for particle size distribution.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhuyun; Gautam, Mridul; Mehta, Sandeep

    2002-08-01

    A cumulative frequency distribution fit method is presented for analyzing particle size distributions by minimizing the summation of the square of cumulative frequency errors. Compared to the frequency fit method, the cumulative frequency fit method yields a more accurate solution. Based upon this, a spreadsheet was developed for analyzing multi-modal particle size distribution. The motivation for the work presented in this article was the current interest in ultra-fine and nano-sized particle exhaust emissions from heavy-duty diesel engines. The new spreadsheet provides a quick and convenient way to conduct particle size distribution analysis.

  3. Frequency noise in frequency swept fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2013-04-01

    This Letter presents a measurement of the spectral content of frequency shifted pulses generated by a lightwave synthesized frequency sweeper. We found that each pulse is shifted in frequency with very high accuracy. We also discovered that noise originating from light leaking through the acousto- optical modulators and forward propagating Brillouin scattering appear in the spectrum.

  4. Electrode contamination effects of retarding potential analyzer.

    PubMed

    Fang, H K; Oyama, K-I; Cheng, C Z

    2014-01-01

    The electrode contamination in electrostatic analyzers such as Langmuir probes and retarding potential analyzers (RPA) is a serious problem for space measurements. The contamination layer acts as extra capacitance and resistance and leads to distortion in the measured I-V curve, which leads to erroneous measurement results. There are two main effects of the contamination layer: one is the impedance effect and the other is the charge attachment and accumulation due to the capacitance. The impedance effect can be reduced or eliminated by choosing the proper sweeping frequency. However, for RPA the charge accumulation effect becomes serious because the capacitance of the contamination layer is much larger than that of the Langmuir probe of similar dimension. The charge accumulation on the retarding potential grid causes the effective potential, that ions experience, to be changed from the applied voltage. Then, the number of ions that can pass through the retarding potential grid to reach the collector and, thus, the measured ion current are changed. This effect causes the measured ion drift velocity and ion temperature to be changed from the actual values. The error caused by the RPA electrode contamination is expected to be significant for sounding rocket measurements with low rocket velocity (1-2 km/s) and low ion temperature of 200-300 K in the height range of 100-300 km. In this paper we discuss the effects associated with the RPA contaminated electrodes based on theoretical analysis and experiments performed in a space plasma operation chamber. Finally, the development of a contamination-free RPA for sounding rocket missions is presented.

  5. Analyzing Neisseria gonorrhoeae Pilin Antigenic Variation Using 454 Sequencing Technology

    PubMed Central

    Rotman, Ella; Webber, David M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many pathogens use homologous recombination to vary surface antigens in order to avoid immune surveillance. Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the bacterium responsible for the sexually transmitted infection gonorrhea, achieves this in part by changing the sequence of the major subunit of the type IV pilus in a process termed pilin antigenic variation (Av). The N. gonorrhoeae chromosome contains one expression locus (pilE) and many promoterless, partial-coding silent copies (pilS) that act as reservoirs for variant pilin information. Pilin Av occurs by high-frequency gene conversion reactions, which transfer pilS sequences into the pilE locus. We have developed a 454 sequencing-based assay to analyze the frequency and characteristics of pilin Av that allows a more robust analysis of pilin Av than previous assays. We used this assay to analyze mutations and conditions previously shown to affect pilin Av, confirming many but not all of the previously reported phenotypes. We show that mutations or conditions that cause growth defects can result in Av phenotypes when analyzed by phase variation-based assays. Adapting the 454 sequencing to analyze pilin Av demonstrates the utility of this technology to analyze any diversity generation system that uses recombination to develop biological diversity. IMPORTANCE Measuring and analyzing complex recombination-based systems constitute a major barrier to understanding the mechanisms used to generate diversity. We have analyzed the contributions of many gonococcal mutations or conditions to the process of pilin antigenic variation. PMID:27381912

  6. Toward Integrated μNetwork Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kmec, M.; Helbig, M.; Herrmann, R.; Rauschenbach, P.; Sachs, J.; Schilling, K.

    The article deals with recent development steps toward monolithically integrated micro-Network Analyzer (μNA). The device will deploy M-Sequence-based single-chip transceivers with a built-in ultra-wideband wave separation unit in the receiver chains. The introduced on-chip wideband wave separation is realized using an optimized resistive directional coupler combined with a customized differential LNA as detector. The wave separation works almost down to DC, and its upper frequency limit is determined by the performance of the implemented technology (i.e., bridge resistors, transistors, etc.), the selected circuit topology, and the wirings of particular coupler components but also by the IC packaging itself. Even though the upper limit is designed to be compatible with the analog input bandwidth of the receiver circuit [which is about 18 GHz for naked die (Kmec et al., M-Sequence based single chip UWB-radar sensor. ANTEM/AMEREM 2010 Conference, Ottawa, 2010)], the packaged IC is intended for use up to 8 GHz. Finally, the discussed transceiver is a further development of the mother SiGe System-on-Chip (SoC) presented in the work cited above.

  7. Substructure coupling in the frequency domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Frequency domain analysis was found to be a suitable method for determining the transient response of systems subjected to a wide variety of loads. However, since a large number of calculations are performed within the discrete frequency loop, the method loses it computational efficiency if the loads must be represented by a large number of discrete frequencies. It was also discovered that substructure coupling in the frequency domain work particularly well for analyzing structural system with a small number of interface and loaded degrees of freedom. It was discovered that substructure coupling in the frequency domain can lead to an efficient method of obtaining natural frequencies of undamped structures. It was also found that the damped natural frequencies of a system may be determined using frequency domain techniques.

  8. 40 CFR 92.109 - Analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Analyzer specifications. (a) General analyzer specifications—(1) Analyzer response time. Analyzers for THC... response time. (2) Precision. The precision of the analyzers for THC, CO2, CO, and NOX must be no greater... percent of full/scale chart deflection on all ranges used. (4) Zero drift. For THC, CO2, CO, and NOX...

  9. Synchrosqueezing an effective method for analyzing Doppler radar physiological signals.

    PubMed

    Yavari, Ehsan; Rahman, Ashikur; Jia Xu; Mandic, Danilo P; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2016-08-01

    Doppler radar can monitor vital sign wirelessly. Respiratory and heart rate have time-varying behavior. Capturing the rate variability provides crucial physiological information. However, the common time-frequency methods fail to detect key information. We investigate Synchrosqueezing method to extract oscillatory components of the signal with time varying spectrum. Simulation and experimental result shows the potential of the proposed method for analyzing signals with complex time-frequency behavior like physiological signals. Respiration and heart signals and their components are extracted with higher resolution and without any pre-filtering and signal conditioning.

  10. Comparison of Gas Analyzers for Eddy Covariance: Effects of Analyzer Type and Spectral Corrections on Fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polonik, P.; Chan, S.; Biraud, S.; Billesbach, D. P.; Bogoev, I.; Conrad, B.; Nottrott, A.; Burba, G. G.; Li, J.

    2016-12-01

    Eddy covariance is widely used to study the exchange of energy and mass between the surface and the atmosphere. The technique requires simultaneous high frequency measurements of three-dimensional wind components and scalars (e.g. water vapor, carbon dioxide). Scalar-measuring sensors can be grouped into open, closed, and enclosed path instruments depending on the length of their inlet tubes (no tube, long tube, and short tube respectively). Open and closed path instruments each have their own benefits and difficulties, so short inlet instruments were recently developed as a hybrid in an attempt to capitalize on the benefits of both. For this study, AmeriFlux deployed five gas analyzers over an irrigated alfalfa field in Davis, CA: open-path LI-COR 7500A, enclosed-path LI-COR 7200, closed-path Picarro G2311-f, open-path Campbell Scientific IRGASON, and enclosed-path Campbell Scientific EC155. Mixing ratios from each analyzer were calculated (when necessary) and compared. By analyzing the power spectrum of each sensor's time series, we found that high frequency attenuation clearly corresponds to the length of the inlet tube. We also paired analyzers with sonic anemometers to calculate integrated fluxes from a cone of wind directions where flow distortion from instrument design and setup was minimal. Without applying spectral corrections, carbon dioxide fluxes generally compared well between sensors (mean difference <5%, max difference 9%), while water vapor fluxes exhibited larger differences (mean difference <13%, max difference 34%) due to tube effects. We found that the water vapor flux comparison improved with the use of spectral corrections (e.g. Massman 2000, 2001; Fratini et al. 2012). The effect of the flux differences was also reflected in the cumulative fluxes over the study period. This direct intercomparison of sensors allowed us to assess the comparability of fluxes obtained using different sensors and correction methods. Information about the effects

  11. Beat frequency interference pattern characteristics study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, J. H.; Rice, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    The frequency spectra and corresponding beat frequencies created by the relative motions between multiple Solar Power Satellites due to solar wind, lunar gravity, etc. were analyzed. The results were derived mathematically and verified through computer simulation. Frequency spectra plots were computer generated. Detailed computations were made for the seven following locations in the continental US: Houston, Tx.; Seattle, Wa.; Miami, Fl.; Chicago, Il.; New York, NY; Los Angeles, Ca.; and Barberton, Oh.

  12. High-frequency ECG

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tragardh, Elin; Schlegel, Todd T.

    2006-01-01

    The standard ECG is by convention limited to 0.05-150 Hz, but higher frequencies are also present in the ECG signal. With high-resolution technology, it is possible to record and analyze these higher frequencies. The highest amplitudes of the high-frequency components are found within the QRS complex. In past years, the term "high frequency", "high fidelity", and "wideband electrocardiography" have been used by several investigators to refer to the process of recording ECGs with an extended bandwidth of up to 1000 Hz. Several investigators have tried to analyze HF-QRS with the hope that additional features seen in the QRS complex would provide information enhancing the diagnostic value of the ECG. The development of computerized ECG-recording devices that made it possible to record ECG signals with high resolution in both time and amplitude, as well as better possibilities to store and process the signals digitally, offered new methods for analysis. Different techniques to extract the HF-QRS have been described. Several bandwidths and filter types have been applied for the extraction as well as different signal-averaging techniques for noise reduction. There is no standard method for acquiring and quantifying HF-QRS. The physiological mechanisms underlying HF-QRS are still not fully understood. One theory is that HF-QRS are related to the conduction velocity and the fragmentation of the depolarization wave in the myocardium. In a three-dimensional model of the ventricles with a fractal conduction system it was shown that high numbers of splitting branches are associated with HF-QRS. In this experiment, it was also shown that the changes seen in HF-QRS in patients with myocardial ischemia might be due to the slowing of the conduction velocity in the region of ischemia. This mechanism has been tested by Watanabe et al by infusing sodium channel blockers into the left anterior descending artery in dogs. In their study, 60 unipolar ECGs were recorded from the entire

  13. Multi-Pass Quadrupole Mass Analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prestage, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the composition of planetary atmospheres is one of the most important and fundamental measurements in planetary robotic exploration. Quadrupole mass analyzers (QMAs) are the primary tool used to execute these investigations, but reductions in size of these instruments has sacrificed mass resolving power so that the best present-day QMA devices are still large, expensive, and do not deliver performance of laboratory instruments. An ultra-high-resolution QMA was developed to resolve N2 +/CO+ by trapping ions in a linear trap quadrupole filter. Because N2 and CO are resolved, gas chromatography columns used to separate species before analysis are eliminated, greatly simplifying gas analysis instrumentation. For highest performance, the ion trap mode is used. High-resolution (or narrow-band) mass selection is carried out in the central region, but near the DC electrodes at each end, RF/DC field settings are adjusted to allow broadband ion passage. This is to prevent ion loss during ion reflection at each end. Ions are created inside the trap so that low-energy particles are selected by low-voltage settings on the end electrodes. This is beneficial to good mass resolution since low-energy particles traverse many cycles of the RF filtering fields. Through Monte Carlo simulations, it is shown that ions are reflected at each end many tens of times, each time being sent back through the central section of the quadrupole where ultrahigh mass filtering is carried out. An analyzer was produced with electrical length orders of magnitude longer than its physical length. Since the selector fields are sized as in conventional devices, the loss of sensitivity inherent in miniaturizing quadrupole instruments is avoided. The no-loss, multi-pass QMA architecture will improve mass resolution of planetary QMA instruments while reducing demands on the RF electronics for high-voltage/high-frequency production since ion transit time is no longer limited to a single pass. The

  14. Electronic power generators for ultrasonic frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciovica, D.

    1974-01-01

    The design and construction of an ultrasonic frequency electronic power generator are discussed. The principle design elements of the generator are illustrated. The generator provides an inductive load with an output power of two kilowatts and a variable output frequency in the fifteen to thirty KiloHertz range. The method of conducting the tests and the results obtained with selected materials are analyzed.

  15. Mass Analyzed Threshold Ionization of Lutetium Dimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lu; Roudjane, Mourad; Liu, Yang; Yang, Dong-Sheng

    2013-06-01

    Lu_2 is produced in a pulsed laser-vaporization metal-cluster source and studied by mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopy. The MATI spectrum displays several long progressions from the transitions between various vibrational levels of the neutral and ion electronic states. From the spectrum, the upper limit of the ionization energy of the dimer is determined to be 43996 cm^{-1}, and the vibrational frequencies are measured to be 121 cm^{-1} in the neutral state and 90 cm^{-1} in the ion state. By combining with ab initio calculations at CASPT2 level, the ground state of Lu_2 is identified as ^3Σ_g^-. The ^3Σ_g^- state has an electron configuration of 6sσ_g^25dπ_u^15dπ_u^16sσ_u^2, which is formed by the interactions of two Lu atoms in the ^2D(5d6s^2) ground state. Ionization of the neutral state removes a 5dπ_u bonding electron and yields a ion state with a considerably longer bond distance. Lu_2 has a very different bonding feature from La_2, for which a ^1Σ_g^+ ground state was previously identified with an electron configuration of 5dπ_u^46sσ_g^2 formed by the interactions of two La atoms in the ^4F(5d^26s) excited state. Yang Liu, Lu Wu, Chang-Hua Zhang, Serge A. Krasnokutski, and Dong-Sheng Yang, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 034309 (2011).

  16. Analyzing wildfire exposure on Sardinia, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salis, Michele; Ager, Alan A.; Arca, Bachisio; Finney, Mark A.; Alcasena, Fermin; Bacciu, Valentina; Duce, Pierpaolo; Munoz Lozano, Olga; Spano, Donatella

    2014-05-01

    We used simulation modeling based on the minimum travel time algorithm (MTT) to analyze wildfire exposure of key ecological, social and economic features on Sardinia, Italy. Sardinia is the second largest island of the Mediterranean Basin, and in the last fifty years experienced large and dramatic wildfires, which caused losses and threatened urban interfaces, forests and natural areas, and agricultural productions. Historical fires and environmental data for the period 1995-2009 were used as input to estimate fine scale burn probability, conditional flame length, and potential fire size in the study area. With this purpose, we simulated 100,000 wildfire events within the study area, randomly drawing from the observed frequency distribution of burn periods and wind directions for each fire. Estimates of burn probability, excluding non-burnable fuels, ranged from 0 to 1.92x10-3, with a mean value of 6.48x10-5. Overall, the outputs provided a quantitative assessment of wildfire exposure at the landscape scale and captured landscape properties of wildfire exposure. We then examined how the exposure profiles varied among and within selected features and assets located on the island. Spatial variation in modeled outputs resulted in a strong effect of fuel models, coupled with slope and weather. In particular, the combined effect of Mediterranean maquis, woodland areas and complex topography on flame length was relevant, mainly in north-east Sardinia, whereas areas with herbaceous fuels and flat areas were in general characterized by lower fire intensity but higher burn probability. The simulation modeling proposed in this work provides a quantitative approach to inform wildfire risk management activities, and represents one of the first applications of burn probability modeling to capture fire risk and exposure profiles in the Mediterranean basin.

  17. A Portable Analyzer for Pouch-Actuated, Immunoassay Cassettes.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xianbo; Liu, Changchun; Mauk, Michael G; Hart, Robert W; Chen, Dafeng; Qiu, Jing; Kientz, Terry; Fiene, Jonathan; Bau, Haim H

    2011-12-15

    A portable, small footprint, light, general purpose analyzer (processor) to control the flow in immunoassay cassettes and to facilitate the detection of test results is described. The durable analyzer accepts disposable cassettes that contain pouches and reaction chambers for various unit operations such as hydration of dry reagents, stirring, and incubation. The analyzer includes individually controlled, linear actuators to compress the pouches in the cassette, which facilitates the pumping and mixing of sample and reagents, and to close diaphragm-based valves for flow control. The same types of actuators are used to compress pouches and actuate valves. The analyzer also houses a compact OEM scanner/reader to excite fluorescence and detect emission from labels. The analyzer is hydraulically isolated from the cassette, reducing the possibility of cross-contamination. The analyzer facilitates programmable, automated execution of a sequence of operations such as pumping and valving in a timely fashion, reducing the level of expertise required from the operator and the possibility for errors. The analyzer's design is modular and expandable to accommodate cassettes of various complexities and additional functionalities. In this paper, the utility of the analyzer has been demonstrated with the execution of a simple, consecutive, lateral flow assay of a model biological system and the test results were detected with up converting phosphor labels that are excited at infrared frequencies and emit in the visible spectrum.

  18. Expert system for analyzing eddy current measurements

    DOEpatents

    Levy, Arthur J.; Oppenlander, Jane E.; Brudnoy, David M.; Englund, James M.; Loomis, Kent C.

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus (called DODGER) analyzes eddy current data for heat exchanger tubes or any other metallic object. DODGER uses an expert system to analyze eddy current data by reasoning with uncertainty and pattern recognition. The expert system permits DODGER to analyze eddy current data intelligently, and obviate operator uncertainty by analyzing the data in a uniform and consistent manner.

  19. Expert system for analyzing eddy current measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, A.J.; Oppenlander, J.E.; Brudnoy, D.M.; Englund, J.M.; Loomis, K.C.

    1994-08-16

    A method and apparatus (called DODGER) analyzes eddy current data for heat exchanger tubes or any other metallic object. DODGER uses an expert system to analyze eddy current data by reasoning with uncertainty and pattern recognition. The expert system permits DODGER to analyze eddy current data intelligently, and obviate operator uncertainty by analyzing the data in a uniform and consistent manner. 21 figs.

  20. Frequency Comb Cooling Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-18

    frequency combs ). Recently the power and spectral coverage of frequency combs have grown considerably with projected 1. REPORT DATE (DD-MM-YYYY) 4. TITLE...Aug-2011 18-May-2012 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final report on frequency comb cooling project The views, opinions and/or... frequency combs ). Recently the power and spectral coverage of frequency combs have grown considerably with projected average powers above 10 kW. We

  1. 40 CFR 86.319-79 - Analyzer checks and calibrations; frequency and overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... need be checked only every 90 days. (d) At least once every 90 days during testing check the water... testing, check the NOX converter efficiency, as described in § 86.332. (c) At least once every 30 days during testing, perform the following: (1) Leak check the pressure side of the system (see § 86.328). If...

  2. New image processing software for analyzing object size-frequency distributions, geometry, orientation, and spatial distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beggan, Ciarán; Hamilton, Christopher W.

    2010-04-01

    Geological Image Analysis Software (GIAS) combines basic tools for calculating object area, abundance, radius, perimeter, eccentricity, orientation, and centroid location, with the first automated method for characterizing the aerial distribution of objects using sample-size-dependent nearest neighbor (NN) statistics. The NN analyses include tests for (1) Poisson, (2) Normalized Poisson, (3) Scavenged k=1, and (4) Scavenged k=2 NN distributions. GIAS is implemented in MATLAB with a Graphical User Interface (GUI) that is available as pre-parsed pseudocode for use with MATLAB, or as a stand-alone application that runs on Windows and Unix systems. GIAS can process raster data (e.g., satellite imagery, photomicrographs, etc.) and tables of object coordinates to characterize the size, geometry, orientation, and spatial organization of a wide range of geological features. This information expedites quantitative measurements of 2D object properties, provides criteria for validating the use of stereology to transform 2D object sections into 3D models, and establishes a standardized NN methodology that can be used to compare the results of different geospatial studies and identify objects using non-morphological parameters.

  3. Using Size-Frequency Distributions to Analyze Fire Regimes in Florida

    Treesearch

    Thomas P. Holmes; Jeffrey P. Prestemon; John M. Pye; David T. Butry; D. Evan Mercer; Karen L. Abt

    2004-01-01

    Wildfire regimes in natural forest ecosystems have been characterized with power­law distributions. In this paper, we evaluated whether wildfire regimes in a human-dominated landscape were also consistent with power­law distributions. Our case study focused on wildfires in Florida, a state with rapid population growth and consequent rapid alteration of forest...

  4. A Portable Analyzer for Pouch-Actuated, Immunoassay Cassettes

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Xianbo; Liu, Changchun; Mauk, Michael G.; Hart, Robert W.; Chen, Dafeng; Qiu, Jing; Kientz, Terry; Fiene, Jonathan; Bau, Haim H.

    2011-01-01

    A portable, small footprint, light, general purpose analyzer (processor) to control the flow in immunoassay cassettes and to facilitate the detection of test results is described. The durable analyzer accepts disposable cassettes that contain pouches and reaction chambers for various unit operations such as hydration of dry reagents, stirring, and incubation. The analyzer includes individually controlled, linear actuators to compress the pouches in the cassette, which facilitates the pumping and mixing of sample and reagents, and to close diaphragm-based valves for flow control. The same types of actuators are used to compress pouches and actuate valves. The analyzer also houses a compact OEM scanner/reader to excite fluorescence and detect emission from labels. The analyzer is hydraulically isolated from the cassette, reducing the possibility of cross-contamination. The analyzer facilitates programmable, automated execution of a sequence of operations such as pumping and valving in a timely fashion, reducing the level of expertise required from the operator and the possibility for errors. The analyzer’s design is modular and expandable to accommodate cassettes of various complexities and additional functionalities. In this paper, the utility of the analyzer has been demonstrated with the execution of a simple, consecutive, lateral flow assay of a model biological system and the test results were detected with up converting phosphor labels that are excited at infrared frequencies and emit in the visible spectrum. PMID:22125359

  5. AUTOMATIC FREQUENCY CONTROL SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Hansen, C.F.; Salisbury, J.D.

    1961-01-10

    A control is described for automatically matching the frequency of a resonant cavity to that of a driving oscillator. The driving oscillator is disconnected from the cavity and a secondary oscillator is actuated in which the cavity is the frequency determining element. A low frequency is mixed with the output of the driving oscillator and the resultant lower and upper sidebands are separately derived. The frequencies of the sidebands are compared with the secondary oscillator frequency. deriving a servo control signal to adjust a tuning element in the cavity and matching the cavity frequency to that of the driving oscillator. The driving oscillator may then be connected to the cavity.

  6. Frequency domain FIR and IIR adaptive filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lynn, D. W.

    1990-01-01

    A discussion of the LMS adaptive filter relating to its convergence characteristics and the problems associated with disparate eigenvalues is presented. This is used to introduce the concept of proportional convergence. An approach is used to analyze the convergence characteristics of block frequency-domain adaptive filters. This leads to a development showing how the frequency-domain FIR adaptive filter is easily modified to provide proportional convergence. These ideas are extended to a block frequency-domain IIR adaptive filter and the idea of proportional convergence is applied. Experimental results illustrating proportional convergence in both FIR and IIR frequency-domain block adaptive filters is presented.

  7. Propagation of high frequencies in Scandinavia

    SciTech Connect

    Bame, D.

    1989-04-01

    To determine if seismic signals at frequencies up to 50 Hz are useful for detecting events and discriminating between earthquakes and explosions, approximately 180 events from the three-component high-frequency seismic element (HFSE) installed at the center of the Norwegian Regional Seismic Array (NRSA) have been analyzed. The attenuation of high-frequency signals in Scandinavia varies with distance, azimuth, magnitude, and source effects. Most of the events were detected with HFSE, although detections were better on the NRSA where signal processing techniques were used. Based on a preliminary analysis, high-frequency data do not appear to be a useful discriminant in Scandinavia. 21 refs., 29 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Optimum Detection of Frequency-Hopped Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Unjeng; Levitt, Barry; Polydoros, Andreas; Simon, Marvin K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper derives and analyzes optimum and near-optimum structures for detecting frequency-hopped (FH) signals with arbitrary modulation in additive white Gaussian noise. The principalmodulation formats considered are M-ary frequency-shift-keying (MFSK) with fast frequency hopping(FFH) wherein a single tone is transmitted per hop, and slow frequency hopping (SFH) with multipleMFSK tones (data symbols) per hop. The SFH detection category has not previously been addressedin the open literature and its analysis is generally more complex than FFH.

  9. Effect of laser frequency noise on fiber-optic frequency reference distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logan, R. T., Jr.; Lutes, G. F.; Maleki, L.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of the linewidth of a single longitude-mode laser on the frequency stability of a frequency reference transmitted over a single-mode optical fiber is analyzed. The interaction of the random laser frequency deviations with the dispersion of the optical fiber is considered to determine theoretically the effect on the Allan deviation (square root of the Allan variance) of the transmitted frequency reference. It is shown that the magnitude of this effect may determine the limit of the ultimate stability possible for frequency reference transmission on optical fiber, but is not a serious limitation to present system performance.

  10. RF environment survey of Space Shuttle related EEE frequency bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, J.; Prigel, B.; Postelle, J.

    1977-01-01

    Radio frequency assignments within the continental United States in frequency bands between 121 MHz abd 65 GHz were surveyed and analyzed in order to determine current utilization of anticipated frequency bands for the shuttle borne electromagnetic environment experiment. Data from both government and nongovernment files were used. Results are presented in both narrative form and in histograms which show the total number of unclassified assignments versus frequency and total assigned power versus frequency.

  11. A network of automatic atmospherics analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, J.; Volland, H.; Ingmann, P.; Eriksson, A. J.; Heydt, G.

    1980-01-01

    The design and function of an atmospheric analyzer which uses a computer are discussed. Mathematical models which show the method of measurement are presented. The data analysis and recording procedures of the analyzer are discussed.

  12. Low frequency cauterization.

    PubMed

    Sawatzky, G; Wiest, P P

    1993-01-01

    Low frequency cauterization is presented in comparison to the related high frequency method. Both methods are defined and compared and their advantages and disadvantages are illustrated. Finally, a promising combination of both methods is described.

  13. Development of an Infrared Fluorescent Gas Analyzer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClatchie, E. A.

    A prototype model low level carbon monoxide analyzer was developed using fluorescent cell and negative chopping techniques to achieve a device superior to state of art NDIR (Nondispersive infrared) analyzers in stability and cross-sensitivity to other gaseous species. It is clear that this type of analyzer has that capacity. The prototype…

  14. Development of an Infrared Fluorescent Gas Analyzer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClatchie, E. A.

    A prototype model low level carbon monoxide analyzer was developed using fluorescent cell and negative chopping techniques to achieve a device superior to state of art NDIR (Nondispersive infrared) analyzers in stability and cross-sensitivity to other gaseous species. It is clear that this type of analyzer has that capacity. The prototype…

  15. 46 CFR 154.1360 - Oxygen analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Oxygen analyzer. 154.1360 Section 154.1360 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Instrumentation § 154.1360 Oxygen analyzer. The vessel must have a portable analyzer that measures oxygen...

  16. 46 CFR 154.1360 - Oxygen analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Oxygen analyzer. 154.1360 Section 154.1360 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Instrumentation § 154.1360 Oxygen analyzer. The vessel must have a portable analyzer that measures oxygen...

  17. 46 CFR 154.1360 - Oxygen analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oxygen analyzer. 154.1360 Section 154.1360 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Instrumentation § 154.1360 Oxygen analyzer. The vessel must have a portable analyzer that measures oxygen...

  18. 46 CFR 154.1360 - Oxygen analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oxygen analyzer. 154.1360 Section 154.1360 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Instrumentation § 154.1360 Oxygen analyzer. The vessel must have a portable analyzer that measures oxygen...

  19. 46 CFR 154.1360 - Oxygen analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oxygen analyzer. 154.1360 Section 154.1360 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... Instrumentation § 154.1360 Oxygen analyzer. The vessel must have a portable analyzer that measures oxygen...

  20. Numerical methods for analyzing electromagnetic scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, S. W.; Lo, Y. T.; Chuang, S. L.

    1984-01-01

    The wave attenuation in a cylindrical waveguide coated with lossy dielectric material was studied. The scope was extended to the high frequency case for calculating attenuation coefficients and propagation constants of a dielectric coated circular waveguide. The magnetic material coating was studied. At low frequency a one way 3dB attenuation was achieved within a longitudinal distance of one diameter. A software program was generated to plot the field patterns of the lowest 30 modes in the cylindrical waveguides.

  1. Frequency Response Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Etingov, Pavel; Chassin, PNNL David; Zhang, PNNL Yu; PNNL,

    2014-03-13

    According to the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) definition: "Frequency response is a measure of an Interconnection's ability to stabilize frequency immediately following the sudden loss of generation or load, and is a critical component of the reliable operation of the Bulk-Power System, particularly during disturbances and recoveries. Failure to maintain frequency can disrupt the operation of equipment and initiate disconnection of power plant equipment to prevent it from being damaged, which could lead to wide-spread blackouts." Frequency Response Tool automates the power system frequency response analysis process. The tool performs initial estimation of the system frequency parameters (initial frequency, minimum frequency, settling point). User can visually inspect and adjust these parameters. The tool also calculates the frequency response performance metrics of the system, archives the historic events and baselines the system performance. Frequency response performance characteristics of the system are calculated using phasor measurement unit (PMU) information. Methodology of the frequency response performance assessment implemented in the tool complies with the NERC Frequency response standard.

  2. Making Sense of Frequency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larsen-Freeman, Diane

    2002-01-01

    Responds to Ellis (2002), which focuses on frequency in language processing, language use, and language acquisition. Contextualizes the frequency factor in terms of the evolution of second language acquisition (SLA) research. Suggests that although relevant and important, the frequency factor requires greater definition and qualification.…

  3. Frequency Response Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Etingov, Pavel; Chassin, PNNL David; Zhang, PNNL Yu; PNNL,

    2014-03-13

    According to the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) definition: “Frequency response is a measure of an Interconnection’s ability to stabilize frequency immediately following the sudden loss of generation or load, and is a critical component of the reliable operation of the Bulk-Power System, particularly during disturbances and recoveries. Failure to maintain frequency can disrupt the operation of equipment and initiate disconnection of power plant equipment to prevent it from being damaged, which could lead to wide-spread blackouts.” Frequency Response Tool automates the power system frequency response analysis process. The tool performs initial estimation of the system frequency parameters (initial frequency, minimum frequency, settling point). User can visually inspect and adjust these parameters. The tool also calculates the frequency response performance metrics of the system, archives the historic events and baselines the system performance. Frequency response performance characteristics of the system are calculated using phasor measurement unit (PMU) information. Methodology of the frequency response performance assessment implemented in the tool complies with the NERC Frequency response standard.

  4. DDC Descriptor Frequencies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klingbiel, Paul H.; Jacobs, Charles R.

    This report summarizes the frequency of use of the 7144 descriptors used for indexing technical reports in the Defense Documentation Center (DDC) collection. The descriptors are arranged alphabetically in the first section and by frequency in the second section. The frequency data cover about 427,000 AD documents spanning the interval from March…

  5. Cover/Frequency (CF)

    Treesearch

    John F. Caratti

    2006-01-01

    The FIREMON Cover/Frequency (CF) method is used to assess changes in plant species cover and frequency for a macroplot. This method uses multiple quadrats to sample within-plot variation and quantify statistically valid changes in plant species cover, height, and frequency over time. Because it is difficult to estimate cover in quadrats for larger plants, this method...

  6. Eastern Frequency Response Study

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, N.W.; Shao, M.; Pajic, S.; D'Aquila, R.

    2013-05-01

    This study was specifically designed to investigate the frequency response of the Eastern Interconnection that results from large loss-of-generation events of the type targeted by the North American Electric Reliability Corp. Standard BAL-003 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting (NERC 2012a), under possible future system conditions with high levels of wind generation.

  7. Harmonic Frequency Lowering

    PubMed Central

    Kirchberger, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A novel algorithm for frequency lowering in music was developed and experimentally tested in hearing-impaired listeners. Harmonic frequency lowering (HFL) combines frequency transposition and frequency compression to preserve the harmonic content of music stimuli. Listeners were asked to make judgments regarding detail and sound quality in music stimuli. Stimuli were presented under different signal processing conditions: original, low-pass filtered, HFL, and nonlinear frequency compressed. Results showed that participants reported perceiving the most detail in the HFL condition. In addition, there was no difference in sound quality across conditions. PMID:26834122

  8. Frequency selective infrared sensors

    DOEpatents

    Davids, Paul; Peters, David W

    2013-05-28

    A frequency selective infrared (IR) photodetector having a predetermined frequency band. The exemplary frequency selective photodetector includes: a dielectric IR absorber having a first surface and a second surface substantially parallel to the first surface; an electrode electrically coupled to the first surface of the dielectric IR absorber; and a frequency selective surface plasmonic (FSSP) structure formed on the second surface of the dielectric IR absorber. The FSSP structure is designed to selectively transmit radiation in the predetermined frequency band that is incident on the FSSP structure substantially independent of the angle of incidence of the incident radiation on the FSSP structure.

  9. Frequency selective infrared sensors

    DOEpatents

    Davids, Paul; Peters, David W

    2014-11-25

    A frequency selective infrared (IR) photodetector having a predetermined frequency band. The exemplary frequency selective photodetector includes: a dielectric IR absorber having a first surface and a second surface substantially parallel to the first surface; an electrode electrically coupled to the first surface of the dielectric IR absorber; and a frequency selective surface plasmonic (FSSP) structure formed on the second surface of the dielectric IR absorber. The FSSP structure is designed to selectively transmit radiation in the predetermined frequency band that is incident on the FSSP structure substantially independent of the angle of incidence of the incident radiation on the FSSP structure.

  10. Radio frequency spectrum management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujdak, E. J., Jr.

    1980-03-01

    This thesis is a study of radio frequency spectrum management as practiced by agencies and departments of the Federal Government. After a brief introduction to the international agency involved in radio frequency spectrum management, the author concentrates on Federal agencies engaged in frequency management. These agencies include the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), the Interdepartment Radio Advisory Committee (IRAC), and the Department of Defense (DoD). Based on an analysis of Department of Defense frequency assignment procedures, recommendations are given concerning decentralizing military frequency assignment by delegating broader authority to unified commanders. This proposal includes a recommendation to colocate the individual Service frequency management offices at the Washington level. This would result in reduced travel costs, lower manpower requirements, and a common tri-Service frequency management data base.

  11. Amplitude Demodulation of Entrained Sway to Analyze Human Postural Control

    PubMed Central

    Bhatkar, Viprali V.; Pilkar, Rakesh B.; Storey, Christopher M.; Robinson, Charles J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative technique to study postural control. Our translating platform, the Sliding Linear Investigative Platform For Analyzing Lower Limb Stability and Simultaneous Tracking, EMG and Pressure mapping (SLIP-FALLS-STEPm), makes precise, vibration movements under controlled conditions. We look at the psychophysical thresholds to the perception of a sinusoidally induced sway. In the Sine Lock experiments described, an induced sinusoidal perturbation locks the subject's natural sway pattern at the frequency of the perturbation. The input / output system is treated as an Amplitude Shift Key (ASK) modulated signal modulating a carrier frequency (at or about a subject's natural sway frequency). The Position signal (input) and the Anterior-Posterior Center of Pressure (APCOP) signal (output) or the ankle angle are demodulated by mixing them with the pure sine wave carrier at the frequency of underlying oscillation and then low-pass filtering it to detect the amplitude envelope. These detected envelopes elucidate that the square pulse increase in the position sine wave amplitude yields a triangular increase in APCOP demodulated signal. PMID:18003110

  12. Amplitude demodulation of entrained sway to analyze human postural control.

    PubMed

    Bhatkar, Viprali V; Pilkar, Rakesh B; Storey, Christopher M; Robinson, Charles J

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative technique to study postural control. Our translating platform, the Sliding Linear Investigative Platform For Analyzing Lower Limb Stability and Simultaneous Tracking, EMG and Pressure mapping (SLIP-FALLS-STEPm), makes precise, vibration movements under controlled conditions. We look at the psychophysical thresholds to the perception of a sinusoidally induced sway. In the Sine Lock experiments described, an induced sinusoidal perturbation locks the subject's natural sway pattern at the frequency of the perturbation. The input / output system is treated as an Amplitude Shift Key (ASK) modulated signal modulating a carrier frequency (at or about a subject's natural sway frequency). The Position signal (input) and the Anterior-Posterior Center of Pressure (APCOP) signal (output) or the ankle angle are demodulated by mixing them with the pure sine wave carrier at the frequency of underlying oscillation and then low-pass filtering it to detect the amplitude envelope. These detected envelopes elucidate that the square pulse increase in the position sine wave amplitude yields a triangular increase in APCOP demodulated signal.

  13. Web-based multi-channel analyzer

    DOEpatents

    Gritzo, Russ E.

    2003-12-23

    The present invention provides an improved multi-channel analyzer designed to conveniently gather, process, and distribute spectrographic pulse data. The multi-channel analyzer may operate on a computer system having memory, a processor, and the capability to connect to a network and to receive digitized spectrographic pulses. The multi-channel analyzer may have a software module integrated with a general-purpose operating system that may receive digitized spectrographic pulses for at least 10,000 pulses per second. The multi-channel analyzer may further have a user-level software module that may receive user-specified controls dictating the operation of the multi-channel analyzer, making the multi-channel analyzer customizable by the end-user. The user-level software may further categorize and conveniently distribute spectrographic pulse data employing non-proprietary, standard communication protocols and formats.

  14. Using expert systems to analyze ATE data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrington, Jim

    1994-01-01

    The proliferation of automatic test equipment (ATE) is resulting in the generation of large amounts of component data. Some of this component data is not accurate due to the presence of noise. Analyzing this data requires the use of new techniques. This paper describes the process of developing an expert system to analyze ATE data and provides an example rule in the CLIPS language for analyzing trip thresholds for high gain/high speed comparators.

  15. Altitude characteristics of selected air quality analyzers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J. H.; Strong, R.; Tommerdahl, J. B.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of altitude (pressure) on the operation and sensitivity of various air quality analyzers frequently flown on aircraft were analyzed. Two ozone analyzers were studied at altitudes from 600 to 7500 m and a nitrogen oxides chemiluminescence detector and a sulfur dioxide flame photometric detector were studied at altitudes from 600 to 3000 m. Calibration curves for altitude corrections to the sensitivity of the instruments are presented along with discussion of observed instrument behavior.

  16. Development of the Electric Vehicle Analyzer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    DTI ;. 0oPY- I AL-TR-90-006 AD: AD-A224 201 Final Report DEVELOPMENT THE for the period OF August 1986 to December 1988 ELECTRIC VEHICLE ANALYZER...Incude Security Clasikcaton) Development of the Electric Vehicle Analyzer (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Dickey, Lt Michael R. ; Klucz, Raymond S. ; Ennix...FIELD GROUP SUB-GROUP Electric Orbital Transfer Vehicles (EOTVs); Electric 21 03 Insertion Transfer Experiment (ELITE); Electric Vehicle :.22 03 Analyzer

  17. Hypoplastic area method for analyzing dental enamel hypoplasia.

    PubMed

    Ensor, B E; Irish, J D

    1995-12-01

    Most analyses of dental enamel hypoplasia compare frequencies of disturbed tooth types, which do not account for variability in the area of affected enamel. An alternate methodology, hypoplastic area, is presented here that accounts for this variability by combining acute and continuous enamel hypoplasia into an interval-level variable. The method compares samples based on individuals, by multiple tooth type variables, or by a single value rather than by tooth types. Use of the hypoplastic area method is illustrated by analyzing human skeletal dentitions in three archaeological samples: Meroitic Nubians from Semna South, Sudan; Anasazi from Navajo Reservoir, New Mexico; and Mogollon from Grasshopper Pueblo, Arizona. Both univariate and multivariate statistical tests are employed to assess variation in defects between individuals and samples. By incorporating measurements of continuous defects, the hypoplastic area method provides information beyond that of frequency data in comparing levels of stress. Flexibility of the method is also discussed.

  18. Multifrequency polarimetric microwave scatterometer based on a vector network analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessio, Angelo C.; Posa, Francesco; Sabatelli, Vincenzo; Casarano, Domenico

    1999-12-01

    In order to test a multi-frequency polarimetric scatterometer based on a Vector Network Analyzer, calibration measurements have been performed over point targets. Two trihedral corner reflectors with different dimensions have been employed. The radar cross sections have been measured at different frequency bands (L, C and X) and for different look angles between 23 degree(s) and 50 degree(s). Satisfactory results have been obtained in all three bands, however in the L-band the electromagnetic smog, due to mobile phones and airport radars, caused some difficulties in the extinction of the radiometric information. Other calibration tests have been planned before using the instrument as a ground-truth data acquisition device on the test-sites envisaged for the spaceborne SRTM and ENVISAT SAR missions.

  19. Chromaticity Measurements Using Phase Modulated RF and Vector Signal Analyzers

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, Dave; /Fermilab

    2001-02-16

    Chromaticity measurements are usually done by changing the energy of the beam by a known amount and measuring the change in betatron tune with a spectrum analyzer. The energy change is done by adjusting the RF frequency. The change in RF frequency is made large enough so that the change in betatron tune can be seen. If synchrotron motion is present in the beam, then measuring the change in betatron tune can be difficult. This note will outline a method to measure the change in betatron tune by phase-modulating the RF and measuring the phase modulated betatron spectrum Extremely small resolution bandwidths are available on modern vector signal analyzers. A small resolution bandwidth is equivalent to measuring the chromaticity many times and averaging the results. This would permit much smaller shifts in betatron tunes to be measured. The phase-modulated signal consists of sidebands whose amplitudes are given by Bessel functions. The complication of the Bessel functions can be removed if the vector signal analyzer is capable of phase demodulation. The sign of the chromaticity can be determined by observing the modulation spectrum at both betatron sidebands.

  20. Carbon Nanotubes as Resonators for RF Spectrum Analyzers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Brian; Noca, Flavio; Hoenk, Michael

    2003-01-01

    a microwave power device. Instead, this carbon nanotube mechanical resonator would be useful primarily as part of a highly precise, sensitive, frequency-selective detector. An array of such devices featuring nanotubes of different lengths (and thus different frequencies) could be made to operate as a highspeed spectrum analyzer (see Figure 2)

  1. Radio frequency detection assembly and method for detecting radio frequencies

    DOEpatents

    Cown, Steven H.; Derr, Kurt Warren

    2010-03-16

    A radio frequency detection assembly is described and which includes a radio frequency detector which detects a radio frequency emission produced by a radio frequency emitter from a given location which is remote relative to the radio frequency detector; a location assembly electrically coupled with the radio frequency detector and which is operable to estimate the location of the radio frequency emitter from the radio frequency emission which has been received; and a radio frequency transmitter electrically coupled with the radio frequency detector and the location assembly, and which transmits a radio frequency signal which reports the presence of the radio frequency emitter.

  2. Relationship between the transition frequency of local fluid flow and the peak frequency of attenuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Cheng-Hao; Zhang, Hong-Bing; Pan, Yi-Xin; Teng, Xin-Bao

    2016-03-01

    Local fluid flow (LFF) at the mesoscopic scale is the main dissipation mechanism of seismic waves in heterogeneous porous media within the seismic frequency band. LFF is easily influenced by the structure and boundary conditions of the porous media, which leads to different behaviors of the peak frequency of attenuation. The associated transition frequency can provide detailed information about the trend of LFF; therefore, research on the transition frequency of LFF and its relationship with the peak frequency of the corresponding attenuation (i.e., inverse of quality factor) facilitates the detailed understanding of the effect of inner structures and boundary conditions in porous media. In this study, we firstly obtain the transition frequency of fluid flux based on Biot's theory of poroelasticity and the fast Fourier transform algorithm in a sample containing one repeating unit cell (RUC). We then analyze changes of these two frequencies in porous media with different porous properties. Finally, we extend our analysis to the influence of the undrained boundary condition on the transition frequency and peak frequency in porous media with multiple RUCs. This setup can facilitate the understanding of the effect from the undrained boundary condition. Results demonstrate that these two frequencies have the same trend at low water saturation, but amplitude variations differ between the frequencies as the amount of saturation increases. However, for cases of high water saturation, both the trend and the amplitude variation of these two frequencies fit well with each other.

  3. 21 CFR 882.1020 - Rigidity analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Rigidity analyzer. 882.1020 Section 882.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1020 Rigidity analyzer....

  4. 21 CFR 882.1020 - Rigidity analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rigidity analyzer. 882.1020 Section 882.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1020 Rigidity analyzer....

  5. 21 CFR 882.1020 - Rigidity analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Rigidity analyzer. 882.1020 Section 882.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1020 Rigidity analyzer....

  6. 21 CFR 882.1020 - Rigidity analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rigidity analyzer. 882.1020 Section 882.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1020 Rigidity analyzer....

  7. 21 CFR 882.1020 - Rigidity analyzer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Rigidity analyzer. 882.1020 Section 882.1020 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Diagnostic Devices § 882.1020 Rigidity analyzer....

  8. Frequency conversion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Steven (Inventor); Waarts, Robert G. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A frequency conversion system comprises first and second gain sources providing first and second frequency radiation outputs where the second gain source receives as input the output of the first gain source and, further, the second gain source comprises a Raman or Brillouin gain fiber for wave shifting a portion of the radiation of the first frequency output into second frequency radiation output to provided a combined output of first and second frequencies. Powers are gain enhanced by the addition of a rare earth amplifier or oscillator, or a Raman/Brillouin amplifier or oscillator between the high power source and the NFM device. Further, polarization conversion using Raman or Brillouin wavelength shifting is provided to optimize frequency conversion efficiency in the NFM device.

  9. Waveform frequency notching

    DOEpatents

    Doerry, Armin W.; Andrews, John

    2017-05-09

    The various technologies presented herein relate to incorporating one or more notches into a radar spectrum, whereby the notches relate to one or more frequencies for which no radar transmission is to occur. An instantaneous frequency is monitored and if the frequency is determined to be of a restricted frequency, then a radar signal can be modified. Modification can include replacing the signal with a signal having a different instantaneous amplitude, a different instantaneous phase, etc. The modification can occur in a WFS prior to a DAC, as well as prior to a sin ROM component and/or a cos ROM component. Further, the notch can be dithered to enable formation of a deep notch. The notch can also undergo signal transitioning to enable formation of a deep notch. The restricted frequencies can be stored in a LUT against which an instantaneous frequency can be compared.

  10. 40 CFR 92.115 - Calibrations; frequency and overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Calibrations; frequency and overview....115 Calibrations; frequency and overview. (a) Calibrations shall be performed as specified in §§ 92...) Sample conditioning columns, if used in the CO analyzer train, should be checked at a frequency...

  11. 40 CFR 92.115 - Calibrations; frequency and overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Calibrations; frequency and overview....115 Calibrations; frequency and overview. (a) Calibrations shall be performed as specified in §§ 92...) Sample conditioning columns, if used in the CO analyzer train, should be checked at a frequency...

  12. 40 CFR 86.516-90 - Calibrations, frequency and overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Calibrations, frequency and overview... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.516-90 Calibrations, frequency and... conditioning columns, if used in the CO analyzer train, should be checked at a frequency consistent with...

  13. 40 CFR 92.115 - Calibrations; frequency and overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Calibrations; frequency and overview....115 Calibrations; frequency and overview. (a) Calibrations shall be performed as specified in §§ 92...) Sample conditioning columns, if used in the CO analyzer train, should be checked at a frequency...

  14. 40 CFR 86.516-90 - Calibrations, frequency and overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Calibrations, frequency and overview... Regulations for 1978 and Later New Motorcycles; Test Procedures § 86.516-90 Calibrations, frequency and... conditioning columns, if used in the CO analyzer train, should be checked at a frequency consistent with...

  15. 40 CFR 86.116-94 - Calibrations, frequency and overview.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Calibrations, frequency and overview... Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.116-94 Calibrations, frequency and overview. (a... conditioning columns, if used in the CO analyzer train, should be checked at a frequency consistent...

  16. Linear theory of frequency pulling in gyrotrons

    SciTech Connect

    Nusinovich, Gregory S.; Luo, Li; Liu, Pu-Kun

    2016-05-15

    The effect of the electron beam on the gyrotron operating frequency (the frequency pulling) is studied analytically in the framework of the linear (or small-signal) theory. The theory is applicable for gyrotrons operating at any cyclotron harmonics and in modes with arbitrary axial structures. The present consideration is limited to cases of operation at the fundamental cyclotron resonance and the second harmonic; also two specific axial profiles of the resonator modes are analyzed: the constant and the sinusoidal distributions. In the case of the sinusoidal distribution, we considered the operation in modes with one, two, and three axial variations. It is shown how to use the theory developed for analyzing the frequency tunability due to the frequency pulling effect in a gyrotron with specified parameters of the electron beam.

  17. Real-time, high frequency QRS electrocardiograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlegel, Todd T. (Inventor); DePalma, Jude L. (Inventor); Moradi, Saeed (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Real time cardiac electrical data are received from a patient, manipulated to determine various useful aspects of the ECG signal, and displayed in real time in a useful form on a computer screen or monitor. The monitor displays the high frequency data from the QRS complex in units of microvolts, juxtaposed with a display of conventional ECG data in units of millivolts or microvolts. The high frequency data are analyzed for their root mean square (RMS) voltage values and the discrete RMS values and related parameters are displayed in real time. The high frequency data from the QRS complex are analyzed with imbedded algorithms to determine the presence or absence of reduced amplitude zones, referred to herein as RAZs. RAZs are displayed as go, no-go signals on the computer monitor. The RMS and related values of the high frequency components are displayed as time varying signals, and the presence or absence of RAZs may be similarly displayed over time.

  18. Frequency Domain Speech Coding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-01

    perceptible affect on the sound of the reconstructed noiselike speech . It is possible that the frequency bands need not be mel scaled. Equally spaced frequency...levels seemed to affect the quality of the reproduced speech more than did the number of amplitude quantization levels. Informal listening test...the original. Eliminating spectral components has an adverse affect on the quality of reproduced speech . The whole process of selecting frequency and

  19. Cooled Ion Frequency Standard

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-27

    on Frequency Standards and Metrology, Ancona , Italy (Springer Verlag, 1988) to be published. 8. "High Accuracy Spectroscopy of Stored Ions," D.J...Wineland, W.M. Itano, J.S. Bergquist, J.J. Bollinger, F. Diedrich and S.L. Gilbert, Proc. 4th Symp. on Frequency Standards and Metrology, Ancona , Italy...Proc. 4th Symp. on Frequency Standards and Metrology, Ancona , Italy (Springer Verlag, 1988) to be published. 10. "Quantative Study of Laser Cooling in

  20. Kundt's Tube: An Acoustic Gas Analyzer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aristov, Natasha; Habekost, Gehsa; Habekost, Achim

    2011-01-01

    A Kundt tube is normally used to measure the speed of sound in gases. Therefore, from known speeds of sound, a Kundt tube can be used to identify gases and their fractions in mixtures. In these experiments, the speed of sound is determined by measuring the frequency of a standing sound wave at a fixed tube length, temperature, and pressure. This…

  1. Technique for analyzing human respiratory process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, F. F.

    1970-01-01

    Electronic system /MIRACLE 2/ places frequency and gas flow rate of the respiratory process within a common frame of reference to render them comparable and compatible with ''real clock time.'' Numerous measurements are accomplished accurately on a strict one-minute half-minute, breath-by-breath, or other period basis.

  2. Kundt's Tube: An Acoustic Gas Analyzer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aristov, Natasha; Habekost, Gehsa; Habekost, Achim

    2011-01-01

    A Kundt tube is normally used to measure the speed of sound in gases. Therefore, from known speeds of sound, a Kundt tube can be used to identify gases and their fractions in mixtures. In these experiments, the speed of sound is determined by measuring the frequency of a standing sound wave at a fixed tube length, temperature, and pressure. This…

  3. Nonlinear Frequency Compression

    PubMed Central

    Scollie, Susan; Glista, Danielle; Seelisch, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Frequency lowering technologies offer an alternative amplification solution for severe to profound high frequency hearing losses. While frequency lowering technologies may improve audibility of high frequency sounds, the very nature of this processing can affect the perceived sound quality. This article reports the results from two studies that investigated the impact of a nonlinear frequency compression (NFC) algorithm on perceived sound quality. In the first study, the cutoff frequency and compression ratio parameters of the NFC algorithm were varied, and their effect on the speech quality was measured subjectively with 12 normal hearing adults, 12 normal hearing children, 13 hearing impaired adults, and 9 hearing impaired children. In the second study, 12 normal hearing and 8 hearing impaired adult listeners rated the quality of speech in quiet, speech in noise, and music after processing with a different set of NFC parameters. Results showed that the cutoff frequency parameter had more impact on sound quality ratings than the compression ratio, and that the hearing impaired adults were more tolerant to increased frequency compression than normal hearing adults. No statistically significant differences were found in the sound quality ratings of speech-in-noise and music stimuli processed through various NFC settings by hearing impaired listeners. These findings suggest that there may be an acceptable range of NFC settings for hearing impaired individuals where sound quality is not adversely affected. These results may assist an Audiologist in clinical NFC hearing aid fittings for achieving a balance between high frequency audibility and sound quality. PMID:23539261

  4. Frequency selective terahertz retroreflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Richard James

    The use of novel optical structures operating at terahertz frequencies in industrial and military applications continues to grow. Some of these novel structures include gratings, frequency selective surfaces, metamaterials and metasurfaces, and retroreflectors. A retroreflector is a device that exhibits enhanced backscatter by concentrating the reflected wave in the direction of the source. Retroreflectors have applications in a variety of diverse fields such as aviation, radar systems, antenna technology, communications, navigation, passive identification, and metrology due to their large acceptance angles and frequency bandwidth. This thesis describes the design, fabrication, and characterization of a retroreflector designed for terahertz frequencies and the incorporation of a frequency selective surface in order to endow the retroreflector with narrow-band frequency performance. The radar cross section of several spherical lens reflectors operating at terahertz frequencies was investigated. Spherical lens reflectors with diameters ranging from 2 mm to 8 mm were fabricated from fused silica ball lenses and their radar cross section was measured at 100 GHz, 160 GHz, and 350 GHz. Crossed-dipole frequency selective surfaces exhibiting band-pass characteristics at 350 GHz fabricated from 12 um-thick Nickel screens were applied to the apertures of the spherical lens reflectors. The radar cross section of the frequency selective retroreflectors was measured at 160 GHz and 350 GHz to demonstrate proof-of-concept of narrow-band terahertz performance.

  5. Multi-Frequency Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sault, R. J.; Conway, J. E.

    Multi-frequency synthesis is the practice of using visibility data measured over a range of frequencies when forming a continuum image. Because observing frequency is easier to vary than antenna location, it is an effective way of filling the (u,v) plane for an observation. Here we consider the artifacts in MFS images caused by source spectral variation. For frequency ranges of about 30%, for observations where only modest dynamic range is required, the artifacts of MFS can be completely ignored. For higher dynamic range observations, some calibration techniques and deconvolution algorithms are described which minimize the artifacts.

  6. Frequency Response Analysis Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Etingov, Pavel V.; Kosterev, Dmitry; Dai, T.

    2014-12-01

    Frequency response has received a lot of attention in recent years at the national level, which culminated in the development and approval of North American Electricity Reliability Corporation (NERC) BAL-003-1 Frequency Response and Frequency Bias Setting Reliability Standard. This report is prepared to describe the details of the work conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) in collaboration with the Bonneville Power Administration and Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC) Joint Synchronized Information Subcommittee (JSIS) to develop a frequency response analysis tool (FRAT). The document provides the details on the methodology and main features of the FRAT. The tool manages the database of under-frequency events and calculates the frequency response baseline. Frequency response calculations are consistent with frequency response measure (FRM) in NERC BAL-003-1 for an interconnection and balancing authority. The FRAT can use both phasor measurement unit (PMU) data, where available, and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) data. The tool is also capable of automatically generating NERC Frequency Response Survey (FRS) forms required by BAL-003-1 Standard.

  7. Relationship between wingbeat frequency and resonant frequency of the wing in insects.

    PubMed

    Ha, Ngoc San; Truong, Quang Tri; Goo, Nam Seo; Park, Hoon Cheol

    2013-12-01

    In this study, we experimentally studied the relationship between wingbeat frequency and resonant frequency of 30 individuals of eight insect species from five orders: Odonata (Sympetrum flaveolum), Lepidoptera (Pieris rapae, Plusia gamma and Ochlodes), Hymenoptera (Xylocopa pubescens and Bombus rupestric), Hemiptera (Tibicen linnei) and Coleoptera (Allomyrina dichotoma). The wingbeat frequency of free-flying insects was measured using a high-speed camera while the natural frequency was determined using a laser displacement sensor along with a Bruel and Kjaer fast Fourier transform analyzer based on the base excitation method. The results showed that the wingbeat frequency was related to body mass (m) and forewing area (Af), following the proportionality f ~ m(1/2)/Af, while the natural frequency was significantly correlated with area density (f0 ~ mw/Af, mw is the wing mass). In addition, from the comparison of wingbeat frequency to natural frequency, the ratio between wingbeat frequency and natural frequency was found to be, in general, between 0.13 and 0.67 for the insects flapping at a lower wingbeat frequency (less than 100 Hz) and higher than 1.22 for the insects flapping at a higher wingbeat frequency (higher than 100 Hz). These results suggest that wingbeat frequency does not have a strong relation with resonance frequency: in other words, insects have not been evolved sufficiently to flap at their wings' structural resonant frequency. This contradicts the general conclusion of other reports--that insects flap at their wings' resonant frequency to take advantage of passive deformation to save energy.

  8. VISAR Analysis in the Frequency Domain

    DOE PAGES

    Dolan, D. H.; Specht, P.

    2017-05-18

    VISAR measurements are typically analyzed in the time domain, where velocity is approximately proportional to fringe shift. Moving to the frequency domain clarifies the limitations of this approximation and suggests several improvements. For example, optical dispersion preserves high-frequency information, so a zero-dispersion (air delay) interferometer does not provide optimal time resolution. Combined VISAR measurements can also improve time resolution. With adequate bandwidth and reasonable noise levels, it is quite possible to achieve better resolution than the VISAR approximation allows.

  9. [Dynamic Pulse Signal Processing and Analyzing in Mobile System].

    PubMed

    Chou, Yongxin; Zhang, Aihua; Ou, Jiqing; Qi, Yusheng

    2015-09-01

    In order to derive dynamic pulse rate variability (DPRV) signal from dynamic pulse signal in real time, a method for extracting DPRV signal was proposed and a portable mobile monitoring system was designed. The system consists of a front end for collecting and wireless sending pulse signal and a mobile terminal. The proposed method is employed to extract DPRV from dynamic pulse signal in mobile terminal, and the DPRV signal is analyzed both in the time domain and the frequency domain and also with non-linear method in real time. The results show that the proposed method can accurately derive DPRV signal in real time, the system can be used for processing and analyzing DPRV signal in real time.

  10. Systems Analyze Water Quality in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    A water analyzer developed under Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts with Kennedy Space Center now monitors treatment processes at water and wastewater facilities around the world. Originally designed to provide real-time detection of nutrient levels in hydroponic solutions for growing plants in space, the ChemScan analyzer, produced by ASA Analytics Inc., of Waukesha, Wisconsin, utilizes spectrometry and chemometric algorithms to automatically analyze multiple parameters in the water treatment process with little need for maintenance, calibration, or operator intervention. The company has experienced a compound annual growth rate of 40 percent over its 15-year history as a direct result of the technology's success.

  11. Analyzing machine noise for real time maintenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamato, Yoji; Fukumoto, Yoshifumi; Kumazaki, Hiroki

    2017-02-01

    Recently, IoT technologies have been progressed and applications of maintenance area are expected. However, IoT maintenance applications are not spread in Japan yet because of one-off solution of sensing and analyzing for each case, high cost to collect sensing data and insufficient maintenance automation. This paper proposes a maintenance platform which analyzes sound data in edges, analyzes only anomaly data in cloud and orders maintenance automatically to resolve existing technology problems. We also implement a sample application and compare related work.

  12. Burst-by-burst laser frequency monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esproles, Carlos (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The invention is a system for real-time frequency monitoring and display of an RF burst where the burst frequency is analyzed and displayed on a burst-by-burst basis in order to allow for frequency control. Although the invention was made for monitoring the laser frequency of a LIDAR system, it has other applications where realtime monitoring is required. The novelty of the invention resides in the use of a counter that is reset at the beginning of each unit time of monitoring and then gated for a unit of time. The invention also has an LED bar graph for displaying the measure of frequency at the end of each unit time in either a bar length mode or a moving dot mode. In the latter mode, the operator makes necessary adjustments to maintain the dot at the center of the bar graph.

  13. Primary cesium time and frequency standards

    SciTech Connect

    Abashev, Yu.G.; Elkin, G.A.; Pushkin, S.B.

    1984-05-01

    Cesium frequency standards are used to determine the atomic second in SI units and to provide a national atomic-time scale at the leading meteorological laboratories of the world. In this paper, the state of cesium and atomic frequency standards are examined and methods of increasing their accuracy are analyzed. High-purity polycrystals of platinum-iridium alloy or high-purity and structurally perfect single crystals of tungsten and molybdenum are used as ionizers in beam detection. Relative frequency instabilities that have been obtained at the various laboratories are presented. The main sources of error in reproducing the unperturbed-transition frequency of cesium atoms are discussed, including the second-order Doppler effect and the Majorana effect. Accuracy estimates for cesium frequency standards of the world's leading meteorological laboratories are shown.

  14. Frequency interactions in human epileptic brain.

    PubMed

    Cotic, Marija; Zalay, Osbert; Valiante, Taufik; Carlen, Peter L; Bardakjian, Berj L

    2011-01-01

    We have used two algorithms, wavelet phase coherence (WPC) and modulation index (MI) analysis to study frequency interactions in the human epileptic brain. Quantitative analyses were performed on intracranial electroencephalographic (iEEG) segments from three patients with neocortical epilepsy. Interelectrode coherence was measured using WPC and intraelectrode frequency interactions were analyzed using MI. WPC was performed on electrode pairings and the temporal evolution of phase couplings in the following frequency ranges: 1-4 Hz, 4-8 Hz, 8-13 Hz, 13-30 Hz and 30-100 Hz was studied. WPC was strongest in the 1-4 Hz frequency range during both seizure and non-seizure activities; however, WPC values varied minimally between electrode pairings. The 13-30 Hz band showed the lowest WPC values during seizure activity. MI analysis yielded two prominent patterns of frequency-specific activity, during seizure and non-seizure activities, which were present across all patients.

  15. Stabilized radio frequency quadrupole

    DOEpatents

    Lancaster, H.D.; Fugitt, J.A.; Howard, D.R.

    1984-12-25

    Disclosed is a long-vane stabilized radio frequency resonator for accelerating charged particles and including means defining a radio frequency resonator cavity, a plurality of long vanes mounted in the defining means for dividing the cavity into sections, and means interconnecting opposing ones of the plurality of vanes for stabilizing the resonator. 5 figs.

  16. Stabilized radio frequency quadrupole

    DOEpatents

    Lancaster, Henry D.; Fugitt, Jock A.; Howard, Donald R.

    1984-01-01

    A long-vane stabilized radio frequency resonator for accelerating charged particles and including means defining a radio frequency resonator cavity, a plurality of long vanes mounted in the defining means for dividing the cavity into sections, and means interconnecting opposing ones of the plurality of vanes for stabilizing the resonator.

  17. Multi-Frequency Synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conway, J. E.; Sault, R. J.

    Introduction; Image Fidelity; Multi-Frequency Synthesis; Spectral Effects; The Spectral Expansion; Spectral Dirty Beams; First Order Spectral Errors; Second Order Spectral Errors; The MFS Deconvolution Problem; Nature of The Problem; Map and Stack; Direct Assault; Data Weighting Methods; Double Deconvolution; The Sault Algorithm; Multi-Frequency Self-Calibration; Practical MFS; Conclusions

  18. 40 CFR 91.313 - Analyzers required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) absorption type. (ii) The use of linearizing circuits is permitted. (2) Carbon dioxide (CO 2) analysis. (i) The carbon dioxide analyzer must be of the non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) absorption type. (ii)...

  19. 40 CFR 91.313 - Analyzers required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) absorption type. (ii) The use of linearizing circuits is permitted. (2) Carbon dioxide (CO 2) analysis. (i) The carbon dioxide analyzer must be of the non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) absorption type. (ii)...

  20. 40 CFR 91.313 - Analyzers required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) absorption type. (ii) The use of linearizing circuits is permitted. (2) Carbon dioxide (CO 2) analysis. (i) The carbon dioxide analyzer must be of the non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) absorption type. (ii)...

  1. 40 CFR 91.313 - Analyzers required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) absorption type. (ii) The use of linearizing circuits is permitted. (2) Carbon dioxide (CO 2) analysis. (i) The carbon dioxide analyzer must be of the non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) absorption type. (ii)...

  2. Guide to analyzing investment options using TWIGS.

    Treesearch

    Charles R Blinn; Dietmar W. Rose; Monique L. Belli

    1988-01-01

    Describes methods for analyzing economic return of simulated stand management alternatives in TWIGS. Defines and discusses net present value, equivalent annual income, soil expectation value, and real vs. nominal analyses. Discusses risk and sensitivity analysis when comparing alternatives.

  3. On-line chemical composition analyzer development

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report relates to the development of an on-line Raman analyzer for control of a distillation column. It is divided into: program issues, experimental control system evaluation, energy savings analysis, and reliability analysis. (DLC)

  4. System for analyzing coal liquefaction products

    DOEpatents

    Dinsmore, Stanley R.; Mrochek, John E.

    1984-01-01

    A system for analyzing constituents of coal-derived materials comprises three adsorption columns and a flow-control arrangement which permits separation of both aromatic and polar hydrocarbons by use of two eluent streams.

  5. Resolution of a Prism Waveguide Spectrum Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shul‧ga, A. V.

    2013-11-01

    We have studied the resolution of a waveguide spectrum analyzer, based on a prism coupler for mode excitation, as a function of the structural parameters of the waveguide. We show that the limiting resolution of the waveguide spectrum analyzer is determined by the ratio of the chromatic dispersion of the waveguide to the imaginary part of the propagation constant for the leaky mode of the waveguide/coupling prism structure.

  6. Microfabricated ion frequency standard

    DOEpatents

    Schwindt, Peter; Biedermann, Grant; Blain, Matthew G.; Stick, Daniel L.; Serkland, Darwin K.; Olsson, III, Roy H.

    2010-12-28

    A microfabricated ion frequency standard (i.e. an ion clock) is disclosed with a permanently-sealed vacuum package containing a source of ytterbium (Yb) ions and an octupole ion trap. The source of Yb ions is a micro-hotplate which generates Yb atoms which are then ionized by a ultraviolet light-emitting diode or a field-emission electron source. The octupole ion trap, which confines the Yb ions, is formed from suspended electrodes on a number of stacked-up substrates. A microwave source excites a ground-state transition frequency of the Yb ions, with a frequency-doubled vertical-external-cavity laser (VECSEL) then exciting the Yb ions up to an excited state to produce fluorescent light which is used to tune the microwave source to the ground-state transition frequency, with the microwave source providing a precise frequency output for the ion clock.

  7. Sonic gas analyzer for microbiological metabolic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horta, Miguel A.; Garrett, Steven

    2005-09-01

    A differential open-pipe resonator was built to track changes in gas-mixture concentration. A single miniature loudspeaker simultaneously drives two adjacent ducts at resonance and 180 deg out of phase. The resonant frequency is tracked with a phase-locked loop, using the difference signal from two electret microphones whose sensitivities are balanced by adjustment of the preamplifier gains to provide common-mode rejection of extraneous noise sources (for example, a magnetic stirrer) within the bioreactor. A small change of the gas concentration produces a proportional change of the driving frequency for a given binary mix of gases. This sensor is designed to measure the production of hydrogen or methane from metabolic processes of anaerobic bacteria. Results from an initial set of experiments using helium injection and hydrogen release from a HCl+Zn reaction will be presented. [For Engineering Acoustics Best Student Paper Award.

  8. 40 CFR 1065.372 - NDUV analyzer HC and H2O interference verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calibrations and Verifications Nox and N2o Measurements § 1065.372 NDUV analyzer HC and H2O interference verification. (a) Scope and frequency. If you... analyzer installation and after major maintenance. (b) Measurement principles. Hydrocarbons and H2O...

  9. 40 CFR 1065.372 - NDUV analyzer HC and H2O interference verification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calibrations and Verifications Nox and N2o Measurements § 1065.372 NDUV analyzer HC and H2O interference verification. (a) Scope and frequency. If you... analyzer installation and after major maintenance. (b) Measurement principles. Hydrocarbons and H2O...

  10. Long-term microwave power drift of a cesium frequency standard and its effect on output frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. A.; Karuza, Sarunas K.; Voit, Frank J.

    1990-01-01

    It has been shown that the long-term frequency stability of a cesium (Cs) frequency standard is affected by variations in the standard's internal microwave power source. Studies were performed on a commercial Cs frequency standard for a period of 20 days, to determine the stability of its microwave power source. The results were then analyzed statistically, and the effects of microwave power drift on the standard's frequency stability were calculated.

  11. Frequency comb swept lasers.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Tsung-Han; Zhou, Chao; Adler, Desmond C; Fujimoto, James G

    2009-11-09

    We demonstrate a frequency comb (FC) swept laser and a frequency comb Fourier domain mode locked (FC-FDML) laser for applications in optical coherence tomography (OCT). The fiber-based FC swept lasers operate at a sweep rate of 1kHz and 120kHz, respectively over a 135nm tuning range centered at 1310nm with average output powers of 50mW. A 25GHz free spectral range frequency comb filter in the swept lasers causes the lasers to generate a series of well defined frequency steps. The narrow bandwidth (0.015nm) of the frequency comb filter enables a approximately -1.2dB sensitivity roll off over approximately 3mm range, compared to conventional swept source and FDML lasers which have -10dB and -5dB roll offs, respectively. Measurements at very long ranges are possible with minimal sensitivity loss, however reflections from outside the principal measurement range of 0-3mm appear aliased back into the principal range. In addition, the frequency comb output from the lasers are equally spaced in frequency (linear in k-space). The filtered laser output can be used to self-clock the OCT interference signal sampling, enabling direct fast Fourier transformation of the fringe signals, without the need for fringe recalibration procedures. The design and operation principles of FC swept lasers are discussed and designs for short cavity lasers for OCT and interferometric measurement applications are proposed.

  12. Precision optical reference frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riehle, Fritz; Schnatz, Harald; Zinner, G.; Trebst, Tilmann; Helmcke, Juergen

    1999-05-01

    Optical reference frequencies are provided by lasers of which the frequencies are stabilized to suitable absorption lines. Presently, twelve reference frequencies/wavelengths within the wavelengths range from 243 nm to 10.3 micrometers are recommended by the International Committee of Weights and Measures as references for the realization of the meter and scientific applications. As typical examples, we describe a diode-pumped, frequency doubled YAG-laser stabilized to an absorption line of molecular iodine and a Ca-stabilized laser. The latter one has been developed in two versions, a transportable system utilizing a small beam of thermal Ca atoms and a stationary standard based on laser cooled and trapped Ca atoms. The frequency of the Ca standard based on cold Ca atoms has been measured by a frequency chain allowing a phase-coherent comparison against the primary standard of time and frequency, the caesium clock. Its value is vCa equals 455 986 240 494.13 kHz with a relative standard uncertainty of 2.5 (DOT) 10-13.

  13. Frequency comb swept lasers

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tsung-Han; Zhou, Chao; Adler, Desmond C.; Fujimoto, James G.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate a frequency comb (FC) swept laser and a frequency comb Fourier domain mode locked (FC-FDML) laser for applications in optical coherence tomography (OCT). The fiber-based FC swept lasers operate at a sweep rate of 1kHz and 120kHz, respectively over a 135nm tuning range centered at 1310nm with average output powers of 50mW. A 25GHz free spectral range frequency comb filter in the swept lasers causes the lasers to generate a series of well defined frequency steps. The narrow bandwidth (0.015nm) of the frequency comb filter enables a ~−1.2dB sensitivity roll off over ~3mm range, compared to conventional swept source and FDML lasers which have −10dB and −5dB roll offs, respectively. Measurements at very long ranges are possible with minimal sensitivity loss, however reflections from outside the principal measurement range of 0–3mm appear aliased back into the principal range. In addition, the frequency comb output from the lasers are equally spaced in frequency (linear in k-space). The filtered laser output can be used to self-clock the OCT interference signal sampling, enabling direct fast Fourier transformation of the fringe signals, without the need for fringe recalibration procedures. The design and operation principles of FC swept lasers are discussed and designs for short cavity lasers for OCT and interferometric measurement applications are proposed. PMID:19997365

  14. Analyzing visual signals as visual scenes.

    PubMed

    Allen, William L; Higham, James P

    2013-07-01

    The study of visual signal design is gaining momentum as techniques for studying signals become more sophisticated and more freely available. In this paper we discuss methods for analyzing the color and form of visual signals, for integrating signal components into visual scenes, and for producing visual signal stimuli for use in psychophysical experiments. Our recommended methods aim to be rigorous, detailed, quantitative, objective, and where possible based on the perceptual representation of the intended signal receiver(s). As methods for analyzing signal color and luminance have been outlined in previous publications we focus on analyzing form information by discussing how statistical shape analysis (SSA) methods can be used to analyze signal shape, and spatial filtering to analyze repetitive patterns. We also suggest the use of vector-based approaches for integrating multiple signal components. In our opinion elliptical Fourier analysis (EFA) is the most promising technique for shape quantification but we await the results of empirical comparison of techniques and the development of new shape analysis methods based on the cognitive and perceptual representations of receivers. Our manuscript should serve as an introductory guide to those interested in measuring visual signals, and while our examples focus on primate signals, the methods are applicable to quantifying visual signals in most taxa.

  15. A beat frequency buncher

    SciTech Connect

    Storm, D.W.; Corcoran, D.T.; Harper, G.C.

    1995-09-01

    A superconducting high energy buncher operating at 13/12 times the linac frequency has been built and installed, to combine with the low energy buncher operating at 1/12 the linac frequency. The system is synchronized so the linac and high energy buncher beat frequency remains in phase with the low energy buncher. On linac cycles not corresponding to a primary bunch, the high energy buncher bunches residual beam away from the linac longitudinal acceptance rather than into it. The resonator for the new high energy buncher was constructed by shortening an existing low-{beta} resonator.

  16. Radio frequency strain monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, Joseph S. (Inventor); Rogowski, Robert S. (Inventor); Holben, Jr., Milford S. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A radio frequency strain monitor includes a voltage controlled oscillator for generating an oscillating signal that is input into a propagation path. The propagation path is preferably bonded to the surface of a structure to be monitored and produces a propagated signal. A phase difference between the oscillating and propagated signals is detected and maintained at a substantially constant value which is preferably a multiple of 90.degree. by changing the frequency of the oscillating signal. Any change in frequency of the oscillating signal provides an indication of strain in the structure to which the propagation path is bonded.

  17. Multi-Frequency Band Pyroelectric Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Chun-Ching; Liu, Sheng-Yi

    2014-01-01

    A methodology is proposed for designing a multi-frequency band pyroelectric sensor which can detect subjects with various frequencies or velocities. A structure with dual pyroelectric layers, consisting of a thinner sputtered ZnO layer and a thicker aerosol ZnO layer, proved helpful in the development of the proposed sensor. The thinner sputtered ZnO layer with a small thermal capacity and a rapid response accomplishes a high-frequency sensing task, while the thicker aerosol ZnO layer with a large thermal capacity and a tardy response is responsible for low-frequency sensing tasks. A multi-frequency band pyroelectric sensor is successfully designed, analyzed and fabricated in the present study. The range of the multi-frequency sensing can be estimated by means of the proposed design and analysis to match the thicknesses of the sputtered and the aerosol ZnO layers. The fabricated multi-frequency band pyroelectric sensor with a 1 μm thick sputtered ZnO layer and a 20 μm thick aerosol ZnO layer can sense a frequency band from 4000 to 40,000 Hz without tardy response and low voltage responsivity. PMID:25429406

  18. OASIS: Organics Analyzer for Sampling Icy Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Getty, S. A.; Dworkin, J. P.; Glavin, D. P.; Martin, M.; Zheng, Y.; Balvin, M.; Southard, A. E.; Ferrance, J.; Malespin, C.

    2012-01-01

    Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is a well established laboratory technique for detecting and analyzing organic molecules. This approach has been especially fruitful in the analysis of nucleobases, amino acids, and establishing chirol ratios [1 -3]. We are developing OASIS, Organics Analyzer for Sampling Icy Surfaces, for future in situ landed missions to astrochemically important icy bodies, such as asteroids, comets, and icy moons. The OASIS design employs a microfabricated, on-chip analytical column to chromatographically separate liquid ana1ytes using known LC stationary phase chemistries. The elution products are then interfaced through electrospray ionization (ESI) and analyzed by a time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). A particular advantage of this design is its suitability for microgravity environments, such as for a primitive small body.

  19. The Cosmic Dust Analyzer for Cassini

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, James G.; Gruen, Eberhard; Srama, Ralf

    1996-01-01

    The Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) is designed to characterize the dust environment in interplanetary space, in the Jovian and in the Saturnian systems. The instrument consists of two major components, the Dust Analyzer (DA) and the High Rate Detector (HRD). The DA has a large aperture to provide a large cross section for detection in low flux environments. The DA has the capability of determining dust particle mass, velocity, flight direction, charge, and chemical composition. The chemical composition is determined by the Chemical Analyzer system based on a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The DA is capable of making full measurements up to one impact/second. The HRD contains two smaller PVDF detectors and electronics designed to characterize dust particle masses at impact rates up to 10(exp 4) impacts/second. These high impact rates are expected during Saturn ring, plane crossings.

  20. Statistical considerations when analyzing biomarker data.

    PubMed

    Beam, Craig A

    2015-11-01

    Biomarkers have become, and will continue to become, increasingly important to clinical immunology research. Yet, biomarkers often present new problems and raise new statistical and study design issues to scientists working in clinical immunology. In this paper I discuss statistical considerations related to the important biomarker problems of: 1) The design and analysis of clinical studies which seek to determine whether changes from baseline in a biomarker are associated with changes in a metabolic outcome; 2) The conditions that are required for a biomarker to be considered a "surrogate"; 3) Considerations that arise when analyzing whether or not a predictive biomarker could act as a surrogate endpoint; 4) Biomarker timing relative to the clinical endpoint; 5) The problem of analyzing studies that measure many biomarkers from few subjects; and, 6) The use of statistical models when analyzing biomarker data arising from count data.

  1. In-situ continuous water analyzing module

    DOEpatents

    Thompson, Cyril V.; Wise, Marcus B.

    1998-01-01

    An in-situ continuous liquid analyzing system for continuously analyzing volatile components contained in a water source comprises: a carrier gas supply, an extraction container and a mass spectrometer. The carrier gas supply continuously supplies the carrier gas to the extraction container and is mixed with a water sample that is continuously drawn into the extraction container. The carrier gas continuously extracts the volatile components out of the water sample. The water sample is returned to the water source after the volatile components are extracted from it. The extracted volatile components and the carrier gas are delivered continuously to the mass spectometer and the volatile components are continuously analyzed by the mass spectrometer.

  2. Comparison of four automated hematology analyzers.

    PubMed

    Koenn, M E; Kirby, B A; Cook, L L; Hare, J L; Hall, S H; Barry, P M; Hissam, C L; Wojcicki, S B

    2001-01-01

    To compare four automated hematology analyzers for efficiency and sensitivity. Four automated hematology analyzers were compared in a side by side study: Bayer ADVIA 120 (Bayer Diagnostic Division, Tarrytown, NY), Beckman Coulter GEN S (Beckman Coulter, Brea, CA), Abbott CELL DYN 3500 and CELL DYN 4000 (Abbott Diagnostics, Santa Clara, CA). 164 specimens were analyzed for cell counts, indices, and the automated WBC differential (DLC). Tallies were kept of all interventions, defined as any parameter necessitating examination of a stained blood smear by a clinical laboratory scientist. A 400-cell manual differential was performed on each specimen and used as the reference to prepare truth tables for each type of WBC. Specimens comprised regular runs from this tertiary care teaching hospital. These included inpatients, outpatients, and oncology patients, including bone marrow transplant patients. Results from the truth tables were used for calculating sensitivity and efficiency for each analyzer. Each DLC parameter was analyzed for variance using the one-way ANOVA test. No intervention was required for 103 of 164 specimens for the CELL DYN 3500; the ADVIA gave 70 reportable DLCs without intervention, the GEN S provided 91 and the CELL DYN 4000 resulted in 117 of 164 DLCs without intervention. Agreement or efficiency was 65% for the CELL DYN 3500, 41% for the ADVLA, 58% for the GEN S, and 79% for the CELL DYN 4000. Sensitivity was 67% for the CELL DYN 3500, 86% for the ADVIA, 76% for the GEN S, and 71% for the CELL DYN 4000. Probability of significant variation was as follows for each parameter: % neutrophil 0.8747, % lymphocyte 0.8830, % monocyte 0.0296, % eosinophil 0.7903, and % basophil <.0001. The analyzers tested were acceptable for routine laboratory work. Selection would depend on individual need with respect to sensitivity and efficiency. The clinical significance of disagreement between the DLC and the manual differential remains to be determined.

  3. Rod Driven Frequency Entrainment and Resonance Phenomena.

    PubMed

    Salchow, Christina; Strohmeier, Daniel; Klee, Sascha; Jannek, Dunja; Schiecke, Karin; Witte, Herbert; Nehorai, Arye; Haueisen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    A controversy exists on photic driving in the human visual cortex evoked by intermittent photic stimulation. Frequency entrainment and resonance phenomena are reported for frequencies higher than 12 Hz in some studies while missing in others. We hypothesized that this might be due to different experimental conditions, since both high and low intensity light stimulation were used. However, most studies do not report radiometric measurements, which makes it impossible to categorize the stimulation according to photopic, mesopic, and scotopic vision. Low intensity light stimulation might lead to scotopic vision, where rod perception dominates. In this study, we investigated photic driving for rod-dominated visual input under scotopic conditions. Twelve healthy volunteers were stimulated with low intensity light flashes at 20 stimulation frequencies, leading to rod activation only. The frequencies were multiples of the individual alpha frequency (α) of each volunteer in the range from 0.40 to 2.30(∗)α. Three hundred and six-channel whole head magnetoencephalography recordings were analyzed in time, frequency, and spatiotemporal domains with the Topographic Matching Pursuit algorithm. We found resonance phenomena and frequency entrainment for stimulations at or close to the individual alpha frequency (0.90-1.10(∗)α) and half of the alpha frequency (0.40-0.55(∗)α). No signs of resonance and frequency entrainment phenomena were revealed around 2.00(∗)α. Instead, on-responses at the beginning and off-responses at the end of each stimulation train were observed for the first time in a photic driving experiment at frequencies of 1.30-2.30(∗)α, indicating that the flicker fusion threshold was reached. All results, the resonance and entrainment as well as the fusion effects, provide evidence for rod-dominated photic driving in the visual cortex.

  4. Rod Driven Frequency Entrainment and Resonance Phenomena

    PubMed Central

    Salchow, Christina; Strohmeier, Daniel; Klee, Sascha; Jannek, Dunja; Schiecke, Karin; Witte, Herbert; Nehorai, Arye; Haueisen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    A controversy exists on photic driving in the human visual cortex evoked by intermittent photic stimulation. Frequency entrainment and resonance phenomena are reported for frequencies higher than 12 Hz in some studies while missing in others. We hypothesized that this might be due to different experimental conditions, since both high and low intensity light stimulation were used. However, most studies do not report radiometric measurements, which makes it impossible to categorize the stimulation according to photopic, mesopic, and scotopic vision. Low intensity light stimulation might lead to scotopic vision, where rod perception dominates. In this study, we investigated photic driving for rod-dominated visual input under scotopic conditions. Twelve healthy volunteers were stimulated with low intensity light flashes at 20 stimulation frequencies, leading to rod activation only. The frequencies were multiples of the individual alpha frequency (α) of each volunteer in the range from 0.40 to 2.30∗α. Three hundred and six-channel whole head magnetoencephalography recordings were analyzed in time, frequency, and spatiotemporal domains with the Topographic Matching Pursuit algorithm. We found resonance phenomena and frequency entrainment for stimulations at or close to the individual alpha frequency (0.90–1.10∗α) and half of the alpha frequency (0.40–0.55∗α). No signs of resonance and frequency entrainment phenomena were revealed around 2.00∗α. Instead, on-responses at the beginning and off-responses at the end of each stimulation train were observed for the first time in a photic driving experiment at frequencies of 1.30–2.30∗α, indicating that the flicker fusion threshold was reached. All results, the resonance and entrainment as well as the fusion effects, provide evidence for rod-dominated photic driving in the visual cortex. PMID:27588002

  5. The integrated optic RF spectrum analyzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedinoff, M. E.; Ranganath, T. R.; Joseph, T. R.; Lee, J. Y.

    1981-01-01

    The results of measurements made on a fully integrated optic RF spectrum analyzer (IOSA) are reported. The performance of the device acousto-optic bandwidth, single-tone RF resolution, two-tone RF resolution, single-tone dynamic range, two-tone dynamic range, and single-tone RF response are presented. The device parameters that control device performance are analyzed. These results demonstrate the viability of the IOSA for real time spectrum analysis of pulsed and CW RF signals. Improvements of RF bandwidth resolution can be obtained by the use of larger collimated optical beams which requires larger optical lens elements, and hence, larger crystals.

  6. PARALYZER FOR PULSE HEIGHT DISTRIBUTION ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Fairstein, E.

    1960-01-19

    A paralyzer circuit is described for use with a pulseheight distribution analyzer to prevent the analyzer from counting overlapping pulses where they would serve to provide a false indication. The paralyzer circuit comprises a pair of cathode-coupled amplifiers for amplifying pulses of opposite polarity. Diodes are provided having their anodes coupled to the separate outputs of the amplifiers to produce only positive signals, and a trigger circuit is coupled to the diodes ior operation by input pulses of either polarity from the amplifiers. A delay network couples the output of the trigger circuit for delaying the pulses.

  7. Analyzing volatile compounds in dairy products.

    PubMed

    Tunick, Michael H

    2014-07-01

    Volatile compounds give the first indication of the flavor in a dairy product. Volatiles are isolated from the sample matrix and then analyzed by chromatography, sensory methods or an electronic nose. Isolation may be performed by solvent extraction or headspace analysis, and gas chromatography is often employed with various detectors to identify odorants. The human nose is also used as a detector, and electronic noses are being developed to qualitate and quantitate volatiles. A reliable technique for analyzing odorants in dairy products has not yet been invented.

  8. Empirical mode decomposition for analyzing acoustical signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden E. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention discloses a computer implemented signal analysis method through the Hilbert-Huang Transformation (HHT) for analyzing acoustical signals, which are assumed to be nonlinear and nonstationary. The Empirical Decomposition Method (EMD) and the Hilbert Spectral Analysis (HSA) are used to obtain the HHT. Essentially, the acoustical signal will be decomposed into the Intrinsic Mode Function Components (IMFs). Once the invention decomposes the acoustic signal into its constituting components, all operations such as analyzing, identifying, and removing unwanted signals can be performed on these components. Upon transforming the IMFs into Hilbert spectrum, the acoustical signal may be compared with other acoustical signals.

  9. BWR plant analyzer development at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, H.S.; Wulff, W.; Mallen, A.N.; Lekach, S.V.; Stritar, A.; Cerbone, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Advanced technology for high-speed interactive nuclear power plant simulations is of great value for timely resolution of safety issues, for plant monitoring, and for computer-aided emergency responses to an accident. Presented is the methodology employed at BNL to develop a BWR plant analyzer capable of simulating severe plant transients at much faster than real-time process speeds. Five modeling principles are established and a criterion is given for selecting numerical procedures and efficient computers to achieve the very high simulation speeds. Typical results are shown to demonstrate the modeling fidelity of the BWR plant analyzer.

  10. Methods, computer readable media, and graphical user interfaces for analysis of frequency selective surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Kotter, Dale K [Shelley, ID; Rohrbaugh, David T [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-09-07

    A frequency selective surface (FSS) and associated methods for modeling, analyzing and designing the FSS are disclosed. The FSS includes a pattern of conductive material formed on a substrate to form an array of resonance elements. At least one aspect of the frequency selective surface is determined by defining a frequency range including multiple frequency values, determining a frequency dependent permittivity across the frequency range for the substrate, determining a frequency dependent conductivity across the frequency range for the conductive material, and analyzing the frequency selective surface using a method of moments analysis at each of the multiple frequency values for an incident electromagnetic energy impinging on the frequency selective surface. The frequency dependent permittivity and the frequency dependent conductivity are included in the method of moments analysis.

  11. Determination of the uncertainties of reflection coefficient measurements of a microwave network analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Duda, L.E.; Moyer, R.D.

    1998-04-01

    A method that calculates the residual uncertainties of a microwave network analyzer for the frequency range of 300 kHz to 50 GHz is described. The method utilizes measurements on NIST-certified standards (such as an airline or load) plus additional measurements to estimate the combined standard uncertainties for measurements using the network analyzer. The uncertainties of the standards are incorporated by means of a Monte Carlo technique. The uncertainties assigned to a network analyzer then provide the basis for estimating the uncertainties assigned to devices measured using a network analyzer. The results of this method for characterizing network analyzer uncertainties are presented for several connector types.

  12. Supernova frequency estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Tsvetkov, D.Y.

    1983-01-01

    Estimates of the frequency of type I and II supernovae occurring in galaxies of different types are derived from observational material acquired by the supernova patrol of the Shternberg Astronomical Institute.

  13. Frequency domain measurement systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eischer, M. C.

    1978-01-01

    Stable frequency sources and signal processing blocks were characterized by their noise spectra, both discrete and random, in the frequency domain. Conventional measures are outlined, and systems for performing the measurements are described. Broad coverage of system configurations which were found useful is given. Their functioning and areas of application are discussed briefly. Particular attention is given to some of the potential error sources in the measurement procedures, system configurations, double-balanced-mixer-phase-detectors, and application of measuring instruments.

  14. Acoustic emission frequency discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugg, Frank E. (Inventor); Graham, Lloyd J. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    In acoustic emission nondestructive testing, broadband frequency noise is distinguished from narrow banded acoustic emission signals, since the latter are valid events indicative of structural flaws in the material being examined. This is accomplished by separating out those signals which contain frequency components both within and beyond (either above or below) the range of valid acoustic emission events. Application to acoustic emission monitoring during nondestructive bond verification and proof loading of undensified tiles on the Space Shuttle Orbiter is considered.

  15. Frequency Hopping Transceiver Multiplexer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-03-01

    8217 block number) frequency hopping, quadrature coupler, bandpass filter, coupling circuit, filter, helical resonator, matching network, PIN diode switch...which investigated the concept and feasibility of a 30MHz to 88MHz frequency hopping transceiver multiplexer. An approach which uses helical resonator...and Analysis 90 5.9.1 Helical Resonator 90 5.9.2 Shunt Capacitance Binary Bus Discussion 94 5.9.3 Resonator Design Decisions 97 5.9.4 Results and

  16. Cooled Ion Frequency Standard.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    experiments 1. Laser cooled atomic clock . We have completed work on the first frequency standard based on laser cooled atoms . This work which was...inaccuracy essentially equal to the U.S. best Cesium atomic clock with a clear direction for improvement and (2) this system facilitates studies of generic...problems are (1) to suppress second order and residual first order Doppler shifts in atomic frequency standards in a fundamental way--by substantially

  17. A microcomputer-controlled laser beam analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hand, L. E.; Nagle, H. T., Jr.; Kerns, D. V., Jr.

    1982-07-01

    A microcomputer-controlled laser beam analyzer is described. It uses five INTEL 8080 microcomputers to calculate the beam's peak intensity, peak intensity coordinates, centroid coordinates, beam energy, and beam quality in real time. Its application to the U.S. Army's gas-dynamic laser is illustrated.

  18. State Space Grids: Analyzing Dynamics across Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollenstein, Tom

    2007-01-01

    Developmentalists are generally interested in systems perspectives and this is reflected in the theoretical models of the past decade. However, the methodological tools to test these models are either nonexistent or difficult for many researchers to use. This article reviews the state space grid (SSG) method for analyzing synchronized event…

  19. How to Analyze Company Using Social Network?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palus, Sebastian; Bródka, Piotr; Kazienko, Przemysław

    Every single company or institution wants to utilize its resources in the most efficient way. In order to do so they have to be have good structure. The new way to analyze company structure by utilizing existing within company natural social network and example of its usage on Enron company are presented in this paper.

  20. Strengthening 4-H by Analyzing Enrollment Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Stephen F.; Northern, Angela; Neff, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The study reported here used data from the ACCESS 4-H Enrollment System to gain insight into strengthening New York State's 4-H programming. Member enrollment lists from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed using Microsoft Excel to determine trends and dropout rates. The descriptive data indicate declining 4-H enrollment in recent years and peak enrollment…

  1. Multichannel analyzers at high rates of input

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudnick, S. J.; Strauss, M. G.

    1969-01-01

    Multichannel analyzer, used with a gating system incorporating pole-zero compensation, pile-up rejection, and baseline-restoration, achieves good resolution at high rates of input. It improves resolution, reduces tailing and rate-contributed continuum, and eliminates spectral shift.

  2. Analyzing the Teaching of Professional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Pamela A.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: Based on their case studies of preparation for professional practice in the clergy, teaching, and clinical psychology, Grossman and colleagues (2009) identified three key concepts for analyzing and comparing practice in professional education--representations, decomposition, and approximations--to support professional educators…

  3. A MATLAB/Aerodynamic Analyzer System Tool

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-04-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT RD-SS-03-10 Lamar M. Auman Jonathan Newby System Simulation and Development Directorate...Lamar M. Auman and Jonathan Newby 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER...Static Aerodynamics. 43/(44 Blank) REFERENCES 1. Auman , Aerodynamic Analyzer System (Ver. 4.5). U. S. Army Missile Command, Redstone

  4. Multichannel Analyzer Built from a Microcomputer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, C. D.; Mueller, P.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a multichannel analyzer built using eight-bit S-100 bus microcomputer hardware. The output modes are an oscilloscope display, print data, and send data to another computer. Discusses the system's hardware, software, costs, and advantages relative to commercial multichannels. (Author/GA)

  5. Imaging thermal plasma mass and velocity analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yau, Andrew W.; Howarth, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    We present the design and principle of operation of the imaging ion mass and velocity analyzer on the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP), which measures low-energy (1-90 eV/e) ion mass composition (1-40 AMU/e) and velocity distributions using a hemispherical electrostatic analyzer (HEA), a time-of-flight (TOF) gate, and a pair of toroidal electrostatic deflectors (TED). The HEA and TOF gate measure the energy-per-charge and azimuth of each detected ion and the ion transit time inside the analyzer, respectively, providing the 2-D velocity distribution of each major ionospheric ion species and resolving the minor ion species under favorable conditions. The TED are in front of the TOF gate and optionally sample ions at different elevation angles up to ±60°, for measurement of 3-D velocity distribution. We present examples of observation data to illustrate the measurement capability of the analyzer, and show the occurrence of enhanced densities of heavy "minor" O++, N+, and molecular ions and intermittent, high-velocity (a few km/s) upward and downward flowing H+ ions in localized regions of the quiet time topside high-latitude ionosphere.

  6. Strengthening 4-H by Analyzing Enrollment Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Stephen F.; Northern, Angela; Neff, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The study reported here used data from the ACCESS 4-H Enrollment System to gain insight into strengthening New York State's 4-H programming. Member enrollment lists from 2009 to 2012 were analyzed using Microsoft Excel to determine trends and dropout rates. The descriptive data indicate declining 4-H enrollment in recent years and peak enrollment…

  7. Automatic radioxenon analyzer for CTBT monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Bowyer, T.W.; Abel, K.H.; Hensley, W.K.

    1996-12-01

    Over the past 3 years, with support from US DOE`s NN-20 Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) R&D program, PNNL has developed and demonstrated a fully automatic analyzer for collecting and measuring the four Xe radionuclides, {sup 131m}Xe(11.9 d), {sup 133m}Xe(2.19 d), {sup 133}Xe (5.24 d), and {sup 135}Xe(9.10 h), in the atmosphere. These radionuclides are important signatures in monitoring for compliance to a CTBT. Activity ratios permit discriminating radioxenon from nuclear detonation and that from nuclear reactor operations, nuclear fuel reprocessing, or medical isotope production and usage. In the analyzer, Xe is continuously and automatically separated from the atmosphere at flow rates of about 7 m{sup 3}/h on sorption bed. Aliquots collected for 6-12 h are automatically analyzed by electron-photon coincidence spectrometry to produce sensitivities in the range of 20-100 {mu}Bq/m{sup 3} of air, about 100-fold better than with reported laboratory-based procedures for short time collection intervals. Spectral data are automatically analyzed and the calculated radioxenon concentrations and raw gamma- ray spectra automatically transmitted to data centers.

  8. Analyzing Reference Activities: The Affordable Solution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witucke, Virginia; Schumaker, C. J.

    1991-01-01

    Describes a project developed at the Northern Virginia office of Central Michigan University (CMU) to analyze reference questions received at an off-campus library services program for graduate students. The development and use of a software program--the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences SPSS/PC+ Studentware--is explained. (LRW)

  9. 40 CFR 92.109 - Analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... engine manufacturer demonstrates on each basic combustion system (i.e., four-cycle direct injection, two-cycle direct injection, four-cycle indirect injection, etc.) that an HFID using this procedure produces... start of testing. (d) Oxides of nitrogen analyzer specifications. (1) Oxides of nitrogen are to...

  10. 40 CFR 92.109 - Analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... engine manufacturer demonstrates on each basic combustion system (i.e., four-cycle direct injection, two-cycle direct injection, four-cycle indirect injection, etc.) that an HFID using this procedure produces... start of testing. (d) Oxides of nitrogen analyzer specifications. (1) Oxides of nitrogen are to...

  11. 40 CFR 92.109 - Analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... engine manufacturer demonstrates on each basic combustion system (i.e., four-cycle direct injection, two-cycle direct injection, four-cycle indirect injection, etc.) that an HFID using this procedure produces... start of testing. (d) Oxides of nitrogen analyzer specifications. (1) Oxides of nitrogen are to...

  12. 40 CFR 92.109 - Analyzer specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... engine manufacturer demonstrates on each basic combustion system (i.e., four-cycle direct injection, two-cycle direct injection, four-cycle indirect injection, etc.) that an HFID using this procedure produces... start of testing. (d) Oxides of nitrogen analyzer specifications. (1) Oxides of nitrogen are to...

  13. On Analyzing HBCU Admissions and Recruitment Material.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harper, Shaun R.

    2001-01-01

    Examines admissions and recruitment material mailed to prospective students from thirteen historically Black institutions. The material was analyzed and evaluated on the basis of timeliness and completeness. Results reveal variations in quality among public and privately supported institutions. Significance of these results and specific…

  14. Fluidization quality analyzer for fluidized beds

    DOEpatents

    Daw, C.S.; Hawk, J.A.

    1995-07-25

    A control loop and fluidization quality analyzer for a fluidized bed utilizes time varying pressure drop measurements. A fast-response pressure transducer measures the overall bed pressure drop, or over some segment of the bed, and the pressure drop signal is processed to produce an output voltage which changes with the degree of fluidization turbulence. 9 figs.

  15. Fluidization quality analyzer for fluidized beds

    DOEpatents

    Daw, C. Stuart; Hawk, James A.

    1995-01-01

    A control loop and fluidization quality analyzer for a fluidized bed utilizes time varying pressure drop measurements. A fast-response pressure transducer measures the overall bed pressure drop, or over some segment of the bed, and the pressure drop signal is processed to produce an output voltage which changes with the degree of fluidization turbulence.

  16. Total Cost Management: Analyzing Operational Support Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenny, Hans J.

    1996-01-01

    Total cost management, an innovation useful in higher education, is best implemented in the institution's support services. Total cost management is the practice of analyzing and improving an institution's financial and qualitative performance when producing a particular product or service, paying attention to the complete work process and all…

  17. Analyzing volatile compounds in dairy products

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Volatile compounds give the first indication of the flavor in a dairy product. Volatiles are isolated from the sample matrix and then analyzed by chromatography, sensory methods, or an electronic nose. Isolation may be performed by solvent extraction or headspace analysis, and gas chromatography i...

  18. Analyzing the Generality of Conflict Adaptation Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funes, Maria Jesus; Lupianez, Juan; Humphreys, Glyn

    2010-01-01

    Conflict adaptation effects refer to the reduction of interference when the incongruent stimulus occurs immediately after an incongruent trial, compared with when it occurs after a congruent trial. The present study analyzes the key conditions that lead to adaptation effects that are specific to the type of conflict involved versus those that are…

  19. Evaluation of the Air Void Analyzer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    Analyzer (AVA) to determine the machine’s ability to accurately and precisely measure the air void structure of freshly prepared portland cement ...GSL TR-13-31 v Figures and Tables Figures Figure 1. Component breakdown of basic portland cement concrete by volume...86  Figure A4. Portland cement mill testing report

  20. Application of a Methodology Analyzing User Frustration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinkel, Gene K; McCandless, Patricia

    1983-01-01

    A user satisfaction study undertaken at University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign library to demonstrate and analyze an application of Kantor branching analysis of user frustration monitored direct and partially controlled user access to materials. Satisfaction rates and causes of user frustration are discussed. Eleven references and user group…

  1. Analyzing the Leadership Behavior of School Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bulach, Clete; Boothe, Diane; Pickett, Winston

    2006-01-01

    The authors describe various methods of measuring a principal's leadership behavior. They have developed a new survey instrument that can be used to analyze the leadership behavior/style of a principal. The instrument consists of 49 positive and negative behaviors that measure how a principal interacts with staff in the following five leadership…

  2. Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer Illustration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is a computer-aided drawing of the Thermal and Evolved-Gas Analyzer, or TEGA, on NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  3. Analyzing the Generality of Conflict Adaptation Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funes, Maria Jesus; Lupianez, Juan; Humphreys, Glyn

    2010-01-01

    Conflict adaptation effects refer to the reduction of interference when the incongruent stimulus occurs immediately after an incongruent trial, compared with when it occurs after a congruent trial. The present study analyzes the key conditions that lead to adaptation effects that are specific to the type of conflict involved versus those that are…

  4. Studying Reliability Using Identical Handheld Lactate Analyzers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Mark T.; Stavrianeas, Stasinos

    2008-01-01

    Accusport analyzers were used to generate lactate performance curves in an investigative laboratory activity emphasizing the importance of reliable instrumentation. Both the calibration and testing phases of the exercise provided students with a hands-on opportunity to use laboratory-grade instrumentation while allowing for meaningful connections…

  5. Development of a Fast Ion Energy Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, W. C.; Bellan, P. M.

    2003-10-01

    In an effort to measure the ion energy spectra of short duration plasmas, two different analyzers are being compared for usability on short time scales. A traditional energy analyzer, the retarding field energy analyzer (RFEA), is being compared to a design using an electric field to deflect ions onto multiple collectors. The use of multiple collectors allows for simultaneous measurement of several energies overcoming the major limitation of the RFEA is measuring only a single energy per plasma shot. The tradeoff is that the energy resolution of the new design is limited by the number of collectors. These methods are being tested on both a single energy electron gun and also on a spheromak with a plasma duration of 20-30 μs and ion temperature of 20 eV. Both designs have been demonstrated to work under simplified conditions using an electron gun. Currently the RFEA is being tested on the spheromak and efforts are being made to increase the resolution and lower the noise of the new analyzer.

  6. Analyzing Languages for Specific Purposes Discourse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Hugo

    2012-01-01

    In the last 20 years, technological advancement and increased multidisciplinarity has expanded the range of data regarded as within the scope of languages for specific purposes (LSP) research and the means by which they can be analyzed. As a result, the analytical work of LSP researchers has developed from a narrow focus on specialist terminology…

  7. Multichannel Analyzer Built from a Microcomputer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, C. D.; Mueller, P.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a multichannel analyzer built using eight-bit S-100 bus microcomputer hardware. The output modes are an oscilloscope display, print data, and send data to another computer. Discusses the system's hardware, software, costs, and advantages relative to commercial multichannels. (Author/GA)

  8. Analyzing the Teaching of Professional Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Pamela A.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Context: Based on their case studies of preparation for professional practice in the clergy, teaching, and clinical psychology, Grossman and colleagues (2009) identified three key concepts for analyzing and comparing practice in professional education--representations, decomposition, and approximations--to support professional educators…

  9. Photoelectron imaging using an ellipsoidal display analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dütemeyer, T.; Quitmann, C.; Kitz, M.; Dörnemann, K.; Johansson, L. S. O.; Reihl, B.

    2001-06-01

    We have built an ellipsoidal display analyzer (EDA) for angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy and related techniques. The instrument is an improved version of a design by Eastman et al. [Nucl. Instrum. Methods 172, 327 (1980)] and measures the angle-resolved intensity distribution of photoelectrons at fixed energy I(θ,φ)|E=const.. Such two-dimensional cuts through the Brillouin zone are recorded using a position-sensitive detector. The large acceptance angle (Δθ=43° in the polar direction and Δφ=360° in the azimuthal direction) leads to a collection efficiency which exceeds that of conventional hemispherical analyzers by a factor of about 3000. Using ray-tracing calculations we analyze the electron optical properties of the various analyzer components and optimize their arrangement. This minimizes distortions and aberrations in the recorded images and greatly improves the performance compared to previous realizations of this analyzer. We present examples demonstrating the performance of the analyzer and its versatility. Using a commercial He-discharge lamp we are able to measure complete angular distribution patterns in less than 5 s. The energy and angular resolution are ΔEEDA=85 meV and Δθ=1.2°, respectively. Complete stacks of such cuts through the Brillouin zone at different kinetic energies E can be acquired automatically using custom software. The raw data are processed leading to a three-dimensional set (I(EB,k∥) of photoelectron intensity versus binding energy E and wave vector k∥. From this all relevant information, like the dispersion relations EB(k∥) along arbitrary directions of the Brillouin zone or Fermi-surface maps, can then be computed. An additional electron gun enables low-energy electron diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy. Switching between electrons and photons as the excitation source is possible without any movement of the sample or analyzer. Because of the high acquisition

  10. ALMA High Frequency Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, J. D.; Mason, B.; Impellizzeri, V.; Kameno, S.; Fomalont, E.; Chibueze, J.; Takahashi, S.; Remijan, A.; Wilson, C.; ALMA Science Team

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the ALMA High Frequency Campaign is to improve the quality and efficiency of science observing in Bands 8, 9, and 10 (385-950 GHz), the highest frequencies available to the ALMA project. To this end, we outline observing modes which we have demonstrated to improve high frequency calibration for the 12m array and the ACA, and we present the calibration of the total power antennas at these frequencies. Band-to-band (B2B) transfer and bandwidth switching (BWSW), techniques which improve the speed and accuracy of calibration at the highest frequencies, are most necessary in Bands 8, 9, and 10 due to the rarity of strong calibrators. These techniques successfully enable increased signal-to-noise on the calibrator sources (and better calibration solutions) by measuring the calibrators at lower frequencies (B2B) or in wider bandwidths (BWSW) compared to the science target. We have also demonstrated the stability of the bandpass shape to better than 2.4% for 1 hour, hidden behind random noise, in Band 9. Finally, total power observing using the dual sideband receivers in Bands 9 and 10 requires the separation of the two sidebands; this procedure has been demonstrated in Band 9 and is undergoing further testing in Band 10.

  11. Graph Frequency Analysis of Brain Signals.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weiyu; Goldsberry, Leah; Wymbs, Nicholas F; Grafton, Scott T; Bassett, Danielle S; Ribeiro, Alejandro

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents methods to analyze functional brain networks and signals from graph spectral perspectives. The notion of frequency and filters traditionally defined for signals supported on regular domains such as discrete time and image grids has been recently generalized to irregular graph domains, and defines brain graph frequencies associated with different levels of spatial smoothness across the brain regions. Brain network frequency also enables the decomposition of brain signals into pieces corresponding to smooth or rapid variations. We relate graph frequency with principal component analysis when the networks of interest denote functional connectivity. The methods are utilized to analyze brain networks and signals as subjects master a simple motor skill. We observe that brain signals corresponding to different graph frequencies exhibit different levels of adaptability throughout learning. Further, we notice a strong association between graph spectral properties of brain networks and the level of exposure to tasks performed, and recognize the most contributing and important frequency signatures at different levels of task familiarity.

  12. Graph Frequency Analysis of Brain Signals

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Weiyu; Goldsberry, Leah; Wymbs, Nicholas F.; Grafton, Scott T.; Bassett, Danielle S.; Ribeiro, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents methods to analyze functional brain networks and signals from graph spectral perspectives. The notion of frequency and filters traditionally defined for signals supported on regular domains such as discrete time and image grids has been recently generalized to irregular graph domains, and defines brain graph frequencies associated with different levels of spatial smoothness across the brain regions. Brain network frequency also enables the decomposition of brain signals into pieces corresponding to smooth or rapid variations. We relate graph frequency with principal component analysis when the networks of interest denote functional connectivity. The methods are utilized to analyze brain networks and signals as subjects master a simple motor skill. We observe that brain signals corresponding to different graph frequencies exhibit different levels of adaptability throughout learning. Further, we notice a strong association between graph spectral properties of brain networks and the level of exposure to tasks performed, and recognize the most contributing and important frequency signatures at different levels of task familiarity. PMID:28439325

  13. ITK and ANALYZE: a synergistic integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augustine, Kurt E.; Holmes, David R., III; Robb, Richard A.

    2004-05-01

    The Insight Toolkit (ITK) is a C++ open-source software toolkit developed under sponsorship of the National Library of Medicine. It provides advanced algorithms for performing image registration and segmentation, but does not provide support for visualization and analysis, nor does it offer any graphical user interface (GUI). The purpose of this integration project is to make ITK readily accessible to end-users with little or no programming skills, and provide interactive processing, visualization and measurement capabilities. This is achieved through the integration of ITK with ANALYZE, a multi-dimension image visualization/analysis application installed in over 300 institutions around the world, with a user-base in excess of 4000. This integration is carried out at both the software foundation and GUI levels. The foundation technology upon which ANALYZE is built is a comprehensive C-function library called AVW. A new set of AVW-ITK functions have been developed and integrated into the AVW library, and four new ITK modules have been added to the ANALYZE interface. Since ITK is a software developer"s toolkit, the only way to access its intrinsic power is to write programs that incorporate it. Integrating ITK with ANALYZE opens the ITK algorithms to end-users who otherwise might never be able to take advantage of the toolkit"s advanced functionality. In addition, this integration provides end-to-end interactive problem solving capabilities which allow all users, including programmers, an integrated system to readily display and quantitatively evaluate the results from the segmentation and registration routines in ITK, regardless of the type or format of input images, which are comprehensively supported in ANALYZE.

  14. Audio Frequency Analysis in Mobile Phones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Horacio Munguía

    2016-01-01

    A new experiment using mobile phones is proposed in which its audio frequency response is analyzed using the audio port for inputting external signal and getting a measurable output. This experiment shows how the limited audio bandwidth used in mobile telephony is the main cause of the poor speech quality in this service. A brief discussion is…

  15. Audio Frequency Analysis in Mobile Phones

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Horacio Munguía

    2016-01-01

    A new experiment using mobile phones is proposed in which its audio frequency response is analyzed using the audio port for inputting external signal and getting a measurable output. This experiment shows how the limited audio bandwidth used in mobile telephony is the main cause of the poor speech quality in this service. A brief discussion is…

  16. Hot Plasma Composition Analyzer for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, D. T.; Burch, J. L.; Gomez, R. G.; De Los Santos, A.; Miller, G. P.; Wilson, P.; Paschalidis, N.; Fuselier, S. A.; Pickens, K.; Hertzberg, E.; Pollock, C. J.; Scherrer, J.; Wood, P. B.; Donald, E. T.; Aaron, D.; Furman, J.; George, D.; Gurnee, R. S.; Hourani, R. S.; Jacques, A.; Johnson, T.; Orr, T.; Pan, K. S.; Persyn, S.; Pope, S.; Roberts, J.; Stokes, M. R.; Trattner, K. J.; Webster, J. M.

    2016-03-01

    This paper describes the science motivation, measurement objectives, performance requirements, detailed design, approach and implementation, and calibration of the four Hot Plasma Composition Analyzers (HPCA) for the Magnetospheric Multiscale mission. The HPCA is based entirely on electrostatic optics combining an electrostatic energy analyzer with a carbon-foil based time-of-flight analyzer. In order to fulfill mission requirements, the HPCA incorporates three unique technologies that give it very wide dynamic range capabilities essential to measuring minor ion species in the presence of extremely high proton fluxes found in the region of magnetopause reconnection. Dynamic range is controlled primarily by a novel radio frequency system analogous to an RF mass spectrometer. The RF, in combination with capabilities for high TOF event processing rates and high current micro-channel plates, ensures the dynamic range and sensitivity needed for accurate measurements of ion fluxes between ˜1 eV and 40 keV that are expected in the region of reconnection events. A third technology enhances mass resolution in the presence of high proton flux.

  17. Imaging thermal ion mass and velocity analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yau, A. W.; King, E. P.; Amerl, P.; Berg, K.; Enno, G.; Howarth, A.; Wevers, I.; White, A.

    2013-11-01

    The aim of an imaging thermal ion mass and velocity analyzer is to apply imaging techniques to measure in-situ the mass composition and detailed velocity phase space distributions of a thermal plasma population in a planetary ionosphere or magnetosphere and use the measured distributions to derive the bulk plasma parameters and to detect the possible presence of non-thermal distributions. A hemispherical electrostatic analyzer (HEA) with a planar entrance aperture can sample simultaneously incident ions or electrons over an extended energy range and the full 360° range of incident azimuth, and disperse them by their energy-per-charge while retaining their incident azimuth, thus providing a means to image the 2-dimensional (2D) ion or electron energy-per-charge and angular (azimuth) distribution. Therefore an ion mass and velocity analyzer consisting of a HEA embedded with an ion-mass spectrometer is capable of imaging the 2-D detailed ion velocity distribution—and measuring the 3D distribution on a spinning spacecraft if the planar entrance aperture is aligned along the spacecraft spin axis. For 3D velocity distribution measurements on a 3-axis stabilized spacecraft, an analyzer with electrostatic deflection capability will be required to deflect ions at arbitrary incident elevation angles into the planar entrance aperture for sampling. An imaging thermal ion mass and velocity analyzer is presented that combines a HEA, a time-of-flight ion mass spectrometer, and a pair of electrostatic deflectors, and is capable of sampling low-energy ions (˜1 to 100 eV/e) of all mass species (1 to > 40 AMU/e) from all incident directions on a non-spinning platform, at up to (10% energy resolution (ΔE/E) and ˜5° angular resolution. Using the HEA to measure the energy-percharge of each detected ion and the time-of-flight gate to measure the transit time of the ion inside the analyzer, this instrument can resolve all major ion species in the ionosphere including H+, He+ and O

  18. Two novel automatic frequency tracking loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguirre, Sergio; Hinedi, Sami

    1989-01-01

    Two automatic-frequency-control (AFC) loops are introduced and analyzed in detail. The algorithms are generalizations of the well known cross-product AFC loop with improved performance. The first estimator uses running overlapping discrete Fourier transforms to create a discriminator curve proportional to the frequency estimation error, whereas the second one preprocesses the received data and then uses an extended Kalman filter to estimate the input frequency. The algorithms are tested by computer simulations in a highly dynamic environment at low carrier/noise ratio (CNR). The algorithms are suboptimum tracking schemes with a larger frequency-error variance compared to an optimum strategy, but they offer simplicity of mechanization and a CNR with a very low operating threshold.

  19. Development of pulse neutron coal analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Shi-wie; Gu, De-shan; Qiao, Shuang; Liu, Yu-ren; Liu, Lin-mao; Shi-wei, Jing

    2005-04-01

    This article introduced the development of pulsed neutron coal analyzer by pulse fast-thermal neutron analysis technology in the Radiation Technology Institute of Northeast Normal University. The 14MeV pulse neutron generator and bismuth germanate detector and 4096 multichannel analyzer were applied in this system. The multiple linear regression method employed to process data solved the interferential problem of multiple elements. The prototype (model MZ-MKFY) had been applied in Changshan and Jilin power plant for about a year. The results of measuring the main parameters of coal such as low caloric power, whole total water, ash content, volatile content, and sulfur content, with precision acceptable to the coal industry, are presented.

  20. Clinical laboratory data: acquire, analyze, communicate, liberate.

    PubMed

    Azzazy, Hassan M E; Elbehery, Ali H A

    2015-01-01

    The availability of portable healthcare devices, which can acquire and transmit medical data to remote experts would dramatically affect healthcare in areas with poor infrastructure. Smartphones, which feature touchscreen computer capabilities and sophisticated cameras, have become widely available with over billion units shipped in 2013. In the clinical laboratory, smartphones have recently brought the capabilities of key instruments such as spectrophotometers, fluorescence analyzers and microscopes into the palm of the hand. Several research groups have developed sensitive and low-cost smartphone-based diagnostic assay prototypes for testing cholesterol, albumin, vitamin D, tumor markers, and the detection of infectious agents. This review covers the use of smartphones to acquire, analyze, communicate, and liberate clinical laboratory data. Smartphones promise to dramatically improve the quality and quantity of healthcare offered in resource-limited areas.

  1. CRIE: An automated analyzer for Chinese texts.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yao-Ting; Chang, Tao-Hsing; Lin, Wei-Chun; Hsieh, Kuan-Sheng; Chang, Kuo-En

    2016-12-01

    Textual analysis has been applied to various fields, such as discourse analysis, corpus studies, text leveling, and automated essay evaluation. Several tools have been developed for analyzing texts written in alphabetic languages such as English and Spanish. However, currently there is no tool available for analyzing Chinese-language texts. This article introduces a tool for the automated analysis of simplified and traditional Chinese texts, called the Chinese Readability Index Explorer (CRIE). Composed of four subsystems and incorporating 82 multilevel linguistic features, CRIE is able to conduct the major tasks of segmentation, syntactic parsing, and feature extraction. Furthermore, the integration of linguistic features with machine learning models enables CRIE to provide leveling and diagnostic information for texts in language arts, texts for learning Chinese as a foreign language, and texts with domain knowledge. The usage and validation of the functions provided by CRIE are also introduced.

  2. Compact fast analyzer of rotary cuvette type

    DOEpatents

    Thacker, Louis H.

    1976-01-01

    A compact fast analyzer of the rotary cuvette type is provided for simultaneously determining concentrations in a multiplicity of discrete samples using either absorbance or fluorescence measurement techniques. A rigid, generally rectangular frame defines optical passageways for the absorbance and fluorescence measurement systems. The frame also serves as a mounting structure for various optical components as well as for the cuvette rotor mount and drive system. A single light source and photodetector are used in making both absorbance and fluorescence measurements. Rotor removal and insertion are facilitated by a swing-out drive motor and rotor mount. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION The invention relates generally to concentration measuring instruments and more specifically to a compact fast analyzer of the rotary cuvette type which is suitable for making either absorbance or fluorescence measurements. It was made in the course of, or under, a contract with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission.

  3. Electric wind in a Differential Mobility Analyzer

    DOE PAGES

    Palo, Marus; Meelis Eller; Uin, Janek; ...

    2015-10-25

    Electric wind -- the movement of gas, induced by ions moving in an electric field -- can be a distorting factor in size distribution measurements using Differential Mobility Analyzers (DMAs). The aim of this study was to determine the conditions under which electric wind occurs in the locally-built VLDMA (Very Long Differential Mobility Analyzer) and TSI Long-DMA (3081) and to describe the associated distortion of the measured spectra. Electric wind proved to be promoted by the increase of electric field strength, aerosol layer thickness, particle number concentration and particle size. The measured size spectra revealed three types of distortion: wideningmore » of the size distribution, shift of the mode of the distribution to smaller diameters and smoothing out the peaks of the multiply charged particles. Electric wind may therefore be a source of severe distortion of the spectrum when measuring large particles at high concentrations.« less

  4. Improving respiration measurements with gas exchange analyzers.

    PubMed

    Montero, R; Ribas-Carbó, M; Del Saz, N F; El Aou-Ouad, H; Berry, J A; Flexas, J; Bota, J

    2016-12-01

    Dark respiration measurements with open-flow gas exchange analyzers are often questioned for their low accuracy as their low values often reach the precision limit of the instrument. Respiration was measured in five species, two hypostomatous (Vitis Vinifera L. and Acanthus mollis) and three amphistomatous, one with similar amount of stomata in both sides (Eucalyptus citriodora) and two with different stomata density (Brassica oleracea and Vicia faba). CO2 differential (ΔCO2) increased two-fold with no change in apparent Rd, when the two leaves with higher stomatal density faced outside. These results showed a clear effect of the position of stomata on ΔCO2. Therefore, it can be concluded that leaf position is important to guarantee the improvement of respiration measurements increasing ΔCO2 without affecting the respiration results by leaf or mass units. This method will help to increase the accuracy of leaf respiration measurements using gas exchange analyzers.

  5. Analyzing public health policy: three approaches.

    PubMed

    Coveney, John

    2010-07-01

    Policy is an important feature of public and private organizations. Within the field of health as a policy arena, public health has emerged in which policy is vital to decision making and the deployment of resources. Public health practitioners and students need to be able to analyze public health policy, yet many feel daunted by the subject's complexity. This article discusses three approaches that simplify policy analysis: Bacchi's "What's the problem?" approach examines the way that policy represents problems. Colebatch's governmentality approach provides a way of analyzing the implementation of policy. Bridgman and Davis's policy cycle allows for an appraisal of public policy development. Each approach provides an analytical framework from which to rigorously study policy. Practitioners and students of public health gain much in engaging with the politicized nature of policy, and a simple approach to policy analysis can greatly assist one's understanding and involvement in policy work.

  6. Raman Gas Analyzer (RGA): Natural Gas Measurements.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Dmitry V; Matrosov, Ivan I

    2016-06-08

    In the present work, an improved model of the Raman gas analyzer (RGA) of natural gas (NG) developed by us is described together with its operating principle. The sensitivity has been improved and the number of measurable gases has been expanded. Results of its approbation on a real NG sample are presented for different measurement times. A comparison of the data obtained with the results of chromatographic analysis demonstrates their good agreement. The time stability of the results obtained using this model is analyzed. It is experimentally established that the given RGA can reliably determine the content of all molecular NG components whose content exceeds 0.005% for 100 s; moreover, in this case the limiting sensitivity for some NG components is equal to 0.002%.

  7. Analyzing Stack Flows to Compare Java Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hyun-Il; Han, Taisook

    This paper presents a method for comparing and detecting clones of Java programs by analyzing program stack flows. A stack flow denotes an operational behavior of a program by describing individual instructions and stack movements for performing specific operations. We analyze stack flows by simulating the operand stack movements during execution of a Java program. Two programs for detection of clones of Java programs are compared by matching similar pairs of stack flows in the programs. Experiments were performed on the proposed method and compared with the earlier approaches of comparing Java programs, the Tamada, k-gram, and stack pattern based methods. Their performance was evaluated with real-world Java programs in several categories collected from the Internet. The experimental results show that the proposed method is more effective than earlier methods of comparing and detecting clones of Java programs.

  8. Electric wind in a Differential Mobility Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Palo, Marus; Meelis Eller; Uin, Janek; Tamm, Eduard

    2015-10-25

    Electric wind -- the movement of gas, induced by ions moving in an electric field -- can be a distorting factor in size distribution measurements using Differential Mobility Analyzers (DMAs). The aim of this study was to determine the conditions under which electric wind occurs in the locally-built VLDMA (Very Long Differential Mobility Analyzer) and TSI Long-DMA (3081) and to describe the associated distortion of the measured spectra. Electric wind proved to be promoted by the increase of electric field strength, aerosol layer thickness, particle number concentration and particle size. The measured size spectra revealed three types of distortion: widening of the size distribution, shift of the mode of the distribution to smaller diameters and smoothing out the peaks of the multiply charged particles. Electric wind may therefore be a source of severe distortion of the spectrum when measuring large particles at high concentrations.

  9. Analyzing method on biogenic volatile organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, J. H.; Wang, M. X.; Hu, F.; Greenberg, J. P.; Guenther, A. B.

    2002-02-01

    In order to analyze biogenic volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere, an automated gas chromatography is developed and employed at the laboratory of National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) during January to July, 2000. A small refrigerator was used so as to remove water in the air sample from gas line, and get accurate concentrations of volatile organic compounds. At 5degreesC, good water removing efficiency can be obtained at controlled flow rate. Air samples were collected around the building of Mesa Lab. of NCAR and analyzed by this gas chromatography system. This paper reports this gas chromatography system and results of air samples. The experimental results show that this gas chromatography system has a good reproducibility and stability, and main interesting volatile organic compounds such as isoprene, monoterpenes have an evident diurnal variation.

  10. The EPOS Automated Selective Chemistry Analyzer evaluated.

    PubMed

    Moses, G C; Lightle, G O; Tuckerman, J F; Henderson, A R

    1986-01-01

    We evaluated the analytical performance of the EPOS (Eppendorf Patient Oriented System) Automated Selective Chemistry Analyzer, using the following tests for serum analytes: alanine and aspartate aminotransferases, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and glucose. Results from the EPOS correlated well with those from comparison instruments (r greater than or equal to 0.990). Precision and linearity limits were excellent for all tests; linearity of the optical and pipetting systems was satisfactory. Reagent carryover was negligible. Sample-to-sample carryover was less than 1% for all tests, but only lactate dehydrogenase was less than the manufacturer's specified 0.5%. Volumes aspirated and dispensed by the sample and reagent II pipetting systems differed significantly from preset values, especially at lower settings; the reagent I system was satisfactory at all volumes tested. Minimal daily maintenance and an external data-reduction system make the EPOS a practical alternative to other bench-top chemistry analyzers.

  11. Plasma analyzer for the Pioneer Jupiter missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckibbin, D. D.; Wolfe, J. H.; Collard, H. R.; Savage, H. F.; Molari, R.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of the NASA/Ames Research Center Plasma Probe on board the Jupiter Missions of the Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft. The instrument has two quadrispherical electrostatic analyzer units; one has high sensitivity and resolution and the other is capable of measuring large fluxes of solar wind particles. The two analyzer units measure particle energy-to-charge ratio, flux, and direction of flow for positive ions and electrons over the wide range of particle densities found in the solar wind during the Jupiter missions. Data formats in space and ground data processing, the NASA/Ames Research Center plasma probe calibration facility, and the instrument response functions are also described.

  12. Real-time airborne particle analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, Peter T.A.

    2012-10-16

    An aerosol particle analyzer includes a laser ablation chamber, a gas-filled conduit, and a mass spectrometer. The laser ablation chamber can be operated at a low pressure, which can be from 0.1 mTorr to 30 mTorr. The ablated ions are transferred into a gas-filled conduit. The gas-filled conduit reduces the electrical charge and the speed of ablated ions as they collide and mix with buffer gases in the gas-filled conduit. Preferably, the gas filled-conduit includes an electromagnetic multipole structure that collimates the nascent ions into a beam, which is guided into the mass spectrometer. Because the gas-filled conduit allows storage of vast quantities of the ions from the ablated particles, the ions from a single ablated particle can be analyzed multiple times and by a variety of techniques to supply statistically meaningful analysis of composition and isotope ratios.

  13. Analyzing High-Dimensional Multispectral Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Chulhee; Landgrebe, David A.

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, through a series of specific examples, we illustrate some characteristics encountered in analyzing high- dimensional multispectral data. The increased importance of the second-order statistics in analyzing high-dimensional data is illustrated, as is the shortcoming of classifiers such as the minimum distance classifier which rely on first-order variations alone. We also illustrate how inaccurate estimation or first- and second-order statistics, e.g., from use of training sets which are too small, affects the performance of a classifier. Recognizing the importance of second-order statistics on the one hand, but the increased difficulty in perceiving and comprehending information present in statistics derived from high-dimensional data on the other, we propose a method to aid visualization of high-dimensional statistics using a color coding scheme.

  14. Methods of analyzing composition of aerosol particles

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, Peter T.A.

    2013-02-12

    An aerosol particle analyzer includes a laser ablation chamber, a gas-filled conduit, and a mass spectrometer. The laser ablation chamber can be operated at a low pressure, which can be from 0.1 mTorr to 30 mTorr. The ablated ions are transferred into a gas-filled conduit. The gas-filled conduit reduces the electrical charge and the speed of ablated ions as they collide and mix with buffer gases in the gas-filled conduit. Preferably, the gas filled-conduit includes an electromagnetic multipole structure that collimates the nascent ions into a beam, which is guided into the mass spectrometer. Because the gas-filled conduit allows storage of vast quantities of the ions from the ablated particles, the ions from a single ablated particle can be analyzed multiple times and by a variety of techniques to supply statistically meaningful analysis of composition and isotope ratios.

  15. Moving Block Bootstrap for Analyzing Longitudinal Data

    PubMed Central

    Ju, Hyunsu

    2015-01-01

    In a longitudinal study subjects are followed over time. I focus on a case where the number of replications over time is large relative to the number of subjects in the study. I investigate the use of moving block bootstrap methods for analyzing such data. Asymptotic properties of the bootstrap methods in this setting are derived. The effectiveness of these resampling methods is also demonstrated through a simulation study. PMID:26023251

  16. Analyzing network reliability using structural motifs.

    PubMed

    Khorramzadeh, Yasamin; Youssef, Mina; Eubank, Stephen; Mowlaei, Shahir

    2015-04-01

    This paper uses the reliability polynomial, introduced by Moore and Shannon in 1956, to analyze the effect of network structure on diffusive dynamics such as the spread of infectious disease. We exhibit a representation for the reliability polynomial in terms of what we call structural motifs that is well suited for reasoning about the effect of a network's structural properties on diffusion across the network. We illustrate by deriving several general results relating graph structure to dynamical phenomena.

  17. Irradiance analyzer for high power lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, R.W.

    1981-04-07

    An irradiance analysis system which includes an array of square rods that are joined together and have a flat entrance end and a polished flat exit end through which visible light is transmitted to a fresnel lens and focused to a particular area where the image focused is photographed so that when the various frames are developed they can be analyzed in a conventional film densitometer to yield quantative data on the temporal variation of laser beam irradiance distributions.

  18. Method analyzes pressure for short flow times

    SciTech Connect

    Soliman, M. ); Petak, K. )

    1990-04-30

    Pressure build-up after short producing times and pressure surges can be analyzed. The method employs the derivative plot and does not require prior knowledge of initial reservoir pressure that may be calculated using a Cartesian plot. Field use of the new technique has proven its superiority to previously used methods, and has shown the necessity of using highly accurate data to achieve desired results.

  19. A gas filter correlation analyzer for methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sebacher, D. I.

    1978-01-01

    A fast-response instrument for monitoring CH4 was designed and tested using a modified nondispersive infrared technique. An analysis of the single-beam rotating-cell system is presented along with the signal processing circuit. A calibration of the instrument shows that the technique can be used to measure CH4 concentrations as small as 5 ppm-m and the effects of interfering gases are analyzed.

  20. Analyzing Static Loading of Complex Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallear, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    Critical loading conditions determined from analysis of each structural element. Automated Thrust Structures Loads and Stresses (ATLAS) system is series of programs developed to analyze elements of complex structure under static-loading conditions. ATLAS calculates internal loads, beam-bending loads, column- and web-buckling loads, beam and panel stresses, and beam-corner stresses. Programs written in FORTRAN IV and Assembler for batch execution.

  1. Upgrade of the mini spectrum analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montebugnoli, Stelio; Bortolotti, Claudio; Buttaccio, Salvo; Cattani, Alessandro; Maccaferri, Andrea; Maccaferri, Giuseppe; Miani, Cristiano; Orfei, Alessandro; Roma, Mauro; Tuccari, Gino; Amico, Nicola D.; Grueff, Gavril

    1997-01-01

    The upgrade of the mini spectrum analyzer, built at the Medicina radiotelescope station laboratories and devoted to the Jupiter-SL9 crash on July 94, is presented. The new version of the spectrometer allows precise spectroscopy measurements and it has just been used for the Comet Hyakutake observations (May 1996) with very promising results. The same system could be used in small SETI activities with a possible future involvement of the Medicina/Noto antennas in this program.

  2. A Calculator Controlled Microwave Network Analyzer System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-03-01

    A Hewlett Packard 8410S (Option 310) Microwave Network Analyzer System and the input/output interface to a Wang 600-14 Programmable Calculator are described. The original design of a digital to analog interface between the Wang 600-14 Calculator and a HP 8690B Sweep Oscillator is presented. Two system software programs which implement automatic S-parameter data collection and either external data storage or data reduction and display are described and documented. (Author)

  3. Moving Block Bootstrap for Analyzing Longitudinal Data.

    PubMed

    Ju, Hyunsu

    In a longitudinal study subjects are followed over time. I focus on a case where the number of replications over time is large relative to the number of subjects in the study. I investigate the use of moving block bootstrap methods for analyzing such data. Asymptotic properties of the bootstrap methods in this setting are derived. The effectiveness of these resampling methods is also demonstrated through a simulation study.

  4. Prototype Chemiluminescent Analyzer for Measurement of Hydrazines.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    34 LEONARD J. h.D. RICHARD L. MILLER, Ph.D. Project S 1 tist Supervisor ROY L. DEHART Colonel, USAF, MC Commander UNCLASSIFIED SECURI.TV LASSIFICATION OF...Ozone Monomethyl hydrazi ne Unsymmnetrical dimethylhydrazine 214 ABSTRACT (Continue on r,eree &#de If neceseary and identity by block number...o o .13 REFERENCES . . . . ........ o . . . .. . . . . ....... 14 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Schematic of hydrazine analyzer . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

  5. Semantic analyzability in children's understanding of idioms.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, R W

    1991-06-01

    This study investigated the role of semantic analyzability in children's understanding of idioms. Kindergartners and first, third, and fourth graders listened to idiomatic expressions either alone or at the end of short story contexts. Their task was to explain verbally the intended meanings of these phrases and then to choose their correct idiomatic interpretations. The idioms presented to the children differed in their degree of analyzability. Some idioms were highly analyzable or decomposable, with the meanings of their parts contributing independently to their overall figurative meanings. Other idioms were nondecomposable because it was difficult to see any relation between a phrase's individual components and the idiom's figurative meaning. The results showed that younger children (kindergartners and first graders) understood decomposable idioms better than they did nondecomposable phrases. Older children (third and fourth graders) understood both kinds of idioms equally well in supporting contexts, but were better at interpreting decomposable idioms than they were at understanding nondecomposable idioms without contextual information. These findings demonstrate that young children better understand idiomatic phrases whose individual parts independently contribute to their overall figurative meanings.

  6. Cometary particulate analyzer design definition study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utterback, N. G.

    1981-01-01

    A concept for remotely determining the relative abundance of elements contained in cometary particulates collected by a spacecraft was conducted with very encouraging results. The technique utilizes a short high intensity burst of laser radiation to vaporize and ionize collected particulate material. Ions extracted from this laser-produced plasma are analyzed in a time of flight mass spectrometer to yield an atomic mass spectrum representative of the relative abundance of elements in the particulates. A prototype analyzer system was designed, constructed, and tested. Results show that: (1) energy-time focus performs as predicted in improving resolution; (2) power densities sufficient to produce usable ionization efficiencies can be obtained; (3) complex alloys such as stainless steel can be analyzed; and (4) a tiny, simple and reliable laser used in the demonstration easily meets spacecraft power and mass limitations. A mass resolution of 150 was experimentally demonstrated at mass 108, and an analytical extrapolation predicts a resolution sufficient to separate masses 250 and 251.

  7. Analyzing electrical hazards in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Neitzel, Dennis K

    2013-10-01

    In resolving the issues in analyzing electrical hazards in an industry, we must follow a path that will lead to a comprehensive analysis of the problems that exist and provide a quantified value to ensure the selection of appropriate personal protective equipment and clothing. An analysis of all three hazards--shock, arc, and blast--must be completed and steps taken to prevent injuries. The following steps could be taken to ensure adequacy of the electrical safe work practices program and training of "qualified" electrical personnel: 1. Conduct a comprehensive Job Task Analysis. 2. Complete a Task Hazard Assessment including: a) shock hazard, b) arc flash hazard, c) arc blast hazard, d) other hazards (slip, fall, struck-by, environmental, etc.). 3. Analyze task for the personal protective equipment needed. 4. Conduct training needs assessment for qualified and non-qualified electrical workers. 5. Revise, update, or publish a complete electrical safe work practices program. Regulatory agencies and standards organizations have long recognized the need to analyze the hazards of electrical work and plan accordingly to mitigate the hazards. Unfortunately, many in the electrical industry have chosen to "take their chances," largely because nothing bad has yet happened. As more information becomes available on the economic and human costs of electrical accidents, it is hoped that more in the industry will recognize the need for systematic hazard analysis and an electrical safe work program that emphasizes hazard identification and abatement.

  8. Harry Mergler with His Modified Differential Analyzer

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1951-06-21

    Harry Mergler stands at the control board of a differential analyzer in the new Instrument Research Laboratory at the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) Lewis Flight Propulsion Laboratory. The differential analyzer was a multi-variable analog computation machine devised in 1931 by Massachusetts Institute of Technology researcher and future NACA Committee member Vannevar Bush. The mechanical device could solve computations up to the sixth order, but had to be rewired before each new computation. Mergler modified Bush’s differential analyzer in the late 1940s to calculate droplet trajectories for Lewis’ icing research program. In four days Mergler’s machine could calculate what previously required weeks. NACA Lewis built the Instrument Research Laboratory in 1950 and 1951 to house the large analog computer equipment. The two-story structure also provided offices for the Mechanical Computational Analysis, and Flow Physics sections of the Physics Division. The division had previously operated from the lab’s hangar because of its icing research and flight operations activities. Mergler joined the Instrument Research Section of the Physics Division in 1948 after earning an undergraduate degree in Physics from the Case Institute of Technology. Mergler’s focus was on the synthesis of analog computers with the machine tools used to create compressor and turbine blades for jet engines.

  9. A Raman-Based Portable Fuel Analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farquharson, Stuart

    2010-08-01

    Fuel is the single most import supply during war. Consider that the US Military is employing over 25,000 vehicles in Iraq and Afghanistan. Most fuel is obtained locally, and must be characterized to ensure proper operation of these vehicles. Fuel properties are currently determined using a deployed chemical laboratory. Unfortunately, each sample requires in excess of 6 hours to characterize. To overcome this limitation, we have developed a portable fuel analyzer capable of determine 7 fuel properties that allow determining fuel usage. The analyzer uses Raman spectroscopy to measure the fuel samples without preparation in 2 minutes. The challenge, however, is that as distilled fractions of crude oil, all fuels are composed of hundreds of hydrocarbon components that boil at similar temperatures, and performance properties can not be simply correlated to a single component, and certainly not to specific Raman peaks. To meet this challenge, we measured over 800 diesel and jet fuels from around the world and used chemometrics to correlate the Raman spectra to fuel properties. Critical to the success of this approach is laser excitation at 1064 nm to avoid fluorescence interference (many fuels fluoresce) and a rugged interferometer that provides 0.1 cm-1 wavenumber (x-axis) accuracy to guarantee accurate correlations. Here we describe the portable fuel analyzer, the chemometric models, and the successful determination of these 7 fuel properties for over 100 unknown samples provided by the US Marine Corps, US Navy, and US Army.

  10. Visual analyzer as anticipatory system (functional organization)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirvelis, Dobilas

    2000-05-01

    Hypothetical functional organization of the visual analyzer is presented. The interpretation of visual perception, anatomic and morphological structure of visual systems of animals, neuro-physiological, psychological and psycho-physiological data in the light of a number of the theoretical solutions of image recognition and visual processes simulation enable active information processing. The activities in special areas of cortex are as follows: focused attention, prediction with analysis of visual scenes and synthesis, predictive mental images. In the projection zone of visual cortex Area Streata or V1 a "sensory" screen (SS) and "reconstruction" screen (RS) are supposed to exist. The functional structure of visual analyzer consist of: analysis of visual scenes projected onto SS; "tracing" of images; preliminary recognition; reversive image reconstruction onto RS; comparison of images projected onto SS with images reconstructed onto RS; and "correction" of preliminary recognition. Special attention is paid to the quasiholographical principles of the neuronal organization within the brain, of the image "tracing," and of reverse image reconstruction. Tachistoscopic experiments revealed that the duration of one such hypothesis-testing cycle of the human visual analyzers is about 8-10 milliseconds.

  11. Thermo Scientific Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer Instrument Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Springston, S. R.

    2016-03-01

    The Sulfur Dioxide Analyzer measures sulfur dioxide based on absorbance of UV light at one wavelength by SO2 molecules which then decay to a lower energy state by emitting UV light at a longer wavelength. Specifically, SO2 + hυ1 →SO2 *→SO2 + hυ2 The emitted light is proportional to the concentration of SO2 in the optical cell. External communication with the analyzer is available through an Ethernet port configured through the instrument network of the AOS systems. The Model 43i-TLE is part of the i-series of Thermo Scientific instruments. The i-series instruments are designed to interface with external computers through the proprietary Thermo Scientific iPort Software. However, this software is somewhat cumbersome and inflexible. BNL has written an interface program in National Instruments LabView that both controls the Model 43i-TLE Analyzer AND queries the unit for all measurement and housekeeping data. The LabView vi (the software program written by BNL) ingests all raw data from the instrument and outputs raw data files in a uniform data format similar to other instruments in the AOS and described more fully in Section 6.0 below.

  12. Diamond Analyzed by Secondary Electron Emission Spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainsky, Isay L.

    1998-01-01

    Diamond is a promising semiconductor material for novel electronic applications because of its chemical stability and inertness, heat conduction properties, and so-called negative electron affinity (NEA). When a surface has NEA, electrons generated inside the bulk of the material are able to come out into the vacuum without any potential barrier (work function). Such a material would have an extremely high secondary electron emission coefficient o, very high photoelectron (quantum) yield, and would probably be an efficient field emitter. Chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) polycrystalline diamond films have even more advantages than diamond single crystals. Their fabrication is relatively easy and inexpensive, and they can be grown with high levels of doping--consequently, they can have relatively high conductivity. Because of these properties, diamond can be used for cold cathodes and photocathodes in high-power electronics and in high-frequency and high-temperature semiconductor devices.

  13. Frequency Standards and Metrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleki, Lute

    2009-04-01

    Preface / Lute Maleki -- Symposium history / Jacques Vanier -- Symposium photos -- pt. I. Fundamental physics. Variation of fundamental constants from the big bang to atomic clocks: theory and observations (Invited) / V. V. Flambaum and J. C. Berengut. Alpha-dot or not: comparison of two single atom optical clocks (Invited) / T. Rosenband ... [et al.]. Variation of the fine-structure constant and laser cooling of atomic dysprosium (Invited) / N. A. Leefer ... [et al.]. Measurement of short range forces using cold atoms (Invited) / F. Pereira Dos Santos ... [et al.]. Atom interferometry experiments in fundamental physics (Invited) / S. W. Chiow ... [et al.]. Space science applications of frequency standards and metrology (Invited) / M. Tinto -- pt. II. Frequency & metrology. Quantum metrology with lattice-confined ultracold Sr atoms (Invited) / A. D. Ludlow ... [et al.]. LNE-SYRTE clock ensemble: new [symbol]Rb hyperfine frequency measurement - spectroscopy of [symbol]Hg optical clock transition (Invited) / M. Petersen ... [et al.]. Precise measurements of S-wave scattering phase shifts with a juggling atomic clock (Invited) / S. Gensemer ... [et al.]. Absolute frequency measurement of the [symbol] clock transition (Invited) / M. Chwalla ... [et al.]. The semiclassical stochastic-field/atom interaction problem (Invited) / J. Camparo. Phase and frequency noise metrology (Invited) / E. Rubiola ... [et al.]. Optical spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen for an improved determination of the Rydberg constant / J. L. Flowers ... [et al.] -- pt. III. Clock applications in space. Recent progress on the ACES mission (Invited) / L. Cacciapuoti and C. Salomon. The SAGAS mission (Invited) / P. Wolf. Small mercury microwave ion clock for navigation and radioScience (Invited) / J. D. Prestage ... [et al.]. Astro-comb: revolutionizing precision spectroscopy in astrophysics (Invited) / C. E. Kramer ... [et al.]. High frequency very long baseline interferometry: frequency standards and

  14. Monolithic THz Frequency Multipliers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erickson, N. R.; Narayanan, G.; Grosslein, R. M.; Martin, S.; Mehdi, I.; Smith, P.; Coulomb, M.; DeMartinez, G.

    2001-01-01

    Frequency multipliers are required as local oscillator sources for frequencies up to 2.7 THz for FIRST and airborne applications. Multipliers at these frequencies have not previously been demonstrated, and the object of this work was to show whether such circuits are really practical. A practical circuit is one which not only performs as well as is required, but also can be replicated in a time that is feasible. As the frequency of circuits is increased, the difficulties in fabrication and assembly increase rapidly. Building all of the circuit on GaAs as a monolithic circuit is highly desirable to minimize the complexity of assembly, but at the highest frequencies, even a complete monolithic circuit is extremely small, and presents serious handling difficulty. This is compounded by the requirement for a very thin substrate. Assembly can become very difficult because of handling problems and critical placement. It is very desirable to make the chip big enough to that it can be seen without magnification, and strong enough that it may be picked up with tweezers. Machined blocks to house the chips present an additional challenge. Blocks with complex features are very expensive, and these also imply very critical assembly of the parts. It would be much better if the features in the block were as simple as possible and non-critical to the function of the chip. In particular, grounding and other electrical interfaces should be done in a manner that is highly reproducible.

  15. Method and apparatus for frequency spectrum analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Steven W. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A method for frequency spectrum analysis of an unknown signal in real-time is discussed. The method is based upon integration of 1-bit samples of signal voltage amplitude corresponding to sine or cosine phases of a controlled center frequency clock which is changed after each integration interval to sweep the frequency range of interest in steps. Integration of samples during each interval is carried out over a number of cycles of the center frequency clock spanning a number of cycles of an input signal to be analyzed. The invention may be used to detect the frequency of at least two signals simultaneously. By using a reference signal of known frequency and voltage amplitude (added to the two signals for parallel processing in the same way, but in a different channel with a sampling at the known frequency and phases of the reference signal), the absolute voltage amplitude of the other two signals may be determined by squaring the sine and cosine integrals of each channel and summing the squares to obtain relative power measurements in all three channels and, from the known voltage amplitude of the reference signal, obtaining an absolute voltage measurement for the other two signals by multiplying the known voltage of the reference signal with the ratio of the relative power of each of the other two signals to the relative power of the reference signal.

  16. Frequency conversion system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanders, Steven (Inventor); Lang, Robert J. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Laser diode pumped mid-IR wavelength sources include at least one high power, near-IR wavelength, injection and/or sources wherein one or both of such sources may be tunable providing a pump wave output beam to a quasi-phase matched (QPM) nonlinear frequency mixing (NFM) device. The NFM device may be a difference frequency mixing (DFM) device or an optical parametric oscillation (OPO) device. Wavelength tuning of at least one of the sources advantageously provides the ability for optimizing pump or injection wavelengths to match the QPM properties of the NFM device enabling a broad range of mid-IR wavelength selectivity. Also, pump powers are gain enhanced by the addition of a rare earth amplifier or oscillator, or a Raman/Brillouin amplifier or oscillator between the high power source and the NFM device. Further, polarization conversion using Raman or Brillouin wavelength shifting is provided to optimize frequency conversion efficiency in the NFM device.

  17. Single frequency multitransmitter telemetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carreno, Victor A. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    The invention relates to a single frequency multitransmitter telemetry system that will deliver a substantial amount of data at low cost. The invention consists essentially of a plurality of sensor transmitter units at different locations, with individual signal conditioning and logic, which send sampled data signals to a single receiver. The transmitters operate independently on the same frequency in a frequency shift keying modulation system and are not synchronized to the receiver. The problem of reception of data from more than one transmitter simultaneously is solved by discarding the data - when there is overlap of data from two or more transmitters, the data is discarded and when there is no overlap the data is retained. The invention utilizes a unique overlap detection technique to determine if data should be retained or discarded. When data is received from a transmitter, it goes into a shift register.

  18. High Frequency EPR Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatteschi, D.

    EPR has traditionally been used in order to obtain structural information on transition metal compounds, with exciting frequencies in the range 9-35 GHz.The recent availability of high magnetic field has prompted the use of higher frequencies. In this contribution the advantages of using High-Field-High-Frequency EPR (HF EPR) experiments are reviewed. After a brief introduction aiming to recall the fundamentals of EPR spectroscopy, a short description of the experimental apparatus needed to perform HF EPR measurements is provided. The remaining sections report selected examples showing how much information can be obtained by HF EPR spectra. They range from individual ions with integer spin to molecular clusters. Particular attention is devoted to the so called Single Molecule Magnets, SMM, i.e. to molecular clusters which show slow relaxation of the magnetization at low temperature. This effect is due to Ising type magnetic anisotropy which has been efficiently monitored through HF EPR s pectroscopy.

  19. Optimization of a broadband vector network analyzer calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opalski, Leszek J.

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a novel, three-stage approach to optimum selection of calibration standard lengths for broadband Vector Network Analyzers (VNA). First, an initial standard D-optimal calibration selection problem is reformulated such as to eliminate redundant locally optimal solutions. Second, good quality basic solution to the calibration selection problem is found, as a result of analytic investigation of the problem properties. Finally, a multistep numeric bi-criterion optimization procedure with variable frequency range is proposed to generate a set of candidate solutions, with different relationship of bandwidth and ripple of the normalized determinant of the Fisher matrix. Example results demonstrate high quality of the solutions found and high efficiency of the proposed optimization-based approach.

  20. Analyzing the IAR with IRI During the Recent Solar Minimum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, S.; Klenzing, J.; Simoes, F.

    2012-01-01

    The 2008-2009 solar minimum was deeper than any within the past century. As such, the performance of the empirical International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) model was impacted. This impact manifested as a disagreement between predicted and measured characteristic separation in frequency for a wave resonating within an Ionospheric Alfven Resonator (IAR). The predicted value of the characteristic was a factor of three lower than what was measured by the Communication/Navigation Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS). Analyzing the model performance and comparing output with measured ionospheric values showed that more than half of the inaccuracy could be explained by inaccuracies in the output of the model. The 2008-2009 solar minimum was outside of the bounds of the effectiveness of the empirical IRI model. Incorporating recent data measurements and new indices would increase the accuracy of IRI during this period.

  1. Mass analyzed threshold ionization spectroscopy of 7-azaindole cation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee Lin, Jung; Tzeng, Wen Bih

    2003-10-01

    The vibrationally resolved mass analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectra of jet-cooled 7-azaindole have been recorded by ionizing via four different intermediate levels. The adiabatic ionization energy of this molecule is determined to be 65 462±5 cm -1, which is greater than that of indole by 2871 cm -1. The vibrational spectra of 7-azaindole in the S 1 and D 0 states have been successfully assigned by comparing the measured frequencies with those of indole as well as the predicted values from the ab initio calculations. Detailed analysis on the MATI spectra shows that the structure of the cation is somewhat different from that of this species in the neutral S 1 state.

  2. Mass-Analyzed Threshold Ionization of LaO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lu; Zhang, Changhua; Krasnokutski, Sergiy; Yang, Dong-Sheng

    2010-06-01

    Lanthanum oxide, LaO2, is produced in a pulsed laser-vaporization metal-cluster source and studied by mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopy. From the MATI spectrum, the adiabatic ionization energy of LaO2 is determined to be 40134 (5) Cm-1 or 4.976 (6) eV, and La+-O stretching and O-La+-O bending frequencies are measured as 656 and 120 Cm-1. The measured ionization energy is about 3.0 eV lower than the value predicted by recent high-level ab initio calculations. In this talk, we will discuss the discrepancy between the experiment and theory and the electronic transition observed in our experiment. T. K. Todorova, I. Infante, L. Gagliardi, and J. M. Dyke, J. Phys. Chem. A 112, 7825 (2008).

  3. Hg(+) Frequency Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prestage, John D.; Tjoelker, Robert L.; Maleki, Lute

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we review the development of Hg(+) microwave frequency standards for use in high reliability and continuous operation applications. In recent work we have demonstrated short-term frequency stability of 3 x 10(exp -14)/nu(sub tau) when a cryogenic oscillator of stability 2-3 x 10(exp 15) was used a the local oscillator. The trapped ion frequency standard employs a Hg-202 discharge lamp to optically pump the trapped Hg(+)-199 clock ions and a helium buffer gas to cool the ions to near room temperature. We describe a small Hg(+) ion trap based frequency standard with an extended linear ion trap (LITE) architecture which separates the optical state selection region from the clock resonance region. This separation allows the use of novel trap configurations in the resonance region since no optical pumping is carried out there. A method for measuring the size of an ion cloud inside a linear trap with a 12-rod trap is currently being investigated. At approx. 10(exp -12), the 2nd order Doppler shift for trapped mercury ion frequency standards is one of the largest frequency offsets and its measurement to the 1% level would represent an advance in insuring the very long-term stability of these standards to the 10(exp -14) or better level. Finally, we describe atomic clock comparison experiments that can probe for a time variation of the fine structure constant, alpha = e(exp 2)/2(pi)hc, at the level of 10(exp -20)/year as predicted in some Grand Unified String Theories.

  4. Simple and flexible SAS and SPSS programs for analyzing lag-sequential categorical data.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, B P

    1999-11-01

    This paper describes simple and flexible programs for analyzing lag-sequential categorical data, using SAS and SPSS. The programs read a stream of codes and produce a variety of lag-sequential statistics, including transitional frequencies, expected transitional frequencies, transitional probabilities, adjusted residuals, z values, Yule's Q values, likelihood ratio tests of stationarity across time and homogeneity across groups or segments, transformed kappas for unidirectional dependence, bidirectional dependence, parallel and nonparallel dominance, and significance levels based on both parametric and randomization tests.

  5. Virtual Sea Method For Analyzing Micro-Vibrations Of Spacecrafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borello, Gerard; Ozenne, Guillaume; Soula, Laurent; Laduree, Gregory; Maussang, Irwin

    2012-07-01

    For better control of micro-vibration environment into orbit, it is necessary to extend the frequency range of interest to mid and high frequencies, typically up to 5 kHz as they contribute significantly to overall level. Thus, there is a need for improved vibroacoustic technique to predict broadband frequency response of payloads submitted to micro-vibration sources. Due to structural complexity of payloads, classical Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) method based on analytical description of dynamical subsystems is not very suitable for this analysis. Instead, an alternate energy-based method called Virtual SEA (VSEA) is used here (VSEA was previously validated for separation shock response prediction and implemented in SEAVirt and SEA+ software). VSEA model parameters are similar to SEA but are derived from a FEM model of the payload by inverse method based on Experimental SEA (ESEA) with the advantage of automatically providing the SEA subsystems decomposition insuring weak coupling between VSEA subsystems. To adapt VSEA methodology to micro-vibrations, a VSEA model of a space structure, built by ASTRIUM and used for analyzing micro-vibrations (MICADO), was first proven to be accurate with broadband under- controlled excitations by comparing predictions with series of tests. Then the specific narrow band aspect of micro- vibrations sources has been investigated with adaptation of VSEA method to this specificity. For this, VSEA predictions with actual sources such as wheel and cryo-cooler were performed and compared with tests in steady or unsteady states. VSEA models are delivering accurate results as soon as calculation of injected power from the source in the system is adapted to narrow band signature. VSEA method is presently leveraged to provide not only band- integrated results but also narrow band Power Spectral Density (PSD) estimates as well as local rotations on receiver subsystems.

  6. Frequency Tunable Wire Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, Qing (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention provides frequency tunable solid-state radiation-generating devices, such as lasers and amplifiers, whose active medium has a size in at least one transverse dimension (e.g., its width) that is much smaller than the wavelength of radiation generated and/or amplified within the active medium. In such devices, a fraction of radiation travels as an evanescent propagating mode outside the active medium. It has been discovered that in such devices the radiation frequency can be tuned by the interaction of a tuning mechanism with the propagating evanescent mode.

  7. Effective Frequency Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, C. Laurence; Weng, Chi Y.

    2002-01-01

    An effective monochromatic frequency technique is described to represent the effects of finite spectral bandwidth for active and passive measurements centered on an absorption line, a trough region, or a slowly varying spectral feature. For Gaussian and rectangular laser line shapes, the effective frequency is shown to have a simple form which depends only on the instrumental line shape and bandwidth and not on the absorption line profile. The technique yields accuracies better than 0.1% for bandwidths less than 0.2 times the atmospheric line width.

  8. Blood Gas Analyzer Accuracy of Glucose Measurements.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yafen; Wanderer, Jonathan; Nichols, James H; Klonoff, David; Rice, Mark J

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the comparability of glucose levels measured with blood gas analyzers (BGAs) and by central laboratories (CLs). Glucose measurements obtained between June 1, 2007, and March 1, 2016, at the Vanderbilt University Medical Center were reviewed. The agreement between CL and BGA results were assessed using Bland-Altman, consensus error grid (CEG), and surveillance error grid (SEG) analyses. We further analyzed the BGAs' performance against the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) 2014 draft guidance and 2016 final guidance for blood glucose monitoring and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2013 standard. We analyzed 2671 paired glucose measurements, including 50 pairs of hypoglycemic values (1.9%). Bland-Altman analysis yielded a mean bias of -3.1 mg/dL, with 98.1% of paired values meeting the 95% limits of agreement. In the hypoglycemic range, the mean bias was -0.8 mg/dL, with 100% of paired values meeting the 95% limits of agreement. When using CEG analysis, 99.9% of the paired values fell within the no risk zone. Similar results were found using SEG analysis. For the FDA 2014 draft guidance, our data did not meet the target compliance rate. For the FDA 2016 final guidance, our data partially met the target compliance rate. For the ISO standard, our data met the target compliance rate. In this study, the agreement for glucose measurement between common BGAs and CL instruments met the ISO 2013 standard. However, BGA accuracy did not meet the stricter requirements of the FDA 2014 draft guidance or 2016 final guidance. Fortunately, plotting these results on either the CEG or the SEG revealed no results in either the great or extreme clinical risk zones. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Remote Laser Diffraction Particle Size Distribution Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    Batcheller, Thomas Aquinas; Huestis, Gary Michael; Bolton, Steven Michael

    2001-03-01

    In support of a radioactive slurry sampling and physical characterization task, an “off-the-shelf” laser diffraction (classical light scattering) particle size analyzer was utilized for remote particle size distribution (PSD) analysis. Spent nuclear fuel was previously reprocessed at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC—formerly recognized as the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant) which is on DOE’s INEEL site. The acidic, radioactive aqueous raffinate streams from these processes were transferred to 300,000 gallon stainless steel storage vessels located in the INTEC Tank Farm area. Due to the transfer piping configuration in these vessels, complete removal of the liquid can not be achieved. Consequently, a “heel” slurry remains at the bottom of an “emptied” vessel. Particle size distribution characterization of the settled solids in this remaining heel slurry, as well as suspended solids in the tank liquid, is the goal of this remote PSD analyzer task. A Horiba Instruments Inc. Model LA-300 PSD analyzer, which has a 0.1 to 600 micron measurement range, was modified for remote application in a “hot cell” (gamma radiation) environment. This technology provides rapid and simple PSD analysis, especially down in the fine and microscopic particle size regime. Particle size analysis of these radioactive slurries down in this smaller range was not previously achievable—making this technology far superior than the traditional methods used. Successful acquisition of this data, in conjunction with other characterization analyses, provides important information that can be used in the myriad of potential radioactive waste management alternatives.

  10. IRISpy: Analyzing IRIS Data in Python

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Daniel; Christe, Steven; Mumford, Stuart; Baruah, Ankit; Timothy, Shelbe; Pereira, Tiago; De Pontieu, Bart

    2017-08-01

    IRISpy is a new community-developed open-source software library for analysing IRIS level 2 data. It is written in Python, a free, cross-platform, general-purpose, high-level programming language. A wide array of scientific computing software packages have already been developed in Python, from numerical computation (NumPy, SciPy, etc.), to visualization and plotting (matplotlib), to solar-physics-specific data analysis (SunPy). IRISpy is currently under development as a SunPy-affiliated package which means it depends on the SunPy library, follows similar standards and conventions, and is developed with the support of of the SunPy development team. IRISpy’s has two primary data objects, one for analyzing slit-jaw imager data and another for analyzing spectrograph data. Both objects contain basic slicing, indexing, plotting, and animating functionality to allow users to easily inspect, reduce and analyze the data. As part of this functionality the objects can output SunPy Maps, TimeSeries, Spectra, etc. of relevant data slices for easier inspection and analysis. Work is also ongoing to provide additional data analysis functionality including derivation of systematic measurement errors (e.g. readout noise), exposure time correction, residual wavelength calibration, radiometric calibration, and fine scale pointing corrections. IRISpy’s code base is publicly available through github.com and can be contributed to by anyone. In this poster we demonstrate IRISpy’s functionality and future goals of the project. We also encourage interested users to become involved in further developing IRISpy.

  11. Volatile Analyzer for Lunar Polar Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibons, Everett K.; Pillinger, Colin T.; McKay, David S.; Waugh, Lester J.

    2011-01-01

    One of the major questions remaining for the future exploration of the Moon by humans concerns the presence of volatiles on our nearest neighbor in space. Observational studies, and investigations involving returned lunar samples and using robotic spacecraft infer the existence of volatile compounds particularly water [1]. It seems very likely that a volatile component will be concentrated at the poles in circumstances where low-temperatures exist to provide cryogenic traps. However, the full inventory of species, their concentration and their origin and sources are unknown. Of particular importance is whether abundances are sufficient to act as a resource of consumables for future lunar expeditions especially if a long-term base involving humans is to be established. To address some of these issues requires a lander designed specifically for operation at a high-lunar latitude. A vital part of the payload needs to be a volatile analyzer such as the Gas Analysis Package specifically designed for identification quantification of volatile substances and collecting information which will allow the origin of these volatiles to be identified [1]. The equipment included, particularly the gas analyzer, must be capable of operation in the extreme environmental conditions to be encountered. No accurate information yet exists regarding volatile concentration even for sites closer to the lunar equator (because of contamination). In this respect it will be important to understand (and thus limit) contamination of the lunar surface by extraneous material contributed from a variety of sources. The only data for the concentrations of volatiles at the poles comes from orbiting spacecraft and whilst the levels at high latitudes may be greater than at the equator, the volatile analyzer package under consideration will be designed to operate at the highest specifications possible and in a way that does not compromise the data.

  12. A chemical analyzer for charged ultrafine particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonser, S. G.; Held, A.

    2013-04-01

    New particle formation is a frequent phenomenon in the atmosphere and of major significance for the earth's climate and human health. To date the mechanisms leading to the nucleation of particles as well as to aerosol growth are not completely understood. A lack of appropriate measurement equipment for online analysis of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles is one major limitation. We have developed a Chemical Analyzer for Charged Ultrafine Particles (CAChUP) capable of analyzing particles with diameters below 30 nm. A bulk of size separated particles is collected electrostatically on a metal filament, resistively desorbed and consequently analyzed for its molecular composition in a time of flight mass spectrometer. We report of technical details as well as characterization experiments performed with the CAChUP. Our instrument was tested in the laboratory for its detection performance as well as for its collection and desorption capabilities. The manual application of known masses of camphene (C10H16) to the desorption filament resulted in a detection limit between 0.5 and 5 ng, and showed a linear response of the mass spectrometer. Flow tube experiments of 25 nm diameter secondary organic aerosol from ozonolysis of alpha-pinene also showed a linear relation between collection time and the mass spectrometer's signal intensity. The resulting mass spectra from the collection experiments are in good agreement with published work on particles generated by the ozonolysis of alpha-pinene. A sensitivity study shows that the current setup of CAChUP is ready for laboratory measurements and for the observation of new particle formation events in the field.

  13. A chemical analyzer for charged ultrafine particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonser, S. G.; Held, A.

    2013-09-01

    New particle formation is a frequent phenomenon in the atmosphere and of major significance for the Earth's climate and human health. To date the mechanisms leading to the nucleation of particles as well as to aerosol growth are not completely understood. A lack of appropriate measurement equipment for online analysis of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles is one major limitation. We have developed a Chemical Analyzer for Charged Ultrafine Particles (CAChUP) capable of analyzing particles with diameters below 30 nm. A bulk of size-separated particles is collected electrostatically on a metal filament, resistively desorbed and subsequently analyzed for its molecular composition in a time of flight mass spectrometer. We report on technical details as well as characterization experiments performed with the CAChUP. Our instrument was tested in the laboratory for its detection performance as well as for its collection and desorption capabilities. The manual application of defined masses of camphene (C10H16) to the desorption filament resulted in a detection limit between 0.5 and 5 ng, and showed a linear response of the mass spectrometer. Flow tube experiments of 25 nm diameter secondary organic aerosol from ozonolysis of alpha-pinene also showed a linear relation between collection time and the mass spectrometer's signal intensity. The resulting mass spectra from the collection experiments are in good agreement with published work on particles generated by the ozonolysis of alpha-pinene. A sensitivity study shows that the current setup of CAChUP is ready for laboratory measurements and for the observation of new particle formation events in the field.

  14. Predictive Walking-Age Health Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Priyanka; Tank, Krishna; Monday, Tapas; Chen, Chih-Hung; Deen, M Jamal

    2017-02-09

    A simple, low-power and wearable health analyzer for early identification and management of some diseases is presented. To achieve this goal, we propose a walking pattern analysis system that uses features such as speed, energy, turn ratio, and bipedal behavior to characterize and classify individuals in distinct walking-ages. A database is constructed from 74 healthy young adults in the age range of 18 to 60 years using the combination of inertial signals from an accelerometer and a gyroscope on a level path including turns. An efficient advanced signal decomposition method called improved complete ensemble empirical mode decomposition with adaptive noise (Improved CEEMDAN) was used for feature extraction. Analyses show that the gait of healthy able-bodied individuals exhibits a natural bipedal asymmetry to a certain level depending on the activity-type and age, which relate to individual's functional attributes rather than pathological gait. The analysis of turn ratio, a measure of activity-transition9 energy change and stability, indicated turning to be less locally stable than straight-line walking making it a more reliable measure for determining falls and other health issues. Extracted features were used to analyze two distinct walking-age groups of the healthy young adults based on their walking pattern, classifying 18-45 years old individuals in one group and 46-60 years old in the other group. Our proposed simple, inexpensive walking analyzer system can be easily used as an ambulatory screening tool by clinicians to identify at risk population at the early onset of some diseases.

  15. A computer program for analyzing channel geometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Regan, R.S.; Schaffranek, R.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Channel Geometry Analysis Program (CGAP) provides the capability to process, analyze, and format cross-sectional data for input to flow/transport simulation models or other computational programs. CGAP allows for a variety of cross-sectional data input formats through use of variable format specification. The program accepts data from various computer media and provides for modification of machine-stored parameter values. CGAP has been devised to provide a rapid and efficient means of computing and analyzing the physical properties of an open-channel reach defined by a sequence of cross sections. CGAP 's 16 options provide a wide range of methods by which to analyze and depict a channel reach and its individual cross-sectional properties. The primary function of the program is to compute the area, width, wetted perimeter, and hydraulic radius of cross sections at successive increments of water surface elevation (stage) from data that consist of coordinate pairs of cross-channel distances and land surface or channel bottom elevations. Longitudinal rates-of-change of cross-sectional properties are also computed, as are the mean properties of a channel reach. Output products include tabular lists of cross-sectional area, channel width, wetted perimeter, hydraulic radius, average depth, and cross-sectional symmetry computed as functions of stage; plots of cross sections; plots of cross-sectional area and (or) channel width as functions of stage; tabular lists of cross-sectional area and channel width computed as functions of stage for subdivisions of a cross section; plots of cross sections in isometric projection; and plots of cross-sectional area at a fixed stage as a function of longitudinal distance along an open-channel reach. A Command Procedure Language program and Job Control Language procedure exist to facilitate program execution on the U.S. Geological Survey Prime and Amdahl computer systems respectively. (Lantz-PTT)

  16. Fundamental Frequency Tracking and Applications to Musical Signal Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Judith C.

    The constant-Q spectral transform (Brown, 1991) can be used to analyze musical signals and can be effectively employed as a front end for measurements of fundamental frequency. This transform also has advantages for the analysis of musical signals over the conventional discrete Fourier transform, or FFT in its fast-Fouriertransform implementation. Because the FFT computes frequency components on a linear scale with a particular fixed resolution or bandwidth (frequency spacing between components), it frequently results in too little resolution for low musical frequencies and better resolution than needed at high frequencies.

  17. CRISP90 - SOFTWARE DESIGN ANALYZER SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    The CRISP90 Software Design Analyzer System, an update of CRISP-80, is a set of programs forming a software design and documentation tool which supports top-down, hierarchic, modular, structured design and programming methodologies. The quality of a computer program can often be significantly influenced by the design medium in which the program is developed. The medium must foster the expression of the programmer's ideas easily and quickly, and it must permit flexible and facile alterations, additions, and deletions to these ideas as the design evolves. The CRISP90 software design analyzer system was developed to provide the PDL (Programmer Design Language) programmer with such a design medium. A program design using CRISP90 consists of short, English-like textual descriptions of data, interfaces, and procedures that are imbedded in a simple, structured, modular syntax. The display is formatted into two-dimensional, flowchart-like segments for a graphic presentation of the design. Together with a good interactive full-screen editor or word processor, the CRISP90 design analyzer becomes a powerful tool for the programmer. In addition to being a text formatter, the CRISP90 system prepares material that would be tedious and error prone to extract manually, such as a table of contents, module directory, structure (tier) chart, cross-references, and a statistics report on the characteristics of the design. Referenced modules are marked by schematic logic symbols to show conditional, iterative, and/or concurrent invocation in the program. A keyword usage profile can be generated automatically and glossary definitions inserted into the output documentation. Another feature is the capability to detect changes that were made between versions. Thus, "change-bars" can be placed in the output document along with a list of changed pages and a version history report. Also, items may be marked as "to be determined" and each will appear on a special table until the item is

  18. Analyzing Ever Growing Datasets in PHENIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkenburg, Christopher; PHENIX Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    After 10 years of running, the PHENIX experiment has by now accumulated more than 700 TB of reconstructed data which are directly used for analysis. Analyzing these amounts of data efficiently requires a coordinated approach. Beginning in 2005 we started to develop a system for the RHIC Atlas Computing Facility (RACF) which allows the efficient analysis of these large data sets. The Analysis Taxi is now the tool which allows any collaborator to process any data set taken since 2003 in weekly passes with turnaround times of typically three to four days.

  19. A Very Low Energy Electrostatic Analyzer,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-31

    SCIENTFI C-1 AFGL-TR-80-0023 NL... mlllEllilllE EIIIIIIIIIEEI IIIIIIIIIw SAFGL-T -0023 LEYE " - A VERY LOW ENERGY ELECTROSTATIC ANALYZER ROBERT E. LA...probably be per- formed for less than $200,000 in a period of about one year. ~1 -3t - i L..i. Cr L- 4 z iu 0 . SI ’ a D, Io rl 7 I a ZcrT a- / Clio) ~ ’ r~ !- 2 ’I - L~J~ ~AIo -~ C arLC) T IA1

  20. Analyzing PICL trace data with MEDEA

    SciTech Connect

    Merlo, A.P.; Worley, P.H.

    1993-11-01

    Execution traces and performance statistics can be collected for parallel applications on a variety of multiprocessor platforms by using the Portable Instrumented Communication Library (PICL). The static and dynamic performance characteristics of performance data can be analyzed easily and effectively with the facilities provided within the MEasurements Description Evaluation and Analysis tool (MEDEA). This report describes the integration of the PICL trace file format into MEDEA. A case study is then outlined that uses PICL and MEDEA to characterize the performance of a parallel benchmark code executed on different hardware platforms and using different parallel algorithms and communication protocols.

  1. Analyzing correlated binary data using SAS.

    PubMed

    Lipsitz, S R; Harrington, D P

    1990-06-01

    We discuss methods for analyzing repeated binary measurements on the same individual. In spite of the fact that the repeated measurements on the same individual are correlated, the ordinary logistic regression maximum likelihood estimates (which assume that the repeated measures are independent) are consistent and asymptotically normal (K. Y. Liang and S. L. Zeger, Biometrika 73, 13 (1986]. However, the inverse of the estimated information matrix (assuming independence) can give inconsistent estimates of the asymptotic variance of estimated parameters. We describe how to obtain the logistic regression estimates, as well as a consistent estimate of their covariance matrix, in SAS, with minimal matrix manipulations.

  2. Thermo Scientific Ozone Analyzer Instrument Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Springston, S. R.

    2016-03-01

    The primary measurement output from the Thermo Scientific Ozone Analyzer is the concentration of the analyte (O3) reported at 1-s resolution in units of ppbv in ambient air. Note that because of internal pneumatic switching limitations the instrument only makes an independent measurement every 4 seconds. Thus, the same concentration number is repeated roughly 4 times at the uniform, monotonic 1-s time base used in the AOS systems. Accompanying instrument outputs include sample temperatures, flows, chamber pressure, lamp intensities and a multiplicity of housekeeping information. There is also a field for operator comments made at any time while data is being collected.

  3. MULTI-CHANNEL PULSE HEIGHT ANALYZER

    DOEpatents

    Boyer, K.; Johnstone, C.W.

    1958-11-25

    An improved multi-channel pulse height analyzer of the type where the device translates the amplitude of each pulse into a time duration electrical quantity which is utilized to control the length of a train of pulses forwarded to a scaler is described. The final state of the scaler for any one train of pulses selects the appropriate channel in a magnetic memory in which an additional count of one is placed. The improvement consists of a storage feature for storing a signal pulse so that in many instances when two signal pulses occur in rapid succession, the second pulse is preserved and processed at a later time.

  4. Hematology analyzers: special considerations for pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Wong, Edward C C

    2015-03-01

    Development of hematology analyzers has been predicated on the use of adult blood specimens without consideration for the unique morphologic and cellular content seen in pediatric patient populations. Because both dramatic qualitative and quantitative cellular changes occur in red and white blood cells and platelets from birth to early adulthood, development of pediatric reference intervals is necessary. Because testing is often performed on a small volume of blood, laboratories are required to develop unique approaches in specimen handling and analysis. Many newer instruments offer alternative cellular analysis allowing for unique insights into the hematopoietic response in disease and nondisease states. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Statistical aspects when analyzing geochemical compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filzmoser, Peter; Reimann, Clemens; Birke, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    From a statistical point of view, the GEMAS (Geochemical Mapping of Agricultural and grazing land Soil) project deals with data mainly consisting of concentrations of chemical elements in the soil. It is logical that an increase of one element concentration in the sample will have an effect on the other concentrations, namely this usually causes a decrease, in particular if the increasing element is very dominant in the sample. This phenomenon can be observed even if the total sum of all concentrations is less than 1 (if the concentrations are expressed in proportions). In statistical terms, such data are called compositional data. In an appropriate approach, the dependency of the element concentrations among each other can be investigated by analyzing ratios of the different element concentrations, rather than directly the raw data. The above problem can also be viewed from a geometrical perspective. The raw concentration data are not represented in the usual Euclidean geometry, but in the so-called Aitchison geometry on the simplex. The statistical methods, however, that are usually employed for analyzing geochemical data are only designed for the Euclidean geometry. Analyzing ratios, or working in the appropriate geometry, comes down to first transform the compositional data. Nowadays, the ilr (isometric logratio) transformation is frequently used for this purpose. It is preferred because of its advantageous mathematical properties, but the results usually need to be back-transformed for an interpretability. Note that a log-transformation - which is often used in geochemistry - does neither transform to the Euclidean space, nor it allows to focus on ratios. Using the GEMAS data set, we will outline how the ilr transformation can successfully be used for data analysis, and we will compare the results with those derived from a simple log-transformation. It turns out that the concept of analyzing ratios has strong implications. This already concerns univariate

  6. CRISP90 - SOFTWARE DESIGN ANALYZER SYSTEM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tausworthe, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    The CRISP90 Software Design Analyzer System, an update of CRISP-80, is a set of programs forming a software design and documentation tool which supports top-down, hierarchic, modular, structured design and programming methodologies. The quality of a computer program can often be significantly influenced by the design medium in which the program is developed. The medium must foster the expression of the programmer's ideas easily and quickly, and it must permit flexible and facile alterations, additions, and deletions to these ideas as the design evolves. The CRISP90 software design analyzer system was developed to provide the PDL (Programmer Design Language) programmer with such a design medium. A program design using CRISP90 consists of short, English-like textual descriptions of data, interfaces, and procedures that are imbedded in a simple, structured, modular syntax. The display is formatted into two-dimensional, flowchart-like segments for a graphic presentation of the design. Together with a good interactive full-screen editor or word processor, the CRISP90 design analyzer becomes a powerful tool for the programmer. In addition to being a text formatter, the CRISP90 system prepares material that would be tedious and error prone to extract manually, such as a table of contents, module directory, structure (tier) chart, cross-references, and a statistics report on the characteristics of the design. Referenced modules are marked by schematic logic symbols to show conditional, iterative, and/or concurrent invocation in the program. A keyword usage profile can be generated automatically and glossary definitions inserted into the output documentation. Another feature is the capability to detect changes that were made between versions. Thus, "change-bars" can be placed in the output document along with a list of changed pages and a version history report. Also, items may be marked as "to be determined" and each will appear on a special table until the item is

  7. Using SCR methods to analyze requirements documentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callahan, John; Morrison, Jeffery

    1995-01-01

    Software Cost Reduction (SCR) methods are being utilized to analyze and verify selected parts of NASA's EOS-DIS Core System (ECS) requirements documentation. SCR is being used as a spot-inspection tool. Through this formal and systematic approach of the SCR requirements methods, insights as to whether the requirements are internally inconsistent or incomplete as the scenarios of intended usage evolve in the OC (Operations Concept) documentation. Thus, by modelling the scenarios and requirements as mode charts using the SCR methods, we have been able to identify problems within and between the documents.

  8. ASDA - Advanced Suit Design Analyzer computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bue, Grant C.; Conger, Bruce C.; Iovine, John V.; Chang, Chi-Min

    1992-01-01

    An ASDA model developed to evaluate the heat and mass transfer characteristics of advanced pressurized suit design concepts for low pressure or vacuum planetary applications is presented. The model is based on a generalized 3-layer suit that uses the Systems Integrated Numerical Differencing Analyzer '85 in conjunction with a 41-node FORTRAN routine. The latter simulates the transient heat transfer and respiratory processes of a human body in a suited environment. The user options for the suit encompass a liquid cooled garment, a removable jacket, a CO2/H2O permeable layer, and a phase change layer.

  9. Analyzing Ever Growing Datasets in PHENIX

    SciTech Connect

    Pinkenburg, C.; PHENIX Collaboration

    2010-10-18

    After 10 years of running, the PHENIX experiment has by now accumulated more than 700 TB of reconstructed data which are directly used for analysis. Analyzing these amounts of data efficiently requires a coordinated approach. Beginning in 2005 we started to develop a system for the RHIC Atlas Computing Facility (RACF) which allows the efficient analysis of these large data sets. The Analysis Taxi is now the tool which allows any collaborator to process any data set taken since 2003 in weekly passes with turnaround times of typically three to four days.

  10. Spectrum Analyzers Incorporating Tunable WGM Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry; Maleki, Lute

    2009-01-01

    A photonic instrument is proposed to boost the resolution for ultraviolet/ optical/infrared spectral analysis and spectral imaging allowing the detection of narrow (0.00007-to-0.07-picometer wavelength resolution range) optical spectral signatures of chemical elements in space and planetary atmospheres. The idea underlying the proposal is to exploit the advantageous spectral characteristics of whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) resonators to obtain spectral resolutions at least three orders of magnitude greater than those of optical spectrum analyzers now in use. Such high resolutions would enable measurement of spectral features that could not be resolved by prior instruments.

  11. Analyzing PICL trace data with MEDEA

    SciTech Connect

    Merlo, A.P.; Worley, P.H.

    1994-04-01

    Execution traces and performance statistics can be collected for parallel applications on a variety of multiprocessor platforms by using the Portable Instrumented Communication Library (PICL). The static and dynamic performance characteristics of performance characteristics of performance data can be analyzed easily and effectively with the facilities provided within the MEasurements Description Evaluation and Analysis tool (MEDEA). A case study is then outlined that uses PICL and MEDEA to characterize the performance of a parallel benchmark code executed on different hardware platforms and using different parallel algorithms and communication protocols.

  12. Light-weight analyzer for odor recognition

    DOEpatents

    Vass, Arpad A; Wise, Marcus B

    2014-05-20

    The invention provides a light weight analyzer, e.g., detector, capable of locating clandestine graves. The detector utilizes the very specific and unique chemicals identified in the database of human decompositional odor. This detector, based on specific chemical compounds found relevant to human decomposition, is the next step forward in clandestine grave detection and will take the guess-work out of current methods using canines and ground-penetrating radar, which have historically been unreliable. The detector is self contained, portable and built for field use. Both visual and auditory cues are provided to the operator.

  13. Real-Time Occupancy Change Analyzer

    SciTech Connect

    2005-03-30

    The Real-Time Occupancy Change Analyzer (ROCA) produces an occupancy grid map of an environment around the robot, scans the environment to generate a current obstacle map relative to a current robot position, and converts the current obstacle map to a current occupancy grid map. Changes in the occupancy grid can be reported in real time to support a number of tracking capabilities. The benefit of ROCA is that rather than only providing a vector to the detected change, it provides the actual x,y position of the change.

  14. Estimating diversity via frequency ratios.

    PubMed

    Willis, Amy; Bunge, John

    2015-12-01

    We wish to estimate the total number of classes in a population based on sample counts, especially in the presence of high latent diversity. Drawing on probability theory that characterizes distributions on the integers by ratios of consecutive probabilities, we construct a nonlinear regression model for the ratios of consecutive frequency counts. This allows us to predict the unobserved count and hence estimate the total diversity. We believe that this is the first approach to depart from the classical mixed Poisson model in this problem. Our method is geometrically intuitive and yields good fits to data with reasonable standard errors. It is especially well-suited to analyzing high diversity datasets derived from next-generation sequencing in microbial ecology. We demonstrate the method's performance in this context and via simulation, and we present a dataset for which our method outperforms all competitors.

  15. Dermatomycosis Frequency and Localization Sites

    PubMed Central

    Koçinaj, Allma Ferizi; Kotori, Merita Grajqevci; Koraqi, Andi; Fida, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Since the prevalence of skin mycotic infections is changing and is area depended we aimed to analyze the frequency of the skin myocotic infections and the appearance sites. Material and Methods: There were involved 560 patients referred to the Dermatology Clinic of University Clinical Center of Kosova during a period of one year. Results: The mean age of our study group was around thirties with a predominance of female and rural patients. Although most of cases presented with single site disease localization, we observed the increase in number of cases with more than one site localization with age. Conclusion: The increased prevalence skin mycotic infections, as well as more than one place of localization deserve a multidimensional approach. PMID:25870481

  16. Vector Beam Polarization State Spectrum Analyzer.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Ignacio; Davis, Jeffrey A; Badham, Katherine; Sánchez-López, María M; Holland, Joseph E; Cottrell, Don M

    2017-05-22

    We present a proof of concept for a vector beam polarization state spectrum analyzer based on the combination of a polarization diffraction grating (PDG) and an encoded harmonic q-plate grating (QPG). As a result, a two-dimensional polarization diffraction grating is formed that generates six different q-plate channels with topological charges from -3 to +3 in the horizontal direction, and each is split in the vertical direction into the six polarization channels at the cardinal points of the corresponding higher-order Poincaré sphere. Consequently, 36 different channels are generated in parallel. This special polarization diffractive element is experimentally demonstrated using a single phase-only spatial light modulator in a reflective optical architecture. Finally, we show that this system can be used as a vector beam polarization state spectrum analyzer, where both the topological charge and the state of polarization of an input vector beam can be simultaneously determined in a single experiment. We expect that these results would be useful for applications in optical communications.

  17. Analyzing endocrine system conservation and evolution.

    PubMed

    Bonett, Ronald M

    2016-08-01

    Analyzing variation in rates of evolution can provide important insights into the factors that constrain trait evolution, as well as those that promote diversification. Metazoan endocrine systems exhibit apparent variation in evolutionary rates of their constituent components at multiple levels, yet relatively few studies have quantified these patterns and analyzed them in a phylogenetic context. This may be in part due to historical and current data limitations for many endocrine components and taxonomic groups. However, recent technological advancements such as high-throughput sequencing provide the opportunity to collect large-scale comparative data sets for even non-model species. Such ventures will produce a fertile data landscape for evolutionary analyses of nucleic acid and amino acid based endocrine components. Here I summarize evolutionary rate analyses that can be applied to categorical and continuous endocrine traits, and also those for nucleic acid and protein-based components. I emphasize analyses that could be used to test whether other variables (e.g., ecology, ontogenetic timing of expression, etc.) are related to patterns of rate variation and endocrine component diversification. The application of phylogenetic-based rate analyses to comparative endocrine data will greatly enhance our understanding of the factors that have shaped endocrine system evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Optoacoustic 13C-breath test analyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harde, Hermann; Helmrich, Günther; Wolff, Marcus

    2010-02-01

    The composition and concentration of exhaled volatile gases reflects the physical ability of a patient. Therefore, a breath analysis allows to recognize an infectious disease in an organ or even to identify a tumor. One of the most prominent breath tests is the 13C-urea-breath test, applied to ascertain the presence of the bacterium helicobacter pylori in the stomach wall as an indication of a gastric ulcer. In this contribution we present a new optical analyzer that employs a compact and simple set-up based on photoacoustic spectroscopy. It consists of two identical photoacoustic cells containing two breath samples, one taken before and one after capturing an isotope-marked substrate, where the most common isotope 12C is replaced to a large extent by 13C. The analyzer measures simultaneously the relative CO2 isotopologue concentrations in both samples by exciting the molecules on specially selected absorption lines with a semiconductor laser operating at a wavelength of 2.744 μm. For a reliable diagnosis changes of the 13CO2 concentration of 1% in the exhaled breath have to be detected at a concentration level of this isotope in the breath of about 500 ppm.

  19. Modular thermal analyzer routine, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oren, J. A.; Phillips, M. A.; Williams, D. R.

    1972-01-01

    The Modular Thermal Analyzer Routine (MOTAR) is a general thermal analysis routine with strong capabilities for performing thermal analysis of systems containing flowing fluids, fluid system controls (valves, heat exchangers, etc.), life support systems, and thermal radiation situations. Its modular organization permits the analysis of a very wide range of thermal problems for simple problems containing a few conduction nodes to those containing complicated flow and radiation analysis with each problem type being analyzed with peak computational efficiency and maximum ease of use. The organization and programming methods applied to MOTAR achieved a high degree of computer utilization efficiency in terms of computer execution time and storage space required for a given problem. The computer time required to perform a given problem on MOTAR is approximately 40 to 50 percent that required for the currently existing widely used routines. The computer storage requirement for MOTAR is approximately 25 percent more than the most commonly used routines for the most simple problems but the data storage techniques for the more complicated options should save a considerable amount of space.

  20. CALIBRATION OF ONLINE ANALYZERS USING NEURAL NETWORKS

    SciTech Connect

    Rajive Ganguli; Daniel E. Walsh; Shaohai Yu

    2003-12-05

    Neural networks were used to calibrate an online ash analyzer at the Usibelli Coal Mine, Healy, Alaska, by relating the Americium and Cesium counts to the ash content. A total of 104 samples were collected from the mine, with 47 being from screened coal, and the rest being from unscreened coal. Each sample corresponded to 20 seconds of coal on the running conveyor belt. Neural network modeling used the quick stop training procedure. Therefore, the samples were split into training, calibration and prediction subsets. Special techniques, using genetic algorithms, were developed to representatively split the sample into the three subsets. Two separate approaches were tried. In one approach, the screened and unscreened coal was modeled separately. In another, a single model was developed for the entire dataset. No advantage was seen from modeling the two subsets separately. The neural network method performed very well on average but not individually, i.e. though each prediction was unreliable, the average of a few predictions was close to the true average. Thus, the method demonstrated that the analyzers were accurate at 2-3 minutes intervals (average of 6-9 samples), but not at 20 seconds (each prediction).