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Sample records for frequency magnetoelectric coupling

  1. Asymmetric micro-Doppler frequency comb generation via magnetoelectric coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filonov, Dmitry; Steinberg, Ben Z.; Ginzburg, Pavel

    2017-06-01

    Electromagnetic scattering from moving bodies, being an inherently time-dependent phenomenon, gives rise to a generation of new frequencies, which can be used to characterize the motion. Whereas an ordinary motion along a linear path produces a constant Doppler shift, an accelerated scatterer can generate a micro-Doppler frequency comb. The spectra produced by rotating objects were studied and observed in a bistatic lock-in detection scheme. The internal geometry of a scatterer was shown to determine the spectrum, and the degree of structural asymmetry was suggested to be identified via signatures in the micro-Doppler comb. In particular, hybrid magnetoelectric particles, showing an ultimate degree of asymmetry in forward and backward scattering directions, were investigated. It was shown that the comb in the backward direction has signatures at the fundamental rotation frequency and its odd harmonics, whereas the comb of the forward scattered field has a prevailing peak at the doubled frequency and its multiples. Additional features of the comb were shown to be affected by the dimensions of the particle and by the strength of the magnetoelectric coupling. Experimental verification was performed with a printed circuit board antenna based on a wire and a split ring, while the structure was illuminated at a 2 GHz carrier frequency. Detailed analysis of micro-Doppler combs enables remote detection of asymmetric features of distant objects and could find use in a span of applications, including stellar radiometry and radio identification.

  2. Magnetoelectric coupling at metal surfaces.

    PubMed

    Gerhard, L; Yamada, T K; Balashov, T; Takács, A F; Wesselink, R J H; Däne, M; Fechner, M; Ostanin, S; Ernst, A; Mertig, I; Wulfhekel, W

    2010-11-01

    Magnetoelectric coupling allows the magnetic state of a material to be changed by an applied electric field. To date, this phenomenon has mainly been observed in insulating materials such as complex multiferroic oxides. Bulk metallic systems do not exhibit magnetoelectric coupling, because applied electric fields are screened by conduction electrons. We demonstrate strong magnetoelectric coupling at the surface of thin iron films using the electric field from a scanning tunnelling microscope, and are able to write, store and read information to areas with sides of a few nanometres. Our work demonstrates that high-density, non-volatile information storage is possible in metals.

  3. Theory of low-frequency magnetoelectric coupling in magnetostrictive-piezoelectric bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bichurin, M. I.; Petrov, V. M.; Srinivasan, G.

    2003-08-01

    A theoretical model is presented for low-frequency magnetoelectric (ME) effects in bilayers of magnetostrictive and piezoelectric phases. A novel approach, the introduction of an interface coupling parameter k, is proposed for the consideration of actual boundary conditions at the interface. An averaging method is used to estimate effective material parameters. Expressions for ME voltage coefficients α'E=δE/δH, where δE is the induced electric field for an applied ac magnetic field δH, are obtained by solving elastostatic and electrostatic equations. We consider both unclamped and rigidly clamped bilayers and three different field orientations of importance: (i) longitudinal fields (α'E,L) in which the poling field E, bias field H, and ac fields δE and δH are all parallel to each other and perpendicular to the sample plane, (ii) transverse fields (α'E,T) for in-plane H and δH parallel to each other and perpendicular to out-of-plane E and δE, and (iii) in-plane longitudinal fields (α'E,IL) for all the fields parallel to each other and to the sample plane. The theory predicts a giant ME coupling for bilayers with cobalt ferrite (CFO), nickel ferrite (NFO), or lanthanum strontium manganite (LSMO) for the magnetostrictive phase and barium titanate (BTO) or lead zirconate titanate (PZT) for the piezoelectric phase. Estimates of α'E are carried out as a function of the interface coupling k and volume fraction ν for the piezoelectric phase. In unclamped samples, α'E increases with increasing k. The strongest coupling occurs for equal volume of the two phases for transverse and longitudinal cases, but a maximum occurs at ν=0.1 for the in-plane longitudinal case. Upon clamping the bilayer, the ME effect is strengthened for the longitudinal case and is weakened for the transverse case. Other important results of the theory are as follows. (i) The strongest ME coupling is expected for the in-plane longitudinal fields and the weakest coupling for the (out

  4. Theoretical modeling of frequency-dependent magnetoelectric effects in laminated multiferroic plates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chunli; Yang, Jiashi; Chen, Weiqiu

    2009-12-01

    The recently derived 2-D equations for extensional, flexural, and thickness-shear motions of laminated plates of piezoelectric/piezomagnetic layers are employed in the analysis of the frequency dependence of magnetoelectric couplings in laminated plates of piezoelectric and piezomagnetic layers driven by time-harmonic magnetic fields. Four structures are analyzed. Two are symmetric about the middle plane and are for extensional motions. The other 2 are antisymmetric about the middle plane and are for flexural motions. Frequency-dependent magnetoelectric effects are calculated and compared. Near resonances, the time-dependent magnetoelectric coupling coefficients are found to be much larger than the static magnetoelectric coupling coefficients.

  5. Synthetic magnetoelectric coupling in a nanocomposite multiferroic

    DOE PAGES

    Jain, P.; Wang, Q.; Roldan, M.; ...

    2015-03-13

    Given the paucity of single phase multiferroic materials (with large ferromagnetic moment), composite systems seem an attractive solution to realize magnetoelectric coupling between ferromagnetic and ferroelectric order parameters. Despite having antiferromagnetic order, BiFeO3 (BFO) has nevertheless been a key material due to excellent ferroelectric properties at room temperature. We studied a superlattice composed of 8 repetitions of 6 unit cells of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) grown on 5 unit cells of BFO. Significant net uncompensated magnetization in BFO, an insulating superlattice is demonstrated using polarized neutron reflectometry. Remarkably, the magnetization enables magnetic field to change the dielectric properties of the superlattice, whichmore » we cite as an example of synthetic magnetoelectric coupling. Finally, controlled creation of magnetic moment in BFO is a much needed path toward design and implementation of integrated oxide devices for next generation magnetoelectric data storage platforms.« less

  6. Synthetic magnetoelectric coupling in a nanocomposite multiferroic

    PubMed Central

    Jain, P.; Wang, Q.; Roldan, M.; Glavic, A.; Lauter, V.; Urban, C.; Bi, Z.; Ahmed, T.; Zhu, J.; Varela, M.; Jia, Q. X.; Fitzsimmons, M. R.

    2015-01-01

    Given the paucity of single phase multiferroic materials (with large ferromagnetic moment), composite systems seem an attractive solution to realize magnetoelectric coupling between ferromagnetic and ferroelectric order parameters. Despite having antiferromagnetic order, BiFeO3 (BFO) has nevertheless been a key material due to excellent ferroelectric properties at room temperature. We studied a superlattice composed of 8 repetitions of 6 unit cells of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) grown on 5 unit cells of BFO. Significant net uncompensated magnetization in BFO, an insulating superlattice, is demonstrated using polarized neutron reflectometry. Remarkably, the magnetization enables magnetic field to change the dielectric properties of the superlattice, which we cite as an example of synthetic magnetoelectric coupling. Importantly, controlled creation of magnetic moment in BFO is a much needed path toward design and implementation of integrated oxide devices for next generation magnetoelectric data storage platforms. PMID:25766205

  7. Magnetoelectric Coupling Induced by Interfacial Orbital Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Cui, Bin; Song, Cheng; Mao, Haijun; Wu, Huaqiang; Li, Fan; Peng, Jingjing; Wang, Guangyue; Zeng, Fei; Pan, Feng

    2015-11-01

    Reversible orbital reconstruction driven by ferroelectric polarization modulates the magnetic performance of model ferroelectric/ferromagnetic heterostructures without onerous limitations. Mn-d(x2-y2) orbital occupancy and related interfacial exotic magnetic states are enhanced and weakened by negative and positive electric fields, respectively, filling the missing member-orbital in the mechanism of magnetoelectric coupling and advancing the application of orbitals to microelectronics.

  8. Strain induced giant magnetoelectric coupling in KNN/Metglas/KNN sandwich multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chitra Lekha, C. S.; Kumar, Ajith S.; Vivek, S.; Anantharaman, M. R.; Venkata Saravanan, K.; Nair, Swapna S.

    2017-01-01

    A lead-free magnetoelectric composite with sandwich layers of K0.5Na0.5NbO3 (KNN)/Co76Fe14Ni4Si5B (Metglas)/KNN is fabricated as a cantilever and it is characterized for its magnetic, ferroelectric, and magnetoelectric properties. Giant magnetoelectric (ME) coupling is recorded under both resonant and sub resonant conditions and the data are presented here. The observed magnetoelectric coupling coefficient reaches a maximum of 1321 V/cm Oe at resonance (750 Hz) and 9.5 V/cm Oe at a sub-resonant frequency of 50 Hz. The corresponding theoretical calculations are provided for comparison. High magnetostriction as well as initial permeability, fairly good piezoelectric properties, and low dielectric constant cumulatively contribute to the giant magnetoelectric properties in the present system. The high resonance and sub resonance ME coupling voltages make the system ideal for transducers and energy harvesting device applications.

  9. Equivalent Circuit Model of Low-Frequency Magnetoelectric Effect in Disk-Type Terfenol-D/PZT Laminate Composites Considering a New Interface Coupling Factor.

    PubMed

    Lou, Guofeng; Yu, Xinjie; Lu, Shihua

    2017-06-15

    This paper describes the modeling of magnetoelectric (ME) effects for disk-type Terfenol-D (Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.92)/PZT (Pb(Zr,Ti)O₃) laminate composite at low frequency by combining the advantages of the static elastic model and the equivalent circuit model, aiming at providing a guidance for the design and fabrication of the sensors based on magnetoelectric laminate composite. Considering that the strains of the magnetostrictive and piezoelectric layers are not equal in actual operating due to the epoxy resin adhesive bonding condition, the magnetostrictive and piezoelectric layers were first modeled through the equation of motion separately, and then coupled together with a new interface coupling factor kc, which physically reflects the strain transfer between the phases. Furthermore, a theoretical expression containing kc for the transverse ME voltage coefficient αv and the optimum thickness ratio noptim to which the maximum ME voltage coefficient corresponds were derived from the modified equivalent circuit of ME laminate, where the interface coupling factor acted as an ideal transformer. To explore the influence of mechanical load on the interface coupling factor kc, two sets of weights, i.e., 100 g and 500 g, were placed on the top of the ME laminates with the same thickness ratio n in the sample fabrication. A total of 22 T-T mode disk-type ME laminate samples with different configurations were fabricated. The interface coupling factors determined from the measured αv and the DC bias magnetic field Hbias were 0.11 for 500 g pre-mechanical load and 0.08 for 100 g pre-mechanical load. Furthermore, the measured optimum thickness ratios were 0.61 for kc = 0.11 and 0.56 for kc = 0.08. Both the theoretical ME voltage coefficient αv and optimum thickness ratio noptim containing kc agreed well with the measured data, verifying the reasonability and correctness for the introduction of kc in the modified equivalent circuit model.

  10. Driving ferromagnetic resonance frequency of FeCoB/PZN-PT multiferroic heterostructures to Ku-band via two-step climbing: composition gradient sputtering and magnetoelectric coupling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shandong; Xue, Qian; Duh, Jenq-Gong; Du, Honglei; Xu, Jie; Wan, Yong; Li, Qiang; Lü, Yueguang

    2014-01-01

    RF/microwave soft magnetic films (SMFs) are key materials for miniaturization and multifunctionalization of monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) and their components, which demand that the SMFs should have higher self-bias ferromagnetic resonance frequency fFMR, and can be fabricated in an IC compatible process. However, self-biased metallic SMFs working at X-band or higher frequency were rarely reported, even though there are urgent demands. In this paper, we report an IC compatible process with two-step superposition to prepare SMFs, where the FeCoB SMFs were deposited on (011) lead zinc niobate–lead titanate substrates using a composition gradient sputtering method. As a result, a giant magnetic anisotropy field of 1498 Oe, 1–2 orders of magnitude larger than that by conventional magnetic annealing method, and an ultrahigh fFMR of up to 12.96 GHz reaching Ku-band, were obtained at zero magnetic bias field in the as-deposited films. These ultrahigh microwave performances can be attributed to the superposition of two effects: uniaxial stress induced by composition gradient and magnetoelectric coupling. This two-step superposition method paves a way for SMFs to surpass X-band by two-step or multi-step, where a variety of magnetic anisotropy field enhancing methods can be cumulated together to get higher ferromagnetic resonance frequency. PMID:25491374

  11. Magnetoelectric Coupling in Composite Multiferroic Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Jason

    In this work, we demonstrate a large charge-mediated magnetoelectric coupling in a PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 / La0.8 Sr0.2MnO3 (PZT/LSMO) composite structure resulting from direct control of magnetism via charge carrier density. This approach has the advantage that its physical mechanism is transparent and the size of the effect can be quantified and understood qualitatively within the double-exchange model. Direct quantification of the charge-driven magnetic changes based on electronic, magnetic, and spectroscopic measurements show that both the spin state and spin configuration of LSMO are modulated. Using a combination of advanced physical vapor deposition techniques, we have grown epitaxial PZT/LSMO bilayer heterostructures on (001) SrTiO 3 substrates with excellent crystallinity, atomically smooth surfaces, low leakage current density, and abrupt interfaces. Magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) magnetometry was used to directly interrogate the local magnetic state of the LSMO as a function of the PZT polarization state. We show direct control of magnetism via applied electric fields, including modulation of the magnetotransport behavior and magnetic-ordering temperature, on/off switching of magnetism, and hysteretic magnetization versus electric field (M-E) characteristics. The magnetoelectric coupling strength, which relates the change in magnetization to the applied electric field, is found to vary strongly with temperature, reaching a low temperature saturation value of +6 Oe cm / kV, much larger than observed in single-phase magnetoelectrics and too large to be explained by a simple band-filling model. To clarify the origin of the magnetoelectric coupling, we carried out near edge x-ray absorption measurements that revealed a well defined change in the position of the Mn absorption edge with the ferroelectric polarization, giving a direct measure of the change in Mn valency in LSMO. We explain these results in terms of an interfacial magnetic reconstruction, whereby the

  12. Magnetoelectric coupling in superconductor-helimagnet heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hals, Kjetil M. D.

    2017-04-01

    The Ginzburg-Landau free energy of a conventional superconductor coupled to a helimagnet is microscopically derived using functional field integral techniques. We show that the spin texture leads to a Lifshitz invariant in the free energy, which couples the momentum density of the superconducting condensate to the magnetization of the helimagnet. For helimagnets with a conical texture, the Lifshitz invariant yields a spatial modulation of the superconducting phase along the helical wave vector of the magnetic texture. Based on self-consistent numerical calculations, we verify the theoretical formalism by investigating a superconductor that contains a helical Yu-Shiba-Rusinov (YSR) chain. We demonstrate that the texture-induced magnetoelectric coupling produces a strong supercurrent along the YSR chain, which induces a detectable magnetic field.

  13. New relativistic Hamiltonian: the angular magnetoelectric coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paillard, Charles; Mondal, Ritwik; Berritta, Marco; Dkhil, Brahim; Singh, Surendra; Oppeneer, Peter M.; Bellaiche, Laurent

    2016-10-01

    Spin-Orbit Coupling (SOC) is a ubiquitous phenomenon in the spintronics area, as it plays a major role in allowing for enhancing many well-known phenomena, such as the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, magnetocrystalline anisotropy, the Rashba effect, etc. However, the usual expression of the SOC interaction ħ/4m2c2 [E×p] • σ (1) where p is the momentum operator, E the electric field, σ the vector of Pauli matrices, breaks the gauge invariance required by the electronic Hamiltonian. On the other hand, very recently, a new phenomenological interaction, coupling the angular momentum of light and magnetic moments, has been proposed based on symmetry arguments: ξ/2 [r × (E × B)] M, (2) with M the magnetization, r the position, and ξ the interaction strength constant. This interaction has been demonstrated to contribute and/or give rise, in a straightforward way, to various magnetoelectric phenomena,such as the anomalous Hall effect (AHE), the anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR), the planar Hall effect and Rashba-like effects, or the spin-current model in multiferroics. This last model is known to be the origin of the cycloidal spin arrangement in bismuth ferrite for instance. However, the coupling of the angular momentum of light with magnetic moments lacked a fundamental theoretical basis. Starting from the Dirac equation, we derive a relativistic interaction Hamiltonian which linearly couples the angular momentum density of the electromagnetic (EM) field and the electrons spin. We name this coupling the Angular MagnetoElectric (AME) coupling. We show that in the limit of uniform magnetic field, the AME coupling yields an interaction exactly of the form of Eq. (2), thereby giving a firm theoretical basis to earlier works. The AME coupling can be expressed as: ξ [E × A] • σ (3) with A being the vector potential. Interestingly, the AME coupling was shown to be complementary to the traditional SOC, and together they restore the gauge invariance of the

  14. Calculation of the axion magnetoelectric coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coh, Sinisa; Vanderbilt, David; Malashevich, Andrei; Souza, Ivo

    2010-03-01

    Recently it was shown [X.-L. Qi et al., PRB 78, 195424 (2008); A.M. Essin et al., PRL 102, 146805 (2009)] that there exists a purely isotropic (``axionic'') component θ to the magnetoelectric coupling (MEC). Furthermore, this θ arises only from the electron orbital motion, and in strong Z2 topological insulators it is unusually large and equals exactly half a quantum (θ=π). Experimental observation of this large MEC would require some peculiar breaking of the time-reversal (T) symmetry at the surfaces, but θ might be observed in normal insulators that have T already broken in the bulk. Since there are by now several examples of strong Z2 topological insulators having θ=π, we believe there is no strong reason why θ should necessarily be small in a normal insulator with broken T. For this reason, we have used density-functional theory to calculate θ in various materials. We first consider Cr2O3, a widely studied magnetoelectric material, but we find θ to be very small there. We attribute this to a weak spin-orbit effect in Cr (and to the fact that even a strong spin-orbit effect by itself does not guarantee a large θ). To calculate θ we express it in terms of well localized Wannier functions to ensure smoothness of the gauge and also to allow for decomposition of contributions to θ coming from various electronic bands. The calculation of θ for BiFeO3 and other materials is currently ongoing.

  15. Giant magnetoelectric effect at low frequencies in polymer-based thin film composites

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, A.; Meurisch, K.; Strunskus, T.; Faupel, F.; Teliban, I.; Jahns, R.; Knöchel, R.; Piorra, A.

    2014-01-13

    A polymer-based magnetoelectric 2-2 composite was fabricated in a thin film approach by direct spin coating of polyvinylidenefluoride-co-trifluoroethylene onto a Metglas substrate without the usage of an adhesive for the mechanical coupling between the piezoelectric and magnetostrictive materials. For a prototype single-sided clamped cantilever, a magnetoelectric coefficient as high as 850 V cm{sup −1} Oe{sup −1} is observed at its fundamental bending mode resonance frequency at 27.8 Hz and a detection limit of 10 pTHz{sup −1/2} at its second bending mode resonance frequency at 169.5 Hz.

  16. Predicting Magnetoelectric Coupling in Layered and Graded Composites.

    PubMed

    Bichurin, Mirza; Petrov, Vladimir; Tatarenko, Alexander

    2017-07-19

    Magnetoelectric (ME) interaction in magnetostrictive-piezoelectric multiferroic structures consists in inducing the electric field across the structure in an applied magnetic field and is a product property of magnetostriction and piezoelectricity in components. ME voltage coefficient that is the ratio of induced electric field to applied magnetic field is the key parameter of ME coupling strength. It has been known that the ME coupling strength is dictated by the product of the piezoelectric and piezomagnetic coefficients of initial phases. As a result, using the laminates with graded piezoelectric and piezomagnetic parameters are a new pathway to the increase in the ME coupling strength. Recently developed models predict stronger ME interactions in composites based on graded components compared to homogeneous ones. We discuss predicting the ME coupling strength for layered structures of homogeneous and compositionally graded magnetostrictive and piezoelectric components based on the graphs of ME voltage coefficients against composite parameters. For obtaining the graphs, we developed equations for ME output in applied magnetic field for possible modes of operation and layered structure configurations. In particular, our studies have been performed on low-frequency ME coupling, enhanced ME effect in electromechanical resonance (EMR) region for longitudinal and bending modes. Additionally, ME coupling at magnetic resonance in magnetostrictive component and at overlapping the EMR and magnetic resonance is investigated. We considered symmetric trilayers and asymmetric bilayers of magnetostrictive and piezoelectric components and multilayered structures based on compositionally stepped initial components.

  17. Predicting Magnetoelectric Coupling in Layered and Graded Composites

    PubMed Central

    Bichurin, Mirza

    2017-01-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) interaction in magnetostrictive-piezoelectric multiferroic structures consists in inducing the electric field across the structure in an applied magnetic field and is a product property of magnetostriction and piezoelectricity in components. ME voltage coefficient that is the ratio of induced electric field to applied magnetic field is the key parameter of ME coupling strength. It has been known that the ME coupling strength is dictated by the product of the piezoelectric and piezomagnetic coefficients of initial phases. As a result, using the laminates with graded piezoelectric and piezomagnetic parameters are a new pathway to the increase in the ME coupling strength. Recently developed models predict stronger ME interactions in composites based on graded components compared to homogeneous ones. We discuss predicting the ME coupling strength for layered structures of homogeneous and compositionally graded magnetostrictive and piezoelectric components based on the graphs of ME voltage coefficients against composite parameters. For obtaining the graphs, we developed equations for ME output in applied magnetic field for possible modes of operation and layered structure configurations. In particular, our studies have been performed on low-frequency ME coupling, enhanced ME effect in electromechanical resonance (EMR) region for longitudinal and bending modes. Additionally, ME coupling at magnetic resonance in magnetostrictive component and at overlapping the EMR and magnetic resonance is investigated. We considered symmetric trilayers and asymmetric bilayers of magnetostrictive and piezoelectric components and multilayered structures based on compositionally stepped initial components. PMID:28753956

  18. Theoretical study on perpendicular magnetoelectric coupling in ferroelectromagnet system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Chonggui; Jiang, Qing

    2002-06-01

    We apply the Heisenberg model for antiferromagnetic interaction and Diffour model for ferroelectric interaction to analyze the magnetic, electric, magnetoelectric property in the system with the spontaneous coexistence of the ferroelectric and antiferromagnetic orders below a certain temperature. The soft mode theory is used to calculate the on-site polarization and mean field theory is applied to deal with the on-site magnetization. We also present the perpendicular magnetoelectric susceptibility χme⊥, polarization susceptibility χp as a function of temperature, and discuss the effect of the inherent magnetoelectric coupling on them. In addition, it is found that an anomaly appears in the curve of the polarization susceptibility due to the coupling between the ferroelectric and antiferromagnetic orders.

  19. On magnetoelectric coupling at equilibrium in continua with microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, Maurizio

    2017-10-01

    A theory of micromorphic continua, applied to electromagnetic solids, is exploited to study magnetoelectric effects at equilibrium. Microcurrents are modeled by the microgyration tensor of stationary micromotions, compatibly with the balance equations for null microdeformation. The equilibrium of the continuum subject to electric and magnetic fields is reformulated accounting for electric multipoles which are related to microdeformation by evolution equations. Polarization and magnetization are derived for uniform fields under the micropolar reduction in terms of microstrain and octupole structural parameters. Nonlinear dependance on the electromagnetic fields is evidenced, compatibly with known theoretical and experimental results on magnetoelectric coupling.

  20. Nomograph method for predicting magnetoelectric coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bichurin, Mirza; Petrov, Vladimir; Petrov, Roman; Tatarenko, Alexander; Leontiev, Viktor; Lavrentieva, Ksenia

    2016-08-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) composites are known to enable the achievement of ME voltage coefficients many orders of magnitude larger than previously reported values for single phase materials. The advancements have opened up many possibilities in applications of sensors, transformers, and microwave devices. We presented here a new quick test of ME composites using nomographs and showed its use in applications where an approximate answer is appropriate and useful. To draw the graphs for ME voltage coefficients, we derived approximate expressions in explicit form for magnetically induced ME effect for different operational modes and laminate composite configurations including symmetrical and asymmetrical structures.

  1. Magnetoelectric coupling in polycrystalline FeVO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Kundys, Bohdan; Martin, Christine; Simon, Charles

    2009-11-01

    We report coupling between magnetic and electric orders for antiferromagnetic polycrystalline FeVO{sub 4} in which magnetism-induced polarization has been recently found in noncollinear antiferromagnetic state below the second antiferromagnetic phase transition at T{sub N2}{approx_equal}15.7 K. In this low symmetry phase space group P1, the magnetic field dependence of electric polarization evidences a clear magnetoelectric coupling in the noncollinear spin-configured antiferromagnetic phase. The discontinuity of magnetodielectric effect observed at the vicinity of the polar to nonpolar transition evidences competition between different magnetodielectric couplings in the two different antiferromagnetic states. The existence of thermal expansion anomaly near T{sub N2} and magnetostriction effect support magnetoelastically mediated scenario of the observed magnetoelectric effect.

  2. Measurement Techniques of the Magneto-Electric Coupling in Multiferroics

    PubMed Central

    Fetisov, Y. K.; Caruntu, G.; Srinivasan, G.

    2017-01-01

    The current surge of interest in multiferroic materials demands specialized measurement techniques to support multiferroics research. In this review article we detail well-established measurement techniques of the magneto-electric coupling coefficient in multiferroic materials, together with newly proposed ones. This work is intended to serve as a reference document for anyone willing to develop experimental measurement techniques of multiferroic materials. PMID:28817089

  3. Inequivalence of direct and converse magnetoelectric coupling at electromechanical resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Gaojian; Nan, Tianxiang; Zhang, Ru; Zhang, Ning; Li, Shandong; Sun, Nian X.

    2013-10-01

    Resonant direct and converse magnetoelectric (ME) effects have been investigated experimentally and theoretically in FeGa/PZT/FeGa sandwich laminate composites under the same electric and magnetic bias conditions. Resonant direct ME effect (DME) occurs at antiresonance frequency while resonant converse ME effect (CME) occurs at resonance frequency. The antiresonance and resonance frequencies have close but different values under identical bias conditions. The magnitudes of resonant effective ME coefficients for direct and converse ME effects are also not equal. A model was developed to describe the frequency response of DME and CME in laminate composite, which was in good agreement with experimental results.

  4. Studies on magnetoelectric coupling in PFN-NZFO composite at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pradhan, Dhiren K.; Sahoo, Satyaprakash; Barik, Sujit K.; Puli, Venkata S.; Misra, Pankaj; Katiyar, Ram S.

    2014-05-01

    We report magnetoelectric coupling and Raman spectroscopic studies on [(1 - x)Pb(Fe0.5Nb0.5)O3-xNi0.65Zn0.35Fe2O4] (x = 0.20) PFN-NZFO composite. Apart from the presence of zone centre Raman active modes of the parent compound, some new peaks are observed in the low frequency region. The electric field controlled peak position (˜48 cm-1) suggests that this mode is of magnetic origin. From temperature dependent Raman scattering studies, temperature coefficients for phonons of different symmetries were estimated. Our measurements on electrical control of magnetic order and magnetic control of electrical order confirmed the existence of converse and direct magnetoelectric coupling in this composite at room temperature.

  5. Artificial dispersion via high-order homogenization: magnetoelectric coupling and magnetism from dielectric layers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan; Guenneau, Sébastien; Gralak, Boris

    2013-01-01

    We investigate a high-order homogenization (HOH) algorithm for periodic multi-layered stacks. The mathematical tool of choice is a transfer matrix method. Expressions for effective permeability, permittivity and magnetoelectric coupling are explored by frequency power expansions. On the physical side, this HOH uncovers a magnetoelectric coupling effect (odd-order approximation) and artificial magnetism (even-order approximation) in moderate contrast photonic crystals. Comparing the effective parameters' expressions of a stack with three layers against that of a stack with two layers, we note that the magnetoelectric coupling effect vanishes while the artificial magnetism can still be achieved in a centre-symmetric periodic structure. Furthermore, we numerically check the effective parameters through the dispersion law and transmission property of a stack with two dielectric layers against that of an effective bianisotropic medium: they are in good agreement throughout the low-frequency (acoustic) band until the first stop band, where the analyticity of the logarithm function of the transfer matrix () breaks down. PMID:24101891

  6. Unleashing the Full Potential of Magnetoelectric Coupling in Film Heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Palneedi, Haribabu; Maurya, Deepam; Kim, Gi-Yeop; Annapureddy, Venkateswarlu; Noh, Myoung-Sub; Kang, Chong-Yun; Kim, Jong-Woo; Choi, Jong-Jin; Choi, Si-Young; Chung, Sung-Yoon; Kang, Suk-Joong L; Priya, Shashank; Ryu, Jungho

    2017-03-01

    A record-high, near-theoretical intrinsic magnetoelectric (ME) coupling of 7 V cm(-1) Oe(-1) is achieved in a heterostructure of piezoelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) film deposited on magnetostrictive Metglas (FeBSi). The anchor-like, nanostructured interface between PZT and Metglas, improved crystallinity of PZT by laser annealing, and optimum volume of crystalline PZT are found to be the key factors in realizing such a giant strain-mediated ME coupling. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Magnetoelectricity coupled exchange bias in BaMnF4

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Shuang; Wang, Ji; Chang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Shuangbao; Qian, Bin; Han, Zhida; Xu, Qingyu; Du, Jun; Wang, Peng; Dong, Shuai

    2015-01-01

    Multiferroic BaMnF4 powder was prepared by hydrothermal method. Hysteretic field dependent magnetization curve at 5 K confirms the weak ferromagnetism aroused from the canted antiferromagnetic spins by magnetoelectric coupling. The blocking temperature of 65 K for exchange bias coincides well with the peak at 65 K in the zero-field cooled temperature-dependent magnetization curve, which has been assigned to the onset temperature of two-dimensional antiferromagnetism. An upturn kink of exchange field and coercivity with decreasing temperature was observed from 40 K to 20 K, which is consistent with the two-dimensional to three-dimensional antiferromagnetic transition at Néel temperature (~26 K). In contrast to the conventional mechanism of magnetization pinned by interfacial exchange coupling in multiphases, the exchange bias in BaMnF4 is argued to be a bulk effect in single phase, due to the magnetization pinned by the polarization through magnetoelectric coupling. PMID:26671575

  8. Negative refraction with low absorption using Raman transitions with magnetoelectric coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Sikes, D. E.; Yavuz, D. D.

    2010-07-15

    We suggest a scheme for obtaining negative refraction that does not require the simultaneous presence of an electric-dipole and a magnetic-dipole transition near the same transition frequency. The key idea of the scheme is to obtain a strong electric response by using far-off-resonant Raman transitions. We propose to use a pair of electric-dipole Raman transitions and utilize magneto-electric cross coupling to achieve a negative index of refraction without requiring negative permeability. The interference of the two Raman transitions allows tunable negative refraction with low absorption.

  9. Quantification of strain and charge co-mediated magnetoelectric coupling on ultra-thin Permalloy/PMN-PT interface.

    PubMed

    Nan, Tianxiang; Zhou, Ziyao; Liu, Ming; Yang, Xi; Gao, Yuan; Assaf, Badih A; Lin, Hwaider; Velu, Siddharth; Wang, Xinjun; Luo, Haosu; Chen, Jimmy; Akhtar, Saad; Hu, Edward; Rajiv, Rohit; Krishnan, Kavin; Sreedhar, Shalini; Heiman, Don; Howe, Brandon M; Brown, Gail J; Sun, Nian X

    2014-01-14

    Strain and charge co-mediated magnetoelectric coupling are expected in ultra-thin ferromagnetic/ferroelectric multiferroic heterostructures, which could lead to significantly enhanced magnetoelectric coupling. It is however challenging to observe the combined strain charge mediated magnetoelectric coupling, and difficult in quantitatively distinguish these two magnetoelectric coupling mechanisms. We demonstrated in this work, the quantification of the coexistence of strain and surface charge mediated magnetoelectric coupling on ultra-thin Ni0.79Fe0.21/PMN-PT interface by using a Ni0.79Fe0.21/Cu/PMN-PT heterostructure with only strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling as a control. The NiFe/PMN-PT heterostructure exhibited a high voltage induced effective magnetic field change of 375 Oe enhanced by the surface charge at the PMN-PT interface. Without the enhancement of the charge-mediated magnetoelectric effect by inserting a Cu layer at the PMN-PT interface, the electric field modification of effective magnetic field was 202 Oe. By distinguishing the magnetoelectric coupling mechanisms, a pure surface charge modification of magnetism shows a strong correlation to polarization of PMN-PT. A non-volatile effective magnetic field change of 104 Oe was observed at zero electric field originates from the different remnant polarization state of PMN-PT. The strain and charge co-mediated magnetoelectric coupling in ultra-thin magnetic/ferroelectric heterostructures could lead to power efficient and non-volatile magnetoelectric devices with enhanced magnetoelectric coupling.

  10. Inversion of ferrimagnetic magnetization by ferroelectric switching via a novel magnetoelectric coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Yakui; Lin, Lingfang; Dagotto, Elbio; Dong, Shuai

    2016-07-12

    Although several multiferroic materials or heterostructures have been extensively studied, finding strong magnetoelectric couplings for the electric field control of the magnetization remains challenging. Here, a novel interfacial magnetoelectric coupling based on three components (ferroelectric dipole, magnetic moment, and antiferromagnetic order) is analytically formulated. As an extension of carrier-mediated magnetoelectricity, the new coupling is shown to induce an electric-magnetic hysteresis loop. In addition, realizations employing BiFeO3 bilayers grown along the [111] axis are proposed. Without involving magnetic phase transitions, the magnetization orientation can be switched by the carrier modulation driven by the field effect, as confirmed using first-principles calculations.

  11. Inversion of ferrimagnetic magnetization by ferroelectric switching via a novel magnetoelectric coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Weng, Yakui; Lin, Lingfang; Dagotto, Elbio; Dong, Shuai

    2016-07-12

    Although several multiferroic materials or heterostructures have been extensively studied, finding strong magnetoelectric couplings for the electric field control of the magnetization remains challenging. Here, a novel interfacial magnetoelectric coupling based on three components (ferroelectric dipole, magnetic moment, and antiferromagnetic order) is analytically formulated. As an extension of carrier-mediated magnetoelectricity, the new coupling is shown to induce an electric-magnetic hysteresis loop. In addition, realizations employing BiFeO3 bilayers grown along the [111] axis are proposed. Without involving magnetic phase transitions, the magnetization orientation can be switched by the carrier modulation driven by the field effect, as confirmed using first-principles calculations.

  12. Inversion of ferrimagnetic magnetization by ferroelectric switching via a novel magnetoelectric coupling

    DOE PAGES

    Weng, Yakui; Lin, Lingfang; Dagotto, Elbio; ...

    2016-07-12

    Although several multiferroic materials or heterostructures have been extensively studied, finding strong magnetoelectric couplings for the electric field control of the magnetization remains challenging. Here, a novel interfacial magnetoelectric coupling based on three components (ferroelectric dipole, magnetic moment, and antiferromagnetic order) is analytically formulated. As an extension of carrier-mediated magnetoelectricity, the new coupling is shown to induce an electric-magnetic hysteresis loop. In addition, realizations employing BiFeO3 bilayers grown along the [111] axis are proposed. Without involving magnetic phase transitions, the magnetization orientation can be switched by the carrier modulation driven by the field effect, as confirmed using first-principles calculations.

  13. Flexible Multiferroic Bulk Heterojunction with Giant Magnetoelectric Coupling via van der Waals Epitaxy

    DOE PAGES

    Amrillah, Tahta; Bitla, Yugandhar; Shin, Kwangwoo; ...

    2017-05-22

    Magnetoelectric nanocomposites have been a topic of intense research due to their profound potential in the applications of electronic devices based on spintronic technology. Nevertheless, in spite of significant progress made in the growth of high-quality nanocomposite thin films, the substrate clamping effect still remains a major hurdle in realizing the ultimate magnetoelectric coupling. To overcome this obstacle, an alternative strategy of fabricating a self-assembled ferroelectric–ferrimagnetic bulk heterojunction on a flexible muscovite via van der Waals epitaxy is adopted. In this paper, we investigated the magnetoelectric coupling in a self-assembled BiFeO3 (BFO)–CoFe2O4 (CFO) bulk heterojunction epitaxially grown on a flexiblemore » muscovite substrate. The obtained heterojunction is composed of vertically aligned multiferroic BFO nanopillars embedded in a ferrimagnetic CFO matrix. Moreover, due to the weak interaction between the flexible substrate and bulk heterojunction, the interface is incoherent and, hence, the substrate clamping effect is greatly reduced. The phase-field simulation model also complements our results. The magnetic and electrical characterizations highlight the improvement in magnetoelectric coupling of the BFO–CFO bulk heterojunction. A magnetoelectric coupling coefficient of 74 mV/cm·Oe of this bulk heterojunction is larger than the magnetoelectric coefficient reported earlier on flexible substrates. Finally and therefore, this study delivers a viable route of fabricating a remarkable magnetoelectric heterojunction and yet flexible electronic devices that are robust against extreme conditions with optimized performance.« less

  14. Flexible Multiferroic Bulk Heterojunction with Giant Magnetoelectric Coupling via van der Waals Epitaxy.

    PubMed

    Amrillah, Tahta; Bitla, Yugandhar; Shin, Kwangwoo; Yang, Tiannan; Hsieh, Ying-Hui; Chiou, Yu-You; Liu, Heng-Jui; Do, Thi Hien; Su, Dong; Chen, Yi-Chun; Jen, Shien-Uang; Chen, Long-Qing; Kim, Kee Hoon; Juang, Jenh-Yih; Chu, Ying-Hao

    2017-06-27

    Magnetoelectric nanocomposites have been a topic of intense research due to their profound potential in the applications of electronic devices based on spintronic technology. Nevertheless, in spite of significant progress made in the growth of high-quality nanocomposite thin films, the substrate clamping effect still remains a major hurdle in realizing the ultimate magnetoelectric coupling. To overcome this obstacle, an alternative strategy of fabricating a self-assembled ferroelectric-ferrimagnetic bulk heterojunction on a flexible muscovite via van der Waals epitaxy is adopted. In this study, we investigated the magnetoelectric coupling in a self-assembled BiFeO3 (BFO)-CoFe2O4 (CFO) bulk heterojunction epitaxially grown on a flexible muscovite substrate. The obtained heterojunction is composed of vertically aligned multiferroic BFO nanopillars embedded in a ferrimagnetic CFO matrix. Moreover, due to the weak interaction between the flexible substrate and bulk heterojunction, the interface is incoherent and, hence, the substrate clamping effect is greatly reduced. The phase-field simulation model also complements our results. The magnetic and electrical characterizations highlight the improvement in magnetoelectric coupling of the BFO-CFO bulk heterojunction. A magnetoelectric coupling coefficient of 74 mV/cm·Oe of this bulk heterojunction is larger than the magnetoelectric coefficient reported earlier on flexible substrates. Therefore, this study delivers a viable route of fabricating a remarkable magnetoelectric heterojunction and yet flexible electronic devices that are robust against extreme conditions with optimized performance.

  15. Research Update: Electrical manipulation of magnetism through strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling in multiferroic heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, A. T.; Zhao, Y. G.

    2016-03-01

    Electrical manipulation of magnetism has been a long sought-after goal to realize energy-efficient spintronics. During the past decade, multiferroic materials combining (anti)ferromagnetic and ferroelectric properties are now drawing much attention and many reports have focused on magnetoelectric coupling effect through strain, charge, or exchange bias. This paper gives an overview of recent progress on electrical manipulation of magnetism through strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling in multiferroic heterostructures.

  16. Strong magnetoelectric and spin phonon coupling in SmFeO3/PMN-PT composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlawat, Anju; Satapathy, S.; Sathe, V. G.; Choudhary, R. J.; Gupta, P. K.

    2016-08-01

    We have investigated spin phonon coupling in the strain coupled magnetoelectric SmFeO3/0.65Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.35PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) composite in the temperature range of 300-650 K by Raman spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. The SmFeO3/PMN-PT composite shows sharp rise in magnetic moment across ferroelectric transition temperature (Tc) of PMN-PT. Around this transition temperature (Tc of PMN-PT), the temperature evolution of Raman spectra of the composite also shows anomalies in the phonon frequencies and line width corresponding to the SmFeO3 phase which indicate structural modifications in the SmFeO3 phase around Tc of PMN-PT. The observed structural, magnetic, and phonon anomalies of SmFeO3 around Tc of PMN-PT in SmFeO3/PMN-PT are attributed to spin-phonon coupling providing evidence of strong strain mediated magnetoelectric effects.

  17. Mechanism for strong magnetoelectric coupling in dilute magnetic ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, L.; Cui, X. Y.; Ringer, S. P.; Stampfl, C.

    2016-11-01

    The manipulation of atomic-scale magnetization is important from both a fundamental and a practical perspective. Using first-principles density-functional-theory calculations within the hybrid functional approach, we systematically study spin-lattice coupling effects for isolated 3 d4-3 d7 transition-metal dopants in a nonmagnetic, ferroelectric PbTiO3 host material. When present at the B-site, a low-spin (or intermediate-spin) to high-spin crossover induces marked ferroelectric-like distortions in the local geometry, characterized by a shift of the dopant ion with respect to the surrounding O6 octahedral cage. The origins of this microscopic multiferroic effect are discussed in terms of the pseudo-Jahn-Teller theory for ferroelectricity. The possibility to exploit this phenomenon to achieve strong magnetoelectric coupling, including controlled spin switching, is also investigated. These results provide a further understanding of ferroelectricity and multiferroicity in perovskite oxides, and they suggest a possible pathway to manipulate single atomic spins in semiconductor solid solutions.

  18. Quantification of strain and charge co-mediated magnetoelectric coupling on ultra-thin Permalloy/PMN-PT interface

    PubMed Central

    Nan, Tianxiang; Zhou, Ziyao; Liu, Ming; Yang, Xi; Gao, Yuan; Assaf, Badih A.; Lin, Hwaider; Velu, Siddharth; Wang, Xinjun; Luo, Haosu; Chen, Jimmy; Akhtar, Saad; Hu, Edward; Rajiv, Rohit; Krishnan, Kavin; Sreedhar, Shalini; Heiman, Don; Howe, Brandon M.; Brown, Gail J.; Sun, Nian X.

    2014-01-01

    Strain and charge co-mediated magnetoelectric coupling are expected in ultra-thin ferromagnetic/ferroelectric multiferroic heterostructures, which could lead to significantly enhanced magnetoelectric coupling. It is however challenging to observe the combined strain charge mediated magnetoelectric coupling, and difficult in quantitatively distinguish these two magnetoelectric coupling mechanisms. We demonstrated in this work, the quantification of the coexistence of strain and surface charge mediated magnetoelectric coupling on ultra-thin Ni0.79Fe0.21/PMN-PT interface by using a Ni0.79Fe0.21/Cu/PMN-PT heterostructure with only strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling as a control. The NiFe/PMN-PT heterostructure exhibited a high voltage induced effective magnetic field change of 375 Oe enhanced by the surface charge at the PMN-PT interface. Without the enhancement of the charge-mediated magnetoelectric effect by inserting a Cu layer at the PMN-PT interface, the electric field modification of effective magnetic field was 202 Oe. By distinguishing the magnetoelectric coupling mechanisms, a pure surface charge modification of magnetism shows a strong correlation to polarization of PMN-PT. A non-volatile effective magnetic field change of 104 Oe was observed at zero electric field originates from the different remnant polarization state of PMN-PT. The strain and charge co-mediated magnetoelectric coupling in ultra-thin magnetic/ferroelectric heterostructures could lead to power efficient and non-volatile magnetoelectric devices with enhanced magnetoelectric coupling. PMID:24418911

  19. Adjustability of resonance frequency by external magnetic field and bias electric field of sandwich magnetoelectric PZT/NFO/PZT composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ling-Fang; Feng, Xing; Sun, Kang; Liang, Ze-Yu; Xu, Qian; Liang, Jia-Yu; Yang, Chang-Ping

    2017-07-01

    Sandwich magnetoelectric composites of PZT/NFO/PZT (PNP) have been prepared by laminating PZT5, NiFe2O4, and PZT5 ceramics in turn with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) paste. A systematic study of structural, magnetic and ferroelectric properties is undertaken. Structural studies carried out by X-ray diffraction indicate formation of cubic perovskite phase of PZT5 ceramic and cubic spinel phase of NiFe2O4 ceramic. As increasing the content of PZT5 phase, ferroelectric loops and magnetic loops of PNP composites showed increasing remnant electric polarizations and decreasing remnant magnetic moments separately. Both external magnetic fields and bias voltages could regulate the basal radial resonance frequency of the composites, which should be originated with the transformation and coupling of the stress between the piezoelectric phase and magnetostrictive phase. Such magnetoelectric composite provides great opportunities for electrostatically tunable devices.

  20. Interfacial Charge Induced Magnetoelectric Coupling at BiFeO₃/BaTiO₃ Bilayer Interface.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Rekha; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Kotnala, R K

    2015-04-29

    Bilayer thin films of BiFeO3-BaTiO3 at different thicknesses of BiFeO3 were prepared by RF-magnetron sputtering technique. A pure phase polycrystalline growth of thin films was confirmed from XRD results. Significantly improved ferroelectric polarization (2Pr ∼ 30 μC/cm(2)) and magnetic moment (Ms ∼ 33 emu/cc) were observed at room temperature. Effect of ferroelectric polarization on current conduction across the interface has been explored. Accumulation and depletion of charges at the bilayer interface were analyzed by current-voltage measurements which were further confirmed from hysteretic dynamic resistance and capacitance voltage profiles. Magnetoelectric coupling due to induced charges at grain boundaries of bilayer interface was further investigated by room temperature magnetocapacitance analysis. A room temperature magnetocapacitance was found to originate from induced charge at the bilayer interface which can be manipulated by varying the thickness of BFO to obtain higher ME coupling coefficient. Dynamic magnetoelectric coupling was investigated, and maximum longitudinal magnetoelectric coupling was observed to be 61 mV/cm·Oe at 50 nm thickness of BiFeO3. The observed magnetoelectric properties are potentially useful for novel room temperature magnetoelectric and spintronic device applications.

  1. Spin-phonon coupling and ferroelectricity in magnetoelectric gallium ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Somdutta

    2014-03-01

    Gallium ferrite (GaFeO3 or GFO) is a low temperature ferrimagnet and room temperature piezoelectric wherein the magnetic transition temperature (TC) could be tailored to room temperature and above by tuning the stoichiometry and processing conditions. Such tunability of the magnetic transition temperature renders GFO a unique perspective in the research of multiferroics to potentially demonstrate room temperature magnetoelectric effect attractive for futuristic digital memory applications. Recent studies in several transition metal oxides highlight the importance of spin-phonon coupling in designing novel multiferroics by means of strain induced phase transition. In the present work, we have systematically studied the evolution of phonons in good quality samples of GFO across the TC using Raman spectroscopy. Using the phonon softening behavior and nearest neighbor spin-spin correlation function below TC we estimated spin-phonon coupling strength in the magnetically ordered state. In the process, we also show, for the first time, the presence of a spin glass phase in GFO where the spin-glass transition has a signature of abrupt change in spin-phonon coupling strength. Though GFO is piezoelectric and crystallizes in polar Pc21n symmetry, its ferroelectric nature remained controversial probably due to the large leakage current in the bulk material. To address this issue, we deposited epitaxial thin film on single crystalline yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrate using indium tin oxide (ITO) as a bottom conducting layer. We demonstrate clear evidence of room temperature ferroelectricity in the thin films from the 180o phase shift of the piezoresponse upon switching the electric field. Further, suppression of dielectric anomaly in presence of an external magnetic field clearly reveals a pronounced magneto-dielectric coupling across the magnetic transition temperature. In addition, using first principles calculations we elucidate that Fe ions are not only

  2. Magnetoelectric Coupling, Ferroelectricity, and Magnetic Memory Effect in Double Perovskite La3Ni2NbO9.

    PubMed

    Dey, K; Indra, A; De, D; Majumdar, S; Giri, S

    2016-05-25

    We observe ferroelectricity in an almost unexplored double perovskite La3Ni2NbO9. Ferroelectricity appears below ∼60 K, which is found to be correlated with the significant magnetostriction. A reasonably large value of spontaneous electric polarization is recorded to be ∼260 μC/m(2) at 10 K for E = 5 kV/cm, which decreases signifi- cantly upon application of a magnetic field (H), suggesting considerable magnetoelectric coupling. The dielectric permittivity is also influenced by H below the ferroelectric transition. The magnetodielectric response scales linearly to the squared magnetization, as described by the Ginzburg-Landau theory. Meticulous studies of static and dynamic features of dc magnetization and frequency dependent ac susceptibility results suggest spin-glass state below 29 K. Intrinsic magnetic memory effect is observed from zero-field cooled magnetization and isothermal remanent magnetization studies, also pointing spin-glass state below 29 K. Appearance of ferroelectricity together with a significant magnetoelectric coupling in absence of conventional long-range magnetic order is promising for searching new magnetoelectric materials.

  3. Multiferroicity and Magnetoelectric Coupling in TbMnO3 Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ni; Lu, Chengliang; Xia, Zhengcai; Xiong, Rui; Fang, Pengfei; Shi, Jing; Liu, Jun-Ming

    2015-12-09

    In this work, we report the growth and functional characterizations of multiferroic TbMnO3 thin films grown on Nb-doped SrTiO3 (001) substrates using pulsed laser deposition. By performing detailed magnetic and ferroelectric properties measurements, we demonstrate that the multiferroicity of spin origin known in the bulk crystals can be successfully transferred to TbMnO3 thin films. Meanwhile, anomalous magnetic transition and unusual magnetoelectric coupling related to Tb moments are observed, suggesting a modified magnetic configuration of Tb in the films as compared to the bulk counterpart. In addition, it is found that the magnetoelectric coupling enabled by Tb moments can even be seen far above the Tb spin ordering temperature, which provides a larger temperature range for the magnetoelectric control involving Tb moments.

  4. Resonant and nonresonant magnetoelectric effects in multilayer composites at microwave frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, V. M.; Bichurin, M. I.; Kiliba, Yu. V.; Srinivasan, G.

    2002-03-01

    A phenomenological theory is presented on the effect of an external electric field on magnetic and magnetoelectric (ME) susceptibilities of ferroelectric/ferromagnetic composites, such as lithium ferrite lead zirconate titanate (PZT), at microwave frequencies. Expressions have been obtained relating the magnetic susceptibility tensor components of the composite (symmetry point group 3m and 4mm) to ME coupling constants. Estimates of linear and bilinear ME susceptibilities at high frequencies are given and are extended to include ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) conditions [1]. Both magnetic and ME susceptibilities reveal a resonance in the electric field dependence. Three methods for measurements of ME susceptibility at microwave frequencies are considered: electric dipole transitions, resonance ME effects at ferromagnetic resonance and off-resonance method. Using the theory and experimental data on ferromagnetic resonance line shift in external electric field, the ME constants for lithium ferrite-PZT multilayer composite are determined. The theory is useful for measurements of ME constants and for the design and analysis of electrically controlled high frequency magnetic devices. - work supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation (DMR-0072144) 1. M.I. Bichurin, I. A. Kornev, V. M. Petrov, A. S. Tatarenko, Yu. V. Kiliba, and G. Srinivasan, Phys. Rev. B 64, 094409 (2001).

  5. Magnetoelectric Coupling in the Pyrochlore Ruthenate Gd2Ru2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamura, Takuma; Okazaki, Ryuji; Taniguchi, Hiroki; Yasui, Yukio; Terasaki, Ichiro

    2017-08-01

    We have prepared polycrystalline samples of Gd2Ru2O7, and have measured the dielectric constant, magnetization and magnetostriction in external fields from 0 to 7 T below 15 K. We find that the dielectric constant of Gd2Ru2O7 significantly changes with external fields, and reveal a finite magnetoelectric coupling in this oxide. Using a simple model in which the spins on the Gd ions feel an internal magnetic field of 7 T from the Ru clusters, we have explained magnetization and magnetoelectric effects qualitatively.

  6. Optical Magnetoelectric Resonance in a Polar Magnet (Fe ,Zn )2Mo3 O8 with Axion-Type Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurumaji, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Fujioka, J.; Masuda, R.; Shishikura, H.; Ishiwata, S.; Tokura, Y.

    2017-08-01

    We report the polarization rotation of terahertz light resonant with the magnetoelectric (ME) spin excitation in the multiferroic (Fe,Zn ) 2Mo3O8 . This resonance reflects the frequency dispersion of the diagonal ME susceptibility (axion term), with which we quantitatively reproduce the thermal and magnetic-field evolution of the observed polarization rotation spectra. The application of the sum rule on the extrapolated dc value of the spectral weight of the ME oscillator provides insight into the dc linear ME effect. The present finding highlights a novel optical functionality of spin excitations in multiferroics that originates from diagonal ME coupling.

  7. Surface-effect enhanced magneto-electric coupling in FePt/PMN-PT multiferroic heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Y. T.; Li, J.; Peng, X. L.; Hong, B.; Wang, X. Q.; Ge, H. L.; Wang, D. H.; Du, Y. W.

    2017-05-01

    A series of FePt films with different film thickness are deposited on Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) substrates. A standard symmetric `Butterfly' shaped Δ M /M -Ed c loops is obtained in 8 nm FePt/PMN-PT heterostrucuture via strain mediated magnetoelectric coupling. For the 3 nm FePt/PMN-PT heterostructure, the loop-like in-plane magnetization (M) -E curve shares a similar shape with the electric polarization of PMN-PT as a function of electric field. The value of MS shows a dramatic change of 30.9% with Edc changing from 0 to 8 kV/cm, this giant magnetoelectric effect in 3 nm FePt/PMN-PT heterostructure results from the remnant polarization induced charge on FePt/PMN-PT interface via the screening charge effect. The enhanced magnetoelectric coupling in thin magnetic/ferroelectric heterostructures opens a promising avenue for the design of ultralow power magnetoelectric devices and information storage devices.

  8. Nonlinear resonance converse magnetoelectric effect modulated by voltage for the symmetrical magnetoelectric laminates under magnetic and thermal loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hao-Miao; Liu, Hui; Zhou, Yun; Hu, Wen-Wen

    2016-12-01

    Based on the tri-layer symmetrical magnetoelectric laminates, a equivalent circuit for the nonlinear resonance converse magnetoelectric coupling effect is established. Because the nonlinear thermo-magneto-mechanical constitutive equations of magnetostrictive material were introduced, a converse magnetoelectric coefficient model was derived from the equivalent circuit, which can describe the influence of bias electric field, bias magnetic field and ambient temperature on the resonance converse magnetoelectric coupling effect. Especially, the model can well predict the modulation effect of bias electric field/voltage on the magnetism of magnetoelectric composite or the converse magnetoelectric coefficient, which is absolutely vital in applications. Both of the converse magnetoelectric coefficient and the resonance frequency predicted by the model have good agreements with the existing experimental results in qualitatively and quantitatively, and the validity of the model is confirmed. On this basis, according to the model, the nonlinear trends of the resonance converse magnetoelectric effect under different bias voltages, bias magnetic fields and ambient temperatures are predicted. From the results, it can be found that the bias voltage can effectively modulate the curve of the resonance converse magnetoelectric coefficient versus bias magnetic field, and then change the corresponding optimal bias magnetic field of the maximum converse magnetoelectric coefficient; with the increasing volume ratio of piezoelectric layers, the modulation effect of bias voltage becomes more obvious; under different bias magnetic fields, the modulation effect of bias voltage on the converse magnetoelectric effect has nonvolatility in a wide temperature region.

  9. Strong magnetoelectric and spin phonon coupling in SmFeO{sub 3}/PMN-PT composite

    SciTech Connect

    Ahlawat, Anju E-mail: anju@rrcat.gov.in; Satapathy, S.; Gupta, P. K.; Sathe, V. G.; Choudhary, R. J.

    2016-08-22

    We have investigated spin phonon coupling in the strain coupled magnetoelectric SmFeO{sub 3}/0.65Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}–0.35PbTiO{sub 3} (PMN-PT) composite in the temperature range of 300–650 K by Raman spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. The SmFeO{sub 3}/PMN-PT composite shows sharp rise in magnetic moment across ferroelectric transition temperature (T{sub c}) of PMN-PT. Around this transition temperature (T{sub c} of PMN-PT), the temperature evolution of Raman spectra of the composite also shows anomalies in the phonon frequencies and line width corresponding to the SmFeO{sub 3} phase which indicate structural modifications in the SmFeO{sub 3} phase around T{sub c} of PMN-PT. The observed structural, magnetic, and phonon anomalies of SmFeO{sub 3} around T{sub c} of PMN-PT in SmFeO{sub 3}/PMN-PT are attributed to spin-phonon coupling providing evidence of strong strain mediated magnetoelectric effects.

  10. Influences of Orientation on Magnetoelectric Coupling at La1-x Sr x MnO3/BaTiO3 Interface from Ab Initio Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Thuy Trang; Yamauchi, Kunihiko; Oguchi, Tamio; Hoang, Nam Nhat

    2017-01-01

    An ab initio study on the magnetoelectric coupling at interfaces of ferromagnetic perovskite Sr-doped LaMnO3 (LSMO) and ferroelectric perovskite BaTiO3 (BTO) with (001) and (111) perovskite orientations is presented. It was found that the interfaces with both orientations exhibit significant magnetoelectric couplings. The effects of the orientation on the magnetoelectric coupling are discussed on the basis of the electronic structure, suggesting that the enhancement of electrostatic-screening-induced magnetoelectric coupling at the (111) interface in comparison with the (001) interface is mainly due to strengthened interfacial coupling.

  11. Terahertz-frequency magnetoelectric effect in Ni-doped CaBaCo4O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Shukai; Dhanasekhar, C.; Adyam, Venimadhav; Deckoff-Jones, Skylar; Man, Michael K. L.; Madéo, Julien; Wong, E. Laine; Harada, Takaaki; Murali Krishna, M. Bala; Dani, Keshav M.; Talbayev, Diyar

    2017-09-01

    We present a study of the terahertz-frequency magnetoelectric effect in ferrimagnetic pyroelectric CaBaCo4O7 and its Ni-doped variants. The terahertz absorption spectrum of these materials consists of spin excitations and low-frequency infrared-active phonons. We studied the magnetic-field-induced changes in the terahertz refractive index and absorption in magnetic fields up to 17 T. We find that the magnetic field modulates the strength of infrared-active optical phonons near 1.2 and 1.6 THz. We use the Lorentz model of the dielectric function to analyze the measured magnetic-field dependence of the refractive index and absorption. We propose that most of the magnetoelectric effect is contributed by the optical phonons near 1.6 THz and higher frequency resonances. Our experimental results can be used to construct and validate more detailed theoretical descriptions of magnetoelectricity in CaBaCo4 -xNixO7 .

  12. An insight into the magnetoelectric coupling effect in the MOF of [NH2(CH3)2]n[FeIIIFeII(HCOO)6]n

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jiangbin; Chen, Lihong; Li, Dong; Zhao, Haixia; Dong, Xinwei; Long, Lasheng; Huang, Rongbin; Zheng, Lansun

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the microscopic mechanism of magnetoelectric coupling is of fundamental importance for the rational design of multiferroics. Herein, the magnetoelectric coupling effect in the metal-organic frameworks of [NH2(CH3)2]n[FeIIIFeII(HCOO)6]n (1) was investigated, respectively, through measuring the dielectric properties and ferroelectric polarization of single-crystal 1 along different crystal axes under external magnetic fields. Analysis on the magnetic structure of 1 reveals that the defect in the FeII-FeIII sublattices plays a key contribution to the magnetoelectric coupling of 1, providing a unique insight into the magnetoelectric coupling effect of MOFs-based multiferroics.

  13. Magnetoelectric coupling in the paramagnetic state of a metal-organic framework

    PubMed Central

    Wang, W.; Yan, L. -Q.; Cong, J. -Z.; Zhao, Y. -L.; Wang, F.; Shen, S. -P.; Zou, T.; Zhang, D.; Wang, S. -G.; Han, X. -F.; Sun, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Although the magnetoelectric effects - the mutual control of electric polarization by magnetic fields and magnetism by electric fields, have been intensively studied in a large number of inorganic compounds and heterostructures, they have been rarely observed in organic materials. Here we demonstrate magnetoelectric coupling in a metal-organic framework [(CH3)2NH2]Mn(HCOO)3 which exhibits an order-disorder type of ferroelectricity below 185 K. The magnetic susceptibility starts to deviate from the Curie-Weiss law at the paraelectric-ferroelectric transition temperature, suggesting an enhancement of short-range magnetic correlation in the ferroelectric state. Electron spin resonance study further confirms that the magnetic state indeed changes following the ferroelectric phase transition. Inversely, the ferroelectric polarization can be improved by applying high magnetic fields. We interpret the magnetoelectric coupling in the paramagnetic state in the metal-organic framework as a consequence of the magnetoelastic effect that modifies both the superexchange interaction and the hydrogen bonding. PMID:23778158

  14. Low-energy magnetoelectric control of domain states in exchange-coupled heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Mahdawi, Muftah; Pati, Satya Prakash; Shiokawa, Yohei; Ye, Shujun; Nozaki, Tomohiro; Sahashi, Masashi

    2017-04-01

    The electric manipulation of antiferromagnets has become an area of great interest recently for zero-stray-field spintronic devices, and for their rich spin dynamics. Generally, the application of antiferromagnetic media for information memories and storage requires a heterostructure with a ferromagnetic layer for readout through the exchange-bias field. In magnetoelectric and multiferroic antiferromagnets, the exchange coupling exerts an additional impediment (energy barrier) to magnetization reversal by the applied magnetoelectric energy. We proposed and verified a method to overcome this barrier. We controlled the energy required for switching the magnetic domains in magnetoelectric Cr2O3 films by compensating the exchange-coupling energy from the ferromagnetic layer with the Zeeman energy of a small volumetric spontaneous magnetization found for the sputtered Cr2O3 films. Based on a simplified phenomenological model of the field-cooling process, the magnetic and electric fields required for switching could be tuned. As an example, the switching of antiferromagnetic domains around a zero-threshold electric field was demonstrated at a magnetic field of 2.6 kOe.

  15. Mesoporous bismuth ferrite with amplified magnetoelectric coupling and electric field-induced ferrimagnetism.

    PubMed

    Quickel, Thomas E; Schelhas, Laura T; Farrell, Richard A; Petkov, Nikolay; Le, Van H; Tolbert, Sarah H

    2015-03-10

    Coupled ferromagnetic and ferroelectric materials, known as multiferroics, are an important class of materials that allow magnetism to be manipulated through the application of electric fields. Bismuth ferrite, BiFeO3, is the most-studied intrinsic magnetoelectric multiferroic because it maintains both ferroelectric and magnetic ordering to well above room temperature. Here we report the use of epitaxy-free wet chemical methods to create strained nanoporous BiFeO3. We find that the strained material shows large changes in saturation magnetization on application of an electric field, changing from 0.04 to 0.84 μb per Fe. For comparison, non-porous films produced using analogous methods change from just 0.002 to 0.01 μb per Fe on application of the same electric field. The results indicate that nanoscale architecture can complement strain-layer epitaxy as a tool to strain engineer magnetoelectric materials.

  16. Mesoporous bismuth ferrite with amplified magnetoelectric coupling and electric field-induced ferrimagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quickel, Thomas E.; Schelhas, Laura T.; Farrell, Richard A.; Petkov, Nikolay; Le, Van H.; Tolbert, Sarah H.

    2015-03-01

    Coupled ferromagnetic and ferroelectric materials, known as multiferroics, are an important class of materials that allow magnetism to be manipulated through the application of electric fields. Bismuth ferrite, BiFeO3, is the most-studied intrinsic magnetoelectric multiferroic because it maintains both ferroelectric and magnetic ordering to well above room temperature. Here we report the use of epitaxy-free wet chemical methods to create strained nanoporous BiFeO3. We find that the strained material shows large changes in saturation magnetization on application of an electric field, changing from 0.04 to 0.84 μb per Fe. For comparison, non-porous films produced using analogous methods change from just 0.002 to 0.01 μb per Fe on application of the same electric field. The results indicate that nanoscale architecture can complement strain-layer epitaxy as a tool to strain engineer magnetoelectric materials.

  17. Magnetoelectric coupling and dielectric study of xNiFe2O4 - (1-x)ErMnO3 lead free multiferroic nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Swati; Mandal, S. K.; Dey, P.

    2017-05-01

    We have investigated magnetoelectric coupling and dielectric properties of xNiFe2O4 - (1-x)ErMnO3 (x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5) lead free multiferroic nanocomposites prepared through pyrophoric reaction method. The magnetoelectric response is observed for lead free series of nanocomposites at room temperature at frequency of 95 Hz and 1 kHz, which is depending on EMO volume fraction. Furthermore, we have studied the dielectric properties of series of nanocomposites at dc magnetic field of 0 and 1800 Oe. Enhanced value of dielectric constant has been observed at low frequency region which is attributed due to the presence of interfacial polarization of the sample.

  18. Enhanced Magnetoelectric Coupling in Layered Structure of Piezoelectric Bimorph and Metallic Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, V. M.; Bichurin, M. I.; Lavrentyeva, K. V.; Leontiev, V. S.

    2016-08-01

    We have investigated the enhanced magnetoelectric (ME) coupling in a layered structure of piezoelectric bimorph and magnetostrictive metallic alloy. The observed ME coefficient in the piezoelectric bimorph-based structure was found to be two times higher than in the traditional piezoelectric/magnetostrictive bilayer. The observed enhancement in ME coupling strength is related to equal signs of induced voltage in both lead zirconate titanate layers with opposite poling directions due to the flexural deformations. The piezoelectric bimorph-based structure has promising potential for sensor and technological applications.

  19. Fabrication of all thin film magneto-electric coupled memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luykx, Arun

    Spintronics are electronics based on manipulating the of the spin of electrons. Spintronics is currently commercially applied in the form of magnetic read heads in hard drives that use the giant magnetoresistive effect (GMR), and more recently the tunnel magnetoresistive effect (TMR). TMR, spin-valves, and spin torque transfer devices have generated interest towards the production of magnetic random access memory (MRAM devices). A major disadvantage of the current spin torque transfer approach to MRAM is that the magnetizing current needs to be substantial (1011 A/m2 has been reported). In this research, we studied a novel approach to MRAM using magneto-electric coupled devices: heterostructures consisting of at least two materials, one piezoelectric, and the other magnetostrictive, that are connected by mechanical coupling. The principle of operation is that strain in one layer is transferred to another layer due to mechanical transduction, causing a change of properties in the layer onto which the strain is applied. In direct magneto-electric coupling, magnetostrictive strain due to the applied magnetic field is coupled to the piezoelectric layer with a voltage output as the result. The converse can also take place, where an applied voltage to the piezoelectric layer causes a strain change (converse piezoelectric effect) that is mechanically coupled to the magnetostrictive layer, changing its magnetic anisotropy (Villari effect). Our converse magneto-electric heterostructure consists of mechanically coupled PZT (piezoelectric) and FeGa (magnetostrictive) thin films. The PZT layers, grown by sol-gel, acquire different strain states when an electric field is applied to them. Mechanical transduction couples this strain to the mechanically coupled FeGa layer (deposited by sputtering), which then changes its magnetic anisotropy. We can assign the change in magnetism to be two states, '0' and '1'. This thesis discusses the fabrication of a converse magneto-electric

  20. Giant and universal magnetoelectric coupling in soft materials and concomitant ramifications for materials science and biology.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liping; Sharma, Pradeep

    2013-10-01

    Magnetoelectric coupling-the ability of a material to magnetize upon application of an electric field and, conversely, to polarize under the action of a magnetic field-is rare and restricted to a rather small set of exotic hard crystalline materials. Intense research activity has recently ensued on materials development, fundamental scientific issues, and applications related to this phenomenon. This tantalizing property, if present in adequate strength at room temperature, can be used to pave the way for next-generation memory devices such as miniature magnetic random access memories and multiple state memory bits, sensors, energy harvesting, spintronics, among others. In this Rapid Communication, we prove the existence of an overlooked strain mediated nonlinear mechanism that can be used to universally induce the giant magnetoelectric effect in all (sufficiently) soft dielectric materials. For soft polymer foams-which, for instance, may be used in stretchable electronics-we predict room-temperature magnetoelectric coefficients that are comparable to the best known (hard) composite materials created. We also argue, based on a simple quantitative model, that magnetoreception in some biological contexts (e.g., birds) most likely utilizes this very mechanism.

  1. Hybrid Magnetoelectric Nanowires for Nanorobotic Applications: Fabrication, Magnetoelectric Coupling, and Magnetically Assisted In Vitro Targeted Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiang-Zhong; Hoop, Marcus; Shamsudhin, Naveen; Huang, Tianyun; Özkale, Berna; Li, Qian; Siringil, Erdem; Mushtaq, Fajer; Di Tizio, Luca; Nelson, Bradley J; Pané, Salvador

    2017-02-01

    An FeGa@P(VDF-TrFE) wire-shaped magnetoelectric nanorobot is designed and fabricated to demonstrate a proof-of-concept integrated device, which features wireless locomotion and on-site triggered therapeutics with a single external power source (i.e., a magnetic field). The device can be precisely steered toward a targeted location wirelessly by rotating magnetic fields and perform on-demand magnetoelectrically assisted drug release to kill cancer cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Magnetoelectric Coupling through the Spin Flop Transition in Ni_{3}TeO_{6}.

    PubMed

    Yokosuk, M O; Al-Wahish, Amal; Artyukhin, Sergey; O'Neal, K R; Mazumdar, D; Chen, P; Yang, Junjie; Oh, Yoon Seok; McGill, Stephen A; Haule, K; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Vanderbilt, David; Musfeldt, J L

    2016-09-30

    We combined high field optical spectroscopy and first principles calculations to analyze the electronic structure of Ni_{3}TeO_{6} across the 53 K and 9 T magnetic transitions, both of which are accompanied by large changes in electric polarization. The color properties are sensitive to magnetic order due to field-induced changes in the crystal field environment, with those around Ni1 and Ni2 most affected. These findings advance the understanding of magnetoelectric coupling in materials in which magnetic 3d centers coexist with nonmagnetic heavy chalcogenide cations.

  3. Recognition of exchange striction as the origin of magnetoelectric coupling in multiferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yahia, G.; Damay, F.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Balédent, V.; Peng, W.; Elkaim, E.; Whitaker, M.; Greenblatt, M.; Lepetit, M.-B.; Foury-Leylekian, P.

    2017-05-01

    The magnetoelectric coupling, a phenomenon inducing magnetic (electric) polarization by application of an external electric (magnetic) field and first conjectured by Curie in 1894, is observed in most of the multiferroics and used for many applications in various fields such as data storage or sensing. However, its microscopic origin is a long-standing controversy in the scientific community. An intense revival of interest developed in the beginning of the 21st century due to the emergence of multiferroic frustrated magnets in which the ferroelectricity is magnetically induced and which present an inherent strong magnetoelectric coupling. The Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) well accounts for such ferroelectricity in systems with a noncollinear magnetic order such as the RMnO3 manganites. The DMI effect is, however, inadequate for systems presenting ferroelectricity induced by quasicollinear spin arrangements such as the prominent RMn2O5 manganites. Among different microscopic mechanisms proposed to resolve this incompatibility, the exchange-striction model stands as the most invoked candidate. In this scenario, the polar atomic displacements originate from the release of a frustration caused by the magnetic order. Despite its theoretical description 15 years ago, this mechanism had yet to be unambiguously validated experimentally. The breakthrough finally comes from SmMn2O5 presenting a unique magnetic order revealed by powder neutron diffraction. The unique orientation of its magnetic moment establishes the missing element that definitely validates the exchange striction as the effective mechanism for the spin-induced ferroelectricity in this series. More generally, this is a proof of concept that validates this model on actual systems, facilitating the development of a new generation of multiferroics with unrivaled magnetoelectric properties.

  4. The memory effect of magnetoelectric coupling in FeGaB/NiTi/PMN-PT multiferroic heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ziyao; Zhao, Shishun; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Xinjun; Nan, Tianxiang; Sun, Nian X.; Yang, Xi; Liu, Ming

    2016-02-01

    Magnetoelectric coupling effect has provided a power efficient approach in controlling the magnetic properties of ferromagnetic materials. However, one remaining issue of ferromagnetic/ferroelectric magnetoelectric bilayer composite is that the induced effective anisotropy disappears with the removal of the electric field. The introducing of the shape memory alloys may prevent such problem by taking the advantage of its shape memory effect. Additionally, the shape memory alloy can also “store” the magnetoelectric coupling before heat release, which introduces more functionality to the system. In this paper, we study a FeGaB/NiTi/PMN-PT multiferroic heterostructure, which can be operating in different states with electric field and temperature manipulation. Such phenomenon is promising for tunable multiferroic devices with multi-functionalities.

  5. The memory effect of magnetoelectric coupling in FeGaB/NiTi/PMN-PT multiferroic heterostructure.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ziyao; Zhao, Shishun; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Xinjun; Nan, Tianxiang; Sun, Nian X; Yang, Xi; Liu, Ming

    2016-02-05

    Magnetoelectric coupling effect has provided a power efficient approach in controlling the magnetic properties of ferromagnetic materials. However, one remaining issue of ferromagnetic/ferroelectric magnetoelectric bilayer composite is that the induced effective anisotropy disappears with the removal of the electric field. The introducing of the shape memory alloys may prevent such problem by taking the advantage of its shape memory effect. Additionally, the shape memory alloy can also "store" the magnetoelectric coupling before heat release, which introduces more functionality to the system. In this paper, we study a FeGaB/NiTi/PMN-PT multiferroic heterostructure, which can be operating in different states with electric field and temperature manipulation. Such phenomenon is promising for tunable multiferroic devices with multi-functionalities.

  6. The memory effect of magnetoelectric coupling in FeGaB/NiTi/PMN-PT multiferroic heterostructure

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ziyao; Zhao, Shishun; Gao, Yuan; Wang, Xinjun; Nan, Tianxiang; Sun, Nian X.; Yang, Xi; Liu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Magnetoelectric coupling effect has provided a power efficient approach in controlling the magnetic properties of ferromagnetic materials. However, one remaining issue of ferromagnetic/ferroelectric magnetoelectric bilayer composite is that the induced effective anisotropy disappears with the removal of the electric field. The introducing of the shape memory alloys may prevent such problem by taking the advantage of its shape memory effect. Additionally, the shape memory alloy can also “store” the magnetoelectric coupling before heat release, which introduces more functionality to the system. In this paper, we study a FeGaB/NiTi/PMN-PT multiferroic heterostructure, which can be operating in different states with electric field and temperature manipulation. Such phenomenon is promising for tunable multiferroic devices with multi-functionalities. PMID:26847469

  7. Frequency reconfigurable phase modulated magnetoelectric sensors using ΔE effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staruch, M.; Yang, M.-T.; Li, J. F.; Dolabdjian, C.; Viehland, D.; Finkel, P.

    2017-07-01

    Magnetoelectric composites have shown promise in low power magnetic field sensing with responsive detection of low frequency fields through the modulation of electromechanical resonance by exploiting a nonlinearity in magnetoelastic properties (ΔE effect). There is also the as-of-yet unrealized potential of tuning this effect to further enhance the shift in resonant frequency of these devices. In the present work, the magnetic field sensitivity was modulated in a bending mode stress reconfigurable sensor through the application of uniaxial tensile stress, reaching up to 8% f0/mT. The minimum magnetic noise floor was determined by detecting the frequency shift using a phase locked loop circuit and was found to directly correspond to the maximum in magnetic field sensitivity that resulted from the ΔE effect.

  8. Magnetoelectric control of spin currents

    SciTech Connect

    Gómez, J. E.; Vargas, J. M.; Avilés-Félix, L.; Butera, A.

    2016-06-13

    The ability to control the spin current injection has been explored on a hybrid magnetoelectric system consisting of a (011)-cut ferroelectric lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMNT) single crystal, a ferromagnetic FePt alloy, and a metallic Pt. With this PMNT/FePt/Pt structure we have been able to control the magnetic field position or the microwave excitation frequency at which the spin pumping phenomenon between FePt and Pt occurs. We demonstrate that the magnetoelectric heterostructure operating in the L-T (longitudinal magnetized-transverse polarized) mode couples the PMNT crystal to the magnetostrictive FePt/Pt bilayer, displaying a strong magnetoelectric coefficient of ∼140 Oe cm kV{sup −1}. Our results show that this mechanism can be effectively exploited as a tunable spin current intensity emitter and open the possibility to create an oscillating or a bistable switch to effectively manipulate spin currents.

  9. Large Magnetoelectric Coupling Near Room Temperature in Synthetic Melanostibite Mn2 FeSbO6.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos-García, Antonio J; Solana-Madruga, Elena; Ritter, Clemens; Andrada-Chacón, Adrián; Sánchez-Benítez, Javier; Mompean, Federico J; Garcia-Hernandez, Mar; Sáez-Puche, Regino; Schmidt, Rainer

    2017-04-10

    Multiferroic materials exhibit two or more ferroic orders and have potential applications as multifunctional materials in the electronics industry. A coupling of ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism is hereby particularly promising. We show that the synthetic melanostibite mineral Mn2 FeSbO6 (R3‾ space group) with ilmenite-type structure exhibits cation off-centering that results in alternating modulated displacements, thus allowing antiferroelectricity to occur. Massive magnetoelectric coupling (MEC) and magnetocapacitance effect of up to 4000 % was detected at a record high temperature of 260 K. The multiferroic behavior is based on the imbalance of cationic displacements caused by a magnetostrictive mechanism, which sets up an unprecedented example to pave the way for the development of highly effective MEC devices operational at or near room temperature. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Colossal low-frequency resonant magnetomechanical and magnetoelectric effects in a three-phase ferromagnetic/elastic/piezoelectric composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guoxi; Li, Xiaotian; Chen, Jianguo; Shi, Huaduo; Xiao, Wenlei; Dong, Shuxiang

    2012-10-01

    Colossal low-frequency resonant magnetomechanical (MM) and magnetoelectric (ME) coupling effects have been found in a three-phase composite made of Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 ceramic fibers/phosphor copper-sheet unimorph and NdFeB magnets. The experimental results revealed that the ferromagnetic/elastic/piezoelectric three-phase composite with a cantilever beam structure could show huge bending MM coefficient of ˜145.9 × 10-3/Oe (unit in bending radian per Oe) and ME voltage coefficient of ˜16 000 V/cm.Oe at the first-order bending resonance frequency of ˜5 Hz. The achieved results related to ME effect are at least one order of magnitude higher over those of other ME materials and devices reported ever. The extremely strong MM and ME couplings in the three-phase composite are due to strong magnetic force moment effect induced by the interaction between NdFeB magnets and the applied magnetic field, and further resonant enhancement via the strain-mediated phosphor copper-sheet with a relatively high mechanical quality factor.

  11. Spin dynamics and magnetoelectric properties of the coupled-spin tetrahedral compound Cu2Te2O5Cl2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besara, T.; Choi, E. S.; Choi, K.-Y.; Kuhns, P. L.; Reyes, A. P.; Lemmens, P.; Berger, H.; Dalal, N. S.

    2014-08-01

    We report on the spin dynamics and discovery of magnetoelectricity in the coupled-spin tetrahedral compound Cu2Te2O5Cl2. Te125 NMR measurements show an anomalous resonance frequency shift and a signal wipe-out phenomenon around the Néel temperature TN = 18.2 K, which could be attributed to the anomalous critical slowing down of the Cu spin fluctuations on the NMR time scale (˜10-100 MHz). The critical exponent of (T1T)-1∝(T-TN)-α is 0.40 ± 0.03, as compared to 0.5 for a three-dimensional mean-field model. This is in contrast to the Br compound [S.-H. Baek et al., Phys. Rev. B 86, 180405 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevB.86.180405], which exhibits pronounced singlet dynamics with a large spin gap. Electric polarization (Pc) is observed along the c axis for temperatures below TN under finite magnetic field but not sensitive to the electric poling. Pc increases sharply over zero to 2 T and then reaches saturation. Below TN, Pc changes its sign depending on the applied magnetic field direction, positive for the H⊥c axis and negative for H ∥ c axis. We discuss possible explanations for the observed magnetoelectric (ME) behavior in terms of linear ME effect, spin-driven multiferroicity, and an exchange striction of intertetrahedral exchange paths involving the Te4+ lone-pair ions. Our results suggest that Cu2Te2O5Cl2 is a type of ME material whose properties are tuned by intertetrahedral exchange interactions involving polarizable Te4+ ions.

  12. Room Temperature Magnetically Ordered Polar Corundum GaFeO3 Displaying Magnetoelectric Coupling.

    PubMed

    Niu, Hongjun; Pitcher, Michael J; Corkett, Alex J; Ling, Sanliang; Mandal, Pranab; Zanella, Marco; Dawson, Karl; Stamenov, Plamen; Batuk, Dmitry; Abakumov, Artem M; Bull, Craig L; Smith, Ronald I; Murray, Claire A; Day, Sarah J; Slater, Ben; Cora, Furio; Claridge, John B; Rosseinsky, Matthew J

    2017-02-01

    The polar corundum structure type offers a route to new room temperature multiferroic materials, as the partial LiNbO3-type cation ordering that breaks inversion symmetry may be combined with long-range magnetic ordering of high spin d(5) cations above room temperature in the AFeO3 system. We report the synthesis of a polar corundum GaFeO3 by a high-pressure, high-temperature route and demonstrate that its polarity arises from partial LiNbO3-type cation ordering by complementary use of neutron, X-ray, and electron diffraction methods. In situ neutron diffraction shows that the polar corundum forms directly from AlFeO3-type GaFeO3 under the synthesis conditions. The A(3+)/Fe(3+) cations are shown to be more ordered in polar corundum GaFeO3 than in isostructural ScFeO3. This is explained by DFT calculations which indicate that the extent of ordering is dependent on the configurational entropy available to each system at the very different synthesis temperatures required to form their corundum structures. Polar corundum GaFeO3 exhibits weak ferromagnetism at room temperature that arises from its Fe2O3-like magnetic ordering, which persists to a temperature of 408 K. We demonstrate that the polarity and magnetization are coupled in this system with a measured linear magnetoelectric coupling coefficient of 0.057 ps/m. Such coupling is a prerequisite for potential applications of polar corundum materials in multiferroic/magnetoelectric devices.

  13. Magnetoelectric coupling effect in transition metal modified polycrystalline BiFeO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenivas Puli, Venkata; Kumar Pradhan, Dhiren; Gollapudi, Sreenivasulu; Coondoo, Indrani; Panwar, Neeraj; Adireddy, Shiva; Chrisey, Douglas B.; Katiyar, Ram S.

    2014-11-01

    Rare-earth (Sm) and transition metal (Co) modified polycrystalline BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films have been deposited on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrate successfully through pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. Piezoelectric, leakage current and temperature dependent dielectric and magnetic behaviour were investigated for the films. Typical “butterfly-shaped” loop were observed in BSFCO films with an effective piezoelectric constant (d33) ~94 pm/V at 0.6 MV/cm. High dielectric constant ~900 and low dielectric loss ~0.25 were observed at room temperature. M-H loops have shown relatively high saturation magnetization ~35 emu/cm3 at a maximum field of H ~20 kOe. Enhanced magnetoelectric coupling response is observed under applied magnetic field. The multiferroic, piezoelectric, leakage current behaviours were explored. Such studies should be helpful in designing multiferroic materials based on BSFCO films.

  14. Magnetoelectric coupling of multiferroic chromium doped barium titanate thin film probed by magneto-impedance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Jyoti Kotnala, Ravinder K. E-mail: rkkotnala@gmail.com

    2014-04-07

    Thin film of BaTiO{sub 3} doped with 0.1 at. % Cr (Cr:BTO) has been prepared by pulsed laser deposition technique. Film was deposited on Pt/SrTiO{sub 3} substrate at 500 °C in 50 mTorr Oxygen gas pressure using KrF (298 nm) laser. Polycrystalline growth of single phase Cr:BTO thin film has been confirmed by grazing angle X-ray diffraction. Cr:BTO film exhibited remnant polarization 6.4 μC/cm{sup 2} and 0.79 MV/cm coercivity. Magnetization measurement of Cr:BTO film showed magnetic moment 12 emu/cc. Formation of weakly magnetic domains has been captured by magnetic force microscopy. Theoretical impedance equation fitted to experimental data in Cole-Cole plot for thin film in presence of transverse magnetic field resolved the increase in grain capacitance from 4.58 × 10{sup −12} to 5.4 × 10{sup −11} F. Film exhibited high value 137 mV/cm-Oe magneto-electric (ME) coupling coefficient at room temperature. The high value of ME coupling obtained can reduce the typical processing steps involved in multilayer deposition to obtain multiferrocity in thin film. Barium titanate being best ferroelectric material has been tailored to be multiferroic by non ferromagnetic element, Cr, doping in thin film form opens an avenue for more stable and reliable spintronic material for low power magnetoelectric random excess memory applications.

  15. Direct and converse magneto-electric coupling in ferromagnetic shape memory alloys based thin film multiferroic heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kirandeep; Kaur, Davinder

    2015-12-01

    The ferromagnetic shape memory driven alterations in strain mediated direct and converse magnetoelectric coupling (DME & CME) was realized in sputtered deposited PZT/Ni-Mn-In multiferroic hetero-junctions. The ferroelectric (P-E loops), dielectric (ɛ vs frequency, ɛ-E), and voltage modulated magnetic anisotropy measurements (M-E curves) were executed in the plane (hard axis) and out of the plane (easy axis) of the functional magnetic material based PZT/Ni-Mn-In bilayer structure. A gain of ˜16 μC/cm2 in maximum polarization (Pmax) and ˜12% in tunability (nr) were observed along an easy magnetic axis of Ni-Mn-In. The butterfly shaped normalized magnetization (M/Ms) vs electric field (applied across the heterostructure) [M-E] plots evident the strain character of CME coupling. The co-action of (i) dissimilar carrier concentration between high symmetric austenitic cubic phase and low symmetry martensite phase of ferromagnetic shape memory alloys and (ii) martensitic transformation induced magnetization change in Ni-Mn-In cause an electrical field modulated hall resistivity; a change of ˜42% in hall resistivity was observed at 60 kV/cm electric field and 0.2 T magnetic field at 270 K. The reversible manipulation of remnant magnetization (Mr) with applied electric field was demonstrated as on/off switch using a square pulse of 60 kV/cm amplitude.

  16. Tuning the competition between ferromagnetism and antiferromagnetism in a half-doped manganite through magnetoelectric coupling.

    PubMed

    Yi, Di; Liu, Jian; Okamoto, Satoshi; Jagannatha, Suresha; Chen, Yi-Chun; Yu, Pu; Chu, Ying-Hao; Arenholz, Elke; Ramesh, R

    2013-09-20

    We investigate the possibility of controlling the magnetic phase transition of the heterointerface between a half-doped manganite La(0.5)Ca(0.5)MnO(3) and a multiferroic BiFeO(3) (BFO) through magnetoelectric coupling. Using macroscopic magnetometry and element-selective x-ray magnetic circular dichroism at the Mn and Fe L edges, we discover that the ferroelectric polarization of BFO controls simultaneously the magnetization of BFO and La(0.5)Ca(0.5)MnO(3) (LCMO). X-ray absorption spectra at the oxygen K edge and linear dichroism at the Mn L edge suggest that the interfacial coupling is mainly derived from the superexchange between Mn and Fe t(2g) spins. The combination of x-ray absorption spectroscopy and mean-field theory calculations reveals that the d-electron modulation of Mn cations changes the magnetic coupling in LCMO, which controls the enhanced canted moments of interfacial BFO via the interfacial coupling. Our results demonstrate that the competition between ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic instability can be modulated by an electric field at the heterointerface, providing another pathway for the electrical field control of magnetism.

  17. Strain-mediated converse magnetoelectric coupling strength manipulation by a thin titanium layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wei-Gang; Morley, Nicola A.; Sharp, Joanne; Tian, Ye; Rainforth, W. Mark

    2016-01-01

    The manipulation of the strain-mediated magnetoelectric (ME) coupling strength is investigated by inserting a thin Ti layer (0-10 nm) between a 50 nm Co50Fe50 layer and a (011) oriented lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) substrate. A record high remanence ratio (Mr/Ms) tunability of 100% has been demonstrated in the 50 nm CoFe/8 nm Ti/PMN-PT heterostructure, when a total in-plane piezoelectric strain of -1821 ppm was applied at an electric field (E-field) of 16 kV/cm. The ME coupling strength is gradually optimized as the Ti layer thickness increases. Magnetic energy calculation showed that with increasing Ti layer thickness the uniaxial magnetic anisotropy energy (Euni) was reduced from 43 ± 1 kJ/m3 to 29.8 ± 1 kJ/m3. The reduction of Euni makes the strain effect dominant in the total magnetic energy, thus gives an obvious enhanced ME coupling strength.

  18. Large magnetoelectric coupling in magnetically short-range ordered Bi5Ti3FeO15 film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hongyang; Kimura, Hideo; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Osada, Minoru; Wang, Jianli; Wang, Xiaolin; Dou, Shixue; Liu, Yan; Yu, Jianding; Matsumoto, Takao; Tohei, Tetsuya; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2014-06-01

    Multiferroic materials, which offer the possibility of manipulating the magnetic state by an electric field or vice versa, are of great current interest. However, single-phase materials with such cross-coupling properties at room temperature exist rarely in nature; new design of nano-engineered thin films with a strong magneto-electric coupling is a fundamental challenge. Here we demonstrate a robust room-temperature magneto-electric coupling in a bismuth-layer-structured ferroelectric Bi5Ti3FeO15 with high ferroelectric Curie temperature of ~1000 K. Bi5Ti3FeO15 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition are single-phase layered perovskit with nearly (00l)-orientation. Room-temperature multiferroic behavior is demonstrated by a large modulation in magneto-polarization and magneto-dielectric responses. Local structural characterizations by transmission electron microscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy reveal the existence of Fe-rich nanodomains, which cause a short-range magnetic ordering at ~620 K. In Bi5Ti3FeO15 with a stable ferroelectric order, the spin canting of magnetic-ion-based nanodomains via the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction might yield a robust magneto-electric coupling of ~400 mV/Oe.cm even at room temperature.

  19. Large magnetoelectric coupling in magnetically short-range ordered Bi5Ti3FeO15 film

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongyang; Kimura, Hideo; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Osada, Minoru; Wang, Jianli; Wang, Xiaolin; Dou, Shixue; Liu, Yan; Yu, Jianding; Matsumoto, Takao; Tohei, Tetsuya; Shibata, Naoya; Ikuhara, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    Multiferroic materials, which offer the possibility of manipulating the magnetic state by an electric field or vice versa, are of great current interest. However, single-phase materials with such cross-coupling properties at room temperature exist rarely in nature; new design of nano-engineered thin films with a strong magneto-electric coupling is a fundamental challenge. Here we demonstrate a robust room-temperature magneto-electric coupling in a bismuth-layer-structured ferroelectric Bi5Ti3FeO15 with high ferroelectric Curie temperature of ~1000 K. Bi5Ti3FeO15 thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition are single-phase layered perovskit with nearly (00l)-orientation. Room-temperature multiferroic behavior is demonstrated by a large modulation in magneto-polarization and magneto-dielectric responses. Local structural characterizations by transmission electron microscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy reveal the existence of Fe-rich nanodomains, which cause a short-range magnetic ordering at ~620 K. In Bi5Ti3FeO15 with a stable ferroelectric order, the spin canting of magnetic-ion-based nanodomains via the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction might yield a robust magneto-electric coupling of ~400 mV/Oe·cm even at room temperature. PMID:24918357

  20. Room temperature magnetoelectric coupling in Zn1-xCoxO/BaTiO3 bilayer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundararaj, Anuraj; Annal Therese, Helen; Ramaswamy, Shivaraman; Chandrasekaran, Gopalakrishnan; Annamalai, Karthigeyan

    2014-09-01

    We report on room temperature magnetoelectric coupling in Zn1-xCoxO/BaTiO3 (x = 0.02, 0.05, and 0.10) bilayer thinfilm multiferroic system (BLS) grown on SrTiO3 (100) substrate. All the BLSs exhibit room temperature ferroelectric response. The BLS with x = 0.02 is paramagnetic, while the BLS with x = 0.05 and 0.10 is weakly ferromagnetic. Increase in Co concentration of the BLS results in reduction of permittivity and electric polarization along with increase of coercive voltage, coercive field, and magnetic moment. The d33 value change from 23 pm/V to 30 pm/V with increase in external magnetic field from 1500 G to 2500 G for BLS with x = 0.05. This shows that Zn1-xCoxO/BaTiO3 is magnetoelectrically coupled at room temperature.

  1. Enhancement of Magnetoelectric Coupling in CoGaxFe2-xO4/BaTiO3 Composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Yan; Zhang, Zhen; Jiles, David; Nlebedim, Cajetan

    2015-03-01

    Multiferroic materials exhibit magnetoelectric coupling and promise new device applications including magnetic sensors, generators and filters. An effective method for developing magnetoelectric (ME) materials with enhanced ME effect is achieved by the coupling through the interfacial strain between piezoelectric and magnetostrictive materials. In this study, enhancement of magnetoelectric coupling was found by systematically studying the electrical and magnetic properties of CoGaxFe2-xO4/BaTiO3 composite. It is found that Ga doping not only stabilizes the magnetic phase of composites but also increases the sensitivity of magnetoelastic response by 30%. Moreover, Ga doping reduces the electrical conductivity and the dielectric loss of composite. An enhancement of the electrostrain with doping Ga is also observed in CoGaxFe2-xO4/BaTiO3 (x =0.3). As both the sensitivity of magnetostriction and the change in the electric field with strain increase, the ME voltage coefficient also increase. Thus, our work is beneficial for the application of CoFe2O4/BaTiO3-based multiferroic materials. This work was supported by the USDoE, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Science and Engineering Division. The research was performed at Ames Laboratory, operated for the USDoE by Iowa State University (contract # DE-AC02-07CH11358)

  2. Predicting a Ferrimagnetic Phase of Zn2FeOsO6 with Strong Magnetoelectric Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P. S.; Ren, W.; Bellaiche, L.; Xiang, H. J.

    2015-04-01

    Multiferroic materials, in which ferroelectric and magnetic ordering coexist, are of practical interest for the development of novel memory devices that allow for electrical writing and nondestructive magnetic readout operation. The great challenge is to create room temperature multiferroic materials with strongly coupled ferroelectric and ferromagnetic (or ferrimagnetic) orderings. BiFeO3 is the most heavily investigated single-phase multiferroic to date due to the coexistence of its magnetic order and ferroelectric order at room temperature. However, there is no net magnetic moment in the cycloidal (antiferromagneticlike) magnetic state of bulk BiFeO3 , which severely limits its realistic applications in electric field controlled memory devices. Here, we predict that LiNbO3 -type Zn2FeOsO6 is a new multiferroic with properties superior to BiFeO3 . First, there are strong ferroelectricity and strong ferrimagnetism at room temperature in Zn2FeOsO6 . Second, the easy plane of the spontaneous magnetization can be switched by an external electric field, evidencing the strong magnetoelectric coupling existing in this system. Our results suggest that ferrimagnetic 3 d -5 d LiNbO3 -type material may therefore be used to achieve voltage control of magnetism in future memory devices.

  3. Predicting a ferrimagnetic phase of Zn(2)FeOsO(6) with strong magnetoelectric coupling.

    PubMed

    Wang, P S; Ren, W; Bellaiche, L; Xiang, H J

    2015-04-10

    Multiferroic materials, in which ferroelectric and magnetic ordering coexist, are of practical interest for the development of novel memory devices that allow for electrical writing and nondestructive magnetic readout operation. The great challenge is to create room temperature multiferroic materials with strongly coupled ferroelectric and ferromagnetic (or ferrimagnetic) orderings. BiFeO_{3} is the most heavily investigated single-phase multiferroic to date due to the coexistence of its magnetic order and ferroelectric order at room temperature. However, there is no net magnetic moment in the cycloidal (antiferromagneticlike) magnetic state of bulk BiFeO_{3}, which severely limits its realistic applications in electric field controlled memory devices. Here, we predict that LiNbO_{3}-type Zn_{2}FeOsO_{6} is a new multiferroic with properties superior to BiFeO_{3}. First, there are strong ferroelectricity and strong ferrimagnetism at room temperature in Zn_{2}FeOsO_{6}. Second, the easy plane of the spontaneous magnetization can be switched by an external electric field, evidencing the strong magnetoelectric coupling existing in this system. Our results suggest that ferrimagnetic 3d-5d LiNbO_{3}-type material may therefore be used to achieve voltage control of magnetism in future memory devices.

  4. Tunable fringe magnetic fields induced by converse magnetoelectric coupling in a FeGa/PMN-PT multiferroic heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitchorov, Trifon; Chen, Yajie; Hu, Bolin; Gillette, Scott M.; Geiler, Anton; Vittoria, Carmine; Harris, Vincent G.

    2011-12-01

    The fringe magnetic field, induced by magnetoelectric coupling in a bilayer Fe-Ga/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3_PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) multifunctional composite, was investigated. The induced external field is characterized as having a butterfly hysteresis loop when tuned by an applied electric field. A tuning coefficient of the electrically induced fringe magnetic field is derived from the piezoelectric and magnetostrictive properties of the composite. A measured maximum tuning coefficient, 4.5 Oe/(kV cm-1), is found to agree well with theoretical prediction. This work establishes a foundation in the design of transducers based on the magnetoelectric effect.

  5. Magnetoelectric coupling and AC impedance studies of 0.5NiFe2O4-0.5PbZr0.58Ti0.42O3 nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debnath, Rajesh; Mandal, S. K.; Singh, Swati; Dey, P.; Nath, A.

    2017-05-01

    We have investigated strain mediated magnetoelectric coupling and ac impedance properties of 0.5NiFe2O4-0.5PbZr0.58Ti0.42O3 nanocomposite at room temperature. The magnetoelectric voltage coefficient has been calculated from ME voltage for both transverse and longitudinal direction at a frequency of 37 Hz. The magnetoelectric coefficient in transverse direction is found to ˜ 2.2 mV/cmOe at 200 Oe dc magnetic field whereas magnetoelectric coefficient in longitudinal direction is found to ˜ 1.36 mV/cmOe at dc magnetic field of 674 Oe. The real and imaginary part of complex impedance has been measured in presence of 0 and 1800 Oe dc magnetic field applied at perpendicular direction of measured electric field. With the application of dc magnetic field slight increase in the real and imaginary part of impedance have been observed. Nyquist plots have been fitted using parallel combinations of resistances-capacitance circuits.

  6. Gauge-discontinuity contributions to the Chern-Simons orbital magnetoelectric coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianpeng; Vanderbilt, David

    We propose a new method for calculating the Chern-Simons orbital magnetoelectric coupling, conventionally parametrized in terms of a phase angle θ. We propose to relax the periodicity condition in one direction (kz) so that a gauge discontinuity is introduced on a 2D k plane normal to kz. The total θ response then has contributions from both the integral of the Chern-Simons 3-form over the 3D bulk BZ and the gauge discontinuity expressed as a 2D integral over the k plane. Sometimes the boundary plane may be further divided into subregions by 1D ``vortex loops'' which make a third kind of contribution to the total θ, expressed as a combination of Berry phases around the vortex loops. The total θ thus consists of three terms which can be expressed as integrals over 3D, 2D and 1D manifolds. When time-reversal symmetry is present and the gauge in the bulk BZ is chosen to respect this symmetry, both the 3D and 2D integrals vanish; the entire contribution then comes from the vortex-loop integral, which is either 0 or π corresponding to the ℤ2 classification of 3D time-reversal invariant insulators. We demonstrate our method by applying it to the Fu-Kane-Mele model with an applied staggered Zeeman field.

  7. Enhancement of the magnetoelectric coupling in an A-line shape magnetostrictive/piezoelectric structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Juanjuan; Kang, Yan; Yu, Yang; Gao, Yuanwen

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a new kind of magnetoelectric (ME) structure is designed with Terfenol-D, PZT-5A and nonmagnetic and nonelectric trestle. The configuration of this ME structure presents "A-line" type, PZT-5A and Terfenol-D are respectively bonded with the trestles, which adopt the knuckle joint assembly. Differently from the conventional ME layered structure, in the new structure, the deformation of the PZT-5A of larger size is driven by a Terfenol-D layer of smaller size at an external magnetic field. Since the driven force is applied at the ends of piezoelectric layer through the trestles, the whole piezoelectric layer can be completely stretched or compressed, and the larger voltage should be induced. For the new ME structure with mica trestle, the maximum value of αE is twice higher than that for the conventional laminated ME structure. Furthermore, a wider range of response frequency is also observed in this structure. For the new ME structure with ABS trestle, the experimental results indicate that the maximum ME voltage coefficient is measured as high as 31.85 V/cm Oe at 405 Oe.

  8. Multiferroic Ni0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4-BaTiO3 nanostructures: Magnetoelectric coupling, dielectric, and fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Kuldeep Chand; Singh, Sukhdeep; Tripathi, S. K.; Kotnala, R. K.

    2014-09-01

    Multiferroic nanostructures of Ni0.6Zn0.4Fe2O4-BaTiO3 (NZF/BT) have been prepared by two synthesis routes, i.e., chemical combustion (CNZF/BT) and hydrothermal (HNZF/BT). The synthesis of CNZF/BT results in nanoparticles of average size 4 nm at 500 °C annealing. However, the synthesis of HNZF/BT with hydrolysis temperature 180 °C/48 h shows nanowires of diameter 3 nm and length >150 nm. A growth mechanism in the fabrication of nanoparticles and wires is given. X-ray diffraction is used to identify the crystalline phase. The transmission electron microscopy shows the dimensions of NZF/BT nanostructures. The ferromagnetism, ferroelectricity, and magnetoelectric coupling show more enhancements in HNZF/BT nanowires than CNZF/BT nanoparticles. The observed polarization depends upon shape of nanostructures, tetragonal phase, and epitaxial strain. The tension induced by the surface curvature of nanowire counteracts the near-surface depolarizing effect and meanwhile leads to unusual enhancement of polarization. The ferromagnetism depends upon superficial spin canting, spin pinning of nanocomposite, and oxygen vacancy clusters. The magnetoelectric coefficient as the function of applied dc magnetizing field under ac magnetic field 5 Oe and frequency 1093 Hz is measured. The nanodimensions of NZF/BT are observed dielectric constant up to 120 MHz. The optical activity of NZF/BT nanostructures is shown by Fluorescence spectra.

  9. Giant magnetoelectric coupling interaction in BaTiO{sub 3}/BiFeO{sub 3}/BaTiO{sub 3} trilayer multiferroic heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Kotnala, R. K. E-mail: rkkotnala@gmail.com; Gupta, Rekha; Chaudhary, Sujeet

    2015-08-24

    Multiferroic trilayer thin films of BaTiO{sub 3}/BiFeO{sub 3}/BaTiO{sub 3} were prepared by RF-magnetron sputtering technique at different thicknesses of BiFeO{sub 3} layer. A pure phase polycrystalline growth of thin films was confirmed from X-ray diffraction results. The film showed maximum remnant electric polarization (2P{sub r}) of 13.5 μC/cm{sup 2} and saturation magnetization (M{sub s}) of 61 emu/cc at room temperature. Thermally activated charge transport dominated via oxygen vacancies as calculated by their activation energy, which was consistent with current–voltage characteristics. Magnetic field induced large change in resistance and capacitance of grain, and grain boundary was modeled by combined impedance and modulus spectroscopy in the presence of varied magnetic fields. Presence of large intrinsic magnetoelectric coupling was established by a maximum 20% increase in grain capacitance (C{sub g}) with applied magnetic field (2 kG) on trilayer having 20 nm BiFeO{sub 3} layer. Substantially higher magnetoelectric coupling in thinner films has been observed due to bonding between Fe and Ti atoms at interface via oxygen atoms. Room temperature magnetoelectric coupling was confirmed by dynamic magnetoelectric coupling, and maximum longitudinal magnetoelectric coupling of 515 mV/cm-Oe was observed at 20 nm thickness of BiFeO{sub 3}. The observed magnetoelectric properties are potentially useful for novel room temperature magnetoelectric and spintronic device applications for obtaining higher voltage at lower applied magnetic field.

  10. Magnetoelectric Heterostructures for Spintronics and Magnetic Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Tianxiang

    Magnetoelectric heterostructures with coupled magnetization and electric polarization across their interfaces enable significantly improvement of performance of many devices such as magnetic sensors, microwave magnetic devices, and spintronics. I will first show that by utilizing a unique ferroelastic polarization switching pathway, one can achieve non-volatile electric-field-switching of magnetism in multiferroic heterostructures with different ferroelectric single crystals through a strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling. In the same system, with atomically-thin ferromagnets, the interfacial charge-mediated should also be taken into account. The charge- and strain-mediated coupling mechanisms are demonstrated and precisely quantified by the electric-field-tuning of ferromagnetic resonance. With the same technique, magnetic relaxation including intrinsic and extrinsic damping has also been shown to be strongly correlated to the strain, which is attributed to the electric-field-modification of spin-orbit coupling. Moreover, I will also show the tuning of spin-orbit torques from the spin-Hall effect with applied voltage probed with spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance and show the possible application on voltage tunable spin-Hall nano-oscillators. In the second part of my thesis, I will show an ultra-miniaturized magnetoelectric nano-electromechanical system (NEMS) resonator based on an AlN/FeGaB magnetoelectric heterostructure for detecting wide band magnetic fields. With the high Quality factor and the ultra-high resonance frequency, a low DC magnetic field detection limit of 300 pT has been demonstrated.

  11. Gauge-discontinuity contributions to Chern-Simons orbital magnetoelectric coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jianpeng; Vanderbilt, David

    2015-12-01

    We propose a method for calculating Chern-Simons orbital magnetoelectric coupling, conventionally parametrized in terms of a phase angle θ . According to previous theories, θ can be expressed as a three-dimensional (3D) Brillouin-zone (BZ) integral of the Chern-Simons 3-form defined in terms of the occupied Bloch functions. Such an expression is valid only if a smooth and periodic gauge has been chosen in the entire Brillouin zone, and even then, convergence with respect to the k -space mesh density can be difficult to obtain. In order to solve this problem, we propose to relax the periodicity condition in one direction (say, the kz direction) so that a gauge discontinuity is introduced on a two-dimensional (2D) k plane normal to kz. The total θ response then has contributions from both the integral of the Chern-Simons 3-form over the 3D bulk BZ and the gauge discontinuity expressed as a 2D integral over the k plane. Sometimes, the boundary plane may be further divided into subregions by 1D "vortex loops" which make a third kind of contribution to the total θ , expressed as a combination of Berry phases around the vortex loops. The total θ thus consists of three terms which can be expressed as integrals over 3D, 2D, and 1D manifolds. When time-reversal symmetry is present and the gauge in the bulk BZ is chosen to respect this symmetry, both the 3D and 2D integrals vanish; the entire contribution then comes from the vortex-loop integral, which is either 0 or π corresponding to the Z2 classification of 3D time-reversal-invariant insulators. We demonstrate our method by applying it to the Fu-Kane-Mele model with an applied staggered Zeeman field.

  12. Strain mediated magnetoelectric coupling in a NiFe2O4-BaTiO3 multiferroic composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorige, Venkataiah; Kati, Raju; Yoon, D. H.; Kumar, P. S. Anil

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we demonstrate significant magnetoelectric coupling in ferrimagnetic, NiFe2O4, and ferroelectric, BaTiO3, multiferroic composite bulk materials by measuring temperature dependent magnetization. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy data show that the two phases coexist with a highly crystalline and sharp interface without any detectable impurities, which enables significant magnetoelectric (ME) coupling. The temperature dependent magnetization data of the composite clearly show the jumps in magnetization curves at the structural phase transitions of BaTiO3, thereby indicating their origin in ME coupling. The change in coercivity of composite sample in different ferroelectric phases of BaTiO3 has been observed compared to the NiFe2O4 sample. The different lattice strains corresponding to different ferroelectric phases of BaTiO3 could be the driving force for modulating the magnetization and coercivity of the composite material. This is clear evidence of strain mediated ME coupling in ferrimagnetic and ferroelectric composite materials.

  13. Strain tuned magnetoelectric coupling in orthorhombic YMnO3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marti, X.; Fina, I.; Skumryev, V.; Ferrater, C.; Varela, M.; Fábrega, L.; Sánchez, F.; Fontcuberta, J.

    2009-10-01

    Orthorhombic YMnO3 epitaxial thin films were grown on Nb(0.5%)-doped SrTiO3(001) substrates. Film's thickness was varied to tune the epitaxial strain. Structural and magnetic properties are well correlated, presenting a more pronounced ferromagnetic behavior as the unit cell becomes more distorted. Dielectric properties were investigated as a function of the temperature and magnetic field. The dielectric peak occurring at temperatures below the antiferromagnetic ordering is proved to be magnetoelectric and its amplitude is dependent on the unit cell distortion. These findings allow tailoring ferromagnetic and magnetoelectric properties via epitaxial strain.

  14. Multiferroic heterostructures of Fe3O4/PMN-PT prepared by atomic layer deposition for enhanced interfacial magnetoelectric couplings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yijun; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Le; Zhou, Ziyao; Peng, Bin; Wang, Chenying; Lin, Qijing; Jiang, Zhuang-De; Ren, Wei; Ye, Zuo-Guang

    2017-02-01

    In this work, multiferroic heterostructures have been prepared by in situ growing oxide magnetic films on ferroelectric single crystal substrates using atomic layer deposition (ALD). Strong interfacial mechanical coupling between the magnetic and ferroelectric phases has been created, arising from the formation of chemical bonds at the interface due to the nature of layer-by-layer self-limiting growth mechanism of the ALD technique. An enhanced magnetoelectric (ME) coupling has been achieved, which allows an electric field to robustly switch magnetic anisotropy up to 780 Oe. In addition, electrical impulse non-volatile tuning of magnetism has also been realized through partially coupled ferroelectric/ferroelastic domain switching. The ALD growth of magnetic oxide films onto ferroelectric substrates provides an effective platform for the preparation of multiferroic heterostructures at low temperatures with an improved ME coupling, demonstrating a great potential for applications in 3D spintronics, microelectronics and data storages.

  15. Ferrimagnetic resonance and magnetoelastic excitations in magnetoelectric hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vittoria, Carmine

    2015-08-01

    Static field properties of magnetoelectric hexaferrites have been explored extensively in the past five years. In this paper, dynamic properties of magnetoelectric hexaferrites are being explored. In particular, effects of the linear magnetoelectric coupling (α ) on ferrimagnetic resonance (FMR) and magnetoelastic excitations are being investigated. A magnetoelastic free energy which includes Landau-Lifshitz mathematical description of a spin spiral configuration is proposed to calculate FMR and magnetoelastic excitations in magnetoelectric hexaferrites. It is predicted that the ordinary uniform precession FMR mode contains resonance frequency shifts that are proportional to magnetoelectric static and dynamic fields. The calculated FMR fields are in agreement with experiments. Furthermore, it is predicted at low frequencies (approximately megahertz ranges), near zero magnetic field FMR frequencies, there is an extra uniform precession FMR mode besides the ordinary FMR mode which can only be accounted by dynamic magnetoelectric fields. Whereas the FMR frequency shifts in the ordinary FMR mode due to the α coupling scale as α , the shifts in the new discovered FMR mode scale as α2. Also, magnetoelastic dispersions were calculated, and it is predicted that the effect of the α coupling are the following: (1) The strength of admixture of modes and splitting in energy between spin waves and transverse acoustic waves is proportional to α . (2) The degeneracy of the two transverse acoustic wave modes is lifted even for relatively low values of α . Interestingly, at low frequencies near zero field FMR frequencies, the surface spin wave mode branch flip-flops with the volume spin wave branch whereby one branch assumes real values of the propagation constant and the other purely imaginary upon the application of a static electric field.

  16. Giant and universal magnetoelectric coupling in soft materials and concomitant ramifications for materials science and biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liping; Sharma, Pradeep

    2013-10-01

    Magnetoelectric coupling—the ability of a material to magnetize upon application of an electric field and, conversely, to polarize under the action of a magnetic field—is rare and restricted to a rather small set of exotic hard crystalline materials. Intense research activity has recently ensued on materials development, fundamental scientific issues, and applications related to this phenomenon. This tantalizing property, if present in adequate strength at room temperature, can be used to pave the way for next-generation memory devices such as miniature magnetic random access memories and multiple state memory bits, sensors, energy harvesting, spintronics, among others. In this Rapid Communication, we prove the existence of an overlooked strain mediated nonlinear mechanism that can be used to universally induce the giant magnetoelectric effect in all (sufficiently) soft dielectric materials. For soft polymer foams—which, for instance, may be used in stretchable electronics—we predict room-temperature magnetoelectric coefficients that are comparable to the best known (hard) composite materials created. We also argue, based on a simple quantitative model, that magnetoreception in some biological contexts (e.g., birds) most likely utilizes this very mechanism.

  17. Magnetoelectric switching energy in Cr2O3/Pt/Co perpendicular exchange coupled thin film system with small Cr2O3 magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozaki, Tomohiro; Al-Mahdawi, Muftah; Pati, Satya Prakash; Ye, Shujun; Shiokawa, Yohei; Sahashi, Masashi

    2017-07-01

    We investigated perpendicular exchange bias switching by a magnetoelectric field cooling process in a Pt-spacer-inserted Cr2O3/Co exchange-coupled system exhibiting small Cr2O3 magnetization. Although higher magnetoelectric switching energies with decreasing Cr2O3 thickness due to the exchange bias were reported in Cr2O3/Co all-thin-film systems, in this study, we demonstrated low-energy switching in a magnetoelectric field cool process regardless of the exchange-bias magnitude; we balanced the exchange-bias energy with the Zeeman energy associated with finite magnetization in Cr2O3. We proposed a guideline for realizing low-energy switching in thin Cr2O3 samples.

  18. Design and analysis of a self-biased broadband magnetoelectric cantilever operated at multi-frequency windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, J. N.; Xin, C. Z.; Ma, J.; Lin, Y. H.; Nan, C. W.

    2017-03-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) composites with self-biased and wide resonance frequency band properties are promising candidates for magnetic field sensor and energy harvester. Here, we present a ME cantilever by in-series connecting a few SrFe12O19/Metglas/Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 components. Due to the in-built magnetic bias of SrFe12O19, the ME cantilever shows self-biased property. Meanwhile, by merging the resonance responses of the in-series ME components together, the ME cantilever presents multi-wide resonance bands (i.e., 500 Hz ˜ 700 Hz, 3.3 kHz ˜ 4.4 kHz and 44 kHz ˜ 70 kHz). In these three wide frequency windows, the ME voltage coefficients (α V) of the ME cantilever are higher than 40 mV/Oe, 115 mV/Oe and 400 mV/Oe, respectively.

  19. Giant low-frequency multipeak self-biased magnetoelectric properties in four-phase structure with stepped ultrasonic horn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Lu, Caijiang

    2016-11-01

    This paper develops a self-biased magnetoelectric (ME) heterostructure FeCuNbSiB/terfenol-d/ultrasonic-horn/PZT by sandwiching a piezoelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) plate and a magnetization-graded FeCuNbSiB/terfenol-d layer on a rectangular-stepped ultrasonic horn substrate. The rectangular-stepped ultrasonic horn substrate severs as the resonance frequency determining element of the ME heterostructure, converges and amplifies the vibration excited by the magnetization-graded FeCuNbSiB/terfenol-d layer. The experiments show that fifteen large peaks of ME response with magnitudes of 0.2-7.5 V/(cm·Oe) in 0.5-50 kHz range are observed at zero-biased magnetic field. This demonstrates that the proposed multi-peak self-biased heterostructure may be useful for multifunctional devices for multi-frequency operation.

  20. Magnetoelectric coupling and spin-dependent tunneling in Fe/PbTiO{sub 3}/Fe multiferroic heterostructure with a Ni monolayer inserted at one interface

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Jian-Qing Zhang, Hu; Song, Yu-Min

    2015-08-07

    We report on first-principles calculations of a Ni monolayer inserted at one interface in the epitaxial Fe/PbTiO{sub 3}/Fe multiferroic heterostructure, focusing on the magnetoelectric coupling and the spin-dependent transport properties. The results of magnetoelectric coupling calculations reveal an attractive approach to realize cumulative magnetoelectric effects in the ferromagnetic/ferroelectric/ferromagnetic superlattices. The underlying physics is attributed to the combinations of several different magnetoelectric coupling mechanisms such as interface bonding, spin-dependent screening, and different types of magnetic interactions. We also demonstrate that inserting a Ni monolayer at one interface in the Fe/PbTiO{sub 3}/Fe multiferroic tunnel junction is an efficient method to produce considerable tunneling electroresistance effect by modifying the tunnel potential barrier and the interfacial electronic structure. Furthermore, coexistence of tunneling magnetoresistance and tunneling electroresistance leads to the emergence of four distinct resistance states, which can be served as a multistate-storage device. The complicated influencing factors including bulk properties of the ferromagnetic electrodes, decay rates of the evanescent states in the tunnel barrier, and the specific interfacial electronic structure provide us promising opportunities to design novel multiferroic tunnel junctions with excellent performances.

  1. The Origin and Coupling Mechanism of the Magnetoelectric Effect in TM Cl 2 -4SC(NH 2 ) 2 ( TM = Ni and Co)

    DOE PAGES

    Mun, Eundeok; Wilcox, Jason; Manson, Jamie L.; ...

    2014-01-01

    Most research on multiferroics and magnetoelectric effects to date has focused on inorganic oxides. Molecule-based materials are a relatively new field in which to search for magnetoelectric multiferroics and to explore new coupling mechanisms between electric and magnetic order. We present magnetoelectric behavior in NiCl 2 -4SC(NH 2 ) 2 (DTN) and CoCl 2 -4SC(NH 2 ) 2 (DTC). These compounds form tetragonal structures where the transition metal ion (Ni or Co) is surrounded by four electrically polar thiourea molecules [SC(NH 2 ) 2 ]. By tracking the magnetic and electric properties of these compounds as a function ofmore » magnetic field, we gain insights into the coupling mechanism by observing that, in DTN, the electric polarization tracks the magnetic ordering, whereas in DTC it does not. For DTN, all electrically polar thiourea molecules tilt in the same direction along the c -axis, breaking spatial-inversion symmetry, whereas, for DTC, two thiourea molecules tilt up and two tilt down with respect to c -axis, perfectly canceling the net electrical polarization. Thus, the magnetoelectric coupling mechanism in DTN is likely a magnetostrictive adjustment of the thiourea molecule orientation in response to magnetic order.« less

  2. In-plane anisotropic converse magnetoelectric coupling effect in FeGa/polyvinylidene fluoride heterostructure films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuo, Zhenghu; Zhan, Qingfeng; Dai, Guohong; Chen, Bin; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Yang, Huali; Liu, Yiwei; Li, Run-Wei

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the converse magnetoelectric (CME) effect in the Fe81Ga19/polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) heterostructure films. A weak in-plane uniaxial magnetic anisotropy was observed in the as-deposited magnetostrictive FeGa films. When a positive (negative) electric field is applied on the ferroelectric PVDF substrates, both the coercivity and the squareness of magnetic hysteresis loops of FeGa films for the magnetic field parallel to the easy axis become larger (smaller), but for the magnetic field parallel to the hard axis the coercivity and the remanence get smaller (larger), indicating an anisotropic CME effect in FeGa/PVDF heterostructure films.

  3. Magnetoelectric coupling effect in lead-free Bi4Ti3O12/CoFe2O4 composite films derived from chemistry solution deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhehong; Chen, Jieyu; Bai, Yulong; Zhao, Shifeng

    2016-08-01

    Lead-free magnetoelectric composite films combining Bi4Ti3O12 and CoFe2O4 were synthesized by chemical solution deposition on Pt (100)/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate. Morphological and electrical domain structure, ferroelectric, leakage, dielectric, piezoelectric, magnetic and magnetoelectric properties were investigated for Bi4Ti3O12/CoFe2O4 composite films. Well-defined interfaces between Bi4Ti3O12 and CoFe2O4 film layers and electrical domain structure were observed. The composite films show the coexistence of ferroelectric and ferromagnetic orders at room temperature. Larger piezoelectric coefficient and magnetization are obtained for the composite films, which is contributed to the magnetoelectric effect since it originates from the interface coupling through mechanical strain transfer. This work presents a feasible way to modulate the magnetoelectric coupling in ferromagnetic/ferroelectric composite films for developing lead-free micro-electro-mechanical system and information storage devices.

  4. Magnetoelectric effect in doped magnetic ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udalov, O. G.; Beloborodov, I. S.

    2017-07-01

    We propose a model of magnetoelectric effect in doped magnetic ferroelectrics. This magnetoelectric effect does not involve the spin-orbit coupling and is based purely on the Coulomb interaction. We calculate magnetic phase diagram of doped magnetic ferroelectrics. We show that magnetoelectric coupling is pronounced only for ferroelectrics with low dielectric constant. We find that magnetoelectric coupling leads to modification of magnetization temperature dependence in the vicinity of the ferroelectric phase transition. A peak of magnetization appears. We find that magnetization of doped magnetic ferroelectrics strongly depends on the applied electric field.

  5. Theoretical and experimental investigation of magnetoelectric effect for bending-tension coupled modes in magnetostrictive-piezoelectric layered composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasanyan, D.; Gao, J.; Wang, Y.; Viswan, R.; Li, M.; Shen, Y.; Li, J.; Viehland, D.

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we discuss a theoretical model with experimental verification for the resonance enhancement of magnetoelectric (ME) interactions at frequencies corresponding to bending-tension oscillations. A dynamic theory of arbitrary laminated magneto-elasto-electric bars was constructed. The model included bending and longitudinal vibration effects for predicting ME coefficients in laminate bar composite structures consisting of magnetostrictive, piezoelectric, and pure elastic layers. The thickness dependence of stress, strain, and magnetic and electric fields within a sample are taken into account, as such the bending deformations should be considered in an applied magnetic or electric field. The frequency dependence of the ME voltage coefficients has obtained by solving electrostatic, magnetostatic, and elastodynamic equations. We consider boundary conditions corresponding to free vibrations at both ends. As a demonstration, our theory for multilayer ME composites was then applied to ferromagnetic-ferroelectric bilayers, specifically Metglas-PZT ones. A theoretical model is presented for static (low-frequency) ME effects in such bilayers. We also performed experiments for these Metglas-PZT bilayers and analyzed the influence of Metglas geometry (length and thickness) and Metglas/PZT volume fraction on the ME coefficient. The frequency dependence of the ME coefficient is also presented for different geometries (length, thickness) of Metglas. The theory shows good agreement with experimental data, even near the resonance frequency.

  6. Diverse interface effects on ferroelectricity and magnetoelectric coupling in asymmetric multiferroic tunnel junctions: the role of the interfacial bonding structure.

    PubMed

    Liu, X T; Chen, W J; Jiang, G L; Wang, B; Zheng, Yue

    2016-01-28

    Interface and size effects on electric/magnetic orders and magnetoelectric coupling are vital in the modern application of quantum-size functional devices based on multiferroic tunnel junctions. In order to give a comprehensive study of the interface and size effects, the properties of a typical asymmetric multiferroic tunnel junction, i.e., Fe/BaTiO3/Co, have been calculated using the first-principles simulations. Most importantly, all of the eight possible structures with four combinations of electrode/ferroelectric interfaces (i.e., Fe/BaO, Fe/TiO2, Co/BaO and Co/TiO2) and a series of barrier thicknesses have been taken into account. In this work, the equilibrium configurations, polarization, charge density, spin density and magnetic moments, etc., have been completely simulated and comprehensively analyzed. It is found that the ferroelectric stability is determined as a competition outcome of the strength of short-range chemical bondings and long-range depolarization/built-in fields. M/BaO (M = magnetic metal) terminations show an extraordinary enhancement of local polarization near the interface and increase the critical thickness of ferroelectricity. The bistability of polarization is well kept at the M/TiO2 interface. At the same time, the induced magnetic moment on atoms at the interfaces is rather localized and dominated by the local interfacial configuration. Reversing electric polarization can switch the induced magnetic moments, wherein atoms in M-O-Ti and M-Ti-O chains show preference for being magnetized. In addition, the difference between the sum of the interfacial magnetic moments is also enlarged with the increase of the barrier thickness. Our study provides a comprehensive and detailed reference to the manipulation and utilization of the interface, size and magnetoelectric effects in asymmetric multiferroic tunnel junctions.

  7. Magnetoelectric coupling in the type-I multiferroic ScFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovannetti, G.; Puggioni, D.; Barone, P.; Picozzi, S.; Rondinelli, J. M.; Capone, M.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate the electronic structure and the ferroelectric properties of the recently discovered multiferroic ScFeO3 by means of ab initio calculations. The 3 d manifold of Fe in the half-filled configuration naturally favors an antiferromagnetic ordering, with a theoretical estimate of the antiferromagnetic Néel temperature in good agreement with the experimental values. We find that the inversion symmetry breaking is driven by the off-centering of Sc atoms, which results in a large ferroelectric polarization of ˜105 μ C /cm2. Surprisingly the ferroelectric polarization is sensitive to the local magnetization of the Fe atoms resulting in a large negative magnetoelectric interaction. This behavior is unexpected in type-I multiferroic materials because the magnetic and ferroelectric orders are of different origins.

  8. Electrically modulated magnetoelectric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, P.; Salzer, S.; Reermann, J.; Yarar, E.; Röbisch, V.; Piorra, A.; Meyners, D.; Höft, M.; Knöchel, R.; Schmidt, G.; Quandt, E.

    2016-05-01

    Magnetoelectric thin film composites have demonstrated their potential to detect sub-pT magnetic fields if mechanical resonances (typically few hundred Hz to a few kHz) are utilized. At low frequencies (1-100 Hz), magnetic field-induced frequency conversion has enabled wideband measurements with resonance-enhanced sensitivities by using the nonlinear characteristics of the magnetostriction curve. Nevertheless, the modulation with a magnetic field with a frequency close to the mechanical resonance results in a number of drawbacks, which are, e.g., size and energy consumption of the sensor as well as potential crosstalk in sensor arrays. In this work, we demonstrate the feasibility of an electric frequency conversion of a magnetoelectric sensor which would overcome the drawbacks of magnetic frequency conversion. This magnetoelectric sensor consists of three functional layers: an exchange biased magnetostrictive multilayer showing a high piezomagnetic coefficient without applying a magnetic bias field, a non-linear piezoelectric actuation layer and a linear piezoelectric sensing layer. In this approach, the low frequency magnetic signal is shifted into the mechanical resonance of the sensor, while the electric modulation frequency is chosen to be either the difference or the sum of the resonance and the signal frequency. Using this electric frequency conversion, a limit of detection in the low nT/Hz1/2 range was shown for signals of low frequency.

  9. Tuning magnetoelectric coupling using porosity in multiferroic nanocomposites of ALD-grown Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 and templated mesoporous CoFe2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Diana; Buditama, Abraham N.; Schelhas, Laura T.; Kang, Hye Yeon; Robbennolt, Shauna; Chang, Jane P.; Tolbert, Sarah H.

    2016-09-01

    In this manuscript, we examine ways to create multiferroic composites with controlled nanoscale architecture. We accomplished this by uniformly depositing piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) into templated mesoporous, magnetostrictive cobalt ferrite (CFO) thin films to form nanocomposites in which strain can be transferred at the interface between the two materials. To study the magnetoelectric coupling, the nanostructure was electrically poled ex situ prior to magnetic measurements. No samples showed a change in in-plane magnetization as a function of voltage due to substrate clamping. Out-of-plane changes were observed, but contrary to expectations based on total PZT volume fraction, mesoporous CFO samples partially filled with PZT showed more change in out-of-plane magnetization than the sample with fully filled pores. This result suggests that residual porosity in the composite adds mechanical flexibility and results in greater magnetoelectric coupling.

  10. Prediction of two-dimensional electron gas mediated magnetoelectric coupling at ferroelectric PbTiO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Lan-ying; Lian, Chao; Meng, Sheng

    2017-05-01

    First-principles calculations predict the emergence of magnetoelectric coupling mediated by two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the ferroelectric PbTiO3/SrTiO3 heterostructure. Free electrons endowed by naturally existing oxygen vacancies in SrTiO3 are driven to the heterostructure interface under the polarizing field of ferroelectric PbTiO3 to form a 2DEG. The electrons are captured by interfacial Ti atoms, which surprisingly exhibits ferromagnetism even at room temperature with a small critical density of ˜15.5 μ C /cm2 . The ferroelectricity-controlled ferromagnetism mediated by interfacial 2DEG shows strong magnetoelectric coupling strength, enabling convenient control of magnetism by electric field and vice versa. The PbTiO3/SrTiO3 heterostructure is cheap, easily grown, and controllable, promising future applications in low-cost spintronics and information storage at ambient condition.

  11. Phase separation enhanced magneto-electric coupling in La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/BaTiO3 ultra-thin films.

    PubMed

    Alberca, A; Munuera, C; Azpeitia, J; Kirby, B; Nemes, N M; Perez-Muñoz, A M; Tornos, J; Mompean, F J; Leon, C; Santamaria, J; Garcia-Hernandez, M

    2015-12-09

    We study the origin of the magnetoelectric coupling in manganite films on ferroelectric substrates. We find large magnetoelectric coupling in La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/BaTiO3 ultra-thin films in experiments based on the converse magnetoelectric effect. The magnetization changes by around 30-40% upon applying electric fields on the order of 1 kV/cm to the BaTiO3 substrate, corresponding to magnetoelectric coupling constants on the order of α = (2-5) · 10(-7) s/m. Magnetic anisotropy is also affected by the electric field induced strain, resulting in a considerable reduction of coercive fields. We compare the magnetoelectric effect in pre-poled and unpoled BaTiO3 substrates. Polarized neutron reflectometry reveals a two-layer behavior with a depressed magnetic layer of around 30 Å at the interface. Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) shows a granular magnetic structure of the La0.7Ca0.3MnO3. The magnetic granularity of the La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 film and the robust magnetoelastic coupling at the La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/BaTiO3 interface are at the origin of the large magnetoelectric coupling, which is enhanced by phase separation in the manganite.

  12. Phase separation enhanced magneto-electric coupling in La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/BaTiO3 ultra-thin films

    PubMed Central

    Alberca, A.; Munuera, C.; Azpeitia, J.; Kirby, B.; Nemes, N. M.; Perez-Muñoz, A. M.; Tornos, J.; Mompean, F. J.; Leon, C.; Santamaria, J.; Garcia-Hernandez, M.

    2015-01-01

    We study the origin of the magnetoelectric coupling in manganite films on ferroelectric substrates. We find large magnetoelectric coupling in La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/BaTiO3 ultra-thin films in experiments based on the converse magnetoelectric effect. The magnetization changes by around 30–40% upon applying electric fields on the order of 1 kV/cm to the BaTiO3 substrate, corresponding to magnetoelectric coupling constants on the order of α = (2–5)·10−7 s/m. Magnetic anisotropy is also affected by the electric field induced strain, resulting in a considerable reduction of coercive fields. We compare the magnetoelectric effect in pre-poled and unpoled BaTiO3 substrates. Polarized neutron reflectometry reveals a two-layer behavior with a depressed magnetic layer of around 30 Å at the interface. Magnetic force microscopy (MFM) shows a granular magnetic structure of the La0.7Ca0.3MnO3. The magnetic granularity of the La0.7Ca0.3MnO3 film and the robust magnetoelastic coupling at the La0.7Ca0.3MnO3/BaTiO3 interface are at the origin of the large magnetoelectric coupling, which is enhanced by phase separation in the manganite. PMID:26648002

  13. Multipeak self-biased magnetoelectric coupling characteristics in four-phase Metglas/Terfenol-D/Be-bronze/PMN-PT structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Dongyan; Lu, Caijiang; Bing, Han

    2015-04-01

    This letter develops a self-biased magnetoelectric (ME) structure Metglas/Terfenol-D/Be-bronze/PMN-PT (MTBP) consisting of a magnetization-graded Metglas/Terfenol-D layer, a elastic Be-bronze plate, and a piezoelectric 0.67Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.33PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) plate. By using the magnetization-graded Metglas/Terfenol-D layer and the elastic Be-bronze plate, multi-peak self-biased ME responses are obtained in MTBP structure. The experimental results show that the MTBP structure with two layers of Metglas foil has maximum zero-biased ME voltage coefficient (MEVC). As frequency increases from 0.5 to 90 kHz, eleven large peaks of MEVC with magnitudes of 0.75-33 V/(cm Oe) are observed at zero-biased magnetic field. The results demonstrate that the proposed multi-peak self-biased ME structure may be useful for multifunctional devices such as multi-frequency energy harvesters or low-frequency ac magnetic field sensors.

  14. Correlation of High Magnetoelectric Coupling with Oxygen Vacancy Superstructure in Epitaxial Multiferroic BaTiO₃-BiFeO₃ Composite Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Michael; Wagner, Gerald; Lazenka, Vera; Schwinkendorf, Peter; Bonholzer, Michael; Van Bael, Margriet J; Vantomme, André; Temst, Kristiaan; Oeckler, Oliver; Grundmann, Marius

    2016-01-13

    Epitaxial multiferroic BaTiO₃-BiFeO₃ composite thin films exhibit a correlation between the magnetoelectric (ME) voltage coefficient αME and the oxygen partial pressure during growth. The ME coefficient αME reaches high values up to 43 V/(cm·Oe) at 300 K and at 0.25 mbar oxygen growth pressure. The temperature dependence of αME of the composite films is opposite that of recently-reported BaTiO₃-BiFeO₃ superlattices, indicating that strain-mediated ME coupling alone cannot explain its origin. Probably, charge-mediated ME coupling may play a role in the composite films. Furthermore, the chemically-homogeneous composite films show an oxygen vacancy superstructure, which arises from vacancy ordering on the {111} planes of the pseudocubic BaTiO₃-type structure. This work contributes to the understanding of magnetoelectric coupling as a complex and sensitive interplay of chemical, structural and geometrical issues of the BaTiO₃-BiFeO₃ composite system and, thus, paves the way to practical exploitation of magnetoelectric composites.

  15. Predicting a Ferrimagnetic-Ferroelectric Phase of Zn2FeOsO6 with Strong Magnetoelectric Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Hongjun; Wang, P. S.; Ren, Wei; Bellaiche, L.

    2015-03-01

    Multiferroic materials, in which ferroelectric and magnetic ordering coexist, are of fundamental interest for the development of novel memory devices that allow for electrical writing and non-destructive magnetic readout operation. The great challenge is to create room temperature multiferroic materials with strongly coupled ferroelectric and ferromagnetic (or ferrimagnetic) orderings. BiFeO3 has been the most heavily investigated single-phase multiferroic to date due to the coexistence of its magnetic order and ferroelectric order at room temperature. However, there is no net magnetic moment in the cycloidal (antiferromagnetic-like) magnetic state of bulk BiFeO3, which severely limits its realistic applications in electric field controlled spintronic devices. Here, we predict that double perovskite Zn2FeOsO6 is a new multiferroic with properties superior to BiFeO3. First, there are strong ferroelectricity and strong ferrimagnetism at room temperature in Zn2FeOsO6. Second, the easy-plane of the spontaneous magnetization can be switched by an external electric field, evidencing the strong magnetoelectric coupling existing in this system. Our results suggest that ferrimagnetic 3d-5d double perovskite may therefore be used to achieve voltage control of magnetism in future spintronic devices.

  16. Electro-optic switching in iron oxide nanoparticle embedded paramagnetic chiral liquid crystal via magneto-electric coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Goel, Puja; Arora, Manju; Biradar, Ashok M.

    2014-03-28

    The variation in optical texture, electro-optic, and dielectric properties of iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) embedded ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) with respect to change in temperature and electrical bias conditions are demonstrated in the current investigations. Improvement in spontaneous polarization and response time in nanocomposites has been attributed to magneto-electric (ME) coupling resulting from the strong interaction among the ferromagnetic nanoparticle's exchange field (due to unpaired e{sup −}) and the field of liquid crystal molecular director. Electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of FLC material gives a broad resonance signal with superimposed components indicating the presence of a source of spin. This paramagnetic behavior of host FLC material had been a major factor in strengthening the guest host interaction by giving an additional possibility of (a) spin-spin interaction and (b) interactions between magnetic-dipole and electric-dipole moments (ME effects) in the composite materials. Furthermore, the phenomenon of dielectric and static memory effect in these composites are also observed which yet again confirms the coupling of magnetic NP's field with FLC's director orientation. We therefore believe that such advanced soft materials holding the optical and electrical properties of conventional LCs with the magnetic and electronic properties of ferromagnetic nanoparticles are going to play a key role in the development of futuristic multifunctional optical devices.

  17. Evidence of Magnetoelectric coupling in Bi2(1-x)Ho2xFe4O9 (x=0, 0.01) multiferroic ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohapatra, S. R.; Singh, A. K.; Kaushik, S. D.

    2017-02-01

    We report structural, magnetic, dielectric and magnetoelectric properties of orthorhombic Bi2(1-x)Ho2xFe4O9 (x=0, 0.01) ceramics (space group ‘Pbam’) synthesized by conventional solid state reaction route. Rietveld refined X-ray diffraction (XRD) shows phase formation of the samples along with reduction in lattice parameters and cell volume due to lower ionic radii substitution of Ho3+ at Bi3+-site. DC magnetization study revealed antiferromagnetic transition (TN) of the parent (BFO = 250 K) as well as 1% Ho substituted sample (BHFO1 = 253 K) along with increase in magnetization. Opening of hysteresis was observed for BHFO1 sample implying onset of weak ferromagnetism with dominating antiferromagnetic behaviour. Moreover, temperature dependent dielectric (ε') study and its derivative (dε'/dT) for both the samples show significant anomaly around the antiferromagnetic transition (TN) thus, implying a plausible magnetoelectric coupling between the magnetic as well as the electric order parameters in the studied samples. Magnetoelectric coupling was also confirmed from temperature and magnetic field (1.3 T) dependant tan loss plots.

  18. Analytical modeling of demagnetizing effect in magnetoelectric ferrite/PZT/ferrite trilayers taking into account a mechanical coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loyau, V.; Aubert, A.; LoBue, M.; Mazaleyrat, F.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, we investigate the demagnetizing effect in ferrite/PZT/ferrite magnetoelectric (ME) trilayer composites consisting of commercial PZT discs bonded by epoxy layers to Ni-Co-Zn ferrite discs made by a reactive Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) technique. ME voltage coefficients (transversal mode) were measured on ferrite/PZT/ferrite trilayer ME samples with different thicknesses or phase volume ratio in order to highlight the influence of the magnetic field penetration governed by these geometrical parameters. Experimental ME coefficients and voltages were compared to analytical calculations using a quasi-static model. Theoretical demagnetizing factors of two magnetic discs that interact together in parallel magnetic structures were derived from an analytical calculation based on a superposition method. These factors were introduced in ME voltage calculations which take account of the demagnetizing effect. To fit the experimental results, a mechanical coupling factor was also introduced in the theoretical formula. This reflects the differential strain that exists in the ferrite and PZT layers due to shear effects near the edge of the ME samples and within the bonding epoxy layers. From this study, an optimization in magnitude of the ME voltage is obtained. Lastly, an analytical calculation of demagnetizing effect was conducted for layered ME composites containing higher numbers of alternated layers (n ≥ 5). The advantage of such a structure is then discussed.

  19. Absence of strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling at fully epitaxial Fe/BaTiO{sub 3} interface (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Radaelli, G. Petti, D.; Cantoni, M.; Rinaldi, C.; Bertacco, R.

    2014-05-07

    Interfacial MagnetoElectric coupling (MEC) at ferroelectric/ferromagnetic interfaces has recently emerged as a promising route to achieve electrical writing of magnetic information in spintronic devices. For the prototypical Fe/BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO) system, various MEC mechanisms have been theoretically predicted. Experimentally, it is well established that using BTO single crystal substrates MEC is dominated by strain-mediated mechanisms. In case of ferromagnetic layers epitaxially grown onto BTO films, instead, no direct evidence for MEC has been provided, apart from the results obtained on tunneling junction sandwiching a BTO tunneling barrier. In this paper, MEC at fully epitaxial Fe/BTO interface is investigated by Magneto-Optical Kerr Effect and magnetoresistance measurements on magnetic tunnel junctions fabricated on BTO. We find no evidence for strain-mediated MEC mechanisms in epitaxial systems, likely due to clamping of BTO to the substrate. Our results indicate that pure electronic MEC is the route of choice to be explored for achieving the electrical writing of information in epitaxial ferromagnet-ferroelectric heterostructures.

  20. Frequency coupling in dual frequency capacitively coupled radio-frequency plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Gans, T.; Schulze, J.; O'Connell, D.; Czarnetzki, U.; Faulkner, R.; Ellingboe, A. R.; Turner, M. M.

    2006-12-25

    An industrial, confined, dual frequency, capacitively coupled, radio-frequency plasma etch reactor (Exelan registered , Lam Research) has been modified for spatially resolved optical measurements. Space and phase resolved optical emission spectroscopy yields insight into the dynamics of the discharge. A strong coupling of the two frequencies is observed in the emission profiles. Consequently, the ionization dynamics, probed through excitation, is determined by both frequencies. The control of plasma density by the high frequency is, therefore, also influenced by the low frequency. Hence, separate control of plasma density and ion energy is rather complex.

  1. Magnetoacoustic resonance in magnetoelectric bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippov, D. A.; Bichurin, M. I.; Petrov, V. M.; Srinivasan, G.

    2004-03-01

    Layered composites of ferrite and ferroelectric single crystal thin films are of interest for studies on magnetoelectric interactions [1,2]. Such interactions result in unique and novel effects that are absent in single phase materials. For example, in a single crystal composite it is possible to control the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) parameters for the ferrite by means of hypersonic oscillations induced in the ferroelectric phase. The absorption of acoustic oscillations by the ferrite results in variation in FMR line shape and power absorbed. One anticipates resonance absorption of elastic waves when the frequency of elastic waves coincides with the precession frequency of magnetization vector. This work is concerned with the nature of FMR under the influence of acoustic oscillations with the same frequency as FMR. Bilayers of ferrite and piezoelectric single crystals are considered. Hypersonic waves induced in the piezoelectric phase transmit acoustic power into ferrite due to mechanical connectivity between the phases. That transmission depends strongly on interface coupling [3]. We estimate the resulting variations in ferromagnetic resonance line shape. Estimates of magnetoelectric effect at magnetoacoustic resonance are also given. In addition, dependence of absorption of acoustic power on sample dimensions and compliances, electric and magnetic susceptibilities, piezoelectric and magnetostriction coefficients is discussed. The theory provided here is important for an understanding of interface coupling and the nature of magnetoelastic interactions in the composites. 1. M. I. Bichurin and V. M. Petrov, Zh. Tekh. Fiz. 58, 2277 (1988) [Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 33, 1389 (1988)]. 2. M.I. Bichurin, I. A. Kornev, V. M. Petrov, A. S. Tatarenko, Yu. V. Kiliba, and G. Srinivasan. Phys. Rev. B 64, 094409 (2001). 3. M. I. Bichurin, V. M. Petrov, and G. Srinivasan, J. Appl. Phys. 92, 7681 (2002). This work was supported by grants from the Russian Ministry of Education (

  2. Equivalent circuit model including magnetic and thermo sources for the thermo-magneto-electric coupling effect in magnetoelectric laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Xiao-Le; Zhou, Hao-Miao

    2015-07-01

    The nonlinear thermo-magneto-mechanical magnetostrictive constitutive and the linear thermo-mechanical-electric piezoelectric constitutive are adopted in this paper. The bias magnetic field and ambient temperature are equivalent to a magnetic source and a thermo source, respectively. An equivalent circuit, which contains a magnetic source and a thermo source at the input, for the thermo-magneto-electric coupling effect in magnetoelectric (ME) laminates, is established. The theoretical models of the output voltage and static ME coefficient for ME laminates can be derived from this equivalent circuit model. The predicted static ME coefficient versus temperature curves are in excellent agreement with the experimental data available both qualitatively and quantitatively. It confirms the validity of the proposed model. Then the models are adopted to predict variations in the output voltages and ME coefficients in the laminates under different ambient temperatures, bias magnetic fields, and the volume ratios of magnetostrictive phases. This shows that the output voltage increases with both increasing temperature and increasing volume ratio of magnetostrictive phases; the ME coefficient decreases with increasing temperature; the ME coefficient shows an initial sharp increase and then decreases slowly with the increase in the bias magnetic field, and there is an optimum volume ratio of magnetostrictive phases that maximize the ME coefficient. This paper can not only provide a new idea for the study of the thermo-magneto-electric coupling characteristics of ME laminates, but also provide a theoretical basis for the design and application of ME laminates, operating under different sensors. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11172285 and 11472259) and the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. LR13A020002).

  3. Magneto-electric Coupling in Domain Engineered Multiferroic Thin Film Heterostructures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-09

    SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Epitaxial BiFeO3 (BFO) thin films have potential for designing novel magneto -electric devices if their unrivaled room...Aug-2013 Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Magneto -electric Coupling in Domain Engineered Multiferroic Thin Film...53715 -1218 ABSTRACT Final Report: Magneto -electric Coupling in Domain Engineered Multiferroic Thin Film Heterostructures Report Title Epitaxial

  4. Packaged current-sensing device with self-biased magnetoelectric laminate for low-frequency weak-current detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jitao; Li, Ping; Wen, Yumei; He, Wei; Yang, Aichao; Lu, Caijiang

    2014-09-01

    A packaged current sensor consisting of a SmFe2/PZT/SmFe2 self-biased magnetoelectric (ME) laminate and a Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9 nanocrystalline flux concentrator for weak-current detection at the power-line frequency is fabricated and characterized. The giant magnetostrictive material of the SmFe2 plate with its large anisotropic constant provides a huge internal anisotropic field to bias the ME transducer in a closed magnetic loop. Consequently, the additional magnetomotive force induced by the internal field and the corresponding increased effective permeability contribute to an improvement in sensitivity. Experimental results demonstrate that the presented sensor has a higher sensitivity of 152 mV A-1 at 50 Hz with a slight nonlinearity of ˜0.01% FS and matches well with the predicted value. This current-sensing device exhibits approximately 2.3 times higher sensitivity than does conventional ME composite with PZT and Terfenol-D plates serving as the key sensitive component. In addition, the packaged sensor is evaluated for a long period of 72 h to determine stability over time, and the results are analyzed by means of a mathematical statistics method; favorable stability with an uncertainty of 0.5 μV is obtained in continuous 1 h testing. These results represent a significant advancement in the development of promising applications of tri-layer self-biased ME laminate for monitoring power-line electric cords.

  5. Converse magnetoelectric coupling in NiFe/Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}–PbTiO{sub 3} nanocomposite thin films grown on Si substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Ming; Hu, Jiamian; Wang, Jianjun; Li, Zheng; Shu, Li; Nan, C. W.

    2013-11-04

    Multiferroic NiFe (∼30 nm)/Pb(Mg{sub 1/3}Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}–PbTiO{sub 3}(PMN–PT, ∼220 nm) bilayered thin films were grown on common Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates by a combination of off-axis magnetron sputtering and sol-gel spin-coating technique. By using AC-mode magneto-optical Kerr effect technique, the change in the Kerr signal (magnetization) of the NiFe upon applying a low-frequency AC voltage to the PMN–PT film was in situ acquired at zero magnetic field. The obtained Kerr signal versus voltage loop essentially tracks the electromechanical strain curve of the PMN–PT thin film, clearly demonstrating a strain-mediated converse magnetoelectric coupling, i.e., voltage-modulated magnetization, in the NiFe/PMN–PT nanocomposite thin films.

  6. Converse magnetoelectric coupling in NiFe/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 nanocomposite thin films grown on Si substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ming; Hu, Jiamian; Wang, Jianjun; Li, Zheng; Shu, Li; Nan, C. W.

    2013-11-01

    Multiferroic NiFe (˜30 nm)/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3(PMN-PT, ˜220 nm) bilayered thin films were grown on common Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by a combination of off-axis magnetron sputtering and sol-gel spin-coating technique. By using AC-mode magneto-optical Kerr effect technique, the change in the Kerr signal (magnetization) of the NiFe upon applying a low-frequency AC voltage to the PMN-PT film was in situ acquired at zero magnetic field. The obtained Kerr signal versus voltage loop essentially tracks the electromechanical strain curve of the PMN-PT thin film, clearly demonstrating a strain-mediated converse magnetoelectric coupling, i.e., voltage-modulated magnetization, in the NiFe/PMN-PT nanocomposite thin films.

  7. Composition-driven enhanced magnetic properties and magnetoelectric coupling in Gd substituted BiFeO3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayasundaram, S. V.; Suresh, G.; Mondal, R. A.; Kanagadurai, R.

    2016-11-01

    Bi1-xGdxFeO3 (x=0, 0.05 and 0.1) samples were synthesized by modified sol-gel process. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed that the crystal structures of Gd substituted samples remain stable for x<0.1, while compositional-driven structural phase transition from rhombohedral to orthorhombic was observed in the case of x=0.1. The average particle sizes of pure and Gd substituted BiFeO3 nanoparticles were found to be in the range 62-46 nm. The size of the oblate spherical particles decreased with increasing Gd concentration. XPS studies revealed the trivalent oxidation states of Bi and Fe ions along with sample purity. Pure BiFeO3 exhibited linear M-H loop indicating its antiferromagnetic characteristics, whereas obvious non-linear M-H loops were observed in Gd substituted samples. In contrast to the observed room temperature magnetization (0.36 emu/g) under 40 kOe for BiFeO3, the sample with 10% Gd exhibited appreciable enhancement of magnetization (1.88 emu/g). A leaky type P-E hysteresis loop was observed for the pure one, whereas concave-like ferroelectric loops were obtained for Gd substituted samples. The possible origins of enhanced multiferroic properties have been explained on the basis of substituent, its concentration, phase purity, particle size, structural distortion and the modified magnetic structure. The measurement of magnetoelectric studies at room temperature revealed the coupling between magnetic and ferroelectric ordering, which is desirable for multifunctional device applications of multiferroics.

  8. An In Situ Electric Field Study of Magnetoelectric Coupling in PZT-LSMO Thin Film Heterostructures Using Polarized Neutron Reflectometry and Transmission Electron Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spurgeon, Steven; Sloppy, Jennifer; Huang, Esther; Vasudevan, Rama; Lofland, Samuel; Lauter, Valeria; Valanoor, Nagarajan; Taheri, Mitra

    2013-03-01

    The development of ``spintronics'' devices based on charge and spin transport has signaled a paradigm shift in the design of data storage and computing technologies. Magnetoelectric materials, which exhibit intrinsic coupling between electronic and magnetic order, are ideal for these applications. Unfortunately, single-phase magnetoelectrics are exceedingly rare in nature and attention has turned to composite heterostructures that display coupled functionalities at interfaces. A promising system in which to explore this coupling is a thin film oxide heterostructure of the piezoelectric Pb(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 (PZT) and the half-metal La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO). We show that it is possible to construct a capacitor-type device structure from these materials that may form the basis for an electrically-switched magnetic memory. We conduct polarized neutron reflectometry (PNR) measurements and measure changes in the magnetization depth profile throughout the composite under the reversal of an in situ electric field. We then correlate these PNR results to local strain and chemistry using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We find that a combination of charge doping and strain mechanisms governs coupling in this system.

  9. Purely antiferromagnetic magnetoelectric random access memory.

    PubMed

    Kosub, Tobias; Kopte, Martin; Hühne, Ruben; Appel, Patrick; Shields, Brendan; Maletinsky, Patrick; Hübner, René; Liedke, Maciej Oskar; Fassbender, Jürgen; Schmidt, Oliver G; Makarov, Denys

    2017-01-03

    Magnetic random access memory schemes employing magnetoelectric coupling to write binary information promise outstanding energy efficiency. We propose and demonstrate a purely antiferromagnetic magnetoelectric random access memory (AF-MERAM) that offers a remarkable 50-fold reduction of the writing threshold compared with ferromagnet-based counterparts, is robust against magnetic disturbances and exhibits no ferromagnetic hysteresis losses. Using the magnetoelectric antiferromagnet Cr2O3, we demonstrate reliable isothermal switching via gate voltage pulses and all-electric readout at room temperature. As no ferromagnetic component is present in the system, the writing magnetic field does not need to be pulsed for readout, allowing permanent magnets to be used. Based on our prototypes, we construct a comprehensive model of the magnetoelectric selection mechanisms in thin films of magnetoelectric antiferromagnets, revealing misfit induced ferrimagnetism as an important factor. Beyond memory applications, the AF-MERAM concept introduces a general all-electric interface for antiferromagnets and should find wide applicability in antiferromagnetic spintronics.

  10. Purely antiferromagnetic magnetoelectric random access memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosub, Tobias; Kopte, Martin; Hühne, Ruben; Appel, Patrick; Shields, Brendan; Maletinsky, Patrick; Hübner, René; Liedke, Maciej Oskar; Fassbender, Jürgen; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Makarov, Denys

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic random access memory schemes employing magnetoelectric coupling to write binary information promise outstanding energy efficiency. We propose and demonstrate a purely antiferromagnetic magnetoelectric random access memory (AF-MERAM) that offers a remarkable 50-fold reduction of the writing threshold compared with ferromagnet-based counterparts, is robust against magnetic disturbances and exhibits no ferromagnetic hysteresis losses. Using the magnetoelectric antiferromagnet Cr2O3, we demonstrate reliable isothermal switching via gate voltage pulses and all-electric readout at room temperature. As no ferromagnetic component is present in the system, the writing magnetic field does not need to be pulsed for readout, allowing permanent magnets to be used. Based on our prototypes, we construct a comprehensive model of the magnetoelectric selection mechanisms in thin films of magnetoelectric antiferromagnets, revealing misfit induced ferrimagnetism as an important factor. Beyond memory applications, the AF-MERAM concept introduces a general all-electric interface for antiferromagnets and should find wide applicability in antiferromagnetic spintronics.

  11. Room temperature magnetoelectric coupling in BaTi{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 3} multiferroic thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Sundararaj, Anuraj; Chandrasekaran, Gopalakrishnan Therese, Helen Annal; Annamalai, Karthigeyan

    2016-01-14

    We report on room temperature (RT) magnetoelectric coupling in tetragonal BaTi{sub 1−x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 3} thin film multiferroics (BTCO) sputter deposited on (100) SrTiO{sub 3} (where x = 0.005, 0.01, 0.02, and 0.03). As-deposited thin films are vacuum annealed by electron beam rapid thermal annealing technique. 50 nm thick BTCO with “x = 0.01” shows RT ferromagnetic and ferroelectric response with saturation magnetic moment of 1120 emu/cc and polarization of 14.7 microcoulomb/cm{sup 2}. Piezoresponse/magnetic force microscope images shows RT magnetoelectric coupling in BTCO with “x = 0.01,” which is confirmed using magnetocapacitance measurement where an increase in capacitance from 17.5 pF to 18.4 pF is observed with an applied magnetic field.

  12. On the inter-layer magneto-electric coupling in BiFeO3/SrRuO3 heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sil, Anomitra; Wagh, Aditya A.; Sharma, Deepak; Ranjan, Rajeev; Anil Kumar, P. S.

    2017-09-01

    Interlayer magneto-electric coupling in BiFeO3/SrRuO3 heterostructures was investigated by impedance spectroscopy over a temperature range of 80 K-260 K. In-plane impedance measurements were performed using interdigitated gold electrodes fabricated on the BiFeO3 layer. The Nyquist plots at different temperatures were fitted with an equivalent circuit model of the heterostructure. A pronounced dip in the temperature coefficient of equivalent-capacitance and a distinct increase in the temperature coefficient of equivalent-resistance of the BiFeO3 layer were observed on cooling across ferromagnetic TC of the bottom SrRuO3 layer. Temperature dependent capacitance (at 0 T magnetic fields) and magneto-capacitance (at 5 T magnetic fields) plots showed anomalies near 160 K. A shift of the hysteresis loop along the magnetization axis in field cooled M-H measurements was also found, which indicates the presence of pinned SrRuO3 moments due to the magnetic interaction at the interface. These observations suggest a strong magneto-electric coupling between the BiFeO3 and SrRuO3 layers of this heterostructure.

  13. Magnetic-field-induced change of magnetoelectric coupling in the hybrid multiferroic (ND4)2[FeC l5.D2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Velamazán, J. Alberto; Fabelo, Oscar; Campo, Javier; Millán, Ángel; Rodríguez-Carvajal, Juan; Chapon, Laurent C.

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, we elucidate the changes of magnetoelectric coupling mechanism in different zones of the rich magnetic field-temperature (B -T ) phase diagram of the molecular multiferroic (NH4) 2[FeC l5.H2O ] , which represents one of the rare cases where improper ferroelectricity has been observed in a hybrid material. We have recently proposed a mechanism of multiferroicity in zero magnetic field in the deuterated form of this material from a detailed determination of its crystal and magnetic structures. The proposed magnetic structure at zero magnetic field corresponds to a cycloidal spin arrangement that gives rise to a ferroelectric polarization through the spin current mechanism induced via the inverse Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. In this paper, we present a single-crystal neutron diffraction study under external magnetic field, aimed at elucidating the evolution of the magnetic structure under applied magnetic field, and determine the mechanism of magnetoelectric coupling, which allows us to describe an unprecedented change from spin current to spin-dependent p -d hybridization mechanism.

  14. Oxygen displacements and magnetoelectric coupling in LuMnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, P.; Louca, Despina; Lee, Nara; Cheong, S.-W.

    2012-09-01

    The hexagonal multiferroic LuMnO3 transforms to the P63cm symmetry upon entering the ferroelectric phase. Using neutron diffraction and the pair density function analysis, it is shown that short-range local atomic distortions are present, calling for a lower symmetry, such as the P63, for the following reasons. With cooling, the MnO5 bipyramid tilting becomes more enhanced than previously determined. This splits the in-plane Mn-O-Mn angles especially below TN, leading to inequivalent magnetic coupling constants J between the in-plane Mn ions. Additionally, below TN, several weak incommensurate magnetic phases appear in response to the reminiscent frustration from the triangular Mn lattice. The complex magnetic structure may be the driving mechanism for the lower crystal symmetry.

  15. Tuning of magnetoelectric coupling in (1-y)Bi0.8Dy0.2FeO3-yNi0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 multiferroic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumdar, S. C.; Khan, M. N. I.; Islam, Md. Fakhrul; Hossain, A. K. M. Akther

    2016-03-01

    Magnetoelectric composites (1-y)Bi0.8Dy0.2FeO3 (BDFO)-yNi0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 (NZFO) with y=0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5 and 1.0 are synthesized by conventional solid state reaction route. The X-ray diffraction analysis confirms the coexistence of orthorhombic perovskite BDFO and spinel NZFO phases with no third phase. Microstructural and surface morphology are studied by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy. Quantitative elemental analysis of the samples is carried out by Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy. The real part of the initial permeability increases and relative quality peak broadens with the ferrite content in the composites. Dielectric constant, loss tangent, relative quality factor and ac conductivity are measured as a function of frequency at room temperature. The dielectric constant shows usual dielectric dispersion at lower frequencies due to Maxwell-Wagner type interfacial polarization. The complex impedance spectroscopy is used to distinguish between the grain and grain boundary contribution to the total resistance. The modulus study reveals the ease of polaron hopping and negligibly small contribution of electrode effect. The magnetic hysteresis has been studied to know the response of NZFO phase to the applied magnetic field in the composite. The saturation and remanent magnetization are found to increase with increase in NZFO in the composite. The magnetoelectric voltage coefficient, αME is measured as a function of applied dc magnetic field. The tuning of ferrite percentage and dc magnetic field results in highest αME (~66 mV/cm Oe) for the composite with 40% NZFO at 4.7 kOe which is attributed to the enhanced mechanical coupling between the two phases. The incorporation of BDFO and NZFO enhances the multiferroic properties in the present composite which are quite promising from application point of view.

  16. Magnetoelectric coupling study in multiferroic Pb(Fe{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} ceramics through small and large electric signal standard measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, Oscar; Siqueiros, Jesus M.; Font, Reynaldo; Portelles, Jorge

    2011-05-01

    Multifunctional multiferroic materials such as the single phase compound Pb(Fe{sub 0.5}Nb{sub 0.5})O{sub 3} (PFN), where ferroelectric and antiferromagnetic order coexist, are very promising and have great interest from the academic and technological points of view. In this work, coupling of the ferroelectric and magnetic moments is reported. For this study, a combination of the small signal response using the impedance spectroscopy technique and the electromechanical resonance method with the large signal response through standard ferroelectric hysteresis measurement, has been used with and without an applied magnetic field. The measurements to determine the electrical properties of the ceramic were performed as functions of the bias and poling electric fields. A simultaneous analysis of the complex dielectric constant {epsilon}-tilde, impedance Z-tilde, electric modulus M-tilde, admittance Y-tilde, and the electromechanical parameters and coupling factors is presented. The results are correlated with a previous study of structural, morphological, small signal dielectric frequency-temperature response, and the ferroelectric hysteretic, magnetic and magnetodielectric behaviors. The observed shifts of the resonance and antiresonance frequency values can be associated with change of the ferroelectric domain size favored by the readjustment of the oxygen octahedron when the magnetic field is applied. From P-E hysteresis loops obtained without and with an external applied magnetic field, a dc magnetoelectric coupling effect with maximum value of 4 kV/cm T (400 mV/cm Oe) was obtained.

  17. Magnetoelectric coupling tuned by competing anisotropies in Mn1-xNixTiO3

    DOE PAGES

    Chi, Songxue; Ye, Feng; Zhou, H. D.; ...

    2014-10-24

    A flop of electric polarization from Pmore » $$\\|$$c (Pc) to P$$\\|$$ a (Pa) is observed in MnTiO3 as a spin flop transtion is triggered by a c-axis magnetic field, H$$\\|$$c=7 T. The critical magnetic field for Pa is significantly reduced in Mn1-xNixTiO3 (x=0.33). Neutron diffraction measurements revealed similar magnetic arrangements for the two compositions where the ordered spins couple antiferromagnetically with their nearest intra- and inter-planar neighbors. In the x=0.33 system, the single ion anisotropies of Mn2+ and Ni2+ compete and give rise to an additional spin reorientation transition at TR. A magnetic field, Hc, aligns the spins along c for TRN. The rotation of the collinear spins away from the c-axis for TR alters the magnetic point symmetry and gives rise to new ME susceptibility tensor form. Such linear ME response provides satisfactory explanation for behavior of field-induced electric polarization in both compositions. As the Ni content increases to x=0.5 and 0.68, the ME effect disappears as a new magnetic phase emerges.« less

  18. Analytic expressions for the constitutive parameters of magnetoelectric metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Smith, D R

    2010-03-01

    Electromagnetic metamaterials are artificially structured media typically composed of arrays of resonant electromagnetic circuits, the dimension and spacing of which are considerably smaller than the free-space wavelengths of operation. The constitutive parameters for metamaterials, which can be obtained using full-wave simulations in conjunction with numerical retrieval algorithms, exhibit artifacts related to the finite size of the metamaterial cell relative to the wavelength. Liu [R. Liu, T. J. Cui, D. Huang, B. Zhao, and D. R. Smith, Phys. Rev. E 76, 026606 (2007)] showed that the complicated, frequency-dependent forms of the constitutive parameters can be described by a set of relatively simple analytical expressions. These expressions provide useful insight and can serve as the basis for more intelligent interpolation or optimization schemes. Here, we show that the same analytical expressions can be obtained using a transfer-matrix formalism applied to a one-dimensional periodic array of thin, resonant, dielectric, or magnetic sheets. The transfer-matrix formalism breaks down, however, when both electric and magnetic responses are present in the same unit cell, as it neglects the magnetoelectric coupling between unit cells [C. R. Simovski, Metamaterials 1, 62 (2007)]. We show that an alternative analytical approach based on the same physical model must be applied for such structures. Furthermore, in addition to the intercell coupling, electric and magnetic resonators within a unit cell may also exhibit magnetoelectric coupling. For such cells, we find an analytical expression for the effective index, which displays markedly characteristic dispersion features that depend on the strength of the coupling coefficient. We illustrate the applicability of the derived expressions by comparing to full-wave simulations on magnetoelectric unit cells. We conclude that the design of metamaterials with tailored simultaneous electric and magnetic response-such as negative

  19. Substructure coupling in the frequency domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Frequency domain analysis was found to be a suitable method for determining the transient response of systems subjected to a wide variety of loads. However, since a large number of calculations are performed within the discrete frequency loop, the method loses it computational efficiency if the loads must be represented by a large number of discrete frequencies. It was also discovered that substructure coupling in the frequency domain work particularly well for analyzing structural system with a small number of interface and loaded degrees of freedom. It was discovered that substructure coupling in the frequency domain can lead to an efficient method of obtaining natural frequencies of undamped structures. It was also found that the damped natural frequencies of a system may be determined using frequency domain techniques.

  20. Multiferroic CoFe2O4-Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 core-shell nanofibers and their magnetoelectric coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shuhong; Ma, Feiyue; Liu, Yuanming; Li, Jiangyu

    2011-08-01

    Multiferroic CoFe2O4-Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 core-shell nanofibers have been synthesized by coaxial electrospinning in combination with a sol-gel process. The core-shell configuration of nanofibers has been verified by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and the spinel structure of CoFe2O4 and perovskite structure of Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3 have been confirmed by X-ray diffraction and selected area electron diffraction. The multiferroic properties of core-shell nanofibers have been demonstrated by magnetic hysteresis and piezoresponse force microscopy, and their magnetoelectric coupling has been confirmed by evolution of piezoresponse under an external magnetic field, showing magnetically induced ferroelectric domain switching and changes in switching characteristics. The lateral magnetoelectric coefficient is estimated to be 2.95 × 104 mV/cmOe, two orders of magnitude higher than multiferroic thin films of similar composition.

  1. Equivalent circuit model of converse magnetoelectric effect for the tri-layer magnetoelectric laminates with thermal and stress loadings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hao-Miao; Li, Meng-Han; Liu, Hui; Cui, Xiao-Le

    2015-12-01

    For the converse magnetoelectric coupling effect of the piezoelectric/magnetostrictive/piezoelectric tri-layer symmetric magnetoelectric laminates, based on the nonlinear thermo-magneto-mechanical constitutive equations of the giant magnetostrictive materials and the thermo-electro-mechanical constitutive equations of the piezoelectric materials, according to Newton's second law and the magnetic circuit theorem, an equivalent circuit is established. Then an expression of the converse magnetoelectric coefficient describing nonlinear thermo-magneto-electro-mechanical coupling is established. The curve of the nonlinear converse magnetoelectric coefficient versus the bias magnetic field, is predicted effectively by the expression, and the predictions are in good agreement with the experimental result both qualitatively and quantitatively. Furthermore, the model can predict the complex influences of the bias magnetic field, the stress and the ambient temperature on the converse magnetoelectric coefficient. It can be found from these predictions that the converse magnetoelectric coefficient decreases with the increasing temperature and increases with the increasing tensile stress. Under the common effect of the ambient temperature and the stress, it is also found that the converse magnetoelectric coefficient changes sharply with the ambient temperature when the tensile stress is applied on the laminates, but it has a good stability of temperature when a large compressive stress is applied. Therefore, this work contributes to the researches on the giant converse magnetoelectric coefficient and the designs of magnetoelectric devices based on the converse magnetoelectric coupling.

  2. Coupled Resonance Laser Frequency Stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burd, Shaun; Uys, Hermann; MAQClab Team

    2013-05-01

    We have demonstrated simultaneous laser frequency stabilization of a UV and IR laser, to the same photodiode signal derived from the UV laser only. For trapping and cooling Yb+ ions, a frequency stabilized laser is required at 369.9 nm to drive the S1/2-P1/2 cooling cycle. Since that cycle is not closed, a repump beam is needed at 935.18 nm to drive the D3/2-D[ 3 / 2 ] transition, which rapidly decays back to the S1/2 state. Our 369 nm laser is locked using Doppler free polarization spectroscopy of Yb+ ions, generated in a hollow cathode discharge lamp. Without pumping, the metastable D3/2 level is only sparsely populated, making direct absorption of 935 nm light difficult to detect. A resonant 369 nm pump laser can populate the D3/2 state, and fast repumping to the S1/2 ground state by on resonant 935 nm light, can be detected via the change in absorption of the 369 nm laser. This is accomplished using lock-in detection on the same photodiode signal to which the 369 nm laser is locked. In this way, simultaneous locking of two frequencies in very different spectral regimes is accomplished, while exploiting only the photodiode signal from one of the lasers. A rate equation model gives good qualitative agreement with experimental observation. This work was partially funded by the South African National Research Foundation.

  3. Effect of thickness on the stress and magnetoelectric coupling in bilayered Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3-CoFe2O4 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Li, Zheng; Wang, Jianjun; He, Hongcai; Nan, Cewen

    2015-01-01

    Magnetoelectric bilayered Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48)O3-CoFe2O4(PZT-CFO) films with different PZT thicknesses were grown on (111)Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates using chemical solution spin-coating. Structural characterization by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy shows pure phases and well-defined interfaces between the PZT and CFO films. The CFO-PZT-substrate structure effectively alleviates the substrate clamping effect for the CFO layer, showing appreciable magnetoelectric responses in the composite films. Both the direct magnetoelectric effect and the magnetic field-induced Raman shifts in the A1(TO1) soft mode of PZT demonstrate the magnetic-mechanical-electric coupling in the films. The results also indicate that with a constant CFO layer thickness, the thickness of the PZT layer plays an important role in the stress relaxation and strong magnetoelectric coupling. The coupling could be further enhanced by increasing the CFO thickness, optimizing the volume (thickness) fraction of the PZT thickness, and releasing the clamping effect from the substrate.

  4. Effect of thickness on the stress and magnetoelectric coupling in bilayered Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3}-CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} films

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jing E-mail: cwnan@tsinghua.edu.cn; Li, Zheng; Wang, Jianjun; Nan, Cewen E-mail: cwnan@tsinghua.edu.cn; He, Hongcai

    2015-01-28

    Magnetoelectric bilayered Pb(Zr{sub 0.52}Ti{sub 0.48})O{sub 3}-CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}(PZT-CFO) films with different PZT thicknesses were grown on (111)Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrates using chemical solution spin-coating. Structural characterization by X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy shows pure phases and well-defined interfaces between the PZT and CFO films. The CFO-PZT-substrate structure effectively alleviates the substrate clamping effect for the CFO layer, showing appreciable magnetoelectric responses in the composite films. Both the direct magnetoelectric effect and the magnetic field-induced Raman shifts in the A{sub 1}(TO{sub 1}) soft mode of PZT demonstrate the magnetic-mechanical-electric coupling in the films. The results also indicate that with a constant CFO layer thickness, the thickness of the PZT layer plays an important role in the stress relaxation and strong magnetoelectric coupling. The coupling could be further enhanced by increasing the CFO thickness, optimizing the volume (thickness) fraction of the PZT thickness, and releasing the clamping effect from the substrate.

  5. Magnetoelectric polymer nanocomposite for flexible electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Alnassar, M. Alfadhel, A.; Ivanov, Yu. P.; Kosel, J.

    2015-05-07

    This paper reports the fabrication and characterization of a new type of magnetoelectric polymer nanocomposite that exhibits excellent ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity simultaneously at room temperature. The multiferroic nanocomposite consists of high aspect ratio ferromagnetic iron nanowires embedded inside a ferroelectric co-polymer poly(vinylindene fluoride-trifluoroethylene), P(VDF-TrFE). The nanocomposite has been fabricated via a simple low temperature spin coating technique. Structural, ferromagnetic, ferroelectric, and magnetoelectric properties of the developed nanocomposite have been characterized. The nanocomposite films showed isotropic magnetic properties due to the random orientation of the iron nanowires inside the film. In addition, the embedded nanowires did not hinder the ferroelectric phase development of the nanocomposite. The developed nanocomposite showed a high magnetoelectric coupling response of 156 mV/cmOe measured at 3.1 kOe DC bias field. This value is among the highest reported magnetoelectric coupling in two phase particulate polymer nanocomposites.

  6. Multiferroic and Magnetoelectric Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleemann, Wolfgang; Binek, Christian

    Magnetoelectric (ME) materials are of utmost interest in view of both fundamental understanding and novel desirable applications. Despite its smallness the linear ME effect has been shown to control spintronic devices very efficiently, e.g. by using the classic ME antiferromagnet Cr2O 3. An electric field can switch its ferromagnetic surface magnetization and thus control exchange bias based spin valve devices. Similar nano-engineering concepts exist also for type-I multiferroic single phase materials like BiFeO3 and BiMnO3. ME response has been realized in stress-strain coupled multiphase magnetoelectric composites like BaTiO_3/Fe and—record high—in PZT/ FeBSiC, just right for sensorics applications. In type-II multiferroics, whose ferroelectricity is due to modulated magnetic ordering, the ME coupling is of fundamental interest. Higher order ME response characterizes disordered type-III multiferroics and extends the conventional multiferroic scenario toward ME multiglass (e.g. Sr1-xMnxTiO3) or relaxor spin glass (e.g. PbFe0.5Nb0.5O3).

  7. Magnetoelectric sensor excitations in hexaferrite slabs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, Saba; Izadkhah, Hessam; Somu, Sivasubramanian; Vittoria, Carmine

    2015-06-01

    We developed techniques for H- and E-field sensors utilizing single phase magnetoelectric (ME) hexaferrite slabs in the frequency range of 100 Hz to 10 MHz. Novel circuit designs incorporating both spiral and solenoid coils and single and multi-capacitor banks were developed to probe the physics and properties of ME hexaferrites and explore ME effects for sensor detections. Fundamental measurements of the anisotropic tensor elements of the magneto-electric coupling parameter were performed using these novel techniques. In addition, for H-field sensing experiments we measured sensitivity of about 3000 Vm-1/G using solenoid coils and 8000 Vm-1/G using spiral coils. For E-field, sensing the sensitivity was 10-4 G/Vm-1 and using single capacitor detector. Sensitivity for multi-capacitor detectors was measured to be in the order of 10-3 G/Vm-1 and frequency dependent exhibiting a maximum value at ˜1 MHz. Tunability of 0.1%-90% was achieved for tunable inductor applications using both single and multi-capacitors excitation. We believe that significant (˜106) improvements in sensitivity and tunability are feasible with simple modifications of the fabrication process.

  8. Influence of Interface and Polarization on Magnetoelectric Coupling in Ni-LEAD Zirconium TITANATE-Ni Trilayers Derived by Electroless Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, K.; Wang, Y. G.

    2012-06-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) coupling in layered structures of magnetostrictive and piezoelectric phases are mediated by mechanical deformation and depends strongly on the interface conditions. Ni-lead zirconium titanate-Ni trilayers with neither electrodes nor bonding layers have been derived by electroless deposition. The structure of the electroless deposited Ni layer was characterized by X-ray diffraction. The cross-section of the Ni/PZT layers was investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The value of ME voltage coefficient (αE,31) increases as the interface roughness increases. The maximum of αE,31 for the Ni/PZT/Ni trilayers polarized after electroless deposition is higher than that for the Ni/PZT/Ni trilayers polarized before electroless deposition. It is essential to optimize the interface and the polarization to obtain higher ME voltage coefficient.

  9. Magnetoelectric coupling at the interface of BiFeO3/La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Calderon, M. J.; Liang, Shuhua; Yu, Rong; Salafranca, Juan; Scalapino, D. J.; Dong, Shuai; Yunoki, Seiji; Brey, L.; Moreo, Adriana; Dagotto, Elbio R

    2011-01-01

    Electric-field controlled exchange bias in a heterostructure composed of the ferromagnetic manganite La0.7Sr0.3MO3 and the ferroelectric antiferromagnetic BiFeO3 has recently been demonstrated experimentally. By means of a model Hamiltonian, we provide a possible explanation for the origin of this magnetoelectric coupling. We find, in agreement with experimental results, a net ferromagnetic moment at the BiFeO3 interface. The induced ferromagnetic moment is the result of the competition between the eg-electron double exchange and the t2g-spin antiferromagnetic superexchange that dominates in bulk BiFeO3. The balance of these simultaneous ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic tendencies is strongly affected by the interfacial electronic charge density, which, in turn, can be controlled by the BiFeO3 ferroelectric polarization.

  10. Correlation of magnetoelectric coupling in multiferroic BaTiO{sub 3}-BiFeO{sub 3} superlattices with oxygen vacancies and antiphase octahedral rotations

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, Michael Schwinkendorf, Peter; Grundmann, Marius; Wagner, Gerald; Oeckler, Oliver; Lazenka, Vera; Modarresi, Hiwa; Vantomme, André; Temst, Kristiaan; Van Bael, Margriet J.

    2015-01-05

    Multiferroic (BaTiO{sub 3}-BiFeO{sub 3}) × 15 multilayer heterostructures show high magnetoelectric (ME) coefficients α{sub ME} up to 24 V/cm·Oe at 300 K. This value is much higher than that of a single-phase BiFeO{sub 3} reference film (α{sub ME} = 4.2 V/cm·Oe). We found clear correlation of ME coefficients with increasing oxygen partial pressure during growth. ME coupling is highest for lower density of oxygen vacancy-related defects. Detailed scanning transmission electron microscopy and selected area electron diffraction microstructural investigations at 300 K revealed antiphase rotations of the oxygen octahedra in the BaTiO{sub 3} single layers, which are an additional correlated defect structure of the multilayers.

  11. Multiferroic magnetoelectric composites: Historical perspective, status, and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nan, Ce-Wen; Bichurin, M. I.; Dong, Shuxiang; Viehland, D.; Srinivasan, G.

    2008-02-01

    Multiferroic magnetoelectric materials, which simultaneously exhibit ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism, have recently stimulated a sharply increasing number of research activities for their scientific interest and significant technological promise in the novel multifunctional devices. Natural multiferroic single-phase compounds are rare, and their magnetoelectric responses are either relatively weak or occurs at temperatures too low for practical applications. In contrast, multiferroic composites, which incorporate both ferroelectric and ferri-/ferromagnetic phases, typically yield giant magnetoelectric coupling response above room temperature, which makes them ready for technological applications. This review of mostly recent activities begins with a brief summary of the historical perspective of the multiferroic magnetoelectric composites since its appearance in 1972. In such composites the magnetoelectric effect is generated as a product property of a magnetostrictive and a piezoelectric substance. An electric polarization is induced by a weak ac magnetic field oscillating in the presence of a dc bias field, and/or a magnetization polarization appears upon applying an electric field. So far, three kinds of bulk magnetoelectric composites have been investigated in experimental and theoretical, i.e., composites of (a) ferrite and piezoelectric ceramics (e.g., lead zirconate titanate), (b) magnetic metals/alloys (e.g., Terfenol-D and Metglas) and piezoelectric ceramics, and (c) Terfenol-D and piezoelectric ceramics and polymer. The elastic coupling interaction between the magnetostrictive phase and piezoelectric phase leads to giant magnetoelectric response of these magnetoelectric composites. For example, a Metglas/lead zirconate titanate fiber laminate has been found to exhibit the highest magnetoelectric coefficient, and in the vicinity of resonance, its magnetoelectric voltage coefficient as high as 102V/cmOe orders has been achieved, which exceeds the

  12. Inductively coupled plasmas at low driving frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolobov, Vladimir I.; Godyak, Valery A.

    2017-07-01

    We discuss the peculiarities of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) at low driving frequencies. The ratio of electric to magnetic field, | E/(cB)| , decreases with decreasing frequency according to Faraday’s law—higher magnetic fields are required to induce the same electric field at lower frequencies. We point out that the ratio of | E/(cB)| can be non-uniform in space depending on primary coil configuration and the presence of ferromagnetic materials. In this paper, we consider examples of low-frequency ICPs with negligibly small magnetic fields in plasma. The disparity of time scales for ion transport and the electron energy relaxation results in nonlinear plasma dynamics at low frequencies. Numerical simulations demonstrate that at low frequencies, the presence of plasma has very little effect on spatial distributions of the electric and magnetic fields, which are determined solely by the coil geometry and by the presence of ferromagnetic cores. Simulations of plasma dynamics in ICP over a wide range of driving frequencies and gas pressures illustrate high-frequency, quasi-static and dynamic regimes of discharge operation and explain some trends observed in experiments.

  13. Magnetic field-induced ferroelectric domain structure evolution and magnetoelectric coupling for [110]-oriented PMN-PT/Terfenol-D multiferroic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, F.; Jing, W. Q.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic field-induced polarization rotation and magnetoelectric coupling effects are studied for [110]-oriented (1-x)Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-xPbTiO3/Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe2(PMN-xPT/Terfenol-D) multiferroic composites. Two compositions of the [110]-oriented relaxor ferroelectric single crystals, PMN-28PT and PMN-33PT, are used. In [110]-oriented PMN-28PT, domains of rhombohedral (R) and monoclinic (MB) phases coexist prior to the magnetic loadings. Upon the applied magnetic loadings, phase transition from monoclinic MB to R phase occurs. In [110]-oriented PMN-33PT, domains are initially of mixed orthorhombic (O) and MB phases, and the phase transition from O to MB phase takes place upon the external magnetic loading. Compared to PMN-28PT, the PMN-33PT single crystal exhibits much finer domain boundary structure prior to the magnetic loadings. Upon the magnetic loadings, more domain variants are induced via the phase transition in PMN-33PT than that in PMN-28PT single crystal. The finer domain band structure and more domain variants contribute to stronger piezoelectric activity. As a result, the composite of PMN-33PT/Terfenol-D manifests a stronger ME coupling than PMN-28PT/Terfenol-D composite.

  14. Multiferroicity and magnetoelectric coupling enhanced large magnetocaloric effect in DyFe{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, L. H.; Yang, J.; Dai, J. M.; Song, W. H.; Zhang, R. R.; Sun, Y. P.

    2014-01-20

    DyFe{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} has been synthesized using a sol-gel method. It exhibits ferroelectricity at the antiferromagnetic ordering temperature T{sub N1}∼261 K. Large magnetocaloric effect (MCE) (11.3 J/kg K at 4.5 T) enhanced by magnetoelectric coupling due to magnetic field and temperature induced magnetic transition was observed. Temperature-dependent Raman study shows an anomalous behavior near T{sub N1} in the phonon modes related to the vibration of Dy atoms and stretching of CrO{sub 6}/FeO{sub 6} octahedra, suggesting the ferroelectricity in DyFe{sub 0.5}Cr{sub 0.5}O{sub 3} is associated with the spin-phonon coupling with respect to both Dy and Cr/Fe ions. These results suggest routes to obtain high-temperature multiferroicity and large MCE for practical applications.

  15. First-principles approach to the dynamic magnetoelectric couplings for the non-reciprocal directional dichroism in BiFeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jun Hee; Kézsmáki, István; Fishman, Randy S.

    2016-04-01

    Due to the complicated magnetic and crystallographic structures of BiFeO3, its magnetoelectric (ME) couplings and microscopic model Hamiltonian remain poorly understood. By employing a first-principles approach, we uncover all possible ME couplings associated with the spin-current (SC) and exchange-striction (ES) polarizations, and construct an appropriate Hamiltonian for the long-range spin-cycloid in BiFeO3. First-principles calculations are used to understand the microscopic origins of the ME couplings. We find that inversion symmetries broken by ferroelectric and antiferroelectric distortions induce the SC and the ES polarizations, which cooperatively produce the dynamic ME effects in BiFeO3. A model motivated by first principles reproduces the absorption difference of counter-propagating light beams called non-reciprocal directional dichroism. The current paper focuses on the spin-driven (SD) polarizations produced by a dynamic electric field, i.e. the dynamic ME couplings. Due to the inertial properties of Fe, the dynamic SD polarizations differ significantly from the static SD polarizations. Our systematic approach can be generally applied to any multiferroic material, laying the foundation for revealing hidden ME couplings on the atomic scale and for exploiting optical ME effects in the next generation of technological devices such as optical diodes. This manuscript has been written by UT-Battelle, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the US Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes. The Department of Energy will provide public access to these results of federally sponsored research in accordance with the DOE Public Access Plan.

  16. Microscopic evidence of strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling in Co/Pt multilayers/PMN-PT(011) heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ying; Wang, Wenbo; Wu, Weida; Zheng, Xiaoli; Cai, Jianwang; Zhao, Yonggang; Liu, Ming

    A promising way to control magnetization(M) via an electric field(E-field) is using magnetoelectric(ME) effect in FM/FE heterostructures. We use magnetic(electric) force microscopy(M(e)FM) to study the strain-mediated E-field modulation of M in (Co/Pt)n with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy(PMA) or in-plane anisotropy on PMN-PT(011) substrates. MFM were performed on (Co/Pt)n with an DC E-field applied to PMN-PT. In MeFM, we superimpose an AC modulation on a DC one and utilize lock-in technique to detect weak ME effect. For (Co/Pt)n with PMA, MFM images show stripe domains with no obvious changes at varied DC E-fields. However, MeFM shows interesting structures and the image contrast reverses sign at opposite strain slopes of the PMN-PT substrate. For sample with in-plane anisotropy, both MFM and MeFM images show dipole-like domains. Interestingly, the MeFM image contrast reverses sign at opposite strain slopes of the substrate. The sign reversal of MeFM contrast indicates that features revealed by MeFM are intrinsic local ME effect. Our MeFM data are consistent with the ferromagnetic resonance results showing that strain-induced anisotropy change will cause part of M switching to the in-plane direction. Possible scenarios will be discussed.

  17. Magnetic spin structure and magnetoelectric coupling in BiFeO{sub 3}-BaTiO{sub 3} multilayer

    SciTech Connect

    Lazenka, Vera Modarresi, Hiwa; Bisht, Manisha; Vantomme, André; Temst, Kristiaan; Lorenz, Michael; Bonholzer, Michael; Grundmann, Marius; Rüffer, Rudolf; Van Bael, Margriet J.

    2015-02-23

    Magnetic spin structures in epitaxial BiFeO{sub 3} single layer and an epitaxial BaTiO{sub 3}/BiFeO{sub 3} multilayer thin film have been studied by means of nuclear resonant scattering of synchrotron radiation. We demonstrate a spin reorientation in the 15 × [BaTiO{sub 3}/BiFeO{sub 3}] multilayer compared to the single BiFeO{sub 3} thin film. Whereas in the BiFeO{sub 3} film, the net magnetic moment m{sup →} lies in the (1–10) plane, identical to the bulk, m{sup →} in the multilayer points to different polar and azimuthal directions. This spin reorientation indicates that strain and interfaces play a significant role in tuning the magnetic spin order. Furthermore, large difference in the magnetic field dependence of the magnetoelectric coefficient observed between the BiFeO{sub 3} single layer and multilayer can be associated with this magnetic spin reorientation.

  18. Sleep stage classification with cross frequency coupling.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Teresa H; McCurry, Mark; Clements, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Sleep is a key requirement for an individual's health, though currently the options to study sleep rely largely on manual visual classification methods. In this paper we propose a new scheme for automated offline classification based upon cross-frequency-coupling (CFC) and compare it to the traditional band power estimation and the more recent preferential frequency band information estimation. All three approaches allowed sleep stage classification and provided whole-night visualization of sleep stages. Surprisingly, the simple average power in band classification achieved better overall performance than either the preferential frequency band information estimation or the CFC approach. However, combined classification with both average power and CFC features showed improved classification over either approach used singly.

  19. First-principles approach to the dynamic magnetoelectric couplings for the non-reciprocal directional dichroism in BiFeO3

    SciTech Connect

    Kezsmarki, I.; Fishman, Randy Scott

    2016-04-18

    Due to the complicated magnetic and crystallographic structures of BiFeO3, its magnetoelectric (ME) couplings and microscopic model Hamiltonian remain poorly understood. By employing a firstprinciples approach, we uncover all possibleMEcouplings associated with the spin-current (SC) and exchange-striction (ES) polarizations, and construct an appropriate Hamiltonian for the long-range spin-cycloid in BiFeO3. First-principles calculations are used to understand the microscopic origins of theMEcouplings.Wefind that inversion symmetries broken by ferroelectric and antiferroelectric distortions induce the SC and the ES polarizations, which cooperatively produce the dynamicME effects in BiFeO3. A model motivated by first principles reproduces the absorption difference of counter-propagating light beams called non-reciprocal directional dichroism. The current paper focuses on the spin-driven (SD) polarizations produced by a dynamic electric field, i.e. the dynamic MEcouplings. Due to the inertial properties of Fe, the dynamic SD polarizations differ significantly from the static SD polarizations. Our systematic approach can be generally applied to any multiferroic material, laying the foundation for revealing hiddenMEcouplings on the atomic scale and for exploiting opticalMEeffects in the next generation of technological devices such as optical diodes.

  20. Effect of divalent Ba cation substitution with Sr on coupled 'multiglass' state in the magnetoelectric multiferroic compound Ba3NbFe3Si2O14.

    PubMed

    Rathore, Satyapal Singh; Vitta, Satish

    2015-05-19

    (Ba/Sr)3NbFe3Si2O14 is a magneto-electric multiferroic with an incommensurate antiferromagnetic spiral magnetic structure which induces electric polarization at 26 K. Structural studies show that both the compounds have similar crystal structure down to 6 K. They exhibit a transition, TN at 26 K and 25 K respectively, as indicated by heat capacity and magnetization, into an antiferromagnetic state. Although Ba and Sr are isovalent, they exhibit very different static and dynamic magnetic behaviors. The Ba-compound exhibits a glassy behavior with critical slowing dynamics with a freezing temperature of ~35 K and a critical exponent of 3.9, a value close to the 3-D Ising model above TN, in addition to the invariant transition into an antiferromagnetic state. The Sr-compound however does not exhibit any dispersive behavior except for the invariant transition at TN. The dielectric constant reflects magnetic behavior of the two compounds: the Ba-compound has two distinct dispersive peaks while the Sr-compound has a single dispersive peak. Thus the compounds exhibit coupled 'multiglass' behavior. The difference in magnetic properties between the two compounds is found to be due to modifications to super exchange path angle and length as well as anti-site defects which stabilize either ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic interactions.

  1. First-principles approach to the dynamic magnetoelectric couplings for the non-reciprocal directional dichroism in BiFeO3

    DOE PAGES

    Kezsmarki, I.; Fishman, Randy Scott

    2016-04-18

    Due to the complicated magnetic and crystallographic structures of BiFeO3, its magnetoelectric (ME) couplings and microscopic model Hamiltonian remain poorly understood. By employing a firstprinciples approach, we uncover all possibleMEcouplings associated with the spin-current (SC) and exchange-striction (ES) polarizations, and construct an appropriate Hamiltonian for the long-range spin-cycloid in BiFeO3. First-principles calculations are used to understand the microscopic origins of theMEcouplings.Wefind that inversion symmetries broken by ferroelectric and antiferroelectric distortions induce the SC and the ES polarizations, which cooperatively produce the dynamicME effects in BiFeO3. A model motivated by first principles reproduces the absorption difference of counter-propagating light beams calledmore » non-reciprocal directional dichroism. The current paper focuses on the spin-driven (SD) polarizations produced by a dynamic electric field, i.e. the dynamic MEcouplings. Due to the inertial properties of Fe, the dynamic SD polarizations differ significantly from the static SD polarizations. Our systematic approach can be generally applied to any multiferroic material, laying the foundation for revealing hiddenMEcouplings on the atomic scale and for exploiting opticalMEeffects in the next generation of technological devices such as optical diodes.« less

  2. Observation of strong magnetoelectric coupling and ferromagnetism at room temperature in Fe substituted ferroelectric BaZr0.05Ti0.95O3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Mukesh; Barrionuevo Diestra, Danilo G.; Katiyar, Ram; Shah, Jyoti; Kotnala, R. K.; Chatterjee, Ratnamala

    2017-01-01

    Single phase polycrystalline thin films (˜100 nm) of BaZr0.05(FexTi1-3x/4)0.95O3, with x = 0 (BZT) and 0.015 (BZFT15), were grown on Pt/TiO2/SiO2/Si substrate using pulsed laser deposition technique. Room temperature ferromagnetism with a remanent magnetization (Mr) ˜ 1.1 × 10-1 emu/cm3 and a coercive field (Hc) ˜ 0.1 kOe was observed in BZFT15 film. The ferroelectric domain switching in both BZT and BZFT15 films is confirmed by piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM). The magnetoelectric coupling coefficient (α) measured at room temperature in the BZFT15 film in in-plane magnetized-out of plane polarized configuration (L-T mode) was found to be ˜165 mV/cm Oe. It is argued that the observed ferromagnetism in BZFT15 films arises from the oxygen vacancy (Ov) mediated (Fe3+-Ov-Fe3+) exchange.

  3. A multilevel nonvolatile magnetoelectric memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jianxin; Cong, Junzhuang; Shang, Dashan; Chai, Yisheng; Shen, Shipeng; Zhai, Kun; Sun, Young

    2016-09-01

    The coexistence and coupling between magnetization and electric polarization in multiferroic materials provide extra degrees of freedom for creating next-generation memory devices. A variety of concepts of multiferroic or magnetoelectric memories have been proposed and explored in the past decade. Here we propose a new principle to realize a multilevel nonvolatile memory based on the multiple states of the magnetoelectric coefficient (α) of multiferroics. Because the states of α depends on the relative orientation between magnetization and polarization, one can reach different levels of α by controlling the ratio of up and down ferroelectric domains with external electric fields. Our experiments in a device made of the PMN-PT/Terfenol-D multiferroic heterostructure confirm that the states of α can be well controlled between positive and negative by applying selective electric fields. Consequently, two-level, four-level, and eight-level nonvolatile memory devices are demonstrated at room temperature. This kind of multilevel magnetoelectric memory retains all the advantages of ferroelectric random access memory but overcomes the drawback of destructive reading of polarization. In contrast, the reading of α is nondestructive and highly efficient in a parallel way, with an independent reading coil shared by all the memory cells.

  4. A multilevel nonvolatile magnetoelectric memory

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Jianxin; Cong, Junzhuang; Shang, Dashan; Chai, Yisheng; Shen, Shipeng; Zhai, Kun; Sun, Young

    2016-01-01

    The coexistence and coupling between magnetization and electric polarization in multiferroic materials provide extra degrees of freedom for creating next-generation memory devices. A variety of concepts of multiferroic or magnetoelectric memories have been proposed and explored in the past decade. Here we propose a new principle to realize a multilevel nonvolatile memory based on the multiple states of the magnetoelectric coefficient (α) of multiferroics. Because the states of α depends on the relative orientation between magnetization and polarization, one can reach different levels of α by controlling the ratio of up and down ferroelectric domains with external electric fields. Our experiments in a device made of the PMN-PT/Terfenol-D multiferroic heterostructure confirm that the states of α can be well controlled between positive and negative by applying selective electric fields. Consequently, two-level, four-level, and eight-level nonvolatile memory devices are demonstrated at room temperature. This kind of multilevel magnetoelectric memory retains all the advantages of ferroelectric random access memory but overcomes the drawback of destructive reading of polarization. In contrast, the reading of α is nondestructive and highly efficient in a parallel way, with an independent reading coil shared by all the memory cells. PMID:27681812

  5. Piezoelectric control of magnetoelectric coupling driven non-volatile memory switching and self cooling effects in FE/FSMA multiferroic heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kirandeep; Kaur, Davinder

    2017-02-01

    The manipulation of magnetic states and materials' spin degree-of-freedom via a control of an electric (E-) field has been recently pursued to develop magnetoelectric (ME) coupling-driven electronic data storage devices with high read/write endurance, fast dynamic response, and low energy dissipation. One major hurdle for this approach is to develop reliable materials which should be compatible with prevailing silicon (Si)-based complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology, simultaneously allowing small voltage for the tuning of magnetization switching. In this regard, multiferroic heterostructures where ferromagnetic (FM) and ferroelectric (FE) layers are alternatively grown on conventional Si substrates are promising as the piezoelectric control of magnetization switching is anticipated to be possible by an E-field. In this work, we study the ferromagnetic shape memory alloys based PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3/Ni50Mn35In15 (PZT/Ni-Mn-In) multiferroic heterostructures, and investigate their potential for CMOS compatible non-volatile magnetic data storage applications. We demonstrate the voltage-impulse controlled nonvolatile, reversible, and bistable magnetization switching at room temperature in Si-integrated PZT/Ni-Mn-In thin film multiferroic heterostructures. We also thoroughly unveil the various intriguing features in these materials, such as E-field tuned ME coupling and magnetocaloric effect, shape memory induced ferroelectric modulation, improved fatigue endurance as well as Refrigeration Capacity (RC). This comprehensive study suggests that these novel materials have a great potential for the development of unconventional nanoscale memory and refrigeration devices with self-cooling effect and enhanced refrigeration efficiency, thus providing a new venue for their applications.

  6. Purely antiferromagnetic magnetoelectric random access memory

    PubMed Central

    Kosub, Tobias; Kopte, Martin; Hühne, Ruben; Appel, Patrick; Shields, Brendan; Maletinsky, Patrick; Hübner, René; Liedke, Maciej Oskar; Fassbender, Jürgen; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Makarov, Denys

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic random access memory schemes employing magnetoelectric coupling to write binary information promise outstanding energy efficiency. We propose and demonstrate a purely antiferromagnetic magnetoelectric random access memory (AF-MERAM) that offers a remarkable 50-fold reduction of the writing threshold compared with ferromagnet-based counterparts, is robust against magnetic disturbances and exhibits no ferromagnetic hysteresis losses. Using the magnetoelectric antiferromagnet Cr2O3, we demonstrate reliable isothermal switching via gate voltage pulses and all-electric readout at room temperature. As no ferromagnetic component is present in the system, the writing magnetic field does not need to be pulsed for readout, allowing permanent magnets to be used. Based on our prototypes, we construct a comprehensive model of the magnetoelectric selection mechanisms in thin films of magnetoelectric antiferromagnets, revealing misfit induced ferrimagnetism as an important factor. Beyond memory applications, the AF-MERAM concept introduces a general all-electric interface for antiferromagnets and should find wide applicability in antiferromagnetic spintronics. PMID:28045029

  7. Mode coupling of Schwarzschild perturbations: Ringdown frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pazos, Enrique; Brizuela, David; Martín-García, José M.; Tiglio, Manuel

    2010-11-01

    Within linearized perturbation theory, black holes decay to their final stationary state through the well-known spectrum of quasinormal modes. Here we numerically study whether nonlinearities change this picture. For that purpose we study the ringdown frequencies of gauge-invariant second-order gravitational perturbations induced by self-coupling of linearized perturbations of Schwarzschild black holes. We do so through high-accuracy simulations in the time domain of first and second-order Regge-Wheeler-Zerilli type equations, for a variety of initial data sets. We consider first-order even-parity (ℓ=2, m=±2) perturbations and odd-parity (ℓ=2, m=0) ones, and all the multipoles that they generate through self-coupling. For all of them and all the initial data sets considered we find that—in contrast to previous predictions in the literature—the numerical decay frequencies of second-order perturbations are the same ones of linearized theory, and we explain the observed behavior. This would indicate, in particular, that when modeling or searching for ringdown gravitational waves, appropriately including the standard quasinormal modes already takes into account nonlinear effects.

  8. Uniformity of direct and converse magnetoelectric effects in magnetostrictive-piezoelectric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guoxi; Dong, Shuxiang

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we theoretically and experimentally confirmed the uniformity of magnetoelectric (ME) coupling coefficients for the direct and converse ME (DME and CME) effects in longitudinal-transverse (L-T) mode magnetostrictive-piezoelectric two-phase composites, both at low frequencies and in the electromechanical resonance region. We also discussed the flaws in previous measurements of the ME coupling coefficients, which led to misunderstandings in the uniformity between the DME and CME effects. Our current work provided a correct method to correctly understand ME coupling in magnetostrictive-piezoelectric two-phase composites.

  9. Static and Dynamic Magnetoelectric Effects in Multiferroic Hexaferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Sae Hwan

    2014-03-01

    Multiferroics, wherein magnetism and ferroelectricity coexist, are of great interest for the prospect of new multifunctional devices by utilizing cross-coupling between the electric and magnetic properties. In most multiferroics currently known, however, the magnetoelectric (ME) coupling does not reach the level enough for the practical applications and the cross control of electric polarization by magnetic field or magnetization by electric field has been realized only at low temperature. Hence, for use in the ME devices, it is essential to increase both the ME sensitivity and the operating temperature. From investigation of multiferroic hexaferrites, we discover a chemical route to effectively tailor the critical magnetic field inducing electric polarization in (Ba,Sr)2Zn2 Fe12O22 (Zn2Y-type) by Al-substitution, yielding a giant magnetoelectric susceptibility. In (Ba,Sr)3Co2Fe24O41 (Co2Z-type) hexaferrite single crystals, we realize the control of magnetization by electric field at room temperature. In addition to those static ME properties, a dynamic ME effect, electric-dipole-active magnon resonance in THz frequency range, is also found in the Co2Z-type hexaferrite, exhibiting the spectral weight even at room temperature. The unprecedented supreme static and dynamic ME phenomena in the hexaferrites may provide a pathway to overcome the challenge in application of multiferroics for the real devices. Currently at Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439.

  10. Evidence for weak ferromagnetism, isostructural phase transition, and linear magnetoelectric coupling in the multiferroic Bi0.8Pb0.2Fe0.9Nb0.1O3 solid solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Jay Prakash; Senyshyn, Anatoliy; Fuess, Hartmut; Pandey, Dhananjai

    2013-09-01

    Magnetization, dielectric, and calorimetric studies on Bi0.8 Pb0.2 Fe0.9 Nb0.1O3 (BF-0.2PFN) reveal very weak ferromagnetism but strong dielectric anomaly at the antiferromagnetic transition temperature (TN) characteristic of magnetoelectric coupling. We correlate these results with nuclear and magnetic structure studies using x-ray and neutron powder diffraction techniques, respectively. Rietveld refinements using x-ray powder diffraction data in the temperature range 300 to 673 K reveal pronounced anomalies in the unit cell parameters at TN, indicating strong magnetoelastic coupling. The nuclear and magnetic structures of BF-0.2PFN were determined from neutron powder diffraction data using a representation theory approach. They show the occurrence of a first-order isostructural phase transition (IPT) accompanying the magnetic ordering below TN˜566 K, leading to significant discontinuous change in the ionic polarization (ΔPz˜1.6(3) μC/cm2) and octahedral tilt angle (˜0.3°) at TN. The ionic polarization obtained from refined positional coordinates of the nuclear structure and Born effective charges is shown to scale linearly with sublattice magnetization, confirming the presence of linear magnetoelectric coupling in BF-0.2PFN at the atomic level, despite the very low value of remanent magnetization (Mr).

  11. Multiferroic and magnetoelectric nanocomposites for data processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleemann, Wolfgang

    2017-06-01

    Recent progress in preparing and understanding composite magnetoelectrics is highlighted. Apart from optimized standard solutions novel methods of switching magnetism with electric fields and vice versa with focus on magnetoelectric (ME) data processing in multiferroic and magnetoelectric nanocomposites deserve particular interest. First, we report on the patented MERAM, which uses the electric field control of exchange bias in a layered composite via an epitaxial magnetoelectric Cr2O3 layer exchange coupled to a Pt/Co/Pt trilayer. It promises to crucially reduce Joule energy losses in RAM devices. Second, magnetic switching of the electric polarization by a transverse magnetic field in a composite of CoFe2O4 nanopillars embedded in a vertically poled BaTiO3 thick film produces a regular surface polarization pattern with rectangular local symmetry. Its possible use for data processing is discussed. Third, in the relaxor ferroelectric single-phase compound (BiFe0.9Co0.1O3)0.4-(Bi1/2K1/2TiO3)0.6 polar nanoregions emerging from ferrimagnetic Bi(Fe,Co)O3 regions embedded in a Bi1/2K1/2TiO3 relaxor component transform into ferroelectric clusters and simultaneously enable congruent magnetic clusters. The local polarization and magnetization couple with record-high direct and converse magnetoelectric coupling coefficients, α  ≈  1.0  ×  10-5 s m-1. These ‘multiferroic’ clusters are promising for applications in data storage or processing devices.

  12. Doping effects on trimerization and magnetoelectric coupling of single crystal multiferroic (Y,Lu)MnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seongil; Sim, Hasung; Kang, Soonmin; Choi, Ki-Young; Park, Je-Geun

    2017-03-01

    Hexagonal RMnO3 is a multiferroic compound with a giant spin–lattice coupling at an antiferromagnetic transition temperature, Lee et al (2008 Nature 451 805). Despite extensive studies over the past two decades, the origin and underlying microscopic mechanism of strong spin–lattice coupling remain very much elusive. In this study, we have tried to address this problem by measuring the thermal expansion and dielectric constant of doped single crystals Y1‑x Lu x MnO3 where x  =  0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, and 1.0. From these measurements, we confirm that there is a progressive change in the physical properties with doping. At the same time, all our samples exhibit clear anomalies at T N, even in the samples where x  =  0.5 and 0.75. This is opposed to some earlier ideas, which suggests an unusual doping dependence of the anomaly. Our work reveals yet another interesting facet of the spin–lattice coupling issue in hexagonal RMnO3.

  13. Magneto-Electric Nano-Particles for Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Kun; Guduru, Rakesh; Hong, Jeongmin; Liang, Ping; Nair, Madhavan; Khizroev, Sakhrat

    2012-01-01

    This paper for the first time discusses a computational study of using magneto-electric (ME) nanoparticles to artificially stimulate the neural activity deep in the brain. The new technology provides a unique way to couple electric signals in the neural network to the magnetic dipoles in the nanoparticles with the purpose to enable a non-invasive approach. Simulations of the effect of ME nanoparticles for non-invasively stimulating the brain of a patient with Parkinson's Disease to bring the pulsed sequences of the electric field to the levels comparable to those of healthy people show that the optimized values for the concentration of the 20-nm nanoparticles (with the magneto-electric (ME) coefficient of 100 V cm−1 Oe−1 in the aqueous solution) is 3×106 particles/cc, and the frequency of the externally applied 300-Oe magnetic field is 80 Hz. PMID:22957042

  14. Magnetoelectric domain wall dynamics and its implications for magnetoelectric memory

    DOE PAGES

    Belashchenko, K. D.; Tchernyshyov, O.; Kovalev, Alexey A.; ...

    2016-03-30

    Domain wall dynamics in a magnetoelectric antiferromagnet is analyzed, and its implications for magnetoelectric memory applications are discussed. Cr2O3 is used in the estimates of the materials parameters. It is found that the domain wall mobility has a maximum as a function of the electric field due to the gyrotropic coupling induced by it. In Cr2O3, the maximal mobility of 0.1 m/(s Oe) is reached at E≈0.06 V/nm. Fields of this order may be too weak to overcome the intrinsic depinning field, which is estimated for B-doped Cr2O3. These major drawbacks for device implementation can be overcome by applying amore » small in-plane shear strain, which blocks the domain wall precession. Domain wall mobility of about 0.7 m/(s Oe) can then be achieved at E = 0.2 V/nm. Furthermore, a split-gate scheme is proposed for the domain-wall controlled bit element; its extension to multiple-gate linear arrays can offer advantages in memory density, programmability, and logic functionality.« less

  15. Magnetoelectric domain wall dynamics and its implications for magnetoelectric memory

    SciTech Connect

    Belashchenko, K. D.; Tchernyshyov, O.; Kovalev, Alexey A.; Tretiakov, O. A.

    2016-03-30

    Domain wall dynamics in a magnetoelectric antiferromagnet is analyzed, and its implications for magnetoelectric memory applications are discussed. Cr2O3 is used in the estimates of the materials parameters. It is found that the domain wall mobility has a maximum as a function of the electric field due to the gyrotropic coupling induced by it. In Cr2O3, the maximal mobility of 0.1 m/(s Oe) is reached at E≈0.06 V/nm. Fields of this order may be too weak to overcome the intrinsic depinning field, which is estimated for B-doped Cr2O3. These major drawbacks for device implementation can be overcome by applying a small in-plane shear strain, which blocks the domain wall precession. Domain wall mobility of about 0.7 m/(s Oe) can then be achieved at E = 0.2 V/nm. Furthermore, a split-gate scheme is proposed for the domain-wall controlled bit element; its extension to multiple-gate linear arrays can offer advantages in memory density, programmability, and logic functionality.

  16. Assessing transient cross-frequency coupling in EEG data.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Michael X

    2008-03-15

    Synchronization of oscillatory EEG signals across different frequency bands is receiving waxing interest in cognitive neuroscience and neurophysiology, and cross-frequency coupling is being increasingly linked to cognitive and perceptual processes. Several methods exist to examine cross-frequency coupling, although each has its limitations, typically by being flexible only over time or over frequency. Here, a method for assessing transient cross-frequency coupling is presented, which allows one to test for the presence of multiple, dynamic, and flexible cross-frequency coupling structure over both time and frequency. The method is applied to intracranial EEG data, and strong coupling between gamma ( approximately 40-80 Hz) and upper theta ( approximately 7-9 Hz) was observed. This method might have useful applications in uncovering the electrophysiological correlates of cognitive processes.

  17. Enhanced converse magnetoelectric effect in cylindrical piezoelectric-magnetostrictive composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Gaojian; Zhang, Ru; Zhang, Ning

    2016-10-01

    Enhanced converse magnetoelectric (ME) effect has been experimentally observed in cylindrical PZT-Terfenol-D piezoelectric-magnetostrictive bilayered composites, where the piezoelectric and magnetostrictive components are coupled through normal stresses instead of shear stresses that act in most of previous multiferroic composites. A theoretical model based on elastodynamics analysis has been proposed to describe the frequency response of converse ME effect for axial and radial modes in the bilayered cylindrical composites. The theory shows good agreement with the experimental results. The different variation tendency of resonant converse ME coefficient, as well as different variation rate of resonance frequency with bias magnetic field for axial and radial modes is interpreted in terms of demagnetizing effect. This work is of theoretical and technological significance for the application of converse ME effect as magnetic sensor, transducers, coil-free flux switch, etc.

  18. The role of the relative voltage and phase for frequency coupling in a dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, D.; Gans, T.; Semmler, E.; Awakowicz, P.

    2008-08-25

    Frequency coupling in multifrequency discharges is a complex nonlinear interaction of the different frequency components. An alpha-mode low pressure rf capacitively coupled plasma operated simultaneously with two frequencies is investigated and the coupling of the two frequencies is observed to greatly influence the excitation and ionization within the discharge. Through this, plasma production and sustainment are dictated by the corresponding electron dynamics and can be manipulated through the dual-frequency sheath. These mechanisms are influenced by the relative voltage and also the relative phase of the two frequencies.

  19. High temperature magneto-electric effect in yittrium iron garnet (YIG)

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, J.; Chaudhary, S.; Majumdar, P.; Patnaik, S.; Kuanr, B. K.

    2016-05-23

    We report a study on potential multiferroic characteristics of Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG). The emergence of ferroelectricity in YIG is in debate but we provide evidence for strong magneto-electric coupling above room temperature from dielectric constant measurement with and without magnetic field. We find that the apparent pseudo-ferroelectric crossover temperature in YIG varies with frequency. For higher frequency the transition shifts towards higher temperature. This is indicative of relaxor behavior. We have also measured the dielectric constant in the presence of external magnetic field at high temperature that confirms interdependence of magnetic and dielectric properties.

  20. Magneto-electric coupling in antiferromagnet/ferroelectric Mn{sub 2}Au/BaTiO{sub 3} interface

    SciTech Connect

    Plekhanov, Evgeny; Stroppa, Alessandro; Picozzi, Silvia

    2016-08-21

    Within the crucial issue of the electric field control of magnetism, the use of antiferromagnets (AFMs) coupled to ferroelectrics is much less explored than the ferromagnets counterpart, although the first choice might lead to better performances and larger stability with respect to external perturbations (such as magnetic fields). Here, we explore the possibility to control the magnetic anisotropy of a Mn{sub 2}Au layer by reversing the ferroelectric polarization of BaTiO{sub 3} in Mn{sub 2}Au/BaTiO{sub 3} interfaces. By means of a thorough exploration of many possible geometry configurations, we identify the two most stable, corresponding to compressive and tensile strain at the interface. The first appears to be easy-axis, while the second—easy-plane—with a large induced moment on the interface Ti atom. The reversal of ferroelectric polarization changes the anisotropy by approximately 50%, thus paving the way to the control of AFM properties with an electric field.

  1. Current-induced nonlinear magnetoelectric effects in strontium hexaferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavislyak, I. V.; Popov, M. A.; Srinivasan, G.

    2016-12-01

    We report on the observation of nonlinear magnetoelectric effects at room temperature due to a dc current in the ferrimagnetic M -type strontium hexaferrite platelets. Utilizing microwave measurement techniques and data on the shift in magnetic mode frequencies, it was found that a dc current along the hexagonal c axis resulted in a significant decrease in the saturation magnetization and an increase in the uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy field. These changes in the magnetic order parameters were directly proportional to the square of applied electric field and were found to be much higher than variations due to Joule heating. A phenomenological theory that takes into account the current-induced magnetobielectric (MBE) effects is proposed. Expressions for coupling coefficients for MBE effects have been obtained and have been calculated from the variations in magnetic order parameters. The electric field E (or current) tuning of the magnetic modes in Sr M reported here is orders of magnitude stronger than strain mediated E tuning of magnetic resonance in hexaferrite-ferroelectric composites. The nonlinear magnetoelectric effects in hexaferrite, therefore, open up an avenue for the realization of E -tunable broadband microwave and millimeter wave ferrite signal processing devices such as resonators and filters.

  2. Neural Cross-Frequency Coupling Functions

    PubMed Central

    Stankovski, Tomislav; Ticcinelli, Valentina; McClintock, Peter V. E.; Stefanovska, Aneta

    2017-01-01

    Although neural interactions are usually characterized only by their coupling strength and directionality, there is often a need to go beyond this by establishing the functional mechanisms of the interaction. We introduce the use of dynamical Bayesian inference for estimation of the coupling functions of neural oscillations in the presence of noise. By grouping the partial functional contributions, the coupling is decomposed into its functional components and its most important characteristics—strength and form—are quantified. The method is applied to characterize the δ-to-α phase-to-phase neural coupling functions from electroencephalographic (EEG) data of the human resting state, and the differences that arise when the eyes are either open (EO) or closed (EC) are evaluated. The δ-to-α phase-to-phase coupling functions were reconstructed, quantified, compared, and followed as they evolved in time. Using phase-shuffled surrogates to test for significance, we show how the strength of the direct coupling, and the similarity and variability of the coupling functions, characterize the EO and EC states for different regions of the brain. We confirm an earlier observation that the direct coupling is stronger during EC, and we show for the first time that the coupling function is significantly less variable. Given the current understanding of the effects of e.g., aging and dementia on δ-waves, as well as the effect of cognitive and emotional tasks on α-waves, one may expect that new insights into the neural mechanisms underlying certain diseases will be obtained from studies of coupling functions. In principle, any pair of coupled oscillations could be studied in the same way as those shown here. PMID:28663726

  3. Mesoscale Interfacial Dynamics in Magnetoelectric Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Khachaturyan, Armen G.

    2009-08-06

    Theory and modeling of chessboard-like self-assembling of vertically aligned columnar nanostructures in films has been developed. By means of modeling and three-dimensional computational simulations, we proposed a novel self-assembly process that can produce good chessboard nanostructure architectures through a pseudo-spinodal decomposition of an epitaxial film under optimal thermodynamic and crystallographic conditions (appropriate choice of the temperature, composition of the film, and crystal lattice parameters of the film and substrate). These conditions are formulated. The obtained results have been published on Nano Letters. Based on the principles of the formation of chessboard nanostructured films, we are currently trying to find good decomposing material systems that satisfy the optimal conditions to produce the chessboard nanostructure architecture. In addition we are under way doing 'computer experiments' to look for the appropriate materials with the chessboard columnar nanostructures, as a potential candidate for engineering of optical devices, high-efficiency multiferroics, and high-density magnetic perpendicular recording media. We are also currently to investigate the magnetoelectric response of multiferroic chessboard nanostructures under applied electric/magnetic fields. A unified 3-dimensional phase field theory of the strain-mediated magnetoelectric effect in magnetoelectric composites is developed. The theory is based on the established equivalency paradigm: we proved that by using a variational priciple the exact values of the electric, magnetic and strain fields in a magnetoelectric composite of arbitrary morphology and their coupled magneto-electric-mechanical response can be evaluated by considering an equivalent homogeneous system with the specially chosen effective eigenstrain, polarization and magnetization. These equivalency parameters are spatially inhomogeneous fields, which are obtained by solving the time-dependent Ginzburg

  4. Quantification of size effects in the magnetoelectric response of metallic glass/PVDF laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasheras, A.; Gutiérrez, J.; Barandiarán, J. M.

    2016-05-01

    Metallic glass/polyvinylidene fluoride three-layered magnetoelectric laminated composites have been studied. Size effects in the magnetoelectric response arisen both from the reduction of the length of the laminate and from the increase of the operating frequency have been quantified for the lengths ranging from 3 cm down to 0.5 cm. It has been concluded that the decrease in this magnetoelectric response arises mainly from the demagnetizing effects, with reductions of 86% for the longest laminate that increase up to 99% for the shortest one. From these values, an intrinsic magnetoelectric coefficient of 325 V/cm Oe has been obtained.

  5. Magnetoelectric Effect in Ceramics Based on Bismuth Ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jartych, Elżbieta; Pikula, Tomasz; Kowal, Karol; Dzik, Jolanta; Guzdek, Piotr; Czekaj, Dionizy

    2016-04-01

    Solid-state sintering method was used to prepare ceramic materials based on bismuth ferrite, i.e., (BiFeO3)1 - x -(BaTiO3) x and Bi1 - x Nd x FeO3 solid solutions and the Aurivillius Bi5Ti3FeO15 compound. The structure of the materials was examined using X-ray diffraction, and the Rietveld method was applied to phase analysis and structure refinement. Magnetoelectric coupling was registered in all the materials using dynamic lock-in technique. The highest value of magnetoelectric coupling coefficient α ME was obtained for the Bi5Ti3FeO15 compound ( α ME ~ 10 mVcm-1 Oe-1). In the case of (BiFeO3)1 - x -(BaTiO3) x and Bi1 - x Nd x FeO3 solid solutions, the maximum α ME is of the order of 1 and 2.7 mVcm-1 Oe-1, respectively. The magnitude of magnetoelectric coupling is accompanied with structural transformation in the studied solid solutions. The relatively high magnetoelectric effect in the Aurivillius Bi5Ti3FeO15 compound is surprising, especially since the material is paramagnetic at room temperature. When the materials were subjected to a preliminary electrical poling, the magnitude of the magnetoelectric coupling increased 2-3 times.

  6. Deposition of magnetoelectric hexaferrite thin films on substrates of silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, Saba; Izadkhah, Hessam; Vittoria, Carmine

    2016-12-01

    Magnetoelectric M-type hexaferrite thin films (SrCo2Ti2Fe8O19) were deposited using Pulsed Laser Deposition (PLD) technique on Silicon substrate. A conductive oxide layer of Indium-Tin Oxide (ITO) was deposited as a buffer layer with the dual purposes of 1) to reduce lattice mismatch between the film and silicon and 2) to lower applied voltages to observe magnetoelectric effects at room temperature on Silicon based devices. The film exhibited magnetoelectric effects as confirmed by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) techniques in voltages as low as 0.5 V. Without the oxide conductive layer the required voltages to observe magnetoelectric effects was typically about 1000 times larger. The magnetoelectric thin films were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, and ferromagnetic resonance techniques. We measured saturation magnetization of 650 G, and coercive field of about 150 Oe for these thin films. The change in remanence magnetization was measured in the presence of DC voltages and the changes in remanence were in the order of 15% with the application of only 0.5 V (DC voltage). We deduced a magnetoelectric coupling, α, of 1.36×10-9 s m-1 in SrCo2Ti2Fe8O19 thin films.

  7. Magnetoelectric ‘spin’ on stimulating the brain

    PubMed Central

    Guduru, Rakesh; Liang, Ping; Hong, J; Rodzinski, Alexandra; Hadjikhani, Ali; Horstmyer, Jeffrey; Levister, Ernest; Khizroev, Sakhrat

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The in vivo study on imprinting control region mice aims to show that magnetoelectric nanoparticles may directly couple the intrinsic neural activity-induced electric fields with external magnetic fields. Methods: Approximately 10 µg of CoFe2O4–BaTiO3 30-nm nanoparticles have been intravenously administrated through a tail vein and forced to cross the blood–brain barrier via a d.c. field gradient of 3000 Oe/cm. A surgically attached two-channel electroencephalography headmount has directly measured the modulation of intrinsic electric waveforms by an external a.c. 100-Oe magnetic field in a frequency range of 0–20 Hz. Results: The modulated signal has reached the strength comparable to that due the regular neural activity. Conclusion: The study opens a pathway to use multifunctional nanoparticles to control intrinsic fields deep in the brain. PMID:25953069

  8. Neural Cross-Frequency Coupling: Connecting Architectures, Mechanisms, and Functions.

    PubMed

    Hyafil, Alexandre; Giraud, Anne-Lise; Fontolan, Lorenzo; Gutkin, Boris

    2015-11-01

    Neural oscillations are ubiquitously observed in the mammalian brain, but it has proven difficult to tie oscillatory patterns to specific cognitive operations. Notably, the coupling between neural oscillations at different timescales has recently received much attention, both from experimentalists and theoreticians. We review the mechanisms underlying various forms of this cross-frequency coupling. We show that different types of neural oscillators and cross-frequency interactions yield distinct signatures in neural dynamics. Finally, we associate these mechanisms with several putative functions of cross-frequency coupling, including neural representations of multiple environmental items, communication over distant areas, internal clocking of neural processes, and modulation of neural processing based on temporal predictions.

  9. Multiferroic magnetoelectric coupling effect of bilayer La1.2Sr1.8Mn2O7/PbZr0.3Ti0.7O3 complex thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, K.; Zhou, P.; Ma, Z. J.; Qi, Y. J.; Mei, Z. H.; Zhang, T. J.

    2017-05-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) coupling effect of 2-2-type ferromagnetic/ferroelectric bi-layer multiferroic epitaxial thin film (La1.2Sr1.8Mn2O7/PbZr0.3Ti0.7O3, LSMO/PZT) on SrRuO3 (SRO) substrate is investigated systematically by using Landau-Ginzburg-Devonshire (LGD) thermodynamic theory and modified constitutive equations. The calculating results clarify the detail relationships between ME coupling response and the residual strain, the volume fraction of constituent phases, the interface coupling coefficients, the magnetic field and the temperature. It also shows that improved ME coupling response can be modulated by these parameters. External magnetic fields (H1) induced ME coupling effect could be enhanced around Curie Temperature (Tc) of ferromagnetic phase and ME voltage coefficient (αE31) approaches a maximum at H1 ∼ 4.5 kOe near Tc. The remarkable variations of ME coupling response can be used to provide useful guidelines on the design of multifunctional devices.

  10. Magnetoelectric Coupling Characteristics of the La0.67Sr0.33MnO3/PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3(001) Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammouri, Mahmoud; Karpov, Dmitry; Fohtung, Edwin; Vasiliev, Igor

    Multiferroic heterostructures composed of thin layers of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric perovskites have attracted considerable attention in recent years. We apply ab initio computational methods based on density functional theory to study the characteristics of the magnetoelectric coupling at the (001) interface between La0.67Sr0.33MnO3 (LSMO) and PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3(PZT). The calculations are carried out using the Quantum ESPRESSO electronic structure code combined with Vanderbilt ultrasoft pseudopotentials. Our study shows that the interfacial interaction between LSMO and PZT and the polarization of PZT have a strong influence on the distribution of magnetization within the LSMO layer. A significant change in the magnetization of the LSMO layer adjacent to PZT is observed after reversal of the direction of polarization of PZT. Supported by NMSU GREG award. EF is funded by the DoD-AFOSR under Award No FA9550-14-1-0363.

  11. Frequency response enhancement in integrated coupled-cavity DBR lasers.

    SciTech Connect

    Wendt, Joel Robert; Vawter, Gregory Allen; Tauke-Pedretti, Anna; Alford, Charles Fred; Skogen, Erik J.; Chow, Weng Wah; Cajas, Florante G.; Overberg, Mark E.; Torres, David L.; Yang, Zhenshan; Peake, Gregory Merwin

    2010-11-01

    We present a photonic integrated circuit (PIC) composed of two strongly coupled lasers. This PIC utilizes the dynamics of mutual injection locking to increase the relaxation resonance frequency from 3 GHz to beyond 30 GHz.

  12. Induced ferromagnetism and magnetoelectric coupling in ion-beam synthesized BiFeO3-CoFe2O4 nanocomposite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modarresi, H.; Lazenka, V.; Menéndez, E.; Lorenz, M.; Bisht, M.; Volodin, A.; Van Haesendonck, C.; Grundmann, M.; Van Bael, M. J.; Temst, K.; Vantomme, A.

    2016-08-01

    Ferrimagnetic CoFe2O4 (cobalt ferrite) is formed within an epitaxial BiFeO3 (bismuth ferrite) thin film matrix by Co channeled ion implantation and subsequent annealing. The presence of nanoscale CoFe2O4 crystals in the matrix is confirmed by x-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation. The significantly increased magnetic moment and the low-temperature coercive field of the composite system evidence the formation of ferrimagnetic cobalt ferrite and its nanoscale character, respectively. The results demonstrate that ion beam synthesis is an appropriate method to controllably transform a planar system into a granular one, increasing the interface area between cobalt ferrite and bismuth ferrite. The ferroelectric nature of the BiFeO3-CoFe2O4 composite is confirmed by several scanning probe microscopy techniques. At room temperature, the composite exhibits a magnetoelectric voltage coefficient of α ME  =  17.5 V (cm · Oe)-1, while a single-phase BiFeO3 thin film shows a α ME value of 4.2 V (cm · Oe)-1. The high magnetoelectric voltage coefficient is interpreted to be the result of the interfacial interaction between the ferrimagnetic CoFe2O4 nanocrystallites and the multiferroic BiFeO3 matrix.

  13. Multifunctional magnetoelectric materials for device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, N.; Kumar, Ashok; Scott, J. F.; Katiyar, Ram S.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade magnetoelectric (ME) mutiferroic (MF) materials and their devices are one of the highest priority research topics that has been investigated by the scientific ferroics community to develop the next generation of novel multifunctional materials. These systems show the simultaneous existence of two or more ferroic orders, and cross-coupling between them, such as magnetic spin, polarisation, ferroelastic ordering, and ferrotoroidicity. Based on the type of ordering and coupling, they have drawn increasing interest for a variety of device applications, such as magnetic field sensors, nonvolatile memory elements, ferroelectric photovoltaics, nano-electronics etc. Since single-phase materials exist rarely in nature with strong cross-coupling properties, intensive research activity is being pursued towards the discovery of new single-phase multiferroic materials and the design of new engineered materials with strong magneto-electric (ME) coupling. This review article summarises the development of different kinds of multiferroic material: single-phase and composite ceramic, laminated composite and nanostructured thin films. Thin-film nanostructures have higher magnitude direct ME coupling values and clear evidence of indirect ME coupling compared with bulk materials. Promising ME coupling coefficients have been reported in laminated composite materials in which the signal to noise ratio is good for device fabrication. We describe the possible applications of these materials.

  14. Magnetoelectric excitations in multiferroic N i3Te O6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skiadopoulou, Stella; Borodavka, Fedir; Kadlec, Christelle; Kadlec, Filip; Retuerto, Maria; Deng, Zheng; Greenblatt, Martha; Kamba, Stanislav

    2017-05-01

    The spin-order-induced ferroelectric antiferromagnet N i3Te O6 transcends the magnetoelectric performance of all other single-phase multiferroics because it exhibits nonhysteretic colossal magnetoelectric coupling [Y. S. Oh, S. Artyukhin, J. J. Yang, V. Zapf, J. W. Kim, D. Vanderbilt, and S.-W. Cheong, Nat Commun. 5, 3201 (2014), 10.1038/ncomms4201]. We investigated spin and lattice excitations in N i3Te O6 by a combination of infrared, Raman, and THz spectroscopies. Two spin excitations (near 13 and 35 c m-1 ) were observed simultaneously in Raman and time-domain THz spectra below the Néel temperature TN=53 K . We propose to assign them to electromagnons, which are activated by the dynamic magnetoelectric coupling. A third magnon is seen only in the Raman spectra near 206 c m-1 .

  15. High-frequency generation in two coupled semiconductor superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matharu, Satpal; Kusmartsev, Feodor V.; Balanov, Alexander G.

    2013-10-01

    We theoretically show that two semiconductor superlattices arranged on the same substrate and coupled with the same resistive load can be used for a generation of high-frequency periodic and quasiperiodic signals. Each superlattice involved is capable to generate current oscillations associated with drift of domains of high charge concentration. However, the coupling with the common load can eventually lead to synchronization of the current oscillations in the interacting superlattices. We reveal how synchronization depends on detuning between devices and the resistance of the common load, and discuss the effects of coupling and detuning on the high-frequency power output from the system.

  16. Shear strain mediated magneto-electric effects in composites of piezoelectric lanthanum gallium silicate or tantalate and ferromagnetic alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Sreenivasulu, G.; Piskulich, E.; Srinivasan, G.; Qu, P.; Qu, Hongwei; Petrov, V. M.; Fetisov, Y. K.; Nosov, A. P.

    2014-07-21

    Shear strain mediated magneto-electric (ME) coupling is studied in composites of piezoelectric Y-cut lanthanum gallium silicate (LGS) or tantalate (LGT) and ferromagnetic Fe-Co-V alloys. It is shown that extensional strain does not result in ME effects in these layered composites. Under shear strain generated by an ac and dc bias magnetic fields along the length and width of the sample, respectively, strong ME coupling is measured at low-frequencies and at mechanical resonance. A model is discussed for the ME effects. These composites of Y-cut piezoelectrics and ferromagnetic alloys are of importance for shear strain based magnetic field sensors.

  17. Novel microwave magnetic and magnetoelectric composite materials and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettiford, Carl I.

    Bulk microwave magnetic materials and devices have been widely used in different RF/microwave devices such as inductors, filters, circulars, isolators, and phase shifters. With the even increasing level of integration of RFIC and MMIC, there is an urgent need for new microwave magnetic thin film materials and new integrated RF/microwave magnetic devices. In this thesis, we have addressed these needs in three different areas: (1) exchange biased ferromagnetic/anti-ferromagnetic multilayer thin films with enhanced anisotropy fields, (2) magneto-electric heterostructures and devices, and (3) metamaterial multilayers for FMR enhancement, tunability, and plane wave absorption. Metallic soft magnetic thin films have been demonstrated to have high saturation magnetization, large permeability and relatively high self-biased ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) frequencies, showing great promise for applications in integrated RF and microwave magnetic devices. One problem for these metallic magnetic films is however their relatively low anisotropy fields that are typically in the range of 10˜30 Oe, which severely limit their application frequency range. In this work, we investigated the exchange coupled ferromagnetic/anti-ferromagnetic/ferromagnetic CoFe/PtMn/CoFe multilayer films. These CoFe/PtMn/CoFe multilayer films showed a significantly enhanced anisotropy field of 160 Oe, which was 5˜10 times of that of the FeCo films. In addition, a narrow FMR linewidth of 45 Oe at X-band was achieved in the CoFe/PtMn/CoFe trilayer. The exchange coupling in the ferromagnetic/anti-ferromagnetic/ferromagnetic trilayers leads to a significantly enhanced anisotropy field that is crucial for the application of metallic magnetic films in integrated magnetic RF/microwave devices. The magnetoelectric coupling of novel YIG/PZT, FeCoB/PZT and FeGaB/PZT multiferroic heterostructures were investigated at DC and at microwave frequencies. An electrostatically tunable band-reject filter device was

  18. Lumped-equivalent circuit model for multi-stage cascaded magnetoelectric dual-tunable bandpass filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qiu-Shi; Zhu, Feng-Jie; Zhou, Hao-Miao

    2015-10-01

    A lumped-equivalent circuit model of a novel magnetoelectric tunable bandpass filter, which is realized in the form of multi-stage cascading between a plurality of magnetoelectric laminates, is established in this paper for convenient analysis. The multi-stage cascaded filter is degraded to the coupling microstrip filter with only one magnetoelectric laminate and then compared with the existing experiment results. The comparison reveals that the insertion loss curves predicted by the degraded circuit model are in good agreement with the experiment results and the predicted results of the electromagnetic field simulation, thus the validity of the model is verified. The model is then degraded to the two-stage cascaded magnetoelectric filter with two magnetoelectric laminates. It is revealed that if the applied external bias magnetic or electric fields on the two magnetoelectric laminates are identical, then the passband of the filter will drift under the changed external field; that is to say, the filter has the characteristics of external magnetic field tunability and electric field tunability. If the applied external bias magnetic or electric fields on two magnetoelectric laminates are different, then the passband will disappear so that the switching characteristic is achieved. When the same magnetic fields are applied to the laminates, the passband bandwidth of the two-stage cascaded magnetoelectric filter with two magnetoelectric laminates becomes nearly doubled in comparison with the passband filter which contains only one magnetoelectric laminate. The bandpass effect is also improved obviously. This research will provide a theoretical basis for the design, preparation, and application of a new high performance magnetoelectric tunable microwave device. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11172285 and 11472259) and the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. LR13A020002).

  19. A magnetoelectric composite based signal generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetisov, Y. K.; Serov, V. N.; Fetisov, L. Y.; Makovkin, S. A.; Viehland, D.; Srinivasan, G.

    2016-05-01

    Self-oscillations in an active loop consisting of a wide-band amplifier and a magnetoelectric composite in the feedback circuit have been observed. The composite with a ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate bimorph and ferromagnetic Metglas serves as a resonator that determines the frequency of oscillations and provides the feedback voltage. Under amplitude balance and phase matching conditions, the device generated signals at 2.3 kHz, at the bending resonance frequency of the composite. The oscillations were observed over a specific range of magnetic bias H. The shape of the signal generated is dependent on electrical circuit parameters and magnitude and orientation of H.

  20. Broadband/Wideband Magnetoelectric Response

    DOE PAGES

    Park, Chee-Sung; Priya, Shashank

    2012-01-01

    A broadband/wideband magnetoelectric (ME) composite offers new opportunities for sensing wide ranges of both DC and AC magnetic fields. The broadband/wideband behavior is characterized by flat ME response over a given AC frequency range and DC magnetic bias. The structure proposed in this study operates in the longitudinal-transversal (L-T) mode. In this paper, we provide information on (i) how to design broadband/wideband ME sensors and (ii) how to control the magnitude of ME response over a desired frequency and DC bias regime. A systematic study was conducted to identify the factors affecting the broadband/wideband behavior by developing experimental models andmore » validating them against the predictions made through finite element modeling. A working prototype of the sensor with flat bands for both DC and AC magnetic field conditions was successfully obtained. These results are quite promising for practical applications such as current probe, low-frequency magnetic field sensing, and ME energy harvester.« less

  1. The natural frequencies of coupled in-line towers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Q.; Nieh, C. D.; Cai, J.; Zhang, M.

    1989-10-01

    There are many tall, slender fractionating towers and distilling towers in oil refineries and chemical plants. Frequently, several towers are arranged in a line; they may also be coupled structurally by platforms at various levels. The designer must take steps to assure that damage due to wind loads, seismic loads, or wind-induced vibration cannot occur. The natural frequencies of the coupled towers, especially the lowest frequency, are the most important parameters for dynamic analyses. This is the problem addressed here. The results obtained from a newly developed analytical procedure are compared with measurements in the field, and are in good agreement.

  2. Dynamics of phase oscillators with generalized frequency-weighted coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Can; Gao, Jian; Xiang, Hairong; Jia, Wenjing; Guan, Shuguang; Zheng, Zhigang

    2016-12-01

    Heterogeneous coupling patterns among interacting elements are ubiquitous in real systems ranging from physics, chemistry to biology communities, which have attracted much attention during recent years. In this paper, we extend the Kuramoto model by considering a particular heterogeneous coupling scheme in an ensemble of phase oscillators, where each oscillator pair interacts with different coupling strength that is weighted by a general function of the natural frequency. The Kuramoto theory for the transition to synchronization can be explicitly generalized, such as the expression for the critical coupling strength. Also, a self-consistency approach is developed to predict the stationary states in the thermodynamic limit. Moreover, Landau damping effects are further revealed by means of linear stability analysis and resonance poles theory below the critical threshold, which turns to be far more generic. Our theoretical analysis and numerical results are consistent with each other, which can help us understand the synchronization transition in general networks with heterogenous couplings.

  3. Equivalent magnetic noise reduction at high frequency range due to polarized direction optimization in Terfenol-D/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 magnetoelectric laminate sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Cong; Ma, Jiashuai; Yao, Meng; Di, Wenning; Lin, Di; Xu, Haiqing; Wang, Wei; Luo, Haosu

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the responsivities and output voltage noise power spectral densities of magnetoelectric (ME) laminate sensors, consisting of length magnetized Terfenol-D alloys and transverse/width poled Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMNT) crystals (i.e. L-T mode and L-W mode respectively), which are directly integrated with custom-build low noise charge amplifier circuits. Both the theoretical analyses and experimental results prove that the L-W mode sensor with the optimized polarized direction of the PMNT plate possesses lower magnetic detection limit at the interested high frequency range of 10 kHz≤f≤50 kHz. The equivalent magnetic noise (EMN) of the L-W mode sensor is 0.78 pT/Hz1/2 at 30 kHz, which is about 1.7 times lower than the 1.35 pT/Hz1/2 for conventional L-T mode sensor. Furthermore, an effective method of using operational amplifiers with low equivalent input noise voltage and employing ME laminate composites with high voltage coefficient to reduce the EMNs of the ME laminate sensors at high frequency range has been established.

  4. Controlled self-assembly of multiferroic core-shell nanoparticles exhibiting strong magneto-electric effects

    SciTech Connect

    Sreenivasulu, Gollapudi; Hamilton, Sean L.; Lehto, Piper R.; Srinivasan, Gopalan; Popov, Maksym; Chavez, Ferman A.

    2014-02-03

    Ferromagnetic-ferroelectric composites show strain mediated coupling between the magnetic and electric sub-systems due to magnetostriction and piezoelectric effects associated with the ferroic phases. We have synthesized core-shell multiferroic nano-composites by functionalizing 10–100 nm barium titanate and nickel ferrite nanoparticles with complementary coupling groups and allowing them to self-assemble in the presence of a catalyst. The core-shell structure was confirmed by electron microscopy and magnetic force microscopy. Evidence for strong strain mediated magneto-electric coupling was obtained by static magnetic field induced variations in the permittivity over 16–18 GHz and polarization and by electric field induced by low-frequency ac magnetic fields.

  5. Scaling laws for dual radio-frequency capacitively coupled discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, T.H.

    2005-10-01

    The characteristics of dual radio-frequency capacitively coupled discharges are studied based on a homogeneous analytic model. We are considering a planar plasma device that can be approximated using a one-dimensional model. A set of equations describing the dynamics of the system are presented and used to give the analytic scaling laws. Scaling laws relating the drive frequencies and the applied voltages of dual radio-frequency sources to operating functions such as plasma density and plasma potential are examined and compared with numerical simulations.

  6. Nonlinear frequency coupling in dual radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Waskoenig, J.; Gans, T.

    2010-05-03

    Plasma ionization, and associated mode transitions, in dual radio-frequency driven atmospheric pressure plasmas are governed through nonlinear frequency coupling in the dynamics of the plasma boundary sheath. Ionization in low-power mode is determined by the nonlinear coupling of electron heating and the momentary local plasma density. Ionization in high-power mode is driven by electron avalanches during phases of transient high electric fields within the boundary sheath. The transition between these distinctly different modes is controlled by the total voltage of both frequency components.

  7. Giant magnetoelectric effects in ferrite - PZT multilayer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivasan, G.; Rasmussen, E. T.

    2002-03-01

    Materials that respond to both electric and magnetic fields are said to be magnetoelectric (ME) and facilitate field conversion. One way in principle to accomplish strong ME effects is a composite of magnetostrictive and piezoelectric materials in which the coupling is mediated by mechanical deformation. This report is on the synthesis of novel multilayers of magnetostrictive nickel zinc ferrite (NZFO) and piezoelectric lead zirconate titanate (PZT) that show a giant ME effect and maximum field conversion efficiency [1]. Bilayers and multilayers were prepared from thick films obtained by tape casting. The ME voltage coefficient was measured as a function of sample and experimental parameters. The coefficient ranged from 30 to 1500 mV/cm Oe, depending on the sample composition, volume fraction, and field orientation. The transverse coupling is an order of magnitude stronger than the longitudinal coefficient. The ME coefficient is maximum at room temperature and increases with increasing frequency. Data on the dependence of ME coupling on volume fraction of the two phases and bias magnetic field are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. - work supported by a grant from the NSF (DMR-0072144) 1. G. Srinivasan, E. T. Rasmussen, J. Gallegos, R. Srinivasan, Yu. I. Bokhan, and V. M. Laletin, Phys. Rev. B 64, 214408 (2001).

  8. Characterizing a Superconducting Resonator with Frequency-Compensated Tunable Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenner, James; Campbell, B.; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Hoi, I.-C.; Kelly, J.; Megrant, A.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Quintana, C.; Vainsencher, A.; White, T. C.; Barends, R.; Chen, Y.; Fowler, A. G.; Jeffrey, E.; Mutus, J. Y.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Martinis, John M.

    2015-03-01

    Deterministic quantum state transfer between devices on different chips requires the ability to transfer quantum states between traveling qubits and fixed logic qubits. Reflections must be minimized to avoid energy loss and phase interference; this requires tunable coupling to an inter-chip line while the two devices are at equal frequencies. To achieve this, we present a 6GHz superconducting coplanar resonator with tunable coupling to a 50 Ohm transmission line. We compensate for the resulting shift in resonator frequency by simultaneously tuning a second SQUID. We further demonstrate the device coherence and the ability both to release a single-frequency shaped pulse into the transmission line and to efficiently capture a shaped pulse, prerequisites for efficient inter-chip deterministic quantum state transfer.

  9. Understanding the dynamic magnetization process for the magnetoelectric effect in multiferroic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gualdi, A. J.; Zabotto, F. L.; Garcia, D.; Bhalla, A.; Guo, R.; de Camargo, P. C.; de Oliveira, A. J. A.

    2016-03-01

    Based on a magnetic relaxation model, an approach that includes the spin dynamics is proposed and applied to describe the magnetoelectric (ME) effect frequency dependence for a 0-3 type composite at low temperatures. Our results show that the ME coefficient, in low temperatures, for PMN-PT/CFO ( (1 -x )P b (M g1 /3N b2 /3)-x P b T i O3/C o F e2O4 ) composite has a step-like behavior on the hysteresis loop for frequency of 1 kHz, contrasting with the results at low frequencies (10 Hz). This approach assumes that the ferromagnetic and ferroelectric phases are coupled through the interactions of the spins of the ferromagnetic phase with the composite phonons by spin/lattice relaxation.

  10. Nonvolatile transtance change random access memory based on magnetoelectric P(VDF-TrFE)/Metglas heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Peipei; Shang, Dashan; Shen, Jianxin; Chai, Yisheng; Yang, Chuansen; Zhai, Kun; Cong, Junzhuang; Shen, Shipeng; Sun, Young

    2016-12-01

    Transtance change random access memory (TCRAM) is a type of nonvolatile memory based on the nonlinear magnetoelectric coupling effects of multiferroics. In this work, ferroelectric P(VDF-TrFE) thin films were prepared on Metglas foil substrates by the sol-gel technique to form multiferroic heterostructures. The magnetoelectric voltage coefficient of the heterostructure can be switched reproducibly to different levels between positive and negative values by applying selective electric-field pulses. Compared with bulk multiferroic heterostructures, the polarization switching voltage was reduced to 7 V. Our facile technological approach enables this organic magnetoelectric heterostructure as a promising candidate for the applications in multilevel TCRAM devices.

  11. Room temperature nonlinear magnetoelectric effect in lead-free and Nb-doped AlFeO{sub 3} compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Cótica, Luiz F.; Santos, Guilherme M.; Santos, Ivair A.; Freitas, Valdirlei F.; Coelho, Adelino A.; Pal, Madhuparna; Guo, Ruyan; Bhalla, Amar S.; Garcia, Ducinei; Eiras, José A.

    2015-02-14

    It is still a challenging problem to obtain technologically useful materials displaying strong magnetoelectric coupling at room temperature. In the search for new effects and materials to achieve this kind of coupling, a nonlinear magnetoelectric effect was proposed in the magnetically disordered relaxor ferroelectric materials. In this context, the aluminum iron oxide (AlFeO{sub 3}), a room temperature ferroelectric relaxor and magnetic spin glass compound, emerges as an attractive lead-free magnetoelectric material along with nonlinear magnetoelectric effects. In this work, static, dynamic, and temperature dependent ferroic and magnetoelectric properties in lead-free AlFeO{sub 3} and 2 at. % Nb-doped AlFeO{sub 3} multiferroic magnetoelectric compositions are studied. Pyroelectric and magnetic measurements show changes in ferroelectric and magnetic states close to each other (∼200 K). The magnetoelectric coefficient behavior as a function of H{sub bias} suggests a room temperature nonlinear magnetoelectric coupling in both single-phase and Nb-doped AlFeO{sub 3}-based ceramic compositions.

  12. Asymmetric backscattering from the hybrid magneto-electric meta particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozlov, Vitali; Filonov, Dmitry; Shalin, Alexander S.; Steinberg, Ben Z.; Ginzburg, Pavel

    2016-11-01

    The optical theorem relates the total scattering cross-section of a given structure with its forward scattering, but does not impose any restrictions on other directions. Strong backward-forward asymmetry in scattering could be achieved by exploring retarded coupling between particles, exhibiting both electric and magnetic resonances. Here, a hybrid magneto-electric particle (HMEP), consisting of a split ring resonator acting as a magnetic dipole and a wire antenna acting as an electric dipole, is shown to possess asymmetric scattering properties. When illuminated from opposite directions with the same polarization of the electric field, the structure has exactly the same forward scattering, whereas the backward scattering is drastically different. The scattering cross section is shown to be as low as zero at a narrow frequency range when illuminated from one side, while being maximal at the same frequency range when illuminated from the other side. Theoretical predictions of the phenomena are supported with both numerical and experimental conformations, obtained at the GHz frequency range, and all are in a good agreement with each other. HMEP meta-particles could be used as building blocks for various metamaterials assembling solar cells, invisibility cloaks, holographic masks, etc.

  13. Subterahertz excitations and magnetoelectric effects in hexaferrite-piezoelectric bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Ustinov, Alexey B.; Srinivasan, G.

    2008-10-06

    A frequency-agile hexaferrite-piezoelectric composite for potential device applications at subterahertz frequencies is studied. The bilayer is composed of aluminum substituted barium hexagonal ferrite (BaAl{sub 2}Fe{sub 10}O{sub 19}) and lead zirconate titanate (PZT). A dc electric field applied to PZT results in mechanical deformation of the ferrite, leading to a frequency shift in ferromagnetic resonance. The bilayer demonstrates magnetoelectric interaction coefficient of about 0.37 Oe cm/kV.

  14. Self-biased large magnetoelectric coupling in co-sintered Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} based piezoelectric and CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} based magnetostrictive bilayered composite

    SciTech Connect

    Kumari, Mukesh; Singh, Amrita; Chatterjee, Ratnamala E-mail: ratnamalac@gmail.com; Gupta, Arti; Prakash, Chandra

    2014-12-28

    In this work, magnetoelectric properties of a co-sintered bilayered composite of non-lead based piezoelectric 0.97(Bi{sub 0.5}Na{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3})–0.03(K{sub 0.47}Na{sub 0.47}Li{sub 0.06}Nb{sub 0.74}Sb{sub 0.06}Ta{sub 0.2}O{sub 3}) and magnetostrictive Co{sub 0.6}Zn{sub 0.4}Fe{sub 1.7}Mn{sub 0.3}O{sub 4} are presented. Similar optimal sintering conditions of the individual components lead to a very clean interface as evidenced in the scanning electron microscopy, angle dispersive X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) results. Clean interface results in strong intimate mechanical coupling between both components and causes a maximum transfer of induced strain, leading to a large magnetoelectric coupling ∼142 mV/cm·Oe measured in longitudinally magnetized-transversely polarized configuration (L-T mode). Remnant polarization ∼32 μC/cm{sup 2}, remnant magnetization ∼0.50 emu/g, and sufficiently high self biased magnetoelectricity ∼135 mV/cm Oe (L-T mode) were observed for this composite.

  15. Coupling effects in inductive discharges with radio frequency substrate biasing

    SciTech Connect

    Schulze, J.; Schuengel, E.; Czarnetzki, U.

    2012-01-09

    Low pressure inductively coupled plasmas (ICP) operated in neon at 27.12 MHz with capacitive substrate biasing (CCP) at 13.56 MHz are investigated by phase resolved optical emission spectroscopy, voltage, and current measurements. Three coupling mechanisms are found potentially limiting the separate control of ion energy and flux: (i) Sheath heating due to the substrate biasing affects the electron dynamics even at high ratios of ICP to CCP power. At fixed CCP power, (ii) the substrate sheath voltage and (iii) the amplitude as well as frequency of plasma series resonance oscillations of the RF current are affected by the ICP power.

  16. Strain mediated magnetoelectric coupling induced in (x) Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-(1-x) MgFe2O4 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manjusha; Yadav, K. L.; Adhlakha, Nidhi; Shah, Jyoti; Kotnala, R. K.

    2017-06-01

    Particulate composites of ferroelectric and ferrite phases having general formula (x)Bi0.5Na0.5TiO3-(1-x)MgFe2O4 (x=0, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8 and 1.0), equivalently denoted as (x)BNT-(1-x)MgFO were synthesized by solid state reaction method. From X-ray diffraction analysis, the structural transformation from tetragonal to rhombohedral corresponding to BNT phase was observed in composites with x=0.5 to x=0.8. Shifting of (012) BNT peak towards left (x=0.5, 0.8) and right side (x=0.6, 0.7) observed due to occupation of Bi3+ ions at interstitial and substitutional sites into host MgFO lattice respectively. BNT produced strain in MgFO lattice. Scanning electron micrographs show closely packed microstructure with grain size variations from 0.62 to 2.90 μm. The value of magnetoelectric (ME) coupling coefficient increases from 2.42 (x=0.5) to 4.79 (x=0.8) mV/cm. Oe due to strain produced in MgFO and BNT lattices.

  17. Adiabatic frequency conversion with a sign flip in the coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristova, H. S.; Rangelov, A. A.; Montemezzani, G.; Vitanov, N. V.

    2016-09-01

    Adiabatic frequency conversion is a method recently developed in nonlinear optics [H. Suchowski, D. Oron, A. Arie, and Y. Silberberg, Phys. Rev. A 78, 063821 (2008), 10.1103/PhysRevA.78.063821], using ideas from the technique of rapid adiabatic passage (RAP) via a level crossing in quantum physics. In this method, the coupling coefficients are constant and the phase mismatch is chirped adiabatically. In this work, we propose another method for adiabatic frequency conversion, in which the phase mismatch is constant and the coupling is a pulse-shaped function with a sign flip (i.e., a phase step of π ) at its maximum. Compared to the RAP method, our technique has comparable efficiency but it is simpler to implement for it only needs two bulk crystals with opposite χ(2 ) nonlinearity. Moreover, because our technique requires constant nonzero frequency mismatch and has zero conversion efficiency on exact frequency matching, it can be used as a frequency filter.

  18. Frequency shifts in a rubidium frequency standard due to coupling to another standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaduszliwer, Bernardo; Cook, R. A.; Frueholz, R. P.

    1990-01-01

    Highly reliable timing system, such as used on board satellites, may incorporate a hot standby atomic clock besides the active one. RF couplings between them may affect the performance of the active clock. The effect of such couplings between two rubidium atomic clocks was investigated, and it was found that they will add an oscillatory term to the Allan Variance of the active clock, degrading its frequency stability, and that under certain circumstances they may also shift the active clock's operating frequency. These two effects are discussed in detail, and the level of isolation required to render them negligible is established.

  19. Properties of epitaxial (210) iron garnet films exhibiting the magnetoelectric effect

    SciTech Connect

    Arzamastseva, G. V.; Balbashov, A. M.; Lisovskii, F. V. Mansvetova, E. G.; Temiryazev, A. G.; Temiryazeva, M. P.

    2015-04-15

    The properties of epitaxial magnetic (LuBi){sub 3}(FeGa){sub 5}O{sub 12} iron garnet films grown on (210) substrates, which exhibit the magnetoelectric effect, are experimentally studied. The induced anisotropy and the behavior of the domain structure in the films are investigated in uniform and nonuniform external fields. The existing hypotheses about the nature of the magnetoelectric coupling in such films are critically analyzed.

  20. Synchronization of phase oscillators with frequency-weighted coupling

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Can; Sun, Yuting; Gao, Jian; Qiu, Tian; Zheng, Zhigang; Guan, Shuguang

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the first-order synchronization transition has been studied in systems of coupled phase oscillators. In this paper, we propose a framework to investigate the synchronization in the frequency-weighted Kuramoto model with all-to-all couplings. A rigorous mean-field analysis is implemented to predict the possible steady states. Furthermore, a detailed linear stability analysis proves that the incoherent state is only neutrally stable below the synchronization threshold. Nevertheless, interestingly, the amplitude of the order parameter decays exponentially (at least for short time) in this regime, resembling the Landau damping effect in plasma physics. Moreover, the explicit expression for the critical coupling strength is determined by both the mean-field method and linear operator theory. The mechanism of bifurcation for the incoherent state near the critical point is further revealed by the amplitude expansion theory, which shows that the oscillating standing wave state could also occur in this model for certain frequency distributions. Our theoretical analysis and numerical results are consistent with each other, which can help us understand the synchronization transition in general networks with heterogenous couplings. PMID:26903110

  1. Synchronization of phase oscillators with frequency-weighted coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Can; Sun, Yuting; Gao, Jian; Qiu, Tian; Zheng, Zhigang; Guan, Shuguang

    2016-02-01

    Recently, the first-order synchronization transition has been studied in systems of coupled phase oscillators. In this paper, we propose a framework to investigate the synchronization in the frequency-weighted Kuramoto model with all-to-all couplings. A rigorous mean-field analysis is implemented to predict the possible steady states. Furthermore, a detailed linear stability analysis proves that the incoherent state is only neutrally stable below the synchronization threshold. Nevertheless, interestingly, the amplitude of the order parameter decays exponentially (at least for short time) in this regime, resembling the Landau damping effect in plasma physics. Moreover, the explicit expression for the critical coupling strength is determined by both the mean-field method and linear operator theory. The mechanism of bifurcation for the incoherent state near the critical point is further revealed by the amplitude expansion theory, which shows that the oscillating standing wave state could also occur in this model for certain frequency distributions. Our theoretical analysis and numerical results are consistent with each other, which can help us understand the synchronization transition in general networks with heterogenous couplings.

  2. Exchange biasing of magnetoelectric composites.

    PubMed

    Lage, Enno; Kirchhof, Christine; Hrkac, Viktor; Kienle, Lorenz; Jahns, Robert; Knöchel, Reinhard; Quandt, Eckhard; Meyners, Dirk

    2012-04-22

    Magnetoelectric composite materials are promising candidates for highly sensitive magnetic-field sensors. However, the composites showing the highest reported magnetoelectric coefficients require the presence of external d.c. magnetic bias fields, which is detrimental to their use as sensitive high-resolution magnetic-field sensors. Here, we report magnetoelectric composite materials that instead rely on intrinsic magnetic fields arising from exchange bias in the device. Thin-film magnetoelectric two-two composites were fabricated by magnetron sputtering on silicon-cantilever substrates. The composites consist of piezoelectric AlN and multilayers with the sequence Ta/Cu/Mn(70)Ir(30)/Fe(50)Co(50) or Ta/Cu/Mn(70)Ir(30)/Fe(70.2)Co(7.8)Si(12)B(10) serving as the magnetostrictive component. The thickness of the ferromagnetic layers and angle dependency of the exchange bias field are used to adjust the shift of the magnetostriction curve in such a way that the maximum piezomagnetic coefficient occurs at zero magnetic bias field. These self-biased composites show high sensitivity to a.c. magnetic fields with a maximum magnetoelectric coefficient of 96 V cm(-1) Oe(-1) at mechanical resonance.

  3. Exchange biasing of magnetoelectric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lage, Enno; Kirchhof, Christine; Hrkac, Viktor; Kienle, Lorenz; Jahns, Robert; Knöchel, Reinhard; Quandt, Eckhard; Meyners, Dirk

    2012-06-01

    Magnetoelectric composite materials are promising candidates for highly sensitive magnetic-field sensors. However, the composites showing the highest reported magnetoelectric coefficients require the presence of external d.c. magnetic bias fields, which is detrimental to their use as sensitive high-resolution magnetic-field sensors. Here, we report magnetoelectric composite materials that instead rely on intrinsic magnetic fields arising from exchange bias in the device. Thin-film magnetoelectric two-two composites were fabricated by magnetron sputtering on silicon-cantilever substrates. The composites consist of piezoelectric AlN and multilayers with the sequence Ta/Cu/Mn70Ir30/Fe50Co50 or Ta/Cu/Mn70Ir30/Fe70.2Co7.8Si12B10 serving as the magnetostrictive component. The thickness of the ferromagnetic layers and angle dependency of the exchange bias field are used to adjust the shift of the magnetostriction curve in such a way that the maximum piezomagnetic coefficient occurs at zero magnetic bias field. These self-biased composites show high sensitivity to a.c. magnetic fields with a maximum magnetoelectric coefficient of 96 V cm-1 Oe-1 at mechanical resonance.

  4. Observation of the universal magnetoelectric effect in a 3D topological insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziom, V.; Shuvaev, A.; Pimenov, A.; Astakhov, G. V.; Ames, C.; Bendias, K.; Böttcher, J.; Tkachov, G.; Hankiewicz, E. M.; Brüne, C.; Buhmann, H.; Molenkamp, L. W.

    2017-05-01

    The electrodynamics of topological insulators (TIs) is described by modified Maxwell's equations, which contain additional terms that couple an electric field to a magnetization and a magnetic field to a polarization of the medium, such that the coupling coefficient is quantized in odd multiples of α/4π per surface. Here we report on the observation of this so-called topological magnetoelectric effect. We use monochromatic terahertz (THz) spectroscopy of TI structures equipped with a semitransparent gate to selectively address surface states. In high external magnetic fields, we observe a universal Faraday rotation angle equal to the fine structure constant α=e2/2hc (in SI units) when a linearly polarized THz radiation of a certain frequency passes through the two surfaces of a strained HgTe 3D TI. These experiments give insight into axion electrodynamics of TIs and may potentially be used for a metrological definition of the three basic physical constants.

  5. The functional role of cross-frequency coupling

    PubMed Central

    Canolty, Ryan T.; Knight, Robert T.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that cross-frequency coupling (CFC) may serve a functional role in neuronal computation, communication, and learning. In particular, the strength of phase-amplitude CFC differs across brain areas in a task-relevant manner, changes quickly in response to sensory, motor, and cognitive events, and correlates with performance in learning tasks. Importantly, while high-frequency brain activity reflects local domains of cortical processing, low-frequency brain rhythms are dynamically entrained across distributed brain regions by both external sensory input and internal cognitive events. CFC may thus serve as a mechanism to transfer information from large-scale brain networks operating at behavioral timescales to the fast, local cortical processing required for effective computation and synaptic modification, thus integrating functional systems across multiple spatiotemporal scales. PMID:20932795

  6. Vortex dynamics and frequency splitting in vertically coupled nanomagnets

    DOE PAGES

    Stebliy, M. E.; Jain, S.; Kolesnikov, A. G.; ...

    2017-04-25

    Here, we explored the dynamic response of a vortex core in a circular nanomagnet by manipulating its dipole-dipole interaction with another vortex core confined locally on top of the nanomagnet. A clear frequency splitting is observed corresponding to the gyrofrequencies of the two vortex cores. The peak positions of the two resonance frequencies can be engineered by controlling the magnitude and direction of the external magnetic field. Both experimental and micromagnetic simulations show that the frequency spectra for the combined system is significantly dependent on the chirality of the circular nanomagnet and is asymmetric with respect to the external biasmore » field. We attribute this result to the strong dynamic dipole-dipole interaction between the two vortex cores, which varies with the distance between them. The possibility of having multiple states in a single nanomagnet with vertical coupling could be of interest for magnetoresistive memories.« less

  7. Vortex dynamics and frequency splitting in vertically coupled nanomagnets.

    PubMed

    Stebliy, M E; Jain, S; Kolesnikov, A G; Ognev, A V; Samardak, A S; Davydenko, A V; Sukovatitcina, E V; Chebotkevich, L A; Ding, J; Pearson, J; Khovaylo, V; Novosad, V

    2017-04-25

    We explored the dynamic response of a vortex core in a circular nanomagnet by manipulating its dipole-dipole interaction with another vortex core confined locally on top of the nanomagnet. A clear frequency splitting is observed corresponding to the gyrofrequencies of the two vortex cores. The peak positions of the two resonance frequencies can be engineered by controlling the magnitude and direction of the external magnetic field. Both experimental and micromagnetic simulations show that the frequency spectra for the combined system is significantly dependent on the chirality of the circular nanomagnet and is asymmetric with respect to the external bias field. We attribute this result to the strong dynamic dipole-dipole interaction between the two vortex cores, which varies with the distance between them. The possibility of having multiple states in a single nanomagnet with vertical coupling could be of interest for magnetoresistive memories.

  8. Efficient thermal energy harvesting using nanoscale magnetoelectric heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etesami, S. R.; Berakdar, J.

    2016-02-01

    Thermomechanical cycles with a ferroelectric working substance convert heat to electrical energy. As shown here, magnetoelectrically coupled ferroelectric/ferromagnetic composites (also called multiferroics) allow for an efficient thermal energy harvesting at room temperature by exploiting the pyroelectric effect. By virtue of the magnetoelectric coupling, external electric and magnetic fields can steer the operation of these heat engines. Our theoretical predictions are based on a combination of Landau-Khalatnikov-Tani approach (with a Ginzburg-Landau-Devonshire potential) to simulate the ferroelectric dynamics coupled to the magnetic dynamics. The latter is treated via the electric-polarization-dependent Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation. By performing an adapted Olsen cycle we show that a multiferroic working substance is potentially much more superior to the sole ferroelectrics, as far as the thermal energy harvesting using pyroelectric effect is concerned. Our proposal holds promise not only for low-energy consuming devices but also for cooling technology.

  9. Magnetoelectric and magnetoelastic properties of rare-earth ferroborates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadomtseva, A. M.; Popov, Yu. F.; Vorob'ev, G. P.; Pyatakov, A. P.; Krotov, S. S.; Kamilov, K. I.; Ivanov, V. Yu.; Mukhin, A. A.; Zvezdin, A. K.; Kuz'menko, A. M.; Bezmaternykh, L. N.; Gudim, I. A.; Temerov, V. L.

    2010-06-01

    The magnetic, electric, magnetoelectric, and magnetoelastic properties of rare-earth ferroborates RFe3(BO3)4 (R =Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er) as well as yttrium ferroborate YFe3(BO3)4 have been studied comprehensively. A strong dependence not only of the magnetic but also magnetoelectric properties on the type of rare-earth ion, specifically, on its anisotropy, which determines the magnetic structure and the large contribution to the electric polarization, has been found. This is manifested in the strong temperature dependence of the polarization below the Néel point TN and its specific field dependence, which is determined by the competition between the external and exchange f-d fields. A close correlation has been found between the magnetoelastic properties of ferroborates and the magnetoelastic and magnetic anomalies at magnetic-field induced phase transitions. It is found that in easy-plane ferroborates, together with magnetic-field induced electric polarization spontaneous polarization also arises below the Néel point. The ferroelectric ordering in ferroborates is of extrinsic character, giving rise to strong magnetoelectric coupling below TN. Aside from the antiferromagnetic phase transition, the particulars of the structural phase transition accompanied by anomalies of the dielectric and magnetoelectric properties are examined for the first time. The character of the dielectric anomalies at a structural transition is analyzed for the first time on the basis of Landau's approach.

  10. Effects of driving frequency on properties of inductively coupled plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godyak, Valery; Kolobov, Vladimir

    2016-10-01

    Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) can be maintained over a wide range of driving frequencies from 50 Hz up to GHz. In this paper, we analyze how the properties of ICP depend on driving frequency ω. With respect to the time of ion transport to the walls, τd and the electron energy relaxation time τɛ three operating regimes are distinguished. The quasi-static regime, ωτd << 1 , the high-frequency regime, ωτɛ >> 1 and the intermediate dynamic regime, 1 /τd < ω <1 /τɛ. In the quasi-static regime, plasma density oscillates significantly over the field period. In the high-frequency regime, the plasma density and the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) are constant. In the dynamic regime, the plasma density is constant, while the EEDF varies over the field period. Depending on ICP configuration, the induced by the coil magnetic fields inside ICP, Bc can be zero or not. For example, in ICP maintained by a long helical coil with the plasma current flowing outside the coil, Bc = 0 , while when the plasma current flows inside the coil, Bc ≠ 0 . We show that in the latter case, in the quasi-static regimes, electrons become magnetized over a significant part of the period that may strongly affect the plasma properties. Examples of ICP simulations in different frequency regimes will be demonstrated in this paper.

  11. Magnetoelectric switching of exchange bias.

    PubMed

    Borisov, Pavel; Hochstrat, Andreas; Chen, Xi; Kleemann, Wolfgang; Binek, Christian

    2005-03-25

    The perpendicular exchange bias field, H(EB), of the magnetoelectric heterostructure Cr2O3(111)/(Co/Pt)(3) changes sign after field cooling to below the Néel temperature of Cr2O3 in either parallel or antiparallel axial magnetic and electric freezing fields. The switching of H(EB) is explained by magnetoelectrically induced antiferromagnetic single domains which extend to the interface, where the direction of their end spins controls the sign of H(EB). Novel applications in magnetoelectronic devices seem possible.

  12. Enhancement of magnetoelectric operating temperature in compressed Cr2O3 under hydrostatic pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kota, Yohei; Yoshimori, Yusuke; Imamura, Hiroshi; Kimura, Tsuyoshi

    2017-01-01

    The effect of hydrostatic pressure on structure and magnetism was investigated by a combined theoretical and experimental study for Cr2O3 showing the linear magnetoelectric effect below the Néel temperature TN ≈ 307 K. Based on first-principles calculations and Monte-Carlo simulations, we predicted that TN linearly increases with increasing applied pressure P with the slope of (1/TN)(dTN/dP) = +1.9 × 10-2 GPa-1. This theoretical prediction was qualitatively verified by our experimental observation about the pressure dependence of TN, which was detected by measurements of dielectric constant through the magnetoelectric coupling [(1/TN)(dTN/dP) = +1.6 × 10-2 GPa-1]. These results provide an effective way to enhance magnetoelectric operating temperature in the rare room-temperature magnetoelectric, Cr2O3.

  13. Crystal growth of hexaferrite architecture for magnetoelectrically tunable microwave semiconductor integrated devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Bolin

    Hexaferrites (i.e., hexagonal ferrites), discovered in 1950s, exist as any one of six crystallographic structural variants (i.e., M-, X-, Y-, W-, U-, and Z-type). Over the past six decades, the hexaferrites have received much attention owing to their important properties that lend use as permanent magnets, magnetic data storage materials, as well as components in electrical devices, particularly those operating at RF frequencies. Moreover, there has been increasing interest in hexaferrites for new fundamental and emerging applications. Among those, electronic components for mobile and wireless communications especially incorporated with semiconductor integrated circuits at microwave frequencies, electromagnetic wave absorbers for electromagnetic compatibility, random-access memory (RAM) and low observable technology, and as composite materials having low dimensions. However, of particular interest is the magnetoelectric (ME) effect discovered recently in the hexaferrites such as SrScxFe12-xO19 (SrScM), Ba2--xSrxZn 2Fe12O22 (Zn2Y), Sr4Co2Fe 36O60 (Co2U) and Sr3Co2Fe 24O41 (Co2Z), demonstrating ferroelectricity induced by the complex internal alignment of magnetic moments. Further, both Co 2Z and Co2U have revealed observable magnetoelectric effects at room temperature, representing a step toward practical applications using the ME effect. These materials hold great potential for applications, since strong magnetoelectric coupling allows switching of the FE polarization with a magnetic field (H) and vice versa. These features could lead to a new type of storage devices, such as an electric field-controlled magnetic memory. A nanoscale-driven crystal growth of magnetic hexaferrites was successfully demonstrated at low growth temperatures (25--40% lower than the temperatures required often for crystal growth). This outcome exhibits thermodynamic processes of crystal growth, allowing ease in fabrication of advanced multifunctional materials. Most importantly, the

  14. Magnetoelectric and multiferroic properties in layered 3D transition metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jungmin

    Functional ferroelectric and magnetic materials have played an important role of modern technology in the sensor or storage device industries. Ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism emerge from different origins. However, it is discovered that these two seemingly unrelated phenomena can actually coexist in materials called multiferroics. Since current trends toward device miniaturization have increased interests in combining electronic and magnetic properies into multifunctional materials, multiferroics have attracted great attention. Ferromagnetic ferroelectric multiferroics are especially fascinating not only because they have both ferroic properties, but also because of the magnetoelectric coupling which leads the interaction between the magnetic and electric polarization. Recent theoretical breakthroughs in understanding the coexistence of magnetic and electrical ordering have regenerated a great interests in research of such magnetoelectric multiferroics. The long-sought control of electric polarization by magnetic fields was recently discovered in 'frustrated magnets', for example the perovskites RMnO3, RMn 2O5 (R: rare earth elements), Ni3V 2O8, delafossite CuFeO2, spinel CoCr2O 4, MnWO4, etc. In this dissertation, I have explored several magnetoelectric materials and multiferroics, which show significant magnetoelectric interactions between electric and magnetic orderings. The objects of my projects are focused on understanding the origins of such magnetoelectric couplings and establishing the magnetic/electric phase diagrams and the spin structures. I believe that my works would help to understand the mechanisms of magnetoelectric effects and multiferroics.

  15. Scattering by quasi-gratings and space-frequency coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Saillard, M.; Maystre, D. )

    1993-03-01

    The phenomenon of scattering by rough surfaces is interpreted and analyzed as an interaction process between the incident wave and the Fourier spectrum of the surface. Perturbative and rigorous numerical results are given for the simplest nonperiodic surface, the quasi-grating, which has only two components in its Fourier spectrum. Three different kinds of coupling between the space frequencies of the surface are distinguished. Finally, the rigorous computation of the intensity scattered by a grating having harmonics given by the first three terms of a Fibonacci series is reported. It shows that enhancement or reduction of the scattered intensity in a given direction may occur when many combinations of space frequencies of the surface can generate this direction. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Electromagnetic coupling in frequency domain induced polarisation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Routh, Partha Sarathi

    2000-11-01

    Frequency domain induced polarization (IP) surveys are commonly carried out to provide information about the chargeability structure of the earth. The goals might be as diverse as trying to delineate a mineralized and/or alteration zone for mineral exploration, or to find a region of contaminants for an environmental problem. Unfortunately, the measured responses can have contributions from inductive and galvanic effects of the ground. The inductive components are called EM coupling effects. They are considered to be ``noise'' and much of this thesis is devoted towards either removing these effects, or reformulating the inverse problem so that inductive effects are part of the ``signal''. If the forward modeling is based on galvanic responses only, then the inductive responses must first be removed from the data. The motivation for attacking the problem in this manner is that it is easier to solve D.C. resistivity equation than the full Maxwell's equation. The separation of the inductive response from the total response is derived by expressing the total electric field as a product of an IP response function, and an electric field which depends on EM coupling response. This enables me to generate formulae to obtain IP amplitude (PFE) and phase response from the raw data. The data can then be inverted, using a galvanic forward modeling. I illustrate this with 1D and 3D synthetic examples. To handle field data sets, I have developed an approximate method for estimating the EM coupling effects based upon the assumption that the earth is locally 1D. The 1D conductivity is obtained from a 2D inversion of the low frequency DC resistivity data. Application of this method to a field data set has shown encouraging results. I also examine the EM coupling problem in terms of complex conductivity. I show that if the forward modeling is carried out with full Maxwell's equation, then there is no need to remove EM coupling. I illustrate this with 1D synthetic example. In summary

  17. Influence of doping and doping level on magnetoelectric coupling in layered composites Tb1-xDyxFe2-y/Ba-Ti1-zMzO3+δ (M = Fe, Cr, Mn, Co)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, N.; Fan, J. F.; Cao, H. X.; Wei, J. J.

    2010-06-01

    Perovskites BaTi1-zMzO3+δ (M = Fe, Cr, Mn, Co) has been sol-gel synthesized. Their transformation point of ferroelectric to paraelectric and the latent heat of the transformation were found a little lower than those for pure BaTiO3 (BTO), respectively. Layered composites Tb1-xDyxFe2-y-BaTi1-zMzO3+δ have been fabricated. Their magnetoelectric (ME) effect has been investigated. All the bilayers containing the doped BTO displayed a stronger ME effects than that containing pure BTO does. The bilayer Tb1-xDyxFe2-y-BaTi0.99Cr0.01O3+δ was observed to show a larger ME coupling in the composites containing other doped BTO. While Tb1-xDyxFe2-y-BaTi0.985Fe0.015O3+δ showed the largest ME effects in the bilayers Tb1-xDyxFe2-y-BaTi1-zFezO3+δ (0 ≤ z ≤ 0.02). Additionally, the ME voltage coefficient for the trilayers Tb1-xDyxFe2-y-BaTi0.99M0.01O3+δ-Tb1-xDyxFe2-y was observed to be two or three times larger than that observed in the bilayers composed by the same substances. Theoretical analyses have been given for these observations. All the results suggest that the doped BTO can be a new choice of piezoelectrics in fabricating layered ME composites.

  18. Magnetoelectricity in topological magnetic textures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyatakov, A. P.; Belotelov, V. I.; Kulikova, D. P.; Khokhlov, N. E.; Pyatakova, Z. A.; Nikolaev, A. V.

    2017-10-01

    In this short review various magnetoelectric phenomena in micromagnetism are considered. The new results such as electric field effect on the Bloch lines as well as the electric field blowing of magnetic bubble domains are presented. The possible application in magnetophotonics is also considered.

  19. Cross-Frequency Coupling of Plasma Waves in the Magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazanov, G. V.

    2014-12-01

    Wave-particle and wave-wave interactions are crucial elements of magnetosphere and ionosphere plasma dynamics. Such interactions provide a channel of energy redistribution between different plasma populations, and lead to connections between physical processes developing on different spatial and temporal scales. The lower hybrid waves (LHWs) are particularly interesting for plasma dynamics, because they couple well with both electrons and ions. The excitation of LHWs is a widely discussed mechanism of interaction between plasma species in space and is one of the unresolved questions of magnetospheric multi-ion plasmas. It is demonstrated that large-amplitude Alfven and/or EMIC waves, in particular those associated with lower frequency (LF) turbulence, may generate LHWs in the auroral zone and ring current region and in some cases this serves as the Alfven and/or EMIC waves saturation mechanism. We believe that this described scenario, as well as some other cross-frequency coupling of plasma waves processes that will be discussed in this presentation, can play a vital role in various parts of the magnetospheric plasma, especially in the places under investigation by the NASA THEMIS and Van Allen Probes (formerly known as the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP)) missions.

  20. Multivariate cross-frequency coupling via generalized eigendecomposition

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Michael X

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a new framework for analyzing cross-frequency coupling in multichannel electrophysiological recordings. The generalized eigendecomposition-based cross-frequency coupling framework (gedCFC) is inspired by source-separation algorithms combined with dynamics of mesoscopic neurophysiological processes. It is unaffected by factors that confound traditional CFC methods—such as non-stationarities, non-sinusoidality, and non-uniform phase angle distributions—attractive properties considering that brain activity is neither stationary nor perfectly sinusoidal. The gedCFC framework opens new opportunities for conceptualizing CFC as network interactions with diverse spatial/topographical distributions. Five specific methods within the gedCFC framework are detailed, these are validated in simulated data and applied in several empirical datasets. gedCFC accurately recovers physiologically plausible CFC patterns embedded in noise that causes traditional CFC methods to perform poorly. The paper also demonstrates that spike-field coherence in multichannel local field potential data can be analyzed using the gedCFC framework, which provides significant advantages over traditional spike-field coherence analyses. Null-hypothesis testing is also discussed. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21792.001 PMID:28117662

  1. Coupled vibro-acoustic model updating using frequency response functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nehete, D. V.; Modak, S. V.; Gupta, K.

    2016-03-01

    Interior noise in cavities of motorized vehicles is of increasing significance due to the lightweight design of these structures. Accurate coupled vibro-acoustic FE models of such cavities are required so as to allow a reliable design and analysis. It is, however, experienced that the vibro-acoustic predictions using these models do not often correlate acceptably well with the experimental measurements and hence require model updating. Both the structural and the acoustic parameters addressing the stiffness as well as the damping modeling inaccuracies need to be considered simultaneously in the model updating framework in order to obtain an accurate estimate of these parameters. It is also noted that the acoustic absorption properties are generally frequency dependent. This makes use of modal data based methods for updating vibro-acoustic FE models difficult. In view of this, the present paper proposes a method based on vibro-acoustic frequency response functions that allow updating of a coupled FE model by considering simultaneously the parameters associated with both the structural as well as the acoustic model of the cavity. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated through numerical studies on a 3D rectangular box cavity with a flexible plate. Updating parameters related to the material property, stiffness of joints between the plate and the rectangular cavity and the properties of absorbing surfaces of the acoustic cavity are considered. The robustness of the method under presence of noise is also studied.

  2. Enhancing magnetoelectric effect in multiferroic composite bilayers via flexoelectricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunli; Zhang, Lingli; Shen, Xudong; Chen, Weiqiu

    2016-04-01

    We employ the flexoelectricity to enhance the magnetoelectric (ME) (coupling) effect in multiferroic (MF) composites and structures. An analytical model is presented to predict the ME effect in a MF composite bilayer consisting of piezomagnetic and piezoelectric layers. The flexoelectric effect in the piezoelectric layer is taken into account. The static ME effect in the MF composite bilayer with free boundary conditions is investigated. The results indicate that flexoelectricity can dramatically enhance the ME effect in multiferroic composites and structures.

  3. Acoustic spin pumping in magnetoelectric bulk acoustic wave resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Polzikova, N. I. Alekseev, S. G.; Pyataikin, I. I.; Kotelyanskii, I. M.; Luzanov, V. A.; Orlov, A. P.

    2016-05-15

    We present the generation and detection of spin currents by using magnetoelastic resonance excitation in a magnetoelectric composite high overtone bulk acoustic wave (BAW) resonator (HBAR) formed by a Al-ZnO-Al-GGG-YIG-Pt structure. Transversal BAW drives magnetization oscillations in YIG film at a given resonant magnetic field, and the resonant magneto-elastic coupling establishes the spin-current generation at the Pt/YIG interface. Due to the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) this BAW-driven spin current is converted to a dc voltage in the Pt layer. The dependence of the measured voltage both on magnetic field and frequency has a resonant character. The voltage is determined by the acoustic power in HBAR and changes its sign upon magnetic field reversal. We compare the experimentally observed amplitudes of the ISHE electrical field achieved by our method and other approaches to spin current generation that use surface acoustic waves and microwave resonators for ferromagnetic resonance excitation, with the theoretically expected values.

  4. Acoustically actuated ultra-compact NEMS magnetoelectric antennas.

    PubMed

    Nan, Tianxiang; Lin, Hwaider; Gao, Yuan; Matyushov, Alexei; Yu, Guoliang; Chen, Huaihao; Sun, Neville; Wei, Shengjun; Wang, Zhiguang; Li, Menghui; Wang, Xinjun; Belkessam, Amine; Guo, Rongdi; Chen, Brian; Zhou, James; Qian, Zhenyun; Hui, Yu; Rinaldi, Matteo; McConney, Michael E; Howe, Brandon M; Hu, Zhongqiang; Jones, John G; Brown, Gail J; Sun, Nian Xiang

    2017-08-22

    State-of-the-art compact antennas rely on electromagnetic wave resonance, which leads to antenna sizes that are comparable to the electromagnetic wavelength. As a result, antennas typically have a size greater than one-tenth of the wavelength, and further miniaturization of antennas has been an open challenge for decades. Here we report on acoustically actuated nanomechanical magnetoelectric (ME) antennas with a suspended ferromagnetic/piezoelectric thin-film heterostructure. These ME antennas receive and transmit electromagnetic waves through the ME effect at their acoustic resonance frequencies. The bulk acoustic waves in ME antennas stimulate magnetization oscillations of the ferromagnetic thin film, which results in the radiation of electromagnetic waves. Vice versa, these antennas sense the magnetic fields of electromagnetic waves, giving a piezoelectric voltage output. The ME antennas (with sizes as small as one-thousandth of a wavelength) demonstrates 1-2 orders of magnitude miniaturization over state-of-the-art compact antennas without performance degradation. These ME antennas have potential implications for portable wireless communication systems.The miniaturization of antennas beyond a wavelength is limited by designs which rely on electromagnetic resonances. Here, Nan et al. have developed acoustically actuated antennas that couple the acoustic resonance of the antenna with the electromagnetic wave, reducing the antenna footprint by up to 100.

  5. Cross-frequency coupling in real and virtual brain networks

    PubMed Central

    Jirsa, Viktor; Müller, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    Information processing in the brain is thought to rely on the convergence and divergence of oscillatory behaviors of widely distributed brain areas. This information flow is captured in its simplest form via the concepts of synchronization and desynchronization and related metrics. More complex forms of information flow are transient synchronizations and multi-frequency behaviors with metrics related to cross-frequency coupling (CFC). It is supposed that CFC plays a crucial role in the organization of large-scale networks and functional integration across large distances. In this study, we describe different CFC measures and test their applicability in simulated and real electroencephalographic (EEG) data obtained during resting state. For these purposes, we derive generic oscillator equations from full brain network models. We systematically model and simulate the various scenarios of CFC under the influence of noise to obtain biologically realistic oscillator dynamics. We find that (i) specific CFC-measures detect correctly in most cases the nature of CFC under noise conditions, (ii) bispectrum (BIS) and bicoherence (BIC) correctly detect the CFCs in simulated data, (iii) empirical resting state EEG show a prominent delta-alpha CFC as identified by specific CFC measures and the more classic BIS and BIC. This coupling was mostly asymmetric (directed) and generally higher in the eyes closed (EC) than in the eyes open (EO) condition. In conjunction, these two sets of measures provide a powerful toolbox to reveal the nature of couplings from experimental data and as such allow inference on the brain state dependent information processing. Methodological advantages of using CFC measures and theoretical significance of delta and alpha interactions during resting and other brain states are discussed. PMID:23840188

  6. Giant room temperature magnetoelectric response in strain controlled nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafique, Mohsin; Herklotz, Andreas; Dörr, Kathrin; Manzoor, Sadia

    2017-05-01

    We report giant magnetoelectric coupling at room temperature in a self-assembled nanocomposite of BiFeO3-CoFe2O4 (BFO-CFO) grown on a BaTiO3 (BTO) crystal. The nanocomposite consisting of CFO nanopillars embedded in a BFO matrix exhibits weak perpendicular magnetic anisotropy due to a small out-of-plane compression (˜0.3%) of the magnetostrictive (CFO) phase, enabling magnetization rotation under moderate in-plane compression. Temperature dependent magnetization measurements demonstrate strong magnetoelastic coupling between the BaTiO3 substrate and the nanocomposite film, which has been exploited to produce a large magnetoelectric response in the sample. The reorientation of ferroelectric domains in the BTO crystal upon the application of an electric field (E) alters the strain state of the nanocomposite film, thus enabling control of its magnetic anisotropy. The strain mediated magnetoelectric coupling coefficient α = μ o d M / d E calculated from remnant magnetization at room temperature is 2.6 × 10-7 s m-1 and 1.5 × 10-7 s m-1 for the out-of-plane and in-plane orientations, respectively.

  7. Femtosecond frequency comb measurement of absolute frequencies and hyperfine coupling constants in cesium vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Stalnaker, Jason E.; Mbele, Vela; Gerginov, Vladislav; Fortier, Tara M.; Diddams, Scott A.; Hollberg, Leo; Tanner, Carol E.

    2010-04-15

    We report measurements of absolute transition frequencies and hyperfine coupling constants for the 8S{sub 1/2}, 9S{sub 1/2}, 7D{sub 3/2}, and 7D{sub 5/2} states in {sup 133}Cs vapor. The stepwise excitation through either the 6P{sub 1/2} or 6P{sub 3/2} intermediate state is performed directly with broadband laser light from a stabilized femtosecond laser optical-frequency comb. The laser beam is split, counterpropagated, and focused into a room-temperature Cs vapor cell. The repetition rate of the frequency comb is scanned and we detect the fluorescence on the 7P{sub 1/2,3/2{yields}}6S{sub 1/2} branches of the decay of the excited states. The excitations to the different states are isolated by the introduction of narrow-bandwidth interference filters in the laser beam paths. Using a nonlinear least-squares method we find measurements of transition frequencies and hyperfine coupling constants that are in agreement with other recent measurements for the 8S state and provide improvement by 2 orders of magnitude over previously published results for the 9S and 7D states.

  8. Dynamical regimes of two frequency different chemical oscillators coupled via pulse inhibitory coupling with time delay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proskurkin, I. S.; Vanag, V. K.

    2015-02-01

    Resonance regimes of two frequency different chemical oscillators coupled via pulsed inhibitory coupling with time delay τ have been studied theoretically and experimentally. The Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction is used as a chemical oscillator. Regions of the 1: 1, 2: 3, 1: 2, 2: 5, and 1: 3 resonances, as well as complex oscillations and a regime in which one oscillator is suppressed have been found in the parameter plane "the ratio between the T 2/ T 1-τ." For the 1: 2 resonance, a sharp transition from one synchronized regime (called "0/0.5") to the other one (called "0.2/0.7") has been found. This transition (reminiscent to the transition between in-phase and anti-phase oscillations in case of the 1: 1 resonance) is controlled by time delay τ and the coupling strength.

  9. Frequency dependence of the electrical asymmetry effect in dual-frequency capacitively coupled discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Lafleur, T.; Booth, J. P.

    2013-04-15

    Using experimental measurements complemented with particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, we demonstrate a reduction in the electrical asymmetry effect in capacitively coupled discharges for low excitation frequencies (0.8 MHz < f<10 MHz). These results confirm PIC simulation predictions made by [I. Korolov, Z. Donko, U. Czarnetzki, and J. Schulze, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 45, 465205 (2012)], where this effect was investigated for dual-frequency discharges in which the driving frequencies are phase-shifted harmonics. Because the reduction in electrical asymmetry is a sensitive function of the secondary electron emission coefficient, we are able to non-invasively estimate this coefficient as 0.035 for argon ions incident on aluminium electrodes.

  10. Electrophysiological low-frequency coherence and cross-frequency coupling contribute to BOLD connectivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liang; Saalmann, Yuri B; Pinsk, Mark A; Arcaro, Michael J; Kastner, Sabine

    2012-12-06

    Brain networks are commonly defined using correlations between blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in different brain areas. Although evidence suggests that gamma-band (30-100 Hz) neural activity contributes to local BOLD signals, the neural basis of interareal BOLD correlations is unclear. We first defined a visual network in monkeys based on converging evidence from interareal BOLD correlations during a fixation task, task-free state, and anesthesia, and then simultaneously recorded local field potentials (LFPs) from the same four network areas in the task-free state. Low-frequency oscillations (<20 Hz), and not gamma activity, predominantly contributed to interareal BOLD correlations. The low-frequency oscillations also influenced local processing by modulating gamma activity within individual areas. We suggest that such cross-frequency coupling links local BOLD signals to BOLD correlations across distributed networks.

  11. Electrophysiological low-frequency coherence and cross-frequency coupling contributes to BOLD connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liang; Saalmann, Yuri B.; Pinsk, Mark A.; Arcaro, Michael J.; Kastner, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Brain networks are commonly defined using correlations between blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signals in different brain areas. Although evidence suggests that gamma band (30–100 Hz) neural activity contributes to local BOLD signals, the neural basis of inter-areal BOLD correlations is unclear. We first defined a visual network in monkeys based on converging evidence from inter-areal BOLD correlations during a fixation task, task-free state and anesthesia, and then simultaneously recorded local field potentials (LFPs) from the same four network areas in the task-free state. Low frequency oscillations (< 20 Hz), and not gamma activity, predominantly contributed to inter-areal BOLD correlations. The low frequency oscillations also influenced local processing by modulating gamma activity within individual areas. We suggest that such cross-frequency coupling links local BOLD signals to BOLD correlations across distributed networks. PMID:23217748

  12. Multiferroic and magnetoelectric properties of Ba0.85Ca0.15Zr0.1Ti0.9O3-CoFe2O4 core-shell nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ajith S.; Lekha, C. S. Chitra; Vivek, S.; Saravanan, Venkata; Nandakumar, K.; Nair, Swapna S.

    2016-11-01

    Lead-free magnetoelectric (ME) composites with remarkable ME coupling are required for the realization of eco-friendly multifunctional devices. This work demonstrates the ME properties of Ba0.85Ca0.15Zr0.1Ti0.9O3-CoFe2O4 (BCZT-CFO) core-shell composites synthesized via co-sol-gel technique. Room temperature ferroelectric and ferromagnetic characterization have shown that the samples are magnetic and ferroelectric along with an adequate magnetoelectric coupling of 12.15 mV/(cm Oe). The strong dependence of electric parameters on applied magnetic DC bias fields demonstrated in ferroelectric and magnetoelectric measurements provide a framework for the development of potential magnetoelectric devices. Also, the high sensitivity of magnetoelectric coupling towards the applied AC magnetic field can be used for its application in magnetoelectric sensors.

  13. Mesoscale Interfacial Dynamics in Magnetoelectric Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Shashank, Priya

    2009-12-14

    Biphasic composites are the key towards achieving enhanced magnetoelectric response. In order understand the control behavior of the composites and resultant symmetry of the multifunctional product tensors, we need to synthesized model material systems with the following features (i) interface formation through either deposition control or natural decomposition; (ii) a very high interphase-interfacial area, to maximize the ME coupling; and (iii) an equilibrium phase distribution and morphology, resulting in preferred crystallographic orientation relations between phases across the interphase-interfacial boundaries. This thought process guided the experimental evolution in this program. We initiated the research with the co-fired composites approach and then moved on to the thin film laminates deposited through the rf-magnetron sputtering and pulsed laser deposition process

  14. Note: self-biased magnetic field sensor using end-bonding magnetoelectric heterostructure.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yaoxia; Lu, Caijiang

    2015-03-01

    A high sensitivity magnetic field sensor based on magnetoelectric (ME) coupling is presented. The ME sensor FeCuNbSiB/Nickel-PZT-FeCuNbSiB/Nickel is made by bonding magnetization-graded magnetostrictive materials FeCuNbSiB/Nickel at the free ends of the piezoelectric Pb(Zr1-x,Tix)O3 (PZT) plate. Experiments indicate that the proposed sensor has a zero-bias field sensitivity of 14.7 V/Oe at resonance, which is ∼41.6 times larger than that of previous FeCuNbSiB-PZT-FeCuNbSiB. Furthermore, without external biased field, it can detect dc magnetic field changes as small as ∼9 nT near the resonant frequency. This proposed ME sensor provides new pathways to reducing or even eliminating the need of bias fields for ME sensors.

  15. Magnetoelectric interactions in hot-pressed nickel zinc ferrite and lead zirconante titanate composites

    SciTech Connect

    Srinivasan, G.; DeVreugd, C.P.; Flattery, C.S.; Laletsin, V.M.; Paddubnaya, N.

    2004-09-27

    The synthesis by hot pressing and wide-band (10 Hz-1 MHz) magnetoelectric (ME) characterization of bulk composites of nickel zinc ferrite Ni{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (NZFO) (x=0-0.5) and lead zirconate titanate (PZT) are reported. Hot-pressed samples show an order of magnitude improvement in ME voltage coefficient compared to sintered samples. Frequency dependence of ME coefficients show a three order of magnitude enhancement at electromechanical resonance. The ME coupling is maximum for samples with equal volume of ferrite and PZT. The strongest ME interactions are measured for samples of NZFO (x=0.2) and PZT.

  16. Electronic structure, linear, and nonlinear optical responses in magnetoelectric multiferroic material BiFeO(3).

    PubMed

    Ju, Sheng; Cai, Tian-Yi; Guo, Guang-Yu

    2009-06-07

    BiFeO(3) has attracted great interest for its multiferroic property. The spontaneous electric polarization, multiferroism, and static magnetoelectric coupling have been widely studied both experimentally and theoretically. Here, in this paper, we report on the effects of magnetic ordering, spin fluctuation, and external magnetic field on the linear dielectric function and second-harmonic generation (SHG) in multiferroic BiFeO(3). First, our generalized gradient approximation plus Hubbard U calculations reproduce very well experimental data of linear dielectric function. In the mean time, it is revealed that SHG susceptibilities differ dramatically between antiferromagnetic configuration and ferromagnetic one, which is due to the enhanced contrast in the double-photon resonance absorption. Further Monte Carlo simulation of the coupling between electric order and spin-pair correlation function is presented for the spin fluctuation dependence of SHG. The significant nonlinear optical magnetoelectric effect around the Neel temperature provides novel route to enhancing magnetoelectric coupling in multiferroic materials.

  17. [Frequency of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in couples with fertility problems].

    PubMed

    Rivero, Lázara Rojas; Peña, Martha Rodríguez; Pérez, Carlos Sarría; Monroy, Sara Palma; Sariego Ramos, Idalia; Nodarse, Jorge Fraga

    2002-01-01

    One-hundred and seventy two couples which went for the first time to the Infertility Service of the National Institute of Endocrinology from June 1999 to June 2000, were studied to find out the frequency of Trichomonas vaginalis infection in this group, and determine its interaction with a number of clinical and risk variables. The results yielded that 10.5% were positive to the parasite, the prevailing symptom was leukorrea in women and 96.6% of men showed no symptoms. It was highly significant the fact of having a previous pathological history that might be related to infertility and current T. vaginalis infection. This protozoon was frequently associated with Candida sp. and causative agents of bacterial vaginosis in women and Haemophilus influenzae in men. This parasite seems to play an important role as a likely causative agent to be considered in fertility problems.

  18. Magnetoelectric sensor excitations in hexaferrite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, Saba; Rabinowitz, Jake; Izadkhah, Hessam; Somu, Sivasubramanian; Vittoria, Carmine

    2015-05-01

    We developed techniques for H- and E-field sensors utilizing single phase magnetoelectric (ME) hexaferrite thin films in the frequency range of 1 kHz to 10 MHz. The technique incorporating solenoid coils and multi-capacitors bank was developed to probe the physics and properties of ME hexaferrite film and explore ME effects for sensor detections and tunable device applications. For H-field sensing, we obtained sensitivity of 4 × 10-4 V/Gm and for E-field sensing the sensitivity was 10-3 Gm/V. Tunability of up to 6% was achieved for tunable inductor applications. The proposed fabrication designs lend themselves to significant (˜106) improvements in sensitivity and tunability.

  19. Fluid Modeling of a Very High Frequency Capacitively Coupled Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upadhyay, Rochan; Raja, Laxminarayan; Ventzek, Peter; Iwao, Toshihiko; Ishibashi, Kiyotaka; Esgee Technologies Inc. Collaboration; University of Texas at Austin Collaboration; Tokyo Electron Ltd. Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    Very High Frequency Capacitively Coupled Plasma (VHF-CCP) discharges have been studied extensively for semiconductor manufacturing applications for well over a decade. Modeling of these discharges however poses significant challenges owing to complexity associated with simulation of multiple coupled phenomena (electro-static/magnetic fields and plasma physics) over different scales and the representation of these phenomena in a computational framework. We present 2D simulations of a self-consistent plasma with the electromagnetic field represented using vector and scalar potentials. For a range of operating conditions, the ratio of capacitive and inductive power, calculated using empirical correlations available in the literature, are matched by adjusting both the electrostatic and electromagnetic fields in a decoupled manner. We present results using this model that demonstrate most of the important VHF-CCP discharge phenomena reported in the literature, such as electromagnetic wave versus electrostatic heating and its impact on plasma non-uniformity, wave resonances, etc. while realizing a practically feasible computational model.

  20. Room-temperature magnetoelectric coupling in single-phase BaTiO{sub 3}-BiFeO{sub 3} system

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Su-Chul; Kumar, Ashok; Priya, Shashank; Petkov, Valeri

    2013-04-14

    In this paper, single-phase multiferroic ceramics of (1 - x) BaTiO{sub 3}-x BiFeO{sub 3} (BT - x BFO) were synthesized by solid-solution method in the wide range of material composition (x = 0.025 - 1.0). The changes in crystal structure were confirmed via X-ray diffractions (XRD) and atomic pair distribution functions (PDFs). The room-temperature ME coupling was found to exhibit significant magnitude in the narrow composition window (x = 0.71 - 0.8) where the average crystal structure was found to be rhombohedral. Especially, the BT - 0.725 BFO ceramics containing local monoclinic distortions within rhombohedral phase were found to exhibit high room-temperature ME coefficient ({alpha}{sub ME}) of 0.87 mV/cm{center_dot}Oe with high piezoelectric properties (g{sub 33} = 18.5 Multiplication-Sign 10 mV m N{sup -1} and d{sub 33} = 124 pC N{sup -1}). We believe that the high room-temperature ME coupling in single-phase lead-free BT-BFO ceramics provides a possibility of developing electrically or magnetically tunable thin-film devices.

  1. Role of the apical oxygen in RMnO3 (R = Ho and Lu) low temperature magneto-electric effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermette, Jonathan; Jandl, Serge

    2012-02-01

    Multiferroic materials are promising candidates for new innovative devices, particularly in the field of memory storage. The strong coupling between magnetic ordering and ferroelectricity characterizing these compounds allows the modulation of the electric polarization (magnetic moment) with an external magnetic (electric) field. Hexagonal RMnO3 (Ho to Lu) compounds are type-I multiferroics in which ferroelectricity and magnetism have different sources giving a relative weak magneto-electric coupling with a large polarization. In this case ferroelectricity is induced at a relative high temperature (TC ˜ 800K) following a structural transition, while magnetic ordering of Mn^3+ and R^3+ occurs at lower temperatures (T < 100K). In order to determine which atoms play a major role in the giant low temperature magneto-electric effect, we study the evolutions of infrared active phonon frequencies in HoMnO3 and LuMnO3 under applied magnetic field below THo = 5K. By comparing the renormalized force constants and the Born-effective charges, apical oxygen role in Ho^3+-Mn^3+ superexchange interaction is particularly underlined.

  2. A tightly coupled non-equilibrium model for inductively coupled radio-frequency plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Munafò, A. Alfuhaid, S. A. Panesi, M.; Cambier, J.-L.

    2015-10-07

    The objective of the present work is the development of a tightly coupled magneto-hydrodynamic model for inductively coupled radio-frequency plasmas. Non Local Thermodynamic Equilibrium (NLTE) effects are described based on a hybrid State-to-State approach. A multi-temperature formulation is used to account for thermal non-equilibrium between translation of heavy-particles and vibration of molecules. Excited electronic states of atoms are instead treated as separate pseudo-species, allowing for non-Boltzmann distributions of their populations. Free-electrons are assumed Maxwellian at their own temperature. The governing equations for the electro-magnetic field and the gas properties (e.g., chemical composition and temperatures) are written as a coupled system of time-dependent conservation laws. Steady-state solutions are obtained by means of an implicit Finite Volume method. The results obtained in both LTE and NLTE conditions over a broad spectrum of operating conditions demonstrate the robustness of the proposed coupled numerical method. The analysis of chemical composition and temperature distributions along the torch radius shows that: (i) the use of the LTE assumption may lead to an inaccurate prediction of the thermo-chemical state of the gas, and (ii) non-equilibrium phenomena play a significant role close the walls, due to the combined effects of Ohmic heating and macroscopic gradients.

  3. Influence of constant and ac electric fields on ferromagnetic resonance in magnetoelectric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatarenko, A. S.; Bichurin, M. I.; Petrov, V. M.; Fillipov, D. A.; Srinivasan, G.

    2004-03-01

    A composite of ferromagnetic and ferroelectric phases is expected to show magnetoelectric coupling that is mediated by mechanical deformation. For such composites, we proposed a model to treat the magnetoelectric (ME) coupling at frequencies corresponding to ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) [1,2]. The effect manifests as a shift in the resonance field when subjected to a constant electric field. Here we discuss a theory for the influence of both dc and high frequency electric fields on FMR in the composites. The model predicts a significant increase in the strength of ME coupling when the electric field is tuned to the electromechanical resonance (EMR) frequency. We assume the composite to be a homogeneous medium. By solving combined elastostatics, electrostatics and magnetostatics equations, we estimate the ME constants using effective parameters. The calculations are for 3-0, 0-3 and 2-2 connectivities. Expressions for ME coefficients are obtained as a function of interface coupling and the volume fraction for the piezoelectric phase. Under the influence of a constant electric field E, our model predicts a shift in the ferromagnetic resonance field that is proportional to ME constants. In the presence of an ac electric field, we estimate a strong ME coupling when the frequency is tuned to EMR. As an example, the FMR field shift at 9.3 GHz due an ac electrical field tuned to EMR at 350 kHz is determined for multilayer and bulk composites of nickel ferrite - lead zirconate titanate. It is shown that ME interactions are enhanced by several orders of magnitude compared to off resonance values. 1. M.I. Bichurin, I. A. Kornev, V. M. Petrov, A. S. Tatarenko, Yu. V. Kiliba, and G. Srinivasan. Phys. Rev. B 64, 094409 (2001). 2. M.I. Bichurin, V. M. Petrov, Yu. V. Kiliba, and G. Srinivasan. Phys. Rev. B 66, 134404 (2002). - supported by grants from the Russian Ministry of Education (Å02-3.4-278), the Universities of Russia Foundation (UNR 01.01.007), and the National Science

  4. Enhancing magnetoelectric effect via the curvature of composite cylinder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H. M.; Pan, E.; Chen, W. Q.

    2010-05-01

    We solved analytically the magnetoelectric (ME) effect in a bilayered piezoelectric/piezomagnetic cylinder under harmonic excitation. We revealed that at a fixed thickness ratio of the layers, the static or low-frequency ME effect can be substantially enhanced by increasing the curvature of the cylinder. In the megahertz frequency domain, on the other hand, we observed that the peak ME effect can be considerably increased by decreasing the curvature. We further showed that at a fixed curvature, the ME effect can be tuned to be around the resonant frequency for giant output by varying the boundary condition and thickness ratio.

  5. Magnetoelectric Andreev Effect due to Proximity-Induced Nonunitary Triplet Superconductivity in Helical Metals.

    PubMed

    Tkachov, G

    2017-01-06

    Noncentrosymmetric superconductors exhibit the magnetoelectric effect, which manifests itself in the appearance of the magnetic spin polarization in response to a dissipationless electric current (supercurrent). While much attention has been dedicated to the thermodynamic version of this phenomenon (Edelstein effect), nonequilibrium transport magnetoelectric effects have not been explored yet. We propose the magnetoelectric Andreev effect (MAE), which consists in the generation of spin-polarized triplet Andreev conductance by an electric supercurrent. The MAE stems from the spin polarization of the Cooper-pair condensate due to a supercurrent-induced nonunitary triplet pairing. We propose the realization of such a nonunitary pairing and MAE in superconducting proximity structures based on two-dimensional helical metals-strongly spin-orbit-coupled electronic systems with the Dirac spectrum such as the topological surface states. Our results uncover an unexplored route towards electrically controlled superconducting spintronics and are a smoking gun for induced unconventional superconductivity in spin-orbit-coupled materials.

  6. Magnetoelectric Andreev Effect due to Proximity-Induced Nonunitary Triplet Superconductivity in Helical Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachov, G.

    2017-01-01

    Noncentrosymmetric superconductors exhibit the magnetoelectric effect, which manifests itself in the appearance of the magnetic spin polarization in response to a dissipationless electric current (supercurrent). While much attention has been dedicated to the thermodynamic version of this phenomenon (Edelstein effect), nonequilibrium transport magnetoelectric effects have not been explored yet. We propose the magnetoelectric Andreev effect (MAE), which consists in the generation of spin-polarized triplet Andreev conductance by an electric supercurrent. The MAE stems from the spin polarization of the Cooper-pair condensate due to a supercurrent-induced nonunitary triplet pairing. We propose the realization of such a nonunitary pairing and MAE in superconducting proximity structures based on two-dimensional helical metals—strongly spin-orbit-coupled electronic systems with the Dirac spectrum such as the topological surface states. Our results uncover an unexplored route towards electrically controlled superconducting spintronics and are a smoking gun for induced unconventional superconductivity in spin-orbit-coupled materials.

  7. Peak divergence in the curve of magnetoelectric coefficient versus dc bias magnetic field at resonance region for bi-layer magnetostrictive/piezoelectric composites

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Z. J.; Pan, D. A. Zhang, S. G.; Qiao, L. J.; Jia, Y. M.

    2013-12-15

    Magnetoelectric (ME) coefficient dependence on the bias magnetic field at resonance frequencies for the bi-layered bonded Terfenol-D/Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} composite was investigated. The resonance frequency decreases first and then increases with the bias magnetic field (H{sub DC}), showing a “V” shape in the range of 0 ∼ 5 kOe. Below the resonance frequency, the pattern of ME coefficient dependence on the H{sub DC} shows a single peak, but splits into a double-peak pattern when the testing frequency increases into a certain region. With increasing the frequency, a divergent evolution of the H{sub DC} patterns was observed. Domain motion and ΔE effect combined with magnetostriction-piezoelectric coupling effect were employed to explain this experimental result.

  8. High-sensitivity piezoelectric perovskites for magnetoelectric composites

    PubMed Central

    Amorín, Harvey; Algueró, Miguel; Campo, Rubén Del; Vila, Eladio; Ramos, Pablo; Dollé, Mickael; Romaguera-Barcelay, Yonny; Cruz, Javier Pérez De La; Castro, Alicia

    2015-01-01

    A highly topical set of perovskite oxides are high-sensitivity piezoelectric ones, among which Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 at the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) between ferroelectric rhombohedral and tetragonal polymorphic phases is reckoned a case study. Piezoelectric ceramics are used in a wide range of mature, electromechanical transduction technologies like piezoelectric sensors, actuators and ultrasound generation, to name only a few examples, and more recently for demonstrating novel applications like magnetoelectric composites. In this case, piezoelectric perovskites are combined with magnetostrictive materials to provide magnetoelectricity as a product property of the piezoelectricity and piezomagnetism of the component phases. Interfaces play a key issue, for they control the mechanical coupling between the piezoresponsive phases. We present here main results of our investigation on the suitability of the high sensitivity MPB piezoelectric perovskite BiScO3–PbTiO3 in combination with ferrimagnetic spinel oxides for magnetoelectric composites. Emphasis has been put on the processing at low temperature to control reactions and interdiffusion between the two oxides. The role of the grain size effects is extensively addressed. PMID:27877758

  9. High-sensitivity piezoelectric perovskites for magnetoelectric composites.

    PubMed

    Amorín, Harvey; Algueró, Miguel; Campo, Rubén Del; Vila, Eladio; Ramos, Pablo; Dollé, Mickael; Romaguera-Barcelay, Yonny; Cruz, Javier Pérez De La; Castro, Alicia

    2015-02-01

    A highly topical set of perovskite oxides are high-sensitivity piezoelectric ones, among which Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 at the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) between ferroelectric rhombohedral and tetragonal polymorphic phases is reckoned a case study. Piezoelectric ceramics are used in a wide range of mature, electromechanical transduction technologies like piezoelectric sensors, actuators and ultrasound generation, to name only a few examples, and more recently for demonstrating novel applications like magnetoelectric composites. In this case, piezoelectric perovskites are combined with magnetostrictive materials to provide magnetoelectricity as a product property of the piezoelectricity and piezomagnetism of the component phases. Interfaces play a key issue, for they control the mechanical coupling between the piezoresponsive phases. We present here main results of our investigation on the suitability of the high sensitivity MPB piezoelectric perovskite BiScO3-PbTiO3 in combination with ferrimagnetic spinel oxides for magnetoelectric composites. Emphasis has been put on the processing at low temperature to control reactions and interdiffusion between the two oxides. The role of the grain size effects is extensively addressed.

  10. Magnetoelectric Effect and Magnetodielectric Effect in Magnetic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyungsuk

    Nano-sized magnetic particles represent considerable interests in modern science because their properties are advantageous to applications such as data storage and medical science. In particular, superparamagnetism is a magnetic property which is found in nano-sized (approximately less than 20 nm) ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic particles. Studies have shown that superparamagnetic material shows ferromagnetic magnetization only with an external magnetic field; without an external magnetic field, it loses magnetic properties even at ambient temperature overcoming its intrinsic anisotropy energy. From a magnetic memory standpoint, as bit size decreases, superparamagnetism is a major obstacle to thermal stability due to this volatility, resulting in a loss of information. If it is possible to modulate the superparamagnetic properties of magnetic nanoparticles, this might provide a solution to this critical issue. In this dissertation, we studied the modulation of superparamagnetic properties by applying an electric field on a magnetoelectric composite composed of magnetic nanoparticles and a piezoelectric substrate. The magnetoelectric effect might present an additional solution to memory device in terms of reducing writing energy by using an electric field rather than an electric current. Additionally, for systems lacking a significant magnetoelectric coupling (for instance, magnetic nanoparticles incased in polymer resin), the relationship between the dielectric constant, which is intrinsically related to ferroelectric order, and magnetic anisotropy energy was investigated.

  11. Concurrent operational modes and enhanced current sensitivity in heterostructure of magnetoelectric ring and piezoelectric transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shengyao; Ming Leung, Chung; Kuang, Wei; Wing Or, Siu; Ho, S. L.

    2013-05-01

    A heterostructure possessing two concurrent operational modes: current sensing (CS) mode and current transduction (CT) mode and an enhanced current sensitivity associated with the CT mode is proposed by combining a magnetoelectric ring (MER) with a piezoelectric transformer (PET). The MER is a ring-shaped magnetoelectric laminate having an axially polarized Pb(Zr, Ti)O3 (PZT) piezoelectric ceramic ring sandwiched between two circumferentially magnetized, inter-magnetically biased Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.92 (Terfenol-D) short-fiber/NdFeB magnet/epoxy three-phase magnetostrictive composite rings, while the PET is a Rosen-type PZT piezoelectric ceramic transformer. The current sensitivity (SI) and magnetoelectric voltage coefficient (αV) of the heterostructure in the two operational modes are evaluated theoretically and experimentally. The CS mode provides a large SI of ˜10 mV/A over a flat frequency range of 10 Hz-40 kHz with a high resonance SI of 157 mV/A at 62 kHz. The CT mode gives a 6.4-times enhancement in resonance SI, reaching 1000 mV/A at 62 kHz, as a result of the amplified vortex magnetoelectric effect caused by the vortex magnetoelectric effect in the MER, the matching of the resonance frequencies between the MER and the PET, and the resonance voltage step-up effect in the PET.

  12. Local probing of magnetoelectric properties of PVDF/Fe3O4 electrospun nanofibers by piezoresponse force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Tian; Yue, Zhilian; Wallace, Gordon G.; Du, Yi; Martins, Pedro; Lanceros-Mendez, Senentxu; Higgins, Michael J.

    2017-02-01

    The coupling of magnetic and electric properties in polymer-based magnetoelectric composites offers new opportunities to develop contactless electrodes, effectively without electrical connections, for less-invasive integration into devices such as energy harvesters, sensors, wearable and implantable electrodes. Understanding the macroscale-to-nanoscale conversion of the properties is important, as nanostructured and nanoscale magnetoelectric structures are increasingly fabricated. However, whilst the magnetoelectric effect at the macroscale is well established both theoretically and experimentally, it remains unclear how this effect translates to the nanoscale, or vice versa. Here, PVDF/Fe3O4 polymer-based composite nanofibers are fabricated using electrospinning to investigate their piezoelectric and magnetoelectric properties at the single nanofiber level.

  13. Local probing of magnetoelectric properties of PVDF/Fe3O4 electrospun nanofibers by piezoresponse force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Tian; Yue, Zhilian; Wallace, Gordon G; Du, Yi; Martins, Pedro; Lanceros-Mendez, Senentxu; Higgins, Michael J

    2017-02-10

    The coupling of magnetic and electric properties in polymer-based magnetoelectric composites offers new opportunities to develop contactless electrodes, effectively without electrical connections, for less-invasive integration into devices such as energy harvesters, sensors, wearable and implantable electrodes. Understanding the macroscale-to-nanoscale conversion of the properties is important, as nanostructured and nanoscale magnetoelectric structures are increasingly fabricated. However, whilst the magnetoelectric effect at the macroscale is well established both theoretically and experimentally, it remains unclear how this effect translates to the nanoscale, or vice versa. Here, PVDF/Fe3O4 polymer-based composite nanofibers are fabricated using electrospinning to investigate their piezoelectric and magnetoelectric properties at the single nanofiber level.

  14. Commissioning of helium injector for coupled radio frequency quadrupole and separated function radio frequency quadrupole accelerator.

    PubMed

    Peng, Shixiang; Chen, Jia; Ren, Haitao; Zhao, Jie; Xu, Yuan; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Ailing; Xia, Wenlong; Gao, Shuli; Wang, Zhi; Luo, Yuting; Guo, Zhiyu; Chen, Jia'er

    2014-02-01

    A project to study a new type of acceleration structure has been launched at Peking University, in which a traditional radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and a separated function radio frequency quadrupole are coupled in one cavity to accelerate the He+ beam. A helium injector for this project is developed. The injector consists of a 2.45 GHz permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source and a 1.16 m long low energy beam transport (LEBT). The commissioning of this injector was carried out and an onsite test was held in June 2013. A 14 mA He+ beam with the energy of 30 keV has been delivered to the end of the LEBT, where a diaphragm with the diameter of 7 mm is located. The position of the diaphragm corresponds to the entrance of the RFQ electrodes. The beam emittance and fraction were measured after the 7 mm diaphragm. Its rms emittance is about 0.14 π mm mrad and the fraction of He+ is about 99%.

  15. Commissioning of helium injector for coupled radio frequency quadrupole and separated function radio frequency quadrupole accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Shixiang Chen, Jia; Ren, Haitao; Zhao, Jie; Xu, Yuan; Zhang, Tao; Xia, Wenlong; Gao, Shuli; Wang, Zhi; Luo, Yuting; Guo, Zhiyu; Zhang, Ailing; Chen, Jia'er

    2014-02-15

    A project to study a new type of acceleration structure has been launched at Peking University, in which a traditional radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and a separated function radio frequency quadrupole are coupled in one cavity to accelerate the He+ beam. A helium injector for this project is developed. The injector consists of a 2.45 GHz permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance ion source and a 1.16 m long low energy beam transport (LEBT). The commissioning of this injector was carried out and an onsite test was held in June 2013. A 14 mA He+ beam with the energy of 30 keV has been delivered to the end of the LEBT, where a diaphragm with the diameter of 7 mm is located. The position of the diaphragm corresponds to the entrance of the RFQ electrodes. The beam emittance and fraction were measured after the 7 mm diaphragm. Its rms emittance is about 0.14 π mm mrad and the fraction of He+ is about 99%.

  16. Effects of interelectrode gap on high frequency and very high frequency capacitively coupled plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Bera, Kallol; Rauf, Shahid; Ramaswamy, Kartik; Collins, Ken

    2009-07-15

    Capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) discharges using high frequency (HF) and very high frequency (VHF) sources are widely used for dielectric etching in the semiconductor industry. A two-dimensional fluid plasma model is used to investigate the effects of interelectrode gap on plasma spatial characteristics of both HF and VHF CCPs. The plasma model includes the full set of Maxwell's equations in their potential formulation. The peak in plasma density is close to the electrode edge at 13.5 MHz for a small interelectrode gap. This is due to electric field enhancement at the electrode edge. As the gap is increased, the plasma produced at the electrode edge diffuses to the chamber center and the plasma becomes more uniform. At 180 MHz, where electromagnetic standing wave effects are strong, the plasma density peaks at the chamber center at large interelectrode gap. As the interelectrode gap is decreased, the electron density increases near the electrode edge due to inductive heating and electrostatic electron heating, which makes the plasma more uniform in the interelectrode region.

  17. Resonance line shape, strain and electric potential distributions of composite magnetoelectric sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerken, Martina

    2013-06-01

    Multiferroic composite magnetoelectric (ME) sensors are based on the elastic coupling of a magnetostrictive phase and a piezoelectric phase. A deformation of the magnetostrictive phase causes strain in the piezoelectric phase and thus an induced voltage. Such sensors may be applied both for static as well as for dynamic magnetic field measurements. Particularly high sensitivities are achieved for operation at a mechanical resonance. Here, the resonance line shape of layered (2-2 composite) cantilever ME sensors at the first bending-mode resonance is investigated theoretically. Finite element method (FEM) simulations using a linear material model reveal an asymmetric resonance profile and a zero-response frequency for the ME coefficient. Frequency-dependent strain and electric potential distributions inside the magnetoelectric composite are studied for the case of a magnetostrictive-piezoelectric bilayer. It is demonstrated that a positive or a negative voltage may be induced across the piezoelectric layer depending on the position of the neutral plane. The frequency-dependent induced electric potential is investigated for structured cantilevers that exhibit magnetostriction only at specific positions. For static operation an induced voltage is obtained locally at positions with magnetostriction. In addition to this direct effect a resonance-assisted effect is observed for dynamic operation. Magnetostriction in a limited area of the cantilever causes a global vibration of the cantilever. Thus, deformation of the piezoelectric layer and an induced electric potential also occur in areas of the cantilever without magnetostriction. The direct and the resonance-assisted pathway may induce voltages of equal or of opposite sign. The net induced voltage results from the superposition of the two effects. As the resonance-assisted induced voltage changes sign upon passing the resonance frequency, while the direct component is constant, an asymmetric line shape and a zero

  18. Topological properties of microwave magnetoelectric fields.

    PubMed

    Berezin, M; Kamenetskii, E O; Shavit, R

    2014-02-01

    Collective excitations of electron spins in a ferromagnetic sample dominated by the magnetic dipole-dipole interaction strongly influence the field structure of microwave radiation. A small quasi-two-dimensional ferrite disk with magnetic-dipolar-mode (MDM) oscillation spectra can behave as a source of specific fields in vacuum, termed magnetoelectric (ME) fields. A coupling between the time-varying electric and magnetic fields in the ME-field structures is different from such a coupling in regular electromagnetic fields. The ME fields are characterized by strong energy confinement at a subwavelength region of microwave radiation, topologically distinctive power-flow vortices, and helicity parameters [E. O. Kamenetskii, R. Joffe, and R. Shavit, Phys. Rev. E 87, 023201 (2013)]. We study topological properties of microwave ME fields by loading a MDM ferrite particle with different dielectric samples. We establish a close connection between the permittivity parameters of dielectric environment and the topology of ME fields. We show that the topology of ME fields is strongly correlated with the Fano-resonance spectra observed at terminals of a microwave structure. We reveal specific thresholds in the Fano-resonance spectra appearing at certain permittivity parameters of dielectric samples. We show that ME fields originated from MDM ferrite disks can be distinguished by topological portraits of the helicity parameters and can have a torsion degree of freedom. Importantly, the ME-field phenomena can be viewed as implementations of space-time coordinate transformations on waves.

  19. Origin of ferromagnetism and oxygen-vacancy ordering induced cross-controlled magnetoelectric effects at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, X. K.; Zou, T.; Wang, F.; Zhang, Q. H.; Sun, Y.; Gu, L.; Hirata, A.; Chen, M. W.; Yao, Y.; Jin, C. Q.; Yu, R. C.

    2012-04-01

    In dilute magnetic oxide hexagonal Ba(Ti0.9Fe0.1)O2.81 bulk ceramic, we report on combined ferromagnetism and improper ferroelectricity as well as cross-controlled magnetoelectric effects at room temperature. The annular-bright-field (ABF) imaging technique in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) demonstrates an oxygen vacancy ordering in the hexagonal closest-packed Ba1-O1 layers and severe distortion of the octahedra and pyramids. Strong dependencies of the susceptibility on temperature and magnetic field as well as the frequency dependence of magnetization under an ac electric field reveal that the intrinsic ferromagnetism of the highly insulating system dynamically evolves from a paramagnetic ground state, and dynamic exchanges of trapped electrons in the ordered polarons are attributed to the ferromagnetic interaction. Accordingly, aided by the motion of oxygen vacancies, responses of the trapped electrons to the ac magnetic field result in the reversal of magnetically induced voltages between high and low states. Our results not only expand our understanding on the magnetoelectric coupling mechanism, but also provide a grand opportunity toward designing novel multiferroic materials through introducing ordered point defects into a centrosymmetric matrix.

  20. Designing asymmetric multiferroics with strong magnetoelectric coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xuezeng; Xiang, Hongjun; Rondinelli, James; Materials Theory; Design Group Team

    2015-03-01

    Multiferroics offer exciting opportunities for electric-field control of magnetism. Single-phase multiferroics suitable for such applications at room temperature need much more study. Here, we propose the concept of an alternative type of multiferroics, namely, the ``asymmetric multiferroic.'' In asymmetric multiferroics, two locally stable ferroelectric states are not symmetrically equivalent, leading to different magnetic properties between these two states. Furthermore, we predict from first principles that a Fe-Cr-Mo superlattice with the LiNbO3-type structure is such an asymmetric multiferroic. The strong ferrimagnetism, high ferroelectric polarization, and significant dependence of the magnetic transition temperature on polarization make this asymmetric multiferroic an ideal candidate for realizing electric-field control of magnetism at room temperature. Our study suggests that the asymmetric multiferroic may provide an alternative playground for voltage control of magnetism and find its applications in spintronics and quantum computing.

  1. Designing asymmetric multiferroics with strong magnetoelectric coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, X. Z.; Xiang, H. J.

    2014-09-01

    Multiferroics offer exciting opportunities for electric-field control of magnetism. Single-phase multiferroics suitable for such applications at room temperature need much more study. Here, we propose the concept of an alternative type of multiferroics, namely, the "asymmetric multiferroic." In asymmetric multiferroics, two locally stable ferroelectric states are not symmetrically equivalent, leading to different magnetic properties between these two states. Furthermore, we predict from first principles that a Fe-Cr-Mo superlattice with the LiNbO3-type structure is such an asymmetric multiferroic. The strong ferrimagnetism, high ferroelectric polarization, and significant dependence of the magnetic transition temperature on polarization make this asymmetric multiferroic an ideal candidate for realizing electric-field control of magnetism at room temperature. Our study suggests that the asymmetric multiferroic may provide an alternative playground for voltage control of magnetism and find its applications in spintronics and quantum computing.

  2. An introduction to the use of representation analysis for studying magnetoelectrics and multiferroics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapon, L. C.

    2012-03-01

    This lecture is an introduction to the theory of representations applied to the study of magnetoelectric and multiferroic materials. It is intended for students or newcomers in the field and explains the key concepts required to understand phenomenologically the coupling between magnetic phase transitions in crystals and dielectric properties. Symmetry properties of some prototypal magnetoelectrics and multiferroics are analysed, including the treatment of incommensurate spin-driven ferroelectrics. It is deliberately written with a minimal use of mathematical formulation or a strict group theoretical approach.

  3. Magnetoelectric Devices for Spintronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fusil, S.; Garcia, V.; Barthélémy, A.; Bibes, M.

    2014-07-01

    The control of magnetism by electric fields is an important goal for the future development of low-power spintronics. Various approaches have been proposed on the basis of either single-phase multiferroic materials or hybrid structures in which a ferromagnet is influenced by the electric field applied to an adjacent insulator (usually having a ferroelectric, piezoelectric, or multiferroic character). The electric field effect on magnetism can be driven by purely electronic or electrostatic effects or can occur through strain coupling. Here we review progress in the electrical control of magnetic properties (anisotropy, spin order, ordering temperature, domain structure) and its application to prototype spintronic devices (spin valves, magnetic tunnel junctions). We tentatively identify the main outstanding difficulties and give perspectives for spintronics and other fields.

  4. Driving frequency fluctuations in pulsed capacitively coupled plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulose, John; Goeckner, Matthew; Shannon, Steven; Coumou, David; Overzet, Lawrence

    2017-09-01

    We report time resolved measurements of the RF current, voltage and complex impedance for pulsed plasmas through electropositive (Ar) and electronegative (CF4, O2) gases and gas mixtures. In addition, we report measurements of the effective frequency versus time at various locations within the RF circuitry. The frequency is found to fluctuate away from that sourced by the RF generator when the plasma re-ignites. Plasma re-ignition induces abrupt impedance changes due to the re-formation of the plasma sheath and bulk. These fast changes in the plasma impedance cause the measured changes in the voltage and current frequencies. As a result, the frequency of the RF power at the plasma electrodes was found to be as much as 250 kHz different from that being sourced by the RF generator for short periods of time. These frequency fluctuations are of particular interest to the application of frequency tuned matching networks.

  5. Lumped modeling with circuit elements for nonreciprocal magnetoelectric tunable band-pass filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Hong; Zhou, Hao-Miao; Zhang, Qiu-shi; Hu, Wen-Wen

    2016-11-01

    This paper presents a lumped equivalent circuit model of the nonreciprocal magnetoelectric tunable microwave band-pass filter. The reciprocal coupled-line circuit is based on the converse magnetoelectric effect of magnetoelectric composites, includes the electrical tunable equivalent factor of the piezoelectric layer, and is established by the introduced lumped elements, such as radiation capacitance, radiation inductance, and coupling inductance, according to the transmission characteristics of the electromagnetic wave and magnetostatic wave in an inverted-L-shaped microstrip line and ferrite slab. The nonreciprocal transmission property of the filter is described by the introduced T-shaped circuit containing controlled sources. Finally, the lumped equivalent circuit of a nonreciprocal magnetoelectric tunable microwave band-pass filter is given and the lumped parameters are also expressed. When the deviation angles of the ferrite slab are respectively 0° and 45°, the corresponding magnetoelectric devices are respectively a reciprocal device and a nonreciprocal device. The curves of S parameter obtained by the lumped equivalent circuit model and electromagnetic simulation are in good agreement with the experimental results. When the deviation angle is between 0° and 45°, the maximum value of the S parameter predicted by the lumped equivalent circuit model is in good agreement with the experimental result. The comparison results of the paper show that the lumped equivalent circuit model is valid. Further, the effect of some key material parameters on the performance of devices is predicted by the lumped equivalent circuit model. The research can provide the theoretical basis for the design and application of nonreciprocal magnetoelectric tunable devices. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11172285, 11472259, and 11302217) and the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. LR13A020002).

  6. Low-frequency RF Coupling To Unconventional (Fat Unbalanced) Dipoles

    SciTech Connect

    Ong, M M; Brown, C G; Perkins, M P; Speer, R D; Javedani, J B

    2010-12-07

    The report explains radio frequency (RF) coupling to unconventional dipole antennas. Normal dipoles have thin equal length arms that operate at maximum efficiency around resonance frequencies. In some applications like high-explosive (HE) safety analysis, structures similar to dipoles with ''fat'' unequal length arms must be evaluated for indirect-lightning effects. An example is shown where a metal drum-shaped container with HE forms one arm and the detonator cable acts as the other. Even if the HE is in a facility converted into a ''Faraday cage'', a lightning strike to the facility could still produce electric fields inside. The detonator cable concentrates the electric field and carries the energy into the detonator, potentially creating a hazard. This electromagnetic (EM) field coupling of lightning energy is the indirect effect of a lightning strike. In practice, ''Faraday cages'' are formed by the rebar of the concrete facilities. The individual rebar rods in the roof, walls and floor are normally electrically connected because of the construction technique of using metal wire to tie the pieces together. There are two additional requirements for a good cage. (1) The roof-wall joint and the wall-floor joint must be electrically attached. (2) All metallic penetrations into the facility must also be electrically connected to the rebar. In this report, it is assumed that these conditions have been met, and there is no arcing in the facility structure. Many types of detonators have metal ''cups'' that contain the explosives and thin electrical initiating wires, called bridge wires mounted between two pins. The pins are connected to the detonator cable. The area of concern is between the pins supporting the bridge wire and the metal cup forming the outside of the detonator. Detonator cables usually have two wires, and in this example, both wires generated the same voltage at the detonator bridge wire. This is called the common-mode voltage. The explosive component

  7. Pattern formation of coupled spiral waves in bilayer systems: rich dynamics and high-frequency dominance.

    PubMed

    Nie, Haichun; Gao, Jihua; Zhan, Meng

    2011-11-01

    The interaction of two spiral waves with independent frequencies in a bilayer oscillatory medium (one spiral in each layer) and with a symmetric coupling e is studied. If the spirals have different frequencies, the faster spiral is unaffected by the slower one, and the slower can show a variety of behaviors, which depend on e and include, in order of increasing e, phase drifting, amplitude modulation, amplitude domination, and phase synchronization. This high-frequency dominance, the asymmetric driving-response effect under the condition of a symmetric coupling, is generic and independent of whether the coupled spiral waves are outwardly rotating or inwardly rotating spirals. If the spirals have identical frequencies, they may even show complete synchronization, parallel drift, or circular drift, depending on the relative rotation direction of the two spirals and their initial separation distance. Comparisons with coupled spirals in monolayer media, previous works on coupled spirals in bilayer systems, and coupled phase oscillators are made.

  8. Magnetoelectric Interactions in Lead-Based and Lead-Free Composites

    PubMed Central

    Bichurin, Mirza; Petrov, Vladimir; Zakharov, Anatoly; Kovalenko, Denis; Yang, Su Chul; Maurya, Deepam; Bedekar, Vishwas; Priya, Shashank

    2011-01-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) composites that simultaneously exhibit ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism have recently gained significant attention as evident by the increasing number of publications. These research activities are direct results of the fact that multiferroic magnetoelectrics offer significant technological promise for multiple devices. Appropriate choice of phases with co-firing capability, magnetostriction and piezoelectric coefficient, such as Ni-PZT and NZFO-PZT, has resulted in fabrication of prototype components that promise transition. In this manuscript, we report the properties of Ni-PZT and NZFO-PZT composites in terms of ME voltage coefficients as a function of frequency and magnetic DC bias. In order to overcome the problem of toxicity of lead, we have conducted experiments with Pb-free piezoelectric compositions. Results are presented on the magnetoelectric performance of Ni-NKN, Ni-NBTBT and NZFO-NKN, NZFO-NBTBT systems illustrating their importance as an environmentally friendly alternative. PMID:28879946

  9. Spatial angles sensitivity of Fe83Ga17/AlN/Mo/Si magnetoelectric device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jiaxing; Yin, Liping; Lu, Cifu; Zhu, Jie

    2017-05-01

    Magnetoelectric (ME) devices based on Fe-Ga/AlN/Mo thin films deposited on Si(100) substrates were prepared by magnetron sputtering. The cantilever device possessed a high magnetoelectric coefficient of 167.7 V/cm.Oe at its resonance frequency and exhibited anisotropic properties. More importantly, the magnetoelectric coefficient changed with the out-of-plane space angle, from 15 to 167.7 V/cm.Oe. After annealing under a 500-Oe magnetic field, the magnetic domains of the thin film partly remained in the field direction. Moreover, the anisotropic properties of the ME device significantly improved; the ME coefficient increased by 30% to 218 V/cm.Oe and became more sensitive to the in-plane angle. Thus, the ME device proposed in this work can be used to detect changes in spatial angles.

  10. Magnetoelectric Interactions in Lead-Based and Lead-Free Composites.

    PubMed

    Bichurin, Mirza; Petrov, Vladimir; Zakharov, Anatoly; Kovalenko, Denis; Yang, Su Chul; Maurya, Deepam; Bedekar, Vishwas; Priya, Shashank

    2011-04-06

    Magnetoelectric (ME) composites that simultaneously exhibit ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism have recently gained significant attention as evident by the increasing number of publications. These research activities are direct results of the fact that multiferroic magnetoelectrics offer significant technological promise for multiple devices. Appropriate choice of phases with co-firing capability, magnetostriction and piezoelectric coefficient, such as Ni-PZT and NZFO-PZT, has resulted in fabrication of prototype components that promise transition. In this manuscript, we report the properties of Ni-PZT and NZFO-PZT composites in terms of ME voltage coefficients as a function of frequency and magnetic DC bias. In order to overcome the problem of toxicity of lead, we have conducted experiments with Pb-free piezoelectric compositions. Results are presented on the magnetoelectric performance of Ni-NKN, Ni-NBTBT and NZFO-NKN, NZFO-NBTBT systems illustrating their importance as an environmentally friendly alternative.

  11. Microwave magnetoelectric particles: an experimental study of oscillating spectrums.

    PubMed

    Saha, A K; Kamenetskii, E O; Awai, I

    2001-11-01

    One of the ways to uncover the nature of the microwave magnetoelectric (ME) effect, recently observed in small ferrite resonators with special-form surface metallizations, is a comparative analysis of oscillating spectrums excited by different type rf external fields. Experimental results of the ME coupling in different types of ferrite resonators and different types of surface electrodes are reported and some important conclusions are drawn observing the oscillating spectrums of those particles. A special interest in spectral properties of point ME particles should be found in the field of microwave artificial composite materials-bianisotropic materials.

  12. On the effect of polarization direction on the converse magnetoelectric response of multiferroic composite rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youssef, George; Lopez, Mario; Newacheck, Scott

    2017-03-01

    The application domain of composite multiferroic materials with magnetoelectric coupling has been widening on the nano-, micro- and macro-scales. Generally, a composite multiferroic material consists of two, or more, layers of a piezoelectric material and a magnetostrictive material. In turn, the proliferation of multiferroics in more applications is accompanied by a keen focus on understanding the effect of material phases, geometry, bonding interface and arrangement of phases by performing theoretical, numerical and experimental studies to fundamentally elucidate the response. In this experimental study, a focus is given to exploit the effect of the polarization direction of the piezoelectric phase on the overall converse magnetoelectric (CME) response of a composite concentric PZT/Terfenol-D structure. Specifically, radially and axially polarized PZT rings were concentrically bonded to the outer surface of two Terfenol-D rings, respectively. It was found that the maximum, near resonance, CME coefficient of the axially-poled configuration is 443 mG V‑1 when tested at 34 kHz, 80 kV m‑1 electric field and 784 Oe bias magnetic field. On the other hand, the near resonance CME value for the radially-poled configuration remained nearly constant at 281.9 ± 5.3 mG V‑1 between bias magnetic fields of 532 Oe and 1524 Oe at AC electric field of 80 kV m‑1 with a frequency of 36 kHz. Interestingly, the CME coefficient of radially-poled composite structure exhibits a saturation behavior, while the CME coefficient for axially-poled structure is distinguished by a single peak. The difference in the response is attributed to the amount strain transduction due to the polarization direction.

  13. Nonvolatile Memory Based on Nonlinear Magnetoelectric Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Jianxin; Cong, Junzhuang; Chai, Yisheng; Shang, Dashan; Shen, Shipeng; Zhai, Kun; Tian, Ying; Sun, Young

    2016-08-01

    The magnetoelectric effects in multiferroics have a great potential in creating next-generation memory devices. We use an alternative concept of nonvolatile memory based, on a type of nonlinear magnetoelectric effects showing a butterfly-shaped hysteresis loop. The principle is to utilize the states of the magnetoelectric coefficient, instead of magnetization, electric polarization, or resistance, to store binary information. Our experiments in a device made of the PMN-PT/Terfenol-D multiferroic heterostructure clearly demonstrate that the sign of the magnetoelectric coefficient can be repeatedly switched between positive and negative by applying electric fields, confirming the feasibility of this principle. This kind of nonvolatile memory has outstanding practical virtues such as simple structure, easy operation in writing and reading, low power, fast speed, and diverse materials available.

  14. Large magnetoelectric effect in mechanically mediated structure of TbFe{sub 2}, Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3}, and nonmagnetic flakes

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, K.; Wang, Y. G.; Wu, W.; Pan, D. A.

    2011-03-28

    Magnetoelectric (ME) effect has been studied in a structure of a magnetostrictive TbFe{sub 2} alloy, two piezoelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} (PZT) ceramics, and two nonmagnetic flakes. The ME coupling originates from the magnetic-mechanical-electric transform of the magnetostrictive effect in TbFe{sub 2} and the piezoelectric effect in PZT by end bonding, instead of interface bonding. Large ME coefficients of 10.5 and 9.9 V cm{sup -1} Oe{sup -1} were obtained at the first planar acoustic and third bending resonance frequencies, which are larger than that of conventional layered TbFe{sub 2}/PZT composites. The results show that the large ME coupling can be achieved without interface coupling.

  15. Misidentifications of specific forms of cross-frequency coupling: three warnings.

    PubMed

    Hyafil, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Cross-frequency coupling (CFC) between neural oscillations has received increased attention over the last decade, as it is believed to underlie a number of cognitive operations in different brain systems. Coupling can take different forms as it associates the phase, frequency, and/or amplitude of coupled oscillations. These specific forms of coupling are a signature for the underlying network physiology and probably relate to distinct cognitive functions. Here I discuss three caveats in data analysis that can lead to mistake one specific form of CFC for another: (1) bicoherence assesses the level of phase-amplitude and not of phase-phase coupling (PPC) as commonly accepted; (2) a test for phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) can indeed signal phase-frequency coupling (PFC) when the higher frequency signal is extracted using a too narrow band; (3) an oscillation whose frequency fluctuates may induce spurious amplitude anticorrelations between neighboring frequency bands. I indicate practical rules to avoid such misidentifications and correctly identify the specific nature of cross-frequency coupled signals.

  16. Misidentifications of specific forms of cross-frequency coupling: three warnings

    PubMed Central

    Hyafil, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Cross-frequency coupling (CFC) between neural oscillations has received increased attention over the last decade, as it is believed to underlie a number of cognitive operations in different brain systems. Coupling can take different forms as it associates the phase, frequency, and/or amplitude of coupled oscillations. These specific forms of coupling are a signature for the underlying network physiology and probably relate to distinct cognitive functions. Here I discuss three caveats in data analysis that can lead to mistake one specific form of CFC for another: (1) bicoherence assesses the level of phase-amplitude and not of phase-phase coupling (PPC) as commonly accepted; (2) a test for phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) can indeed signal phase-frequency coupling (PFC) when the higher frequency signal is extracted using a too narrow band; (3) an oscillation whose frequency fluctuates may induce spurious amplitude anticorrelations between neighboring frequency bands. I indicate practical rules to avoid such misidentifications and correctly identify the specific nature of cross-frequency coupled signals. PMID:26500488

  17. The direct magnetoelectric effect in ferroelectric-ferromagnetic epitaxial heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fina, I.; Dix, N.; Rebled, J. M.; Gemeiner, P.; Martí, X.; Peiró, F.; Dkhil, B.; Sánchez, F.; Fàbrega, L.; Fontcuberta, J.

    2013-08-01

    Ferroelectric (FE) and ferromagnetic (FM) materials engineered in horizontal heterostructures allow interface-mediated magnetoelectric coupling. The so-called converse magnetoelectric effect (CME) has been already demonstrated by electric-field poling of the ferroelectric layers and subsequent modification of the magnetic state of adjacent ferromagnetic layers by strain effects and/or free-carrier density tuning. Here we focus on the direct magnetoelectric effect (DME) where the dielectric state of a ferroelectric thin film is modified by a magnetic field. Ferroelectric BaTiO3 (BTO) and ferromagnetic CoFe2O4 (CFO) oxide thin films have been used to create epitaxial FE/FM and FM/FE heterostructures on SrTiO3(001) substrates buffered with metallic SrRuO3. It will be shown that large ferroelectric polarization and DME can be obtained by appropriate selection of the stacking order of the FE and FM films and their relative thicknesses. The dielectric permittivity, at the structural transitions of BTO, is strongly modified (up to 36%) when measurements are performed under a magnetic field. Due to the insulating nature of the ferromagnetic layer and the concomitant absence of the electric-field effect, the observed DME effect solely results from the magnetostrictive response of CFO elastically coupled to the BTO layer. These findings show that appropriate architecture and materials selection allow overcoming substrate-induced clamping in multiferroic multi-layered films.Ferroelectric (FE) and ferromagnetic (FM) materials engineered in horizontal heterostructures allow interface-mediated magnetoelectric coupling. The so-called converse magnetoelectric effect (CME) has been already demonstrated by electric-field poling of the ferroelectric layers and subsequent modification of the magnetic state of adjacent ferromagnetic layers by strain effects and/or free-carrier density tuning. Here we focus on the direct magnetoelectric effect (DME) where the dielectric state of a

  18. Theory of magnetoelectric effects in multilayer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bichurin, M. I.; Petrov, V. M.; Srinivasan, G.

    2002-03-01

    A theoretical model is presented for magnetoelectric (ME) effects in bilayer and multilayer composites. Early models are based on ideal interface or the absence of friction, conditions that are not satisfied in real materials [1]. In addition, one needs to understand our recent observations showing considerable discrepancy between data on ME voltage coefficients in bilayer and multilayer composites [2]. A novel approach to take into account the actual boundary conditions in multilayer composites is proposed. An averaging method is used for deriving effective material parameters in composites. With the modified boundary conditions and the effective material parameters, we obtain expressions for ME voltage coefficients for multilayers. The estimated ME coupling constants are compared with data for lithium ferrite-lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and nickel ferrite-PZT composites. - work supported by a grant from the NSF (DMR-0072144) 1. G. Harshe, J.O. Dougherty, and R. E. Newnham, Int. J. Appl. Electromagn. Mater. 4, 145 (1993). 2. G. Srinivasan, E. T. Rasmussen, J. Gallegos, R. Srinivasan, Yu. I. Bokhan, and V. M. Laletin, Phys. Rev. B 64, 214408 (2001).

  19. Magnetoelectric excitations in hexaferrites utilizing solenoid coil for sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zare, Saba; Izadkhah, Hessam; Somu, Sivasubramanian; Vittoria, Carmine

    2015-11-01

    We have developed techniques for H- and E-field sensors utilizing single phase magnetoelectric hexaferrite materials in the frequency range of 100 Hz to 10 MHz. Novel excitation method incorporating solenoid coils and single and multi-capacitor banks were developed and tested for sensor detections. For H-field sensing we obtained sensitivity of about 3000 V/mG and for E-field sensing the sensitivity was 10-4 G/Vm-1. Tunability of about 0.1% was achieved for tunable inductor applications. However, the proposed designs lend themselves to significant ( 106) improvements in sensitivity and tunability.

  20. The effects of shape anisotropy and exchange coupling on spin precession frequencies in exchange coupled Co/Cu/Py trilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keramati, Sam; Singh, Uday; Kurfman, Seth; Binek, Ch.; Adenwalla, S.

    2015-03-01

    Ultrafast high-power laser systems have successfully opened up the field of magnetization dynamics, studying subpicosecond laser-induced spin precession dynamics, demagnetization processes and magnetization reorientation. Here we investigate laser-induced magnetization dynamics in a series of photolithographically patterned microstructures of exchange coupled trilayers of Co/Cu/Py grown on Si substrates. The microstructures have different shape anisotropies as well as different exchange coupling parameters. The latter determines the magnetization state, varying from ferromagnetically to anti-ferromagnetically coupled. We explore how the different spin precession frequencies of the constituent exchange coupled magnetic layers with unequal relaxation times can trade-off with the differing shape anisotropies. The key physical point is that the precession frequency of ferromagnetic materials and their damping parameter vary with the effective field which depends on both the shape anisotropy, and exchange coupling, while their corresponding effects can be modulated through the action of the intense pump beam. Precession frequency maps of the behavior of the exchange coupling parameter of the samples with respect to their shape anisotropy and their laser-induced modulated precession frequencies will be generated through a pump-probe experiment to address the above-mentioned objective of our work. This work is supported by NSF Grant No. 1409622 and MRSEC DMR-0820521.

  1. Direct and inverse magnetoelectric effect in layered composites in electromechanical resonance range: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bichurin, M. I.; Petrov, V. M.; Petrov, R. V.

    2012-10-01

    A model is presented for the increase in magnetoelectric (ME) coupling in magnetostrictive-piezoelectric bilayers in the electromechanical resonance region. The ME voltage coefficients αE have been estimated for transverse field orientations corresponding to minimum demagnetizing fields and maximum αE. We solved the equation of medium motion taking into account the magnetostatic and elastostatic equations, constitutive equations, Hooke's law, and boundary conditions. The resonance enhancement of ME voltage coefficient for the bilayer is obtained at antiresonance frequency. To obtain the inverse ME effect, a pick up coil wound around the sample is used to measure the ME voltage due to the change in the magnetic induction in magnetostrictive phase. The measured static magnetic field dependence of ME voltage has been attributed to the variation in the piezomagnetic coefficient for magnetic layer. The frequency dependence of the ME voltage shows a resonance character due to the longitudinal acoustic modes in piezoelectric layer. The model is applied to specific cases of cobalt ferrite-lead zirconate titanate and nickel-lead zirconate titanate bilayers. Theoretical ME voltage coefficients versus frequency profiles are in agreement with data.

  2. A 2D mechanical-magneto-thermal model for direction-dependent magnetoelectric effect in laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shunzu; Yao, Hong; Gao, Yuanwen

    2017-04-01

    A two dimensional (2D) mechanical-magneto-thermal model of direction-dependent magnetoelectric (ME) effect in Terfenol-D/PZT/Terfenol-D laminated composites is established. The expressions of ME coefficient at low and resonance frequencies are derived by the average field method, respectively. The prediction of theoretical model presents a good agreement with the experimental data. The combined effect of orientation-dependent stress and magnetic fields, as well as operating temperature on ME coefficient is discussed. It is shown that ME effect presents a significantly nonlinear change with the increasing pre-stress under different loading angles. There exists an optimal angle and value of pre-stress corresponding to the best ME effect, improving the angle of pre-stress can get more prominent ME coupling than in x axis state. Note that an optimal angle of magnetic field gradually increases with the rise of pre-stress, which can further lead to the enhancement of ME coefficient. Meanwhile, reducing the operating temperature can enhance ME coefficient. Furthermore, resonance frequency, affected by pre-stress, magnetic field and temperature via ; ΔE effect;, can enhance ME coefficient about 100 times than that at low frequency.

  3. Metal-ceramic laminate composite magnetoelectric gradiometer.

    PubMed

    Bedekar, V; Bichurin, M I; Ivanov, S N; Pukinski, Y J; Priya, S

    2010-03-01

    Gradiometer resembles in functionality a magnetic field sensor where it measures the magnetic field gradient and its sensitivity is determined by the ability to quantify differential voltage change with respect to a reference value. Magnetoelectric (ME) gradiometer designed in this study is based upon the nickel (Ni)-Pb(Zr,Ti)O(3) (PZT) composites and utilizes the ring-dot piezoelectric transformer structure working near the resonance as the basis. The samples had the ring-dot electrode pattern printed on the top surface of PZT, where ring acts as the input while dot acts as the output. There is an insulation gap between the input and output section of 1.2 mm. The generated magnetic field due to converse ME effect interacts with the external applied magnetic field producing flux gradient, which is detected through the frequency shift and output voltage change in gradiometer structure. The measurements of output voltage dependence on applied magnetic field clearly illustrate that the proposed design can provide high sensitivity and bandwidth.

  4. A Magneto-Electric Microwave Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatarenko, A. S.; Srinivasan, G.; Bichurin, M. I.

    2006-03-01

    A new class of electric field-tunable ferrite-ferroelectric microwave band-pass filter is discussed. The electric field tunability is possible through magnetoelectric (ME) interactions. The mechanical deformation due to piezoelectric effect in an electric field manifests as a magnetic field shift in the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) for the ferrite. The filter was fabricated with an ME resonator consisting of bilayers of 30-110 micron thick (111) yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films and lead zirconate titanate (PZT). The bilayer was positioned between input and output antenna in a microstripline structure. The device insertion loss was measured as a function of frequency f, bias magnetic field H (applied parallel to bilayer plane) and the electrical field E applied across PZT. The minimum insertion loss was 4-5 dB at 5-10 GHz. The off-resonance losses were about 20 dB. The E-field tunability was 120 MHz for E = 3 kV/cm for bilayers with 110 micron thick YIG. The ME microwave filters discussed here are miniature in size, would facilitate high-speed operation, and are compatibility with integrated circuit technology. -- The work was supported by grants from ARO, ONR and NSF.

  5. Calculation of coupled secular oscillation frequencies and axial secular frequency in a nonlinear ion trap by a homotopy method.

    PubMed

    Doroudi, Alireza

    2009-11-01

    In this paper the homotopy perturbation method is used for calculation of the frequencies of the coupled secular oscillations and axial secular frequencies of a nonlinear ion trap. The motion of the ion in a rapidly oscillating field is transformed to the motion in an effective potential. The equations of ion motion in the effective potential are in the form of a Duffing-like equation. The homotopy perturbation method is used for solving the resulted system of coupled nonlinear differential equations and the resulted axial equation for obtaining the expressions for ion secular frequencies as a function of nonlinear field parameters and amplitudes of oscillations. The calculated axial secular frequencies are compared with the results of Lindstedt-Poincare method and the exact results.

  6. Modulating effects of the low-frequency source on ion energy distributions in a dual frequency capacitively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xiaosong; Bi Zhenhua; Chang Dalei; Li Zhicheng; Wang Shuai; Xu Xiang; Xu Yong; Lu Wenqi; Zhu Aimin; Wang Younian

    2008-07-21

    With the energy resolved quadrupole mass spectrometer and hybrid simulation, the influence of low-frequency (LF) source parameters on the ion energy distributions (IEDs) of argon ions impinging on the grounded electrode was studied, both experimentally and numerically, in a dual frequency capacitively coupled plasma. It was shown that for decreasing LF or increasing LF power, the high energy peak in IEDs shifts toward the high energy region significantly. The simulation results were in general agreement with the experimental data.

  7. Low-frequency, broadband vibration energy harvester using coupled oscillators and frequency up-conversion by mechanical stoppers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dechant, Eduard; Fedulov, Feodor; Chashin, Dmitrii V.; Fetisov, Leonid Y.; Fetisov, Yuri K.; Shamonin, Mikhail

    2017-06-01

    The frequencies of ambient vibrations are often low (below 30 Hz). A broadband (3 dB bandwidth is larger than 10 Hz at an acceleration amplitude of 9.81 m s-2) vibration based energy harvester is proposed for transducing mechanical energy at such low frequencies into electrical energy. The mechanical setup converts low frequency mechanical vibrations into high frequency resonance oscillations of the transducer. This conversion is done by mechanical impacts on two mechanical stoppers. The originality of the presented design is that both low-frequency and high-frequency oscillators are permanently mechanically coupled. In the equivalent mechanical circuit, this coupling is achieved by connecting the ends of the stiff spring to both seismic masses, whereas one seismic mass (collison member) is also attached to the soft spring used as the constitutive element of a low-frequency oscillator. Further, both mechanical oscillators are not realized as conventional cantilever beams. In particular, the high frequency oscillator with the natural frequency of 340 Hz is a disc-shaped diaphragm with attached piezoelectric elements and a seismic mass. It is shown that it is possible to convert mechanical vibrations with acceleration amplitude of 9.81 m s-2 in the region between approximately 7 and 25 Hz into electrical power larger than 0.1 mW with the maximum value of 0.8 mW. A simplified mathematical model based on piecewise linear coupled oscillators shows good agreement with experimental results. The ways to enhance the performance of the harvester and improve agreement with experiments are discussed.

  8. Effect of antiferromagnetic interfacial coupling on spin-wave resonance frequency of multi-layer film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Rong-ke; Cai, Wei

    2017-08-01

    We investigate the spin-wave resonance (SWR) frequency in a bicomponent bilayer and triple-layer films with antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic interfacial couplings, as function of interfacial coupling, surface anisotropy, interface anisotropy, thickness and external magnetic field, using the linear spin-wave approximation and Green's function technique. The microwave properties for multi-layer magnetic film with antiferromagnetic interfacial coupling is different from those for multi-layer magnetic film with ferromagnetic interfacial coupling. For the bilayer film with antiferromagnetic interfacial couplings, as the lower (upper) surface anisotropy increases, only the SWR frequencies of the odd (even) number modes increase. The lower (upper) surface anisotropy does not affect the SWR frequencies of the even (odd) number modes. For the multi-layer film with antiferromagnetic interfacial coupling, the SWR frequency of modes m = 1, 3 and 4 decreases while that of mode m = 2 increases with increasing thickness of the film within a proper parameter region. The present results could be useful in enhancing our fundamental understanding and show the method to enhance and adjust the SWR frequency of bicomponent multi-layer magnetic films with antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic interfacial coupling.

  9. Two pulse-coupled non-identical, frequency-different BZ oscillators with time delay.

    PubMed

    Lavrova, Anastasia I; Vanag, Vladimir K

    2014-04-14

    Two non-identical, frequency-different pulse-coupled oscillators with time delay have been systematically studied using four-variable model of the Belousov-Zhabotinsky (BZ) reaction at mutual inhibitory, mutual excitatory, and mixed excitatory-inhibitory types of coupling. Different resonances like 1 : 2, 2 : 3, 1 : 3, etc., as well as complex rhythms and abrupt changes between them occur depending on the coupling strengths, time delay, and frequency ratio. Analogously to in-phase and anti-phase oscillations for 1 : 1 resonance, a similar phase locking exists for 1 : 2 resonance in the case of inhibitory coupling. For excitatory coupling, a bursting regime is found. The number of spikes in a single burst can be tuned by both the frequency ratio and time delay. For excitatory-inhibitory coupling, a region where one oscillator is suppressed (OS zone) has been found. Boundary of the OS zone depends on the frequency ratio. For weakly coupled oscillators, Farey sequence has been found for excitatory-inhibitory and mutual excitatory coupling.

  10. Theoretical study on functionally graded cylindrical magnetoelectric composites using d15 shear-mode response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yang; Gao, Yuanwen

    2017-08-01

    In this study, a novel functionally graded cylindrical magnetoelectric (ME) composite based on d15 shear-mode response is analyzed theoretical by using the elastic mechanics model and equivalent circuit model. The composite is mounted around AC current-carrying power lines to scavenge AC magnetic field energy. For different sensing configurations, the generated magnetic fields are calculated, respectively. Then, based on the theoretical models, the dependences of the ME performances, i.e., the ME voltage and power, upon the type of the material gradation, the material constants, and geometrical parameters of the cylindrical ME composite are numerically evaluated. The results show that the ME coupling effect in the functionally graded cylindrical ME composite with special gradation is stronger than that in the homogeneous structure. The ME performance can be improved by geometrical parameters as well. The presented two models can be synthesized under the open-circuit condition, which provide a theoretical basis to understand and improve the ME property of the d15 shear-mode cylindrical ME composites operating at resonant frequency and off-resonance frequency.

  11. Quantum percolation phase transition and magnetoelectric dipole glass in hexagonal ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowley, S. E.; Vojta, T.; Jones, A. T.; Guo, W.; Oliveira, J.; Morrison, F. D.; Lindfield, N.; Baggio Saitovitch, E.; Watts, B. E.; Scott, J. F.

    2017-07-01

    Hexagonal ferrites not only have enormous commercial impact (£2 billion/year in sales) due to applications that include ultrahigh-density memories, credit-card stripes, magnetic bar codes, small motors, and low-loss microwave devices, they also have fascinating magnetic and ferroelectric quantum properties at low temperatures. Here we report the results of tuning the magnetic ordering temperature in PbF e12 -xG axO19 to zero by chemical substitution x . The phase transition boundary is found to vary as TN˜(1-x /xc ) 2 /3 with xc very close to the calculated spin percolation threshold, which we determine by Monte Carlo simulations, indicating that the zero-temperature phase transition is geometrically driven. We find that this produces a form of compositionally tuned, insulating, ferrimagnetic quantum criticality. Close to the zero-temperature phase transition, we observe the emergence of an electric dipole glass induced by magnetoelectric coupling. The strong frequency behavior of the glass freezing temperature Tm has a Vogel-Fulcher dependence with Tm finite, or suppressed below zero in the zero-frequency limit, depending on composition x . These quantum-mechanical properties, along with the multiplicity of low-lying modes near the zero-temperature phase transition, are likely to greatly extend applications of hexaferrites into the realm of quantum and cryogenic technologies.

  12. Finite-size effects on the magnetoelectric response of field-driven ferroelectric/ferromagnetic chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Chenglong; Sukhov, Alexander; Horley, Paul P.; Berakdar, Jamal

    2011-07-01

    We study theoretically the coupled multiferroic dynamics of a finite one-dimensional ferroelectric/ferromagnet chain driven by harmonic magnetic and electric fields as a function of the chain length. We consider the case of a linear magnetoelectric coupling that results from the spin-polarized screening charge at the interface. We performed Monte-Carlo simulations and calculations based on the coupled Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert and Landau-Khalatnikov equations showing that the net magnetization and the total polarization of thin heterostructures, i.e. with up to ten ferroelectric and ferromagnetic sites counted from the interface, can be completely reversed by external electric and magnetic fields, respectively. However, for larger systems merely a limited magnetoelectrical control is achievable.

  13. Measurement of the coupling constant in a two-frequency VECSEL.

    PubMed

    Pal, V; Trofimoff, P; Miranda, B-X; Baili, G; Alouini, M; Morvan, L; Dolfi, D; Goldfarb, F; Sagnes, I; Ghosh, R; Bretenaker, F

    2010-03-01

    We measure the coupling constant between the two perpendicularly polarized eigenstates of a two-frequency Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VECSEL). This measurement is performed for different values of the transverse spatial separation between the two perpendicularly polarized modes. The consequences of these measurements on the two-frequency operation of such class-A semiconductor lasers are discussed.

  14. Distributed coupling and multi-frequency microwave accelerators

    DOEpatents

    Tantawi, Sami G.; Li, Zenghai; Borchard, Philipp

    2016-07-05

    A microwave circuit for a linear accelerator has multiple metallic cell sections, a pair of distribution waveguide manifolds, and a sequence of feed arms connecting the manifolds to the cell sections. The distribution waveguide manifolds are connected to the cell sections so that alternating pairs of cell sections are connected to opposite distribution waveguide manifolds. The distribution waveguide manifolds have concave modifications of their walls opposite the feed arms, and the feed arms have portions of two distinct widths. In some embodiments, the distribution waveguide manifolds are connected to the cell sections by two different types of junctions adapted to allow two frequency operation. The microwave circuit may be manufactured by making two quasi-identical parts, and joining the two parts to form the microwave circuit, thereby allowing for many manufacturing techniques including electron beam welding, and thereby allowing the use of un-annealled copper alloys, and hence greater tolerance to high gradient operation.

  15. High pulse repetition frequency fiber-coupled laser-diode module

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Guangyuan; Li, Song; Huang, Ke; Zheng, Guoxing

    2016-12-01

    A practical and simple approach of achieving a high pulse repetition frequency fiber-coupled laser-diode device is demonstrated both by experiment and TRACEPRO software simulation, which is obtained by beam collimating, spatial beam combining, and polarization beam combining based on multiple cycle-emitting pulsed laser-diode emitters. Using this method, fiber-coupled laser-diode module output pulse repetition frequency from the multimode fiber with 200-μm core diameter and 0.22 numerical aperture can reach 300 kHz, and the coupling efficiency is beyond 72%. This technique has superiors of great flexibility, low cost, and high reliability for wide applications.

  16. Effect of dual frequency rf power in an inductively coupled plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ju-Ho; Lee, Ho-Won; Kim, Tae Woo; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2016-09-01

    Dual frequency inductively coupled plasma discharge is investigated. Dual RF power is applied independently to each antenna (inner and outer coil), and the electron energy distribution functions (EEDFs) are measured using a RF compensated Langmuir probe. As the ratio of low frequency power (Plow) and high frequency power (Phigh) is changed, the variation of EEDF is observed. When Plow is higher than Phigh, the low energy electrons effectively heated compared to the case when Plow is comparable to Phigh. This difference in the shape of the EEDF can be understood by correlation between the driving frequency and the collision frequency.

  17. Marginal chimera state at cross-frequency locking of pulse-coupled neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolotov, M. I.; Osipov, G. V.; Pikovsky, A.

    2016-03-01

    We consider two coupled populations of leaky integrate-and-fire neurons. Depending on the coupling strength, mean fields generated by these populations can have incommensurate frequencies or become frequency locked. In the observed 2:1 locking state of the mean fields, individual neurons in one population are asynchronous with the mean fields, while in another population they have the same frequency as the mean field. These synchronous neurons form a chimera state, where part of them build a fully synchronized cluster, while other remain scattered. We explain this chimera as a marginal one, caused by a self-organized neutral dynamics of the effective circle map.

  18. Collisionless bounce resonance heating in dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasmas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong-Xin; Zhang, Quan-Zhi; Jiang, Wei; Hou, Lu-Jing; Jiang, Xiang-Zhan; Lu, Wen-Qi; Wang, You-Nian

    2011-07-29

    We present the experimental evidence of the collisionless electron bounce resonance heating (BRH) in low-pressure dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasmas. In capacitively coupled plasmas at low pressures when the discharge frequency and gap satisfy a certain resonant condition, the high energy beamlike electrons can be generated by fast sheath expansion, and heated by the two sheaths coherently, thus the BRH occurs. By using a combined measurement of a floating double probe and optical emission spectroscopy, we demonstrate the effect of BRH on plasma properties, such as plasma density and light emission, especially in dual-frequency discharges.

  19. Magnetoelectric Composite Based Microwave Attenuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatarenko, A. S.; Srinivasan, G.

    2005-03-01

    Ferrite-ferroelectric composites are magnetoelectric (ME) due to their response to elastic and electromagnetic force fields. The ME composites are characterized by tensor permittivity, permeability and ME susceptibility. The unique combination of magnetic, electrical, and ME interactions, therefore, opens up the possibility of electric field tunable ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) based devices [1]. Here we discuss an ME attenuator operating at 9.3 GHz based on FMR in a layered sample consisting of lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate bonded to yttrium iron garnet (YIG) film on a gadolinium gallium garnet substrate. Electrical tuning is realized with the application of a control voltage due to ME effect; the shift is 0-15 Oe as E is increased from 0 to 3 kV/cm. If the attenuator is operated at FMR, the corresponding insertion loss will range from 25 dB to 2 dB. 1. S. Shastry and G. Srinivasan, M.I. Bichurin, V.M. Petrov, A.S. Tatarenko. Phys. Rev. B, 70 064416 (2004). - supported by grants the grants from the National Science Foundation (DMR-0302254), from Russian Ministry of Education (Å02-3.4-278) and from Universities of Russia Foundation (UNR 01.01.026).

  20. Continuous Magnetoelectric Control in Multiferroic DyMnO3 Films with Twin-like Domains

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chengliang; Deniz, Hakan; Li, Xiang; Liu, Jun-Ming; Cheong, Sang-Wook

    2016-01-01

    The magnetic control of ferroelectric polarization is currently a central topic in the multiferroic researches, owing to the related gigantic magnetoelectric coupling and fascinating physics. Although a bunch of novel magnetoelectric effect have been discovered in multiferroics of magnetic origin, the manipulation of polarization was found to be fundamentally determined by the microscopic origin in a certain multiferroic phase, hindering the development of unusual magnetoelectric control. Here, we report emergent magnetoelectric control in DyMnO3/Nb:SrTiO3 (001) films showing twin-like domain structure. Our results demonstrate interesting magnetically induced partial switch of polarization due to the coexistence of polarizations along both the a-axis and c-axis enabled by the twin-like domain structure in DyMnO3 films, despite the polarization-switch was conventionally believed to be a one-step event in the bulk counterpart. Moreover, a continuous and periodic control of macroscopic polarization by an in-plane rotating magnetic field is evidenced in the thin films. This distinctive magnetic manipulation of polarization is the consequence of the cooperative action of the twin-like domains and the dual magnetic origin of polarization, which promises additional applications using the magnetic control of ferroelectricity. PMID:26829899

  1. Continuous Magnetoelectric Control in Multiferroic DyMnO3 Films with Twin-like Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chengliang; Deniz, Hakan; Li, Xiang; Liu, Jun-Ming; Cheong, Sang-Wook

    2016-02-01

    The magnetic control of ferroelectric polarization is currently a central topic in the multiferroic researches, owing to the related gigantic magnetoelectric coupling and fascinating physics. Although a bunch of novel magnetoelectric effect have been discovered in multiferroics of magnetic origin, the manipulation of polarization was found to be fundamentally determined by the microscopic origin in a certain multiferroic phase, hindering the development of unusual magnetoelectric control. Here, we report emergent magnetoelectric control in DyMnO3/Nb:SrTiO3 (001) films showing twin-like domain structure. Our results demonstrate interesting magnetically induced partial switch of polarization due to the coexistence of polarizations along both the a-axis and c-axis enabled by the twin-like domain structure in DyMnO3 films, despite the polarization-switch was conventionally believed to be a one-step event in the bulk counterpart. Moreover, a continuous and periodic control of macroscopic polarization by an in-plane rotating magnetic field is evidenced in the thin films. This distinctive magnetic manipulation of polarization is the consequence of the cooperative action of the twin-like domains and the dual magnetic origin of polarization, which promises additional applications using the magnetic control of ferroelectricity.

  2. Experimental observation of magnetoelectricity in spin ice Dy2Ti2O7

    DOE PAGES

    Lin, L.; Xie, Y. L.; Wen, J. -J.; ...

    2015-12-14

    The intrinsic noncollinear spin patterns in rare-earth pyrochlore are physically interesting, due to their many emergent properties (e.g., spin-ice and monopole-type excitation). Recent works have suggested that the magnetic monopole excitation of spin-ice systems is magnetoelectric active, but this fact has rarely been confirmed via experiment. In this work, we performed a systematic experimental investigation on the magnetoelectricity of Dy2Ti2O7 by probing the ferroelectricity, spin dynamics, and dielectric behaviors. Two ferroelectric transitions at Tc1 = 25 K and Tc2 =13 K were observed. Remarkable magnetoelectric coupling was identified below the lower transition temperature, with significant suppression of the electric polarizationmore » on applied magnetic field. Our results show that the lower ferroelectric transition temperature coincides with the Ising-spin paramagnetic transition point, below which the quasi-particle-like monopoles are populated, which indicates implicit correlation between electric dipoles and spin moments. The possible magnetoelectric mechanisms are discussed. Our findings can be used for more investigations to explore multiferroicity in these spin-ice systems and other frustrated magnets.« less

  3. A new (Ba, Ca) (Ti, Zr)O3 based multiferroic composite with large magnetoelectric effect

    PubMed Central

    Naveed-Ul-Haq, M.; Shvartsman, Vladimir V.; Salamon, Soma; Wende, Heiko; Trivedi, Harsh; Mumtaz, Arif; Lupascu, Doru C.

    2016-01-01

    The lead-free ferroelectric 0.5Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 − 0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 (BCZT) is a promising component for multifunctional multiferroics due to its excellent room temperature piezoelectric properties. Having a composition close to the polymorphic phase boundary between the orthorhombic and tetragonal phases, it deserves a case study for analysis of its potential for modern electronics applications. To obtain magnetoelectric coupling, the piezoelectric phase needs to be combined with a suitable magnetostrictive phase. In the current article, we report on the synthesis, dielectric, magnetic, and magnetoelectric characterization of a new magnetoelectric multiferroic composite consisting of BCZT as a piezoelectric phase and CoFe2O4 (CFO) as the magnetostrictive phase. We found that this material is multiferroic at room temperature and manifests a magnetoelectric effect larger than that of BaTiO3 −CoFe2O4 bulk composites with similar content of the ferrite phase. PMID:27555563

  4. Experimental observation of magnetoelectricity in spin ice Dy2Ti2O7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, L.; Xie, Y. L.; Wen, J.-J.; Dong, S.; Yan, Z. B.; Liu, J.-M.

    2015-12-01

    The intrinsic noncollinear spin patterns in rare-earth pyrochlore are physically interesting, due to their many emergent properties (e.g., spin-ice and monopole-type excitation). Recent works have suggested that the magnetic monopole excitation of spin-ice systems is magnetoelectric active, but this fact has rarely been confirmed via experiment. In this work, we performed a systematic experimental investigation on the magnetoelectricity of Dy2Ti2O7 by probing the ferroelectricity, spin dynamics, and dielectric behaviors. Two ferroelectric transitions at Tc1 = 25 K and Tc2 = 13 K were observed. Remarkable magnetoelectric coupling was identified below the lower transition temperature, with significant suppression of the electric polarization on applied magnetic field. Our results show that the lower ferroelectric transition temperature coincides with the Ising-spin paramagnetic transition point, below which the quasi-particle-like monopoles are populated, which indicates implicit correlation between electric dipoles and spin moments. The possible magnetoelectric mechanisms are discussed. Our results can be used for more investigations to explore multiferroicity in these spin-ice systems and other frustrated magnets.

  5. First observation of magnetoelectric effect in M-type hexaferrite thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Mohebbi, Marjan; Ebnabbasi, Khabat; Vittoria, Carmine

    2013-05-07

    The magnetoelectric (ME) effect in M-type hexaferrite thin films is reported. Prior to this work, the ME effect in hexaferrite materials was observed only in bulk polycrystalline materials. Thin films of SrCo{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}Fe{sub 8}O{sub 19} were grown on sapphire (0001) using pulsed laser deposition. The thin films were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, scanning electron microscope, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, and ferromagnetic resonance. We measured saturation magnetization of 1250 G, g-factor of 2.66, and coercive field of 20 Oe for these magnetoelectric M-type hexaferrite thin films. The magnetoelectric effect was confirmed by monitoring the change rate in remanence magnetization with the application of DC voltage at room temperature and it gave rise to changes in remanence in the order of 12.8% with the application of only 1 V (DC voltage). We deduced a magnetoelectric coupling, {alpha}, of 6.07 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9} s m{sup -1} in SrCo{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}Fe{sub 8}O{sub 19} thin films.

  6. A new (Ba, Ca) (Ti, Zr)O3 based multiferroic composite with large magnetoelectric effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naveed-Ul-Haq, M.; Shvartsman, Vladimir V.; Salamon, Soma; Wende, Heiko; Trivedi, Harsh; Mumtaz, Arif; Lupascu, Doru C.

    2016-08-01

    The lead-free ferroelectric 0.5Ba(Zr0.2Ti0.8)O3 - 0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 (BCZT) is a promising component for multifunctional multiferroics due to its excellent room temperature piezoelectric properties. Having a composition close to the polymorphic phase boundary between the orthorhombic and tetragonal phases, it deserves a case study for analysis of its potential for modern electronics applications. To obtain magnetoelectric coupling, the piezoelectric phase needs to be combined with a suitable magnetostrictive phase. In the current article, we report on the synthesis, dielectric, magnetic, and magnetoelectric characterization of a new magnetoelectric multiferroic composite consisting of BCZT as a piezoelectric phase and CoFe2O4 (CFO) as the magnetostrictive phase. We found that this material is multiferroic at room temperature and manifests a magnetoelectric effect larger than that of BaTiO3 -CoFe2O4 bulk composites with similar content of the ferrite phase.

  7. Ferrite-Piezoelectric Layered Composites: Synthesis and Magnetoelectric Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, R. W.; Srinivasan, G.

    2004-10-01

    The observation of strong magnetoelectric effects is reported in thick film bilayers and multilayers of ferrite-lead titanate zirconate (PZT). The ferrites used in our studies included pure and zinc substituted cobalt-, nickel- and lithium ferrites. Samples were prepared by sintering 10-40 mm thick films obtained by tape-casting. Measurements of ME voltage coefficients at 10-1000 Hz indicated a giant ME effect in nickel ferrite-PZT, but a relatively weak coupling in other ferrite-PZT systems. Evidence was found for enhancement in ME coefficients when Zn was substituted in ferrites. The Zn-assisted increase was attributed to low anisotropy and high permeability that resulted in favorable magneto-mechanical coupling in the composites. G. Srinivasan, E. T. Rasmussen, and R. Hayes, Phys. Rev. B 67, 014418 (2003) Supported by NSF and ARO grants.

  8. Frequency dependent plasma characteristics in a capacitively coupled 300 mm wafer plasma processing chamber.

    SciTech Connect

    Hebner, Gregory Albert; Holland, J.P.; Paterson, A.M.; Barnat, Edward V.; Miller, Paul Albert

    2006-01-01

    Argon plasma characteristics in a dual-frequency, capacitively coupled, 300 mm-wafer plasma processing system were investigated for rf drive frequencies between 10 and 190 MHz. We report spatial and frequency dependent changes in plasma parameters such as line-integrated electron density, ion saturation current, optical emission and argon metastable density. For the conditions investigated, the line-integrated electron density was a nonlinear function of drive frequency at constant rf power. In addition, the spatial distribution of the positive ions changed from uniform to peaked in the centre as the frequency was increased. Spatially resolved optical emission increased with frequency and the relative optical emission at several spectral lines depended on frequency. Argon metastable density and spatial distribution were not a strong function of drive frequency. Metastable temperature was approximately 400 K.

  9. The role of coupling-frequency weighting exponent on synchronization of a power network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li-xin; Jiang, Jun

    2016-12-01

    Second-order Kuramoto-like oscillators with dissimilar natural frequencies are used as a coarse-scale model for an electrical power network that contains generators and consumers. This paper proposes a new power network model with coupling-frequency weighting exponent. Furthermore, the influence of the weighting exponent on synchronization of a power network is investigated through numerical simulations. It is observed that the synchronizability is significantly influenced by the coupling-frequency weighting coefficient with different magnitude categories. Furthermore, the synchronization cost caused by phase differences of power plants on the synchronization of the proposed power network model is studied. Numerical simulation shows that the synchronization cost will get larger with the coupling-frequency weighting exponent increasing further.

  10. Topological magnetoelectric effects in microwave far-field radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Berezin, M.; Kamenetskii, E. O.; Shavit, R.

    2016-07-21

    Similar to electromagnetism, described by the Maxwell equations, the physics of magnetoelectric (ME) phenomena deals with the fundamental problem of the relationship between electric and magnetic fields. Despite a formal resemblance between the two notions, they concern effects of different natures. In general, ME-coupling effects manifest in numerous macroscopic phenomena in solids with space and time symmetry breakings. Recently, it was shown that the near fields in the proximity of a small ferrite particle with magnetic-dipolar-mode (MDM) oscillations have the space and time symmetry breakings and the topological properties of these fields are different from the topological properties of the free-space electromagnetic fields. Such MDM-originated fields—called magnetoelectric (ME) fields—carry both spin and orbital angular momenta. They are characterized by power-flow vortices and non-zero helicity. In this paper, we report on observation of the topological ME effects in far-field microwave radiation based on a small microwave antenna with a MDM ferrite resonator. We show that the microwave far-field radiation can be manifested with a torsion structure where an angle between the electric and magnetic field vectors varies. We discuss the question on observation of the regions of localized ME energy in far-field microwave radiation.

  11. Magnetoelectric effect in Cr2O3 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xi; Wang, Yi; Sahoo, Sarbeswar; Binek, Christian

    2008-03-01

    Magnetoelectric materials experienced a recent revival as promising components of novel spintronic devices [1, 2, 3]. Since the magnetoelectric (ME) effect is relativistically small in traditional antiferromagnetic compounds like Cr2O3 (max. αzz 4ps/m ) and also cross- coupling between ferroic order parameters is typically small in the modern multiferroics, it is a challenge to electrically induce sufficient magnetization required for the envisioned device applications. A straightforward approach is to increase the electric field at constant voltage by reducing the thickness of the ME material to thin films of a few nm. Since magnetism is known to be affected by geometrical confinement thickness dependence of the ME effect in thin film Cr2O3 is expected. We grow (111) textured Cr2O3 films with various thicknesses below 500 nm and study the ME effect for various ME annealing conditions as a function of temperature with the help of Kerr-magnetometry. [1] P. Borisov et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 117203 (2005). [2] Ch. Binek, B.Doudin, J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17, L39 (2005). [3] R. Ramesh and Nicola A. Spaldin 2007 Nature Materials 6 21.

  12. Topological magnetoelectric effects in microwave far-field radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berezin, M.; Kamenetskii, E. O.; Shavit, R.

    2016-07-01

    Similar to electromagnetism, described by the Maxwell equations, the physics of magnetoelectric (ME) phenomena deals with the fundamental problem of the relationship between electric and magnetic fields. Despite a formal resemblance between the two notions, they concern effects of different natures. In general, ME-coupling effects manifest in numerous macroscopic phenomena in solids with space and time symmetry breakings. Recently, it was shown that the near fields in the proximity of a small ferrite particle with magnetic-dipolar-mode (MDM) oscillations have the space and time symmetry breakings and the topological properties of these fields are different from the topological properties of the free-space electromagnetic fields. Such MDM-originated fields—called magnetoelectric (ME) fields—carry both spin and orbital angular momenta. They are characterized by power-flow vortices and non-zero helicity. In this paper, we report on observation of the topological ME effects in far-field microwave radiation based on a small microwave antenna with a MDM ferrite resonator. We show that the microwave far-field radiation can be manifested with a torsion structure where an angle between the electric and magnetic field vectors varies. We discuss the question on observation of the regions of localized ME energy in far-field microwave radiation.

  13. Dispersion of Electric-Field-Induced Faraday Effect in Magnetoelectric Cr2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junlei; Binek, Christian

    2016-03-01

    The frequency dependence of the electric-field-induced magneto-optical Faraday effect is investigated in the magnetoelectric antiferromagnet chromia. Two electrically induced Faraday signals superimpose in proportion to the linear magnetoelectric susceptibility α and the antiferromagnetic order parameter η . The relative strength of these contributions is determined by the frequency of the probing light and can be tuned between extreme characteristics following the temperature dependence of α or η . The frequency dependence is analyzed in terms of electric dipole transitions of perturbed Cr3 + crystal-field states. The results allow us to measure voltage-controlled selection, isothermal switching, and temperature dependence of η in a tabletop setup. The voltage-specific Faraday rotation is independent of the sample thickness, making the method scalable and versatile down to the limit of dielectric breakdown.

  14. Adaptive Filtering Methods for Identifying Cross-Frequency Couplings in Human EEG

    PubMed Central

    Van Zaen, Jérôme; Murray, Micah M.; Meuli, Reto A.; Vesin, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    Oscillations have been increasingly recognized as a core property of neural responses that contribute to spontaneous, induced, and evoked activities within and between individual neurons and neural ensembles. They are considered as a prominent mechanism for information processing within and communication between brain areas. More recently, it has been proposed that interactions between periodic components at different frequencies, known as cross-frequency couplings, may support the integration of neuronal oscillations at different temporal and spatial scales. The present study details methods based on an adaptive frequency tracking approach that improve the quantification and statistical analysis of oscillatory components and cross-frequency couplings. This approach allows for time-varying instantaneous frequency, which is particularly important when measuring phase interactions between components. We compared this adaptive approach to traditional band-pass filters in their measurement of phase-amplitude and phase-phase cross-frequency couplings. Evaluations were performed with synthetic signals and EEG data recorded from healthy humans performing an illusory contour discrimination task. First, the synthetic signals in conjunction with Monte Carlo simulations highlighted two desirable features of the proposed algorithm vs. classical filter-bank approaches: resilience to broad-band noise and oscillatory interference. Second, the analyses with real EEG signals revealed statistically more robust effects (i.e. improved sensitivity) when using an adaptive frequency tracking framework, particularly when identifying phase-amplitude couplings. This was further confirmed after generating surrogate signals from the real EEG data. Adaptive frequency tracking appears to improve the measurements of cross-frequency couplings through precise extraction of neuronal oscillations. PMID:23560098

  15. Adaptive filtering methods for identifying cross-frequency couplings in human EEG.

    PubMed

    Van Zaen, Jérôme; Murray, Micah M; Meuli, Reto A; Vesin, Jean-Marc

    2013-01-01

    Oscillations have been increasingly recognized as a core property of neural responses that contribute to spontaneous, induced, and evoked activities within and between individual neurons and neural ensembles. They are considered as a prominent mechanism for information processing within and communication between brain areas. More recently, it has been proposed that interactions between periodic components at different frequencies, known as cross-frequency couplings, may support the integration of neuronal oscillations at different temporal and spatial scales. The present study details methods based on an adaptive frequency tracking approach that improve the quantification and statistical analysis of oscillatory components and cross-frequency couplings. This approach allows for time-varying instantaneous frequency, which is particularly important when measuring phase interactions between components. We compared this adaptive approach to traditional band-pass filters in their measurement of phase-amplitude and phase-phase cross-frequency couplings. Evaluations were performed with synthetic signals and EEG data recorded from healthy humans performing an illusory contour discrimination task. First, the synthetic signals in conjunction with Monte Carlo simulations highlighted two desirable features of the proposed algorithm vs. classical filter-bank approaches: resilience to broad-band noise and oscillatory interference. Second, the analyses with real EEG signals revealed statistically more robust effects (i.e. improved sensitivity) when using an adaptive frequency tracking framework, particularly when identifying phase-amplitude couplings. This was further confirmed after generating surrogate signals from the real EEG data. Adaptive frequency tracking appears to improve the measurements of cross-frequency couplings through precise extraction of neuronal oscillations.

  16. A Generalized Fast Frequency Sweep Algorithm for Coupled Circuit-EM Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Rockway, J D; Champagne, N J; Sharpe, R M; Fasenfest, B

    2004-01-14

    Frequency domain techniques are popular for analyzing electromagnetics (EM) and coupled circuit-EM problems. These techniques, such as the method of moments (MoM) and the finite element method (FEM), are used to determine the response of the EM portion of the problem at a single frequency. Since only one frequency is solved at a time, it may take a long time to calculate the parameters for wideband devices. In this paper, a fast frequency sweep based on the Asymptotic Wave Expansion (AWE) method is developed and applied to generalized mixed circuit-EM problems. The AWE method, which was originally developed for lumped-load circuit simulations, has recently been shown to be effective at quasi-static and low frequency full-wave simulations. Here it is applied to a full-wave MoM solver, capable of solving for metals, dielectrics, and coupled circuit-EM problems.

  17. Role of commensurability of spin order for optical magnetoelectric effect with electromagnons in multiferroic YMn2O5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, R.; Kaneko, Y.; Yamasaki, Y.; Tokura, Y.; Takahashi, Y.

    2017-07-01

    The optical magnetoelectric effect, which produces the nonreciprocal directional dichroism, on the electromagnon resonances is investigated for multiferroic phases of YMn2O5 by terahertz spectroscopy. For the electromagnon driven by the exchange striction, the crucial role of the commensurability of spin order in the magnetoelectric coupling is manifested by the suppression of the directional dichroism in the incommensurate spin phase. Furthermore, the gapped electromagnon via the spin-current mechanism is identified in terms of the directional dichroism, irrespective of commensurability/incommensurability in the cycloidal spin order.

  18. Inertial effect on frequency synchronization for the second-order Kuramoto model with local coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rui; Qin, Wen-Xin

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we study the influence of the inertial effect on frequency synchronization in an ensemble of Kuramoto oscillators with finite inertia and symmetric and connected interactions. We present sufficient conditions in terms of coupling strength, algebraic connectivity, natural frequencies, and the inertial term to guarantee the occurrence of frequency synchronization. We also make a comparison with the existing conditions proposed for the first-order Kuramoto model and conclude that the inertial effect, if appropriately small, has little influence on frequency synchronization as long as the initial phase configurations are distributed in a half circle.

  19. Self-excited nonlinear plasma series resonance oscillations in geometrically symmetric capacitively coupled radio frequency discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Donko, Z.; Schulze, J.; Czarnetzki, U.; Luggenhoelscher, D.

    2009-03-30

    At low pressures, nonlinear self-excited plasma series resonance (PSR) oscillations are known to drastically enhance electron heating in geometrically asymmetric capacitively coupled radio frequency discharges by nonlinear electron resonance heating (NERH). Here we demonstrate via particle-in-cell simulations that high-frequency PSR oscillations can also be excited in geometrically symmetric discharges if the driving voltage waveform makes the discharge electrically asymmetric. This can be achieved by a dual-frequency (f+2f) excitation, when PSR oscillations and NERH are turned on and off depending on the electrical discharge asymmetry, controlled by the phase difference of the driving frequencies.

  20. Magneto-electric effect for multiferroic thin film by Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zidong; Grimson, Malcolm J.

    2015-06-01

    Magneto-electric (ME) effect in a multiferroic heterostructure film, i.e., a coupled ferromagnetic-ferroelectric thin film, has been investigated through the use of the Metropolis algorithm in Monte Carlo simulations. A classical Heisenberg model describes the energy stored in the ferromagnetic (FM) film, and we use a pseudo-spin model with a transverse Ising Hamiltonian to characterise the energy of electric dipoles in the ferroelectric (FE) film. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate the dynamic response of polarisation is driven by an external magnetic field, when there is a linear magneto-electric coupling at the interface between the ferromagnetic and ferroelectric components. Contribution to the topical issue "Advanced Electromagnetics Symposium (AES 2014) - Elected submissions", edited by Adel Razek

  1. Magnetoelectric Dead Layer and Uncompensated Spins in Magnetic/Ferroelectric Heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holcomb, Mikel; Huang, Chih-Yeh; Zhou, Jinling; Trappen, Robbyn; Cabrera, Guerau; Chu, Ying-Hao; West Virginia University Team; National Chiao Tung University Team

    Interfacial magnetoelectricity across a multilayer system is known to sometimes result in much larger coupling between electric and magnetism than in single phase systems. We compared the magnetic domains in LaSrMnO3 thin films, ferroelectric domains in PbZrTiO3 and observed uncompensated spin at the interface. Several techniques to quantify image contrast switching between left and right circularly polarized x-ray absorption spectra of magnetic domains and uncompensated spin were developed and gave similar results. Not surprisingly, the magnetic domain switching increased with magnetic film thickness, but the uncompensated spin did as well. This results suggests that there may be an effective magnetoelectric dead layer at the interface between coupled magnetic and ferroelectric layers, which is likely linked to at least the magnetic dead layer in the magnetic film. These measurements were taken by L-edge spectromicroscopy at the PEEM3 beamline of the Advanced Light Source.

  2. Beating frequency and amplitude modulation of the piano tone due to coupling of tones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartling, Bo

    2005-04-01

    The influence on a piano tone from weak coexcitation of damped adjacent tones due to coupling via the bridge is studied. The frequency and amplitude modulation of the sound resulting from coexcitation of one strong and one or two weak tones is analyzed. One weak tone causes frequency and amplitude modulation of the sound, and two weak tones produce beating frequency and amplitude modulation, where the beatings of the two modulations are of opposite phase. By digital recording of the sound of piano tones, the appearance of these phenomena is verified. The audibility of the observed frequency and amplitude modulation is discussed in terms of previously determined detection thresholds. The beating character of both frequency and amplitude modulations, however, distinguishes the phenomena from those previously studied and prompts further psychoacoustic investigations. It is shown that detuning of unison strings may significantly increase the frequency deviation of the frequency modulation in conjunction with affected amplitude modulation. The modulatory effects of coupling to adjacent tones therefore may possibly be utilized in the tuning process. A coupling of tones analogous to the situation in a piano may arise in other stringed musical instruments transferring string vibrations to a soundboard via a bridge. .

  3. Frequency Coupling Model for Dynamics of Responses to Stimuli in Plasmodium of Physarum Polycephalum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takamatsu, Atsuko; Takahashi, Kengo; Nagao, Makoto; Tsuchiya, Yoshimi

    1997-06-01

    Gathering or escaping behavior in the plasmodium of Physarum polycephalum is considered to relate to an entrainment of the coupled nonlinear oscillators. The behavior has been explained to be caused by the formation of phase gradient between those oscillators, which results from the local frequency modulation at the stimulated site. However, it has not yet been elucidated how the formation process relates to the migration of the plasmodium. In this paper, we have introduced a model with frequency coupling besides the phase coupling in the system of coupled oscillators. By the simulation, we have shown that not only the phase gradient but also the concentration gradient of substances such as Ca2+ and ATP are self-organized and their reverse by the stimulus results in the migration of plasmodium.

  4. Coupling of Helmholtz resonators to improve acoustic liners for turbofan engines at low frequency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, L. W.

    1975-01-01

    An analytical and test program was conducted to evaluate means for increasing the effectiveness of low frequency sound absorbing liners for aircraft turbine engines. Three schemes for coupling low frequency absorber elements were considered. These schemes were analytically modeled and their impedance was predicted over a frequency range of 50 to 1,000 Hz. An optimum and two off-optimum designs of the most promising, a parallel coupled scheme, were fabricated and tested in a flow duct facility. Impedance measurements were in good agreement with predicted values and validated the procedure used to transform modeled parameters to hardware designs. Measurements of attenuation for panels of coupled resonators were consistent with predictions based on measured impedance. All coupled resonator panels tested showed an increase in peak attenuation of about 50% and an increase in attenuation bandwidth of one one-third octave band over that measured for an uncoupled panel. These attenuation characteristics equate to about 35% greater reduction in source perceived noise level (PNL), relative to the uncoupled panel, or a reduction in treatment length of about 24% for constant PNL reduction. The increased effectiveness of the coupled resonator concept for attenuation of low frequency broad spectrum noise is demonstrated.

  5. A loop-gap resonator for chirality-sensitive nuclear magneto-electric resonance (NMER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbacz, Piotr; Fischer, Peer; Krämer, Steffen

    2016-09-01

    Direct detection of molecular chirality is practically impossible by methods of standard nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) that is based on interactions involving magnetic-dipole and magnetic-field operators. However, theoretical studies provide a possible direct probe of chirality by exploiting an enantiomer selective additional coupling involving magnetic-dipole, magnetic-field, and electric field operators. This offers a way for direct experimental detection of chirality by nuclear magneto-electric resonance (NMER). This method uses both resonant magnetic and electric radiofrequency (RF) fields. The weakness of the chiral interaction though requires a large electric RF field and a small transverse RF magnetic field over the sample volume, which is a non-trivial constraint. In this study, we present a detailed study of the NMER concept and a possible experimental realization based on a loop-gap resonator. For this original device, the basic principle and numerical studies as well as fabrication and measurements of the frequency dependence of the scattering parameter are reported. By simulating the NMER spin dynamics for our device and taking the 19F NMER signal of enantiomer-pure 1,1,1-trifluoropropan-2-ol, we predict a chirality induced NMER signal that accounts for 1%-5% of the standard achiral NMR signal.

  6. Combinatorial bulk ceramic magnetoelectric composite libraries of strontium hexaferrite and barium titanate.

    PubMed

    Pullar, Robert C

    2012-07-09

    Bulk ceramic combinatorial libraries were produced via a novel, high-throughput (HT) process, in the form of polycrystalline strips with a gradient composition along the length of the library. Step gradient ceramic composite libraries with 10 mol % steps of SrFe12O19-BaTiO3 (SrM-BT) were made and characterized using HT methods, as a proof of principle of the combinatorial bulk ceramic process, and sintered via HT thermal processing. It was found that the SrM-BT libraries sintered at 1175 °C had the optimum morphology and density. The compositional, electrical and magnetic properties of this library were analyzed, and it was found that the SrM and BT phases did not react and remained discrete. The combinatorial synthesis method produced a relatively linear variation in composition. The magnetization of the library followed the measured compositions very well, as did the low frequency permittivity values of most compositions in the library. However, with high SrM content of ≥80 mol %, the samples became increasingly conductive, and no reliable dielectric measurements could be made. Such conductivity would also greatly inhibit any ferroelectricity and magnetoelectric coupling with these composites with high levels of the SrM hexagonal ferrite.

  7. A loop-gap resonator for chirality-sensitive nuclear magneto-electric resonance (NMER).

    PubMed

    Garbacz, Piotr; Fischer, Peer; Krämer, Steffen

    2016-09-14

    Direct detection of molecular chirality is practically impossible by methods of standard nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) that is based on interactions involving magnetic-dipole and magnetic-field operators. However, theoretical studies provide a possible direct probe of chirality by exploiting an enantiomer selective additional coupling involving magnetic-dipole, magnetic-field, and electric field operators. This offers a way for direct experimental detection of chirality by nuclear magneto-electric resonance (NMER). This method uses both resonant magnetic and electric radiofrequency (RF) fields. The weakness of the chiral interaction though requires a large electric RF field and a small transverse RF magnetic field over the sample volume, which is a non-trivial constraint. In this study, we present a detailed study of the NMER concept and a possible experimental realization based on a loop-gap resonator. For this original device, the basic principle and numerical studies as well as fabrication and measurements of the frequency dependence of the scattering parameter are reported. By simulating the NMER spin dynamics for our device and taking the (19)F NMER signal of enantiomer-pure 1,1,1-trifluoropropan-2-ol, we predict a chirality induced NMER signal that accounts for 1%-5% of the standard achiral NMR signal.

  8. Three-dimensional negative index of refraction at optical frequencies by coupling plasmonic waveguides.

    PubMed

    Verhagen, Ewold; de Waele, René; Kuipers, L; Polman, Albert

    2010-11-26

    We identify a route towards achieving a negative index of refraction at optical frequencies based on coupling between plasmonic waveguides that support backwards waves. We show how modal symmetry can be exploited in metal-dielectric waveguide pairs to achieve negative refraction of both phase and energy. Control of waveguide coupling yields a metamaterial consisting of a one-dimensional multilayer stack that exhibits an isotropic index of -1 at a free-space wavelength of 400 nm. The concepts developed here may inspire new low-loss metamaterial designs operating close to the metal plasma frequency.

  9. Frequency adjustment and synchrony in networks of delayed pulse-coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Joel

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a system of pulse-coupled oscillators that can change both their phases and frequencies and prove that when there is a separation of time scales between phase and frequency adjustment the system converges to exact synchrony on strongly connected graphs with time delays. The analysis involves decomposing the network into a forest of tree-like structures that capture causality. These results provide a robust method of sensor net synchronization as well as demonstrate a new avenue of possible pulse-coupled oscillator research.

  10. Automated detection of cross-frequency coupling in the electrocorticogram for clinical inspection

    PubMed Central

    Miyakoshi, Makoto; Delorme, Arnaud; Mullen, Tim; Kojima, Katsuaki; Makeig, Scott; Asano, Eishi

    2014-01-01

    We developed a toolbox for detecting high-frequency oscillations and evaluating cross-frequency phase-amplitude coupling in electrocorticographic (ECoG) data with optimal parameters. Here we demonstrate use of the toolbox using simulated and realistic ECoG data. The results confirmed its potential usefulness for clinical research or practice. The tools have been released as a Phase-Amplitude Coupling Toolbox (PACT) plug-in for EEGLAB, an open software environment for electrophysiological data analysis (sccn.ucsd.edu/eeglab). PMID:24110429

  11. On-Chip Strong Coupling and Efficient Frequency Conversion between Telecom and Visible Optical Modes.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiang; Zou, Chang-Ling; Jung, Hojoong; Tang, Hong X

    2016-09-16

    While the frequency conversion of photons has been realized with various approaches, the realization of strong coupling between optical modes of different colors has never been reported. Here, we present an experimental demonstration of strong coupling between telecom (1550 nm) and visible (775 nm) optical modes on an aluminum nitride photonic chip. The nonreciprocal normal-mode splitting is demonstrated as a result of the coherent interference between photons with different colors. Furthermore, a wideband, bidirectional frequency conversion with 0.14 on-chip conversion efficiency and a bandwidth up to 1.2 GHz is demonstrated.

  12. Experimental Characterization of Dual-Frequency Capacitively Coupled Plasma with Inductive Enhancement in Argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yang; Jin, Chenggang; Yu, Tao; Wu, Xuemei; Zhuge, Lanjian; Ning, Zhaoyuan; Ye, Chao; Ge, Shuibing

    2013-10-01

    The dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasma (DF-CCP) with inductive enhancement system is a newly designed plasma reactor. Different from the conventional inductively coupled plasma (ICP) reactors, now a radio frequency (rf) power is connected to an antenna placed outside the chamber with a one-turn bare coil placed between two electrodes in DF-CCP. This paper gives a detailed description of its structure. Moreover, investigations on some characteristics of discharges in this apparatus were made via a Langmuir probe.

  13. Radio frequency coupling apparatus and method for measuring minority carrier lifetimes in semiconductor materials

    DOEpatents

    Johnston, Steven W.; Ahrenkiel, Richard K.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the minority carrier lifetime of a semiconductor sample using radio-frequency coupling. The measuring apparatus includes an antenna that is positioned a coupling distance from a semiconductor sample which is exposed to light pulses from a laser during sampling operations. A signal generator is included to generate high frequency, such as 900 MHz or higher, sinusoidal waveform signals that are split into a reference signal and a sample signal. The sample signal is transmitted into a sample branch circuit where it passes through a tuning capacitor and a coaxial cable prior to reaching the antenna. The antenna is radio-frequency coupled with the adjacent sample and transmits the sample signal, or electromagnetic radiation corresponding to the sample signal, to the sample and receives reflected power or a sample-coupled-photoconductivity signal back. To lower impedance and speed system response, the impedance is controlled by limiting impedance in the coaxial cable and the antenna reactance. In one embodiment, the antenna is a waveguide/aperture hybrid antenna having a central transmission line and an adjacent ground flange. The sample-coupled-photoconductivity signal is then transmitted to a mixer which also receives the reference signal. To enhance the sensitivity of the measuring apparatus, the mixer is operated to phase match the reference signal and the sample-coupled-photoconductivity signal.

  14. Spurious cross-frequency amplitude-amplitude coupling in nonstationary, nonlinear signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Chien-Hung; Lo, Men-Tzung; Hu, Kun

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies of brain activities show that cross-frequency coupling (CFC) plays an important role in memory and learning. Many measures have been proposed to investigate the CFC phenomenon, including the correlation between the amplitude envelopes of two brain waves at different frequencies - cross-frequency amplitude-amplitude coupling (AAC). In this short communication, we describe how nonstationary, nonlinear oscillatory signals may produce spurious cross-frequency AAC. Utilizing the empirical mode decomposition, we also propose a new method for assessment of AAC that can potentially reduce the effects of nonlinearity and nonstationarity and, thus, help to avoid the detection of artificial AACs. We compare the performances of this new method and the traditional Fourier-based AAC method. We also discuss the strategies to identify potential spurious AACs.

  15. A swept frequency multiplication technique for air-coupled ultrasonic NDE.

    PubMed

    Gan, Tat Hean; Hutchins, David A; Green, Roger J

    2004-10-01

    A new technique has been investigated for improving the signals that can be obtained in air-coupled nondestruction evaluation (NDE). This relies on the wide bandwidth available from polymer-filmed capacitive transducers. The technique relies on a swept-frequency "chirp" signal, which is transmitted from a transducer in air. The new technique differs from existing time-domain correlation techniques, such as pulse compression, in that a single multiplication process is performed in the time domain to give a difference frequency signal. This then can be isolated easily in the frequency domain. It will be demonstrated that this new swept frequency multiplication (SFM) approach gives the potential for rapid air-coupled imaging.

  16. Simulation of dust particles in dual-frequency capacitively coupled silane discharges.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiang-Mei; Song, Yuan-Hong; Xu, Xiang; Wang, You-Nian

    2010-01-01

    The behavior of nanoparticles in dual-frequency capacitively coupled silane discharges is investigated by employing a one-dimensional self-consistent fluid model. The numerical simulation tries to trace the formation, charging, growth, and transport of dust particles during the discharge, under the influences of the high- and low-frequency electric sources, as well as the gas pressure. The effects of the presence of the nanoparticles and larger anions on the plasma properties are also discussed, especially, for the bulk potential, electron temperature, and densities of various particles. The calculation results show that the nanoparticle density and charge distribution are mainly influenced by the voltage and frequency of the high-frequency source, while the voltage of the low-frequency source can also exert an effect on the nanoparticle formation, compared with the frequency. As the discharge lasts, the electric potential and electron density keep decreasing, while the electron temperature gets increasing after a sudden drop.

  17. Simulation of dust particles in dual-frequency capacitively coupled silane discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Xiangmei; Song Yuanhong; Xu Xiang; Wang Younian

    2010-01-15

    The behavior of nanoparticles in dual-frequency capacitively coupled silane discharges is investigated by employing a one-dimensional self-consistent fluid model. The numerical simulation tries to trace the formation, charging, growth, and transport of dust particles during the discharge, under the influences of the high- and low-frequency electric sources, as well as the gas pressure. The effects of the presence of the nanoparticles and larger anions on the plasma properties are also discussed, especially, for the bulk potential, electron temperature, and densities of various particles. The calculation results show that the nanoparticle density and charge distribution are mainly influenced by the voltage and frequency of the high-frequency source, while the voltage of the low-frequency source can also exert an effect on the nanoparticle formation, compared with the frequency. As the discharge lasts, the electric potential and electron density keep decreasing, while the electron temperature gets increasing after a sudden drop.

  18. Heating of a dual frequency capacitively coupled plasma via the plasma series resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semmler, E.; Awakowicz, P.; von Keudell, A.

    2007-11-01

    The behavior of dual frequency capacitively coupled plasma discharges (2f-CCP) is experimentally studied by Langmuir probe and rf current measurements and is compared with simulations from the literature. The driving frequency ratio, system pressure, high frequency (HF) power and low frequency (LF) power are varied in the experiments. An increase in LF power causes a moderate increase in electron density but a significant decrease in electron temperature. An increase in HF power causes a strong increase in electron density and populates the high energy part of the electron energy distribution function. These dependences can be explained on the basis of a global model. It is shown that the ratios of HF/LF power and driving frequency are the most important parameters. At integer frequency ratios a significant increase in electron density was found, which is explained by the indirect heating at the plasma series resonance. Several design guidelines are derived which address industrial applications and process stability.

  19. Solution of the problem of interaction between capacitive coupled radio-frequency discharge and a sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chebakova, V. Ju; Gaisin, A. F.; Zheltukhin, V. S.

    2016-11-01

    The numerical study of interaction between the capacitive coupled radio frequency (CCRF) discharge and materials is performed. A nonlinear problem, which includes initialboundary value problems for electron, ion, neutral atom, metastable atom, gas temperature and Poisson's equation is solved. A harmonic voltage on the loaded electrodes and Ohm's law for the sample is assumed. A results of calculations of the model problem at pressure p=760 Torr, frequency of generator f=13.76 MHz in local approximation are presented.

  20. Assessment of cross-frequency coupling with confidence using generalized linear models

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, M. A.; Eden, U. T.

    2013-01-01

    Background Brain voltage activity displays distinct neuronal rhythms spanning a wide frequency range. How rhythms of different frequency interact – and the function of these interactions – remains an active area of research. Many methods have been proposed to assess the interactions between different frequency rhythms, in particular measures that characterize the relationship between the phase of a low frequency rhythm and the amplitude envelope of a high frequency rhythm. However, an optimal analysis method to assess this cross-frequency coupling (CFC) does not yet exist. New Method Here we describe a new procedure to assess CFC that utilizes the generalized linear modeling (GLM) framework. Results We illustrate the utility of this procedure in three synthetic examples. The proposed GLM-CFC procedure allows a rapid and principled assessment of CFC with confidence bounds, scales with the intensity of the CFC, and accurately detects biphasic coupling. Comparison with Existing Methods Compared to existing methods, the proposed GLM-CFC procedure is easily interpretable, possesses confidence intervals that are easy and efficient to compute, and accurately detects biphasic coupling. Conclusions The GLM-CFC statistic provides a method for accurate and statistically rigorous assessment of CFC. PMID:24012829

  1. A novel in-line frequency sensor based on coupling capacitance for X-band application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jiabin; Liao, Xiaoping; Yi, Zhenxiang

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents a novel in-line frequency sensor, based on coupling capacitance, for X-band applications. The novel frequency sensor can achieve absolute frequency measurement with a simple structure and no DC power consumption. Fabrication of the frequency sensor is completely compatible with the GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuit process. A well-designed metal-insulator-metal capacitor is employed to couple a certain percentage of incident power and a thermoelectric power sensor is used to measure the coupled power. The sensor design is guided by HFSS simulation and a lumped circuit model. The results validate the effectiveness of the simulation and model, and show relatively good performance of the frequency sensor with simple and reliable components. The net sensitivity of the frequency sensor is about 1.43 mV (W•GHz)-1, and the measured S 11 and S 21 are better than  -14.8 dB and  -1.39 dB at X-band.

  2. Variable Coupling Scheme for High Frequency Electron Spin Resonance Resonators Using Asymmetric Meshes.

    PubMed

    Tipikin, D S; Earle, K A; Freed, J H

    2010-01-01

    The sensitivity of a high frequency electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometer depends strongly on the structure used to couple the incident millimeter wave to the sample that generates the ESR signal. Subsequent coupling of the ESR signal to the detection arm of the spectrometer is also a crucial consideration for achieving high spectrometer sensitivity. In previous work, we found that a means for continuously varying the coupling was necessary for attaining high sensitivity reliably and reproducibly. We report here on a novel asymmetric mesh structure that achieves continuously variable coupling by rotating the mesh in its own plane about the millimeter wave transmission line optical axis. We quantify the performance of this device with nitroxide spin-label spectra in both a lossy aqueous solution and a low loss solid state system. These two systems have very different coupling requirements and are representative of the range of coupling achievable with this technique. Lossy systems in particular are a demanding test of the achievable sensitivity and allow us to assess the suitability of this approach for applying high frequency ESR to the study of biological systems at physiological conditions, for example. The variable coupling technique reported on here allows us to readily achieve a factor of ca. 7 improvement in signal to noise at 170 GHz and a factor of ca. 5 at 95 GHz over what has previously been reported for lossy samples.

  3. A novel cross-frequency coupling detection method using the generalized Morse wavelets.

    PubMed

    Nakhnikian, A; Ito, S; Dwiel, L L; Grasse, L M; Rebec, G V; Lauridsen, L N; Beggs, J M

    2016-08-30

    Cross-frequency coupling (CFC) occurs when non-identical frequency components entrain one another. A ubiquitous example from neuroscience is low frequency phase to high frequency amplitude coupling in electrophysiological signals. Seminal work by Canolty revealed CFC in human ECoG data. Established methods band-pass the data into component frequencies then convert the band-passed signals into the analytic representation, from which we infer the instantaneous amplitude and phase of each component. Though powerful, such methods resolve signals with respect to time and frequency without addressing the multiresolution problem. We build upon the ground-breaking work of Canolty and others and derive a wavelet-based CFC detection algorithm that efficiently searches a range of frequencies using a sequence of filters with optimal trade-off between time and frequency resolution. We validate our method using simulated data and analyze CFC within and between the primary motor cortex and dorsal striatum of rats under ketamine-xylazine anesthesia. Our method detects the correct CFC in simulated data and reveals CFC between frequency bands that were previously shown to participate in corticostriatal effective connectivity. Other CFC detection methods address the need to increase bandwidth when analyzing high frequency components but none to date permit rigorous bandwidth selection with no a priori knowledge of underlying CFC. Our method is thus particularly useful for exploratory studies. The method developed here permits rigorous and efficient exploration of a hypothesis space and is particularly useful when the frequencies participating in CFC are unknown. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Odd-frequency superconductivity in a nanowire coupled to Majorana zero modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shu-Ping; Lutchyn, Roman M.; Maciejko, Joseph

    2017-05-01

    Odd-frequency superconductivity, originally proposed by Berezinskii in 1974, is an exotic phase of matter in which Cooper pairing between electrons is entirely dynamical in nature. The pair potential is an odd function of frequency, leading to a vanishing static superconducting order parameter and exotic types of pairing seemingly inconsistent with Fermi statistics. Motivated by recent experimental progress in the realization of Majorana zero modes in semiconducting nanowires, we show that odd-frequency superconductivity generically appears in a spin-polarized nanowire coupled to Majorana zero modes. We explicitly calculate the superfluid response and show that it is characterized by a paramagnetic Meissner effect.

  5. Hippocampal strata theta oscillations change their frequency and coupling during spatial learning.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Pérez, J Jesús; Gutiérrez-Guzmán, Blanca E; Olvera-Cortés, María E

    2016-11-19

    The theta rhythm is necessary for hippocampal-dependent spatial learning. It has been proposed that each hippocampal stratum can generate a current theta dipole. Therefore, considering that each hippocampal circuit (CA1, CA3, and Dentate Gyrus (DG)) contributes differently to distinct aspects of a spatial memory, the theta oscillations on each stratum and their couplings may exhibit oscillatory dynamics associated with different stages of learning. To test this hypothesis, the theta oscillations from five hippocampal strata were recorded in the rat during different stages of learning in a Morris maze. The peak power, the relative power (RP) and the coherence between hippocampal strata were analyzed. The early acquisition stage of the Morris task was characterized by the predominance of slow frequency theta activity and high coupling between specific hippocampal strata at slow frequencies. However, on the last training day, the theta oscillations were faster in all hippocampal strata, with tighter coupling at fast frequencies between the CA3 pyramidal stratum and other strata. Our results suggest that modifications to the theta frequency and its coupling can be a means by which the hippocampus differentially operates during acquisition and retrieval states.

  6. Good Vibrations: Cross-Frequency Coupling in the Human Nucleus Accumbens during Reward Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Michael X.; Axmacher, Nikolai; Lenartz, Doris; Elger, Christian E.; Sturm, Volker; Schlaepfer, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens is critical for reward-guided learning and decision-making. It is thought to "gate" the flow of a diverse range of information (e.g., rewarding, aversive, and novel events) from limbic afferents to basal ganglia outputs. Gating and information encoding may be achieved via cross-frequency coupling, in which bursts of…

  7. Good Vibrations: Cross-Frequency Coupling in the Human Nucleus Accumbens during Reward Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Michael X.; Axmacher, Nikolai; Lenartz, Doris; Elger, Christian E.; Sturm, Volker; Schlaepfer, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens is critical for reward-guided learning and decision-making. It is thought to "gate" the flow of a diverse range of information (e.g., rewarding, aversive, and novel events) from limbic afferents to basal ganglia outputs. Gating and information encoding may be achieved via cross-frequency coupling, in which bursts of…

  8. Capacitively Coupled Radio Frequency Discharge Plasmas In Hydrogen: Particle Modeling and Negative Ion Kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Diomede, P.; Longo, S.; Capitelli, M.

    2005-05-16

    We present a 1D(r)2D(v) particle code for capacitively coupled radio frequency discharge plasmas in hydrogen, which includes a rigorous kinetic modeling of ion transport and several solutions to speed up the convergence. In a test case the effect of surface atom recombination and molecule vibrational deactivation on H- concentration is investigated.

  9. Modeling of magnetically enhanced capacitively coupled plasma sources: Two frequency discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Yang; Kushner, Mark J.

    2007-09-15

    Magnetically enhanced, capacitively coupled radio frequency plasma sources are finding continued use for etching of materials for microelectronics fabrication at a time when multifrequency sources are also being developed. Magnetically enhanced reactive ion etching (MERIE) sources typically use magnetic fields of tens to hundreds of Gauss parallel to the substrate to either increase the plasma density at a given pressure or to lower the operating pressure. Multifrequency sources are used to separately control the magnitude of the ion and radical fluxes (typically with a high frequency source) and the ion energy distributions (typically with a low frequency) to the substrate. In this article, the properties of a two-frequency MERIE reactor are discussed using results from a computational investigation. As in single frequency sources, the reduction in transverse electron mobility as the magnetic field increases can produce a reversal of the electric field in the sheath and an increase in voltage drop across the bulk plasma. These trends decrease ion energies and increase the angular spread of ions. Similar trends are found here, including a field reversal in the sheath at the high frequency electrode. These effects produce a coupling between the high and low frequency sources that compromise the independence of ion production and ion acceleration by the two sources.

  10. Source-Space Cross-Frequency Amplitude-Amplitude Coupling in Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Zobay, Oliver; Adjamian, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    The thalamocortical dysrhythmia (TCD) model has been influential in the development of theoretical explanations for the neurological mechanisms of tinnitus. It asserts that thalamocortical oscillations lock a region in the auditory cortex into an ectopic slow-wave theta rhythm (4–8 Hz). The cortical area surrounding this region is hypothesized to generate abnormal gamma (>30 Hz) oscillations (“edge effect”) giving rise to the tinnitus percept. Consequently, the model predicts enhanced cross-frequency coherence in a broad range between theta and gamma. In this magnetoencephalography study involving tinnitus and control cohorts, we investigated this prediction. Using beamforming, cross-frequency amplitude-amplitude coupling (AAC) was computed within the auditory cortices for frequencies (f1, f2) between 2 and 80 Hz. We find the AAC signal to decompose into two distinct components at low (f1, f2 < 30 Hz) and high (f1, f2 > 30 Hz) frequencies, respectively. Studying the correlation of AAC with several key covariates (age, hearing level (HL), tinnitus handicap and duration, and HL at tinnitus frequency), we observe a statistically significant association between age and low-frequency AAC. Contrary to the TCD predictions, however, we do not find any indication of statistical differences in AAC between tinnitus and controls and thus no evidence for the predicted enhancement of cross-frequency coupling in tinnitus. PMID:26665004

  11. Room-temperature magnetoelectric multiferroic thin films and applications thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Katiyar, Ram S; Kuman, Ashok; Scott, James F.

    2014-08-12

    The invention provides a novel class of room-temperature, single-phase, magnetoelectric multiferroic (PbFe.sub.0.67W.sub.0.33O.sub.3).sub.x (PbZr.sub.0.53Ti.sub.0.47O.sub.3).sub.1-x (0.2.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.8) (PFW.sub.x-PZT.sub.1-x) thin films that exhibit high dielectric constants, high polarization, weak saturation magnetization, broad dielectric temperature peak, high-frequency dispersion, low dielectric loss and low leakage current. These properties render them to be suitable candidates for room-temperature multiferroic devices. Methods of preparation are also provided.

  12. Setup for magnetoelectric measurement in a wide temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuila, S.; Sweta, K.; Sahoo, M. R.; Barik, A.; Vishwakarma, P. N.

    2017-05-01

    An experimental setup is designed and developed to measure magnetoelectric (ME) voltage, following the dynamic method. Excitation magnetic field of frequency 220Hz and amplitude of 20Oe is employed to induce the ME voltage which in turn is measured using the lock-in technique. Field dependence of the ME voltage is also measured in the magnetic field ranging -10kOe to +10kOe. In this setup the measurement can be carried out in the temperature range 400K to 125K using the combination of heater and liquid nitrogen. Calibration of the setup is done using Cr2O3 as standard. After calibration, a test measurement is done on BiFeO3; a well know ME material. Temperature and magnetic field dependence of ME voltage measurement on polycrystalline BiFeO3 is carried out. Theoretically predicted linear behavior of ME in case of BiFeO3, is well reproduced here.

  13. Cooperative behavior between oscillatory and excitable units: the peculiar role of positive coupling-frequency correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonnenschein, Bernard; Peron, Thomas K. DM.; Rodrigues, Francisco A.; Kurths, Jürgen; Schimansky-Geier, Lutz

    2014-08-01

    We study the collective dynamics of noise-driven excitable elements, so-called active rotators. Crucially here, the natural frequencies and the individual coupling strengths are drawn from some joint probability distribution. Combining a mean-field treatment with a Gaussian approximation allows us to find examples where the infinite-dimensional system is reduced to a few ordinary differential equations. Our focus lies in the cooperative behavior in a population consisting of two parts, where one is composed of excitable elements, while the other one contains only self-oscillatory units. Surprisingly, excitable behavior in the whole system sets in only if the excitable elements have a smaller coupling strength than the self-oscillating units. In this way positive local correlations between natural frequencies and couplings shape the global behavior of mixed populations of excitable and oscillatory elements.

  14. Frequency combs for cavity cascades: OPO combs and graphene-coupled cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kevin F.; Kowzan, Grzegorz; Lee, C.-C.; Mohr, C.; Jiang, Jie; Schunemann, Peter G.; Schibli, T. R.; Maslowski, Piotr; Fermann, M. E.

    2017-01-01

    Frequency combs can be used directly, for example as a highly precise spectroscopic light source. They can also be used indirectly, as a bridge between devices whose high precision requirements would normally make them incompatible. Here, we demonstrate two ways that a frequency comb enables new technologies by matching optical cavities. One cavity is the laser oscillator. A second cavity is a low-threshold doubly-resonant optical parametric oscillator (OPO). Extending optical referencing to the doubly-resonant OPO turns the otherwise unstable device into an extremely precise midinfrared frequency comb. Another cavity is an optical enhancement cavity for amplifying spectral absorption in a gas. With the high speed of a graphene-modulated frequency comb, we can couple a frequency comb directly into a high-finesse cavity for trace gas detection.

  15. Effects of gas pressure on 60/13.56 MHz dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Q. H.; Yin, G. Q.; Xin, Y.; Ning, Z. Y.

    2011-05-15

    The electron energy probability functions (EEPFs) were measured with increasing gas pressure in 60/13.56 MHz dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasma (DF-CCP) using compensated Langmiur electrostatic probe. The transition pressure of heating mode from collisionless to collisional heating in 60/13.56 MHz DF-CCP is found to be significantly lower than that in 13.56 MHz single-frequency CCP. As the pressure increases, the EEPFs change from bi-Maxwellian to Druyvesteyn type which is similar with that in 60 MHz single-frequency CCP. The pressure dependence of electron densities, effective electron temperatures, floating potentials, and plasma potentials in 60/13.56 MHz DF-CCP were measured and were compared with that in 60 MHz single-frequency CCP. The pressure dependence of these plasma parameters in 60/13.56 MHz DF-CCP is similar with that in 60 MHz single-frequency CCP.

  16. A self-consistent three-wave coupling model with complex linear frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.-H.; Terry, P. W.

    2011-09-15

    A three-wave coupling model with complex linear frequencies is investigated for the nonlinear interaction in a triad that has linearly unstable and stable modes. Time scales associated with linear and nonlinear physics are identified and compared with features of the frequency spectrum. From appropriate time scales, the frequency spectra are well characterized even in the transition to the steady state. The nonlinear time scales that best match spectral features are the nonlinear frequency of the fixed point and a frequency that depends on the amplitude displacement from the fixed point through the large-amplitude Jacobian elliptic solution. Two limited efforts to model the effect of other triads suggest robustness in the single triad results.

  17. Phase-shift effect in capacitively coupled plasmas with two radio frequency or very high frequency sources

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Xiang; Zhao Shuxia; Zhang Yuru; Wang Younian

    2010-08-15

    A two-dimensional fluid model was built to study the argon discharge in a capacitively coupled plasma reactor and the full set of Maxwell equations is included in the model to understand the electromagnetic effect in the capacitive discharge. Two electrical sources are applied to the top and bottom electrodes in our simulations and the phase-shift effect is focused on. We distinguish the difference of the phase-shift effect on the plasma uniformity in the traditional radio frequency discharge and in the very high frequency discharge where the standing wave effect dominates. It is found that in the discharges with frequency 13.56 MHz, the control of phase difference can less the influence of the electrostatic edge effect, and it gets the best radial uniformity of plasma density at the phase difference {pi}. But in the very high frequency discharges, the standing wave effect plays an important role. The standing wave effect can be counteracted at the phase difference 0, and be enhanced at the phase difference {pi}. The standing wave effect and the edge effect are balanced at some phase-shift value between 0 and {pi}, which is determined by discharge parameters.

  18. Electromagnetic coupling in frequency-domain induced polarization data: a method for removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Routh, Partha S.; Oldenburg, Douglas W.

    2001-04-01

    Electromagnetic (EM) coupling is generally considered to be noise in induced polarization (IP) data and interpretation is difficult when its contribution is large compared to the IP signal. The effect is exacerbated by conductive environments and large-array survey geometries designed to explore deeper targets. In this paper we present a methodology to remove EM coupling from frequency-domain IP data. We first investigate the effect of EM coupling on the IP data and derive the necessary equations to represent the IP effect for both amplitude and phase responses of the signal. The separation of the inductive response from the total response in the low-frequency regime is derived using the electric field due to a horizontal electric dipole and it is assumed that at low frequencies the interaction of EM effects and IP effects is negligible. The total electric field is then expressed as a product of a scalar function, which is due to IP effects, and an electric field, which depends on the EM coupling response. It is this representation that enables us to obtain the IP response from EM-coupling-contaminated data. To compute the EM coupling response we recognize that conductivity information is necessary. We illustrate this with a synthetic example. The removal method developed in this work for the phase and the per cent frequency effect (PFE) data are applicable to 1-D, 2-D and 3-D structures. The practical utility of the method is illustrated on a 2-D field example that is typical of mineral exploration problems.

  19. Cross-frequency coupling of brain oscillations in studying motivation and emotion.

    PubMed

    Schutter, Dennis J L G; Knyazev, Gennady G

    2012-03-01

    Research has shown that brain functions are realized by simultaneous oscillations in various frequency bands. In addition to examining oscillations in pre-specified bands, interactions and relations between the different frequency bandwidths is another important aspect that needs to be considered in unraveling the workings of the human brain and its functions. In this review we provide evidence that studying interdependencies between brain oscillations may be a valuable approach to study the electrophysiological processes associated with motivation and emotional states. Studies will be presented showing that amplitude-amplitude coupling between delta-alpha and delta-beta oscillations varies as a function of state anxiety and approach-avoidance-related motivation, and that changes in the association between delta-beta oscillations can be observed following successful psychotherapy. Together these studies suggest that cross-frequency coupling of brain oscillations may contribute to expanding our understanding of the neural processes underlying motivation and emotion.

  20. Direct measurement of voltage-controlled reversal of the antiferromagnetic spin structure in magnetoelectric Cr2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junlei; Binek, Christian

    The frequency dependence of the electric field induced magneto-optical Faraday effect is investigated in the magnetoelectric antiferromagnet chromia. Two electrically induced Faraday signals superimpose in proportion to the linear magnetoelectric susceptibility and the antiferromagnetic order parameter. The relative strength of these contributions is determined by the frequency of the probing light beam. It allows tuning the Faraday signal between extreme characteristics which follow the temperature dependence of the magnetoelectric susceptibility or solely that of the antiferromagnetic order parameter. The frequency dependence is analyzed in terms of electric dipole transitions of perturbed Cr3 + crystal-field states. The results lead to a table-top set-up allowing to measure voltage-controlled selection and temperature dependence of the antiferromagnetic order parameter. The Faraday rotation per applied voltage is independent of the sample thickness making the method scalable and versatile for thin film investigations. Scalability, compactness, and simplicity of the data analysis combined with low photon flux requirements make the Faraday approach advantageous for the investigation of the otherwise difficult to access voltage-controlled switching of antiferromagnetic domain states in magnetoelectric thin films. This project is supported by NRI via CNFD through tasks SRC 2398.001 and 2587.001, by C-SPIN, a SRC program, sponsored by MARCO and DARPA, and by NSF through Nebraska MRSEC DMR-1420645.

  1. Discrete time--frequency coupling between the interplanetary magnetic field and the magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomson, D. J.; Lessard, M. R.

    2003-12-01

    Recent work has shown the existence at geosynchronous orbit of wave power at frequencies substantially below that of fundamental field-line resonances. The existence of spectral power below that of fundamental frequencies indicates that the driver must be external to the magnetosphere, i.e, that the source is contained in the solar wind. Other work has shown that frequencies matching field-line resonances can sometimes also be observed in the solar wind. The combined spectrum that includes power at fundamental frequencies and lower overlaps with p-mode helioseismic oscillations and the question has been raised whether these helioseismic modes may stimulate the magnetospheric fluctuations. In this study, we compute coherences between the magnetometers on {ACE} and {GOES-10}, that is in interplanetary space and inside the magnetosphere. These show several frequencies where all nine coherences are significant. Moreover, many of these frequencies are the same as those reported from Ulysses data in Thomson, Maclennan, and Lanzerotti (1995). Using hourly average data from all 1999, a frequency tolerance of 30 nHz, and retaining only peaks in the coherence above the 95% significance level, about 21 agreements would be expected by chance but 34 are observed. The coherences exhibit seasonal dependence, so the coupling has a complicated time--frequency structure exhibiting both frequency and event dependence.

  2. Magnetoelectric effects in the skyrmion host material Cu2OSeO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruff, E.; Lunkenheimer, P.; Loidl, A.; Berger, H.; Krohns, S.

    2015-10-01

    Insulating helimagnetic Cu2OSeO3 shows sizeable magnetoelectric effects in its skyrmion phase. Using magnetization measurements, magneto-current analysis and dielectric spectroscopy, we provide a thorough investigation of magnetoelectric coupling, polarization and dielectric constants of the ordered magnetic and polar phases of single-crystalline Cu2OSeO3 in external magnetic fields up to 150 mT and at temperatures below 60 K. From these measurements we construct a detailed phase diagram. Especially, the skyrmion phase and the metamagnetic transition of helical to conical spin order are characterized in detail. Finally we address the question if there is any signature of polar order that can be switched by an external electric field, which would imply multiferroic behaviour of Cu2OSeO3.

  3. Magnetoelectric effects in the skyrmion host material Cu2OSeO3

    PubMed Central

    Ruff, E.; Lunkenheimer, P.; Loidl, A.; Berger, H.; Krohns, S.

    2015-01-01

    Insulating helimagnetic Cu2OSeO3 shows sizeable magnetoelectric effects in its skyrmion phase. Using magnetization measurements, magneto-current analysis and dielectric spectroscopy, we provide a thorough investigation of magnetoelectric coupling, polarization and dielectric constants of the ordered magnetic and polar phases of single-crystalline Cu2OSeO3 in external magnetic fields up to 150 mT and at temperatures below 60 K. From these measurements we construct a detailed phase diagram. Especially, the skyrmion phase and the metamagnetic transition of helical to conical spin order are characterized in detail. Finally we address the question if there is any signature of polar order that can be switched by an external electric field, which would imply multiferroic behaviour of Cu2OSeO3. PMID:26446514

  4. Piezoelectric and Magnetoelectric Thick Films for Fabricating Power Sources in Wireless Sensor Nodes

    PubMed Central

    Priya, Shashank; Ryu, Jungho; Park, Chee-Sung; Oliver, Josiah; Choi, Jong-Jin; Park, Dong-Soo

    2009-01-01

    In this manuscript, we review the progress made in the synthesis of thick film-based piezoelectric and magnetoelectric structures for harvesting energy from mechanical vibrations and magnetic field. Piezoelectric compositions in the system Pb(Zr,Ti)O3–Pb(Zn1/3Nb2/3)O3 (PZNT) have shown promise for providing enhanced efficiency due to higher energy density and thus form the base of transducers designed for capturing the mechanical energy. Laminate structures of PZNT with magnetostrictive ferrite materials provide large magnitudes of magnetoelectric coupling and are being targeted to capture the stray magnetic field energy. We analyze the models used to predict the performance of the energy harvesters and present a full system description. PMID:22454590

  5. Voltage-impulse-induced nonvolatile tunable magnetoelectric inductor based on multiferroic bilayer structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Hua; Tang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Huaiwu; Sun, Nian X.

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we developed a voltage-impulse-induced nonvolatile tunable magnetoelectric inductor, which used an amorphous magnetic ribbon/lead zirconate titanate (PZT) multiferroic bilayer structure as a magnetic core. The PZT substrate, which contained defect dipoles through acceptor doping, was used in the bilayer structure to obtain an asymmetric strain-E “butterfly” curve. Different and stable voltage-impulse-induced in-plane residual stain states could be obtained by applying specific voltage impulse excitation modes. These residual strain states induced a nonvolatile inductance variation in the inductor through strain-mediated magnetoelectric coupling. This method provided a promising approach to realize nonvolatile tunable inductors for miniaturized circuits and systems.

  6. Piezoelectric and magnetoelectric thick films for fabricating power sources in wireless sensor nodes.

    PubMed

    Priya, Shashank; Ryu, Jungho; Park, Chee-Sung; Oliver, Josiah; Choi, Jong-Jin; Park, Dong-Soo

    2009-01-01

    In this manuscript, we review the progress made in the synthesis of thick film-based piezoelectric and magnetoelectric structures for harvesting energy from mechanical vibrations and magnetic field. Piezoelectric compositions in the system Pb(Zr,Ti)O(3)-Pb(Zn(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3) (PZNT) have shown promise for providing enhanced efficiency due to higher energy density and thus form the base of transducers designed for capturing the mechanical energy. Laminate structures of PZNT with magnetostrictive ferrite materials provide large magnitudes of magnetoelectric coupling and are being targeted to capture the stray magnetic field energy. We analyze the models used to predict the performance of the energy harvesters and present a full system description.

  7. Magnetic field induced switching of the antiferromagnetic order parameter in thin films of magnetoelectric chromia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallarino, Lorenzo; Berger, Andreas; Binek, Christian

    2015-02-01

    A Landau-theoretical approach is utilized to model the magnetic field induced reversal of the antiferromagnetic order parameter in thin films of magnetoelectric antiferromagnets. A key ingredient of this peculiar switching phenomenon is the presence of a robust spin polarized state at the surface of the antiferromagnetic films. Surface or boundary magnetization is symmetry allowed in magnetoelectric antiferromagnets and experimentally established for chromia thin films. It couples rigidly to the antiferromagnetic order parameter and its Zeeman energy creates a pathway to switch the antiferromagnet via magnetic field application. In the framework of a minimalist Landau free energy expansion, the temperature dependence of the switching field and the field dependence of the transition width are derived. Least-squares fits to magnetometry data of (0001 ) textured chromia thin films strongly support this model of the magnetic reversal mechanism.

  8. Dual-wavelength single-frequency laser emission in asymmetric coupled microdisks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haotian; Liu, Sheng; Chen, Lin; Shen, Deyuan; Wu, Xiang

    2016-12-01

    The gain and loss in a microcavity laser play an important role for the modulation of laser spectrum. We show that dual-wavelength single mode lasing can be achieved in an asymmetric coupled system consisted of two size-mismatched microdisks. The amount of eigenmodes in this coupled-microdisk system is reduced relying on the Vernier effect. Then a single mode is selected to lase by controlling the gain branching in the supermodes. The supermodes are formed by the coupling between different transverse whispering-gallery modes (WGMs). When the gain/loss status between the two mirodisks is changed through selectively pumping process, the modulated gain branching for various supermodes leads to the switchable single-frequency laser emission. The results obtained in this work will provide the further understand for the spectral modulation mechanism in the coupled microcavity laser system.

  9. Dual-wavelength single-frequency laser emission in asymmetric coupled microdisks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Haotian; Liu, Sheng; Chen, Lin; Shen, Deyuan; Wu, Xiang

    2016-01-01

    The gain and loss in a microcavity laser play an important role for the modulation of laser spectrum. We show that dual-wavelength single mode lasing can be achieved in an asymmetric coupled system consisted of two size-mismatched microdisks. The amount of eigenmodes in this coupled-microdisk system is reduced relying on the Vernier effect. Then a single mode is selected to lase by controlling the gain branching in the supermodes. The supermodes are formed by the coupling between different transverse whispering-gallery modes (WGMs). When the gain/loss status between the two mirodisks is changed through selectively pumping process, the modulated gain branching for various supermodes leads to the switchable single-frequency laser emission. The results obtained in this work will provide the further understand for the spectral modulation mechanism in the coupled microcavity laser system. PMID:27905506

  10. Coupling and tuning of modal frequencies in direct current biased microelectromechanical systems arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Kambali, Prashant N.; Swain, Gyanadutta; Pandey, Ashok Kumar; Buks, Eyal; Gottlieb, Oded

    2015-08-10

    Understanding the coupling of different modal frequencies and their tuning mechanisms has become essential to design multi-frequency MEMS devices. In this work, we fabricate a MEMS beam with fixed boundaries separated from two side electrodes and a bottom electrode. Subsequently, we perform experiments to obtain the frequency variation of in-plane and out-of-plane mechanical modes of the microbeam with respect to both DC bias and laser heating. We show that the frequencies of the two modes coincide at a certain DC bias, which in turn can also be varied due to temperature. Subsequently, we develop a theoretical model to predict the variation of the two modes and their coupling due to a variable gap between the microbeam and electrodes, initial tension, and fringing field coefficients. Finally, we discuss the influence of frequency tuning parameters in arrays of 3, 33, and 40 microbeams, respectively. It is also found that the frequency bandwidth of a microbeam array can be increased to as high as 25 kHz for a 40 microbeam array with a DC bias of 80 V.

  11. Measurements of time average series resonance effect in capacitively coupled radio frequency discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Bora, B.; Bhuyan, H.; Favre, M.; Wyndham, E.; Chuaqui, H.; Kakati, M.

    2011-10-15

    Self-excited plasma series resonance is observed in low pressure capacitvely coupled radio frequency discharges as high-frequency oscillations superimposed on the normal radio frequency current. This high-frequency contribution to the radio frequency current is generated by a series resonance between the capacitive sheath and the inductive and resistive bulk plasma. In this report, we present an experimental method to measure the plasma series resonance in a capacitively coupled radio frequency argon plasma by modifying the homogeneous discharge model. The homogeneous discharge model is modified by introducing a correction factor to the plasma resistance. Plasma parameters are also calculated by considering the plasma series resonances effect. Experimental measurements show that the self-excitation of the plasma series resonance, which arises in capacitive discharge due to the nonlinear interaction of plasma bulk and sheath, significantly enhances both the Ohmic and stochastic heating. The experimentally measured total dissipation, which is the sum of the Ohmic and stochastic heating, is found to increase significantly with decreasing pressure.

  12. Power conversion process in magnetoelectric gyrators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, X.; Leung, C. M.; Li, J.; Viehland, D.

    2017-09-01

    We have investigated the power conversion and loss processes in magnetoelectric gyrators. Two types of loss mechanisms were identified by using a transformer-gyrator structure, which transfers power between magnetic and magnetomechanical forms. A missing portion of the power in a gyrator was then identified to be a returned power from the load resistor under low drive conditions. Under high drive conditions, decreases in both the magnetostriction and mechanical quality factor resulted in additional inefficiencies. Power transfer efficiencies of greater than 70% and 50% were achieved for magnetoelectric (ME) gyrators based on Metglas/Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 laminated composites under low power drive and high power density drive (60 W/in.3) conditions, respectively.

  13. Cross-frequency power coupling between hierarchically organized face-selective areas.

    PubMed

    Furl, Nicholas; Coppola, Richard; Averbeck, Bruno B; Weinberger, Daniel R

    2014-09-01

    Neural oscillations are linked to perception and behavior and may reflect mechanisms for long-range communication between brain areas. We developed a causal model of oscillatory dynamics in the face perception network using magnetoencephalographic data from 51 normal volunteers. This model predicted induced responses to faces by estimating oscillatory power coupling between source locations corresponding to bilateral occipital and fusiform face areas (OFA and FFA) and the right superior temporal sulcus (STS). These sources showed increased alpha and theta and decreased beta power as well as selective responses to fearful facial expressions. We then used Bayesian model comparison to compare hypothetical models, which were motivated by previous connectivity data and a well-known theory of temporal lobe function. We confirmed this theory in detail by showing that the OFA bifurcated into 2 independent, hierarchical, feedforward pathways, with fearful expressions modulating power coupling only in the more dorsal (STS) pathway. The power coupling parameters showed a common pattern over connections. Low-frequency bands showed same-frequency power coupling, which, in the dorsal pathway, was modulated by fearful faces. Also, theta power showed a cross-frequency suppression of beta power. This combination of linear and nonlinear mechanisms could reflect computational mechanisms in hierarchical feedforward networks.

  14. Light funneling mechanism explained by magnetoelectric interference.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Fabrice; Bouchon, Patrick; Haïdar, Riad; Pelouard, Jean-Luc

    2011-08-26

    We investigate the mechanisms involved in the funneling of optical energy into subwavelength grooves etched on a metallic surface. The key phenomenon is unveiled thanks to the decomposition of the electromagnetic field into its propagative and evanescent parts. We unambiguously show that the funneling is not due to plasmonic waves flowing toward the grooves, but rather to the magnetoelectric interference of the incident wave with the evanescent field, this field being mainly due to the resonant wave escaping from the groove.

  15. Unidirectional magnetoelectric-field multiresonant tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamenetskii, E. O.; Hollander, E.; Joffe, R.; Shavit, R.

    2015-02-01

    Unidirectional multi-resonant tunneling of the magnetoelectric (ME) field excitations through a subwavelength (regarding the scales of regular electromagnetic radiation) vacuum or isotropic-dielectric regions has been observed in two-port microwave structures having a quasi-2D ferrite disk with magnetic dipolar mode (MDM) oscillations. The excitations manifest themselves as Fano-resonance peaks in the scattering-matrix parameters at the stationary states of the MDM spectrum. The ME near-field excitations are quasimagnetostatic fields \

  16. Self-biased converse magnetoelectric effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chul Yang, Su; Cho, Kyung-Hoon; Park, Chee-Sung; Priya, Shashank

    2011-11-01

    In this letter, we investigate the direct magnetoelectric (DME) and converse magnetoelectric (CME) effects in three-phase metal-ceramic laminate composites. Longitudinally poled and transversely magnetized (L-T) laminate was fabricated by bonding nickel plates between the two particulate magnetoelectric (ME) composite layers of composition 0.8 (0.948 K0.5Na0.5NbO3 - 0.052 LiSbO3) - 0.2 (Ni0.8Zn0.2Fe2O4) (KNNLS-NZF). Under off-resonance condition, the laminates exhibited hysteretic DME and CME responses as a function of applied bias field (Hbias). Self-biased effect characterized by non-zero ME response at zero Hbias was observed. The self-biased DME and CME properties were found to be enhanced under resonance conditions. Without external Hbias, magnetic induction switching was possible by applying AC voltage. These results provide the possibility of using self-biased CME effect in electrically controlled memory devices and magnetic flux control devices.

  17. NiCo-lead zirconium titanate-NiCo trilayered magnetoelectric composites prepared by electroless deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, M. H.; Wang, Y. G.; Bi, K.; Fan, H. P.; Zhao, Z. S.

    2015-04-15

    The NiCo layers with various Ni/Co atomic ratio have been successfully electroless deposited on PZT layers by varying the bath composition. As the cobalt atomic ratio in the deposited layer increases from 17.2 to 54.8 wt%, the magnetostrictive coefficient decreases. The magnetoelectric effect depends strongly on the magnetostrictive properties of magnetostrictive phase. The magnetoelectric coefficient of NiCo/PZT/NiCo trilayers increases with Ni/Co atomic ratio of the deposited NiCo layers increasing from 45:55 to 83:17. A maximum ME voltage coefficient of α{sub E,31} = 2.8 V ⋅ cm{sup −1} ⋅ Oe{sup −1} is obtained at a frequency of about 88 kHz, which makes these trilayers suitable for applications in actuators, transducers and sensors.

  18. Off-resonance frequency operation for power transfer in a loosely coupled air core transformer

    DOEpatents

    Scudiere, Matthew B

    2012-11-13

    A power transmission system includes a loosely coupled air core transformer having a resonance frequency determined by a product of inductance and capacitance of a primary circuit including a primary coil. A secondary circuit is configured to have a substantially same product of inductance and capacitance. A back EMF generating device (e.g., a battery), which generates a back EMF with power transfer, is attached to the secondary circuit. Once the load power of the back EMF generating device exceeds a certain threshold level, which depends on the system parameters, the power transfer can be achieved at higher transfer efficiency if performed at an operating frequency less than the resonance frequency, which can be from 50% to 95% of the resonance frequency.

  19. Ultralow-frequency collective compression mode and strong interlayer coupling in multilayer black phosphorus

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, Shan; Zhang, Anmin; Liu, Kai; Ji, Jianting; Ye, Y. G.; Luo, X. G.; Chen, X. H.; Ma, Xiaoli; Jie, Yinghao; Chen, Changfeng; Wang, Xiaoqun; Zhang, Qingming

    2016-02-26

    The recent renaissance of black phosphorus (BP) as a two-dimensional (2D) layered material has generated tremendous interest, but its unique structural characters underlying many of its outstanding properties still need elucidation. Here we report Raman measurements that reveal an ultralow-frequency collective compression mode (CCM) in BP, which is unprecedented among similar 2D layered materials. This novel CCM indicates an unusually strong interlayer coupling, and this result is quantitatively supported by a phonon frequency analysis and first-principles calculations. Moreover, the CCM and another branch of low-frequency Raman modes shift sensitively with changing number of layers, allowing an accurate determination of the thickness up to tens of atomic layers, which is considerably higher than previously achieved by using high-frequency Raman modes. Lastly, these findings offer fundamental insights and practical tools for further exploration of BP as a highly promising new 2D semiconductor.

  20. Ultralow-frequency collective compression mode and strong interlayer coupling in multilayer black phosphorus

    DOE PAGES

    Dong, Shan; Zhang, Anmin; Liu, Kai; ...

    2016-02-26

    The recent renaissance of black phosphorus (BP) as a two-dimensional (2D) layered material has generated tremendous interest, but its unique structural characters underlying many of its outstanding properties still need elucidation. Here we report Raman measurements that reveal an ultralow-frequency collective compression mode (CCM) in BP, which is unprecedented among similar 2D layered materials. This novel CCM indicates an unusually strong interlayer coupling, and this result is quantitatively supported by a phonon frequency analysis and first-principles calculations. Moreover, the CCM and another branch of low-frequency Raman modes shift sensitively with changing number of layers, allowing an accurate determination of themore » thickness up to tens of atomic layers, which is considerably higher than previously achieved by using high-frequency Raman modes. Lastly, these findings offer fundamental insights and practical tools for further exploration of BP as a highly promising new 2D semiconductor.« less

  1. Ultralow-Frequency Collective Compression Mode and Strong Interlayer Coupling in Multilayer Black Phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shan; Zhang, Anmin; Liu, Kai; Ji, Jianting; Ye, Y. G.; Luo, X. G.; Chen, X. H.; Ma, Xiaoli; Jie, Yinghao; Chen, Changfeng; Wang, Xiaoqun; Zhang, Qingming

    2016-02-01

    The recent renaissance of black phosphorus (BP) as a two-dimensional (2D) layered material has generated tremendous interest, but its unique structural characters underlying many of its outstanding properties still need elucidation. Here we report Raman measurements that reveal an ultralow-frequency collective compression mode (CCM) in BP, which is unprecedented among similar 2D layered materials. This novel CCM indicates an unusually strong interlayer coupling, and this result is quantitatively supported by a phonon frequency analysis and first-principles calculations. Moreover, the CCM and another branch of low-frequency Raman modes shift sensitively with changing number of layers, allowing an accurate determination of the thickness up to tens of atomic layers, which is considerably higher than previously achieved by using high-frequency Raman modes. These findings offer fundamental insights and practical tools for further exploration of BP as a highly promising new 2D semiconductor.

  2. Modelling of Mechanical Coupling for Piezoelectric Energy Harvester Adapted to Low-Frequency Vibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Untoro, T.; Viridi, S.; Suprijanto; Ekawati, E.

    2017-07-01

    In our previous work, we have developed a mechanical coupling for energy harvester from vibration source. This energy harvester uses piezoelectric with additional cantilever beam and permanent magnets. Our work proposed alternative scheme of mechanical coupling for tune the vibration input into resonant frequency of piezoelectric. Based on the experiment, correlation between the length of cantilever beam and the output power also evaluated. In this paper, we try to modelling our work into mathematical model and apply it to some case study. For example application, we apply our energy harvester system to generate electrical energy to enlighten the street. The human footsteps can be used as vibration source to generate electrical energy.

  3. Finite size effect on spread of resonance frequencies in arrays of coupled vortices

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, Andreas; Drews, André; Im, Mi-Young; Fischer, Peter; Meier, Guido

    2011-01-25

    Dynamical properties of magnetic vortices in arrays of magnetostatically coupled ferromagnetic disks are studied by means of a broadband ferromagnetic-resonance (FMR) setup. Magnetic force microscopy and magnetic transmission soft X-ray microscopy are used to image the core polarizations and the chiralities which are both found to be randomly distributed. The resonance frequency of vortex-core motion strongly depends on the magnetostatic coupling between the disks. The parameter describing the relative broadening of the absorption peak observed in the FMR transmission spectra for a given normalized center-to-center distance between the elements is shown to depend on the size of the array.

  4. Polarization-dependent plasmonic coupling in dual-layer metallic structures at terahertz frequencies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhong Xiang; Chan, Kam Tai

    2011-01-31

    Dual-layer metallic wire-hole structures were fabricated and their terahertz transmission properties were measured. They exhibit polarization-dependent transmittance with large extinction ratios. Simulation and experimental results on structures with different wire-to-hole orientations provide strong evidence that the resonance peaks are caused by plasmonic coupling between the two metallic layers. A simplified LC-circuit model is proposed to explain the coupling mechanism and to estimate the peak frequencies. Our results suggest that specific electromagnetic response can be achieved by appropriate design of the geometrical patterns on the two metallic layers and a suitable polarization of the incident wave.

  5. DC magnetic field sensing based on the nonlinear magnetoelectric effect in magnetic heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burdin, Dmitrii; Chashin, Dmitrii; Ekonomov, Nikolai; Fetisov, Leonid; Fetisov, Yuri; Shamonin, Mikhail

    2016-09-01

    Recently, highly sensitive magnetic field sensors using the magnetoelectric effect in composite ferromagnetic-piezoelectric layered structures have been demonstrated. However, most of the proposed concepts are not useful for measuring dc magnetic fields, because the conductivity of piezoelectric layers results in a strong decline of the sensor’s sensitivity at low frequencies. In this paper, a novel functional principle of magnetoelectric sensors for dc magnetic field measurements is described. The sensor employs the nonlinear effect of voltage harmonic generation in a composite magnetoelectric structure under the simultaneous influence of a strong imposed ac magnetic field and a weak dc magnetic field to be measured. This physical effect arises due to the nonlinear dependence of the magnetostriction in the ferromagnetic layer on the magnetic field. A sensor prototype comprising of a piezoelectric fibre transducer sandwiched between two layers of the amorphous ferromagnetic Metglas® alloy was fabricated. The specifications regarding the magnetic field range, frequency characteristics, and noise level were studied experimentally. The prototype showed the responsivity of 2.5 V mT-1 and permitted the measurement of dc magnetic fields in the range of ~10 nT to about 0.4 mT. Although sensor operation is based on the nonlinear effect, the sensor response can be made linear with respect to the measured magnetic field in a broad dynamic range extending over 5 orders of magnitude. The underlying physics is explained through a simplified theory for the proposed sensor. The functionality, differences and advantages of the magnetoelectric sensor compare well with fluxgate magnetometers. The ways to enhance the sensor performance are considered.

  6. Low frequency magnetic response in antiferromagnetically coupled Fe/Cr multilayers.

    PubMed

    Aliev, F G; Martinez, J L; Moshchalkov, V V; Bruynseraede, Y; Levanyuk, A P; Villar, R

    2002-05-06

    The magnetic field and temperature dependence of the low frequency magnetic response of antiferromagnetically coupled Fe/Cr(100) multilayers has been studied between +/-500 Oe, from 2 to 300 K. At T = 2 K the losses exhibit an unusually strong frequency dependence which can be described within a single relaxation time scheme. This relaxation time proves to be strongly field dependent. These phenomena are specific for epitaxial multilayers with large magnetoresistance. The behavior of the relaxation time at low temperatures might be related to some quantum tunneling processes.

  7. Breaking the Symmetry of Forward-Backward Light Emission with Localized and Collective Magnetoelectric Resonances in Arrays of Pyramid-Shaped Aluminum Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, S. R. K.; Arango, F. Bernal; Steinbusch, T. P.; Verschuuren, M. A.; Koenderink, A. F.; Rivas, J. Gómez

    2014-12-01

    We propose aluminum nanopyramids (ANPs) as magnetoelectric optical antennas to tailor the forward versus backward luminescence spectrum. We present light extinction and emission experiments for an ANP array wherein magnetoelectric localized resonances couple to in-plane diffracted orders. This coupling leads to spectrally sharp collective resonances. Luminescent molecules drive both localized and collective resonances, and we experimentally demonstrate an unconventional forward versus backward luminescence spectrum. Through analytical calculations, we show that the magnetic, magnetoelectric, and quadrupolar moments of ANPs—which lie at the origin of the observed effects—are enhanced by their tapering and height. Full-wave simulations show that localized and delocalized magnetic surface waves, with an excitation strength depending on the plane wave direction, direct the forward versus backward emitted intensity.

  8. On cross-frequency phase-phase coupling between theta and gamma oscillations in the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Scheffer-Teixeira, Robson; Tort, Adriano BL

    2016-01-01

    Phase-amplitude coupling between theta and multiple gamma sub-bands is a hallmark of hippocampal activity and believed to take part in information routing. More recently, theta and gamma oscillations were also reported to exhibit phase-phase coupling, or n:m phase-locking, suggesting an important mechanism of neuronal coding that has long received theoretical support. However, by analyzing simulated and actual LFPs, here we question the existence of theta-gamma phase-phase coupling in the rat hippocampus. We show that the quasi-linear phase shifts introduced by filtering lead to spurious coupling levels in both white noise and hippocampal LFPs, which highly depend on epoch length, and that significant coupling may be falsely detected when employing improper surrogate methods. We also show that waveform asymmetry and frequency harmonics may generate artifactual n:m phase-locking. Studies investigating phase-phase coupling should rely on appropriate statistical controls and be aware of confounding factors; otherwise, they could easily fall into analysis pitfalls. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20515.001 PMID:27925581

  9. High-frequency Born synthetic seismograms based on coupled normal modes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, Fred F.

    2011-01-01

    High-frequency and full waveform synthetic seismograms on a 3-D laterally heterogeneous earth model are simulated using the theory of coupled normal modes. The set of coupled integral equations that describe the 3-D response are simplified into a set of uncoupled integral equations by using the Born approximation to calculate scattered wavefields and the pure-path approximation to modulate the phase of incident and scattered wavefields. This depends upon a decomposition of the aspherical structure into smooth and rough components. The uncoupled integral equations are discretized and solved in the frequency domain, and time domain results are obtained by inverse Fourier transform. Examples show the utility of the normal mode approach to synthesize the seismic wavefields resulting from interaction with a combination of rough and smooth structural heterogeneities. This approach is applied to an ∼4 Hz shallow crustal wave propagation around the site of the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD).

  10. Lower Bounds on the Frequency Estimation Error in Magnetically Coupled MEMS Resonant Sensors.

    PubMed

    Paden, Brad E

    2016-02-01

    MEMS inductor-capacitor (LC) resonant pressure sensors have revolutionized the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms. In contrast to electrostatically driven MEMS resonators, these magnetically coupled devices are wireless so that they can be permanently implanted in the body and can communicate to an external coil via pressure-induced frequency modulation. Motivated by the importance of these sensors in this and other applications, this paper develops relationships among sensor design variables, system noise levels, and overall system performance. Specifically, new models are developed that express the Cramér-Rao lower bound for the variance of resonator frequency estimates in terms of system variables through a system of coupled algebraic equations, which can be used in design and optimization. Further, models are developed for a novel mechanical resonator in addition to the LC-type resonators.

  11. High-frequency Born synthetic seismograms based on coupled normal modes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, F.

    2011-01-01

    High-frequency and full waveform synthetic seismograms on a 3-D laterally heterogeneous earth model are simulated using the theory of coupled normal modes. The set of coupled integral equations that describe the 3-D response are simplified into a set of uncoupled integral equations by using the Born approximation to calculate scattered wavefields and the pure-path approximation to modulate the phase of incident and scattered wavefields. This depends upon a decomposition of the aspherical structure into smooth and rough components. The uncoupled integral equations are discretized and solved in the frequency domain, and time domain results are obtained by inverse Fourier transform. Examples show the utility of the normal mode approach to synthesize the seismic wavefields resulting from interaction with a combination of rough and smooth structural heterogeneities. This approach is applied to an ~4 Hz shallow crustal wave propagation around the site of the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD). ?? The Author Geophysical Journal International ?? 2011 RAS.

  12. Variational approach to low-frequency kinetic-MHD in the current coupling scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burby, Joshua W.; Tronci, Cesare

    2017-04-01

    Hybrid kinetic-MHD models describe the interaction of an MHD bulk fluid with an ensemble of hot particles, which obeys a kinetic equation. In this work we apply Hamilton’s variational principle to formulate new current-coupling kinetic-MHD models in the low-frequency approximation (i.e. large Larmor frequency limit). More particularly, we formulate current-coupling schemes, in which energetic particle dynamics are expressed in either guiding center or gyrocenter coordinates. When guiding center theory is used to model the hot particles, we show how energy conservation requires corrections to the standard magnetization term. On the other hand, charge and momentum conservation in gyrokinetic-MHD lead to extra terms in the usual definition of the hot current density as well as modifications to conventional gyrocenter dynamics. All these new features arise naturally from the underlying variational structure of the proposed models.

  13. Variational approach to low-frequency kinetic-MHD in the current-coupling scheme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tronci, Cesare; Burby, Joshua

    2016-10-01

    Hybrid kinetic-MHD models describe the interaction of an MHD bulk fluid with an ensemble of hot particles, which is described by a kinetic equation. When the Vlasov description is adopted for the energetic particles, different Vlasov-MHD models have been shown to lack an exact energy balance, unless non-inertial force terms are inserted in the kinetic equation. These force terms arise from fundamental approaches based on Hamiltonian and variational methods. In this work we apply Hamilton's variational principle to formulate new current-coupling kinetic-MHD models in the low-frequency approximation (i.e. large Larmor frequency limit). More particularly, we formulate current-coupling hybrid schemes, in which energetic particle dynamics are expressed in either guiding-center or gyrocenter coordinates. Financial support by the Leverhulme Trust Research Project Grant No. 2014-112 is greatly acknowledged.

  14. Gamma Oscillations and Their Cross-frequency Coupling in the Primate Hippocampus during Sleep.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Saori; Mima, Tatsuya; Murai, Rie; Shimazu, Hideki; Isomura, Yoshikazu; Tsujimoto, Toru

    2015-07-01

    The mechanism by which sleep consolidates memory is unclear. Based on the two-stage model of memory consolidation, different functions for slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement (REM) sleep have been proposed; thus, state-dependent changes of neural oscillations in the hippocampus might clarify this fundamental question. We recorded hippocampal local field potentials from freely behaving monkeys via telemetry and analyzed their nonstationary oscillations using Hilbert-Huang transform. By applying a recently developed empirical mode decomposition analysis, we found strong cross-frequency coupling between high-frequency and slow wave oscillations during SWS and a prominent increase of gamma band activity in short bursts during REM sleep in unanesthetized primates' hippocampus. Spatiotemporal integration through coupled oscillations during slow wave sleep might be a physiological basis of system consolidation, whereas gamma bursts during rapid eye movement sleep might be related to synaptic consolidation in the local hippocampal neural circuit. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  15. Electrical characteristics for capacitively coupled radio frequency discharges of helium and neon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanişli, Murat; Şahin, Neslihan; Demir, Süleyman

    2017-09-01

    In this study, a symmetric radio frequency (RF) (13.56 MHz) electrode discharge system of simple geometry has been designed and made. The electrical properties of capacitive RF discharge of pure neon and pure helium have been obtained from current and voltage waveforms using different reactor designs. Calculations are done, in detail, according to the homogeneous discharge model of capacitively coupled RF. Electrical properties of bulk plasma and sheath capacitance are also investigated at low pressure using this model.

  16. Experimental observation of three-frequency quasiperiodic solution in a ring of unidirectionally coupled oscillators.

    PubMed

    Borkowski, L; Perlikowski, P; Kapitaniak, T; Stefanski, A

    2015-06-01

    The subject of the experimental research supported with numerical simulations presented in this paper is an analog electrical circuit representing the ring of unidirectionally coupled single-well Duffing oscillators. The research is concentrated on the existence of the stable three-frequency quasiperiodic attractor in this system. It is shown that such solution can be robustly stable in a wide range of parameters of the system under consideration in spite of a parameter mismatch which is unavoidable during experiment.

  17. Experimental observation of three-frequency quasiperiodic solution in a ring of unidirectionally coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borkowski, L.; Perlikowski, P.; Kapitaniak, T.; Stefanski, A.

    2015-06-01

    The subject of the experimental research supported with numerical simulations presented in this paper is an analog electrical circuit representing the ring of unidirectionally coupled single-well Duffing oscillators. The research is concentrated on the existence of the stable three-frequency quasiperiodic attractor in this system. It is shown that such solution can be robustly stable in a wide range of parameters of the system under consideration in spite of a parameter mismatch which is unavoidable during experiment.

  18. Transient high-frequency firing in a coupled-oscillator model of the mesencephalic dopaminergic neuron.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, Alexey S; Kopell, Nancy J; Wilson, Charles J

    2006-02-01

    Dopaminergic neurons of the midbrain fire spontaneously at rates <10/s and ordinarily will not exceed this range even when driven with somatic current injection. When driven at higher rates, these cells undergo spike failure through depolarization block. During spontaneous bursting of dopaminergic neurons in vivo, bursts related to reward expectation in behaving animals, and bursts generated by dendritic application of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) agonists, transient firing attains rates well above this range. We suggest a way such high-frequency firing may occur in response to dendritic NMDA receptor activation. We have extended the coupled oscillator model of the dopaminergic neuron, which represents the soma and dendrites as electrically coupled compartments with different natural spiking frequencies, by addition of dendritic AMPA (voltage-independent) or NMDA (voltage-dependent) synaptic conductance. Both soma and dendrites contain a simplified version of the calcium-potassium mechanism known to be the mechanism for slow spontaneous oscillation and background firing in dopaminergic cells. The compartments differ only in diameter, and this difference is responsible for the difference in natural frequencies. We show that because of its voltage dependence, NMDA receptor activation acts to amplify the effect on the soma of the high-frequency oscillation of the dendrites, which is normally too weak to exert a large influence on the overall oscillation frequency of the neuron. During the high-frequency oscillations that result, sodium inactivation in the soma is removed rapidly after each action potential by the hyperpolarizing influence of the dendritic calcium-dependent potassium current, preventing depolarization block of the spike mechanism, and allowing high-frequency spiking.

  19. Frequency shift, damping, and tunneling current coupling with quartz tuning forks in noncontact atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nony, Laurent; Bocquet, Franck; Para, Franck; Loppacher, Christian

    2016-09-01

    A combined experimental and theoretical approach to the coupling between frequency-shift (Δ f ) , damping, and tunneling current (It) in combined noncontact atomic force microscopy/scanning tunneling microscopy using quartz tuning forks (QTF)-based probes is reported. When brought into oscillating tunneling conditions, the tip located at the QTF prong's end radiates an electromagnetic field which couples to the QTF prong motion via its piezoelectric tensor and loads its electrodes by induction. Our approach explains how those It-related effects ultimately modify the Δ f and the damping measurements. This paradigm to the origin of the coupling between It and the nc-AFM regular signals relies on both the intrinsic piezoelectric nature of the quartz constituting the QTF and its electrodes design.

  20. Experimental study of a very high frequency, 162 MHz, segmented electrode, capacitively coupled plasma discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirse, Nishant; Harvey, Cleo; Gaman, Cezar; Ellingboe, Bert

    2016-09-01

    Radio-frequency capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) discharge operating at a very high frequency, 30-300 MHz, offers many advantages over standard 13.56 MHz CCP. However, there is a limited flexibility on the choice of driving frequency and substrate size due to plasma non-uniformity caused by the standing wave effect and edge effect. To overcome this issue segmented electrode CCP's are proposed and researched. Despite its numerous advantages the power coupling mechanism and plasma chemistry in this type of discharge are not fully understood due to lack of experimental data. In this paper, we present the experimental study of a segmented electrode, 3x4 tile array (10x10 cm square tile with 1 cm tile-to-tile separation), CCP discharge driven at 162 MHz. We measured plasma uniformity and gas temperature using hairpin probe and optical emission spectroscopy respectively. A homemade RF compensated Langmuir probe is employed to measure the Electron Energy Distribution Function (EEDF) by second harmonic technique. Energy resolved quadrupole mass spectrometer is utilized to measure the ion energy distribution. Discharge/plasma properties are investigated for several operating conditions and for power coupling mode in both washer board and checker board configuration. The experimental results show that the uniform plasma density can be maintained over a large area along with highly non-equilibrium condition to produce unique gas phase plasma chemistry.

  1. Phase-locking and critical phenomena in lattices of coupled nonlinear oscillators with random intrinsic frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strogatz, Steven H.; Mirollo, Renato E.

    1988-06-01

    We study phase-locking in a network of coupled nonlinear oscillators with local interactions and random intrinsic frequencies. The oscillators are located at the vertices of a graph and interact along the edges. They are coupled by sinusoidal functions of the phase differences across the edges, and their intrinsic frequencies are independent and identically distributed with finite mean and variance. We derive an exact expression for the probability of phase-locking in a linear chain of such oscillators and prove that this probability tends to zero as the number of oscillators grows without bound. However, if the coupling strength increases as the square root of the number of oscillators, the probability of phase-locking tends to a limiting distribution, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov distribution. This latter result is obtained by showing that the phase-locking problem is equivalent to a discretization of pinned Brownian motion. The results on chains of oscillators are extended to more general graphs. In particular, for a hypercubic lattice of any dimension, the probability of phase-locking tends to zero exponentially fast as the number of oscillators grows without bound. We also consider a less stringent type of synchronization, characterized by large clusters of oscillators mutually entrained at the same average frequency. It is shown that if such clusters exist, they necessarily have a sponge-like geometry.

  2. High-mechanical-frequency characteristics of optomechanical crystal cavity with coupling waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zhilei; Cui, Kaiyu; Bai, Guoren; Feng, Xue; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yidong

    2016-01-01

    Optomechanical crystals have attracted great attention recently for their ability to realize strong photon-phonon interaction in cavity optomechanical systems. By far, the operation of cavity optomechanical systems with high mechanical frequency has to employ tapered fibres or one-sided waveguides with circulators to couple the light into and out of the cavities, which hinders their on-chip applications. Here, we demonstrate larger-centre-hole nanobeam structures with on-chip transmission-coupling waveguide. The measured mechanical frequency is up to 4.47 GHz, with a high mechanical Q-factor of 1.4 × 103 in the ambient environment. The corresponding optomechanical coupling rate is calculated and measured to be 836 kHz and 1.2 MHz, respectively, while the effective mass is estimated to be 136 fg. With the transmission waveguide coupled structure and a small footprint of 3.4 μm2, this simple cavity can be directly used as functional components or integrated with other on-chip devices in future practical applications. PMID:27686419

  3. Using High Frequency Focused Water-Coupled Ultrasound for 3-D Surface Depression Profiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.; Whalen, Mike F.; Hendricks, J. Lynne; Bodis, James R.

    1999-01-01

    Surface topography is an important variable in the performance of many industrial components and is normally measured with diamond-tip profilometry over a small area or using optical scattering methods for larger area measurement. A prior study was performed demonstrating that focused air-coupled ultrasound at 1 MHz was capable of profiling surfaces with 25 micron depth resolution and 400 micron lateral resolution over a 1.4 mm depth range. In this article, the question of whether higher-frequency focused water-coupled ultrasound can improve on these specifications is addressed. 10 and 25 MHz focused ultrasonic transducers were employed in the water-coupled mode. Time-of-flight images of the sample surface were acquired and converted to depth / surface profile images using the simple relation (d = V*t/2) between distance (d), time-of-flight (t), and the velocity of sound in water (V). Results are compared for the two frequencies used and with those from the 1 MHz air-coupled configuration.

  4. Computational IR spectroscopy of water: OH stretch frequencies, transition dipoles, and intermolecular vibrational coupling constants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jun-Ho; Cho, Minhaeng

    2013-05-01

    The Hessian matrix reconstruction method initially developed to extract the basis mode frequencies, vibrational coupling constants, and transition dipoles of the delocalized amide I, II, and III vibrations of polypeptides and proteins from quantum chemistry calculation results is used to obtain those properties of delocalized O-H stretch modes in liquid water. Considering the water symmetric and asymmetric O-H stretch modes as basis modes, we here develop theoretical models relating vibrational frequencies, transition dipoles, and coupling constants of basis modes to local water configuration and solvent electric potential. Molecular dynamics simulation was performed to generate an ensemble of water configurations that was in turn used to construct vibrational Hamiltonian matrices. Obtaining the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the matrices and using the time-averaging approximation method, which was developed by the Skinner group, to calculating the vibrational spectra of coupled oscillator systems, we could numerically simulate the O-H stretch IR spectrum of liquid water. The asymmetric line shape and weak shoulder bands were quantitatively reproduced by the present computational procedure based on vibrational exciton model, where the polarization effects on basis mode transition dipoles and inter-mode coupling constants were found to be crucial in quantitatively simulating the vibrational spectra of hydrogen-bond networking liquid water.

  5. Coital frequency and infertility: which male factors predict less frequent coitus among infertile couples?

    PubMed

    Perlis, Nathan; Lo, Kirk C; Grober, Ethan D; Spencer, Leia; Jarvi, Keith

    2013-08-01

    To determine the coital frequency among infertile couples and which factors are associated with less frequent coitus. Cross-sectional study. Tertiary-level male infertility clinic. A total of 1,298 infertile men. Administration of computer-based survey, semen analysis, and serum hormone evaluation. Monthly coital frequency. A total of 1,298 patients presented to clinic for infertility consultation and completed the computer-based survey. The median male age was 35 years (interquartile range [IQR] 32-39 years) and the median duration of infertility was 2 years (IQR 1-4 years) before consultation. Median monthly coital frequency was seven (IQR 5-10; range 0-40); 24% of couples were having intercourse ≤ 4 times per month. Overall, 0.6%, 2.7%, 4.8%, 5.8%, and 10.8% of the men reported having intercourse 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 times per month, respectively. When simultaneously taking into account the influence of age, libido, erectile function, and semen volume on coital frequency, older patients had 1.05 times higher odds (per year of age) of less frequent coitus (odds ratio 1.05, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.08). In addition, patients with better erectile function had 1.12 times higher odds (per point on Sexual Health Inventory for Men scale) of more frequent coitus (odds ratio 1.12, 95% confidence interval 1.09-1.18). Similar to the general population, most infertile couples report having coitus more than four times per month. Older male age and erectile dysfunction are independent risk factors for less frequent coitus among infertile men, which could have an impact on fertility. Coital frequency should be considered in infertility assessments. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. BiFeO(3): Synchrotron Radiation Structure Refinement And Magnetoelectric Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Reyes, A.; Vega, C.de la; Fuentes, M.E.; Fuentes, L.

    2009-06-04

    Presently BiFeO{sub 3} focuses attention due to its multiferroic nature. This phase shows a highly distorted perovskite crystal structure, with R3c crystal symmetry. Details of the crystallographic structure are required input for a detailed explanation of its remarkable magnetoelectric properties. Present report contributes a high-resolution synchrotron radiation diffraction analysis of the BiFeO{sub 3} crystal structure. Single-phased sample was obtained by conventional solid-state reaction under bismuth atmosphere. XRD experiment was performed on beamline 2-1, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, with 12 keV X-rays. For data Rietveld processing, Fullprof software package was applied. Obtained cell parameters (in {angstrom}, hexagonal system description) were a = 5.57414(4); c = 13.85882(12). Group-theoretical analysis of BiFeO{sub 3} linear magnetoelectric tensor is presented. Only transverse effect is allowed by symmetry. Axial-symmetry polycrystal ceramics cannot show linear magnetoelectric coupling.

  7. Giant strain control of magnetoelectric effect in Ta|Fe|MgO.

    PubMed

    Odkhuu, Dorj

    2016-09-06

    The exploration of electric field controlled magnetism has come under scrutiny for its intriguing magnetoelectric phenomenon as well as technological advances in spintronics. Herein, the tremendous effect of an epitaxial strain on voltage-controlled perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (VPMA) is demonstrated in a transition-metal|ferromagnet|MgO (TM|FM|MgO) heterostructure from first-principles electronic structure computation. By tuning the epitaxial strain in Ta|Fe|MgO as a model system of TM|FM|MgO, we find distinctly different behaviours of VPMA from V- to Λ-shape trends with a substantially large magnetoelectric coefficient, up to an order of 10(3) fJV(-1)m(-1). We further reveal that the VPMA modulation under strain is mainly governed by the inherently large spin-orbit coupling of Ta 5d-Fe 3d hybridized orbitals at the TM|FM interface, although the Fe 3d-O 2p hybridization at the FM|MgO interface is partly responsible in determining the PMA of Ta|Fe|MgO. These results suggest that the control of epitaxial strain enables the engineering of VPMA, and provides physical insights for the divergent behaviors of VPMA and magnetoelectric coefficients found in TM|FM|MgO experiments.

  8. Giant strain control of magnetoelectric effect in Ta|Fe|MgO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odkhuu, Dorj

    2016-09-01

    The exploration of electric field controlled magnetism has come under scrutiny for its intriguing magnetoelectric phenomenon as well as technological advances in spintronics. Herein, the tremendous effect of an epitaxial strain on voltage-controlled perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (VPMA) is demonstrated in a transition-metal|ferromagnet|MgO (TM|FM|MgO) heterostructure from first-principles electronic structure computation. By tuning the epitaxial strain in Ta|Fe|MgO as a model system of TM|FM|MgO, we find distinctly different behaviours of VPMA from V- to Λ-shape trends with a substantially large magnetoelectric coefficient, up to an order of 103 fJV‑1m‑1. We further reveal that the VPMA modulation under strain is mainly governed by the inherently large spin-orbit coupling of Ta 5d–Fe 3d hybridized orbitals at the TM|FM interface, although the Fe 3d–O 2p hybridization at the FM|MgO interface is partly responsible in determining the PMA of Ta|Fe|MgO. These results suggest that the control of epitaxial strain enables the engineering of VPMA, and provides physical insights for the divergent behaviors of VPMA and magnetoelectric coefficients found in TM|FM|MgO experiments.

  9. Incommensurate crystal supercell and polarization flop observed in the magnetoelectric ilmenite MnTiO3

    DOE PAGES

    Silverstein, Harlyn J.; Skoropata, Elizabeth; Sarte, Paul M.; ...

    2016-02-19

    In the last few years the magnetoelectric behavior of MnTiO3 has been observed even though its been studied for many decades. We use neutron scattering on two separately grown single crystals and two powder samples to show the presence of a supercell that breaks R (3) over bar symmetry. We also present the temperature and field dependence of the dielectric constant and pyroelectric current and show evidence of nonzero off-diagonal magnetoelectric tensor elements (forbidden by R (3) over bar symmetry) followed by a polarization flop accompanying the spin flop transition at mu H-0(SF) = 6.5T. Mossbauer spectroscopy on MnTiO3 gentlymore » doped with Fe-57 was used to help shed light on the impact of the supercell on the observed behavior. Moreover, the full supercell structure could not be solved at this time due to a lack of visible reflections, the full scope of the results presented here suggest that the role of local spin-lattice coupling in the magnetoelectric properties of MnTiO3 is likely more important than previously thought.« less

  10. Giant strain control of magnetoelectric effect in Ta|Fe|MgO

    PubMed Central

    Odkhuu, Dorj

    2016-01-01

    The exploration of electric field controlled magnetism has come under scrutiny for its intriguing magnetoelectric phenomenon as well as technological advances in spintronics. Herein, the tremendous effect of an epitaxial strain on voltage-controlled perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (VPMA) is demonstrated in a transition-metal|ferromagnet|MgO (TM|FM|MgO) heterostructure from first-principles electronic structure computation. By tuning the epitaxial strain in Ta|Fe|MgO as a model system of TM|FM|MgO, we find distinctly different behaviours of VPMA from V- to Λ-shape trends with a substantially large magnetoelectric coefficient, up to an order of 103 fJV−1m−1. We further reveal that the VPMA modulation under strain is mainly governed by the inherently large spin-orbit coupling of Ta 5d–Fe 3d hybridized orbitals at the TM|FM interface, although the Fe 3d–O 2p hybridization at the FM|MgO interface is partly responsible in determining the PMA of Ta|Fe|MgO. These results suggest that the control of epitaxial strain enables the engineering of VPMA, and provides physical insights for the divergent behaviors of VPMA and magnetoelectric coefficients found in TM|FM|MgO experiments. PMID:27597448

  11. Detecting phase-amplitude coupling with high frequency resolution using adaptive decompositions.

    PubMed

    Pittman-Polletta, Benjamin; Hsieh, Wan-Hsin; Kaur, Satvinder; Lo, Men-Tzung; Hu, Kun

    2014-04-15

    Phase-amplitude coupling (PAC)--the dependence of the amplitude of one rhythm on the phase of another, lower-frequency rhythm - has recently been used to illuminate cross-frequency coordination in neurophysiological activity. An essential step in measuring PAC is decomposing data to obtain rhythmic components of interest. Current methods of PAC assessment employ narrowband Fourier-based filters, which assume that biological rhythms are stationary, harmonic oscillations. However, biological signals frequently contain irregular and nonstationary features, which may contaminate rhythms of interest and complicate comodulogram interpretation, especially when frequency resolution is limited by short data segments. To better account for nonstationarities while maintaining sharp frequency resolution in PAC measurement, even for short data segments, we introduce a new method of PAC assessment which utilizes adaptive and more generally broadband decomposition techniques - such as the empirical mode decomposition (EMD). To obtain high frequency resolution PAC measurements, our method distributes the PAC associated with pairs of broadband oscillations over frequency space according to the time-local frequencies of these oscillations. We compare our novel adaptive approach to a narrowband comodulogram approach on a variety of simulated signals of short duration, studying systematically how different types of nonstationarities affect these methods, as well as on EEG data. Our results show: (1) narrowband filtering can lead to poor PAC frequency resolution, and inaccuracy and false negatives in PAC assessment; (2) our adaptive approach attains better PAC frequency resolution and is more resistant to nonstationarities and artifacts than traditional comodulograms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Detecting phase-amplitude coupling with high frequency resolution using adaptive decompositions

    PubMed Central

    Pittman-Polletta, Benjamin; Hsieh, Wan-Hsin; Kaur, Satvinder; Lo, Men-Tzung; Hu, Kun

    2014-01-01

    Background Phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) – the dependence of the amplitude of one rhythm on the phase of another, lower-frequency rhythm – has recently been used to illuminate cross-frequency coordination in neurophysiological activity. An essential step in measuring PAC is decomposing data to obtain rhythmic components of interest. Current methods of PAC assessment employ narrowband Fourier-based filters, which assume that biological rhythms are stationary, harmonic oscillations. However, biological signals frequently contain irregular and nonstationary features, which may contaminate rhythms of interest and complicate comodulogram interpretation, especially when frequency resolution is limited by short data segments. New method To better account for nonstationarities while maintaining sharp frequency resolution in PAC measurement, even for short data segments, we introduce a new method of PAC assessment which utilizes adaptive and more generally broadband decomposition techniques – such as the empirical mode decomposition (EMD). To obtain high frequency resolution PAC measurements, our method distributes the PAC associated with pairs of broadband oscillations over frequency space according to the time-local frequencies of these oscillations. Comparison with existing methods We compare our novel adaptive approach to a narrowband comodulogram approach on a variety of simulated signals of short duration, studying systematically how different types of nonstationarities affect these methods, as well as on EEG data. Conclusions Our results show: (1) narrowband filtering can lead to poor PAC frequency resolution, and inaccuracy and false negatives in PAC assessment; (2) our adaptive approach attains better PAC frequency resolution and is more resistant to nonstationarities and artifacts than traditional comodulograms. PMID:24452055

  13. A time-dependent model of pulse-driven radio frequency capacitively coupled collisional plasma sheath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M. T.; Hossain, M. Mofazzal

    2017-01-01

    The time-dependent model of ion motion is used to propose an analytical model for dual frequency (DF) capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) sheath driven by a pulsed source and a radio-frequency source. In this model, the sheath is considered to be collisional. In this model, the time dependent terms of ion fluid equations are ignored, but the electric field, ion motion and ion density remain time dependent. Electron profile is assumed to be step-like. Analytical expressions for electron sheath width and sheath potential have been developed. The calculated sheath width and potential are compared with the dual radio frequency driven time dependent models of capacitively coupled plasma sheath. From the temporal evaluation of sheath motion and potential, it has been found that pulse driven sheath has higher sheath potential and sheath width than that of conventional radio frequency driven DF CCP. Moreover, it is also found that ion energy spread can be reduced using pulsed power. From the temporal investigation of sheath motion and potential, it has been found that the duty cycle of the pulse power significantly affects sheath width and sheath potential.

  14. Coupled solitons of intense high-frequency and low-frequency waves in Zakharov-type systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, Evgeny; Malomed, Boris

    2016-12-01

    One-parameter families of exact two-component solitary-wave solutions for interacting high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) waves are found in the framework of Zakharov-type models, which couple the nonlinear Schrödinger equation for intense HF waves to the Boussinesq (Bq) or Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation for the LF component through quadratic terms. The systems apply, in particular, to the interaction of surface (HF) and internal (LF) waves in stratified fluids. These solutions are two-component generalizations of the single-component Bq and KdV solitons. Perturbed dynamics and stability of the solitary waves are studied in detail by means of analytical and numerical methods. Essentially, they are stable against separation of the HF and LF components if the latter one is shaped as a potential well acting on the HF field, and unstable, against splitting of the two components, with a barrier-shaped LF one. Collisions between the solitary waves are studied by means of direct simulations, demonstrating a trend to merger of in-phase solitons, and elastic interactions of out-of-phase ones.

  15. Coupled solitons of intense high-frequency and low-frequency waves in Zakharov-type systems.

    PubMed

    Gromov, Evgeny; Malomed, Boris

    2016-12-01

    One-parameter families of exact two-component solitary-wave solutions for interacting high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) waves are found in the framework of Zakharov-type models, which couple the nonlinear Schrödinger equation for intense HF waves to the Boussinesq (Bq) or Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) equation for the LF component through quadratic terms. The systems apply, in particular, to the interaction of surface (HF) and internal (LF) waves in stratified fluids. These solutions are two-component generalizations of the single-component Bq and KdV solitons. Perturbed dynamics and stability of the solitary waves are studied in detail by means of analytical and numerical methods. Essentially, they are stable against separation of the HF and LF components if the latter one is shaped as a potential well acting on the HF field, and unstable, against splitting of the two components, with a barrier-shaped LF one. Collisions between the solitary waves are studied by means of direct simulations, demonstrating a trend to merger of in-phase solitons, and elastic interactions of out-of-phase ones.

  16. Experimental investigations of the plasma radial uniformity in single and dual frequency capacitively coupled argon discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Kai; Liu, Yong-Xin; Gao, Fei; Liu, Gang-Hu; Han, Dao-Man; Wang, You-Nian

    2016-12-01

    In the current work, the radial plasma density has been measured by utilizing a floating double probe in single and dual frequency capacitively coupled argon discharges operated in a cylindrical reactor, aiming at a better understanding of electromagnetic effects and exploring a method of improving the radial uniformity. The experimental results indicate that for single-frequency plasma sustained at low pressure, the plasma density radial profile exhibits a parabolic distribution at 90 MHz, whereas at 180 MHz, the profile evolves into a bimodal distribution, and both cases indicate poor uniformities. With increasing the pressure, the plasma radial uniformity becomes better for both driving frequency cases. By contrast, when discharges are excited by two frequencies (i.e., 90 + 180 MHz), the plasma radial profile is simultaneously influenced by both sources. It is found that by adjusting the low-frequency to high-frequency voltage amplitude ratio β, the radial profile of plasma density could be controlled and optimized for a wide pressure range. To gain a better plasma uniformity, it is necessary to consider the balance between the standing wave effect, which leads to a maximum plasma density at the reactor center, and the edge field effect, which is responsible for a maximum density near the radial electrode edge. This balance can be controlled either by selecting a proper gas pressure or by adjusting the ratio β.

  17. Experimental investigations of driving frequency effect in low-pressure capacitively coupled oxygen discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Yong-Xin; Liu, Gang-Hu; Gao, Fei; Wang, You-Nian

    2015-04-14

    The effect of driving frequency on the electron density is investigated in low-pressure capacitively coupled oxygen plasmas by utilizing a floating hairpin probe. The power absorbed by the plasma is investigated and it is found that the power lost in the matching network can reach 50% or higher under certain conditions. The effect of driving frequency on the electron density is studied from two aspects, i.e., constant absorbed power and electrode voltage. In the former case, the electron density increases with the driving frequency increasing from 13.56 to 40.68 MHz and slightly changes depending on the gas pressures with the frequency further increasing to 100 MHz. In the latter case, the electron density rapidly increases when the driving frequency increases from 13.56 to 40.68 MHz, and then decreases with the frequency further increasing to 100 MHz. The electron series resonance is observed at 40.68 MHz and can be attributed to the higher electron density. And the standing wave effect also plays an important role in increasing electron density at 100 MHz and 2.6 Pa.

  18. Experimental investigations of driving frequency effect in low-pressure capacitively coupled oxygen discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia; Liu, Yong-Xin; Liu, Gang-Hu; Gao, Fei; Wang, You-Nian

    2015-04-01

    The effect of driving frequency on the electron density is investigated in low-pressure capacitively coupled oxygen plasmas by utilizing a floating hairpin probe. The power absorbed by the plasma is investigated and it is found that the power lost in the matching network can reach 50% or higher under certain conditions. The effect of driving frequency on the electron density is studied from two aspects, i.e., constant absorbed power and electrode voltage. In the former case, the electron density increases with the driving frequency increasing from 13.56 to 40.68 MHz and slightly changes depending on the gas pressures with the frequency further increasing to 100 MHz. In the latter case, the electron density rapidly increases when the driving frequency increases from 13.56 to 40.68 MHz, and then decreases with the frequency further increasing to 100 MHz. The electron series resonance is observed at 40.68 MHz and can be attributed to the higher electron density. And the standing wave effect also plays an important role in increasing electron density at 100 MHz and 2.6 Pa.

  19. Generation of single-frequency tunable green light in a coupled ring tapered diode laser cavity.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2013-03-11

    We report the realization of a tapered diode laser operated in a coupled ring cavity that significantly improves the coherence properties of the tapered laser and efficiently generates tunable light at the second harmonic frequency. The tapered diode laser is tunable with single-frequency output in the broad wavelength range from 1049 nm to 1093 nm and the beam propagation factor is improved from M(2) = 2.8 to below 1.1. The laser frequency is automatically locked to the cavity resonance frequency using optical feedback. Furthermore, we show that this adaptive external cavity approach leads to efficient frequency doubling. More than 500 mW green output power is obtained by placing a periodically poled LiNbO(3) crystal in the external cavity. The single frequency green output from the laser system is tunable in the 530 nm to 533 nm range limited by the LiNbO(3) crystal. The optical to optical conversion efficiency exceeds 30%.

  20. [Cross Frequency Coupling Characteristic Analysis in Subthalamic Local Field Potentials of Parkinson's Disease].

    PubMed

    Wang, Zongbao; Huang, Yongzhi; Zhang, Xinjing; Geng, Xinyi; Chen, Xiao; Wang, Shouyan

    2015-08-01

    Pathological neural activity in subthalamic nucleus (STN) is closely related to the symptoms of Parkinson' s disease. Local field potentials (LFPs) recordings from subthalamic nucleus show that power spectral peaks exist at tremor, double tremor and tripble tremor frequencies, respectively. The interaction between these components in the multi-frequency tremor may be related to the generation of tremor. To study the linear and nonlinear relationship between those components, we analyzed STN LFPs from 9 Parkinson's disease patients using time frequency, cross correlation, Granger casuality and bi-spectral analysis. Results of the time-frequency analysis and cross-frequency correlation analysis demonstrated that the power density of those components significantly decreased as the alleviation of tremor and cross-correlation (0.18-0.50) exists during tremor period. Granger causality of the time-variant amplitude showed stronger contribution from tremor to double tremor components, and contributions from both tremor and double tremor components to triple tremor component. Quadratic phase couplings among these three components were detected by the bispectral approaches. The linear and nonlinear relationships existed among the multi-components and certainly confirmed that the dependence cross those frequencies and neurological mechanism of tremor involved complicate neural processes.

  1. Non-intrusive Diagnosis of Individual Cell Frequencies in a Coupled Cavity Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Yi

    1997-05-01

    When tuning an accelerating cavity chain, the cell frequency must be measured cell by cell by inserting probes into the cavity. This process takes a very long time for long multicell or non-uniform chains. Moreover, the frequencies within a sealed cavity or a superconducting cavity in a liquid helium bath can not be diagnosed by inserting a probe. A method has been developed to estimate the frequency of each cell and neighbor couplings without introducing a probe into the cavity chain. This methold is based on the information obtained from an RF network analyzer. The data analysis program combines the Newton and Simplex methods;therefore, the program can accept a wide range of initial data, converges quickly.This program has been tested by experimental results and can be used as substitution for the measurements of accelerating cavity chain.

  2. Frequency stabilization of spin-torque-driven oscillations by coupling with a magnetic nonlinear resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Kudo, Kiwamu Suto, Hirofumi; Nagasawa, Tazumi; Mizushima, Koichi; Sato, Rie

    2014-10-28

    The fundamental function of any oscillator is to produce a waveform with a stable frequency. Here, we show a method of frequency stabilization for spin-torque nano-oscillators (STNOs) that relies on coupling with an adjacent nanomagnet through the magnetic dipole–dipole interaction. It is numerically demonstrated that highly stable oscillations occur as a result of mutual feedback between an STNO and a nanomagnet. The nanomagnet acts as a nonlinear resonator for the STNO. This method is based on the nonlinear behavior of the resonator and can be considered as a magnetic analogue of an optimization scheme in nanoelectromechanical systems. The oscillation frequency is most stabilized when the nanomagnet is driven at a special feedback point at which the feedback noise between the STNO and resonator is completely eliminated.

  3. Room temperature multiferroic properties and magnetoelectric coupling in Sm and Ni substituted Bi{sub 4−x}Sm{sub x}Ti{sub 3−x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 12±δ} (x = 0, 0.02, 0.05, 0.07) ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Joginder Bhardwaj, Sumit; Sharma, K. K.; Kotnala, R. K.; Kumar, Ravi

    2014-05-28

    Lead free multiferroic Bi{sub 4−x}Sm{sub x}Ti{sub 3−x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 12±δ} (x = 0.02, 0.05, and 0.07) samples have been synthesized by conventional solid state route. X-ray diffraction analysis reveals single phase up to x = 0.07, and a secondary phase appears at x > 0.07. Raman spectroscopy confirms the local distortions in the crystal. Field emission scanning electron microscopy shows plate like grains. Substitution has increased the orthorhombic distortion, grain size, and hence the ferroelectric transition temperature (T{sub c}). A significant reduction in the values of dielectric constant (ε′) and loss tangent (tan δ) has been observed with the increase of Sm and Ni ions. The increase in dc resistivity at room temperature has been found with substitution. Enhancement in the values of remnant polarization (2P{sub r}) and magnetization (2M{sub r}) is observed. Magnetoelectric coupling coefficient (α) values of 0.60 mV/cm/Oe are achieved in Bi{sub 4−x}Sm{sub x}Ti{sub 3−x}Ni{sub x}O{sub 12±δ} ceramic samples. Hence, we have successfully converted the ferroelectric Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} into a multiferroic, which is a new lead free multiferroic material, can be useful for future electromagnetic devices.

  4. Magnetoelectricity and magnetostriction due to the rare-earth moment in TmAl3 (BO3)4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaudhury, Rajit; Lorenz, B.; Sun, Y. Y.; Chu, C. W.; Bezmaternykh, L. N.; Temerov, V. L.

    2011-03-01

    We investigated the magnetic, magnetostriction and magnetoelectric properties of d-electron free rare-earth aluminum borate TmAl 3 (BO3)4 between room temperature and 2 K. The magnetoelectric polarization along the `a' and `c' directions reaches up to 300 μ C/ m 2 at 70 kOe with the field is applied along the `a' axis. `c' axis magnetic field does not show any significant effect, which correlates with the fact that χa changed very rapidly compared to χc . We find that the polarization is proportional to the magnetostriction. The result of this investigation prove the existence of a significant coupling between the rare-earth magnetic moment and the lattice in RAl 3 (BO3)4 compounds (R=rare earth). This compound shows that the rare-earth moment is sufficient enough to generate a large magnetoelectric effect. This is comparatively a simpler system to study and understand the origin of magnetoelectric effect.

  5. Time-dependent magnetoelectric effect in Fe/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 heterostructure: A ferromagnetic resonance study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yue-Lei; Chen, Qian-Ping; Zhao, Yong-Gang; Pan, Liqing; Sun, Young

    2013-08-01

    Ferromagnetic resonance with applied electric fields has been used to investigate the magnetoelectric effect in a Fe/Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)0.7Ti0.3O3 heterostructure. The out-of-plane magnetoelectric effect follows a butterfly behavior in response to electric field, consistent with the linear piezoelectric strain-mediated mechanism. In contrast, the in-plane magnetoelectric effect exhibits a loop-like dependence on electric field. In addition, a relaxation of the in-plane resonant field has been observed after the ferroelectric domains are switched. The loop-like feature and the time-dependent response suggest that the in-plane magnetoelectric coupling involves the 109° switching and relaxation of ferroelectric domains.

  6. Microwave Magnetoelectric Effects in Single Crystal YIG/PMN-PT Bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shastry, S.; Srinivasan, G.; Mantese, J. V.

    2004-03-01

    Layered magnetostrictive/piezoelectric structures are multifunctional due to mechanical force mediated electromagnetic coupling. This study is concerned with microwave magnetoelectric (ME) interactions in layered ferrite-piezoelectric oxides. Ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) is a powerful tool for such studies. An electric field E applied to the composite produces a mechanical deformation in PZT that in turn is coupled to the ferrite, resulting in a shift in the resonance field. Information on the nature of high frequency ME coupling could therefore be obtained from data on field shift vs E. Since the measurement accuracy depends very much on the FMR line width, bilayers consisting of single crystal or epitaxial low-loss ferrites are ideal for the investigations. Studies were performed at 9.4 GHz on bilayers consisting of (100), (110) or (111) epitaxial yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films (1-130 micron) and (100) lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT). The samples were positioned outside a hole at the bottom or side of a TE102-reflection type cavity. Resonance absorption vs bias magnetic field H were obtained as a function of E = 0-8 kV/cm for both in-plane and out-of-plane H. Important results are as follows. (i) The ME coupling is stronger for H perpendicular to the bilayer than for in-plane H. (ii) The coupling strength is maximum for E and H along <111> in YIG. (iii) The ME constant varies from a maximum of 6 Oe cm/kV for bilayers with 4 micron YIG to a minimum of 3 Oe cm/kV for 110 micron YIG. (iv) The variation of resonance field shift with the volume ratio for the two phases is in agreement with theory [1,2]. 1. M. I. Bichurin, I. A. Kornev, V. M. Petrov, A. S. Tatarenko, Yu. V. Kiliba, and G. Srinivasan, Phys. Rev. B 64, 094409 (2001). 2. M. I. Bichurin, V. M. Petrov, Yu. V. Kiliba, G. Srinivasan, Phys. Rev. B 66, 134404 (2002). This work was supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation (DMR-0322254)

  7. Equivalence of coupled networks and networks with multimodal frequency distributions: Conditions for the bimodal and trimodal case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietras, Bastian; Deschle, Nicolás; Daffertshofer, Andreas

    2016-11-01

    Populations of oscillators can display a variety of synchronization patterns depending on the oscillators' intrinsic coupling and the coupling between them. We consider two coupled symmetric (sub)populations with unimodal frequency distributions. If internal and external coupling strengths are identical, a change of variables transforms the system into a single population of oscillators whose natural frequencies are bimodally distributed. Otherwise an additional bifurcation parameter κ enters the dynamics. By using the Ott-Antonsen ansatz, we rigorously prove that κ does not lead to new bifurcations, but that a symmetric two-coupled-population network and a network with a symmetric bimodal frequency distribution are topologically equivalent. Seeking for generalizations, we further analyze a symmetric trimodal network vis-à-vis three coupled symmetric unimodal populations. Here, however, the equivalence with respect to stability, dynamics, and bifurcations of the two systems no longer holds.

  8. Retino-cortical stimulus frequency-dependent gamma coupling: evidence and functional implications of oscillatory potentials.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Mihail I; Kékesi, Katalin A; Borhegyi, Zsolt; Galambos, Robert; Juhász, Gábor; Hudetz, Anthony G

    2016-10-01

    Long-range gamma band EEG oscillations mediate information transmission between distant brain regions. Gamma band-based coupling may not be restricted to cortex-to-cortex communication but may include extracortical parts of the visual system. The retinogram and visual event-related evoked potentials exhibit time-locked, forward propagating oscillations that are candidates of gamma oscillatory coupling between the retina and the visual cortex. In this study, we tested if this gamma coupling is present as indicated by the coherence of gamma-range (70-200 Hz) oscillatory potentials (OPs) recorded simultaneously from the retina and the primary visual cortex in freely moving, adult rats. We found significant retino-cortical OP coherence in a wide range of stimulus duration (0.01-1000 msec), stimulus intensity (800-5000 mcd/mm(2)), interstimulus interval (10-400 msec), and stimulus frequency (0.25-25 Hz). However, at low stimulus frequencies, the OPs were time-locked, flickering light at 25 Hz entrained continuous OP coherence (steady-state response, SSR). Our results suggest that the retina and the visual cortex exhibit oscillatory coupling at high-gamma frequency with precise time locking and synchronization of information transfer from the retina to the visual cortex, similar to cortico-cortical gamma coupling. The temporal fusion of retino-cortical gamma coherence at stimulus rates of theater movies may explain the mechanism of the visual illusion of continuity. How visual perception depends on early transformations of ascending sensory information is incompletely understood. By simultaneous measurement of flash-evoked potentials in the retina and the visual cortex in awake, freely moving rats, we demonstrate for the first time that time-locked gamma oscillatory potentials exhibit stable retino-cortical synchrony across a wide range of stimulus parameters and that the temporal continuity of coherence changes with stimulus frequency according to the expected

  9. A Review of Low Frequency Electromagnetic Wave Phenomena Related to Tropospheric-Ionospheric Coupling Mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoes, Fernando; Pfaff, Robert; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Klenzing, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Investigation of coupling mechanisms between the troposphere and the ionosphere requires a multidisciplinary approach involving several branches of atmospheric sciences, from meteorology, atmospheric chemistry, and fulminology to aeronomy, plasma physics, and space weather. In this work, we review low frequency electromagnetic wave propagation in the Earth-ionosphere cavity from a troposphere-ionosphere coupling perspective. We discuss electromagnetic wave generation, propagation, and resonance phenomena, considering atmospheric, ionospheric and magnetospheric sources, from lightning and transient luminous events at low altitude to Alfven waves and particle precipitation related to solar and magnetospheric processes. We review in situ ionospheric processes as well as surface and space weather phenomena that drive troposphere-ionosphere dynamics. Effects of aerosols, water vapor distribution, thermodynamic parameters, and cloud charge separation and electrification processes on atmospheric electricity and electromagnetic waves are reviewed. We also briefly revisit ionospheric irregularities such as spread-F and explosive spread-F, sporadic-E, traveling ionospheric disturbances, Trimpi effect, and hiss and plasma turbulence. Regarding the role of the lower boundary of the cavity, we review transient surface phenomena, including seismic activity, earthquakes, volcanic processes and dust electrification. The role of surface and atmospheric gravity waves in ionospheric dynamics is also briefly addressed. We summarize analytical and numerical tools and techniques to model low frequency electromagnetic wave propagation and solving inverse problems and summarize in a final section a few challenging subjects that are important for a better understanding of tropospheric-ionospheric coupling mechanisms.

  10. Prediction of high-frequency vibration transmission across coupled, periodic ribbed plates by incorporating tunneling mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jianfei; Hopkins, Carl

    2013-04-01

    Prediction of structure-borne sound transmission on built-up structures at audio frequencies is well-suited to Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) although the inclusion of periodic ribbed plates presents challenges. This paper considers an approach using Advanced SEA (ASEA) that can incorporate tunneling mechanisms within a statistical approach. The coupled plates used for the investigation form an L-junction comprising a periodic ribbed plate with symmetric ribs and an isotropic homogeneous plate. Experimental SEA (ESEA) is carried out with input data from Finite Element Methods (FEM). This indicates that indirect coupling is significant at high frequencies where bays on the periodic ribbed plate can be treated as individual subsystems. SEA using coupling loss factors from wave theory leads to significant underestimates in the energy of the bays when the isotropic homogeneous plate is excited. This is due to the absence of tunneling mechanisms in the SEA model. In contrast, ASEA shows close agreement with FEM and laboratory measurements. The errors incurred with SEA rapidly increase as the bays become more distant from the source subsystem. ASEA provides significantly more accurate predictions by accounting for the spatial filtering that leads to non-diffuse vibration fields on these more distant bays.

  11. Capacitively coupled radio-frequency hydrogen discharges: The role of kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Marques, L.; Jolly, J.; Alves, L. L.

    2007-09-15

    This paper presents a systematic characterization of capacitively coupled radio-frequency hydrogen discharges, produced within a parallel plate cylindrical setup at different rf applied voltages (V{sub rf}=50-600 V), frequencies (f=13.56-40.68 MHz), and pressures (p=0.2-1 torr). A two-dimensional, time-dependent fluid model for charged particle transport is self-consistently solved coupled to a homogeneous kinetic model for hydrogen, including vibrationally excited molecular species and electronically excited atomic species. Numerical simulations are compared with experimental measurements of various plasma parameters. A good quantitative agreement is found between simulations and experiment for the coupled electrical power and the plasma potential. The model underestimates the values of the electron density, the self-bias potential, and the H(n=1) atom density with respect to measurements, but agrees with experiment when predicting that all these parameters increase with either V{sub rf}, f, or p. The dissociation degree is about 10{sup -3} for the work conditions considered. Simulations adopt a wall recombination probability for H atoms that was experimentally measured, thus accounting for surface modification with discharge operating conditions. Results show the key role played by the atomic wall recombination mechanism in plasma description.

  12. Fiber Grating Coupled Light Source Capable of Tunable, Single Frequency Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainak, Michael A. (Inventor); Duerksen, Gary L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Fiber Bragg grating coupled light sources can achieve tunable single-frequency (single axial and lateral spatial mode) operation by correcting for a quadratic phase variation in the lateral dimension using an aperture stop. The output of a quasi-monochromatic light source such as a Fabry Perot laser diode is astigmatic. As a consequence of the astigmatism, coupling geometries that accommodate the transverse numerical aperture of the laser are defocused in the lateral dimension, even for apsherical optics. The mismatch produces the quadratic phase variation in the feedback along the lateral axis at the facet of the laser that excites lateral modes of higher order than the TM(sub 00). Because the instability entails excitation of higher order lateral submodes, single frequency operation also is accomplished by using fiber Bragg gratings whose bandwidth is narrower than the submode spacing. This technique is particularly pertinent to the use of lensed fiber gratings in lieu of discrete coupling optics. Stable device operation requires overall phase match between the fed-back signal and the laser output. The fiber Bragg grating acts as a phase-preserving mirror when the Bragg condition is met precisely. The phase-match condition is maintained throughout the fiber tuning range by matching the Fabry-Perot axial mode wavelength to the passband center wavelength of the Bragg grating.

  13. Fiber Grating Coupled Light Source Capable of Tunable, Single Frequency Operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainak, Michael A. (Inventor); Duerksen, Gary L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Fiber Bragg grating coupled light sources can achieve tunable single-frequency (single axial and lateral spatial mode) operation by correcting for a quadratic phase variation in the lateral dimension using an aperture stop. The output of a quasi-monochromatic light source such as a Fabry Perot laser diode is astigmatic. As a consequence of the astigmatism, coupling geometries that accommodate the transverse numerical aperture of the laser are defocused in the lateral dimension, even for apsherical optics. The mismatch produces the quadratic phase variation in the feedback along the lateral axis at the facet of the laser that excites lateral modes of higher order than the TM(sub 00). Because the instability entails excitation of higher order lateral submodes, single frequency operation also is accomplished by using fiber Bragg gratings whose bandwidth is narrower than the submode spacing. This technique is particularly pertinent to the use of lensed fiber gratings in lieu of discrete coupling optics. Stable device operation requires overall phase match between the fed-back signal and the laser output. The fiber Bragg grating acts as a phase-preserving mirror when the Bragg condition is met precisely. The phase-match condition is maintained throughout the fiber tuning range by matching the Fabry-Perot axial mode wavelength to the passband center wavelength of the Bragg grating.

  14. Effect of inter-tissue inductive coupling on multi-frequency imaging of intracranial hemorrhage by magnetic induction tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Zhili; Tan, Chao; Dong, Feng

    2017-08-01

    Magnetic induction tomography (MIT) is a promising technique for continuous monitoring of intracranial hemorrhage due to its contactless nature, low cost and capacity to penetrate the high-resistivity skull. The inter-tissue inductive coupling increases with frequency, which may lead to errors in multi-frequency imaging at high frequency. The effect of inter-tissue inductive coupling was investigated to improve the multi-frequency imaging of hemorrhage. An analytical model of inter-tissue inductive coupling based on the equivalent circuit was established. A set of new multi-frequency decomposition equations separating the phase shift of hemorrhage from other brain tissues was derived by employing the coupling information to improve the multi-frequency imaging of intracranial hemorrhage. The decomposition error and imaging error are both decreased after considering the inter-tissue inductive coupling information. The study reveals that the introduction of inter-tissue inductive coupling can reduce the errors of multi-frequency imaging, promoting the development of intracranial hemorrhage monitoring by multi-frequency MIT.

  15. Ultrahigh frequency tunability of aperture-coupled microstrip antenna via electric-field tunable BST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Hong-Lei; Xue, Qian; Gao, Xiao-Yang; Yao, Feng-Rui; Lu, Shi-Yang; Wang, Ye-Long; Liu, Chun-Heng; Zhang, Yong-Cheng; Lü, Yue-Guang; Li, Shan-Dong

    2015-12-01

    A composite ceramic with nominal composition of 45.0 wt%(Ba0.5Sr0.5)TiO3-55.0 wt%MgO (acronym is BST-MgO) is sintered for fabricating a frequency reconfigurable aperture-coupled microstrip antenna. The calcined BST-MgO composite ceramic exhibits good microwave dielectric properties at X-band with appropriate dielectric constant ɛr around 85, lower dielectric loss tan δ about 0.01, and higher permittivity tunability 14.8% at 8.33 kV/cm. An ultrahigh E-field tunability of working frequency up to 11.0% (i.e., from 9.1 GHz to 10.1 GHz with a large frequency shift of 1000 MHz) at a DC bias field from 0 to 8.33 kV/cm and a considerably large center gain over 7.5 dB are obtained in the designed frequency reconfigurable microstrip antenna. These results demonstrate that BST materials are promising for the frequency reconfigurable antenna. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11074040) and the Key Project of Shandong Provincial Department of Science and Technology, China (Grant No. ZR2012FZ006).

  16. Influence of exciting frequency on gas and ion rotational temperatures of nitrogen capacitively coupled plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, X. J.; Xin, Y.; Yuan, Q. H.; Ning, Z. Y.

    2008-07-15

    By using optical emission spectroscopy, the nitrogen gas and ion rotational temperatures in capacitively coupled plasma discharges with different exciting frequencies are investigated. The rotational temperatures are acquired by comparing the measured and calculated spectra of selected transitions with a least-square procedure. It is found that N{sub 2} gas rotational temperature minimum around 13 MHz is the combined effect of ion-dominated heating and electron-dominated heating in the plasma. The influence of exciting frequency on N{sub 2}{sup +} rotational temperature is much more than that of the N{sub 2} molecule, the lower frequency, the higher N{sub 2}{sup +} rotational temperature. Also, N{sub 2}{sup +} rotational temperature is much higher than the corresponding N{sub 2} gas rotational temperature in the plasma driven by low frequencies. These experimental phenomena may be attributed to the effective ion heating and/or possible resonant heating in the bulk plasma under the low-frequency field.

  17. Parametric Oscillation, Frequency Mixing, and Injection Locking of Strongly Coupled Nanomechanical Resonator Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitner, Maximilian J.; Abdi, Mehdi; Ridolfo, Alessandro; Hartmann, Michael J.; Weig, Eva M.

    2017-06-01

    We study locking phenomena of two strongly coupled, high quality factor nanomechanical resonator modes to a common parametric drive at a single drive frequency in different parametric driving regimes. By controlled dielectric gradient forces we tune the resonance frequencies of the flexural in-plane and out-of-plane oscillation of the high stress silicon nitride string through their mutual avoided crossing. For the case of the strong common parametric drive signal-idler generation via nondegenerate parametric two-mode oscillation is observed. Broadband frequency tuning of the very narrow linewidth signal and idler resonances is demonstrated. When the resonance frequencies of the signal and idler get closer to each other, partial injection locking, injection pulling, and complete injection locking to half of the drive frequency occurs depending on the pump strength. Furthermore, satellite resonances, symmetrically offset from the signal and idler by their beat note, are observed, which can be attributed to degenerate four-wave mixing in the highly nonlinear mechanical oscillations.

  18. Parkinson subtype-specific Granger-causal coupling and coherence frequency in the subthalamic area.

    PubMed

    Florin, Esther; Pfeifer, Johannes; Visser-Vandewalle, Veerle; Schnitzler, Alfons; Timmermann, Lars

    2016-09-22

    Previous work on Parkinson's disease (PD) has indicated a predominantly afferent coupling between affected arm muscle activity and electrophysiological activity within the subthalamic nucleus (STN). So far, no information is available indicating which frequency components drive the afferent information flow in PD patients. Non-directional coupling e.g. by measuring coherence is primarily established in the beta band as well as at tremor frequency. Based on previous evidence it is likely that different subtypes of the disease are associated with different connectivity patterns. Therefore, we determined coherence and causality between local field potentials (LFPs) in the STN and surface electromyograms (EMGs) from the contralateral arm in 18 akinetic-rigid (AR) PD patients and 8 tremor-dominant (TD) PD patients. During the intraoperative recording, patients were asked to lift their forearm contralateral to the recording side. Significantly more afferent connections were detected for the TD patients for tremor-periods and non-tremor-periods combined as well as for only tremor periods. Within the STN 74% and 63% of the afferent connections are associated with coherence from 4-8Hz and 8-12Hz, respectively. However, when considering only tremor-periods significantly more afferent than efferent connections were associated with coherence from 12 to 20Hz across all recording heights. No difference between efferent and afferent connections is seen in the frequency range from 4 to 12Hz for all recording heights. For the AR patients, no significant difference in afferent and efferent connections within the STN was found for the different frequency bands. Still, for the AR patients dorsal of the STN significantly more afferent than efferent connections were associated with coherence in the frequency range from 12 to 16Hz. These results provide further evidence for the differential pathological oscillations and pathways present in AR and TD Parkinson patients. Copyright © 2016

  19. Studies on the effect of finite geometrical asymmetry in dual capacitively coupled radio frequency plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, B.

    2015-10-01

    In recent years, dual capacitively coupled radio frequency (CCRF) glow discharge plasma has been widely studied in the laboratory because of its simpler design and high efficiency for different material processing applications such as thin-film deposition, plasma etching, sputtering of insulating materials etc. The main objective of studies on dual frequency CCRF plasma has been the independent control of ion energy and ion flux using an electrical asymmetry effect (EAE). Most studies have been reported in electrode configurations that are either geometrically symmetric (both electrodes are equal) or completely asymmetric (one electrode is infinitely bigger than the other). However, it seems that most of the laboratory CCRF plasmas have finite electrode geometry. In addition, plasma series resonance (PSR) and electron bounce resonance (EBR) heating also come into play as a result of geometrical asymmetry as well as EAE. In this study, a dual frequency CCRF plasma has been studied in which the dual frequency CCRF has been coupled to the lumped circuit model of the plasma and the time-independent fluid model of the plasma sheath, in order to study the effect of finite geometrical asymmetry on the generation of dc-self bias and plasma heating. The dc self-bias is found to strongly depend on the ratio of the area between the electrodes. The dc self-bias is found to depend on the phase angle between the two applied voltage waveforms. The EAE and geometrical asymmetry are found to work differently in controlling the dc self-bias. It can be concluded that the phase angle between the two voltage waveforms in dual CCRF plasmas has an important role in determining the dc self-bias and may be used for controlling the plasma properties in the dual frequency CCRF plasma.

  20. Novel hybrid multifunctional magnetoelectric porous composite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, P.; Gonçalves, R.; Lopes, A. C.; Venkata Ramana, E.; Mendiratta, S. K.; Lanceros-Mendez, S.

    2015-12-01

    Novel multifunctional porous films have been developed by the integration of magnetic CoFe2O4 (CFO) nanoparticles into poly(vinylidene fluoride)-Trifuoroethylene (P(VDF-TrFE)), taking advantage of the synergies of the magnetostrictive filler and the piezoelectric polymer. The porous films show a piezoelectric response with an effective d33 coefficient of -22 pC/N-1, a maximum magnetization of 12 emu g-1 and a maximum magnetoelectric coefficient of 9 mV cm-1 Oe-1. In this way, a multifunctional membrane has been developed suitable for advanced applications ranging from biomedical to water treatment.

  1. Complex dynamics of an oscillator ensemble with uniformly distributed natural frequencies and global nonlinear coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baibolatov, Yernur; Rosenblum, Michael; Zhanabaev, Zeinulla Zh.; Pikovsky, Arkady

    2010-07-01

    We consider large populations of phase oscillators with global nonlinear coupling. For identical oscillators such populations are known to demonstrate a transition from completely synchronized state to the state of self-organized quasiperiodicity. In this state phases of all units differ, yet the population is not completely incoherent but produces a nonzero mean field; the frequency of the latter differs from the frequency of individual units. Here we analyze the dynamics of such populations in case of uniformly distributed natural frequencies. We demonstrate numerically and describe theoretically (i) states of complete synchrony, (ii) regimes with coexistence of a synchronous cluster and a drifting subpopulation, and (iii) self-organized quasiperiodic states with nonzero mean field and all oscillators drifting with respect to it. We analyze transitions between different states with the increase of the coupling strength; in particular we show that the mean field arises via a discontinuous transition. For a further illustration we compare the results for the nonlinear model with those for the Kuramoto-Sakaguchi model.

  2. Tailoring alphabetical metamaterials in optical frequency: plasmonic coupling, dispersion, and sensing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Cao, Cuong; Xu, Xinlong; Liow, Chihao; Li, Shuzhou; Tan, Pingheng; Xiong, Qihua

    2014-04-22

    Tailoring optical properties of artificial metamaterials, whose optical properties go beyond the limitations of conventional and naturally occurring materials, is of importance in fundamental research and has led to many important applications such as security imaging, invisible cloak, negative refraction, ultrasensitive sensing, and transformable and switchable optics. Herein, by precisely controlling the size, symmetry, and topology of alphabetical metamaterials with U, S, Y, H, U-bar, and V shapes, we have obtained highly tunable optical response covering visible-to-infrared (vis-NIR) optical frequency. In addition, we show a detailed study on the physical origin of resonance modes, plasmonic coupling, the dispersion of resonance modes, and the possibility of negative refraction. We have found that all the electronic and magnetic modes follow the dispersion of surface plasmon polaritons; thus, essentially they are electronic- and magnetic-surface-plasmon-polaritons-like (ESPP-like and MSPP-like) modes resulted from diffraction coupling between localized surface plasmon and freely propagating light. On the basis of the fill factor and formula of magnetism permeability, we predict that the alphabetical metamaterials should show the negative refraction capability in visible optical frequency. Furthermore, we have demonstrated the specific ultrasensitive surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) sensing of monolayer molecules and femtomolar food contaminants by tuning their resonance to match the laser wavelength, or by tuning the laser wavelength to match the plasmon resonance of metamaterials. Our tunable alphabetical metamaterials provide a generic platform to study the electromagnetic properties of metamaterials and explore the novel applications in optical frequency.

  3. Tunable electromagnetically induced transparency at terahertz frequencies in coupled graphene metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Guo-Wen; Liu, Shao-Bin; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Kong, Xiang-Kun; Li, Hai-Ming; Li, Bing-Xiang; Liu, Si-Yuan; Li, Hai

    2015-11-01

    A graphene-based metamaterial with tunable electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like transmission is numerically studied in this paper. The proposed structure consists of a graphene layer composed of coupled cut-wire pairs printed on a substrate. The simulation confirms that an EIT-like transparency window can be observed due to indirect coupling in a terahertz frequency range. More importantly, the peak frequency of the transmission window can be dynamically controlled over a broad frequency range by varying the Fermi energy levels of the graphene layer through controlling the electrostatic gating. The proposed metamaterial structure offers an additional opportunity to design novel applications such as switches or modulators. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61307052), the Youth Funding for Science & Technology Innovation in Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, China (Grant No. NS2014039), the Chinese Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Program of Higher Education (Grant No. 20123218110017), the Innovation Program for Graduate Education of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant Nos. KYLX_0272, CXZZ13_0166, and CXLX13_155), the Open Research Program in National State Key Laboratory of Millimeter Waves of China (Grant No. K201609), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (Grant No. kfjj20150407).

  4. Study of xCo0.8Ni0.2Fe2O4+(1-x) Pb0.99625 La0.0025Zr0.55Ti0.45O3 magnetoelectric composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dipti; Singh, Sangeeta; Juneja, J. K.; Raina, K. K.; Kotnala, R. K.; Prakash, Chandra

    2016-06-01

    We are reporting here, the studies of the structural, dielectric, ferroelectric and magnetic properties of magnetoelectric composites of La modified lead zirconate titanate (PLZT) and Ni modified cobalt ferrite (CNFO) with compositional formula xCo0.8Ni0.2Fe2O4+(1-x) Pb0.99625La0.0025Zr0.55Ti0.45O3 (x=0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 1.00 by weight) prepared by the solid state reaction method. Coexistence of both the phases in composites was confirmed by X-Ray diffraction technique. The microstructure and average grain size were determined from Scanning Electron Micrograph (SEM) in backscattered mode. Both the phases could be observed clearly. The variations of dielectric properties with frequency and temperature were also studied. P-E and M-H hysteresis measurements were carried. Magnetoelectric coupling (ME) coefficient for samples with x=0.05 and 0.10 were measured as a function of DC magnetic field. Maximum value of ME coefficient (1.2 mV/cm Oe) and piezoelectric coefficient (96 pC/N) for x=0.05 were observed.

  5. Fast Dynamical Coupling Enhances Frequency Adaptation of Oscillators for Robotic Locomotion Control

    PubMed Central

    Nachstedt, Timo; Tetzlaff, Christian; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2017-01-01

    Rhythmic neural signals serve as basis of many brain processes, in particular of locomotion control and generation of rhythmic movements. It has been found that specific neural circuits, named central pattern generators (CPGs), are able to autonomously produce such rhythmic activities. In order to tune, shape and coordinate the produced rhythmic activity, CPGs require sensory feedback, i.e., external signals. Nonlinear oscillators are a standard model of CPGs and are used in various robotic applications. A special class of nonlinear oscillators are adaptive frequency oscillators (AFOs). AFOs are able to adapt their frequency toward the frequency of an external periodic signal and to keep this learned frequency once the external signal vanishes. AFOs have been successfully used, for instance, for resonant tuning of robotic locomotion control. However, the choice of parameters for a standard AFO is characterized by a trade-off between the speed of the adaptation and its precision and, additionally, is strongly dependent on the range of frequencies the AFO is confronted with. As a result, AFOs are typically tuned such that they require a comparably long time for their adaptation. To overcome the problem, here, we improve the standard AFO by introducing a novel adaptation mechanism based on dynamical coupling strengths. The dynamical adaptation mechanism enhances both the speed and precision of the frequency adaptation. In contrast to standard AFOs, in this system, the interplay of dynamics on short and long time scales enables fast as well as precise adaptation of the oscillator for a wide range of frequencies. Amongst others, a very natural implementation of this mechanism is in terms of neural networks. The proposed system enables robotic applications which require fast retuning of locomotion control in order to react to environmental changes or conditions. PMID:28377710

  6. Electromagnetic versus electrical coupling of personal frequency modulation (FM) receivers to cochlear implant sound processors.

    PubMed

    Schafer, Erin C; Romine, Denise; Musgrave, Elizabeth; Momin, Sadaf; Huynh, Christy

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that electrically coupled frequency modulation (FM) systems substantially improved speech-recognition performance in noise in individuals with cochlear implants (CIs). However, there is limited evidence to support the use of electromagnetically coupled (neck loop) FM receivers with contemporary CI sound processors containing telecoils. The primary goal of this study was to compare speech-recognition performance in noise and subjective ratings of adolescents and adults using one of three contemporary CI sound processors coupled to electromagnetically and electrically coupled FM receivers from Oticon. A repeated-measures design was used to compare speech-recognition performance in noise and subjective ratings without and with the FM systems across three test sessions (Experiment 1) and to compare performance at different FM-gain settings (Experiment 2). Descriptive statistics were used in Experiment 3 to describe output differences measured through a CI sound processor. Experiment 1 included nine adolescents or adults with unilateral or bilateral Advanced Bionics Harmony (n = 3), Cochlear Nucleus 5 (n = 3), and MED-EL OPUS 2 (n = 3) CI sound processors. In Experiment 2, seven of the original nine participants were tested. In Experiment 3, electroacoustic output was measured from a Nucleus 5 sound processor when coupled to the electromagnetically coupled Oticon Arc neck loop and electrically coupled Oticon R2. In Experiment 1, participants completed a field trial with each FM receiver and three test sessions that included speech-recognition performance in noise and a subjective rating scale. In Experiment 2, participants were tested in three receiver-gain conditions. Results in both experiments were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance. Experiment 3 involved electroacoustic-test measures to determine the monitor-earphone output of the CI alone and CI coupled to the two FM receivers. The results in Experiment 1 suggested

  7. Nonlinear Connectivity in the Human Stretch Reflex Assessed by Cross-Frequency Phase Coupling.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yuan; Solis-Escalante, Teodoro; Yao, Jun; van der Helm, Frans C T; Dewald, Julius P A; Schouten, Alfred C

    2016-12-01

    Communication between neuronal populations is facilitated by synchronization of their oscillatory activity. Although nonlinearity has been observed in the sensorimotor system, its nonlinear connectivity has not been widely investigated yet. This study investigates nonlinear connectivity during the human stretch reflex based on neuronal synchronization. Healthy participants generated isotonic wrist flexion while receiving a periodic mechanical perturbation to the wrist. Using a novel cross-frequency phase coupling metric, we estimate directional nonlinear connectivity, including time delay, from the perturbation to brain and to muscle, as well as from brain to muscle. Nonlinear phase coupling is significantly stronger from the perturbation to the muscle than to the brain, with a shorter time delay. The time delay from the perturbation to the muscle is 33 ms, similar to the reported latency of the spinal stretch reflex at the wrist. Source localization of nonlinear phase coupling from the brain to the muscle suggests activity originating from the motor cortex, although its effect on the stretch reflex is weak. As such nonlinear phase coupling between the perturbation and muscle activity is dominated by the spinal reflex loop. This study provides new evidence of nonlinear neuronal synchronization in the stretch reflex at the wrist joint with respect to spinal and transcortical loops.

  8. Numerical evaluation of aperture coupling in resonant cavities and frequency perturbation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dash, R.; Nayak, B.; Sharma, A.; Mittal, K. C.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a general formulation for numerical evaluation of the coupling between two identical resonant cavities by a small elliptical aperture in a plane common wall of arbitrary thickness. It is organized into two parts. In the first one we discuss the aperture coupling that is expressed in terms of electric and magnetic dipole moments and polarizabilities using Carlson symmetric elliptical integrals. Carlson integrals have been numerically evaluated and under zero thickness approximation, the results match with the complete elliptical integrals of first and second kind. It is found that with zero wall thickness, the results obtained are the same as those of Bethe and Collin for an elliptical and circular aperture of zero thickness. In the second part, Slater's perturbation method is applied to find the frequency changes due to apertures of finite thickness on the cavity wall.

  9. Dissipation and resonance frequency shift of a resonator magnetically coupled to a semiclassical spin

    PubMed Central

    de Voogd, J. M.; Wagenaar, J. J. T.; Oosterkamp, T. H.

    2017-01-01

    We calculate the change of the properties of a resonator, when coupled to a semiclassical spin by means of the magnetic field. Starting with the Lagrangian of the complete system, we provide an analytical expression for the linear response function for the motion in the case of a mechanical resonator and the current for the case of an electromagnetic resonator, thereby considering the influence of the resonator on the spin and vice versa. This analysis shows that the resonance frequency and effective dissipation factor can change significantly due to the relaxation times of the spin. We first derive this for a system consisting of a spin and mechanical resonator and thereafter apply the same calculations to an electromagnetic resonator. Moreover, the applicability of the method is generalized to a resonator coupled to two-level systems and more, providing a key to understand some of the problems of two-level systems in quantum devices. PMID:28186145

  10. Active loaded plasmonic antennas at terahertz frequencies: Optical control of their capacitive-inductive coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiou, G.; Tserkezis, C.; Schaafsma, M. C.; Aizpurua, J.; Gómez Rivas, J.

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate the photogeneration of loaded dipole plasmonic antennas resonating at THz frequencies. This is achieved by the patterned optical illumination of a semiconductor surface using a spatial light modulator. Our experimental results indicate the existence of capacitive and inductive coupling of localized surface plasmon polaritons. By varying the load in the antenna gap we are able to switch between both coupling regimes. Furthermore, we determine experimentally the effective impedance of the antenna load and verify that this load can be effectively expressed as a LC resonance formed by a THz inductor and capacitor connected in a parallel circuit configuration. These findings are theoretically supported by full electrodynamic calculations and by simple concepts of lumped circuit theory. Our results open new possibilities for the design of active THz circuits for optoelectronic devices.

  11. Dissipation and resonance frequency shift of a resonator magnetically coupled to a semiclassical spin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Voogd, J. M.; Wagenaar, J. J. T.; Oosterkamp, T. H.

    2017-02-01

    We calculate the change of the properties of a resonator, when coupled to a semiclassical spin by means of the magnetic field. Starting with the Lagrangian of the complete system, we provide an analytical expression for the linear response function for the motion in the case of a mechanical resonator and the current for the case of an electromagnetic resonator, thereby considering the influence of the resonator on the spin and vice versa. This analysis shows that the resonance frequency and effective dissipation factor can change significantly due to the relaxation times of the spin. We first derive this for a system consisting of a spin and mechanical resonator and thereafter apply the same calculations to an electromagnetic resonator. Moreover, the applicability of the method is generalized to a resonator coupled to two-level systems and more, providing a key to understand some of the problems of two-level systems in quantum devices.

  12. Ultra-High Sensitive Magnetoelectric Nanocomposites Current Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-30

    H. Kim, M. I. Bichurin, S. N. Ivanov, Y. J. Pukinski and S. Priya, “Magnetoelectric Gradiometer ”, EURO. PHYS. J. B 71, 387-392 (2009). 16. V. Bedekar...2011). 9. V. Bedekar, M. I. Bichurin, S. N. Ivanov, Y. J. Pukinski, H. Kim, R. A. Islam, and S. Priya, “Magnetoelectric Gradiometer ”, MEIPIC6...A. Islam, H. Kim, M. I. Bichurin, S. N. Ivanov, Y. J. Pukinski and S. Priya, “Magnetoelectric Gradiometer ”, EURO. PHYS. J. B 71, 387-392 (2009). 16

  13. Electric polarization of magnetic domain walls in magnetoelectrics.

    PubMed

    Lobzenko, I P; Goncharov, P P; Ter-Oganessian, N V

    2015-06-24

    Two prominent magnetoelectrics MnWO4 and CuO possess low-temperature commensurate paraelectric magnetically ordered phase. Here using Monte Carlo simulations we show that the walls between the domains of this phase are ferroelectric with the same electric polarization direction and value as those in the magnetoelectric phases of these compounds. We also suggest that experimental observation of electric polarization of domain walls in MnWO4 should help to determine the macroscopic interactions responsible for its magnetoelectric properties.

  14. Ferroelectric ordering and magnetoelectric effect of pristine and Ho-doped orthorhombic DyMnO{sub 3} by dielectric studies

    SciTech Connect

    Magesh, J.; Murugavel, P.; Mangalam, R. V. K.; Singh, K.; Simon, Ch.; Prellier, W.

    2015-08-21

    In this paper, the magnetoelectric coupling and ferroelectric ordering of the orthorhombic Dy{sub 1-x}Ho{sub x}MnO{sub 3} (x = 0 and 0.1) are studied from the magnetodielectric response of the polycrystalline samples. The dielectric study on the DyMnO{sub 3} reveals ferroelectric transition at 18 K along with an addition transition at 12 K. We suggest that the transition at 12 K could have originated from the polarization flop rather than being the rare earth magnetic ordering. The magnetodielectric study reveals a magnetoelectric coupling strength of 10%, which is stronger by two orders of magnitude in comparison to the hexagonal manganites. Surprisingly, the Ho{sup 3+} substitution in DyMnO{sub 3} suppresses the magnetoelectric coupling strength via the suppression of the spiral magnetic ordering. In addition, it also reduces the antiferromagnetic ordering and ferroelectric ordering temperatures. Overall, the studies show that the rare earth plays an important role in the magnetoelectric coupling strength through the modulation of spiral magnetic structure.

  15. Towards spatial frequency domain optical imaging of neurovascular coupling in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Alexander J.; Konecky, Soren D.; Rice, Tyler B.; Green, Kim N.; Choi, Bernard; Durkin, Anthony J.; Tromberg, Bruce J.

    2012-02-01

    Early neurovascular coupling (NVC) changes in Alzheimer's disease can potentially provide imaging biomarkers to assist with diagnosis and treatment. Previous efforts to quantify NVC with intrinsic signal imaging have required assumptions of baseline optical pathlength to calculate changes in oxy- and deoxy-hemoglobin concentrations during evoked stimuli. In this work, we present an economical spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) platform utilizing a commercially available LED projector, camera, and off-the-shelf optical components suitable for imaging dynamic optical properties. The fast acquisition platform described in this work is validated on silicone phantoms and demonstrated in neuroimaging of a mouse model.

  16. The application of time-frequency analysis to the air-coupled ultrasonic testing of concrete.

    PubMed

    Berriman, James R; Hutchins, David A; Neild, Adrian; Gan, Tat Hean; Purnell, Phil

    2006-04-01

    Air-coupled ultrasound has been used for the nondestructive evaluation of concrete, using broad bandwidth electrostatic transducers and chirp excitation. This paper investigates the benefits of using time-frequency analysis in such situations, for both waveform retrieval and imaging in the presence of low signal levels. The use of the short-term Fourier transform, the Wavelet transform, and the Wigner-Ville distribution all are considered, in which accurate tracking of the ultrasonic chirp signals is demonstrated. The Hough transform then is applied as a filter. An image of a steel reinforcement bar in concrete has been produced to illustrate this approach.

  17. Pump Frequency Noise Coupling into a Microcavity by Thermo-optic Locking

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-05

    linewidth of 4.1 MHz (Q = 47 million) at critical coupling is thermo-optically locked using an external cavity diode laser ( ECDL ). A series of input power...is thermo-optically locked to the microcavity, a pump-probe method is used as shown in Fig. 3. The pump laser is an external cavity diode laser ( ECDL ...2 10 3 10 4 10 5 10 6 10 7 10 8 10 9 Frequency (Hz) S ν( f) (H z2 /H z) FL free running FL PDH lock, ECDL thermo lock o# FL PDH lock, ECDL

  18. Thalamic theta phase alignment predicts human memory formation and anterior thalamic cross-frequency coupling.

    PubMed

    Sweeney-Reed, Catherine M; Zaehle, Tino; Voges, Jürgen; Schmitt, Friedhelm C; Buentjen, Lars; Kopitzki, Klaus; Hinrichs, Hermann; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Rugg, Michael D; Knight, Robert T; Richardson-Klavehn, Alan

    2015-05-20

    Previously we reported electrophysiological evidence for a role for the anterior thalamic nucleus (ATN) in human memory formation (Sweeney-Reed et al., 2014). Theta-gamma cross-frequency coupling (CFC) predicted successful memory formation, with the involvement of gamma oscillations suggesting memory-relevant local processing in the ATN. The importance of the theta frequency range in memory processing is well-established, and phase alignment of oscillations is considered to be necessary for synaptic plasticity. We hypothesized that theta phase alignment in the ATN would be necessary for memory encoding. Further analysis of the electrophysiological data reveal that phase alignment in the theta rhythm was greater during successful compared with unsuccessful encoding, and that this alignment was correlated with the CFC. These findings support an active processing role for the ATN during memory formation.

  19. Low-frequency, self-sustained oscillations in inductively coupled plasmas used for optical pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coffer, J.; Encalada, N.; Huang, M.; Camparo, J.

    2014-10-01

    We have investigated very low frequency, on the order of one hertz, self-pulsing in alkali-metal inductively-coupled plasmas (i.e., rf-discharge lamps). This self-pulsing has the potential to significantly vary signal-to-noise ratios and (via the ac-Stark shift) resonant frequencies in optically pumped atomic clocks and magnetometers (e.g., the atomic clocks now flying on GPS and Galileo global navigation system satellites). The phenomenon arises from a nonlinear interaction between the atomic physics of radiation trapping and the plasma's electrical nature. To explain the effect, we have developed an evaporation/condensation theory (EC theory) of the self-pulsing phenomenon.

  20. Spike width and frequency alter stability of phase-locking in electrically coupled neurons.

    PubMed

    Dodla, Ramana; Wilson, Charles J

    2013-06-01

    The stability of phase-locked states of electrically coupled type-1 phase response curve neurons is studied using piecewise linear formulations for their voltage profile and phase response curves. We find that at low frequency and/or small spike width, synchrony is stable, and antisynchrony unstable. At high frequency and/or large spike width, these phase-locked states switch their stability. Increasing the ratio of spike width to spike height causes the antisynchronous state to transition into a stable synchronous state. We compute the interaction function and the boundaries of stability of both these phase-locked states, and present analytical expressions for them. We also study the effect of phase response curve skewness on the boundaries of synchrony and antisynchrony.

  1. Low-frequency, self-sustained oscillations in inductively coupled plasmas used for optical pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Coffer, J.; Encalada, N.; Huang, M.; Camparo, J.

    2014-10-28

    We have investigated very low frequency, on the order of one hertz, self-pulsing in alkali-metal inductively-coupled plasmas (i.e., rf-discharge lamps). This self-pulsing has the potential to significantly vary signal-to-noise ratios and (via the ac-Stark shift) resonant frequencies in optically pumped atomic clocks and magnetometers (e.g., the atomic clocks now flying on GPS and Galileo global navigation system satellites). The phenomenon arises from a nonlinear interaction between the atomic physics of radiation trapping and the plasma's electrical nature. To explain the effect, we have developed an evaporation/condensation theory (EC theory) of the self-pulsing phenomenon.

  2. Thalamic theta phase alignment predicts human memory formation and anterior thalamic cross-frequency coupling

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney-Reed, Catherine M; Zaehle, Tino; Voges, Jürgen; Schmitt, Friedhelm C; Buentjen, Lars; Kopitzki, Klaus; Hinrichs, Hermann; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Rugg, Michael D; Knight, Robert T; Richardson-Klavehn, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Previously we reported electrophysiological evidence for a role for the anterior thalamic nucleus (ATN) in human memory formation (Sweeney-Reed et al., 2014). Theta-gamma cross-frequency coupling (CFC) predicted successful memory formation, with the involvement of gamma oscillations suggesting memory-relevant local processing in the ATN. The importance of the theta frequency range in memory processing is well-established, and phase alignment of oscillations is considered to be necessary for synaptic plasticity. We hypothesized that theta phase alignment in the ATN would be necessary for memory encoding. Further analysis of the electrophysiological data reveal that phase alignment in the theta rhythm was greater during successful compared with unsuccessful encoding, and that this alignment was correlated with the CFC. These findings support an active processing role for the ATN during memory formation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07578.001 PMID:25993559

  3. Development of 40 MHz inductively coupled plasma source and frequency effects on plasma parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Hyun-Su; Chang, Hong-Young

    2008-01-01

    A large-area inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source capable of securing azimuthal plasma uniformity at a 40.00MHz has been developed. The antenna, referred to as a capacitor distributed resonance antenna, minimizes the azimuthally nonuniform antenna capacitive field with eight distributed vertical capacitors. The antenna was designed to maximize the antenna current using L-C series resonance. Based on plasma diagnostics with a 13.56MHz conventional ICP, comparative analyses were performed in terms of the plasma density, electron temperature, and frequency characteristics of the electron energy probability function (EEPF). In addition, the frequency dependency of the EEPF was found in the collisional (νen>ω ), normal skin [vth/δ≪(ω2+νen2)1/2] regime and the physical causes of were examined.

  4. Coupled electromechanical modeling of piezoelectric disc transducers for low-frequency ultrasonic collimated beam generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chillara, Vamshi Krishna; Pantea, Cristian; Sinha, Dipen N.

    2017-04-01

    Low-frequency ultrasonic collimated beam generation from radial modes of piezoelectric disc transducers is studied using a coupled electromechanical finite element approach. First, resonance and vibration characteristics of the radial modes of the disc transducers are obtained using an eigenfrequency analysis. The vibration patterns obtained from numerical simulation are compared with those obtained from experiments and are in good agreement. Next, ultrasonic beam profiles in water generated from the radial modes of a piezo-disc are studied. It was found that a free piezo-disc generates a Bessel-beam with multiple side-lobes. In contrast, clamping the lateral edges of the piezo-disc results in a well-collimated central beam with reduced side-lobes. This provides a novel transducer design for low-frequency collimated beam generation for imaging through highly attenuating materials

  5. Spatiotemporal Organization and Cross-Frequency Coupling of Sleep Spindles in Primate Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Saori; Murai, Rie; Shimazu, Hideki; Isomura, Yoshikazu; Mima, Tatsuya; Tsujimoto, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: The sleep spindle has been implicated in thalamic sensory gating, cortical development, and memory consolidation. These multiple functions may depend on specific spatiotemporal emergence and interactions with other spindles and other forms of brain activity. Therefore, we measured sleep spindle cortical distribution, regional heterogeneity, synchronization, and phase relationships with other electroencephalographic components in freely moving primates. Methods: Transcortical field potentials were recorded from Japanese monkeys via telemetry and were analyzed using the Hilbert-Huang transform. Results: Spindle (12–20 Hz) current sources were identified over a wide region of the frontoparietal cortex. Most spindles occurred independently in their own frequency, but some appeared concordant between cortical areas with frequency interdependence, particularly in nearby regions and bilaterally symmetrical regions. Spindles in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex appeared around the surface-positive and depth-negative phase of transcortically recorded slow oscillations (< 1 Hz), whereas centroparietal spindles emerged around the opposite phase. The slow-oscillation phase reversed between the prefrontal and central regions. Gamma activities increased before spindle onset. Several regional heterogeneities in properties of human spindles were replicated in the monkeys, including frequency, density, and inter-cortical time lags, although their topographic patterns were different from those of humans. The phase-amplitude coupling between spindle and gamma activity was also replicated. Conclusions: Spindles in widespread cortical regions are possibly driven by independent rhythm generators, but are temporally associated to spindles in other regions and to slow and gamma oscillations by corticocortical and thalamocortical pathways. Citation: Takeuchi S, Murai R, Shimazu H, Isomura Y, Mima T, Tsujimoto T. Spatiotemporal organization and cross-frequency coupling

  6. Spatially and frequency-resolved monitoring of intradie capacitive coupling by heterodyne excitation infrared lock-in thermography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León, J.; Perpiñà, X.; Altet, J.; Vellvehi, M.; Jordà, X.

    2013-02-01

    This paper combines the infrared lock-in thermography (IR-LIT) and heterodyne excitation techniques to detect high-frequency capacitive currents due to intradie electrical coupling between microelectronic devices or more complex systems. Modulating the excitation with the heterodyne approach, we drive devices or complex systems with high frequency electrical signals in such a way that they behave as low frequency heat sources, modulating their temperature field at a frequency detectable by an IR-LIT system. This approach is analytically studied and extended to a bi-dimensional scenario, showing that the thermal information at low frequency depends on the electrical characteristics of the sample at high frequency.

  7. 450 mm dual frequency capacitively coupled plasma sources: Conventional, graded, and segmented electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Yang; Kushner, Mark J.

    2010-12-01

    Wafer diameters for microelectronics fabrication will soon transition from 300 to 450 mm at a time when excitation frequencies for capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs) are increasing to 200 MHz or higher. Already for 300 mm tools, there is evidence that wave behavior (i.e., propagation, constructive, and destructive interference) affects the uniformity of processing. The increase in diameter to 450 mm is likely to exacerbate these effects, perhaps requiring nontraditional tool designs. This is particularly important in dual frequency (DF) CCP tools in which there are potential interactions between frequencies. In this paper, results from a two-dimensional computational investigation of Ar plasma properties in a 450 mm DF-CCP reactor, incorporating a full-wave solution of Maxwell's equations, are discussed. As in 300 mm DF-CCP reactors, the electron density collapses toward the center of the reactor with increasing high frequency (HF), however, with more pronounced finite wavelength effects. Graded conductivity electrodes with multilayer of dielectrics are computationally demonstrated as a possible means to suppress wave effects thereby increasing plasma uniformity. Segmentation of the HF electrode also improves the plasma uniformity by making the electrical distance between the feeds and the sheath edges as uniform as possible.

  8. Influences of electrode configurations in dual capacitively coupled radio frequency glow discharge plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, B.; Soto, L.

    2015-03-01

    Capacitively coupled radio frequency (CCRF) glow discharge plasma is widely studied in the laboratory because of its simpler design and high efficiency for different material processing applications such as thin-film deposition, plasma etching, sputtering of insulating materials etc. A negative dc potential develops between the bulk plasma and the powered electrodes, which is termed as ‘self-bias’ in RF plasma. This self-bias is generated as a consequences of the geometrical asymmetry of the electrodes, which can be achieved by appropriately design the area of the powered and the grounded electrodes. However, independent control of the dc self-bias in single frequency CCRF plasma is not possible, since the changing in any operating parameters including geometrical asymmetry will also change the plasma parameters. A study on the dual frequency CCRF plasma could be useful in understanding the separate control of the dc self-bias and plasma density, which respectively determine the ion energy and ion flux. In this work, a dual frequency CCRF plasma have been studied on the basis on nonlinear global model to understand the influences of electrode sizes and proper optimization of the CCRF plasma for specific applications.

  9. Spectroscopy diagnostic of dual-frequency capacitively coupled CHF{sub 3}/Ar plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Wen-Yao; Du, Yong-Quan; Liu, Yong-Xin; Liu, Jia; Zhao, Tian-Liang; Wang, You-Nian; Xu, Yong; Li, Xiao-Song; Zhu, Ai-Min

    2013-11-15

    A combined spectroscopic method of absorption, actinometry, and relative optical emission intensity is employed to determine the absolute CF{sub 2} density, the relative F and H densities, H atom excitation temperature and the electron density in dual-frequency (60/2 MHz) capacitively coupled CHF{sub 3}/Ar plasmas. The effects of different control parameters, such as high-frequency (HF) power, low-frequency (LF) power, gas pressure, gap length and content of CHF{sub 3}, on the concentration of radical CF{sub 2}, F, and H and excitation temperature are discussed, respectively. It is found that the concentration of CF{sub 2} is strongly dependent on the HF power, operating pressure and the proportion of CHF{sub 3} in feed gas, while it is almost independent of the LF power and the gap length. A higher concentration ratio of F to CF{sub 2} could be obtained in dual-frequency discharge case. Finally, the generation and decay mechanisms of CF{sub 2} and F were also discussed.

  10. Theory of domain wall motion mediated magnetoelectric effects in a multiferroic composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, V. M.; Srinivasan, G.

    2014-10-01

    A model is discussed for magnetoelectric (ME) interactions originating from the motion of magnetic domain walls (DWs) in a multiferroic composite of orthoferrites RFeO3 (RFO) with magnetic stripe domains and a piezoelectric such as lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT). The DWs in RFO can be set in motion with an ac magnetic field up to a critical speed of 20 km/s, the highest for any magnetic system, leading to the excitation of bulk and shear magnetoacoustic waves. Thus, the ME coupling will arise from flexural deformation associated with DW motion (rather than the Joule magnetostriction mediated coupling under a static or quasistatic condition). A c plane orthoferrite with a single Néel-type DW in the bc plane and an ac magnetic field H along the c axis is assumed. The deflection in the bilayer due to DW motion is obtained when the DW velocity is a linear function H and the resulting induced voltage across PMN-PT is estimated. It is shown that a combination of spatial and time harmonics of the bending deformation leads to (i) a linear ME coefficient defined by αE=E/H and (ii) a quadratic ME coefficient αEQ=E/H2. The model is applied to yttrium orthoferrites (YFO) and a PMN-PT bilayer since YFO has one of the highest DW mobility amongst the orthoferrites. The coefficient αE is dependent on the DW position, and it is maximum when the DW equilibrium position is at the center of the sample. In YFO/PMN-PT the estimated low-frequency αE ˜ 30 mV/cm Oe and resonance value is 1.5 V/(cm Oe). Since orthoferrites (and PMN-PT) are transparent in the visible region and have a large Faraday rotation, the DW dynamics and the ME coupling could be studied simultaneously. The theory discussed here is of interest for studies on ME coupling and for applications such as magnetically controlled electro-optic devices.

  11. High-Frequency Focused Water-Coupled Ultrasound Used for Three-Dimensional Surface Depression Profiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, Don J.; Whalen, Mike F.; Hendricks, J. Lynne; Bodis, James R.

    2001-01-01

    To interface with other solids, many surfaces are engineered via methods such as plating, coating, and machining to produce a functional surface ensuring successful end products. In addition, subsurface properties such as hardness, residual stress, deformation, chemical composition, and microstructure are often linked to surface characteristics. Surface topography, therefore, contains the signatures of the surface and possibly links to volumetric properties, and as a result serves as a vital link between surface design, manufacturing, and performance. Hence, surface topography can be used to diagnose, monitor, and control fabrication methods. At the NASA Glenn Research Center, the measurement of surface topography is important in developing high-temperature structural materials and for profiling the surface changes of materials during microgravity combustion experiments. A prior study demonstrated that focused air-coupled ultrasound at 1 MHz could profile surfaces with a 25-m depth resolution and a 400-m lateral resolution over a 1.4-mm depth range. In this work, we address the question of whether higher frequency focused water-coupled ultrasound can improve on these specifications. To this end, we employed 10- and 25-MHz focused ultrasonic transducers in the water-coupled mode. The surface profile results seen in this investigation for 25-MHz water-coupled ultrasound, in comparison to those for 1-MHz air-coupled ultrasound, represent an 8 times improvement in depth resolution (3 vs. 25 m seen in practice), an improvement of at least 2 times in lateral resolution (180 vs. 400 m calculated and observed in practice), and an improvement in vertical depth range of 4 times (calculated).

  12. Converse magnetoelectric effect in ferromagnetic shape memory alloy/piezoelectric laminate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S. Y.; Wang, D. H.; Han, Z. D.; Zhang, C. L.; Du, Y. W.; Huang, Z. G.

    2009-07-01

    In laminates, the converse magnetoelectric (CME) effect is often achieved by an elastic coupling between magnetostrictive and piezoelectric layers. Here the authors report on an alternative mechanism for obtaining CME. In a transition-metals-based ferromagnetic shape memory alloy/piezoelectric ceramic laminated composite, the stress-induced martensitic transformation is utilized to gain the magnetic changes, which gives rise to a giant CME effect consequently. The strong CME is observed at room temperature over a broad bandwidth, under weak magnetic bias and electric field.

  13. Simulation and Measurement of Medium-Frequency Signals Coupling From a Line to a Loop Antenna

    PubMed Central

    Damiano, Nicholas W.; Li, Jingcheng; Zhou, Chenming; Brocker, Donovan E.; Qin, Yifeng; Werner, Douglas H.; Werner, Pingjuan L.

    2016-01-01

    The underground-mining environment can affect radio-signal propagation in various ways. Understanding these effects is especially critical in evaluating communications systems used during normal mining operations and during mine emergencies. One of these types of communications systems relies on medium-frequency (MF) radio frequencies. This paper presents the simulation and measurement results of recent National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) research aimed at investigating MF coupling between a transmission line (TL) and a loop antenna in an underground coal mine. Two different types of measurements were completed: 1) line-current distribution and 2) line-to-antenna coupling. Measurements were taken underground in an experimental coal mine and on a specially designed surface test area. The results of these tests are characterized by current along a TL and voltage induced in the loop from a line. This paper concludes with a discussion of issues for MF TLs. These include electromagnetic fields at the ends of the TL, connection of the ends of the TL, the effect of other conductors underground, and the proximity of coal or earth. These results could help operators by providing examples of these challenges that may be experienced underground and a method by which to measure voltage induced by a line. PMID:27784954

  14. Modelling Tropical Cyclones-Ocean interactions: the role of the Atmophere - Ocean coupling frequency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scoccimarro, Enrico; Fogli, Pier Giuseppe; Gualdi, Silvio; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The interaction between Tropical Cyclones (TCs) and ocean is a major mechanism responsible for energy exchange between the atmosphere and the ocean. TCs affect the thermal and dynamical structure of the ocean, but the magnitude of the impact is still uncertain. Very few CMIP5 models demonstrated ability in representing TCs, mainly due to their horizontal resolution. We aim to improve TCs representation in next CMIPs experiments through the new CMCC-CM2VHR General Circulation Model, having a horizontal resolution of 1/4 degree in both atmospheric and ocean components. The model is capable to represent realistically TCs up to Cat-5 Typhoons. A good representation of the TC-Ocean interaction strongly depends on the coupling frequency between the atmospheric and the ocean components. In this work, we found that a better representation of the negative Sea Surface Temperature - TC induced feedback, through a high (hourly) coupling frequency, ensures the reduction of the TC induced Power Dissipation Index (PDI) bias of one order of magnitude. In addition, a cat-5 storm case study is deeply investigated also in terms of TC effects on the deep ocean.

  15. Ultra sensitive magnetic sensors integrating the giant magnetoelectric effect with advanced microelectronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Zhao

    This dissertation investigates approaches to enhance the performance, especially the sensitivity and signal to noise ratio of magnetoelectric sensors, which exploits the magnetoelectric coupling in magnetostrictive and piezoelectric laminate composites. A magnetic sensor is a system or device that can measure the magnitude of a magnetic field or each of its vector components. Usually the techniques encompass many aspects of physics and electronics. The common technologies used for magnetic field sensing include induction coil sensors, fluxgate, SQUID (superconducting quantum interference device), Hall effect, giant magnetoresistance, magnetostrictive/piezoelectric composites, and MEMS (microelectromechanical systems)-based magnetic sensors. Magnetic sensors have found a broad range of applications for many decades. For example, ultra sensitive magnetic sensors are able to detect tiny magnetic fields produced outside the brain by the neuronal currents which can be used for diagnostic application. Measuring the brain's magnetic field is extremely challenging because they are so weak, have strengths of 0.1--1 pT and thus requiring magnetic sensors with sub-picotesla sensitivity. In fact, to date, these measurements can only performed with the most sensitive magnetic sensors, i.e., SQUID. However, such detectors need expensive and cumbersome cryogenics to operate. Additionally, the thermal insulation of the sensors prevents them from being placed very closed to the tissues under study, thereby preventing high-resolution measurement capability. All of these severely limit their broad usage and proliferation for biomedical imaging, diagnosis, and research. A novel ultra-sensitive magnetic sensor capable of operating at room temperature is investigated in this thesis. Magnetoelectric effect is a material phenomenon featuring the interchange between the magnetic and electric energies or signals. The large ME effect observed in ME composites, especially the ME laminates

  16. The Double Jones Birefringence in Magneto-electric Medium

    PubMed Central

    Mahmood, Waqas; Zhao, Qing

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the Maxwell’s equations for a tensorial magneto-electric (ME) medium are solved, which is an extension to the work on the uniaxial anisotropic nonmagnetic medium. The coefficients of the dielectric permittivity, magnetic permeability, and of the magneto-electric effect are considered as tensors. The polarization is shown lying in the plane of two perpendicular independent vectors, and the relationship for the transverse polarization is given. The propagation of an electromagnetic wave through a ME medium gives rise to double Jones birefringence. Besides, the condition for an independent phenomenon of D’yakonov surface wave in a magneto-isotropic but with magneto-electric medium is given, which is measurable experimentally when the incident angle is . Lastly, it is shown that the parameter for the magneto-electric effect plays a role in the damping of the wave. PMID:26354609

  17. The Double Jones Birefringence in Magneto-electric Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, Waqas; Zhao, Qing

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, the Maxwell’s equations for a tensorial magneto-electric (ME) medium are solved, which is an extension to the work on the uniaxial anisotropic nonmagnetic medium. The coefficients of the dielectric permittivity, magnetic permeability, and of the magneto-electric effect are considered as tensors. The polarization is shown lying in the plane of two perpendicular independent vectors, and the relationship for the transverse polarization is given. The propagation of an electromagnetic wave through a ME medium gives rise to double Jones birefringence. Besides, the condition for an independent phenomenon of D’yakonov surface wave in a magneto-isotropic but with magneto-electric medium is given, which is measurable experimentally when the incident angle is . Lastly, it is shown that the parameter for the magneto-electric effect plays a role in the damping of the wave.

  18. Numerical simulation of capacitively-coupled, radio-frequency plasma discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, Edward Percy, IV

    This research develops a novel, non-dissipative discretization for the drift-diffusion expression of electron flux in capacitively-coupled, radio-frequency plasma discharges. The new discretization is more robust and accurate than commonly used numerical techniques when applied to the solution of the plasma fluid equations. On a relatively coarse grid, the method provides results within a few percent of the grid-converged solution. Low-order upwinding, a common method for discretization of the electron flux; introduces significant robustness. However, on the same coarse grid, the plasma density can differ from the grid-converged result by nearly a factor of two. Another popular discretization of the electron flux is the Scharfetter-Gummel method. Although it is accurate on coarse grids, it is more expensive computationally due to its non-linear nature, and it introduces an additional approximation. It neglects the electron temperature gradient in the flux expression; this can affect the plasma density as much as 20%. A formal method for accelerating the solution towards the periodic, steady-state solution in one and multiple dimensions is also described. Direct integration of the governing equations in time will lead to the harmonic steady-state, but this may require tens or hundreds of thousands of radio-frequency periods when the plasma discharge contains significant neutral species that develop on a time-scale much longer than a radio-frequency period. In contrast, the acceleration scheme can reach the periodic steady-state in a few hundred to a few thousand radio-frequency periods. Previous efforts that used formal acceleration schemes were limited to one dimension. Finally, a fluid model of an argon plasma is developed and compared to experimental data at conditions relevant to low-pressure, capacitively-coupled plasma discharges. The computed results agree reasonably well with the experiments both quantitatively and qualitatively. This model is then used to

  19. A close-coupling multi-antenna type radio frequency driven ion source

    SciTech Connect

    Oka, Y.; Shoji, T.

    2012-02-15

    A newly close coupling multi-antenna type radio frequency driven ion source is tested for the purpose of essentially improving plasma coupling on the basis of our old type ion source, which reuses a NNBI (negative ion source for neutral beam injection) ion source used in 1/5th scale of the Large Helical Device NNBI. The ion source and the antenna structure are described, and the efficient plasma production in terms of the positive ion saturation current (the current density) is studied. The source is made of a metal-walled plasma chamber which is desirable from the point of view of the structural toughness for fusion and industrial application, etc. At around 160 kW of rf input power, the ion saturation current density successfully reaches the 5 A/cm{sup 2} level with a gas pressure of 0.6-2 Pa in hydrogen for 10 ms pulse duration. The rf power efficiency of the plasma production with a close coupling configuration of the antenna is improved substantially compared to that with the previous antenna unit in the old type ion source. The power efficiency is assessed as competing with that of other types of sources.

  20. A close-coupling multi-antenna type radio frequency driven ion source.

    PubMed

    Oka, Y; Shoji, T

    2012-02-01

    A newly close coupling multi-antenna type radio frequency driven ion source is tested for the purpose of essentially improving plasma coupling on the basis of our old type ion source, which reuses a NNBI (negative ion source for neutral beam injection) ion source used in 1∕5th scale of the Large Helical Device NNBI. The ion source and the antenna structure are described, and the efficient plasma production in terms of the positive ion saturation current (the current density) is studied. The source is made of a metal-walled plasma chamber which is desirable from the point of view of the structural toughness for fusion and industrial application, etc. At around 160 kW of rf input power, the ion saturation current density successfully reaches the 5 A∕cm(2) level with a gas pressure of 0.6-2 Pa in hydrogen for 10 ms pulse duration. The rf power efficiency of the plasma production with a close coupling configuration of the antenna is improved substantially compared to that with the previous antenna unit in the old type ion source. The power efficiency is assessed as competing with that of other types of sources.